This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
By Gary C. Daniels, LostWorlds.org © November 15, 2009, Revised 2/18/2010 & 8/12/2012
The “sculptured rock from Forsyth County, Georgia” is a petroglyph that currently sits in front of Baldwin Hall at the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia. It was moved there in the late 1990s from its location next to the President’s Building.1 It was originally located in north Georgia and was “found near Mt. Tabor Baptist Church in the Northwestern part of Forsyth County.”2 It was first described in White’s Statistics of Georgia in 1849: “On the road from Canton to Dahlonega, 10 miles northwest from Cumming, is a very remarkable rock. It is an unhewn mass of granite, eight and a half feet long, and two and a half feet wide. It is three-‐ sided, with irregular converging points, upon which are characters, seventeen of them varying in shape. The largest circles are eight inches in diameter. From its appearance, it must have been wrought at a very remote period. The designs are very irregular, and it is probable that they were executed by the same race of people who constructed the mounds in this and other sections of the State. What the characters on this rock mean, the oldest inhabitants cannot tell. The oldest Indians could give no account of it.”3 It was next mentioned twenty-‐four years later in the book Antiquities of the Southern Indians, Particularly of the Georgia Tribes by Charles C. Jones, Jr. originally published in 1873. Jones referred to the petroglyph as the “Sculptured Rock from
Forsyth County, Georgia.” I will refer to this petroglyph as the Forsyth Petroglyph throughout this paper for brevity’s sake. In his book Jones states: “In Forsyth County, Georgia, is a carved or incised bowlder of fine-‐ grained granite, about nine feet long, four feet six inches high, and three feet broad at its widest point. The figures are cut in the bowlder from one-‐half to three-‐quarters of an inch deep….As yet no interpretation of these figures has been offered, nor is it known by whom or for what purpose they were made. It is generally believed, however, that they are the work of the Cherokees. On the eastern end of the bowlder, running vertically, is a line of dots, like drill-‐holes, eighteen in number, connected by an incised line.”4 It was next mentioned in an 1888 Smithsonian Bureau of Ethnology Report entitled “Picture-‐writing of the American Indians.” This report noted that “the characters in it are chiefly circles, including plain, nucleated, and concentric, sometimes two or more being joined by straight lines, forming what is now known as the ‘spectacle shaped’ figure.”5 The report goes on to compare the petroglyph to so-‐called cup-‐and-‐ring sculptures around the world, especially in the Middle East, British Isles and India, which have supposed astronomical interpretations. Sir James Simpson who developed a classification system for these types of petroglyphs notes that “occasionally four or five or more of [these symbols] are placed in more or less regular groups, exhibiting a constellation-‐like arrangement.”6 In Palestine and Jordan similar designs are said to be “reasonably suggestive of the sun, moon, and stars.”7 In India these designs are “correlated with the worship of Mahadeo, one of the many names given to Siva, the third god of the Hindu triad, whose emblem is the serpent.”8 The Forsyth petroglyph was next mentioned in 1950 in an article by Margarett Perryman entitled “Hunting Petroglyphs in North Georgia” in the second issue of Early Georgia, the journal of The Society for Georgia Archaeology. 9 In this article she notes:
Photo from Perryman’s 1950 article about the Forsyth Petroglyph.
“My general reading on North American Indians naturally included, Antiquites of the Southern Indians, by Charles C. Jones, Jr., and it was there I found the first reference to rock writings in Georgia. One of the stones he described and pictured was said to be in Forsyth County. So at long last it became possible for me to actually examine a genuine Georgia petroglyph. But finding even that well documented stone was not so easy. It took a good bit of detective work and much pussy-‐footing around the Public Library to find out in what section of Forsyth County the stone was located. The first hunt was ready to start but we had to make some rather careful plans, for these were the days of gasoline rationing. We had to do a lot of round about town walking and weaning of the car to save up enough gas coupons to make the first expedition up into Forsyth County. The favorable day finally arrived and after losing our way innumerable times on the backwoods roads, some miles west of Silver City, we were able to locate the stone. There on the wayside of a little dusty country road was my first Georgia petroglyph. Totally neglected and forgotten and practically obscured from sight by brambles and looking somewhat like a fat grey granite whale, was the most beautiful carved stone I ever saw.
The elements had been kind to the stone, for most of the symbols were still discernible, although grey-‐green lichens had grown into most of the markings. On that Sunday afternoon this petroglyph was given a most thorough examination. Our fingers traced every concentric circle until they were roughened and grimy. We admired the perfect symmetry which the ancient stonecarver had achieved in his well proportioned designs. We marveled how every symbol had been carved with such precision and how deeply cut. We counted the little nut size holes that were spaced so neatly and carefully down the entire backbone of the rock. Luck was with us that day for the owner of the land on which the stone lay was our guide and companion. He valued his ‘old Indian rock’ very much and he was quite elated to have us admire his prize possession. His name was Mr. Corn and I shall never forget his genuine friendliness and his twinkling eyes as he told us exciting tales about the old stone. He told us how folks had come in the dead of night and dug under and about the stone in quest of the forty pony loads of pure Indian gold; how many a brawny copper colored lad had skulked about the stone at dusk to study the inscriptions; how old and bearded tramps with tattered treasure maps had appeared in the evening mists and disappeared after much pacing around the stone; of the quaint old men that appeared often with weird treasure finding gadgets to prod and poke the ground about the stone; of the vandals that attempted to dynamite the stone, believing it to be hollow and hoping to find the treasure inside; of the law suits and land fights that had taken place in years gone by. Mr. Corn gave us the information that there were other rock writings on his farm and was interested in showing them to us that day. But night was falling fast, so we promised that we would be back soon and bring our camera and take photographs of all his stones. Alas and alack! Well laid plans often go astray and it was many months before we could get back to Forsyth County with our camera equipment and then Mr. Corn was gone. The new owner of the land was considerate enough to let us take photographs of the petroglyph and he grudgingly consented to let us
search for the stonecarvers ancient cutting tool. The only thing he was interested in was seeing that we did not get the treasure for our own. He knew absolutely nothing about there being other carved stones in the vicinity. But he did show us a large purposely shaped, obviously imported piece of rock with a rather recent and crudely carved letter N on its top side. He claimed that this rock was the key that would unlock the whereabouts of the, ‘hundred pony loads of Indian gold,’ and he knew exactly where it was buried almost… After getting home and developing our pictures we compared them with the drawing of the stone as shown in Jones book. The shape of the stone was identical, measurements agreed, but the symbols as shown in our photographs would not match those of Jones. Some of the symbols were alike but placement of them was entirely different and we found many symbols that Jones had not shown. Then the question arose had Jones actually seen this stone? Or had he seen it and waited until a much later date before he drew the picture from memory? Or had he acquired the drawing from some other person who had been careless? Or had symbols been cut at a later dater after Jones had examined the stone? Apparently here was just another one of the baffling mysteries that always seem to pester and torment a petroglyph hunter.” Later in this article Perryman compared the Forsyth petroglyph to the Track Rock petroglyphs and noted: “The Forsyth County stone and the stones in Union County have symbols totally dissimilar, the rocks are of a different geological nature, the topographical placement of the petroglyphs varies, and it appears to me that the two stones were carved for somewhat different purposes. But there is one important feature that is almost identical; the fact that both have nut size holes carved upon them of a similar diameter and depth.
Perryman standing behind the Forsyth petroglyph in situ. Apparently some of the carvings have been chalked to show up more clearly in the photograph. When I first discovered the illustration of this petroglyph in Jones’ Antiquities, I immediately assigned it an astronomical interpretation based purely on its appearance, not yet having read the Smithsonian report. I stated in 2004 on my website LostWorlds.org that at first glance it appeared to be a star map.10 This is the first known attempt at interpreting the Forsyth petroglyph.
To the above potential interpretation, I add the proposal that designs on the Forsyth Petroglyph include astronomical representations of stars, the constellation Draco, the Pleiades asterism or constellation Scorpius, a comet, and meteors or comet fragments.
Two Georgia pottery traditions, Weeden Island and Swift Creek, have designs similar to those that appear on the Forsyth Petroglyph and have been interpreted as astronomical symbols. David Allison has argued that astronomical phenomena are portrayed on “sacred” Weeden Island pottery including “constellations, the Milky Way, the annual movements of the sun and moon, solar equinoxes and solstices, and the paths of the planets Venus and Mercury as ‘morning stars.’”11 Frankie Snow has argued that some of the motifs found on Swift Creek pottery are astronomical in nature. He suggests that concentric circles and circles with a central dot (nucleated circles) are motifs that represent the sun.12 Both the Weeden Island and Swift Creek pottery traditions coexisted in Georgia between 20 BC and 805 AD.13 Since similar motifs are found on the Forsyth Petroglyph, it likely dates from the same time period although no tests have been done to prove this. Other researchers have suggested it is “roughly contemporary to… dated ceramics [from] AD 700 to 1400 (i.e., Late Woodland Swift Creek and Middle Mississippian Savannah.)”14
The most numerous features on the Forsyth Petroglyph are a series of concentric circles and nucleated circles (circles with central circles/dots) known in petroglyph studies as cup-‐and-‐ring15 designs and elsewhere as circumpuncts or circled dots16. Most of the circles on the Forsyth Petroglyph are nucleated although a few of the smaller circles are not.
Figure 2: Side by side comparison of a Note: The circles on the petroglyph are detail from the line drawing with photo closer together than the drawing conveys. of same section on the actual rock Also, line drawing doesn’t accurately reflect thickness of circles. David Allison found two sets of concentric circles on C.B. Moore’s Vessel No. 17 from the “Mound Near The Warrior River, Taylor County. Mound B.” and proposed they were solar symbols. On the same vessel Allison also found circles with central dots and proposed a solar interpretation for them as well. Frankie Snow found concentric circles with central dots on several Swift Creek pots. He interpreted these as solar symbols based on known historic accounts of Native Americans using similar symbols to represent the sun. So far we have established that concentric circles and nucleated circles (circumpuncts) may have astronomical associations as symbols for our day star, the sun. Is it possible that Native Americans also used concentric circles to represent night stars? Due to the multiple instances of concentric circles and their scattered arrangement on the Forsyth Petroglyph it is doubtful that each and every one of them represents the sun. I propose that in this particular case, based on their quantity, arrangement and context (i.e., the other design elements that surround them), they represent stars in the night sky. Evidence below will further support this contention. (For further proof that ancients used concentric circles with central dot as a symbol for stars, see the ancient Sumerian image “Kudurru of King Melishipak.”)17 A unique symbol, which I’ve labeled “Draco?” in Figure 1, consists of a teardrop-‐shaped element with a central darkened core attached to a v-‐shaped tail-‐ like appendage that curves away from the main body. My first initial reaction to this symbol was that it probably represented a constellation. In fact, a similar symbol was discovered on Moore’s Vessel No. 15 from Pearl Bayou and has been interpreted as the constellation Pegasus.18 At first I thought this could also represent the constellation Pegasus but was unable to get the v-‐shaped “tail” on the petroglyph to match up with any of the stars of Pegasus. Yet the symbol did match one constellation almost perfectly: Draco.
Figure 3: Side by side comparison of The petroglyph “Draco” at left appears petroglyph “Draco” and Draco to be missing the final three stars of the constellation. real Draco’s tail. (Image: Wikipedia.) Interestingly, just as the great square or diamond of Pegasus was represented as a teardrop shape on the aforementioned pottery, the square or diamond-‐shaped head of Draco is also represented as a teardrop shape showing a consistency in iconographic convention that could help date this petroglyph to the Weeden Island time period. Also, since constellations are only seen in the night sky, this supports the idea that the Forsyth Petroglyph depicts the night sky and the cup-‐ and-‐ring designs represent stars. Now that I’ve identified one constellation symbol on the petroglyph with a fair degree of accuracy with an actual constellation, Draco, it should be easier to determine the identity of the other constellation symbol. The second constellation symbol is a group of four interconnected ‘cup-‐and-‐ring’ or circumpunct designs. The design features a central circumpunct with three lines radiating out from the center creating a W shape. A smaller circumpunct is located at the end of each of these three lines. The most famous W-‐shaped constellation is Cassiopeia although it doesn’t fit this configuration of stars. It does seem to fit a group of stars that are part of the constellation Taurus, known as the Pleiades asterism. It could represent the four brightest stars of the Pleiades. The Pleiades are within the same field of view as Draco suggested by the layout of the petroglyph.
Figure 4: Possible depiction of the Pleiades with its brightest star near the Pleiades asterism with a comet and center of the photo with three slightly ‘spectacle’ or dumbbell-‐shaped dimmer stars to the right of it—very symbol. similar to the configuration at left One other possibility is that this design represents the claws of the constellation Scorpius. It is possible the central, larger circumpunct represents the star Antares.
One version of the Scorpius constellation. If you remove the middle (second) line and add a line connecting to the star below the pi symbol, you get a configuration very close to that depicted on the petroglyph. (Image: Wikipedia) Another version of the Scorpius constellation. If you remove the first and third lines starting from the top you get a configuration very close to that depicted on the petroglyph. (Image: Wikipedia)
In front of this constellation is a symbol, which I’ve labeled “comet” in Figure 1, that appears to represent a two-‐tailed comet. It consists of a small circle with two lines extending outwards. All comets have two tails, an ion tail and a dust tail, although often only one is visible. The modern astrological symbol for comet is very similar to this symbol except it has three lines extending from the circle instead of two. This seems to be a logical way to represent a comet regardless of culture and thus the symbol on the Forsyth Petroglyph could equally represent a comet. Since the surrounding symbols have been interpreted as stars and a constellation, the interpretation as a comet would not be out of context. Since comets are associated with the night sky (although there are instances of daytime comets) it further supports the proposal that this petroglyph represents the night sky. Beside the comet symbol is a spectacle or dumbbell-‐shaped symbol featuring twin circles connected by a line. One of the circles is completely filled (cup) while the other contains a central dot (circumpunct). Several similar symbols exist in proximity to the first with slight modifications to the design. The next iteration has two circumpuncts followed by a version with a circumpunct and darkened circle (cup) but inversed from the first example, ending with a replica of the second design featuring two circumpuncts. The final dumbbell design is partially surrounded by curving lines at the top of the petroglyph. Are these meant to represent four separate objects in the night sky or a single object which moves across the night sky? It is hard to know for sure but they appear to represent movement thus I will propose it represents a single object that moves across the sky either away from or towards the comet beneath it. Interestingly, on March 19, 1887 Captain C. D. Swart of the Dutch ship “J.P.A.” reported: “During a severe storm saw a meteor in the shape of two balls, one of them very black and the other illuminated.”19 Could the symbol on the Forsyth Petroglyph represent just such a meteor, one illuminated and one darkened? Two symbols remain behind the w-‐shaped “Pleiades” symbol. One appears to be a c-‐shaped or crescent-‐shaped symbol with a line inside. The other appears to be another constellation which I have labeled “unknown” in Figure 1. A crescent is a common way to represent the moon thus the c-‐shaped design could be the moon but what could the interior line signify? There are only two types of information one can encode for the moon: phase and eclipse. It’s doubtful the line would be used to represent the phase of the moon since it would be easier to simply draw the phase one wished to represent. Thus logically it would seem the line could be used to signify the moon during an eclipse. If the w-‐shaped symbol does represent the Pleiades or stars in the Perseus constellation both of which lie along the ecliptic, the path the sun and moon take across the sky, then the “crescent moon” symbol would be in the appropriate location for such an interpretation. As for the “constellation” symbol I can make no guess as to what group of stars it represents, if any. Thus the designation of “unknown” will have to remain. A symbol to the right of the comet and dumbbell symbols appears to be an incomplete star symbol. It consists of two concentric circles with interior dot although the exterior circle appears incomplete. The symbol appears purposeful,
though, and it is doubtful that it is an incomplete star symbol. More likely it represents an independent concept but there is no way to know for sure. Could it represent some other type of “star” such as a supernova or comet before its tail becomes visible?
Figure 5: “Pleiades” constellation with comet, dumbbell symbol and incomplete star symbol
Could the incomplete star symbol represent the appearance of a “guest star” such as this green comet which appeared near the Pleiades in 2005 or even a supernova?
Although not completely visible on this illustration, Jones mentions that “on the eastern end of the bowlder, running vertically, is a line of dots, like drill-‐holes, eighteen in number, connected by an incised line.”20 Either Jones miscounted or more such drill-‐holes have been added since he viewed the stone in the 1800s because currently there are at least 24 such drill holes. It is unknown what this design element could represent or the significance of the number 24.
This analysis reveals there is a significant likelihood that the symbols carved on the Forsyth Petroglyph have astronomical associations and may represent stars, a comet, the moon, the constellation Draco, the Pleiades asterism, and possibly a “guest star” that could be either a comet or supernova. The back of this boulder also contains similar designs and awaits a future attempt at interpretation. If the designs on this boulder are associated with the Weeden Island culture then it could have been carved around 500 AD. Interestingly, in 1940, astronomer Fred Whipple discovered that the yearly Taurid meteor shower which appears to emanate from the Pleiades was made of fragments from Comet Encke. In 1950 he also discovered that the orbits of three Taurid meteors coincided with each other but not with the orbit of Comet Encke concluding that they were formed by a breakup 1500 years ago of a fragment that had in turn broken off from Comet Encke much earlier (around 4700 years ago.)21 In other words, around 2700 BC a large fragment broke off of Comet Encke and then around 500 AD this large fragment
further disintegrated leaving three large meteors. Could this be the event depicted on the Forsyth Petroglyph? This event appears to have been depicted on a Tang Dynasty (618-‐907 AD) jade ox. The ox includes three fireballs on its body and a set of concentric circles on its shoulder. If the ox represents the constellation Taurus then the concentric circles are in the precise area where the Pleiades are located within Taurus: on the bull’s shoulder.
Does this Tang Dynasty jade ox depict the ~500 AD fragmentation event which resulted in three large meteors? Furthermore, around 536 AD the Earth experienced a severe weather event which eventually brought about the collapse of ancient civilizations from the Roman Empire in Europe to Teotihuacan in Mexico. Records from this time noted that a “dry fog” appeared and “the sun gave no more light than the moon.”22 In 2009 Dallas Abbott of the Lamont-‐Doherty Observatory at Columbia University theorized that this weather event was caused by the impact of several fragments from a comet. She believes at least two large fragments impacted the Earth’s oceans leading to a massive amount of water vapor being ejected into the atmosphere which would have reflected more of the sun’s rays thus cooling the planet.
In fact, the presence of concentric circles on the Forsyth petroglyph may provide further proof for this comet breakup hypothesis. Researcher Bob Kobres has theorized that these concentric circles represent not stars but the explosion of comet debris and fragments in the upper atmosphere. He notes: Earlier in its history, as the progenitor of comet Encke was creating it, this [Taurid meteor] debris ring had to have been more dense. As Earth passed through the mess, it no doubt collected a considerable amount of dust. The night time Taurids are known for frequent bolide activity. Large, vaporizing meteoroids (bolides) in an atmosphere loaded with comet dust will produce unusual visual effects. Refraction, reflection, and possibly secondary emission come into play as a sizable object splashes into an aerosol laden atmosphere compressing molecules of gas against motes of dust in its bow-‐shock wave until-‐-‐BOOM-‐-‐ the object vaporizes, illuminating the multiple layers of compression separated gas and debris. From the ground this might look as if a god threw a pebble in the sky pond.23 In fact, the 536 AD event is associated with a dust veil event which blocked out the sun for 18 months.24 Thus the sky was, in fact, filled with the type of dust needed for the “unusual visual effects” such as concentric circles hypothesized by Kobres as having a cometary origin. Thus the presence of these concentric circles on the Forsyth petroglyph further supports an interpretation that it recorded the breakup of a comet and associated impact event. Curiously, the Greenland ice core data records an ammonium spike in 539 AD not 536 AD. These ammonium spikes are associated with impact events.25 Thus the impact occurred after or during the dust veil event and could not have been the cause of it. Apparently the dust veil event was the cause of the impact event not the other way around. The dust veil event was the result of Earth passing through a dense cloud of cometary debris which included large fragments that slammed into the planet in 539 AD. Some of these fragments did not survive entry into earth’s atmosphere and exploded producing concentric circles in the sky that people all over the earth recorded in stone. Interestingly, written records from the time noted a very bright comet appeared in the constellation Sagittarius in 539 AD: [it] appeared to follow in the Sagittary: the size was gradually increasing; the head was in the east, the tail in the west, and it remained visible above forty days. The nations who gazed with astonishment, expected wars and calamities from their baleful influence; and these expectations were abundantly fulfilled.26 Sagittarius is located very near to the constellation Scorpius. Scorpius is one possible interpretation of the w-‐shaped constellation on the Forsyth petroglyph, which just so happens to have a comet symbol near it. Instead of representing the
Pleiades, could this group of stars represent the claws of the constellation Scorpius and the comet symbol represent this 539 AD comet? Other myths and legends that date to this time period also seem to suggest an impact event. For instance, in 538 AD in Japan: “there was an apparition of the bright goddess Benzaiten who looked ‘like an autumn moon enveloped in mist.’ She was adorned with a long jade pendant and as she descended she was accompanied by a myriad spirits of dragons, fire, thunder and lightning that made ‘great boulders descend from above the clouds.’ She arrived after an episode ‘when dark clouds covered the sky and the earth quaked continuously for 11 days.’”27 A similar Irish myth states that “Mongan went to the Otherworld in AD 538 to avoid the ‘terrible hailstones’ just after the sky went dark”28 and thus seems to relate events consistent with a bombardment by meteors. Whatever the truth may be, the events around 536 AD were significant events in the history of civilization. The first outbreak of plague occurred during this time period and killed over 25% of Europe’s population. The Roman Empire collapsed at this time as well. This was the beginning of Europe’s Dark Ages which, considering the earth was shrouded in darkness for 18 months, is an appropriate name for this time period. Certainly Native Americans witnessed and lived through these same events. The severity of these events undoubtedly inspired them to record them in stone so they would not be forgotten. Unfortunately, this record of such a remarkable event is sitting exposed to the elements and acid rain is slowly dissolving the symbols. Unless these stones are moved inside into a museum, future generations may be deprived of this amazing legacy of Georgia’s Native Americans.
1 Kobres, Bob. “Re: UGA Petroglyph may represent Comet Encke breakup in 536 AD.” Personal Communication. 15 April 2011. 2 The History of Forsyth County Georgia. Vol 1, 1985: p. 8-‐9. Accessed online 18 February 2010 at <http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/rockpet.html> 3 White, ?. White’s Statistics of Georgia. 1849: pp. 255-‐56. Accessed online 18 February 2010 at <http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/rockpet.html> 4 Jones, Charles C., Jr. Antiquities of the Southern Indians, Particularly of the Georgia Tribes. University of Alabama Press, 1999: pp. 377-‐378. 5 Mallery, Garrick. “Picture Writing of the American Indians.” Bureau of Ethnology Report, No. 10. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, p.76. 6 Mallery, Garrick. “Picture Writing of the American Indians.” Bureau of Ethnology Report, No. 10. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, p.189. 7 Mallery, Garrick. “Picture Writing of the American Indians.” Bureau of Ethnology Report, No. 10. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, p.198. 8 Mallery, Garrick. “Picture Writing of the American Indians.” Bureau of Ethnology Report, No. 10. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, pp.196-‐197. 9 Perryman, Margarett. “Hunting Petroglyphs in North Georgia.” Early Georgia. The Society for Georgia Archaeology, 1950: Vol. 1, Issue 2. 10 Daniels, Gary C. “Fort Mountain Stone Wall.” Ancient Civilizations of Georgia, LostWorlds.org, 2004. Accessed online 8 November 2009 at <http://www.lostworlds.org/fort_mountain.html> 11 Allison, David. “Possible Astronomical Symbols on “Sacred” Weeden Island Pottery. Early Georgia. The Society for Georgia Archaeology: June 2003, pp. 65-‐83. 12 Snow, Frankie. “Swift Creek Design Investigations.” A world engraved: archaeology of the Swift Creek culture. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, 1998: p. 13 Smith, Betty A. “Swift Creek Culture.” New Georgia Encyclopedia. Accessed 28 November 2009. Accessed online 9 November 2009 at <http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-‐583>
14 Loubser, Jannie, et al. “Recent Recording of Petroglyphs in Georgia.” The Profile, The Society for Georgia Archaeology, Winter 2002-‐2003: pp 3-‐ 5. Accessed online 9 November 2009 at <http://thesga.org/category/publications/the-‐profile/winter-‐ 2002-‐issue/> 15 “Cup and ring mark.” Wikipedia.org. Accessed online 14 February 2010 at <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cup_and_ring_mark> 16 “Circled dot.” Wikipedia.org. Accessed online 18 February 2010 at <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circled_dot> 17 “Kudurru Melishipak Louvre Sb23.jpg.” Wikipedia.org . Accessed online 26 January 2010 at <http://commons.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kudurru_Melishipak_Louvre_Sb23.jpg> 18 Allison, David. “Possible Astronomical Symbols on “Sacred” Weeden Island Pottery.” Early Georgia, June 2003: p. 68. 19 Kobres, Bob. “The case of carbonaceous catastrophes.” Accessed online 9 November 2009 at <http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/caseof.html> 20 Jones, Charles C. Jr. Antiquities of the Southern Indians Particularly of the Georgia Tribes. University of Alabama Press, 1873: p. 377. 21 Whipple, Fred L. “Photographic meteor studies. III. The Taurid shower.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 83, 711-‐745, 1940. 22 Than, Ker. “Comet smashes triggered ancient famine.” NewScientist.com: 7 January 2009. Accessed online November 10, 2009 at http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20126882.900-‐comet-‐smashes-‐triggered-‐ ancient-‐famine.html 23 Kobres, Bob. “Comets and the Bronze Age Collapse.” Chronology and Catastrophism Workshop 1992. Society for Interdisciplinary Studies, 1992: No. 1, pp. 6-‐10. Accessed online 12 August 2012 at <http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/bronze.html>. 24 “Extreme weather events of 535-‐536.” Wikipedia. Accessed online 12 August 2012 at < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extreme_weather_events_of_535–536>. 25 Baillie, Mike. “The case for significant numbers of extraterrestrial impacts through the late Holocene.” Journal of Quaternary Science. Wiley InterScience. Vol. 22, pp. 101-‐109. Accessed online 12 August 2012 at <http://tsun.sscc.ru/hiwg/pabl/baillie_2007_jqs.pdf>.
26 Baillie, Mike. “The case for significant numbers of extraterrestrial impacts through the late Holocene.” Journal of Quaternary Science. Wiley InterScience. Vol. 22, pp. 101-‐109. Accessed online 12 August 2012 at <http://tsun.sscc.ru/hiwg/pabl/baillie_2007_jqs.pdf>. 27 Baillie, Mike. “The case for significant numbers of extraterrestrial impacts through the late Holocene.” Journal of Quaternary Science. Wiley InterScience. Vol. 22, pp. 101-‐109. Accessed online 12 August 2012 at <http://tsun.sscc.ru/hiwg/pabl/baillie_2007_jqs.pdf>. 28 Baillie, Mike. “The case for significant numbers of extraterrestrial impacts through the late Holocene.” Journal of Quaternary Science. Wiley InterScience. Vol. 22, pp. 101-‐109. Accessed online 12 August 2012 at <http://tsun.sscc.ru/hiwg/pabl/baillie_2007_jqs.pdf>.