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Global Vision International

2010 Report Series No. 004

GVI Amazon

Yachana Reserve, Rio Napo

Quarterly Report 104

October – December 2010

GVI Amazon, Yachana Reserve Programme Report 104

Submitted in whole to
Yachana Foundation
Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales (MECN)
Produced by

Andrew Whitworth – Base Manager

Caroline Acton – Field Staff
Oliver Burdekin – Field Staff
Jasmine Rowe – Field Staff
Jenn Sinasac – Field Staff
Melanie Forbes – Intern


Philip Brown Intern Hayley Farnell Volunteer

Nicola Hollamby Intern Amy Fletcher Volunteer
Catherine Latimer Intern Steve Guidos Volunteer
Mark Russell Intern Sasha Johnson Volunteer
Helen Stout Intern Karen Lancaster Volunteer
Rikard Andersson Volunteer Jamie Ledgard Volunteer
Jane Barrett Volunteer Grant Price Volunteer
Laura Boniface Volunteer Sherry Robinson Volunteer
Lucy Coals Volunteer Helen Shrimpton Volunteer
Kristen Deidrich Volunteer Maxine Tachon Volunteer
Lucy Dickie Volunteer Tim Topper Volunteer
Ella Dickinson Volunteer

Edited by
Karina Berg – Country Director

GVI Amazon, Yachana Reserve, Ecuador

Web page: and
Executive Summary
This report documents the work of Global Vision International‟s (GVI) Rainforest
Conservation and Community Development Expedition in Ecuador‟s Amazon region
and run in partnership with the Yachana Foundation, based at the Yachana Reserve in
the province of Napo. During the fourth phase of 2010 from 1st October to 10th
December, GVI has:

 Added nine new species to the reserve list.

 Began a new bird project studying the effect of the road in understory bird

 Began a new mammal project investigating the edge effects of the road that runs
through the reserve.

 Continued to collect data on the effect of structural habitat change on the

amphibian and reptile communities, using pitfall trapping and visual encounter surveys.

 Continued with a project investigating the effects of disturbance from the road upon
butterfly communities.

 Continued with English lessons for local school children in Puerto Rico twice a

 Continued giving English lessons for local school children in Puerto Salazar every

 Began giving lessons at the small community of Rio Bueno every Wednesday.

 Welcomed three pasantes (work experience students) and three graduates from
the Yachana Technical High School to join the expedition, in order to exchange
language skills, knowledge and experience.

 Visited Yasuní National Park, and Sumak Allpa (an island reserve and school run
by a local conservationist).

 Participated in two mingas (community projects) at Puerto Rico.

 Given two presentations on conservation; one at Puerto Rico and one at Puerto
Salazar, and set up an information stand, one Saturday at the local market of Agua

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 ii

Table of Contents
Executive Summary ........................................................................................................ ii
Table of Contents ........................................................................................................... iii
List of Figures and Tables .............................................................................................. iv
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................. 5
2. Avian Project .......................................................................................................... 7
2.1. Introduction .................................................................................................. 7
2.2. Methodology: Mist-netting ............................................................................ 9
2.3. Results ....................................................................................................... 11
2.4. Discussion ................................................................................................. 14
2.5. Methodology – Point Counts ...................................................................... 15
2.6. Results ....................................................................................................... 17
2.7. Discussion ................................................................................................. 19
3. Herpetological Research ...................................................................................... 21
3.1. Introduction ................................................................................................ 21
3.2. Methods ..................................................................................................... 23
3.3. Results ....................................................................................................... 24
3.4. Discussion ................................................................................................. 26
4. Butterfly Project .................................................................................................... 27
4.1. Introduction ................................................................................................ 27
4.2. Methods ..................................................................................................... 28
4.3. Results ....................................................................................................... 28
4.4. Discussion ................................................................................................. 32
5. Mammal Research ............................................................................................... 35
5.1. Introduction ................................................................................................ 35
5.3. Results and Discussion .............................................................................. 37
5.4. Mammal Incidentals ................................................................................... 38
6. Community Programme ........................................................................................ 40
6.1. Introduction ............................................................................................... 40
6.2. Yachana Colegio Técnico (Yachana Technical High School) ..................... 40
6.3. TEFL at Puerto Rico................................................................................... 41
6.4. TEFL at Puerto Salazar .............................................................................. 41
6.5. TEFL at Rio Bueno..................................................................................... 42
7. Future Expedition Aims ......................................................................................... 44
8. Scientific Reports and Published Material ............................................................. 45
9. References ........................................................................................................... 46
10. Appendices........................................................................................................... 52
10.1 Avian Survey Sites........................................................................................ 52
10.2 Yachana Reserve Species List ..................................................................... 53

List of Figures and Tables
Figure 1.1.0 Map showing GVI Amazon location in Ecuador.
Figure 2.3.2 Number of individuals per net hour for the four mist-netting sites sampled
in Phase 104.
Figure 2.3.3 Number of individuals caught at Buena Vista South (02 S) and Buena
Vista North (06 N) mist-netting sites in November, 2010.
Figure 2.3.4 Number of individuals within the seven families caught at Buena Vista
South (02 S) and Buena Vista North (06 N) mist-netting sites in November 2010.
Figure 3.3.5 Distribution of species diversity (amphibians) with Shannon index applied.
Pitfall and VES (first 12 months of data only).
Figure 4.3.3 Individual butterflies by sub-families caught per day at site.
Figure 4.3.4 Individual butterflies by tribes caught per day at site.
Figure 4.3.5 Individual butterflies by genera caught per day at site.
Figure 4.3.6 Species distribution of Tigridia acesta over trap distances from the road.
Figure 4.3.7 Species distribution of Colobura annulata over trap distances from the
Figure 4.3.8 Shannon diversity of species over distance.

Table 2.3.1 Results for the four mist-netting sessions conducted in Phase 104.
Table 2.6.1 Road Uniques recorded on point count surveys in Phase 104.
Table 2.6.2 Forest Uniques recorded on point count surveys in Phase 104.
Table 3.3.1 Number of individuals found in pitfalls in Phase 104.
Table 3.3.2 Number of individuals found on visual encounter surveys in Phase 104.
Table 3.3.3 Number of individuals found in pitfall traps in total in the project so far.
Table 3.3.4 Number of individuals found in total for visual encounter surveys in the
project so far.
Table 4.3.1 Individual butterfly numbers as distributed in trap sites by distance from the
road, combined from all four sites over the first nine days of sampling.
Table 4.3.2 Individual butterfly numbers as distributed in trap sites by distance from the
road, combined from all four sites over the 18 sampled days.
Table 5.3.1 Raw VES data October-December 2010.
Table 5.3.2 Raw sand pad data October-December 2010.

1. Introduction
The Rainforest Conservation and Community Development Expedition operated by
GVI is located in the Yachana Reserve in the Napo province (0° 50' 45.47"S/-77° 13'
43.65"W; 300-350m altitude), Amazonian region of Ecuador. The reserve is legally-
designated a Protected Forest consisting of approximately 1500 hectares in total area.
The area of the reserve where the bulk of the programme and surveying work is
conducted is 946 hectares consisting of predominantly primary lowland rainforest, as
well as abandoned plantations, grassland, riparian forest, successional regenerating
forest and a road. The Yachana Reserve is owned and managed by the Yachana
Foundation. It is surrounded by large areas of pasture land, small active cacao farms
and currently un-mapped disturbed primary forest. The road within the Yachana
Reserve is a large stone and gravel based road which dissects the forest.

Rio Napo, Napo Province

Figure 1.1 Map showing GVI Amazon location in Ecuador

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 5

The Yachana Foundation is dedicated to finding sustainable solutions to the problems
facing the Ecuadorian Amazon region. The foundation works with rainforest
communities to improve education, develop community-based medical care, establish
sustainable agricultural practices, provide environmentally sustainable economic
alternatives, and conserve the rainforest. The Yachana Reserve is the result of the
foundation‟s efforts to purchase blocks of land for the purpose of conservation. The
Yachana Foundation has a long-term plan of sustainable management for the reserve
according to International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) protected forest
guidelines and guidelines laid out by the Ministerio del Ambiente (Ecuadorian Ministry
of the Environment). One of GVI‟s main roles at the reserve is to provide support
where deemed necessary for the development of the management plan. This includes
reserve boundary determination, baseline biodiversity assessments, visitor information
support, and research centre development.

GVI also works with local research institutions. The Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias
Naturales, MECN, (Ecuadorian Museum for Natural Sciences) provides technical
assistance with field research and project development. The museum is a government
research institution which houses information and conducts research on the presence
and distribution of floral and faunal species throughout Ecuador. GVI obtains their
investigation permit with the support of MECN for the collection of specimens. The
data and specimens collected by GVI are being lodged with the MECN in order to
make this information nationally and internationally available, and to provide verification
of the field data. MECN technicians are continuously invited to the Yachana Reserve
to conduct in-field training and education for all participants in the programme, as well
as explore research opportunities otherwise unavailable.

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 6

2. Avian Project
Impacts of Road Disturbance and Edge Effects on Avian Communities in
the Yachana Reserve, Ecuador

2.1. Introduction

Rainforests worldwide have been suffering the effects of habitat fragmentation for
decades, and its impacts on the flora and fauna of these globally significant
ecosystems are severe. Although not as severe as complete habitat fragmentation,
roads can significantly affect rainforest environments and expose edge effects on the
plant and animal communities. Although roads are beneficial in providing access to
remote areas, the effects of roads on forest ecosystems extends further into the forest
than just at the road edges (Gossem 2007, Coffin 2007), and is said to cause “internal
fragmentation”, a less recognized yet potentially severe threat caused by roads in
rainforest ecosystems (Gossem 2007). Roads can have a wide variety of impacts on
the surrounding environments, including habitat loss and alteration, edge effects,
disturbance effects such as noise pollution and chemical introduction, invasions of non-
native flora, fauna and disease and road mortality, which together can create
substantial barriers to the movement of a wide range of multi-taxa species and alter
ecological processes (Gossem 2007). As a result, there is a high potential for loss of
biodiversity of rainforest ecosystems.

Avian communities are sensitive to environmental changes and habitat fragmentation

within Neotropical rainforests and other ecosystems worldwide. Certain groups of birds
are reluctant to cross open roads, even if the road itself has minimal traffic. Amazonian
understory birds, especially those that move in mixed flocks and certain insectivorous
species, tend to avoid canopy gaps in general and in many cases avoid edge habitats
(Gossem 2007). Edge effects result in increased light intensity, temperature and
moisture stress, which can be expected along the edges of roads in rainforests. They
ultimately change the composition of vegetation along the roadsides to generalist,
successional species, and therefore affecting the avifaunal communities that inhabit the
roadside edges (Gossem 2007).

A study in Colorado showed that bird species composition was altered adjacent to trails
in two ecosystems, one of which was forest habitat (Miller et al. 1998). Also, generalist
species were found to be more abundant near trails and specialist species showed to
be less common (Miller et al. 1998).

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 7

In Neotropical regions, many of the species present in the forests are shy understory
birds such as antbirds and manakins, which are dependent on the presence of food
resources and specific ecological habitats. There is a good possibility that roads
through small reserves have created unnatural territory boundaries in which many of
these species will not cross, thereby limiting the distributions of these specialist

The purpose of this study is to determine if the road through the Yachana Reserve has
any impact on the avian communities present, through both mist-netting and point
count survey methods. Previously, mist-netting has been carried out in the Yachana
Reserve to investigate the impacts of disturbed versus less disturbed habitat on avian
communities. Point counts in the Yachana Reserve have also looked at similar trends,
focusing on the different habitats and their influences on the birds present on the
reserve. This study is planned to be carried out over a period of six months in order to
gather all the data necessary to produce significant results and build a larger picture of
the impacts of the road through the reserve on its avian communities.

In addition to the main goals of this project, there is interest in testing the methods for
training non-specialist participants for point count surveys. Recent years have seen a
large increase in the number of people undertaking volunteering work in developing
countries as an alternative to study or employment, and conservation based projects
are among the most popular (Year Out Group 2010). Therefore determining the
capacity of these volunteers to undertake a point count methodology would have wider
applications which are expected to continue to expand. It is hoped that by applying the
correct model to the data collected and teaching volunteers to a high enough level, a
viable analysis of the differing avian assemblages can also be conducted. Previously
in the Yachana Reserve (the last six months), volunteers have been trained using
audio cues; in this study, GVI was introducing methods of training involving visual and
audio cues to test the effectiveness of the two methods.

 To determine if there are impacts from the road on the distribution and
movements of avian communities of the Yachana Reserve.
 To gain more information about the distribution of understory and canopy bird
species on the reserve through a multi-methodology study.
 To investigate the capacity of untrained volunteers to learn sufficient bird calls
in order to act as independent observers in a point count methodology.

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 8

 To test and identify effective methods of training non-specialist observers for
point count survey techniques, which can serve useful to avian conservation
projects using non-specialist observers.

 To produce an avian report on the impacts of road disturbance and
corresponding edge effects; this could serve as a model for future development
on small reserves, for conservation monitoring purposes.
 To correlate the results found for bird communities with the coinciding mammal,
amphibian and butterfly projects to produce a multi-taxa assessment of the
impact of the road through the Yachana Reserve.
 To monitor the patterns of observer improvement with training and quantitatively
analyze the effectiveness of various training techniques in using volunteers for
point count surveys, over a time gradient.

Study Site

All research was conducted in the Yachana Reserve, which, as already stated in the
Introduction, is situated within the Napo province in the Amazonian region of eastern
Ecuador (0°5‟ 0”S/077°13‟ 60”W; 300-350m altitude). The gravel road that cuts
through the reserve runs in a general northwest to southeast direction. Its length
through the reserve is approximately 3.5 km, and allows access to the community of
San Francisco de Puerto Rico along with other small communities, as well as access to
the main roads to the larger towns of Tena and Coca. The road was cut through the
reserve in 2005. It generally acts as a divide between the less disturbed primary forest
and the successional growth plantations and grassland zones within the reserves.

Eastern Ecuador is renoun as one of the most diverse regions in the world for birds
(Ridgely & Tudor 2001; Blake and Loiselle 2009). Since 2006, over 300 species of bird
have been recorded within the reserve borders.

2.2. Methodology: Mist-netting

Eight mist-netting sites were chosen with respect to the other proposed sites and the
proximity to the road through the Yachana Reserve. The placement of the sites
consists of four sites on the north side of the road and four corresponding sites (directly
south of the north sites) on the south side of the road. Each mist-netting site had a
500m buffer to adjacent sites on the same side of the road. Each site was 150m from
the road, therefore each north-south site set had a 350m overlap over the road zone.

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 9

Each site had an array of four to six mist nets at a length of 12 x 2.5m, distributed at
least 30m from adjacent nets in a random pattern as the contours of the area allow.

The mist nets were opened for a period of four consecutive days (weather permitting)
at each site, one site at a time. Four sites were surveyed during this ten week
expedition period, which follows the proposal plan to survey all mist-netting sites over a
period of six months. The mist nets were opened at sunrise (approximately 6:00 am)
and remained open for approximately 4.5-5 hours per morning. 70 net hours (hours
open x number of nets) were targeted for each four day session (standard for a four net
array; if six nets available, 105 net hours were targeted).

During the open period, the nets were checked in sequence every 30 minutes to
ensure that birds were not tangled in nets for an excessive amount of time. When
checked, any birds caught were removed by trained and capable staff and placed into
a bird bag to minimize stress of the birds until processed. Birds were processed at an
adjacent station and identified to species. If possible, the birds were banded with an
aluminum butt-end band (hummingbirds excluded and others limited to band sizes
available). This allows for monitoring of recaptures. Birds were weighed, measured,
aged and sexed where possible. The birds were released over 50m away from the net
sites after processing. All standard mist-netting procedures and protocols were
observed and monitored by trained staff on the project.

Mist-netting has generally been found to be less efficient than point counts (Blake and
Loiselle 2001; Barlow et al. 2007); however it offers a method free from observer bias.
It is also a useful and standardized technique to compare understory avifaunal
communities composed of non-vocal and secretive species, (Blake and Loiselle 2000).

In this phase, four sites were surveyed: Ridge South (01 S, 350m from road, 12th to 15th
October 2010), East Bambosh (03 S, 350m from road, 25th to 29th October 2010),
Buena Vista South (02 S, 150m from road, 15th to 18th November 2010) and Buena
Vista North (06 N, 150m from road, 29th November to 3rd December 2010). The
distances from the road were modified after the first two mist-netting sessions in order
to better meet the aims and objectives of the project; this will be discussed further
below, (see Appendix 10.1 for map with mist-netting sites).

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 10

2.3. Results

Four mist-netting sessions were conducted on the Yachana Reserve between October
and December 2010. Adequate net hours were attained for each session. Results are
shown in Table 2.3.1 below.

Table 2.3.1 Results for the four mist-netting sessions conducted in Phase 104.

Ridge East Buena
South (01 Bambosh Vista North Total
South (02
S) (03 S) (06 N)
Net Hours 75.32 77.33 71.91 76.67 301.23
No. of
8 41 19 30 98
0.11 0.53 0.26 0.39 0.32
per Net Hour
Number of
6 16 10 15 33
Species per
0.08 0.21 0.14 0.20 0.11
Net Hour
Number of
5 7 5 7 9
0 0 0 1 1
Recaptures 0 1 2 2 5

The results in the table show that the East Bambosh (03 S) and Buena Vista North (06
N) sites were the most productive for capture rate, as they both hold the highest
number of individual birds caught per net hour, as well as highest number of species
caught per net hour. The most species were also found at these two sites (Figure

Figure 2.3.2 Individuals per net hour for the four mist-netting sites sampled in Phase 104.

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 11

Absolute numbers caught varied from site to site. The Ridge South site (01 S), was the
least productive and only eight individuals were caught in a four day sampling period
(Table 2.3.1). The most productive site was at East Bambosh (03 S), where 41
individuals were caught in the mist nets.

Nine families of birds were caught in the mist-netting sessions conducted this phase.
These included Thamnophilidae, Pipridae, Tyrannidae, Emberizidae, Trochilidae,
Dendrocolaptidae, Turdidae, Columbidae, and Thraupidae. However, the most
common groups encountered tended to be Pipridae (Manakins), Thamnophilidae
(Antbirds), and Tyrannidae (Flycatchers).

The birds caught at the Ridge South site (01 S) and the East Bambosh site (03 S),
even though of interest to gather various information, are not comparable as the
distance to the road was changed after those sites were sampled. Of more
significance is the species composition between the Buena Vista South (02 S) and
North (06 N) sites, which were sampled two weeks apart from each other and lie only
300m from each other, divided by the road at the midpoint. 19 species were caught in
total for the paired sites (including one unidentified species). Of those 19 species, six
(working out at 32%) were found at both sites (Fig. 2.3.3). Individuals that were only
caught once at only one site have been removed from the 19 species caught at these

With regards to family composition, seven families were recorded for the two
comparable sites. Four families of understory birds were found in concentration at both
sites (Fig. 2.3.4), indicating similar species composition. The unidentified family has
been omitted.

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 12

Figure 2.3.3 Number of individuals caught at Buena Vista South (02 S) and Buena Vista North
(06 N) mist-netting sites in November, 2010.

Figure 2.3.4 Number of individuals (within the seven families) caught at Buena Vista South (02
S) and Buena Vista North (06 N) mist-netting sites in November 2010.

Five recaptures were caught during this expedition phase. In some cases, recaptures
caught were from a previous day of sampling at that site. For example, at East
Bambosh (03 S), a White-necked Thrush (Turdus albicollis) was recaptured the day
after it was banded, indicating its presence and likely territory in the area. However,
there were two recaptures that were not initially banded at the sites they were
captured. The first was an adult female Blue-crowned Manakin (Lepidothrix coronata)
with a band ID of 45L, captured at Buena Vista South (02 S), and was initially banded
at an old mist-netting site (Cascada), on 20th January 2010, approximately 350m from
where she was recaptured. The other, an immature Golden-headed Manakin (Pipra

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 13

erythrocephala) with a band ID of 54R, captured at Buena Vista North (06 N). The
initial banding record of this individual has not been relocated at this time.

2.4. Discussion

This was the first ten week phase of a new mist-netting project focusing on road
impacts on avian communities in the Yachana Reserve. The results, however, do
show some interesting initial trends. The comparable sites of Buena Vista South (02 S)
and Buena Vista North (06 N) showed to have similar avian species composition, and a
majority of the family groups caught in the mist nets were found at both sites. Both
sites were each 150m from the road, were of similar vegetation composition that
consisted mainly of overgrown coffee plantation and dispersed cacao plantation, with
small adjacent patches of primary forest. Vegetation mapping has yet to be completed
for these two sites, but could indicate the similarity between the two sites more
accurately. By the similarity in species composition, there are indications that it is
possible that bird communities may spread across the road barrier. However, in the
short sampling time at each site, there were no recaptures caught on either side of the
road that had been banded at the adjacent site, and more time at each site is required
to assess if the birds will cross the road or if it creates a barrier through the habitat.

Two recaptures of interest were caught in Phase 104 as already mentioned. The adult
female Blue-crowned Manakin (Lepidothrix coronata) with a band ID of 45L, recaptured
this phase approximately 350m from where she was first captured could indicate that
this bird dispersed from its parental range, likely near the previous mist-netting site
where it was initially banded. In this case however, the recaptured manakin was found
much closer to the road, which may indicate a level of resilience these species can
withstand with regards to significant road disturbance.

The immature male Golden-headed Manakin (Pipra erythrocephala) with a band ID of

54R, captured at Buena Vista North (06N) was positively identified as a young bird due
to the beginnings of the golden head feathers moulting in. It was banded in the
previous year; however, its initial capture records have not been located at this time
(possibly the band number was not recorded before the bird was released). The two
possible sites where the manakin was initially banded are Frontier, approximately
1000m northwest of its recapture site, and Laguna, approximately 850m north of its
recapture site, indicating a significant dispersal distance. The habitats at the two
possible sites are good quality primary forest, indicating a change in habitat as well.

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 14

As most manakins (especially Blue-crowned Manakins) seem to be generalized in their
habitat preference, a change of habitat and environment can be expected for this
species but it is a generalization that cannot be made for all understory bird species.
At this point in time there is a need for more data sets before any trend clarifications
can be made with confidence. More sampling (via mist-netting) will be required to
better understand how the road through the Yachana Reserve affects the understory
bird communities.

After the first two mist-netting sites (Ridge South [01 S], 350m from the road; East
Bambosh [03 S], 350m from the road) were surveyed, the project design was assessed
with regards to its overall aims and it was concluded that a distance of 350m from the
road was too far to gauge if understory birds consider it as an intrusive barrier to their
movement. Therefore, we moved the sites to be closer (150m) to the road, inducing a
potential 350m overlap for territory range over the road for the paired sites. It was also
decided better to survey adjacent north-south sites in sequence (with a non-survey
week in between), rather than to survey all the sites south of the road over a ten week
period. This will allow for a better scope of species composition and current
movements of species of birds in question.

For the following expedition phase, our objective will be to survey two more paired
sites, in the hope to collect more information on the bird communities that are found in
close proximity to the road. The results collected, in collaboration with the results
collected from the point count surveys, will be compiled to get a better understanding of
how the road through the Yachana Reserve affects the avian communities present.

2.5. Methodology – Point Counts

Point count surveys were conducted along eight linear transects on the north side of
the road that runs through the Yachana Reserve. Points were set at 0m, 150m, 300m,
450m, and 600m along each transect; 0m is located at the road and the points continue
northward along the transect. This accounts for independence of understory birds
recorded. Five points were surveyed each morning (weather permitting). The count
lasted for a duration of ten minutes at each site, with a three minute settle period upon
arrival at each site prior to beginning each count. All birds seen and heard were
recorded individually by each staff and volunteer. Total species recorded for each
point were tallied at the end of each survey day.

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 15

Volunteer Bird Call Training Assessment for Point Counts

Prior to the commencement of the point count survey, each ten week phase, each
volunteer was assessed to determine whether they could recognize bird calls more
efficiently through either:

1. Audio calls only, or

2. Audio calls with visual recognition cues.

To determine placement of volunteers into treatment groups mentioned above, two

assessment sessions were held. In the first session (approximately 45 minutes in
duration), 15 Neotropical bird calls were introduced to all the volunteers through
playback of each bird call in addition to the common name of each bird spoken aloud.
The calls were run through thoroughly two times. All volunteers were tested
immediately afterwards. In the second session (approximately 45 minutes in duration),
15 different Neotropical bird calls were introduced to all the volunteers. The same
procedure was followed as in the first session, but in addition to the audio cues,
corresponding photos for each species were provided via a power point presentation.
Two thorough run throughs of the calls alongside the photo images and the common
name spoken aloud were conducted. The volunteers were tested on all 15 calls (audio
only – no visual cues provided).

After the assessment, all volunteers were placed into the two treatment groups for
learning the bird calls of the Yachana Reserve for the point counts survey purposes.
Those volunteers who demonstrated themselves to be significantly better at one
method over the other were placed in the corresponding treatment groups. Others who
did not show different results between the audio and audio & visual assessments were
divided and randomly and evenly placed into the two treatment groups.

Point count training consisted of at least one session per week, which continued
throughout the phase to continually revise and refresh bird calls for volunteer
participants. The training schedule for a five week period was:

 1st set (weeks 1 & 2) – 30 birds, most commonly heard on Yachana Reserve
 2nd set (week 3) – 15 new birds
 3rd set (week 4) – 15 new birds
 4th set (week 5) – 15 new bird

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 16

Volunteers were encouraged to study bird calls independently and within their
treatment groups beyond the formal training sessions. A guideline for training within
their treatment groups was available to volunteer participants.

Volunteer Learning and Prediction of Learner Ability

In order to assess whether learning bird calls would be enhanced by seeing visual cues
of the birds we split the learners into „audio only‟ and „audio and visual‟ learners. Audio
and visual learners were shown pictures of the birds during training sessions. Another
test conducted was using a small sub-set of 15 bird calls at the beginning of their
training that were introduced and followed by a small test. This was to see if learner
ability could be assessed by an initial small scale assessment. The rankings of their
abilities would be later compared with their final ranking abilities from their personal
performance in the field in relation to staff abilities.

2.6. Results

Species Composition
In Phase 104, eleven point counts were conducted along five transects that run from
the road north to 600m. During the surveying period, 63 species of birds were
recorded from visual and audio observations. From the eleven surveys conducted,
there were eight species of birds that were found to be specific to the road as they
were recorded in close proximity to it (150m or closer). These bird species are classed
as “Road Uniques”, see Table 2.6.1. These include species found at sites 1 (0m, point
is on the road) and 2 (150m from the road), but were not recorded beyond the 150m
point into deeper forest.
Table 2.6.1 Road Uniques recorded on point count surveys in Phase 104.
Common Name Scientific Name Order: Family
Amazonian Trogoniformes:
Trogon violaceus 1 and 2
Violaceous Trogon Trogonidae
Black-throated Trogoniformes:
Trogon rufus 1 and 2
Trogon Trogonidae
Forest-Falcon Falconiformes:
Micrastur sp. 1 and 2
(unid) Falconidae
Ivory-billed Aracari Pteroglossus azara 1
Marbled Wood- Odontophorus Galliformes:
1 and 2
Quail gujanensis Odontophoridae
Swallow-tailed Kite Elanoides forficatus 1
Swallow-Tanager Tersina viridis 1
White-collared Streptoprocne
Apodiformes: Apodidae 1
Swift zonaris

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 17

In addition to species found only in proximity to the road, there were also species
specific to the deeper forest sites. Nine species were found unique to the third point
(300m) and beyond at further distances from the road, classed as “Forest Uniques”,
see Table 2.6.2.

Table 2.6.2 Forest Uniques recorded on point count surveys in Phase 104.

Common Name Scientific Name Order: Family
Black Caracara Daptrius ater 4 and 5
Broad-billed Electron
Piciformes: Motmotidae 3, 4 and 5
Motmot platyrhynchum
Dwarf Tyrant- Tyranneutes
Passeriformes: Pipridae 3, 4, and 5
Manakin stolzmanni
Fasciated Passeriformes:
Cymbilianus lineatus 5
Antshrike Thamnophilidae
Turdus lawrencii Passeriformes: Turdidae 5
Columba Columbiformes:
Ruddy Pigeon 5
subvinacea Columbidae
Scale-backed Hylophylax Passeriformes:
3, 4, and 5
Antbird poecilinota Thamnophilidae
Celeus grammicus Piciformes: Picidae 3, 4, and 5
Screaming Piha Lipaugus vociferans 3, 4, and 5
There were a majority of cosmopolitan species that were recorded at all five points.
Seventeen species, including Yellow-tufted Woodpecker (Melanerpes cruentatus),
Blue-crowned Manakin (Lepidothrix coronata) and Gilded Barbet (Capito auratus),
indicating that 27% of the species recorded are not affected by the presence of the
road. Despite these common species to the Yachana Reserve, the road does seem to
impact certain specialist bird species on the reserve.

Volunteer Learning and Prediction of Learner Ability

There was no clear benefit of having a visual cue in addition to an audio learning
technique; those learners with visual cues did not perform any better than learners with
purely audio learning resources. It also appears that a quick assessment cannot be
made regarding a learner‟s ability. Spearman‟s Ranking value r = 0.311, is lower than
the 0.456 critical value (n = 14), indicating that there was no significant correlation
between the two ranks based upon the initial assessment and final ability levels of the

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 18

2.7. Discussion

Species Composition

From the point count surveys conducted during Phase 104, preliminary data was
collected to investigate the impacts of the road on the avian communities on the
Yachana Reserve. From the data collected in this first phase of the project, some
evidence does show that the road does impact certain species. Those “forest
uniques”, as nine species have not been recorded any closer than 300m to the road.
These specialized species typically prefer better quality forests that are less disturbed
by road impacts. A majority of the species specific to this distance from the road tend
to be understory species with low-pitched calls, better for travelling through a forested

However, despite this, eight species were found to be “road uniques” that seem to
prefer the roadside habitats. These species are likely to fill these successional niches
to take advantage of food sources, open areas and perhaps less competition with other
understory species. There is a bias to take into consideration with the point count
surveys; with on road point counts, it could be considered much easier to record birds
by visual observation compared to within dense forest habitat, where the key is to rely
on skill and experience of audio observation and recognition.

A high number of species were recorded at all five points, from the road into the
undisturbed forest. There are a number of reasons for this occurrence. The most
common species and most vocal species are well known by staff and volunteer
observers, and by knowing the calls of these species, it is more likely that these calls
will be picked up more frequently on the surveys than species that are more
challenging to identify or unknown to the unskilled participants. They are also very
vocal species; this presents a bias with conducting point counts in dense tropical
rainforest. For example, a species that was never recorded on a point count survey,
yet was found at every mist-netting site was the Ochre-bellied Flycatcher (Mionectes
oleagineus), clearly a very common species on the reserve, yet difficult to see in the
understory due to its shy habits and non-vocal tendencies. Carrying out both the mist-
netting and the point count survey methods during the same expedition periods has
enriched our understanding and knowledge of the avian communities within the
reserve. It has allowed us to gain a greater insight into which species are
demonstrating attributes of more common, generalist and specialist species in the
reserve. By enlarging the data set and information in future expedition phases and

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 19

carrying out more surveys of both types of methodology we will gain more evidence
and be able to draw more conclusions about the communities and the impacts of the
road on those avian communities.

Volunteer Learning and Prediction of Learner Ability

Many learners stated that having a visual cue often made learning more complicated
due to having to focus on not only an audio cue, but an image as well. Others, in the
meantime, contradicted this thinking by stating that a visual representation helped with
an association when a call was heard in the field. These learning styles may be
individually specific and beneficial to different types of people and successful learning

The fact that a prediction could not be made on potential learner ability may show that
learners who may start poorly can develop more quickly than others that may have had
a higher initial ability. The sample size in this experiment was relatively small and may
be a contributing factor as to why no correlation between ranks was observed.

In the forth-coming phase, point count surveys will focus more in depth on the avian
communities, in order to sample species composition as well as abundance to get a
diversity measure. As we have answered questions regarding volunteer learning
abilities and potential training methods, we now hope to focus more on the bird
communities and their distributions with respect to road impacts on the Yachana

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 20

3. Herpetological Research
The Effect of Structural Habitat Change on Herpetofaunal Communities

3.1. Introduction

One of the key drivers of worldwide species loss is habitat change; defined as habitat
deforestation, fragmentation and deterioration (Urbina-Cardona, 2008). The rapid rate
of forest conversion in the Neotropics has been offset by large-scale expansion of
secondary forest, plantation and pastureland (Wright SJ, 2005; Gardner et al. 2007b).
Despite the increasingly dominant role of these degraded habitats in the tropical
landscape, there is little consensus within the scientific community about the extent of
its conservation value (Gardner et al. 2007c, Lo-Man-Hung1, et al. 2008). Wright &
Muller-Landau (2006) predict that the future loss of primary forest will be offset by
regenerating secondary forest and consequently suggest that the predicted loss of
species due to habitat change may be premature. However, there is currently a lack of
empirical evidence to support the theory that regenerating forests can fully support
native forest species (Gardner 2007c).

Two recent multiple taxa assessments, conducted on the cubraca cacao plantations of
Bahia, Brazil (Pardini et al. IN PRESS) and eucalyptus plantations of the Jari forestry
project, Brazil (Barlow et al. 2007), found that responses to structural habitat change
were taxon specific. Barlow et al. (2007) found that four of the fifteen taxa analysed
(trees and lianas, birds, fruit feeding butterflies, and leaf litter amphibians) were found
to decrease in species richness with increasing habitat disturbance. However, five taxa
(large mammals, epigiec arachnids, lizards, dung beetles and bats) exhibit idiosyncratic
responses to habitat change (Barlow et al. 2007). Both studies concluded that
responses to structural habitat change will be species specific, not simply taxon
specific. Analysis of a generalised taxon response is likely to hide a higher level of
species specific disturbance responses which are important when designing
conservation strategies (Barlow et al 2007; Pardini et al. 2009). These studies highlight
the importance of performing multiple taxa assessments that are species specific
relating to the conservation value of secondary and plantation forests.

Problem Statement
The Neotropics are estimated to contain nearly 50% of the worlds amphibians (IUCN,
2007) and 32% of the worlds reptiles (Young et al. 2004), this equates to over 3000
species of each taxon. Within the continental Neotropics, the 17 countries in Central

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 21

and South America, there are 1685 species of amphibian and 296 species of reptiles
considered endangered. Amphibians and reptiles are considered to be the most
threatened groups of terrestrial vertebrates (J. Gardner 2007b). There have been
many factors implicated in threatening populations of amphibians and reptiles,
including habitat loss and change, the virulent Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
pathogen, climate change (Whitfield et al. 2007), ultraviolet-B radiation (Broomhall et
al. 2000), and agrochemical contaminants (Bridges et al. 2000).

Current State of Amphibian and Reptile Research

Amphibians and reptiles are important primary, mid-level and top consumers in
Neotropical ecosystems; therefore, it is important to understand the responses of these
organisms to structural habitat change (Bell et al. 2006). Despite its apparent severity,
the amount of research time given to studying the impacts of habitat change on
amphibian and reptile populations is relatively low. This is especially true in the
Neotropics which, despite an estimated 89% of threatened species being affected by
habitat loss, has only been the subject of 10% of the world‟s herpetological studies
(Gardner et al 2007a). There is a general consensus amongst herpetologists that the
effect of structural habitat change on determining amphibian and reptiles and
distributions is limited (Pearman, 1997; Krishnamurthy, 2003; Urbina-Cardona, 2006;
Gardner et al, 2007b).

A recent global scale review of the state of amphibian and reptile research regarding
structural habitat change highlighted several serious deficiencies:

 There is currently a strong study bias away from the Neotropics towards North
America and Australia.
 Published studies report contradictory responses of amphibian and reptile
populations to habitat change.
 There are several common limitations in study methodology and analysis
(Gardner et al. 2007a).

Aims of the Research

 To assess the ability of secondary forest (abandoned cacao plantation) to

preserve leaflitter herpetofaunal richness, distribution and abundance in
comparison to primary forest habitat.
 To understand the effects of structural habitat change within the Neotropics.

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 22

 To identify the responses of different herpetofaunal groups/species to structural
habitat change.

3.2. Methods

In Phase 104, pitfall data was collected for 19 days (12 th to 21st October and 22nd to
30th November 2010) and six visual encounter surveys were conducted from 13th
October to 29th November 2010. This data will be used to supplement data from the
previous herpetological project (ended Phase 102, July 2010). During Phase 104, five
pitfall trap arrays (of twelve available) and three visual encounter transects (of ten
available) were surveyed. The sites surveyed in Phase 104 were chosen in order to
better represent grassland and plantation sites in the complete dataset.

Nocturnal Visual Encounter Surveys

Twelve 75m transects in both the primary and secondary locations were established for
the original project. Ten additional transects were added for Phase 103. Only three of
these were surveyed in Phase 104. Care was taken to space transects sufficiently to
avoid psuedoreplication. Transects were marked with coloured transect tape to avoid
unnecessary habitat modification. Where possible, the transects were located at least
10m from streams and 100m from forest edges to avoid biases resulting from
increases in species richness and abundance, which could result in confusion about
the true effect of structural habitat change on amphibian and reptile diversity.

Visual encounter surveys have been shown to be one of the most effective methods for
sampling tropical herpetofaunas (Bell et al, 2006). They have been repeatedly shown
to yield greater numbers of individuals per effort than other sampling methods in recent
publications (Ernst and Rodel, 2004; Donnelly et al 2005) and GVI‟s own preliminary
investigations. Each transect was searched by six observers (strip width = 6m,
duration = 1h 30m).

Pitfall Trapping

Twelve pitfall arrays were established in both primary and secondary forest with a
further twelve being added in Phase 103. Only five of these were surveyed during
Phase 104. Each array consists of four 25L buckets with 8m long by 50cm high plastic
drift fence connecting them in linear shaped design. When open, the pitfalls were
checked once a day.

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 23

Particular care was taken to ensure that the overall sampling effort is equal for both
primary and secondary habitats. This ensures maximum comparability in the resultant
data sets.

Any amphibians or reptiles encountered through either method were identified in the
field using available literature and released. Any individual which could not be
identified was taken back to the GVI base camp for further analysis. A small proportion
of the captured individuals, including those that could not be identified, were
anaesthetised with Lidocaine and fixed with 10% formalin. All preseserved specimens
are stored at the Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales (MECN).

Surveying primary rainforest habitat is a privileged opportunity; however there is the

potential to negatively affect the ecosystem by passing infections between sites and
species. Good practices were strictly adhered to so as to ensure transmissions of
diseases are not possible. This was achieved by systematic cleaning of tools,
equipment, and sterile bags were changed when handling different individuals. Under
no circumstances did amphibians or reptiles come in contact with exposed human skin

3.3. Results

Species Encountered in Phase 104

During this phase, 61 identified reptile and amphibian individuals were encountered,
comprising of nine species of amphibian and ten species of reptile.

Pitfalls in Phase 104

Table 3.3.1 Number of individuals found in pitfalls in Phase 104.
Amphibians and Amphibians Reptiles
Total 37 25 12

Visual Encounter Surveys in Phase 104

Table 3.3.2 Number of individuals found on visual encounter surveys in Phase 104.
Amphibians and Amphibians Reptiles
Total 24 19 5

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 24

Species Encountered Overall in the Project So Far:

During the whole project to date (both the initial project and the supplementary data
collection completed this phase), 1985 identified reptile and amphibian individuals have
been encountered.


Table 3.3.3 Number of individuals found in pitfall traps in total in the project so far.

Amphibians and Amphibians Reptiles

Total 936 774 162

Visual Encounter Surveys

Table 3.3.4 Number of individuals found in total for visual encounter surveys in the project so
Amphibians and Amphibians Reptiles
Total 1049 964 85

Figure 3.3.5 Distribution of species diversity (amphibians) with Shannon index applied. Pitfall
and VES (first 12 months of data only).

Pitfall species diversity was projected onto a map of the Yachana Reserve using the
Kriging method see Figure 3.3.5. The projection shows clearly that there appears to be

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 25

higher species diversity at the less disturbed „primary’ sites as opposed to more
disturbed „secondary’ sites.

3.4. Discussion
The amphibian and reptile work continues to provide a wealth of species which
continue to show that some species are more prevalent than others and there are
certainly some differences in the numbers and types of species found within different
areas of the reserve. The amphibians Ameerga bilinguis, Pristimantis kichwarum,
Pristimantis lanthanites, Bolitoglossa peruvianus (Dwarf-climbing Salamander) and the
lizard Lepsoma parietale are still found in greater numbers than other species at
various habitat types around the reserve. The diversity projection (Fig. 3.3.5) will be
expanded in future reports to include all trapping techniques and surveys.

Data collection for the original sites is now complete. The original sites have been
surveyed for one full year. Phase 103 saw the introduction of twelve new pitfall sites
and ten new visual encounter survey sites. These were set up to gather additional data
to add to the original sites. The new sites include riparian areas, less disturbed area,
old cacao plantation and grassland areas. For Phase 104, five of the new pitfall sites
and three of the new visual encounter sites were surveyed to further supplement the

As data collection is now complete further analysis can begin. This will involve
multivariate analysis such as principal component analysis in addition to decision tree
analysis that may be applied to the development of a model used to determine the
species of amphibians and reptiles found in specific habitat types.

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 26

4. Butterfly Project

Impact of Road Disturbance on Nymphalid Butterfly Communities in the

Yachana Reserve, Ecuador.

4.1. Introduction

The effects of fragmentation and development within forest landscapes have been
reasonably well documented due to their many impacts including alteration of habitat,
spread of disease, and population decline. However, the development and
construction of roads are a basic requirement of growing communities and will continue
to impact tropical rainforests (Goosem, 2007).

Road systems sharply define and fragment forest ecosystems, resulting in changes to
plant species composition and structure from road edges to the surrounding interior
(Bennett, 1991). The presence of roads and trails opens up the forest canopy, creating
light gaps, modifying plant communities and resources available for other species.

Despite being a part of the most diverse taxon in the Neotropics, little is known about
distribution and factors influencing diversity of butterflies (Murray, 1997). It is
necessary to understand impacts on butterflies as its dependence of the larval stage on
a specific host plant, combined with adult pollinating roles make them important
ecological indicators (Ehrlich and Raven, 1965). Butterfly communities have shown to
be sensitive to environmental variables, such as sunlight, gaps and edges (Ramos,
2000). Therefore, the interest of this study is to determine the impact of roads on aerial
and ground communities of Nymphalid butterflies in the Yachana Reserve as well as to
achieve the outlined aims:

 To determine if there are any edge effects caused by the road that significantly
impact the distribution in the Yachana Reserve.

 To better understand butterfly distribution in the Yachana Reserve.

 To correlate results with other taxa assessments made in the reserve.

Study Site

All research was performed directly on the Yachana Reserve. The habitat the survey
took place in is mature, undisturbed terra firme forest. Excluding rare emergent trees,
the average height of the forest canopy is 25-30m.

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 27

4.2. Methods

Surveys were undertaken from October 2010 to December 2010. In this study, four
sites in 500m intervals along the north side of the road were used. Each site contained
a trap in the mid-forest canopy and a trap 1-1.5m above the ground placed 0m, 100m,
200m, 300m and 400m from the road. After the first sampling period of nine days, a
canopy and ground trap were placed 50 meters from the road at all four sites.

Sampling periods ran for nine days and traps were checked daily in the afternoon. The
traps were baited with mashed banana, which had been left to ferment for three days
prior to the baiting of the traps, and were replaced every three days. Bait was prepared
following the methods of DeVries and Walla (1999). All captured butterflies were
identified in the field by GVI volunteers and staff, using plates, and marked on the
upper wing with a dot code to monitor recaptures.

It is worth noting that although specific, dot-code data is unreliable, unless all butterflies
caught continued to be marked before release. However, butterflies were not marked if
they were too small (ie. smaller than Tigridia acesta), their wings showed dramatic
effects of wear (e.g. if there were pieces of wing missing), in order to prevent further
damage to the wings, or if their wings were transparent to avoid disrupting
camoflauge/disguise. Despite this, it will still be possible to differentiate between
recaptures and newly-caught individuals and hence avoid any pseudo-replication.

After the nine days of sampling, the traps were closed. The traps were opened again
for another nine days of sampling after 27 days. The traps are designed with a 25cm
diameter tray which holds a small bowl of bait. The tray is suspended approximately
8cm below a cylinder of netting on average 1m in length. Canopy traps were
suspended with thin rope over branches so all traps could be raised and lowered.

4.3. Results

Overall, 229 individual butterflies of 43 positively-identified species were trapped during

two nine day sampling periods. No new butterfly species were identified for the
Yachana Reserve species list. As shown in Table 4.3.1, the difference in captures
varies greatly between 0m and 100m and potential road impacts could be affecting
butterfly individuals caught, to further investigate this during the second nine days of
sampling, traps were put in a trapping site 50m from the road, in order to receive more

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 28

inclusive data that could demonstrate the impact the road has on butterfly populations
(Table 4.3.2).

Table 4.3.1 Individual butterfly numbers as distributed in trap sites by distance from the road,
combined from all four sites over the first 9 days of sampling.
Dist. From road No. of
(m) individuals
0 6
100 18
200 20
300 19
400 23

Table 4.3.2 Individual butterfly numbers as distributed in trap sites by distance from the road,
combined from all four sites over the 18 sampled days.

Dist. from road (m) No. of individuals

0 26
50 39
100 35
200 40
300 30
400 30

In order for data to be comparable (as trap sites were open different numbers of days),
the numbers of individuals caught in the site were divided by the number of days the
trap was open in total. Of the five caught, only sub-families that had over 30 individuals
caught were used to compare individual distribution over the different trap distances
(Fig. 4.3.3).

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 29

Figure 4.3.3 Individual butterflies by sub-families caught per day at site.

Of the eleven tribes caught, comparison was made among those with over 15
individuals caught (Fig. 4.3.4).

Figure 4.3.4 Individual butterflies by tribes caught per day at site.

Of the 28 genera caught, numbers of 14 or more individuals per site were used to
compare the distribution of different genera from trap sites. Although Colobura and
Tigridia were the two genera that were caught most frequently, they are not included in
Figure 4.3.5 because there was only one species contributing to the large genera
number. Instead, individual species graphs were made to represent the distribution of
Tigridia acesta (Nymphalinae: Nymphaliini) (Fig. 4.3.6) and Colobura annulata
(Nymphalinae: Nymphaliini) (Fig. 4.3.7) over trap distances. In order to look at species
diversity, Shannon diversity index was applied to the numbers over distance which is
shown in Figure 4.3.8.

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 30

Figure 4.3.5 Individual butterflies by genera caught per day at site.

Figure 4.3.6 Species distribution of Tigridia acesta over trap distances from the road.

Figure 4.3.7 Species distribution of Colobura annulata over trap distances from the road.

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 31

Figure 4.3.8 Shannon diversity of species over distance.

Shannon Diversity of Species
Shannon Diversity Index





0 50 100 200 300 400
Distance from road (m)

4.4. Discussion

A total of 229 individuals were collected in traps; 79 individuals being caught during the
first nine days of sampling and 150 individuals being caught during the second nine
days of sampling. The increase could be a result of a number of factors. One of the
reasons for the increase is a result of additional traps being opened during the second
sampling period. However, the seasonal effects in the feeding and reproductive cycles
of butterflies could account for a fluctuation in numbers at various times of the year.
Also, changes in rain amounts can affect the daily activity of butterflies. Theorectically
the increase could also be an effect of the quality of the bait used; however, no
deviations were made in the process and fermentation times allotted for the preparation
of the bait. Additionally, more butterflies might have been able to be identified due to a
lower escape number as numerous traps were created and received repairs prior to the
second nine days of sampling.

In order to create comparable data since traps had been opened for different durations,
the number of individuals being focused on were divided by the number of days the
trap was open to provide a ratio. The ratio is reflected as number of individuals caught
per day. As shown in Figure 4.3.3, the Nymphalinae sub-family seem to demonstrate
an obvious preference, with the highest number of individuals caught at 50m which
consistently decreased over to result in containing one of the lowest numbers of
individuals caught per day at 400m, with a low number at 0m as well. This trend
reflects the preference for slightly disturbed areas.

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 32

Charaxinae individuals slightly preferred the heavily disturbed area of 0m but remained
at fairly similar numbers over distance from the road. The distribution of tribes reflects
the trends of the sub-families that they are from. For instance, Nymphaliini, as shown
in Figure 4.3.4, has low capture numbers 0m from the road, which increases
significantly at the traps 50m from the road to steadily decrease the further the traps
get from the road. Likewise, Preponini reflects the trend shown by its sub-family,
Charaxinae, by having similar numbers over distance from the road.

Figure 4.3.5 shows that individuals in the genus Archeoprepona (Charaxinae:

Preponini) preferred the disturbed areas of 0m and 50m from the road, which
decreased but then started to increase again 200-400m from the road. Also, 0m traps
only caught 0.05 Nessaea (Biblidinae: Epicalini) individuals per day as oppose to the
0.22 individuals caught per day at 50m, showing the disturbance negatively impacted
their presence while it maintained higher numbers 50m-400m.

Looking at species impacted by the disturbance, Tigridia acesta (Nymphalinae:

Nymphaliini) shows a very strong impact of the road‟s presence. By looking at
distribution of the species over distance, it appears there may be particular features
present at the 50m that make the habitat more favourable than at 0m and 400m. This
could signify that the buffer zone of the road extends between 0-50m from the road,
where particular plants might occur but then are not found in less disturbed areas.
Additionally, Colobura annulata (Nymphalinae: Nymphaliini) also prefer the conditions
found 50m from the road, further showing a potential buffer zone of road impacts. The
amount of natural food sources for these butterflies, as well as plant diversity and host
plants for many species, (as plant diversity may vary with distance from the road),
resulting in impacts on butterfly populations. However, it is interesting to note that both
Colobura annulata and Tigridia acesta are from the same sub-family but represent
different relationships with the road, signifying that impacts of the road are species
dependent. Species diversity is fairly consistent, and reasonably high at 0m and 50m
traps. Evenness and Shannon diversity are lowest 100m from the road, which could
represent environmental factors that effect one or more species, being a part of a
possible road buffer zone.

Due to a lack of inclusive information about specific buffer zone distances, it is

suggested that the project is continued at new location sites. A change in distances
sampled might help specify the road buffer zone impact. Site distances could
potentially be 0m, 25m, 75m, 125m, 175m and 225m. Recognizing differences in

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 33

season, as long as other project procedures are maintained, data can be compared to
the previous project, allowing a more focused look where current data might not be as

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 34

5. Mammal Research

The Effects of a Minor Road on Non-flying Mammal Communities in a

Small Reserve.

5.1. Introduction

The effects of fragmentation within the forest landscape has been reasonably well
documented in the past, rising to an overwhelming agreement that it is one of many
major driving forces towards habitat loss, population declines and extinction. It has
been documented as “a severe threat to tropical rainforests” by Goosem (2007),
however still continues today at an unprecedented rate all over the world.

Although not as severe as forest habitat fragmentation caused by neighbouring

agriculture, residential and other anthropogenic landscapes, roads still affect rainforest
habitats and expose similar edge effects on surrounding plant and animal communities.
Not only do roads provide access to remote areas (Goosem, 2007, and Coffin, 2007)
and cause more noticeable impacts such as wildlife mortality and injuries through
collisions with vehicles (Bisonette and Rosa, 2009), but the effect of roads extends
much further beyond its physical boundaries into the forest landscape (Goosem, 2007;
Bisonette and Rosa, 2009; Pocock and Lawrence, 2005; Coffin, 2007).

Roads can be considered as being “agents of change that have both primary, or
indirect effects, as well as secondary, or indirect effects on the biota” (Coffin, 2007).
This may entail the displacement of particular species and the reduction of core habitat
unaffected by roads. They have been documented to cause internal fragmentation
(Goosem, 2007), habitat loss, habitat alteration, facilitation of the spread of exotic flora
and fauna species, altered microclimates and vegetation structure, and loss of
connectivity (barrier effect) which restricts the movement of individuals (Goosem, 2007;
Bisonette and Rosa, 2009; Kindlemannet et al, 2007; Pocock and Lawrence, 2005).
These effects have all been associated with altering rainforest faunal habitats, and
therefore may affect mammal abundance, diversity and species composition.
Mammals, of course, are not the only affected taxa, and the full extent of road impacts
could be assessed across multi-taxa studies.

It is the interest of this study to determine if this minor road has any impact on the
adjacent rainforest non-flying mammal communities in the Yachana Reserve.

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 35

Aims of the Study

 To determine if there are any edge effects caused by the road that significantly
impacts the distribution of mammal species in the Yachana Reserve.

 To increase knowledge about mammals within the Yachana Reserve.

 To correlate results with other taxa assessments made in the reserve.

5.2. Methods

This mammal project began at the beginning of this expedition phase in October 2010.
Whilst only two sites have been set up and surveyed (Sites 1 and 3), the project plans
to survey four sites, each spaced at 500m intervals along the road which runs through
the reserve. Each site consists of five 500m long transects placed at 0m, 25m, 150m,
350m and 700m from the road, following the road contours. Sand pads were
constructed within these sites, and these methods will be further discussed in the Sand
Pads section.

Visual Encounter Surveys

Ten visual encounter survey (VES) transects were also set up across two sites. Each
transect had a thin trail cut along it and marked with coloured plastic marker tape for
navigation and distance purposes.

During Phase 104 eight visual encounter surveys were undertaken between the dates 18th
October to 26th November 2010. Nocturnal visual encounter surveys were completed
along these transects within the hours 2000-2300 walking at a pace of approximately
300m/hr. Each transect was searched by four observers and visual and audio signs of
mammals were recorded.

Sand Pads

Only one site was sand padded at a time due to limited resources. Each site contained
ten sand pads; two pads per 0m, 25m, 150m, 350m and 700m transect placed at 100m
in from each end to minimise disturbance from access trails skirting the edges of the
transect sites.

Sand pads were circular with a one metre diameter with sand overlain ontop of black
plastic sheeting to aid containment, and a bait lure of mashed sardines in a tomato
sauce and water solution was poured onto the centre of the pad (Smithsonian Institute,

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 36

Sand pads were baited at every set up session and daily check (morning and
afternoon) with the exception of the very last check when they were packed up. Sand
was levelled off and maintained after each check. When prints were detected
photograph and wax moulds were taken of the tracks, and also sketches drawn to
show shapes and measurements.

During Phase 104, 20 sand pads across two sites (Sites 1 and 3) were opened for a
total of five days and five nights (totalling 50 sand pad days and nights) between the
dates 9th to 11th November and between 16th to 19th November 2010.

Site 1 was run for three consecutive days (sand pads open for three days and three
nights), although Site 3 was only run for two consecutive days (two days and two
nights) due to large amounts of sand being washed away by a storm on the second
night. This provoked a revision of the sand pad design where sand pads on Site 1
were set up with a 1m x 2m clear plastic tarp over each sand pad to save sand from
rain splash. Sand pads were checked twice daily for diurnal and nocturnal activity
between the hours 0630-1000 and 1430-1800.

5.3. Results and Discussion

Both VES and sand pad survey methods produced effective detection rates for the
presence of mammals. Every VES conducted recorded at least one mammal
sighting/audio call, detecting a total of 19 observations with at least six different species
(some opossums detected were not able to be identified to species level). A much
lower number of individuals and species were recorded for the 350m and 700m VES
transects, however it must be noted that only Site 1 was surveyed for these distances
(not Site 3) during the past phase. Therefore an incomplete, unbalanced data set is
presented below in Table 4.2.1.

Sand padding also produced a number of records, detecting eight observations,

including four different species. Moulds and photographs collected from sand padding
will also help build up a library database for mammal prints, aiding print/track
identification in the future.

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 37

Table 5.3.1 Raw VES data October-December 2010.

Distance from Species Observed No. No. Species

road Observations
Dasyprocta fuliginosa, opossum sp.
0m 2 2
Dactylomys dactylinus, opossum sp
25m 5 2
Potus flavus, opossum sp. (unID),
150m Didelphis marsupialis, armadillo sp. 4 4

350m Opossum sp. (unID), Potus flavus 2 2

700m Dactylomys dactylinus, Potus flavus 2 2

Total: 15 Total: ≥6

Table 5.3.2 Raw sand pad data October-December 2010.

Distance from No.
Species Observed No. Observations
road Species
0m N/A 0 0

25m Nasua nasua 1 1

150m Nasua nasua 2 1

350m Nasua nasua, rodent (unID) 2 2

Agouti paca, Dasyprocta
700m 3 3
fuliginosa, Nasua nasua
Total: 8 Total:4

Due to the cryptic nature of Neotropical rainforest mammals and the fact that this
project is in its very early, initial stages, there is not enough data collected to perform
any statistical analysis as yet. This project expects to run over the coming months
where future survey work is expected to collect enough data to perform some analysis
and draw any conclusions.

5.4. Mammal Incidentals

GVI continues to document mammal activity in the reserve through incidental sightings
and tracks. All mammal species encountered outside of specific mammal surveys

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 38

were recorded. Incidental sightings can be recorded during any survey or project work
within the reserve, and also outside of survey or project time during walks into the
forest. At the occurrence of each incidence, the time, location, date, species, and any
other key characteristics or notes are taken and later entered into a database in camp.


During this phase, various mammals were encountered and recorded incidentally.
These include:
 Kinkajou (Potus flavus);
 Brazilian Forest Rabbit (Silvagus brasiliensis);
 South American Coati (Nasua nasua);
 Black Agouti (Dasyprocta fuliginosa);
 Amazonian Red Squirrel (Sciurus igniventris);
 Black-mantled Tamarin (Saguinus nigrocollis);
 Paca (Agouti paca);
 Nine-banded Armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus);
 White-tailed Deer (Oclocoileus virginianus);
 Southern Naked-tailed Armadillo (Cabossous unicinctus);
 Anderson‟s Gray Four-eyed Opossum (Philander andersoni);
 Round-eared Bat (Tonatia bidens);
 Southern Two-toed Sloth (Choleopusdidactylus).

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 39

6. Community Programme

6.1. Introduction

The community programme at GVI Amazon continues to grow and significant advances
have been made this Phase 104 (between October and December 2010). Detailed
below are the aims and achievements to date for the various community projects being
conducted by GVI in the Yachana Reserve and in the surrounding area.

6.2. Yachana Colegio Técnico (Yachana Technical High School)

GVI continues to work closely with the Yachana Technical High School. GVI welcomes
students from the Yachana Technical High School joining the expedition for varying
periods. They participate in all aspects of the expedition, including survey work, camp
duty and satellite camps. The students are of great assistance during field work,
sharing their knowledge about local uses for plants and local flora and fauna
knowledge, as well as helping with the scheduled project work. They share their
culture with volunteers and allow a greater insight into their background.


 To provide a cultural exchange between volunteers and Ecuadorian students.

 To allow volunteers to practice Spanish and high school students to practice
their English.
 To create a greater awareness of the work conducted by GVI in the Yachana
 To enable high school students to gain practical experience in survey
 To develop a more formal National Scholarship Programme for Ecuadorian

Progress for Phase 104

This phase GVI Amazon welcomed three highs school graduates from the Yachana
Technical High School to the programme for a period of four weeks each. Alongside
this GVI was also able to welcome three pasantes (work placement students) for one
week each. The students participated in all camp activities and surveys, as well as
undertaking regular Spanish and English exchange sessions with the volunteers.

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 40

Future Plans

In order to continue to work towards the aims set out above we hope to increase the
interaction between high school students and GVI volunteers by arranging for small
groups of the Yachana students to stay at camp for a period of 24 hours for each visit.
The groups will stay overnight in the GVI base camp in groups of no more than eight
total (including their teacher) and will participate in survey metholody demonstrations
as well as English-Spanish and cultural exchanges.

6.3. TEFL at Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico is a village located approximately twenty minutes walk from the GVI
Amazon base camp, along the road that runs through the Yachana Reserve. The
school has two classes, a young and older class, and lessons are given twice a week.


 To improve the level of English teaching in the local community.

 To develop and encorporate environmental education for the children at the
 To maintain good connections with the community.


Twelve English classes were given at Puero Rico this phase (between October and
December 2010). This resulted in 24 volunteer hours of teaching, to 19 older students
(7-13 years old) and 12 younger students (4-7 years old). One conservation class was
given druring the expedition. Topics that addressed included: Why is rainforest
Important? What happens if you cut down the rainforest? What does GVI do on the
Yachana Reserve?


The next expedition will see the continuation of these lessons, supplemented by an
occasional tropical ecology class given at the end of each five weeks.

6.4. TEFL at Puerto Salazar

Puerto Salazar is a small and under-privilaged communtiy approximately 45 minutes

walk from GVI base camp in the Yachana Reserve (beyond the community of Puerto

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 41

Rico). The school is extremely small and the majority of attending children are very
young and form just one class.


 To begin to build better links with the community at Puerto Salazar.

 To increase the children‟s exposure to English.
 To start to develop an English teaching programme to supplement the local


Four informal English classes were given at Puerto Salazar on Saturday afternoons
followed by games or football to which the community were invited to join.


GVI hopes to continue these classes and expand upon them in the future, however GVI
are somewhat tied to time and resources and this does bring with it limitations. GVI is
aiming to support the communities in the surrounding areas of the Yachana Reserve as
much as possible, but is very aware of the limitations due to fluctuations in numbers of
volunteers and therefore do not want to over-commit to programmes with the
communities. For this reason the work with Puerto Salazar will continue on the
occasions when it is convenient to both the local community and the GVI Amazon
schedule, with a view to continuing the work in the future.

6.5. TEFL at Rio Bueno

Rio Bueno is a new teaching location for GVI Amazon this phase. The school lies at
the very Western edge of the reserve and consists of one class with children all of a
similar age; from 7 to 12 year olds. The school can be reached on foot from the GVI
Amazon base camp, in the Yachana Reserve, in around one hour and a half, or a bus
can be taken, which runs from Tena to Cruzchita (and is routed through the reserve


 To make connections with the community of Rio Bueno.

 To develop a basic teaching programme for the school.
 To give weekly English lessons.

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 42

 To introduce topics of conservation and environmental awareness to the


Seven English lessons were delivered this phase, plus one conservation and
environment lesson given in Spanish. The class are extremely willing to learn and we
have made a great deal of progress with the level of English given that it is our first
decisive contact with this school and community. The teacher is also putting a lot of
effort into improving her own level of English knowledge and is taking the class through
the work between lessons with volunteers. In order to encourage this type of progress
GVI has been providing vocabulary flashcards and posters (made by volunteers) for
the English lessons themselves which can then be left with the class and teacher for
additional practise between the regular classes that GVI delivers.


We hope to continue the weekly lessons with Rio Bueno and give environmental
presentations each five weeks.

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 43

7. Future Expedition Aims

The biodiversity programme will continue, opportunistically re-surveying sites and

expanding the survey areas within the reserve.

 Avian research will continue, including point counts and mist-netting.

 Herpetological research will continue; repeating pitfall trapping and visual

encounter surveys.

 The butterfly project will continue, examining the effects of road and trail
disturbance upon fruit feeding species, in relation to changes in vegetation.

 GVI will continue to participate in exchanges with the Yachana Technical High

 TEFL at Puerto Rico will continue with a defined focus for each ten week block,
for each age group, and the aim is to encourage students to put their learning
into practise and get them conversing in English.

 Simple environmental lessons will be continued at the school in Puerto Rico (to
be given in Spanish) and initiated at Rio Bueno.

 An expansion of teaching will branch out with weekend lessons at the local
community of Rio Bueno and when possible at Puerto Salazar. These lessons
will be the basis for a future opportunity of more structured teaching times within
this community.

 The biggest aim for next phase is to begin to wrap up the current projects in
order to start working towards re-structuring the reserve into a grided format.
This will allow for a more standardised research surveys and methodologies
that will develop into a well structured, long term surveying project.

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 44

8. Scientific Reports and Published Material

In 2009 an ex GVI staff member published an article about an extremely rare glass frog
that was found in the Yachana Reserve, during the GVI Amazon expedition in the
previous year by GVI volunteers and staff. The article was published in Check List and
focuses on the geographic distriubution of Amphibia, Centrolenidae, Hyalinobatrachium
iaspidiense. The full article can be found at the following link:

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 45

9. References

General References
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breeding marsh birds in passive and playback surveys at Lacreek National Wildlife
refuge, South Dakota. Waterbirds 27, 277-281.

Bennett, A. F., 1991. Roads, roadsides and wildlife conservation: A review. In:
Saunders, D. A., Hobbs, R. J. (eds.). Nature Conservation 2: The role of corridors.
Chipping Norton, NSW, Australia: Surrey Beatty 99-118.

Daszak, P., Berger, L., Cunningham, A.A., Hyatt, A.D., Green, D.E., Speare. R., 1999.
Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines. Emerging Infectious
Diseases. 5, 735-48.

Ehrlich, P. R., Raven, P. H., 1965. Butterflies and plants: A study in co-evolution.
Evolution 18: 586-608.

Gardner T.A., Fitzherbert E.B., Drewes R.C., Howell K.M., Caro T., 2007. Spatial and
temporal patterns of abundance and diversity of an east African leaf litter amphibian
fauna. Biotropica 39(1):105-113.

Heyer W.R., Donnelly M.A., McDiarmid R.W., Hayek L.A.C., Foster M.S., 1994.
Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity - Standard Methods for Amphibians.

Kroodsma, D.E., 1984. Songs of the Alder Flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum) and Willow
Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) are innate. Auk 101, 13-24.

Lacher, T., 2004. Tropical Ecology, Assessment, and Monitoring (TEAM) Initiative:
Avian Monitoring Protocol version 3. Conservation International, Washington, DC.

Menendez-Guerrero P.A., Ron S.R. and Graham C.H., 2006. Predicting the Distribution
and Spread of Pathogens to Amphibians. Amphibian Conservation 11:127-128.

Ridgely, R.S., Greenfield, P.J., 2001. The birds of Ecuador. Volume I. Status,
Distribution, and Taxonomy. Cornell University Press, New York.

Sutherland, W.J., 1996. Ecological census techniques: a handbook. University press,


Weldon, C., du Preez, L.H., Hyatt, A.D., Muller, R., Speare, R., 2004. Origin of the
amphibian chytrid fungus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 10 (Issue 12).

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Field Use References
Bartlett, R.D., Bartlett, P., 2003. Reptiles and amphibians of the Amazon. An
ecotourist‟s guide. University Press of Florida, Gainsville.
Bollino, M., Onore G., 2001. Butterflies & moths of Ecuador. Volume 10a. Familia:
Papilionidae. Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito.

Carrera, C., Fierro, K., 2001. Manual de monitoreo los macroinvertebrados acuáticos.
EcoCiencia, Quito.

Carrillo, E., Aldás, S., Altamirano, M., Ayala, F., Cisneros, D. Endara, A., Márquez, C.,
Morales, M., Nogales, F, Salvador, P., Torres, M.L., Valencia, J., Villamarín, F., Yánez,
M., Zárate, P., 2005. Lista roja de los reptiles del Ecuador. Novum Milenium, Quito.

de la Torre, S., 2000. Primates of Amazonian Ecuador. SIMBIOE, Quito.

DeVries, P.J., 1997. The butterflies of Costa Rica and their natural history. Volume II:
Riodinidae. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Duellman, W.E., 1978. The biology of an equatorial herpetofauna in Amazonian

Ecuador. The University of Kansas, Lawrence.

Eisenberg, J.F., Redford, K.H., 1999. Mammals of the Neotropics: The central
Neotropics. Volume 3 Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil. The University of Chicago Press,

Emmons, L.H., Feer, F., 1997. Neotropical rainforest mammals. A field guide, second
edition. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Moreno E., M., Silva del P., X., Estévez J., G., Marggraff, I., Marggraff, P., 1997.
Mariposas del Ecuador. Occidental Exploration and Production Company, Quito.

Neild, A.F.E., 1996. The butterflies of Venezuela. Meridain Publications. London.

Ridgely, R.S., Greenfield, P.J., 2001. The birds of Ecuador. Volume I. Status,
distribution and taxonomy. Christopher Helm, London.

Ridgely, R.S., Greenfield, P.J., 2001. The birds of Ecuador. Volume II. A field guide.
Christopher Helm, London.

Tirira S., D., 2001. Libro rojo de los mamíferos del Ecuador. SIMBIOE/EcoCiencia,

Avian References
Barlow, Luiz A. M. Mestre, Toby A. Gardner, Carlos A. Peres. 2006. The value of
primary, secondary and plantation forests for Amazonian birds. Biological
Conservation 136(2): 212-223.

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 47

Blake and Loiselle. 2000. Diversity of birds along an elevational gradient in the
Cordillera Central, Costa Rica. The Auk (3): 663-686.

Blake and Loiselle. 2001. Bird assemblages in second and old growth forests Costa
Rica, erspectives from mist nets and point counts. The Auk 118(2): 304-326.

Blake and Loiselle. 2009. Species Composition of Neotropical Understory Bird

Communities: Local versus Regional Perspectives Based on Capture Data. Biotropica
41(1): 85-94.

Coffin, A. W. 2007. From roadkill to road ecology: A review of the ecological effects of
roads. Journal of Transport Geography 15: 396-406.

Miller, S.G., Knight, R.L., and C.K. Miller. 1998. Influence of Recreational Trails on
Breeding Bird Communities. Ecological Applications 8(1): 162-169.
Ridgely, R.S. and G. Tudor. 2001. Birds of South America.

Year Out Group, 2010


Amphibian References
J. Barlow, T. A. Gardner, I. S. Araujo, T. C. Avila-Pires, A. B. Bonaldo, J. E. Costa, M.
C. Esposito, L. V. Ferreira, J. Hawes, M. I. M. Hernandez, M. S. Hoogmoed, R. N.
Leite, N. F. Lo-Man-Hung, J. R. Malcolm, M. B. Martins, L. A. M. Mestre, R. Miranda-
Santos, A. L. Nunes-Gutjahr, W. L. Overal, L. Parry, S. L. Peters, M. A. Ribeiro-Junior,
M. N. F. da Silva, C. da Silva Motta, and C. A. Peres (2007) Quantifying the biodiversity
value of tropical primary, secondary, and plantation forests PNAS vol. 104 no. 47

Beebee, T.J.C., Griffiths, R.A., (2005). The amphibian decline crisis: A watershed for
conservation biology? Biological Conservation 125, 271–285.

K. E. Bell and M. A. Donnelly (2006) Influence of Forest Fragmentation on Community

Structure of Frogs and Lizards in Northeastern Costa Rica Conservation Biology
Volume 20, No. 6, 1750–1760

Bridges, C.M., Semlitsch, R.D., (2000). Variation in pesticide tolerance of tadpoles

among and within species of Ranidae and patterns of amphibian decline. Conservation
Biology 14, 1490–1499.
Broomhall, S.D., Osborne, W.S., Cunningham, R.B. (2000). Comparative effects of
ambient ultraviolet-B radiation on two sympatric species of Australian frogs.
Conservation Biology 14, 420–427.

Samuel A. Cushman (2006) Effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on amphibians: A

review and prospectus Biological Conservation 128; 231 –240

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Donnelly, M. A., M. H. Chen, and G. C.Watkins. (2005) Sampling amphibians and
reptiles in the Iwokrama Forest ecosystem. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural
Sciences of Philadelphia 154:55–69.

Toby A. Gardner*, Jos Barlow, Carlos A. Peres (2007a) Paradox, presumption and
pitfalls in conservation biology: The importance of habitat change for amphibians and
reptiles Biological Conservation 138; 166–179

T. A. Gardner, M.A.Ribeiro-Junior, J. Barlow, T. S. Avila-Pires, M.S. Hoogmeod and C.

A. Peres (2007b) The Value of Primary, Secondary, and Plantation Forests for a
Neotropical Herpetofauna Conservation Biology Vol 21, 3; 775–787

T. A. Gardner, J. Barlow, L. W. Parry, and C. A. Peres (2007c) Predicting the Uncertain

Future of Tropical Forest Species in a Data Vacuum BIOTROPICA 39(1): 25–30 2007

Gibbons, J. W., Scott, D. E., Ryan, T. J., Buhlmann, K. A., Tuberville, T. D., Metts, B.
S., Greene, J. L., Mills, T., Leiden, Y., Poppy, S. and C. T. Winne. 2000. The global
decline of reptiles, deja-vu amphibians. Bioscience 50: 653–667.

S.V. Krishnamurthy (2003) Amphibian assemblages in undisturbed and disturbed areas

of Kudremukh National Park, central Western Ghats, India Environmental Conservation
30 (3): 274–282

P. B. Pearman (1997) Correlates of Amphibian Diversity in an Altered Landscape of

Amazonian Ecuador Conservation Biology, Volume 11, No. 5 Pages 1211–1225

R. Pardini, D. Faria, G. M. Accacio, R. R. Laps, E. Mariano-Neto,

M. L.B. Paciencia, M. Dixo, Julio Baumgarten (2009) The challenge of maintaining
Atlantic forest biodiversity: A multi-taxa conservation assessment of specialist and
generalist species in an agro-forestry mosaic in southern Bahia Biological Conservation
142; 1170-1182



Sala, O.E., Chapin, F.S.I., Armesto, J.J., Berlow, E., Bloomfield, J., Dirzo, R., Huber-
Sanwald, E., Huenneke, L.F., Jackson, R.B., Kinzig, A., Leemans, R., Lodge, D.M.,
Mooney, H.A., Oesterheld, M., Poff, N.L., Sykes, M.T., Walker, B.H., Walker, M., Wall,
D.H., (2000). Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100. Science 287, 1770–1774.

Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A., Young, B.E., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Fischman, D.L.
and Waller, R.W. (2004). Status and trends of amphibians declines and extinctions
worldwide. Science 306: 1783-1786.

J. N. Urbina-Cardona, M. Olivares-Pe´rez, V. H. Reynoso (2006) Herpetofauna

diversity and microenvironment correlates across a pasture–edge–interior ecotone in

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tropical rainforest fragments in the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve of Veracruz, Mexico
Biological Conservation 132; 61–75

J. N. Urbina-Cardona (2008) Conservation of Neotropical Herpetofauna: Research

Trends and Challenges Tropical Conservation Science Vol.1(4):359-375

Wright SJ (2005) Tropical forests in a changing environment Trends Ecol Evol 20:553–

Whitfield SM, Pierce MSF (2005) Tree buttress microhabitat use by a neotropical leaf-
litter herpetofauna. Journal of Herpetology 39:192-198.

Whitfield SM, Bell KE, Philippi T, Sasa M, Bolanos F, Chaves G, Savage JM,
DonnellyMA (2007) Amphibian and reptile declines over 35 years at La Selva, Costa
Rica Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:8352–8356.

Young, B.E., Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A., Boucher, T.M., 2004.
Disappearing Jewels: The Status of New World Amphibians. Natureserve, Arlington,

Butterfly References
Bennett, A. F., 1991. Roads, roadsides and wildlife conservation: A review. In:
Saunders, D. A., Hobbs, R. J. (eds.) The role of corridors. Chipping Norton, NSW,
Australia: Surrey Beatty. Nature Conservation 2: 99-118.

DeVries, P. J., Walla, T. R., 1999. Species diversity in spatial and temporal dimensions
of fruit-feeding butterflies from two Ecuadorian rainforests. Biological Journal of the
Linnean Society 68: 333-353.

Ehrlich, P. R., Raven, P. H., 1965. Butterflies and plants: A study in co-evolution.
Evolution 18: 586-608.

Goosem, M., 2007. Fragmentation impacts caused by roads through rainforests.

Current Science 93: 1587-1595.

Murray, D. L., 2000. A Survey of the butterfly fauna of Jatun Sacha, Ecuador
(Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea). Journal of Research on the
Lepidoptera 35: 42- 60.

Ramos, A. F., 2000. Nymphalid butterfly communities in an Amazonian forest fragment.

Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 35:29-41.

Mammal References
Bissonette, J.A. and Rosa, S.A. (2009).Road Zone Effect in Small-Mammal
Communities.Ecology and Society 14: 27

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 50

Coffin, A.W.(2007). From roadkill to road ecology: a review of the ecological effects of
roads. Journal of Transportation Geography 15:396-406.

Eisenberg, J.F. and Redford, K.H. (1999). Mammals of the Neotropics: The Central
Neotropics Volume 3: Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil. The University of Chicago Press,

Emmons, L.H. (1997). Neotropical Rainforest Mammals: A Field Guide, Second

Edition. University of Chicago Press, USA

Goosem, M. (2007).Fragmentation impacts caused by roads through

rainforests.Current Science 93: 1587-1595

Pocock, Z., and Lawrence, R.E. (2005). How far into a forest does the effect of a road
extend? Defining road edge effect in eucalyupt forests of south-eastern
Australia.Pages 397–405 in C. L. Irwin, P. Garrett, and K. P. McDermott, editors.
Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Ecology and Transportation.
Center for Transportation and Environment, North Carolina State University, Raleigh,
North Carolina, USA.

Silveira, L., Jacomo, A.T.A. and Diniz-Filho, A.F. (2003). Camera trap, line transect
census and track surveys: a comparative evaluation. Biological Conservation 114:351-

Smithsonian Institute (1996). Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity: Standard

Methods for Mammals. 89-93, 158-163

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 51

10. Appendices

10.1 Avian Survey Sites

Map of the Yachana Reserve Showing Mist-netting Sites

01 S = Ridge South, 03 S = East Bambosh, 02 S = Buena Vista South, 06 N = Buena Vista
North, (all sites moved to 150m from the road).

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 52

Accipiter bicolor** Bicolored Hawk**
10.2 Yachana Reserve Species
List Buteo magnirostris Roadside Hawk

Updated December 2010. ** added Phase 104 Buteo polyosoma Variable Hawk
(Brackets) = Auditory confirmation only
Leucopternis melanops Black-faced Hawk

Leucopternis albicollis White Hawk

Order Tinamiformes

Spizaetus tyrannus** Black Hawk-eagle**

Tinamidae Tinamous

Spizaetus ornatus Ornate Hawk-eagle

Crypturellus bartletti Bartlett's Tinamou

Crypturellus cinereus Cinereous Tinamou Pandionidae Osprey

Crypturellus soui Little Tinamou Pandion haliaetus Osprey

Crypturellus undulatus Undulated Tinamou Falconidae Falcons and Caracaras

Crypturellus variegatus Variegated Tinamou Daptrius ater Black Caracara

Tinamus major Great Tinamou Ibycter americanus Red-throated Caracara

Milvago chimachima Yellow-headed Caracara

Order Ciconiformes Herpetotheres cachinnans Laughing Falcon

Ardeidae Herons and Egrets Falco rufigularis Bat Falcon

Ardea cocoi Cocoi Heron Micrastur gilvicollis Lined Forest-Falcon

Bubulcus ibis Cattle Egret Micrastur semitorquatus Collared Forest-Falcon

Butorides striatus Striated Heron

Egretta caerulea Little Blue Heron Order Galliformes

Curassows, Guans, and
Egretta thula Snowy Egret Cracidae Chachalacas

Tigrisoma lineatum Rufescent Tiger-Heron Ortalis guttata Speckled Chachalaca

Cathartidae American Vultures Penelope jacquacu Spix's Guan

Cathartes aura Turkey Vulture Nothocrax urumutum Nocturnal Curassow

Greater Yellow-headed
Cathartes melambrotus Vulture Odontophoridae New World Quails

Coragyps atractus Black Vulture Odontophorus gujanensis Marbled Wood-Quail

Sarcoramphus papa King Vulture

Rails, Gallinules, and
Order Falconiformes Rallidae Coots

Accipitridae Kites, Eagles, Hawks Anurolimnatus castaneiceps Chestnut-headed Crake

Elanoides forficatus Swallow-tailed Kite Aramides cajanea Gray-necked Wood-Rail

Ictinia plumbea Plumbeous Kite

Eurypygidae Sunbittern
Leptodon cayanensis Gray-headed Kite
Eurypyga helias Sunbittern
Harpagus bidentatus Double-toothed Kite

Accipiter superscilious Tiny Hawk

Order Charadriiformes

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 53

Sandpipers, Snipes and
Scolopacidae Phalaropes
Crotophagidae Anis

Actitis macularia Spotted Sandpiper

Crotophaga ani Smooth-billed Ani

Tringa solitaria Solitary Sandpiper

Crotophaga major Greater Ani

Recurvirostridae Plovers and Lapwings

Hoploxypterus cayanus Pied Plover Order Strigiformes

Strigidae Typical Owls

Order Columbiformes Megascops choliba Tropical Screech-Owl

Columbidae Pigeons and Doves Megascops watsonii Tawny-bellied Screech-owl

Claravis pretiosa Blue Ground-Dove Glaucidium brasilianum Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl

Columba plumbea Plumbeous Pigeon Lophostrix cristata Crested Owl

Geotrygon montana Ruddy Quail-Dove Pulsatrix perspicillata Spectacled Owl

Leptotila rufaxilla Gray-fronted Dove

Order Caprimulgiformes

Order Psittaciformes Nyctibiidae Potoos

Psittacidae Parrots and Macaws Nyctibius aethereus Long-tailed Potoo

Ara ararauna Blue-and-Yellow Macaw Nyctibius grandis Great Potoo

Ara severa Chestnut-fronted Macaw Nyctibius griseus Common Potoo

Nightjars and
Amazona farinosa Mealy Amazon
Caprimulgidae Nighthawks

Amazona ochrocephala Yellow-crowned Amazon

Nyctidromus albicollis Pauraque

Brotogeris cyanoptera Cobalt-winged Parakeet

Nyctiphrynus ocellatus Ocellated Poorwill

Aratinga leucophthalmus White-eyed Parakeet

Aratinga weddellii Dusky-headed Parakeet

Order Apodiformes

Pyrrhura melanura Maroon-tailed Parakeet

Apodidae Swifts

Pionites melanocephala Black-headed Parrot

Chaetura cinereiventris Grey-rumped Swift

Pionopsitta barrabandi Orange-cheeked Parrot

Streptoprocne zonaris White-collared Swift

Pionus menstruus Blue-headed Parrot

Trochilidae Hummingbirds
Pionus chalcopterus Bronze-winged Parrot
Glaucis hirsuta Rufous -breasted Hermit

Phaethornis bourcieri Straight-billed Hermit

Order Cuculiformes
Phaethornis hispidus White-bearded Hermit
Opisthocomidae Hoatzin
Phaethornis malaris Great-billed Hermit
Opisthocomus hoazin Hoatzin
Phaethornis ruber Reddish Hermit

Coccyzidae Cuckoos
Thrrenetes niger Pale-tailed Barbthroat

Piaya cayana Squirrel Cockoo

Eutoxeres condamini Buff-tailed Sicklebill

Piaya melanogaster Black-bellied Cuckoo

Heliothryx aurita Black-eared Fairy

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 54

Andean Emerald
Amazilia franciae cyanocollis Hummingbird Galbula albirostris Yellow-billed Jacamar

Amazilia fimbriata Glittering-throated Emerald

Bucconidae Puffbirds

Anthracothorax nigricollis Black-throated Mango

Notharchus macrorynchos White-necked Puffbird

Campylopterus largipennis Grey-breasted Sabrewing

Bucco macrodactylus Chestnut-capped Puffbird
villaviscensio Napo Sabrewing
Nystalus striolatus Striolated Puffbird

Eriocnemis vestitus Glowing Puffleg

Malacoptila fusca White-chested Puffbird

Thalurania furcata Fork-tailed Woodnymph

Monasa flavirostris Yellow-billed Nunbird

Floriduga mellivora White-necked Jacobin

Monasa morphoeus White-fronted Nunbird

Heliodoxa aurescens Gould's Jewelfront

Monasa nigrifrons Black-fronted Nunbird

Chelidoptera tenebrosa Swallow-winged Puffbird

Order Trogoniformes
Capitonidae New World Barbets
Trogonidae Trogons and Quetzals
Capita aurovirens Scarlet-crowned Barbet
Pharomachrus pavoninus Pavonine Quetzal
Capita auratus Gilded Barbet
Trogon melanurus Black-tailed Trogon
Eubucco bourcierii Lemon-throated Barbet
Amazonian White-tailed
Trogon viridis Trogon
Ramphastidae Toucans
Trogon collaris Collared Trogon
Pteroglossus azara Ivory-billed Aracari
Trogon rufus Black-throated Trogon
Pteroglossus castanotis Chestnut-eared Aracari
Trogon violaceus Amazonian Violaceous Trogon

Pteroglossus inscriptus Lettered Aracari

Trogon curucui Blue-crowned Trogon
Pteroglossus pluricinctus Many-banded Aracari

Ramphastos vitellinus Channel-billed Toucan

Order Coraciiformes
Ramphastos tucanus White-throated Toucan
Motmotidae Motmots
Selenidera reinwardtii Golden-collared Toucanet
Baryphthengus martii Rufous Motmot
Woodpeckers and
Electron platyrhynchum Broad-billed Motmot Picidae Piculets

Momotus momota Blue-crowned Motmot Dryocopus lineatus Lineated Woodpecker

Campephilus melanoleucos Woodpecker
Cerylidae Kingfishers
Campephilus rubricollis Red-necked Woodpecker
Chloroceryle amazona Amazon Kingfisher
Celeus elegans Chestnut Woodpecker
Chloroceryle americana Green Kingfisher
Green and Rufous Celeus flavus Woodpecker
Chloroceryle inda Kingfisher
Celeus grammicus Woodpecker
Megaceryle torquata Ringed Kingfisher
Chrysoptilus punctigula Spot-breasted Woodpecker

Melanerpes cruentatus Yellow-tufted Woodpecker

Order Piciformes
Picumnus lafresnayi Lafresnaye's piculet
Galibulidae Jacamars
Veniliornis fumigatus Smoky-brown Woodpecker
Jacamerops aureus Great Jacamar
Veniliornis passerinus Little Woodpecker

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Hersilochmus dugandi Dugand's Antwren

Order Passeriformes Cercomacra cinerascens Gray Antbird

Furnariidae Ovenbirds Hypocnemis cantator Warbling Antbird

Ancistrops strigilatus Chestnut-winged Hookbill Hypocnemis hypoxantha Yellow-browed Antbird

Chestnut-winged Foliage-
Phylidor erythropterum gleaner Hylophlax naevia Spot-backed Antbird

Automolus rubiginosus Ruddy Foliage-gleaner Hylophylax poecilinota Scale-backed Antbird

Buff-throated Foliage-
Automolus ochrolaemus gleaner Dichrozona cincta Banded Antbird
Philydor pyrrhodes Foliage-gleaner Schistocichla leucostigma Spot-winged Antbird

Xenops minutus Plain Xenops Myrmeciza hyperythra Plumbeous Antbird

Sclerurus caudacutus Black-tailed Leaftosser Myrmeciza immaculata Sooty Antbird

Sclerurus mexicanus Tawny-throated Leaftosser Myrmeciza melanoceps White-shouldered Antbird

Sclerurus rufigularis Short-billed Leaftosser Pithys albifrons White-plumed Antbird

Dendrocolaptidae Woodcreepers Gymnopithys leucapis Bicoloured Antibird

Black-banded Phlegopsis erythroptera Reddish-winged Bare-eye

Dendrocolaptes picumnus Woodcreeper
Amazonian Barred-
Phlegopsis nigromaculata Black-spotted Bare-eye
Dendrocolaptes certhia Woodcreeper**
Myrmornis torquata Wing-banded Antbird
Dendrexetastes rufigula Woodcreeper
Antthrushes and
Formicariidae Antpittas
Dendrocincla fuliginosa Plain Brown Woodcreeper
Glyphorynchus spirurus Wedge-billed Woodcreeper
Formicarius analis Black-faced Antthrush
Lepidocolaptes albolineatus Lineated Woodcreeper

Xiphorhynchus guttatus Buff-throated Woodcreeper Chamaeza nobilis Striated Antthrush

Xiphorhynchus ocellatus Ocellated Woodcreeper Myrmothera campanisona Thrush-like Antpitta

Xiphorhynchus picus Woodcreeper

Thamnophilidae Typical Antbirds

Tyrannidae Tyrant Flycatchers
(Cymbilaimus lineatus** Fasciated Antshrike**)
Zimmerius gracilipes Slender-footed Tyrannulet
Frederickena unduligera Undulated Antshrike
Tyrannulus elatus Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet
Thamnophilus schistaceus Plain-winged Antshrike
Mionectes oleagineus Ochre-bellied Flycatcher
Thamnophilus murinus Mouse-colored Antshrike Leptopogon
amaurocephalus Sepia-capped Flycatcher
Megastictus margaritatus Pearly Antshrike
Hemitriccus zosterops White-eyed Tody-tyrant
Thamnomanes ardesiacus Dusky-throated Antshrike Todirostrum
chrysocrotaphum Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher
Myrmotherula menetriesii** Gray Antwren**
Rhynchocyclus olivaceus Olivaceous Flatbill
Myrmotherula brachyura Pygmy Antwren
Tolmomyias poliocephalus Gray-crowned Flatbill
Myrmotherula axillaris White-flanked Antwren
Tolmomyias viridiceps Olive-faced Flatbill
Myrmotherula hauxwelli Plain-throated Antwren
Platyrinchus coronatus Golden-crowned Spadebill
Myrmotherula longipennis Long-winged Antwren
Terenotriccus erythrurus Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher
Myrmotherula obscura Short-billed Antwren
Myiobius barbatus Whiskered Flycatcher
Myrmotherula ornata Ornate Antwren

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Contopus virens Eastern Wood-Pewee
Pipra erythrocephala Golden-headed Manakin

Ochthornis littoralis Drab Water-Tyrant

Dixiphia pipra White-crowned Manakin

Colonia colonus Long-tailed Tyrant

Lepidothrix coronata Blue-crowned Manakin

Attila spadiceus Bright-rumped Attila

Chiroxiphia pareola Blue-backed Manakin

Rhytipterna simplex Grayish Mouner

Manacus manacus White-bearded Manakin

Myiarchus tuberculifer Dusky-capped Flycatcher

Machaeropterus regulus Striped Manakin

Myiarchus ferox Short-crested Flycatcher

Chloropipo holochlora Green Manakin

Pitangus sulphuratus Great Kiskadee

Tyranneutes stolzmanni Dwarf Tyrant Manakin
Crows, Jays, and
Megarynchus piangu Boat-billed Flycatcher
Corvidae Magpies

Myiozetetes similis Social Flycatcher

Cyanocorax violaceus Violaceous Jay
Myiozetetes granadensis Gray-capped Flycatcher
Vireonidae Vireos
Myiozetetes luteiventris Dusky-chested Flycatcher
Vireo olivaceus Red-eyed Vireo
Conopias cinchoneti Lemon-browed Flycatcher
Turdidae Thrushes
Conopias parva Yellow-throated Flycatcher

Myiodynastes maculatus Streaked Flycatcher Catharus minimus Gray-cheeked Thrush

Myiodynastes luteiventris Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher Catharus ustulatus Swainson's Thrush

Legatus leucophaius Piratic Flycatcher Turdus albicollis White-necked Thrush

aurantioatrocristatus Crowned Slaty Flycatcher Turdus lawrencii Lawrence's Thrush

Tyrannus melancholicus Tropical Kingbird Hirundinidae Swallows and Martins

Tyrannus tyrannus Eastern Kingbird Tachycineta albiventer White-winged Swallow

Tyrannus savana Fork-tailed Flycatcher Atticora fasciata White-banded Swallow

Pachyramphus marginatus Black-capped Becard Neochelidon tibialis White-thighed Swallow

Southern rough-winged
Pachyramphus viridis White-winged Becard Stelgidopteryx ruficollis Swallow

Tityra inquisitor Black-crowned Tityra Troglodytidae Wrens

Tityra semifasciata Masked Tityra

Donacobius atricapillus Black-capped Donacobius
Tityra cayana Black-tailed Tityra
Campylorhynchus turdinus Thrush-like Wren
Cotingidae Cotingas
Henicorhina leucosticta White-breasted Wood-wren
Ampelioides tschudii Scaled Fruiteater
Microcerculus marginatus Southern Nightingale-Wren
Iodopleura isabellae White-browed Purpletuft
Thryothorus coraya Coraya Wren
Lipaugus vociferans Screaming Piha
Polioptilidae Gnatcatchers and Gnatwrens

Cotinga cayana Spangled Cotinga

Microbates cinereiventris Tawny-faced Gnatwren
Cotinga maynana Plum-throated Cotinga
Parulidae New World Warblers
Gynnoderus foetidus Bare-necked Fruitcrow

Dendroica aestiva Yellow Warbler

Querula purpurata Purple throated Fruitcrow
Dendroica striata Blackpoll Warbler
Pipridae Manakins

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Dendroica fusca Blackburnian Warbler Cissopis leveriana Magpie Tanager

Wilsonia canadensis Canada Warbler Cardinalidae Saltators, Grosbeaks etc

Basileuterus fulvicauda Buff-rumped Warbler Cyanocompsa cyanoides Blue-black Grosbeak

Saltator grossus Slate-colored Grosbeak

Thraupidae Tanagers Saltator maximus Buff-throated Saltator

Emberizidae Emberizine Finches

Cyanerpes caeruleus Purple Honeycreeper Ammodramus aurifrons Yellow-browed Sparrow

Oryzoborus angloensis Lesser Seed-Finch

Chlorophanes spiza Green Honeycreeper
Fringillidae Cardueline Finches
Dacnis lineata Black-faced Dacnis
Carduelis psaltria Lesser Goldfinch
Dacnis flaviventer Yellow-bellied Dacnis
American Orioles, and
Hemithraupis flavicollis Yellow-backed Tanager Icteridae Blackbirds

Cacicus cela Yellow-rumped Cacique

Euphonia laniirostris Thick-billed Euphonia
Cacicus solitaries Solitary Cacique
Euphonia rufiventris Rufous-bellied Euphonia
Clypicterus oseryi Casqued Oropendola
Euponia xanthogaster Orange-bellied Euphonia Psarocolius angustifrons Russet-backed Oropendola

Psarocolius decumanas Crested Oropendola

Euphonia chrysopasta White-lored Euphonia
Psarocolius viridis Green Oropendola
Euphonia minuta White-vented Euphonia Molothrus oryzivorous Giant Cowbird
Icterus croconotus Orange-backed Troupial
Tangara callophrys Opal-crowned Tanager
Gymnomystax mexicanus Oriole Blackbird
Tangara velia Opal-rumped Tanager

Tangara chilensis Paradise Tanager
Order Marsupialia
Tangara nigrocincta Masked Tanager
Didelphidae Opossums
Tangara mexicana Turquoise Tanager
Caluromys lanatus Western Woolly Opossum
Tangara schrankii Green-and-gold Tanager
Chironectes minimus Water Opossum

Tangara xanthogastra Yellow-bellied Tanager

Didelphis marsupialis Common Opossum
Little Rufous Mouse
Creugops verticalis Rufous-crested Tanager Marmosa lepida Opossum
Long-furred Woolly Mouse
Tersina viridis Swallow Tanager Micoureus demerarae Opossum
Anderson‟s Gray Four-
Thraupis episcopus Blue-gray Tanager Philander andersoni eyed Opossum

Thraupis palmarum Palm Tanager Order Xenarthra

Ramphocelus carbo Silver-beaked Tanager Myrmecophagidae Anteaters

Ramphocelus nigrogularis Masked Crimson Tanager Cyclopes didactylus Silky Anteater

Megalonychidae Two-toed Sloths

Piranaga olivacea Scarlet Tanager

Piranaga rubra Summer Tanager Choloepus diadactylus Southern Two-toed Sloth

Habia rubica Red-crowned Ant-Tanager Dasypodidae Armadillos

Southern Naked-tailed
Tachyphonus cristatus Flame-crested Tanager
Cabassous unicinctus Armadillo

Tachyphonus surinamus Fulvous-crested Tanager

Dasypus novemcinctus Nine-banded Armadillo

Lanio fulvus Fulvous Shrike-Tanager

Order Chiroptera

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Potos flavus Kinkajou
Carollinae Short-tailed Fruit Bats
Mustelidae Weasel
Carollia brevicauda
Eira barbara Tayra

Carollia castanea
Lontra longicaudis Neotropical Otter
Carollia perspicullatus Short-tailed Fruit Bat
Felidae Cat

Rhinophylla pumilio Little Fruit Bat Herpailurus yaguarundi Jaguarundi

Desmodontinae Vampire bats

Leopardus pardalis Ocelot
Desmodus rotundus Common Vampire Bat
Puma concolor Puma
Order Artidactyla Even-toed Ungulates
Emballonuridae Bats
Cervidae Deer
Saccopteryx bilineata White-lined Bat

Mazama americana Red Brocket Deer

Glossophaginae Long tongued bats
Odocoileus virginianus** White-tailed Deer**
Glossophaga soricina Long-tongued Bat
Tayassuidae Peccaries
Spear-nosed Long-tongued
Lonchophylla robusta Bat Tayassu tajacu Collared Peccary
Stenodermatidae Neotropical Fruit bats
Order Rodentia Rodents
Artibeus jamaicensis Large Fruit-eating Bat
Artibeus lituratus Large Fruit Bat

Artibeus obscurus Large Fruit Bat

Dactylomys dactylinus Amazon Bamboo Rat
Artibeus planirostus Large Fruit Bat
Nectomys squamipes Water Rat
Chiroderma villosum Big-eyed Bat
Proechimys semispinosus Spiny Rat
Sturrnia lilium Hairy-legged Bat
Yellow-shouldered Fruit
Sturnria oporaphilum Bat Sciuridae Squirrels
Uroderma pilobatum Tent-making Bat Sciurus sp. Amazon Red Squirrel
Vampyrodes caraccioli Great Stripe-faced Bat Sciurillus pusillus Neotropical Pygmy Squirrel
Phyllostominae Spear-nosed Bats

Macrophyllum macrophyllum Long-legged Bat Dasyproctidae Agoutis

Dasyprocta fuliginosa Black Agouti

Mimon crenulatum Hairy-nosed Bat
Myoprocta pratti Green Acouchy
Phyllostomus hastatus Spear-nosed Bat
Agoutidae Paca
Vespertilionidae Vespertilionid Bats
Agouti paca Paca
Myotis nigricans Little Brown Bat

Erethizontidae Porcupines

Coendou bicolor Bi-color Apined Porcupine

Order Primates Monkeys

Callitrichidae Hydrochaeridae Capybara

Saguinus nigricollis Black-mantled Tamarin Hydrochaeirs hydrochaeirs Capybara

Allouatta seniculus Red Howler Monkey

Order Lagomorpha Rabbits and Hares
Aotus sp. Night Monkey Leporidae
Cebus albifrons White-fronted Capuchin Silvagus brasiliensis** Brazilian Rabbit**

Order Carnivora Carnivores CLASS ANAPSIDA

Procyonidae Raccoon Order Testudines Tortoises and Turtles
Nasua nasua South American Coati Testudinidae Tortoises

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 59

Chelonoidis denticulate** Yellow-footed Tortoise** Chironius scurruls Rusty Whipsnake

Clelia clelia clelia Musarana

CLASS DIAPSIDA Dendriphidion dendrophis Tawny Forest Racer

Lizards Dipsas catesbyi Ornate Snail-eating Snake

Big-headed Snail-eating
Gekkonidae Dipsas indica Snake
Gonatodes concinnatus Collared Forest Gecko Drepanoides anomalus Amazon Egg-eating Snake

Gonatodes humeralis Drymoluber dichrous Common Glossy Racer

Bridled Forest Gecko
Pseudogonatodes Banded South American
guianensis Helicops angulatus Water Snake
Amazon Pygmy Gecko

Gymnophthalmidae Helicops leopardinus Spotted Water Snake

Common Blunt-headed
Alopoglossus striventris Black-bellied Forest Lizard Imantodes cenchoa Tree Snake
Amazon Blunt-headed
Arthrosaura reticulata Imantodes lentiferus Tree Snake
reticulata Reticulated Creek Lizard Leptodeira annulata
annulata Common Cat-eyed Snake
Cercosaurra argulus
Leptophis cupreus Brown Parrot Snake
Cercosaura ocellata Liophis miliaris White-lipped Swamp
chrysostomus Snake
Leposoma parietale Common Forest Lizard
Common Streamside Oxybelis aeneus Brown Vine Snake
Neusticurus ecpleopus Lizard
Liophis reginae Common Swamp Snake
Prionodactylus argulus Elegant-eyed Lizard Yellow-headed Calico
Prionodactylus Oxyrhopus formosus snake
oshaughnessyi White-striped eyed Lizard Black-headed Calico
Oxyrhopus melanogenys Snake
Bachia trisanale** Stacy‟s Bachia** Oxyrhopus petola digitalus Banded Calico Snake
Iguanas Pseudoboa coronata Amazon Scarlet Snake
Pseustes poecilonotus
Hoplocercidae polylepis Common Bird Snake

Pseustes sulphureus Giant Bird Snake

Enyalioides laticeps Amazon Forest Dragon
Sphlophus compressus Red-vine Snake
Spilotes pullatus Tiger Rat Snake
Anolis fuscoauratus Slender Anole
Tantilla m. melanocephala Black-headed Snake
Yellow-tongued Forest
Anolis nitens scypheus Anole Xenedon rabdocephalus Common False Viper

Anolis ortonii Amazon Bark Anole Xenedon severos Giant False Viper

Anolis punctata Amazon Green Anole Xenoxybelis argenteus Green-striped Vine Snake

Anolis trachyderma Common Forest Anole Viperidae

Scincidae Bothriopsis taeniata Speckeled Forest Pit Viper

Mabuya nigropunctata Black-spotted Skink Bothriopsis bilineata Western Striped Forest Pit
bilineata Viper

Tropiduridae Bothrops atrox Fer-de-lance

Amazonian Hog-Nosed
Tropidurus (Plica) plica Collared Tree Runner Bothrocophias hyoprora Lancehead

Tropidurus (plica) umbra Lachesis muta muta Amazon Bushmaster

ochrocollaris Olive Tree Runner
Boa constrictor constrictor Red-tailed Boa
Kentropyx pelviceps Forest Whiptail

Boa constrictor imperator Common Boa Constrictor

Tupinambis teguixin Golden Tegu
Corallus enydris enydris Amazon Tree Boa

Epicrates cenchria gaigei Peruvian Rainbow Boa

Colubridae Orange-ringed Coral
Micurus hemprichii ortonii Snake
Atractus elaps Earth Snake sp3

Atractus major Earth Snake Micrurus langsdorfii Langsdorffs Coral Snake

Eastern Ribbon Coral
Atractus occiptoalbus Earth Snake sp2 Micrurus lemniscatus Snake
Chironius fuscus Olive Whipsnake

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010 Page 60

Central Amazon Coral Dendropsophus
Micrurus spixii spixxi Snake rhodopeplus Red Striped Tree Frog
Micurus surinamensis
surinamensis Aquatic Coral Snake Dendropsophus triangulium Variable Clown Tree Frog
Pygmy Black Coral
Leptomicrurus scutiventris** Snake** Hemiphractus aff. scutatus Casque-headed Tree Frog

Hyla lanciformis Rocket Tree Frog

Crocodilians Hyla maomaratus

Alligatoridae Caimans Hylomantis buckleyi

Paleosuchus trigonatus Smooth-fronted Caiman Hylomantis hulli

Hypsiboas boans Gladiator Tree Frog

CLASS AMPHIBIA Hypsiboas calcarata Convict Tree Frog

Common Polkadot Tree
Order Gymnophiona Caecilians Hypsiboas punctatus Frog

Typhlonectidae Hypsiboas geographica Map Tree Frog

Caecilia aff. tentaculata Hypsiboas cinerascens Rough-skinned Tree Frog

Osteocephalus cabrerai
complex Forest bromeliad Tree Frog

Order Caudata Salamanders Osteocephalus cf. deridens

Common bromeliad Tree
Plethodontidae Lungless Salamanders Osteocephalus leprieurii Frog
Dwarf Climbing Flat-headed bromeliad
Bolitoglossa peruviana Salamander Osteocephalus planiceps Tree Frog

Trachycephalus resinifictrix Amazonian Milk Tree Frog

Order Anura Frogs and Toads Phyllomedusa tarsius Warty Monkey Frog
Bufonidae Toads Phyllomedusa tomopterna Barred Monkey Frog
White-lined Monkey Tree
Rhinella marina Cane Toad Phyllomedusa vaillanti Frog
Rhinella complex
margaritifer Crested Forest Toad Scinax garbei Fringe lipped Tree Frog
Rhinella dapsilis Sharp-nosed Toad Scinax rubra Two-striped Tree Frog
Dendrophryniscus Leaf Toads Trachycephalus venulosus Common Milk Tree Frog
Dendrophryniscus minutus Orange bellied Leaf Toad Microhylidae Sheep Frogs

Chiasmocleis bassleri Bassler's Sheep Frog

Centrolenidae Glass Frogs

Centrolene sp. undescribed Glass Frog Leptodactylidae Rain Frogs

Edalorhina perezi Eyelashed Forest Frog

Cochranella anetarsia Glass Frog

Cochranella midas Glass Frog Engystomops petersi Painted Forest Toadlet

Cochranella resplendens Glass Frog Leptodactylus andreae Cocha Chirping Frog
Dendrobatidae Poison Frogs Leptodactylus knudseni Rose-sided Jungle Frog
Ameerega bilinguis Leptodactylus mystaceus

Leptodactylus rhodomystax Moustached Jungle Frog

Ameerega ingeri Ruby Poison Frog
Leptodactylus wagneri Wagneris Jungle Frog
Ameerega insperatus
Lithodytes lineatus Painted Antnest Frog
Ameerega parvulus
Common big headed Rain
Allobates zaparo Sanguine Poison Frog Oreobates quixensis Frog
Dark-blotched Whistling
Colostethus bocagei Vanzolinius discodactylus Frog

Colostethus marchesianus Ucayali Rocket Frog Strabomantidae Rain Frogs

Dendrobates duellmani Duellmans Poison Frog Pristimantis acuminatus Green Rain Frog

Hylidae Tree Frogs

Pristimantis aff peruvianus Peruvian Rain Frog
Cruziohyla craspedopus Amazon Leaf Frog
Pristimantis altamazonicus Amazonian Rain Frog
Pygmy Hatchet-faced Tree
cf. Sphaenorhychus carneus Frog Pristimantis conspicillatus Chirping Robber Frog

Dendropsophus bifurcus Upper Amazon Tree Frog Pristimantis lanthanites Striped-throated Rain Frog
Neotropical Marbled Tree
Dendropsophus marmorata Frog Pristimantis malkini Malkini's Rain Frog

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Pristimantis martiae Marti's Rain Frog Pieridae
Pristimantis ockendeni
complex Carabaya Rain Frog Appias drusilla

Pristimantis sulcatus Broad-headed Rain Frog

Dismorphia pinthous
Pristimantis variabilis Variable Rain Frog
Eurema cf xanthochlora
Hypnodactylus nigrovittatus Black-banded Robber Frog
Perrhybris lorena
Strabomantis sulcatus Broad-headed Rain Frog
Phoebis rurina
Ranidae True Frogs
Rana palmipes Neotropical Green Frog
Celmia celmus

Janthecla sista
Thecla aetolius
Thecla mavors
Nephila clavipes Golden Silk Spider
Ancylometes terrenus Giant Fishing Spider
Amarynthis meneria

CLASS INSECTA Ancyluris endaemon

Order Grylloptera Ancyluris aulestes
Panacanthus cuspidatus Spiny Devil Katydid Ancyluris etias

Anteros renaldus
Order Hemiptera Calospila cilissa
Dysodius lunatus Lunate Flatbug Calospila partholon

Calospila emylius
Order Coleoptera Calydna venusta
Euchroma gigantea Giant Ceiba Borer Cartea vitula
Homoeotelus d'orbignyi Pleasing Fungus Beetle Emesis fatinella
Scarabaeidae Emesis lucinda
Canthon luteicollis Emesis mandana
Deltochilum howdeni Emesis ocypore
Dichotomius ohausi Eurybia dardus
Dichotomius prietoi Eurybia elvina
Eurysternus caribaeus Eurybia franciscana
Eurysternus confusus Eurybia halimede
Eurysternus foedus Eurybia unxia
Eurysternus inflexus Hyphilaria parthenis
Eurysternus plebejus Isapis agyrtus

Ithomiola floralis
Order Lepidoptera Lasaia agesilaus narses
Papilionidae Lasaia pseudomeris
Battus belus varus Leucochimona vestalis
Battus polydamas Livendula amaris
Papilio androgeus Livendula violacea
Papilio thoas cyniras Lyropteryx appolonia
Parides aeneas bolivar Mesophthalma idotea
Parides lysander Mesosemia loruhama
Parides pizarro Mesosemia latizonata
Parides sesostris Napaea heteroea

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Nymphidium mantus Dynamine athemon

Nyphidium nr minuta Dynamine gisella

Nymphidium lysimon Ectima thecla lerina

Nymphidium balbinus Eunica alpais

Nymphidium caricae Eunica amelio

Nymphidium chione Eunica clytia

Pandemos pasiphae Eunica volumna

Perophtalma lasus Hamadryas albicornus

Pirascca tyriotes Hamadryas arinome

Rhetus arcius Hamadryas chloe

Rhetus periander Hamadryas feronia

Sarota chrysus Hamadryas laodamia

Sarota spicata Nessaea obrina

Setabis gelasine Nessaea batesii

Stalachtis calliope Nessaea hewitsoni

Stalachtis phaedusa Nica flavilla

Synargis orestessa Panacea prola

Panacea regina

Nymphalidae Paulogramma peristera

Nymphalinae Phrrhogyra amphiro

Anartia amathae Pyrrhogyra crameri

Anartia jatrophae Pyrrhogyra cuparina

Baeotus deucalion Pyrrhogyra cf nasica

Eresia eunice Pyrrhogyra otolais

Eresia pelonia Temenis laothoe

Eresia (Phyciodes) plagiata Charaxinae

Historis odius Agrias claudina

Historis acheronta Archaeoprepona

Metamorpha elisa
Archaeoprepona demophon
Metamorpha sulpitia Archaeoprepona demophon
Siproeta stelenes
Archaeoprepona licomedes
Smyrna blomfildia
Consul fabius
Tigridia acesta
Hypna clytemnestra
Colobura annulata
Memphis phantes
Colobura dirce
Memphis arachne
Memphis oenomaus
Biblis hyperia
Memphis philomena
Callicore cynosura Memphis offa

Catonephele acontius Prepona eugenes

Catonephele antinoe Prepona dexamenus

Catonephele esite Prepona laertes

Catonephele numilia Prepona pheridamas

Diaethria clymena Zaretis isidora

Dynamine aerata Zaretis itys

Dynamine arthemisia Coenophlebia fabius

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Cyrestinae Euptychia renata

Marpesia berania Hermeuptychia hermes

Magneuptychia analis
Marpesia crethon
Magneuptychia libye
Marpesia petreus
Magneuptychia ocnus
Magneuptychia ocypete
Doxocopa agathina
Magneuptychia tiessa

Doxocopa griseldis Pareuptychia hesionides

Doxocopa laurentia Pareuptychia ocirrhoe

Doxocopa linda Taygetis cleopatra Cleopatra Satyr

Limenitidinae Taygetis echo Echo Satyr

Adelpha amazona Taygetis mermeria

Taygetis sosis Sosis Satyr

Adelpha cocala Morphini Morphos
Adelpha cytherea Antirrhea hela
Antirrhea philoctetes
Adelpha erotia
avernus Common Brown Morpho
Adelpha iphicleola
Morpho achilles
Adelpha iphiclus
Morpho deidamia
Adelpha lerna
Morpho helenor
Adelpha melona
Morpho menelaus
Adelpha mesentina
Morpho peleides
Adelpha naxia
Morpho polycarmes
Adelpha panaema
Adelpha phrolseola
Bia actorion
Adelpha thoasa
Caligo eurilochus
Adelpha viola Caligo idomeneus
Adelpha ximena
Caligo illioneus
Satyrinae Satyrs and Woodnymphs
Caligo teucer
Caligo placidiamus

Catoblepia berecynthia
Cithaerias aurora
Catoblepia cassiope
Cithaerias menander
Catoblepia generosa
Cithaerias pireta
Catoblepia soranus
Haetera macleannania
Catoblepia xanthus
Haetera piera
Catoblepia xanthicles
Pierella astyoche
Opsiphanes invirae
Pierella hortona
Heliconinae Passion Vine Butterflies
Pierella lamia
Pierella lena

Pierella lucia
Actinote sp.
Caeruleuptychia scopulata
Dryas iulia
Chloreuptychia agatha
Eueides eunice
Chloreuptychia herseis
Eueides isabella
Euptychia binoculata
Eueides lampeto
Euptychia labe
Eueides lybia
Euptychia myncea

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Heliconius erato

Heliconius hecale

Heliconius melponmene

Heliconius numata

Heliconius sara

Heliconius xanthocles

Heliconius doris

Philaethria dido



Danaus plexippus


Aeria eurimidea

Ceratinia tutia

Hypoleria sarepta

Hyposcada anchiala

Hyposcada illinissa

Hypothyris anastasia

Hypothyris fluonia

Ithomia amarilla

Ithomia salapia

Mechanitis lysimnia

Mechanitis mazaeus

Mechanitis messenoides

Methona confusa psamathe

Methone cecilia

Oleria gunilla

Oleria ilerdina

Oleria tigilla

Tithorea harmonia

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