Global Vision International 2010 Report Series No.

004

GVI Amazon
Yachana Reserve, Rio Napo

Quarterly Report 104 October – December 2010

GVI Amazon, Yachana Reserve Programme Report 104 Submitted in whole to GVI
Yachana Foundation Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales (MECN)

Produced by Andrew Whitworth – Base Manager Caroline Acton – Field Staff Oliver Burdekin – Field Staff Jasmine Rowe – Field Staff Jenn Sinasac – Field Staff Melanie Forbes – Intern And
Philip Brown Nicola Hollamby Catherine Latimer Mark Russell Helen Stout Rikard Andersson Jane Barrett Laura Boniface Lucy Coals Kristen Deidrich Lucy Dickie Ella Dickinson Intern Intern Intern Intern Intern Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Hayley Farnell Amy Fletcher Steve Guidos Sasha Johnson Karen Lancaster Jamie Ledgard Grant Price Sherry Robinson Helen Shrimpton Maxine Tachon Tim Topper Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer

Edited by Karina Berg – Country Director

GVI Amazon, Yachana Reserve, Ecuador Email: ecuador@gviworld.com Web page: http://www.gvi.co.uk and http://www.gviusa.com

Executive Summary
This report documents the work of Global Vision International‟s (GVI) Rainforest Conservation and Community Development Expedition in Ecuador‟s Amazon region and run in partnership with the Yachana Foundation, based at the Yachana Reserve in the province of Napo. December, GVI has:   Added nine new species to the reserve list. Began a new bird project studying the effect of the road in understory bird During the fourth phase of 2010 from 1st October to 10th

communities.  Began a new mammal project investigating the edge effects of the road that runs

through the reserve.  Continued to collect data on the effect of structural habitat change on the

amphibian and reptile communities, using pitfall trapping and visual encounter surveys.  Continued with a project investigating the effects of disturbance from the road upon

butterfly communities.  Continued with English lessons for local school children in Puerto Rico twice a

week.  Continued giving English lessons for local school children in Puerto Salazar every

Saturday.   Began giving lessons at the small community of Rio Bueno every Wednesday. Welcomed three pasantes (work experience students) and three graduates from

the Yachana Technical High School to join the expedition, in order to exchange language skills, knowledge and experience.  Visited Yasuní National Park, and Sumak Allpa (an island reserve and school run

by a local conservationist).   Participated in two mingas (community projects) at Puerto Rico. Given two presentations on conservation; one at Puerto Rico and one at Puerto Salazar, and set up an information stand, one Saturday at the local market of Agua Santa.

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Table of Contents
Executive Summary ........................................................................................................ ii Table of Contents ........................................................................................................... iii List of Figures and Tables .............................................................................................. iv 1. Introduction ............................................................................................................. 5 2. Avian Project .......................................................................................................... 7 2.1. Introduction .................................................................................................. 7 2.2. Methodology: Mist-netting ............................................................................ 9 2.3. Results ....................................................................................................... 11 2.4. Discussion ................................................................................................. 14 2.5. Methodology – Point Counts ...................................................................... 15 2.6. Results ....................................................................................................... 17 2.7. Discussion ................................................................................................. 19 3. Herpetological Research ...................................................................................... 21 3.1. Introduction ................................................................................................ 21 3.2. Methods ..................................................................................................... 23 3.3. Results ....................................................................................................... 24 3.4. Discussion ................................................................................................. 26 4. Butterfly Project .................................................................................................... 27 4.1. Introduction ................................................................................................ 27 4.2. Methods ..................................................................................................... 28 4.3. Results ....................................................................................................... 28 4.4. Discussion ................................................................................................. 32 5. Mammal Research ............................................................................................... 35 5.1. Introduction ................................................................................................ 35 5.3. Results and Discussion .............................................................................. 37 5.4. Mammal Incidentals ................................................................................... 38 6. Community Programme ........................................................................................ 40 6.1. Introduction ............................................................................................... 40 6.2. Yachana Colegio Técnico (Yachana Technical High School) ..................... 40 6.3. TEFL at Puerto Rico................................................................................... 41 6.4. TEFL at Puerto Salazar .............................................................................. 41 6.5. TEFL at Rio Bueno..................................................................................... 42 7. Future Expedition Aims ......................................................................................... 44 8. Scientific Reports and Published Material ............................................................. 45 9. References ........................................................................................................... 46 10. Appendices........................................................................................................... 52 10.1 Avian Survey Sites........................................................................................ 52 10.2 Yachana Reserve Species List ..................................................................... 53

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List of Figures and Tables
Figure 1.1.0 Map showing GVI Amazon location in Ecuador. Figure 2.3.2 Number of individuals per net hour for the four mist-netting sites sampled in Phase 104. Figure 2.3.3 Number of individuals caught at Buena Vista South (02 S) and Buena Vista North (06 N) mist-netting sites in November, 2010. Figure 2.3.4 Number of individuals within the seven families caught at Buena Vista South (02 S) and Buena Vista North (06 N) mist-netting sites in November 2010. Figure 3.3.5 Distribution of species diversity (amphibians) with Shannon index applied. Pitfall and VES (first 12 months of data only). Figure 4.3.3 Individual butterflies by sub-families caught per day at site. Figure 4.3.4 Individual butterflies by tribes caught per day at site. Figure 4.3.5 Individual butterflies by genera caught per day at site. Figure 4.3.6 Species distribution of Tigridia acesta over trap distances from the road. Figure 4.3.7 Species distribution of Colobura annulata over trap distances from the road. Figure 4.3.8 Shannon diversity of species over distance.

Table 2.3.1 Results for the four mist-netting sessions conducted in Phase 104. Table 2.6.1 Road Uniques recorded on point count surveys in Phase 104. Table 2.6.2 Forest Uniques recorded on point count surveys in Phase 104. Table 3.3.1 Number of individuals found in pitfalls in Phase 104. Table 3.3.2 Number of individuals found on visual encounter surveys in Phase 104. Table 3.3.3 Number of individuals found in pitfall traps in total in the project so far. Table 3.3.4 Number of individuals found in total for visual encounter surveys in the project so far. Table 4.3.1 Individual butterfly numbers as distributed in trap sites by distance from the road, combined from all four sites over the first nine days of sampling. Table 4.3.2 Individual butterfly numbers as distributed in trap sites by distance from the road, combined from all four sites over the 18 sampled days. Table 5.3.1 Raw VES data October-December 2010. Table 5.3.2 Raw sand pad data October-December 2010.

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1. Introduction
The Rainforest Conservation and Community Development Expedition operated by GVI is located in the Yachana Reserve in the Napo province (0° 50' 45.47"S/-77° 13' 43.65"W; 300-350m altitude), Amazonian region of Ecuador. The reserve is legallydesignated a Protected Forest consisting of approximately 1500 hectares in total area. The area of the reserve where the bulk of the programme and surveying work is conducted is 946 hectares consisting of predominantly primary lowland rainforest, as well as abandoned plantations, grassland, riparian forest, successional regenerating forest and a road. The Yachana Reserve is owned and managed by the Yachana Foundation. It is surrounded by large areas of pasture land, small active cacao farms and currently un-mapped disturbed primary forest. The road within the Yachana

Reserve is a large stone and gravel based road which dissects the forest.

Rio Napo, Napo Province

Figure 1.1 Map showing GVI Amazon location in Ecuador

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The Yachana Foundation is dedicated to finding sustainable solutions to the problems facing the Ecuadorian Amazon region. The foundation works with rainforest

communities to improve education, develop community-based medical care, establish sustainable agricultural practices, provide environmentally sustainable economic alternatives, and conserve the rainforest. The Yachana Reserve is the result of the foundation‟s efforts to purchase blocks of land for the purpose of conservation. The Yachana Foundation has a long-term plan of sustainable management for the reserve according to International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) protected forest guidelines and guidelines laid out by the Ministerio del Ambiente (Ecuadorian Ministry of the Environment). One of GVI‟s main roles at the reserve is to provide support where deemed necessary for the development of the management plan. This includes reserve boundary determination, baseline biodiversity assessments, visitor information support, and research centre development.

GVI also works with local research institutions. The Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales, MECN, (Ecuadorian Museum for Natural Sciences) provides technical assistance with field research and project development. The museum is a government research institution which houses information and conducts research on the presence and distribution of floral and faunal species throughout Ecuador. GVI obtains their investigation permit with the support of MECN for the collection of specimens. The data and specimens collected by GVI are being lodged with the MECN in order to make this information nationally and internationally available, and to provide verification of the field data. MECN technicians are continuously invited to the Yachana Reserve to conduct in-field training and education for all participants in the programme, as well as explore research opportunities otherwise unavailable.

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2. Avian Project
Impacts of Road Disturbance and Edge Effects on Avian Communities in the Yachana Reserve, Ecuador
2.1. Introduction

Rainforests worldwide have been suffering the effects of habitat fragmentation for decades, and its impacts on the flora and fauna of these globally significant ecosystems are severe. Although not as severe as complete habitat fragmentation, roads can significantly affect rainforest environments and expose edge effects on the plant and animal communities. Although roads are beneficial in providing access to remote areas, the effects of roads on forest ecosystems extends further into the forest than just at the road edges (Gossem 2007, Coffin 2007), and is said to cause “internal fragmentation”, a less recognized yet potentially severe threat caused by roads in rainforest ecosystems (Gossem 2007). Roads can have a wide variety of impacts on the surrounding environments, including habitat loss and alteration, edge effects, disturbance effects such as noise pollution and chemical introduction, invasions of nonnative flora, fauna and disease and road mortality, which together can create substantial barriers to the movement of a wide range of multi-taxa species and alter ecological processes (Gossem 2007). As a result, there is a high potential for loss of biodiversity of rainforest ecosystems.

Avian communities are sensitive to environmental changes and habitat fragmentation within Neotropical rainforests and other ecosystems worldwide. Certain groups of birds are reluctant to cross open roads, even if the road itself has minimal traffic. Amazonian understory birds, especially those that move in mixed flocks and certain insectivorous species, tend to avoid canopy gaps in general and in many cases avoid edge habitats (Gossem 2007). Edge effects result in increased light intensity, temperature and

moisture stress, which can be expected along the edges of roads in rainforests. They ultimately change the composition of vegetation along the roadsides to generalist, successional species, and therefore affecting the avifaunal communities that inhabit the roadside edges (Gossem 2007).

A study in Colorado showed that bird species composition was altered adjacent to trails in two ecosystems, one of which was forest habitat (Miller et al. 1998). Also, generalist species were found to be more abundant near trails and specialist species showed to be less common (Miller et al. 1998).

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In Neotropical regions, many of the species present in the forests are shy understory birds such as antbirds and manakins, which are dependent on the presence of food resources and specific ecological habitats. There is a good possibility that roads

through small reserves have created unnatural territory boundaries in which many of these species will not cross, thereby limiting the distributions of these specialist species.

The purpose of this study is to determine if the road through the Yachana Reserve has any impact on the avian communities present, through both mist-netting and point count survey methods. Previously, mist-netting has been carried out in the Yachana Reserve to investigate the impacts of disturbed versus less disturbed habitat on avian communities. Point counts in the Yachana Reserve have also looked at similar trends, focusing on the different habitats and their influences on the birds present on the reserve. This study is planned to be carried out over a period of six months in order to gather all the data necessary to produce significant results and build a larger picture of the impacts of the road through the reserve on its avian communities.

In addition to the main goals of this project, there is interest in testing the methods for training non-specialist participants for point count surveys. Recent years have seen a large increase in the number of people undertaking volunteering work in developing countries as an alternative to study or employment, and conservation based projects are among the most popular (Year Out Group 2010). Therefore determining the

capacity of these volunteers to undertake a point count methodology would have wider applications which are expected to continue to expand. It is hoped that by applying the correct model to the data collected and teaching volunteers to a high enough level, a viable analysis of the differing avian assemblages can also be conducted. Previously in the Yachana Reserve (the last six months), volunteers have been trained using audio cues; in this study, GVI was introducing methods of training involving visual and audio cues to test the effectiveness of the two methods. Aims    To determine if there are impacts from the road on the distribution and movements of avian communities of the Yachana Reserve. To gain more information about the distribution of understory and canopy bird species on the reserve through a multi-methodology study. To investigate the capacity of untrained volunteers to learn sufficient bird calls in order to act as independent observers in a point count methodology.

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To test and identify effective methods of training non-specialist observers for point count survey techniques, which can serve useful to avian conservation projects using non-specialist observers.

Objectives  To produce an avian report on the impacts of road disturbance and corresponding edge effects; this could serve as a model for future development on small reserves, for conservation monitoring purposes.  To correlate the results found for bird communities with the coinciding mammal, amphibian and butterfly projects to produce a multi-taxa assessment of the impact of the road through the Yachana Reserve.  To monitor the patterns of observer improvement with training and quantitatively analyze the effectiveness of various training techniques in using volunteers for point count surveys, over a time gradient. Study Site All research was conducted in the Yachana Reserve, which, as already stated in the Introduction, is situated within the Napo province in the Amazonian region of eastern Ecuador (0°5‟ 0”S/077°13‟ 60”W; 300-350m altitude). The gravel road that cuts Its length

through the reserve runs in a general northwest to southeast direction.

through the reserve is approximately 3.5 km, and allows access to the community of San Francisco de Puerto Rico along with other small communities, as well as access to the main roads to the larger towns of Tena and Coca. The road was cut through the reserve in 2005. It generally acts as a divide between the less disturbed primary forest and the successional growth plantations and grassland zones within the reserves.

Eastern Ecuador is renoun as one of the most diverse regions in the world for birds (Ridgely & Tudor 2001; Blake and Loiselle 2009). Since 2006, over 300 species of bird have been recorded within the reserve borders.

2.2.

Methodology: Mist-netting

Eight mist-netting sites were chosen with respect to the other proposed sites and the proximity to the road through the Yachana Reserve. The placement of the sites

consists of four sites on the north side of the road and four corresponding sites (directly south of the north sites) on the south side of the road. Each mist-netting site had a 500m buffer to adjacent sites on the same side of the road. Each site was 150m from the road, therefore each north-south site set had a 350m overlap over the road zone.

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Each site had an array of four to six mist nets at a length of 12 x 2.5m, distributed at least 30m from adjacent nets in a random pattern as the contours of the area allow.

The mist nets were opened for a period of four consecutive days (weather permitting) at each site, one site at a time. Four sites were surveyed during this ten week

expedition period, which follows the proposal plan to survey all mist-netting sites over a period of six months. The mist nets were opened at sunrise (approximately 6:00 am) and remained open for approximately 4.5-5 hours per morning. 70 net hours (hours open x number of nets) were targeted for each four day session (standard for a four net array; if six nets available, 105 net hours were targeted).

During the open period, the nets were checked in sequence every 30 minutes to ensure that birds were not tangled in nets for an excessive amount of time. When checked, any birds caught were removed by trained and capable staff and placed into a bird bag to minimize stress of the birds until processed. Birds were processed at an adjacent station and identified to species. If possible, the birds were banded with an aluminum butt-end band (hummingbirds excluded and others limited to band sizes available). This allows for monitoring of recaptures. Birds were weighed, measured, aged and sexed where possible. The birds were released over 50m away from the net sites after processing. All standard mist-netting procedures and protocols were

observed and monitored by trained staff on the project.

Mist-netting has generally been found to be less efficient than point counts (Blake and Loiselle 2001; Barlow et al. 2007); however it offers a method free from observer bias. It is also a useful and standardized technique to compare understory avifaunal communities composed of non-vocal and secretive species, (Blake and Loiselle 2000). In this phase, four sites were surveyed: Ridge South (01 S, 350m from road, 12th to 15th October 2010), East Bambosh (03 S, 350m from road, 25th to 29th October 2010), Buena Vista South (02 S, 150m from road, 15th to 18th November 2010) and Buena Vista North (06 N, 150m from road, 29th November to 3rd December 2010). The

distances from the road were modified after the first two mist-netting sessions in order to better meet the aims and objectives of the project; this will be discussed further below, (see Appendix 10.1 for map with mist-netting sites).

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2.3.

Results

Four mist-netting sessions were conducted on the Yachana Reserve between October and December 2010. Adequate net hours were attained for each session. Results are shown in Table 2.3.1 below.
Table 2.3.1 Results for the four mist-netting sessions conducted in Phase 104.

Ridge South (01 S) Net Hours No. of Individuals Individuals per Net Hour Number of Species Species per Net Hour Number of Families Unidentified Species Recaptures 75.32 8 0.11 6 0.08 5 0 0

East Bambosh (03 S) 77.33 41 0.53 16 0.21 7 0 1

Buena Vista South (02 S) 71.91 19 0.26 10 0.14 5 0 2

Buena Vista North (06 N) 76.67 30 0.39 15 0.20 7 1 2

Total 301.23 98 0.32 33 0.11 9 1 5

The results in the table show that the East Bambosh (03 S) and Buena Vista North (06 N) sites were the most productive for capture rate, as they both hold the highest number of individual birds caught per net hour, as well as highest number of species caught per net hour. The most species were also found at these two sites (Figure 2.3.2).

Figure 2.3.2 Individuals per net hour for the four mist-netting sites sampled in Phase 104.

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Absolute numbers caught varied from site to site. The Ridge South site (01 S), was the least productive and only eight individuals were caught in a four day sampling period (Table 2.3.1). The most productive site was at East Bambosh (03 S), where 41

individuals were caught in the mist nets.

Nine families of birds were caught in the mist-netting sessions conducted this phase. These included Thamnophilidae, Pipridae, Tyrannidae, Emberizidae, Trochilidae, Dendrocolaptidae, Turdidae, Columbidae, and Thraupidae. However, the most

common groups encountered tended to be Pipridae (Manakins), Thamnophilidae (Antbirds), and Tyrannidae (Flycatchers).

The birds caught at the Ridge South site (01 S) and the East Bambosh site (03 S), even though of interest to gather various information, are not comparable as the distance to the road was changed after those sites were sampled. Of more

significance is the species composition between the Buena Vista South (02 S) and North (06 N) sites, which were sampled two weeks apart from each other and lie only 300m from each other, divided by the road at the midpoint. 19 species were caught in total for the paired sites (including one unidentified species). Of those 19 species, six (working out at 32%) were found at both sites (Fig. 2.3.3). Individuals that were only caught once at only one site have been removed from the 19 species caught at these sites. With regards to family composition, seven families were recorded for the two comparable sites. Four families of understory birds were found in concentration at both sites (Fig. 2.3.4), indicating similar species composition. The unidentified family has been omitted.

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Figure 2.3.3 Number of individuals caught at Buena Vista South (02 S) and Buena Vista North (06 N) mist-netting sites in November, 2010.

Figure 2.3.4 Number of individuals (within the seven families) caught at Buena Vista South (02 S) and Buena Vista North (06 N) mist-netting sites in November 2010.

Five recaptures were caught during this expedition phase. In some cases, recaptures caught were from a previous day of sampling at that site. For example, at East Bambosh (03 S), a White-necked Thrush (Turdus albicollis) was recaptured the day after it was banded, indicating its presence and likely territory in the area. However, there were two recaptures that were not initially banded at the sites they were captured. The first was an adult female Blue-crowned Manakin (Lepidothrix coronata) with a band ID of 45L, captured at Buena Vista South (02 S), and was initially banded at an old mist-netting site (Cascada), on 20th January 2010, approximately 350m from where she was recaptured. The other, an immature Golden-headed Manakin (Pipra

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erythrocephala) with a band ID of 54R, captured at Buena Vista North (06 N). The initial banding record of this individual has not been relocated at this time. 2.4. Discussion

This was the first ten week phase of a new mist-netting project focusing on road impacts on avian communities in the Yachana Reserve. The results, however, do show some interesting initial trends. The comparable sites of Buena Vista South (02 S) and Buena Vista North (06 N) showed to have similar avian species composition, and a majority of the family groups caught in the mist nets were found at both sites. Both sites were each 150m from the road, were of similar vegetation composition that consisted mainly of overgrown coffee plantation and dispersed cacao plantation, with small adjacent patches of primary forest. Vegetation mapping has yet to be completed for these two sites, but could indicate the similarity between the two sites more accurately. By the similarity in species composition, there are indications that it is possible that bird communities may spread across the road barrier. However, in the short sampling time at each site, there were no recaptures caught on either side of the road that had been banded at the adjacent site, and more time at each site is required to assess if the birds will cross the road or if it creates a barrier through the habitat.

Two recaptures of interest were caught in Phase 104 as already mentioned. The adult female Blue-crowned Manakin (Lepidothrix coronata) with a band ID of 45L, recaptured this phase approximately 350m from where she was first captured could indicate that this bird dispersed from its parental range, likely near the previous mist-netting site where it was initially banded. In this case however, the recaptured manakin was found much closer to the road, which may indicate a level of resilience these species can withstand with regards to significant road disturbance. The immature male Golden-headed Manakin (Pipra erythrocephala) with a band ID of 54R, captured at Buena Vista North (06N) was positively identified as a young bird due to the beginnings of the golden head feathers moulting in. It was banded in the

previous year; however, its initial capture records have not been located at this time (possibly the band number was not recorded before the bird was released). The two possible sites where the manakin was initially banded are Frontier, approximately 1000m northwest of its recapture site, and Laguna, approximately 850m north of its recapture site, indicating a significant dispersal distance. The habitats at the two

possible sites are good quality primary forest, indicating a change in habitat as well.

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As most manakins (especially Blue-crowned Manakins) seem to be generalized in their habitat preference, a change of habitat and environment can be expected for this species but it is a generalization that cannot be made for all understory bird species. At this point in time there is a need for more data sets before any trend clarifications can be made with confidence. More sampling (via mist-netting) will be required to better understand how the road through the Yachana Reserve affects the understory bird communities.

After the first two mist-netting sites (Ridge South [01 S], 350m from the road; East Bambosh [03 S], 350m from the road) were surveyed, the project design was assessed with regards to its overall aims and it was concluded that a distance of 350m from the road was too far to gauge if understory birds consider it as an intrusive barrier to their movement. Therefore, we moved the sites to be closer (150m) to the road, inducing a potential 350m overlap for territory range over the road for the paired sites. It was also decided better to survey adjacent north-south sites in sequence (with a non-survey week in between), rather than to survey all the sites south of the road over a ten week period. This will allow for a better scope of species composition and current

movements of species of birds in question.

For the following expedition phase, our objective will be to survey two more paired sites, in the hope to collect more information on the bird communities that are found in close proximity to the road. The results collected, in collaboration with the results collected from the point count surveys, will be compiled to get a better understanding of how the road through the Yachana Reserve affects the avian communities present.

2.5.

Methodology – Point Counts

Point count surveys were conducted along eight linear transects on the north side of the road that runs through the Yachana Reserve. Points were set at 0m, 150m, 300m, 450m, and 600m along each transect; 0m is located at the road and the points continue northward along the transect. This accounts for independence of understory birds recorded. Five points were surveyed each morning (weather permitting). The count lasted for a duration of ten minutes at each site, with a three minute settle period upon arrival at each site prior to beginning each count. All birds seen and heard were recorded individually by each staff and volunteer. Total species recorded for each point were tallied at the end of each survey day.

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Volunteer Bird Call Training Assessment for Point Counts Prior to the commencement of the point count survey, each ten week phase, each volunteer was assessed to determine whether they could recognize bird calls more efficiently through either: 1. Audio calls only, or 2. Audio calls with visual recognition cues. To determine placement of volunteers into treatment groups mentioned above, two assessment sessions were held. In the first session (approximately 45 minutes in

duration), 15 Neotropical bird calls were introduced to all the volunteers through playback of each bird call in addition to the common name of each bird spoken aloud. The calls were run through thoroughly two times. All volunteers were tested

immediately afterwards. In the second session (approximately 45 minutes in duration), 15 different Neotropical bird calls were introduced to all the volunteers. The same procedure was followed as in the first session, but in addition to the audio cues, corresponding photos for each species were provided via a power point presentation. Two thorough run throughs of the calls alongside the photo images and the common name spoken aloud were conducted. The volunteers were tested on all 15 calls (audio only – no visual cues provided).

After the assessment, all volunteers were placed into the two treatment groups for learning the bird calls of the Yachana Reserve for the point counts survey purposes. Those volunteers who demonstrated themselves to be significantly better at one method over the other were placed in the corresponding treatment groups. Others who did not show different results between the audio and audio & visual assessments were divided and randomly and evenly placed into the two treatment groups.

Point count training consisted of at least one session per week, which continued throughout the phase to continually revise and refresh bird calls for volunteer participants. The training schedule for a five week period was:     1st set (weeks 1 & 2) – 30 birds, most commonly heard on Yachana Reserve 2nd set (week 3) – 15 new birds 3rd set (week 4) – 15 new birds 4th set (week 5) – 15 new bird

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Volunteers were encouraged to study bird calls independently and within their treatment groups beyond the formal training sessions. A guideline for training within their treatment groups was available to volunteer participants. Volunteer Learning and Prediction of Learner Ability In order to assess whether learning bird calls would be enhanced by seeing visual cues of the birds we split the learners into „audio only‟ and „audio and visual‟ learners. Audio and visual learners were shown pictures of the birds during training sessions. Another test conducted was using a small sub-set of 15 bird calls at the beginning of their training that were introduced and followed by a small test. This was to see if learner ability could be assessed by an initial small scale assessment. The rankings of their abilities would be later compared with their final ranking abilities from their personal performance in the field in relation to staff abilities. 2.6. Results

Species Composition In Phase 104, eleven point counts were conducted along five transects that run from the road north to 600m. During the surveying period, 63 species of birds were

recorded from visual and audio observations. From the eleven surveys conducted, there were eight species of birds that were found to be specific to the road as they were recorded in close proximity to it (150m or closer). These bird species are classed as “Road Uniques”, see Table 2.6.1. These include species found at sites 1 (0m, point is on the road) and 2 (150m from the road), but were not recorded beyond the 150m point into deeper forest.
Table 2.6.1 Road Uniques recorded on point count surveys in Phase 104.

Common Name

Scientific Name

Order: Family

Points Recorded

Amazonian Violaceous Trogon Black-throated Trogon Forest-Falcon (unid) Ivory-billed Aracari Marbled WoodQuail Swallow-tailed Kite Swallow-Tanager White-collared Swift

Trogon violaceus Trogon rufus Micrastur sp. Pteroglossus azara Odontophorus gujanensis Elanoides forficatus Tersina viridis Streptoprocne zonaris

Trogoniformes: Trogonidae Trogoniformes: Trogonidae Falconiformes: Falconidae Piciformes: Ramphastidae Galliformes: Odontophoridae Falconiformes: Accipitridae Passeriformes: Thraupidae Apodiformes: Apodidae

1 and 2 1 and 2 1 and 2 1 1 and 2 1 1 1

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In addition to species found only in proximity to the road, there were also species specific to the deeper forest sites. Nine species were found unique to the third point (300m) and beyond at further distances from the road, classed as “Forest Uniques”, see Table 2.6.2.
Table 2.6.2 Forest Uniques recorded on point count surveys in Phase 104.

Common Name Black Caracara Broad-billed Motmot Dwarf TyrantManakin Fasciated Antshrike Lawrence‟s Thrush Ruddy Pigeon Scale-backed Antbird Scaly-breasted Woodpecker Screaming Piha

Scientific Name Daptrius ater Electron platyrhynchum Tyranneutes stolzmanni Cymbilianus lineatus Turdus lawrencii Columba subvinacea Hylophylax poecilinota Celeus grammicus Lipaugus vociferans

Order: Family Falconiformes: Falconidae Piciformes: Motmotidae Passeriformes: Pipridae Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae Passeriformes: Turdidae Columbiformes: Columbidae Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae Piciformes: Picidae Passeriformes: Cotingidae

Points Recorded 4 and 5 3, 4 and 5 3, 4, and 5 5 5 5 3, 4, and 5 3, 4, and 5 3, 4, and 5

There were a majority of cosmopolitan species that were recorded at all five points. Seventeen species, including Yellow-tufted Woodpecker (Melanerpes cruentatus), Blue-crowned Manakin (Lepidothrix coronata) and Gilded Barbet (Capito auratus), indicating that 27% of the species recorded are not affected by the presence of the road. Despite these common species to the Yachana Reserve, the road does seem to impact certain specialist bird species on the reserve. Volunteer Learning and Prediction of Learner Ability There was no clear benefit of having a visual cue in addition to an audio learning technique; those learners with visual cues did not perform any better than learners with purely audio learning resources. It also appears that a quick assessment cannot be made regarding a learner‟s ability. Spearman‟s Ranking value r = 0.311, is lower than the 0.456 critical value (n = 14), indicating that there was no significant correlation between the two ranks based upon the initial assessment and final ability levels of the learners.

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2.7.

Discussion

Species Composition From the point count surveys conducted during Phase 104, preliminary data was collected to investigate the impacts of the road on the avian communities on the Yachana Reserve. From the data collected in this first phase of the project, some evidence does show that the road does impact certain species. Those “forest uniques”, as nine species have not been recorded any closer than 300m to the road. These specialized species typically prefer better quality forests that are less disturbed by road impacts. A majority of the species specific to this distance from the road tend to be understory species with low-pitched calls, better for travelling through a forested environment. However, despite this, eight species were found to be “road uniques” that seem to prefer the roadside habitats. These species are likely to fill these successional niches to take advantage of food sources, open areas and perhaps less competition with other understory species. There is a bias to take into consideration with the point count surveys; with on road point counts, it could be considered much easier to record birds by visual observation compared to within dense forest habitat, where the key is to rely on skill and experience of audio observation and recognition.

A high number of species were recorded at all five points, from the road into the undisturbed forest. There are a number of reasons for this occurrence. The most common species and most vocal species are well known by staff and volunteer observers, and by knowing the calls of these species, it is more likely that these calls will be picked up more frequently on the surveys than species that are more challenging to identify or unknown to the unskilled participants. They are also very vocal species; this presents a bias with conducting point counts in dense tropical rainforest. For example, a species that was never recorded on a point count survey, yet was found at every mist-netting site was the Ochre-bellied Flycatcher (Mionectes oleagineus), clearly a very common species on the reserve, yet difficult to see in the understory due to its shy habits and non-vocal tendencies. Carrying out both the mistnetting and the point count survey methods during the same expedition periods has enriched our understanding and knowledge of the avian communities within the reserve. It has allowed us to gain a greater insight into which species are

demonstrating attributes of more common, generalist and specialist species in the reserve. By enlarging the data set and information in future expedition phases and

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carrying out more surveys of both types of methodology we will gain more evidence and be able to draw more conclusions about the communities and the impacts of the road on those avian communities. Volunteer Learning and Prediction of Learner Ability Many learners stated that having a visual cue often made learning more complicated due to having to focus on not only an audio cue, but an image as well. Others, in the meantime, contradicted this thinking by stating that a visual representation helped with an association when a call was heard in the field. These learning styles may be

individually specific and beneficial to different types of people and successful learning techniques.

The fact that a prediction could not be made on potential learner ability may show that learners who may start poorly can develop more quickly than others that may have had a higher initial ability. The sample size in this experiment was relatively small and may be a contributing factor as to why no correlation between ranks was observed.

In the forth-coming phase, point count surveys will focus more in depth on the avian communities, in order to sample species composition as well as abundance to get a diversity measure. As we have answered questions regarding volunteer learning

abilities and potential training methods, we now hope to focus more on the bird communities and their distributions with respect to road impacts on the Yachana Reserve.

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3. Herpetological Research
The Effect of Structural Habitat Change on Herpetofaunal Communities
3.1. Introduction

One of the key drivers of worldwide species loss is habitat change; defined as habitat deforestation, fragmentation and deterioration (Urbina-Cardona, 2008). The rapid rate of forest conversion in the Neotropics has been offset by large-scale expansion of secondary forest, plantation and pastureland (Wright SJ, 2005; Gardner et al. 2007b). Despite the increasingly dominant role of these degraded habitats in the tropical landscape, there is little consensus within the scientific community about the extent of its conservation value (Gardner et al. 2007c, Lo-Man-Hung1, et al. 2008). Wright & Muller-Landau (2006) predict that the future loss of primary forest will be offset by regenerating secondary forest and consequently suggest that the predicted loss of species due to habitat change may be premature. However, there is currently a lack of empirical evidence to support the theory that regenerating forests can fully support native forest species (Gardner 2007c).

Two recent multiple taxa assessments, conducted on the cubraca cacao plantations of Bahia, Brazil (Pardini et al. IN PRESS) and eucalyptus plantations of the Jari forestry project, Brazil (Barlow et al. 2007), found that responses to structural habitat change were taxon specific. Barlow et al. (2007) found that four of the fifteen taxa analysed (trees and lianas, birds, fruit feeding butterflies, and leaf litter amphibians) were found to decrease in species richness with increasing habitat disturbance. However, five taxa (large mammals, epigiec arachnids, lizards, dung beetles and bats) exhibit idiosyncratic responses to habitat change (Barlow et al. 2007). Both studies concluded that

responses to structural habitat change will be species specific, not simply taxon specific. Analysis of a generalised taxon response is likely to hide a higher level of species specific disturbance responses which are important when designing conservation strategies (Barlow et al 2007; Pardini et al. 2009). These studies highlight the importance of performing multiple taxa assessments that are species specific relating to the conservation value of secondary and plantation forests. Problem Statement The Neotropics are estimated to contain nearly 50% of the worlds amphibians (IUCN, 2007) and 32% of the worlds reptiles (Young et al. 2004), this equates to over 3000 species of each taxon. Within the continental Neotropics, the 17 countries in Central

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and South America, there are 1685 species of amphibian and 296 species of reptiles considered endangered. Amphibians and reptiles are considered to be the most There have been

threatened groups of terrestrial vertebrates (J. Gardner 2007b).

many factors implicated in threatening populations of amphibians and reptiles, including habitat loss and change, the virulent Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis pathogen, climate change (Whitfield et al. 2007), ultraviolet-B radiation (Broomhall et al. 2000), and agrochemical contaminants (Bridges et al. 2000). Current State of Amphibian and Reptile Research Amphibians and reptiles are important primary, mid-level and top consumers in Neotropical ecosystems; therefore, it is important to understand the responses of these organisms to structural habitat change (Bell et al. 2006). Despite its apparent severity, the amount of research time given to studying the impacts of habitat change on amphibian and reptile populations is relatively low. This is especially true in the

Neotropics which, despite an estimated 89% of threatened species being affected by habitat loss, has only been the subject of 10% of the world‟s herpetological studies (Gardner et al 2007a). There is a general consensus amongst herpetologists that the effect of structural habitat change on determining amphibian and reptiles and distributions is limited (Pearman, 1997; Krishnamurthy, 2003; Urbina-Cardona, 2006; Gardner et al, 2007b).

A recent global scale review of the state of amphibian and reptile research regarding structural habitat change highlighted several serious deficiencies:    There is currently a strong study bias away from the Neotropics towards North America and Australia. Published studies report contradictory responses of amphibian and reptile populations to habitat change. There are several common limitations in study methodology and analysis (Gardner et al. 2007a).

Aims of the Research
 To assess the ability of secondary forest (abandoned cacao plantation) to preserve leaflitter herpetofaunal richness, distribution and abundance in comparison to primary forest habitat.  To understand the effects of structural habitat change within the Neotropics.

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To identify the responses of different herpetofaunal groups/species to structural habitat change.

3.2.

Methods

In Phase 104, pitfall data was collected for 19 days (12 th to 21st October and 22nd to 30th November 2010) and six visual encounter surveys were conducted from 13th October to 29th November 2010. This data will be used to supplement data from the previous herpetological project (ended Phase 102, July 2010). During Phase 104, five pitfall trap arrays (of twelve available) and three visual encounter transects (of ten available) were surveyed. The sites surveyed in Phase 104 were chosen in order to better represent grassland and plantation sites in the complete dataset. Nocturnal Visual Encounter Surveys Twelve 75m transects in both the primary and secondary locations were established for the original project. Ten additional transects were added for Phase 103. Only three of these were surveyed in Phase 104. Care was taken to space transects sufficiently to avoid psuedoreplication. Transects were marked with coloured transect tape to avoid unnecessary habitat modification. Where possible, the transects were located at least 10m from streams and 100m from forest edges to avoid biases resulting from increases in species richness and abundance, which could result in confusion about the true effect of structural habitat change on amphibian and reptile diversity.

Visual encounter surveys have been shown to be one of the most effective methods for sampling tropical herpetofaunas (Bell et al, 2006). They have been repeatedly shown to yield greater numbers of individuals per effort than other sampling methods in recent publications (Ernst and Rodel, 2004; Donnelly et al 2005) and GVI‟s own preliminary investigations. Each transect was searched by six observers (strip width = 6m,

duration = 1h 30m). Pitfall Trapping Twelve pitfall arrays were established in both primary and secondary forest with a further twelve being added in Phase 103. Only five of these were surveyed during Phase 104. Each array consists of four 25L buckets with 8m long by 50cm high plastic drift fence connecting them in linear shaped design. When open, the pitfalls were checked once a day.

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Particular care was taken to ensure that the overall sampling effort is equal for both primary and secondary habitats. This ensures maximum comparability in the resultant data sets.

Any amphibians or reptiles encountered through either method were identified in the field using available literature and released. Any individual which could not be

identified was taken back to the GVI base camp for further analysis. A small proportion of the captured individuals, including those that could not be identified, were anaesthetised with Lidocaine and fixed with 10% formalin. All preseserved specimens are stored at the Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales (MECN).

Surveying primary rainforest habitat is a privileged opportunity; however there is the potential to negatively affect the ecosystem by passing infections between sites and species. Good practices were strictly adhered to so as to ensure transmissions of diseases are not possible. This was achieved by systematic cleaning of tools,

equipment, and sterile bags were changed when handling different individuals. Under no circumstances did amphibians or reptiles come in contact with exposed human skin tissue.

3.3.

Results

Species Encountered in Phase 104 During this phase, 61 identified reptile and amphibian individuals were encountered, comprising of nine species of amphibian and ten species of reptile. Pitfalls in Phase 104
Table 3.3.1 Number of individuals found in pitfalls in Phase 104.

Total

Amphibians and reptiles 37

Amphibians 25

Reptiles 12

Visual Encounter Surveys in Phase 104
Table 3.3.2 Number of individuals found on visual encounter surveys in Phase 104.

Total

Amphibians and reptiles 24

Amphibians 19

Reptiles 5

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Species Encountered Overall in the Project So Far: During the whole project to date (both the initial project and the supplementary data collection completed this phase), 1985 identified reptile and amphibian individuals have been encountered. Pitfalls
Table 3.3.3 Number of individuals found in pitfall traps in total in the project so far.

Total

Amphibians and reptiles 936

Amphibians 774

Reptiles 162

Visual Encounter Surveys
Table 3.3.4 Number of individuals found in total for visual encounter surveys in the project so far.

Total

Amphibians and reptiles 1049

Amphibians 964

Reptiles 85

Figure 3.3.5 Distribution of species diversity (amphibians) with Shannon index applied. Pitfall and VES (first 12 months of data only).

Pitfall species diversity was projected onto a map of the Yachana Reserve using the Kriging method see Figure 3.3.5. The projection shows clearly that there appears to be

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higher species diversity at the less disturbed „primary’ sites as opposed to more disturbed „secondary’ sites.

3.4.

Discussion

The amphibian and reptile work continues to provide a wealth of species which continue to show that some species are more prevalent than others and there are certainly some differences in the numbers and types of species found within different areas of the reserve. The amphibians Ameerga bilinguis, Pristimantis kichwarum, Pristimantis lanthanites, Bolitoglossa peruvianus (Dwarf-climbing Salamander) and the lizard Lepsoma parietale are still found in greater numbers than other species at various habitat types around the reserve. The diversity projection (Fig. 3.3.5) will be expanded in future reports to include all trapping techniques and surveys.

Data collection for the original sites is now complete. The original sites have been surveyed for one full year. Phase 103 saw the introduction of twelve new pitfall sites and ten new visual encounter survey sites. These were set up to gather additional data to add to the original sites. The new sites include riparian areas, less disturbed area, old cacao plantation and grassland areas. For Phase 104, five of the new pitfall sites and three of the new visual encounter sites were surveyed to further supplement the data.

As data collection is now complete further analysis can begin.

This will involve

multivariate analysis such as principal component analysis in addition to decision tree analysis that may be applied to the development of a model used to determine the species of amphibians and reptiles found in specific habitat types.

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4. Butterfly Project
Impact of Road Disturbance on Nymphalid Butterfly Communities in the Yachana Reserve, Ecuador.
4.1. Introduction

The effects of fragmentation and development within forest landscapes have been reasonably well documented due to their many impacts including alteration of habitat, spread of disease, and population decline. However, the development and

construction of roads are a basic requirement of growing communities and will continue to impact tropical rainforests (Goosem, 2007).

Road systems sharply define and fragment forest ecosystems, resulting in changes to plant species composition and structure from road edges to the surrounding interior (Bennett, 1991). The presence of roads and trails opens up the forest canopy, creating light gaps, modifying plant communities and resources available for other species.

Despite being a part of the most diverse taxon in the Neotropics, little is known about distribution and factors influencing diversity of butterflies (Murray, 1997). It is

necessary to understand impacts on butterflies as its dependence of the larval stage on a specific host plant, combined with adult pollinating roles make them important ecological indicators (Ehrlich and Raven, 1965). Butterfly communities have shown to be sensitive to environmental variables, such as sunlight, gaps and edges (Ramos, 2000). Therefore, the interest of this study is to determine the impact of roads on aerial and ground communities of Nymphalid butterflies in the Yachana Reserve as well as to achieve the outlined aims:  To determine if there are any edge effects caused by the road that significantly impact the distribution in the Yachana Reserve.   To better understand butterfly distribution in the Yachana Reserve. To correlate results with other taxa assessments made in the reserve.

Study Site All research was performed directly on the Yachana Reserve. The habitat the survey took place in is mature, undisturbed terra firme forest. Excluding rare emergent trees, the average height of the forest canopy is 25-30m.

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4.2.

Methods

Surveys were undertaken from October 2010 to December 2010. In this study, four sites in 500m intervals along the north side of the road were used. Each site contained a trap in the mid-forest canopy and a trap 1-1.5m above the ground placed 0m, 100m, 200m, 300m and 400m from the road. After the first sampling period of nine days, a canopy and ground trap were placed 50 meters from the road at all four sites.

Sampling periods ran for nine days and traps were checked daily in the afternoon. The traps were baited with mashed banana, which had been left to ferment for three days prior to the baiting of the traps, and were replaced every three days. Bait was prepared following the methods of DeVries and Walla (1999). All captured butterflies were

identified in the field by GVI volunteers and staff, using plates, and marked on the upper wing with a dot code to monitor recaptures.

It is worth noting that although specific, dot-code data is unreliable, unless all butterflies caught continued to be marked before release. However, butterflies were not marked if they were too small (ie. smaller than Tigridia acesta), their wings showed dramatic effects of wear (e.g. if there were pieces of wing missing), in order to prevent further damage to the wings, or if their wings were transparent to avoid disrupting camoflauge/disguise. Despite this, it will still be possible to differentiate between

recaptures and newly-caught individuals and hence avoid any pseudo-replication.

After the nine days of sampling, the traps were closed. The traps were opened again for another nine days of sampling after 27 days. The traps are designed with a 25cm diameter tray which holds a small bowl of bait. The tray is suspended approximately 8cm below a cylinder of netting on average 1m in length. Canopy traps were

suspended with thin rope over branches so all traps could be raised and lowered.

4.3.

Results

Overall, 229 individual butterflies of 43 positively-identified species were trapped during two nine day sampling periods. No new butterfly species were identified for the Yachana Reserve species list. As shown in Table 4.3.1, the difference in captures varies greatly between 0m and 100m and potential road impacts could be affecting butterfly individuals caught, to further investigate this during the second nine days of sampling, traps were put in a trapping site 50m from the road, in order to receive more

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inclusive data that could demonstrate the impact the road has on butterfly populations (Table 4.3.2).
Table 4.3.1 Individual butterfly numbers as distributed in trap sites by distance from the road, combined from all four sites over the first 9 days of sampling.

. Dist. From road (m) 0 100 200 300 400 No. of individuals 6 18 20 19 23

Table 4.3.2 Individual butterfly numbers as distributed in trap sites by distance from the road, combined from all four sites over the 18 sampled days.

Dist. from road (m) 0 50 100 200 300 400

No. of individuals 26 39 35 40 30 30

In order for data to be comparable (as trap sites were open different numbers of days), the numbers of individuals caught in the site were divided by the number of days the trap was open in total. Of the five caught, only sub-families that had over 30 individuals caught were used to compare individual distribution over the different trap distances (Fig. 4.3.3).

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Figure 4.3.3 Individual butterflies by sub-families caught per day at site.

Of the eleven tribes caught, comparison was made among those with over 15 individuals caught (Fig. 4.3.4).
Figure 4.3.4 Individual butterflies by tribes caught per day at site.

Of the 28 genera caught, numbers of 14 or more individuals per site were used to compare the distribution of different genera from trap sites. Although Colobura and Tigridia were the two genera that were caught most frequently, they are not included in Figure 4.3.5 because there was only one species contributing to the large genera number. Instead, individual species graphs were made to represent the distribution of Tigridia acesta (Nymphalinae: Nymphaliini) (Fig. 4.3.6) and Colobura annulata (Nymphalinae: Nymphaliini) (Fig. 4.3.7) over trap distances. In order to look at species diversity, Shannon diversity index was applied to the numbers over distance which is shown in Figure 4.3.8.

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Figure 4.3.5 Individual butterflies by genera caught per day at site.

Figure 4.3.6 Species distribution of Tigridia acesta over trap distances from the road.

Figure 4.3.7 Species distribution of Colobura annulata over trap distances from the road.

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Figure 4.3.8 Shannon diversity of species over distance.
2.9

Shannon Diversity of Species

Shannon Diversity Index

2.7 2.5 2.3 2.1 1.9 1.7 1.5 0 50 100 200 Distance from road (m) 300 400

4.4.

Discussion

A total of 229 individuals were collected in traps; 79 individuals being caught during the first nine days of sampling and 150 individuals being caught during the second nine days of sampling. The increase could be a result of a number of factors. One of the reasons for the increase is a result of additional traps being opened during the second sampling period. However, the seasonal effects in the feeding and reproductive cycles of butterflies could account for a fluctuation in numbers at various times of the year. Also, changes in rain amounts can affect the daily activity of butterflies. Theorectically the increase could also be an effect of the quality of the bait used; however, no deviations were made in the process and fermentation times allotted for the preparation of the bait. Additionally, more butterflies might have been able to be identified due to a lower escape number as numerous traps were created and received repairs prior to the second nine days of sampling. In order to create comparable data since traps had been opened for different durations, the number of individuals being focused on were divided by the number of days the trap was open to provide a ratio. The ratio is reflected as number of individuals caught per day. As shown in Figure 4.3.3, the Nymphalinae sub-family seem to demonstrate an obvious preference, with the highest number of individuals caught at 50m which consistently decreased over to result in containing one of the lowest numbers of individuals caught per day at 400m, with a low number at 0m as well. reflects the preference for slightly disturbed areas. This trend

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Charaxinae individuals slightly preferred the heavily disturbed area of 0m but remained at fairly similar numbers over distance from the road. The distribution of tribes reflects the trends of the sub-families that they are from. For instance, Nymphaliini, as shown in Figure 4.3.4, has low capture numbers 0m from the road, which increases significantly at the traps 50m from the road to steadily decrease the further the traps get from the road. Likewise, Preponini reflects the trend shown by its sub-family,

Charaxinae, by having similar numbers over distance from the road. Figure 4.3.5 shows that individuals in the genus Archeoprepona (Charaxinae: Preponini) preferred the disturbed areas of 0m and 50m from the road, which decreased but then started to increase again 200-400m from the road. Also, 0m traps only caught 0.05 Nessaea (Biblidinae: Epicalini) individuals per day as oppose to the 0.22 individuals caught per day at 50m, showing the disturbance negatively impacted their presence while it maintained higher numbers 50m-400m. Looking at species impacted by the disturbance, Tigridia acesta (Nymphalinae: Nymphaliini) shows a very strong impact of the road‟s presence. By looking at

distribution of the species over distance, it appears there may be particular features present at the 50m that make the habitat more favourable than at 0m and 400m. This could signify that the buffer zone of the road extends between 0-50m from the road, where particular plants might occur but then are not found in less disturbed areas. Additionally, Colobura annulata (Nymphalinae: Nymphaliini) also prefer the conditions found 50m from the road, further showing a potential buffer zone of road impacts. The amount of natural food sources for these butterflies, as well as plant diversity and host plants for many species, (as plant diversity may vary with distance from the road), resulting in impacts on butterfly populations. However, it is interesting to note that both Colobura annulata and Tigridia acesta are from the same sub-family but represent different relationships with the road, signifying that impacts of the road are species dependent. Species diversity is fairly consistent, and reasonably high at 0m and 50m traps. Evenness and Shannon diversity are lowest 100m from the road, which could represent environmental factors that effect one or more species, being a part of a possible road buffer zone.

Due to a lack of inclusive information about specific buffer zone distances, it is suggested that the project is continued at new location sites. A change in distances sampled might help specify the road buffer zone impact. potentially be 0m, 25m, 75m, 125m, 175m and 225m. Site distances could

Recognizing differences in

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season, as long as other project procedures are maintained, data can be compared to the previous project, allowing a more focused look where current data might not be as helpful.

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5. Mammal Research
The Effects of a Minor Road on Non-flying Mammal Communities in a Small Reserve.
5.1. Introduction

The effects of fragmentation within the forest landscape has been reasonably well documented in the past, rising to an overwhelming agreement that it is one of many major driving forces towards habitat loss, population declines and extinction. It has been documented as “a severe threat to tropical rainforests” by Goosem (2007), however still continues today at an unprecedented rate all over the world.

Although not as severe as forest habitat fragmentation caused by neighbouring agriculture, residential and other anthropogenic landscapes, roads still affect rainforest habitats and expose similar edge effects on surrounding plant and animal communities. Not only do roads provide access to remote areas (Goosem, 2007, and Coffin, 2007) and cause more noticeable impacts such as wildlife mortality and injuries through collisions with vehicles (Bisonette and Rosa, 2009), but the effect of roads extends much further beyond its physical boundaries into the forest landscape (Goosem, 2007; Bisonette and Rosa, 2009; Pocock and Lawrence, 2005; Coffin, 2007). Roads can be considered as being “agents of change that have both primary, or indirect effects, as well as secondary, or indirect effects on the biota” (Coffin, 2007). This may entail the displacement of particular species and the reduction of core habitat unaffected by roads. They have been documented to cause internal fragmentation (Goosem, 2007), habitat loss, habitat alteration, facilitation of the spread of exotic flora and fauna species, altered microclimates and vegetation structure, and loss of connectivity (barrier effect) which restricts the movement of individuals (Goosem, 2007; Bisonette and Rosa, 2009; Kindlemannet et al, 2007; Pocock and Lawrence, 2005). These effects have all been associated with altering rainforest faunal habitats, and therefore may affect mammal abundance, diversity and species composition. Mammals, of course, are not the only affected taxa, and the full extent of road impacts could be assessed across multi-taxa studies.

It is the interest of this study to determine if this minor road has any impact on the adjacent rainforest non-flying mammal communities in the Yachana Reserve.

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Aims of the Study  To determine if there are any edge effects caused by the road that significantly impacts the distribution of mammal species in the Yachana Reserve.   To increase knowledge about mammals within the Yachana Reserve. To correlate results with other taxa assessments made in the reserve.

5.2.

Methods

This mammal project began at the beginning of this expedition phase in October 2010. Whilst only two sites have been set up and surveyed (Sites 1 and 3), the project plans to survey four sites, each spaced at 500m intervals along the road which runs through the reserve. Each site consists of five 500m long transects placed at 0m, 25m, 150m, 350m and 700m from the road, following the road contours. Sand pads were

constructed within these sites, and these methods will be further discussed in the Sand Pads section. Visual Encounter Surveys Ten visual encounter survey (VES) transects were also set up across two sites. Each transect had a thin trail cut along it and marked with coloured plastic marker tape for navigation and distance purposes. During Phase 104 eight visual encounter surveys were undertaken between the dates 18th October to 26th November 2010. Nocturnal visual encounter surveys were completed along these transects within the hours 2000-2300 walking at a pace of approximately 300m/hr. Each transect was searched by four observers and visual and audio signs of mammals were recorded. Sand Pads Only one site was sand padded at a time due to limited resources. Each site contained ten sand pads; two pads per 0m, 25m, 150m, 350m and 700m transect placed at 100m in from each end to minimise disturbance from access trails skirting the edges of the transect sites.

Sand pads were circular with a one metre diameter with sand overlain ontop of black plastic sheeting to aid containment, and a bait lure of mashed sardines in a tomato sauce and water solution was poured onto the centre of the pad (Smithsonian Institute, 1996).
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Sand pads were baited at every set up session and daily check (morning and afternoon) with the exception of the very last check when they were packed up. Sand was levelled off and maintained after each check. When prints were detected

photograph and wax moulds were taken of the tracks, and also sketches drawn to show shapes and measurements.

During Phase 104, 20 sand pads across two sites (Sites 1 and 3) were opened for a total of five days and five nights (totalling 50 sand pad days and nights) between the dates 9th to 11th November and between 16th to 19th November 2010.

Site 1 was run for three consecutive days (sand pads open for three days and three nights), although Site 3 was only run for two consecutive days (two days and two nights) due to large amounts of sand being washed away by a storm on the second night. This provoked a revision of the sand pad design where sand pads on Site 1 were set up with a 1m x 2m clear plastic tarp over each sand pad to save sand from rain splash. Sand pads were checked twice daily for diurnal and nocturnal activity between the hours 0630-1000 and 1430-1800.

5.3.

Results and Discussion

Both VES and sand pad survey methods produced effective detection rates for the presence of mammals. Every VES conducted recorded at least one mammal

sighting/audio call, detecting a total of 19 observations with at least six different species (some opossums detected were not able to be identified to species level). A much lower number of individuals and species were recorded for the 350m and 700m VES transects, however it must be noted that only Site 1 was surveyed for these distances (not Site 3) during the past phase. Therefore an incomplete, unbalanced data set is presented below in Table 4.2.1.

Sand padding also produced a number of records, detecting eight observations, including four different species. Moulds and photographs collected from sand padding will also help build up a library database for mammal prints, aiding print/track identification in the future.

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Table 5.3.1 Raw VES data October-December 2010.

Distance from road 0m 25m

Species Observed Dasyprocta fuliginosa, opossum sp. (unID) Dactylomys dactylinus, opossum sp (unID) Potus flavus, opossum sp. (unID), Didelphis marsupialis, armadillo sp. (unID) Opossum sp. (unID), Potus flavus Dactylomys dactylinus, Potus flavus

No. Observations 2 5

No. Species

2 2

150m

4

4

350m 700m

2 2 Total: 15

2 2 Total: ≥6

Table 5.3.2 Raw sand pad data October-December 2010.

Distance from road 0m 25m 150m 350m 700m

Species Observed N/A Nasua nasua Nasua nasua Nasua nasua, rodent (unID) Agouti paca, Dasyprocta fuliginosa, Nasua nasua

No. Observations 0 1 2 2 3 Total: 8

No. Species 0 1 1 2 3 Total:4

Due to the cryptic nature of Neotropical rainforest mammals and the fact that this project is in its very early, initial stages, there is not enough data collected to perform any statistical analysis as yet. This project expects to run over the coming months where future survey work is expected to collect enough data to perform some analysis and draw any conclusions.

5.4.

Mammal Incidentals

GVI continues to document mammal activity in the reserve through incidental sightings and tracks. All mammal species encountered outside of specific mammal surveys

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were recorded. Incidental sightings can be recorded during any survey or project work within the reserve, and also outside of survey or project time during walks into the forest. At the occurrence of each incidence, the time, location, date, species, and any other key characteristics or notes are taken and later entered into a database in camp. Records During this phase, various mammals were encountered and recorded incidentally. These include:              Kinkajou (Potus flavus); Brazilian Forest Rabbit (Silvagus brasiliensis); South American Coati (Nasua nasua); Black Agouti (Dasyprocta fuliginosa); Amazonian Red Squirrel (Sciurus igniventris); Black-mantled Tamarin (Saguinus nigrocollis); Paca (Agouti paca); Nine-banded Armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus); White-tailed Deer (Oclocoileus virginianus); Southern Naked-tailed Armadillo (Cabossous unicinctus); Anderson‟s Gray Four-eyed Opossum (Philander andersoni); Round-eared Bat (Tonatia bidens); Southern Two-toed Sloth (Choleopusdidactylus).

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6. Community Programme
6.1. Introduction

The community programme at GVI Amazon continues to grow and significant advances have been made this Phase 104 (between October and December 2010). Detailed below are the aims and achievements to date for the various community projects being conducted by GVI in the Yachana Reserve and in the surrounding area.

6.2.

Yachana Colegio Técnico (Yachana Technical High School)

GVI continues to work closely with the Yachana Technical High School. GVI welcomes students from the Yachana Technical High School joining the expedition for varying periods. They participate in all aspects of the expedition, including survey work, camp duty and satellite camps. The students are of great assistance during field work,

sharing their knowledge about local uses for plants and local flora and fauna knowledge, as well as helping with the scheduled project work. They share their

culture with volunteers and allow a greater insight into their background. Aims      To provide a cultural exchange between volunteers and Ecuadorian students. To allow volunteers to practice Spanish and high school students to practice their English. To create a greater awareness of the work conducted by GVI in the Yachana Reserve. To enable high school students to gain practical experience in survey techniques. To develop a more formal National Scholarship Programme for Ecuadorian students. Progress for Phase 104 This phase GVI Amazon welcomed three highs school graduates from the Yachana Technical High School to the programme for a period of four weeks each. Alongside this GVI was also able to welcome three pasantes (work placement students) for one week each. The students participated in all camp activities and surveys, as well as undertaking regular Spanish and English exchange sessions with the volunteers.

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Future Plans In order to continue to work towards the aims set out above we hope to increase the interaction between high school students and GVI volunteers by arranging for small groups of the Yachana students to stay at camp for a period of 24 hours for each visit. The groups will stay overnight in the GVI base camp in groups of no more than eight total (including their teacher) and will participate in survey metholody demonstrations as well as English-Spanish and cultural exchanges.

6.3.

TEFL at Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico is a village located approximately twenty minutes walk from the GVI Amazon base camp, along the road that runs through the Yachana Reserve. The school has two classes, a young and older class, and lessons are given twice a week. Aims    To improve the level of English teaching in the local community. To develop and encorporate environmental education for the children at the school. To maintain good connections with the community.

Progress Twelve English classes were given at Puero Rico this phase (between October and December 2010). This resulted in 24 volunteer hours of teaching, to 19 older students (7-13 years old) and 12 younger students (4-7 years old). One conservation class was given druring the expedition. Topics that addressed included: Why is rainforest Important? What happens if you cut down the rainforest? What does GVI do on the Yachana Reserve? Future The next expedition will see the continuation of these lessons, supplemented by an occasional tropical ecology class given at the end of each five weeks.

6.4.

TEFL at Puerto Salazar

Puerto Salazar is a small and under-privilaged communtiy approximately 45 minutes walk from GVI base camp in the Yachana Reserve (beyond the community of Puerto

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Rico). The school is extremely small and the majority of attending children are very young and form just one class. Aims    To begin to build better links with the community at Puerto Salazar. To increase the children‟s exposure to English. To start to develop an English teaching programme to supplement the local teachers. Progress Four informal English classes were given at Puerto Salazar on Saturday afternoons followed by games or football to which the community were invited to join. Future GVI hopes to continue these classes and expand upon them in the future, however GVI are somewhat tied to time and resources and this does bring with it limitations. GVI is aiming to support the communities in the surrounding areas of the Yachana Reserve as much as possible, but is very aware of the limitations due to fluctuations in numbers of volunteers and therefore do not want to over-commit to programmes with the communities. For this reason the work with Puerto Salazar will continue on the

occasions when it is convenient to both the local community and the GVI Amazon schedule, with a view to continuing the work in the future.

6.5.

TEFL at Rio Bueno

Rio Bueno is a new teaching location for GVI Amazon this phase. The school lies at the very Western edge of the reserve and consists of one class with children all of a similar age; from 7 to 12 year olds. The school can be reached on foot from the GVI Amazon base camp, in the Yachana Reserve, in around one hour and a half, or a bus can be taken, which runs from Tena to Cruzchita (and is routed through the reserve road). Aims    To make connections with the community of Rio Bueno. To develop a basic teaching programme for the school. To give weekly English lessons.

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To introduce topics of conservation and environmental awareness to the children.

Progress Seven English lessons were delivered this phase, plus one conservation and environment lesson given in Spanish. The class are extremely willing to learn and we have made a great deal of progress with the level of English given that it is our first decisive contact with this school and community. The teacher is also putting a lot of effort into improving her own level of English knowledge and is taking the class through the work between lessons with volunteers. In order to encourage this type of progress GVI has been providing vocabulary flashcards and posters (made by volunteers) for the English lessons themselves which can then be left with the class and teacher for additional practise between the regular classes that GVI delivers. Future We hope to continue the weekly lessons with Rio Bueno and give environmental presentations each five weeks.

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7. Future Expedition Aims
The biodiversity programme will continue, opportunistically re-surveying sites and expanding the survey areas within the reserve.   Avian research will continue, including point counts and mist-netting. Herpetological research will continue; repeating pitfall trapping and visual encounter surveys.  The butterfly project will continue, examining the effects of road and trail disturbance upon fruit feeding species, in relation to changes in vegetation.  GVI will continue to participate in exchanges with the Yachana Technical High School.  TEFL at Puerto Rico will continue with a defined focus for each ten week block, for each age group, and the aim is to encourage students to put their learning into practise and get them conversing in English.  Simple environmental lessons will be continued at the school in Puerto Rico (to be given in Spanish) and initiated at Rio Bueno.  An expansion of teaching will branch out with weekend lessons at the local community of Rio Bueno and when possible at Puerto Salazar. These lessons will be the basis for a future opportunity of more structured teaching times within this community.  The biggest aim for next phase is to begin to wrap up the current projects in order to start working towards re-structuring the reserve into a grided format. This will allow for a more standardised research surveys and methodologies that will develop into a well structured, long term surveying project.

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8. Scientific Reports and Published Material
In 2009 an ex GVI staff member published an article about an extremely rare glass frog that was found in the Yachana Reserve, during the GVI Amazon expedition in the previous year by GVI volunteers and staff. The article was published in Check List and focuses on the geographic distriubution of Amphibia, Centrolenidae, Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense. The full article can be found at the following link:

http://www.checklist.org.br/getpdf?NGD004-09

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9. References
General References Allen, T., Ginkbeiner, S.L., and Johnson, D.H., 2004. Comparison of detection rates of breeding marsh birds in passive and playback surveys at Lacreek National Wildlife refuge, South Dakota. Waterbirds 27, 277-281. Bennett, A. F., 1991. Roads, roadsides and wildlife conservation: A review. In: Saunders, D. A., Hobbs, R. J. (eds.). Nature Conservation 2: The role of corridors. Chipping Norton, NSW, Australia: Surrey Beatty 99-118. Daszak, P., Berger, L., Cunningham, A.A., Hyatt, A.D., Green, D.E., Speare. R., 1999. Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 5, 735-48. Ehrlich, P. R., Raven, P. H., 1965. Butterflies and plants: A study in co-evolution. Evolution 18: 586-608. Gardner T.A., Fitzherbert E.B., Drewes R.C., Howell K.M., Caro T., 2007. Spatial and temporal patterns of abundance and diversity of an east African leaf litter amphibian fauna. Biotropica 39(1):105-113. Heyer W.R., Donnelly M.A., McDiarmid R.W., Hayek L.A.C., Foster M.S., 1994. Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity - Standard Methods for Amphibians. Kroodsma, D.E., 1984. Songs of the Alder Flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum) and Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) are innate. Auk 101, 13-24. Lacher, T., 2004. Tropical Ecology, Assessment, and Monitoring (TEAM) Initiative: Avian Monitoring Protocol version 3. Conservation International, Washington, DC. www.teaminitiative.org. Menendez-Guerrero P.A., Ron S.R. and Graham C.H., 2006. Predicting the Distribution and Spread of Pathogens to Amphibians. Amphibian Conservation 11:127-128. Ridgely, R.S., Greenfield, P.J., 2001. The birds of Ecuador. Volume I. Status, Distribution, and Taxonomy. Cornell University Press, New York. Sutherland, W.J., 1996. Ecological census techniques: a handbook. University press, Cambridge. Weldon, C., du Preez, L.H., Hyatt, A.D., Muller, R., Speare, R., 2004. Origin of the amphibian chytrid fungus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 10 (Issue 12).

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Field Use References Bartlett, R.D., Bartlett, P., 2003. Reptiles and amphibians of the Amazon. An ecotourist‟s guide. University Press of Florida, Gainsville. Bollino, M., Onore G., 2001. Butterflies & moths of Ecuador. Volume 10a. Familia: Papilionidae. Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito. Carrera, C., Fierro, K., 2001. Manual de monitoreo los macroinvertebrados acuáticos. EcoCiencia, Quito. Carrillo, E., Aldás, S., Altamirano, M., Ayala, F., Cisneros, D. Endara, A., Márquez, C., Morales, M., Nogales, F, Salvador, P., Torres, M.L., Valencia, J., Villamarín, F., Yánez, M., Zárate, P., 2005. Lista roja de los reptiles del Ecuador. Novum Milenium, Quito. de la Torre, S., 2000. Primates of Amazonian Ecuador. SIMBIOE, Quito. DeVries, P.J., 1997. The butterflies of Costa Rica and their natural history. Volume II: Riodinidae. Princeton University Press, Princeton. Duellman, W.E., 1978. The biology of an equatorial herpetofauna in Amazonian Ecuador. The University of Kansas, Lawrence. Eisenberg, J.F., Redford, K.H., 1999. Mammals of the Neotropics: The central Neotropics. Volume 3 Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Emmons, L.H., Feer, F., 1997. Neotropical rainforest mammals. A field guide, second edition. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Moreno E., M., Silva del P., X., Estévez J., G., Marggraff, I., Marggraff, P., 1997. Mariposas del Ecuador. Occidental Exploration and Production Company, Quito. Neild, A.F.E., 1996. The butterflies of Venezuela. Meridain Publications. London. Ridgely, R.S., Greenfield, P.J., 2001. The birds of Ecuador. Volume I. Status, distribution and taxonomy. Christopher Helm, London. Ridgely, R.S., Greenfield, P.J., 2001. The birds of Ecuador. Volume II. A field guide. Christopher Helm, London. Tirira S., D., 2001. Libro rojo de los mamíferos del Ecuador. SIMBIOE/EcoCiencia, Quito. Avian References Barlow, Luiz A. M. Mestre, Toby A. Gardner, Carlos A. Peres. 2006. The value of primary, secondary and plantation forests for Amazonian birds. Biological Conservation 136(2): 212-223.

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Blake and Loiselle. 2000. Diversity of birds along an elevational gradient in the Cordillera Central, Costa Rica. The Auk (3): 663-686. Blake and Loiselle. 2001. Bird assemblages in second and old growth forests Costa Rica, erspectives from mist nets and point counts. The Auk 118(2): 304-326. Blake and Loiselle. 2009. Species Composition of Neotropical Understory Bird Communities: Local versus Regional Perspectives Based on Capture Data. Biotropica 41(1): 85-94. Coffin, A. W. 2007. From roadkill to road ecology: A review of the ecological effects of roads. Journal of Transport Geography 15: 396-406. Miller, S.G., Knight, R.L., and C.K. Miller. 1998. Influence of Recreational Trails on Breeding Bird Communities. Ecological Applications 8(1): 162-169. Ridgely, R.S. and G. Tudor. 2001. Birds of South America. Year Out Group, 2010 http://www.yearoutgroup.org/Year-Out-Group-PressReleases/Volunteering-Tops-Poll-of-Gap-Year-Go%E2%80%93Getters-News.htm 2010. Amphibian References J. Barlow, T. A. Gardner, I. S. Araujo, T. C. Avila-Pires, A. B. Bonaldo, J. E. Costa, M. C. Esposito, L. V. Ferreira, J. Hawes, M. I. M. Hernandez, M. S. Hoogmoed, R. N. Leite, N. F. Lo-Man-Hung, J. R. Malcolm, M. B. Martins, L. A. M. Mestre, R. MirandaSantos, A. L. Nunes-Gutjahr, W. L. Overal, L. Parry, S. L. Peters, M. A. Ribeiro-Junior, M. N. F. da Silva, C. da Silva Motta, and C. A. Peres (2007) Quantifying the biodiversity value of tropical primary, secondary, and plantation forests PNAS vol. 104 no. 47 18555–18560 Beebee, T.J.C., Griffiths, R.A., (2005). The amphibian decline crisis: A watershed for conservation biology? Biological Conservation 125, 271–285. K. E. Bell and M. A. Donnelly (2006) Influence of Forest Fragmentation on Community Structure of Frogs and Lizards in Northeastern Costa Rica Conservation Biology Volume 20, No. 6, 1750–1760 Bridges, C.M., Semlitsch, R.D., (2000). Variation in pesticide tolerance of tadpoles among and within species of Ranidae and patterns of amphibian decline. Conservation Biology 14, 1490–1499. Broomhall, S.D., Osborne, W.S., Cunningham, R.B. (2000). Comparative effects of ambient ultraviolet-B radiation on two sympatric species of Australian frogs. Conservation Biology 14, 420–427. Samuel A. Cushman (2006) Effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on amphibians: A review and prospectus Biological Conservation 128; 231 –240

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Donnelly, M. A., M. H. Chen, and G. C.Watkins. (2005) Sampling amphibians and reptiles in the Iwokrama Forest ecosystem. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 154:55–69. Toby A. Gardner*, Jos Barlow, Carlos A. Peres (2007a) Paradox, presumption and pitfalls in conservation biology: The importance of habitat change for amphibians and reptiles Biological Conservation 138; 166–179 T. A. Gardner, M.A.Ribeiro-Junior, J. Barlow, T. S. Avila-Pires, M.S. Hoogmeod and C. A. Peres (2007b) The Value of Primary, Secondary, and Plantation Forests for a Neotropical Herpetofauna Conservation Biology Vol 21, 3; 775–787 T. A. Gardner, J. Barlow, L. W. Parry, and C. A. Peres (2007c) Predicting the Uncertain Future of Tropical Forest Species in a Data Vacuum BIOTROPICA 39(1): 25–30 2007 Gibbons, J. W., Scott, D. E., Ryan, T. J., Buhlmann, K. A., Tuberville, T. D., Metts, B. S., Greene, J. L., Mills, T., Leiden, Y., Poppy, S. and C. T. Winne. 2000. The global decline of reptiles, deja-vu amphibians. Bioscience 50: 653–667. S.V. Krishnamurthy (2003) Amphibian assemblages in undisturbed and disturbed areas of Kudremukh National Park, central Western Ghats, India Environmental Conservation 30 (3): 274–282 P. B. Pearman (1997) Correlates of Amphibian Diversity in an Altered Landscape of Amazonian Ecuador Conservation Biology, Volume 11, No. 5 Pages 1211–1225 R. Pardini, D. Faria, G. M. Accacio, R. R. Laps, E. Mariano-Neto, M. L.B. Paciencia, M. Dixo, Julio Baumgarten (2009) The challenge of maintaining Atlantic forest biodiversity: A multi-taxa conservation assessment of specialist and generalist species in an agro-forestry mosaic in southern Bahia Biological Conservation 142; 1170-1182 M. Rödel & R. Ernst (2004) MEASURING AND MONITORING AMPHIBIAN DIVERSITY IN TROPICAL FORESTS. I. AN EVALUATION OF METHODS WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR STANDARDIZATION Ecotropica 10: 1–14, Sala, O.E., Chapin, F.S.I., Armesto, J.J., Berlow, E., Bloomfield, J., Dirzo, R., HuberSanwald, E., Huenneke, L.F., Jackson, R.B., Kinzig, A., Leemans, R., Lodge, D.M., Mooney, H.A., Oesterheld, M., Poff, N.L., Sykes, M.T., Walker, B.H., Walker, M., Wall, D.H., (2000). Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100. Science 287, 1770–1774. Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A., Young, B.E., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Fischman, D.L. and Waller, R.W. (2004). Status and trends of amphibians declines and extinctions worldwide. Science 306: 1783-1786. J. N. Urbina-Cardona, M. Olivares-Pe´rez, V. H. Reynoso (2006) Herpetofauna diversity and microenvironment correlates across a pasture–edge–interior ecotone in

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tropical rainforest fragments in the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve of Veracruz, Mexico Biological Conservation 132; 61–75 J. N. Urbina-Cardona (2008) Conservation of Neotropical Herpetofauna: Research Trends and Challenges Tropical Conservation Science Vol.1(4):359-375 Wright SJ (2005) Tropical forests in a changing environment Trends Ecol Evol 20:553– 560. Whitfield SM, Pierce MSF (2005) Tree buttress microhabitat use by a neotropical leaflitter herpetofauna. Journal of Herpetology 39:192-198. Whitfield SM, Bell KE, Philippi T, Sasa M, Bolanos F, Chaves G, Savage JM, DonnellyMA (2007) Amphibian and reptile declines over 35 years at La Selva, Costa Rica Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:8352–8356. Young, B.E., Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A., Boucher, T.M., 2004. Disappearing Jewels: The Status of New World Amphibians. Natureserve, Arlington, VA. Butterfly References Bennett, A. F., 1991. Roads, roadsides and wildlife conservation: A review. In: Saunders, D. A., Hobbs, R. J. (eds.) The role of corridors. Chipping Norton, NSW, Australia: Surrey Beatty. Nature Conservation 2: 99-118. DeVries, P. J., Walla, T. R., 1999. Species diversity in spatial and temporal dimensions of fruit-feeding butterflies from two Ecuadorian rainforests. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 68: 333-353. Ehrlich, P. R., Raven, P. H., 1965. Butterflies and plants: A study in co-evolution. Evolution 18: 586-608. Goosem, M., 2007. Fragmentation impacts caused by roads through rainforests. Current Science 93: 1587-1595. Murray, D. L., 2000. A Survey of the butterfly fauna of Jatun Sacha, Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea). Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 35: 42- 60. Ramos, A. F., 2000. Nymphalid butterfly communities in an Amazonian forest fragment. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 35:29-41. Mammal References Bissonette, J.A. and Rosa, S.A. (2009).Road Zone Effect in Small-Mammal Communities.Ecology and Society 14: 27

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Coffin, A.W.(2007). From roadkill to road ecology: a review of the ecological effects of roads. Journal of Transportation Geography 15:396-406. Eisenberg, J.F. and Redford, K.H. (1999). Mammals of the Neotropics: The Central Neotropics Volume 3: Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil. The University of Chicago Press, USA. Emmons, L.H. (1997). Neotropical Rainforest Mammals: A Field Guide, Second Edition. University of Chicago Press, USA Goosem, M. (2007).Fragmentation impacts rainforests.Current Science 93: 1587-1595 caused by roads through

Pocock, Z., and Lawrence, R.E. (2005). How far into a forest does the effect of a road extend? Defining road edge effect in eucalyupt forests of south-eastern Australia.Pages 397–405 in C. L. Irwin, P. Garrett, and K. P. McDermott, editors. Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Ecology and Transportation. Center for Transportation and Environment, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA. Silveira, L., Jacomo, A.T.A. and Diniz-Filho, A.F. (2003). Camera trap, line transect census and track surveys: a comparative evaluation. Biological Conservation 114:351353 Smithsonian Institute (1996). Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity: Standard Methods for Mammals. 89-93, 158-163

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10. Appendices
10.1 Avian Survey Sites

Map of the Yachana Reserve Showing Mist-netting Sites
01 S = Ridge South, 03 S = East Bambosh, 02 S = Buena Vista South, 06 N = Buena Vista North, (all sites moved to 150m from the road).

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10.2 Yachana Reserve Species List
Updated December 2010. ** added Phase 104 (Brackets) = Auditory confirmation only
CLASS AVES Order Tinamiformes Tinamidae Crypturellus bartletti Crypturellus cinereus Crypturellus soui Crypturellus undulatus Crypturellus variegatus Tinamus major Tinamous Bartlett's Tinamou Cinereous Tinamou Little Tinamou Undulated Tinamou Variegated Tinamou Great Tinamou

Accipiter bicolor** Buteo magnirostris Buteo polyosoma Leucopternis melanops Leucopternis albicollis Spizaetus tyrannus** Spizaetus ornatus

Bicolored Hawk** Roadside Hawk Variable Hawk Black-faced Hawk White Hawk Black Hawk-eagle** Ornate Hawk-eagle

Pandionidae Pandion haliaetus

Osprey Osprey Falcons and Caracaras Black Caracara Red-throated Caracara Yellow-headed Caracara Laughing Falcon Bat Falcon Lined Forest-Falcon Collared Forest-Falcon

Falconidae Daptrius ater Ibycter americanus Milvago chimachima

Order Ciconiformes Ardeidae Ardea cocoi Bubulcus ibis Butorides striatus Egretta caerulea Egretta thula Tigrisoma lineatum Herons and Egrets Cocoi Heron Cattle Egret Striated Heron Little Blue Heron Snowy Egret Rufescent Tiger-Heron

Herpetotheres cachinnans Falco rufigularis Micrastur gilvicollis Micrastur semitorquatus

Order Galliformes Cracidae Ortalis guttata Penelope jacquacu Nothocrax urumutum Curassows, Guans, and Chachalacas Speckled Chachalaca Spix's Guan Nocturnal Curassow New World Quails Marbled Wood-Quail

Cathartidae Cathartes aura Cathartes melambrotus Coragyps atractus Sarcoramphus papa

American Vultures Turkey Vulture Greater Yellow-headed Vulture Black Vulture King Vulture

Odontophoridae Odontophorus gujanensis

Gruiformes Order Falconiformes Accipitridae Elanoides forficatus Ictinia plumbea Leptodon cayanensis Harpagus bidentatus Accipiter superscilious Kites, Eagles, Hawks Swallow-tailed Kite Plumbeous Kite Eurypygidae Gray-headed Kite Eurypyga helias Double-toothed Kite Tiny Hawk Order Charadriiformes Sunbittern Sunbittern Rallidae Anurolimnatus castaneiceps Aramides cajanea Rails, Gallinules, and Coots Chestnut-headed Crake Gray-necked Wood-Rail

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Scolopacidae Actitis macularia Tringa solitaria

Sandpipers, Snipes and Phalaropes Spotted Sandpiper Solitary Sandpiper Plovers and Lapwings Pied Plover

Crotophagidae Crotophaga ani Crotophaga major

Anis Smooth-billed Ani Greater Ani

Recurvirostridae Hoploxypterus cayanus

Order Strigiformes Strigidae Typical Owls Tropical Screech-Owl Tawny-bellied Screech-owl Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl Crested Owl Spectacled Owl

Order Columbiformes Columbidae Claravis pretiosa Columba plumbea Geotrygon montana Leptotila rufaxilla Pigeons and Doves Blue Ground-Dove Plumbeous Pigeon Ruddy Quail-Dove Gray-fronted Dove

Megascops choliba Megascops watsonii Glaucidium brasilianum Lophostrix cristata Pulsatrix perspicillata

Order Caprimulgiformes Order Psittaciformes Psittacidae Ara ararauna Ara severa Amazona farinosa Amazona ochrocephala Brotogeris cyanoptera Aratinga leucophthalmus Aratinga weddellii Pyrrhura melanura Pionites melanocephala Pionopsitta barrabandi Pionus menstruus Pionus chalcopterus Parrots and Macaws Blue-and-Yellow Macaw Chestnut-fronted Macaw Mealy Amazon Yellow-crowned Amazon Cobalt-winged Parakeet White-eyed Parakeet Dusky-headed Parakeet Maroon-tailed Parakeet Black-headed Parrot Orange-cheeked Parrot Blue-headed Parrot Trochilidae Bronze-winged Parrot Glaucis hirsuta Phaethornis bourcieri Order Cuculiformes Phaethornis hispidus Opisthocomidae Opisthocomus hoazin Hoatzin Phaethornis malaris Hoatzin Phaethornis ruber Coccyzidae Piaya cayana Piaya melanogaster Cuckoos Squirrel Cockoo Black-bellied Cuckoo Thrrenetes niger Eutoxeres condamini Heliothryx aurita Reddish Hermit Pale-tailed Barbthroat Buff-tailed Sicklebill Black-eared Fairy Great-billed Hermit White-bearded Hermit Rufous -breasted Hermit Straight-billed Hermit Hummingbirds Nyctibiidae Nyctibius aethereus Nyctibius grandis Nyctibius griseus Potoos Long-tailed Potoo Great Potoo Common Potoo Nightjars and Nighthawks Pauraque Ocellated Poorwill

Caprimulgidae Nyctidromus albicollis Nyctiphrynus ocellatus

Order Apodiformes Apodidae Chaetura cinereiventris Streptoprocne zonaris Swifts Grey-rumped Swift White-collared Swift

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Amazilia franciae cyanocollis Amazilia fimbriata Anthracothorax nigricollis Campylopterus largipennis Campylopterus villaviscensio Eriocnemis vestitus Thalurania furcata Floriduga mellivora Heliodoxa aurescens

Andean Emerald Hummingbird Glittering-throated Emerald Black-throated Mango Grey-breasted Sabrewing Napo Sabrewing Glowing Puffleg Fork-tailed Woodnymph White-necked Jacobin Gould's Jewelfront

Galbula albirostris

Yellow-billed Jacamar

Bucconidae Notharchus macrorynchos Bucco macrodactylus Nystalus striolatus Malacoptila fusca Monasa flavirostris Monasa morphoeus Monasa nigrifrons Chelidoptera tenebrosa

Puffbirds White-necked Puffbird Chestnut-capped Puffbird Striolated Puffbird White-chested Puffbird Yellow-billed Nunbird White-fronted Nunbird Black-fronted Nunbird Swallow-winged Puffbird

Order Trogoniformes Capitonidae Trogonidae Pharomachrus pavoninus Trogon melanurus Trogon viridis Trogon collaris Trogon rufus Trogon violaceus Trogon curucui Trogons and Quetzals Capita aurovirens Pavonine Quetzal Capita auratus Black-tailed Trogon Amazonian White-tailed Trogon Collared Trogon Pteroglossus azara Black-throated Trogon Pteroglossus castanotis
Amazonian Violaceous Trogon

New World Barbets Scarlet-crowned Barbet Gilded Barbet Lemon-throated Barbet

Eubucco bourcierii

Ramphastidae

Toucans Ivory-billed Aracari Chestnut-eared Aracari Lettered Aracari Many-banded Aracari Channel-billed Toucan White-throated Toucan Golden-collared Toucanet Woodpeckers and Piculets Lineated Woodpecker Crimson-crested Woodpecker Red-necked Woodpecker Chestnut Woodpecker Cream-coloured Woodpecker Scale-breasted Woodpecker Spot-breasted Woodpecker Yellow-tufted Woodpecker Lafresnaye's piculet Smoky-brown Woodpecker Little Woodpecker

Pteroglossus inscriptus Blue-crowned Trogon Pteroglossus pluricinctus Ramphastos vitellinus Order Coraciiformes Ramphastos tucanus Motmotidae Baryphthengus martii Electron platyrhynchum Momotus momota Motmots Selenidera reinwardtii Rufous Motmot Broad-billed Motmot Blue-crowned Motmot Picidae Dryocopus lineatus Campephilus melanoleucos Cerylidae Chloroceryle amazona Chloroceryle americana Chloroceryle inda Megaceryle torquata Kingfishers Campephilus rubricollis Amazon Kingfisher Celeus elegans Green Kingfisher Green and Rufous Kingfisher Ringed Kingfisher Chrysoptilus punctigula Melanerpes cruentatus Order Piciformes Picumnus lafresnayi Galibulidae Jacamerops aureus Jacamars Veniliornis fumigatus Great Jacamar Veniliornis passerinus Celeus flavus Celeus grammicus

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Hersilochmus dugandi Order Passeriformes Furnariidae Ancistrops strigilatus Phylidor erythropterum Automolus rubiginosus Automolus ochrolaemus Philydor pyrrhodes Xenops minutus Sclerurus caudacutus Sclerurus mexicanus Sclerurus rufigularis Dendrocolaptidae Ovenbirds Chestnut-winged Hookbill Chestnut-winged Foliagegleaner Ruddy Foliage-gleaner Buff-throated Foliagegleaner Cinammon-rumped Foliage-gleaner Plain Xenops Black-tailed Leaftosser Tawny-throated Leaftosser Short-billed Leaftosser Woodcreepers Black-banded Woodcreeper Amazonian BarredWoodcreeper** Cinnamon-throated Woodcreeper Plain Brown Woodcreeper Wedge-billed Woodcreeper Lineated Woodcreeper Buff-throated Woodcreeper Ocellated Woodcreeper Straight-billed Woodcreeper Typical Antbirds Tyrannidae (Cymbilaimus lineatus** Frederickena unduligera Thamnophilus schistaceus Thamnophilus murinus Megastictus margaritatus Thamnomanes ardesiacus Myrmotherula menetriesii** Myrmotherula brachyura Myrmotherula axillaris Myrmotherula hauxwelli Myrmotherula longipennis Myrmotherula obscura Myrmotherula ornata Fasciated Antshrike**) Zimmerius gracilipes Undulated Antshrike Tyrannulus elatus Plain-winged Antshrike Mionectes oleagineus Mouse-colored Antshrike Pearly Antshrike Hemitriccus zosterops Dusky-throated Antshrike Gray Antwren** Rhynchocyclus olivaceus Pygmy Antwren Tolmomyias poliocephalus White-flanked Antwren Tolmomyias viridiceps Plain-throated Antwren Platyrinchus coronatus Long-winged Antwren Terenotriccus erythrurus Short-billed Antwren Myiobius barbatus Ornate Antwren Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum Leptopogon amaurocephalus Chamaeza nobilis Myrmothera campanisona Cercomacra cinerascens Hypocnemis cantator Hypocnemis hypoxantha Hylophlax naevia Hylophylax poecilinota Dichrozona cincta Schistocichla leucostigma Myrmeciza hyperythra Myrmeciza immaculata Myrmeciza melanoceps Pithys albifrons Gymnopithys leucapis Phlegopsis erythroptera Phlegopsis nigromaculata Myrmornis torquata Formicariidae

Dugand's Antwren Gray Antbird Warbling Antbird Yellow-browed Antbird Spot-backed Antbird Scale-backed Antbird Banded Antbird Spot-winged Antbird Plumbeous Antbird Sooty Antbird White-shouldered Antbird White-plumed Antbird Bicoloured Antibird Reddish-winged Bare-eye Black-spotted Bare-eye Wing-banded Antbird Antthrushes and Antpittas

Dendrocolaptes picumnus Dendrocolaptes certhia Dendrexetastes rufigula Dendrocincla fuliginosa Glyphorynchus spirurus Lepidocolaptes albolineatus Xiphorhynchus guttatus Xiphorhynchus ocellatus Xiphorhynchus picus Thamnophilidae

Formicarius analis

Black-faced Antthrush Striated Antthrush Thrush-like Antpitta

Tyrant Flycatchers Slender-footed Tyrannulet Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet Ochre-bellied Flycatcher Sepia-capped Flycatcher White-eyed Tody-tyrant
Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher

Olivaceous Flatbill Gray-crowned Flatbill Olive-faced Flatbill Golden-crowned Spadebill Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher Whiskered Flycatcher

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Contopus virens Ochthornis littoralis Colonia colonus Attila spadiceus Rhytipterna simplex Myiarchus tuberculifer Myiarchus ferox Pitangus sulphuratus Megarynchus piangu Myiozetetes similis Myiozetetes granadensis Myiozetetes luteiventris Conopias cinchoneti Conopias parva Myiodynastes maculatus Myiodynastes luteiventris Legatus leucophaius Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus Tyrannus melancholicus Tyrannus tyrannus Tyrannus savana Pachyramphus marginatus Pachyramphus viridis Tityra inquisitor Tityra semifasciata Tityra cayana Cotingidae Ampelioides tschudii Iodopleura isabellae Lipaugus vociferans Cotinga cayana Cotinga maynana Gynnoderus foetidus Querula purpurata Pipridae

Eastern Wood-Pewee Drab Water-Tyrant Long-tailed Tyrant Bright-rumped Attila Grayish Mouner Dusky-capped Flycatcher Short-crested Flycatcher Great Kiskadee Boat-billed Flycatcher Social Flycatcher

Pipra erythrocephala Dixiphia pipra Lepidothrix coronata Chiroxiphia pareola Manacus manacus Machaeropterus regulus Chloropipo holochlora Tyranneutes stolzmanni Corvidae

Golden-headed Manakin White-crowned Manakin Blue-crowned Manakin Blue-backed Manakin White-bearded Manakin Striped Manakin Green Manakin Dwarf Tyrant Manakin Crows, Jays, and Magpies

Cyanocorax violaceus Gray-capped Flycatcher Vireonidae Dusky-chested Flycatcher Vireo olivaceus Lemon-browed Flycatcher Turdidae Yellow-throated Flycatcher Streaked Flycatcher Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher Piratic Flycatcher Crowned Slaty Flycatcher Tropical Kingbird Eastern Kingbird Fork-tailed Flycatcher Black-capped Becard White-winged Becard Black-crowned Tityra Masked Tityra Black-tailed Tityra Cotingas Scaled Fruiteater White-browed Purpletuft Screaming Piha Spangled Cotinga Microbates cinereiventris Plum-throated Cotinga Parulidae Bare-necked Fruitcrow Purple throated Fruitcrow Manakins Dendroica aestiva Dendroica striata Catharus minimus Catharus ustulatus Turdus albicollis Turdus lawrencii Hirundinidae

Violaceous Jay Vireos

Red-eyed Vireo Thrushes

Gray-cheeked Thrush Swainson's Thrush White-necked Thrush Lawrence's Thrush Swallows and Martins

Tachycineta albiventer Atticora fasciata Neochelidon tibialis Stelgidopteryx ruficollis Troglodytidae

White-winged Swallow White-banded Swallow White-thighed Swallow Southern rough-winged Swallow Wrens

Donacobius atricapillus Campylorhynchus turdinus Henicorhina leucosticta Microcerculus marginatus Thryothorus coraya Polioptilidae

Black-capped Donacobius Thrush-like Wren White-breasted Wood-wren Southern Nightingale-Wren Coraya Wren
Gnatcatchers and Gnatwrens

Tawny-faced Gnatwren New World Warblers

Yellow Warbler Blackpoll Warbler

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Dendroica fusca Wilsonia canadensis Basileuterus fulvicauda

Blackburnian Warbler Canada Warbler Buff-rumped Warbler

Cissopis leveriana Cardinalidae Cyanocompsa cyanoides Saltator grossus

Magpie Tanager Saltators, Grosbeaks etc Blue-black Grosbeak Slate-colored Grosbeak Buff-throated Saltator Emberizine Finches Yellow-browed Sparrow Lesser Seed-Finch Cardueline Finches Lesser Goldfinch American Orioles, and Blackbirds Yellow-rumped Cacique Solitary Cacique Casqued Oropendola Russet-backed Oropendola Crested Oropendola Green Oropendola Giant Cowbird Orange-backed Troupial Oriole Blackbird

Thraupidae

Tanagers

Saltator maximus Emberizidae

Cyanerpes caeruleus Chlorophanes spiza Dacnis lineata Dacnis flaviventer Hemithraupis flavicollis Euphonia laniirostris Euphonia rufiventris Euponia xanthogaster Euphonia chrysopasta Euphonia minuta Tangara callophrys Tangara velia Tangara chilensis Tangara nigrocincta Tangara mexicana Tangara schrankii Tangara xanthogastra Creugops verticalis Tersina viridis Thraupis episcopus Thraupis palmarum Ramphocelus carbo Ramphocelus nigrogularis Piranaga olivacea Piranaga rubra Habia rubica Tachyphonus cristatus Tachyphonus surinamus Lanio fulvus

Purple Honeycreeper Green Honeycreeper Black-faced Dacnis

Ammodramus aurifrons Oryzoborus angloensis Fringillidae Carduelis psaltria

Yellow-bellied Dacnis Yellow-backed Tanager Thick-billed Euphonia Rufous-bellied Euphonia Orange-bellied Euphonia White-lored Euphonia White-vented Euphonia Opal-crowned Tanager Opal-rumped Tanager Paradise Tanager Masked Tanager Didelphidae Turquoise Tanager Caluromys lanatus Green-and-gold Tanager Yellow-bellied Tanager Rufous-crested Tanager Swallow Tanager Blue-gray Tanager Palm Tanager Silver-beaked Tanager Masked Crimson Tanager Scarlet Tanager Summer Tanager Red-crowned Ant-Tanager Flame-crested Tanager Fulvous-crested Tanager Fulvous Shrike-Tanager Chironectes minimus Didelphis marsupialis Marmosa lepida Micoureus demerarae Philander andersoni Order Xenarthra Myrmecophagidae Cyclopes didactylus Megalonychidae Anteaters Silky Anteater Two-toed Sloths Western Woolly Opossum Water Opossum Common Opossum Little Rufous Mouse Opossum Long-furred Woolly Mouse Opossum Anderson‟s Gray Foureyed Opossum Opossums CLASS MAMMALIA Order Marsupialia Icteridae Cacicus cela Cacicus solitaries Clypicterus oseryi Psarocolius angustifrons Psarocolius decumanas Psarocolius viridis Molothrus oryzivorous Icterus croconotus Gymnomystax mexicanus

Choloepus diadactylus Dasypodidae

Southern Two-toed Sloth Armadillos Southern Naked-tailed Armadillo Nine-banded Armadillo

Cabassous unicinctus Dasypus novemcinctus Order Chiroptera

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Carollinae Carollia brevicauda Carollia castanea

Short-tailed Fruit Bats

Potos flavus Mustelidae Eira barbara

Kinkajou Weasel Tayra

Lontra longicaudis Carollia perspicullatus Rhinophylla pumilio Desmodontinae Desmodus rotundus Short-tailed Fruit Bat Little Fruit Bat Vampire bats Common Vampire Bat Sac-winged/Sheath-tailed Bats White-lined Bat Long tongued bats Long-tongued Bat Spear-nosed Long-tongued Bat Neotropical Fruit bats Large Fruit-eating Bat Order Rodentia Echimyidae Artibeus lituratus Artibeus obscurus Artibeus planirostus Chiroderma villosum Sturrnia lilium Sturnria oporaphilum Uroderma pilobatum Vampyrodes caraccioli Phyllostominae Macrophyllum macrophyllum Large Fruit Bat Large Fruit Bat Large Fruit Bat Big-eyed Bat Hairy-legged Bat Yellow-shouldered Fruit Bat Tent-making Bat Great Stripe-faced Bat Spear-nosed Bats Long-legged Bat Dasyproctidae Dasyprocta fuliginosa Hairy-nosed Bat Myoprocta pratti Spear-nosed Bat Vespertilionid Bats Little Brown Bat Erethizontidae Order Primates Callitrichidae Saguinus nigricollis Cebidae Allouatta seniculus Red Howler Monkey Order Lagomorpha Aotus sp. Cebus albifrons Night Monkey White-fronted Capuchin Leporidae Silvagus brasiliensis** Black-mantled Tamarin Monkeys Coendou bicolor Agoutidae Agouti paca Dactylomys dactylinus Nectomys squamipes Proechimys semispinosus Felidae Herpailurus yaguarundi

Neotropical Otter Cat Jaguarundi

Leopardus pardalis Puma concolor Order Artidactyla Cervidae

Ocelot Puma Even-toed Ungulates Deer

Emballonuridae Saccopteryx bilineata

Glossophaginae Glossophaga soricina

Mazama americana Odocoileus virginianus** Tayassuidae Tayassu tajacu

Red Brocket Deer White-tailed Deer** Peccaries Collared Peccary Rodents

Lonchophylla robusta Stenodermatidae Artibeus jamaicensis

Amazon Bamboo Rat Water Rat Spiny Rat

Sciuridae Sciurus sp. Sciurillus pusillus

Squirrels Amazon Red Squirrel Neotropical Pygmy Squirrel

Agoutis Black Agouti Green Acouchy Paca Paca

Mimon crenulatum Phyllostomus hastatus Vespertilionidae Myotis nigricans

Porcupines Bi-color Apined Porcupine

Hydrochaeridae Hydrochaeirs hydrochaeirs

Capybara Capybara

Rabbits and Hares

Brazilian Rabbit**

Order Carnivora Procyonidae Nasua nasua

Carnivores Raccoon South American Coati

CLASS ANAPSIDA Order Testudines Testudinidae Tortoises and Turtles Tortoises

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Chelonoidis denticulate**

Yellow-footed Tortoise**

Chironius scurruls Clelia clelia clelia

Rusty Whipsnake Musarana Tawny Forest Racer Ornate Snail-eating Snake Big-headed Snail-eating Snake Amazon Egg-eating Snake Common Glossy Racer Banded South American Water Snake Spotted Water Snake Common Blunt-headed Tree Snake Amazon Blunt-headed Tree Snake Common Cat-eyed Snake Brown Parrot Snake White-lipped Swamp Snake Brown Vine Snake Common Swamp Snake Yellow-headed Calico snake Black-headed Calico Snake Banded Calico Snake Amazon Scarlet Snake Common Bird Snake Giant Bird Snake Red-vine Snake Tiger Rat Snake Black-headed Snake Common False Viper Giant False Viper Green-striped Vine Snake

CLASS DIAPSIDA Lizards Gekkonidae Gonatodes concinnatus Gonatodes humeralis Pseudogonatodes guianensis Gymnophthalmidae Alopoglossus striventris Arthrosaura reticulata reticulata Cercosaurra argulus Cercosaura ocellata Leposoma parietale Neusticurus ecpleopus Prionodactylus argulus Prionodactylus oshaughnessyi Bachia trisanale** Iguanas Hoplocercidae Common Forest Lizard Common Streamside Lizard Elegant-eyed Lizard Black-bellied Forest Lizard Collared Forest Gecko Bridled Forest Gecko Amazon Pygmy Gecko

Dendriphidion dendrophis Dipsas catesbyi Dipsas indica Drepanoides anomalus Drymoluber dichrous Helicops angulatus Helicops leopardinus Imantodes cenchoa Imantodes lentiferus Leptodeira annulata annulata Leptophis cupreus Liophis miliaris chrysostomus Oxybelis aeneus Liophis reginae Oxyrhopus formosus White-striped eyed Lizard Oxyrhopus melanogenys Stacy‟s Bachia** Oxyrhopus petola digitalus Pseudoboa coronata Pseustes poecilonotus polylepis Amazon Forest Dragon Pseustes sulphureus Sphlophus compressus Slender Anole Yellow-tongued Forest Anole Amazon Bark Anole Amazon Green Anole Common Forest Anole Spilotes pullatus Tantilla m. melanocephala

Reticulated Creek Lizard

Enyalioides laticeps Polychrotidae Anolis fuscoauratus

Anolis nitens scypheus Anolis ortonii Anolis punctata Anolis trachyderma Scincidae Mabuya nigropunctata

Xenedon rabdocephalus Xenedon severos Xenoxybelis argenteus Viperidae Bothriopsis taeniata

Speckeled Forest Pit Viper Western Striped Forest Pit Viper Fer-de-lance Amazonian Hog-Nosed Lancehead Amazon Bushmaster

Black-spotted Skink

Bothriopsis bilineata bilineata Bothrops atrox

Tropiduridae Tropidurus (Plica) plica Tropidurus (plica) umbra ochrocollaris Teiidae Collared Tree Runner

Bothrocophias hyoprora Lachesis muta muta

Olive Tree Runner Boidae Boa constrictor constrictor Red-tailed Boa

Kentropyx pelviceps

Forest Whiptail Boa constrictor imperator Common Boa Constrictor Amazon Tree Boa Peruvian Rainbow Boa Orange-ringed Coral Snake

Tupinambis teguixin

Golden Tegu Corallus enydris enydris Epicrates cenchria gaigei

Snakes Elapidae Colubridae Micurus hemprichii ortonii Atractus elaps Atractus major Atractus occiptoalbus Chironius fuscus Earth Snake sp3 Earth Snake Earth Snake sp2 Olive Whipsnake Micrurus langsdorfii Micrurus lemniscatus Langsdorffs Coral Snake Eastern Ribbon Coral Snake

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Micrurus spixii spixxi Micurus surinamensis surinamensis Leptomicrurus scutiventris**

Central Amazon Coral Snake Aquatic Coral Snake Pygmy Black Coral Snake**

Dendropsophus rhodopeplus Dendropsophus triangulium Hemiphractus aff. scutatus Hyla lanciformis

Red Striped Tree Frog Variable Clown Tree Frog Casque-headed Tree Frog Rocket Tree Frog

Crocodilians Alligatoridae Paleosuchus trigonatus Caimans Smooth-fronted Caiman

Hyla maomaratus Hylomantis buckleyi Hylomantis hulli Hypsiboas boans Gladiator Tree Frog Convict Tree Frog Common Polkadot Tree Frog Map Tree Frog Rough-skinned Tree Frog Forest bromeliad Tree Frog Common bromeliad Tree Frog Flat-headed bromeliad Tree Frog Amazonian Milk Tree Frog Warty Monkey Frog Barred Monkey Frog White-lined Monkey Tree Frog Fringe lipped Tree Frog Two-striped Tree Frog Common Milk Tree Frog Sheep Frogs Bassler's Sheep Frog

CLASS AMPHIBIA Order Gymnophiona Typhlonectidae Caecilia aff. tentaculata Caecilians

Hypsiboas calcarata Hypsiboas punctatus Hypsiboas geographica Hypsiboas cinerascens Osteocephalus cabrerai complex Salamanders Lungless Salamanders Dwarf Climbing Salamander Osteocephalus cf. deridens Osteocephalus leprieurii Osteocephalus planiceps Trachycephalus resinifictrix

Order Caudata Plethodontidae Bolitoglossa peruviana

Order Anura Bufonidae Rhinella marina Rhinella complex margaritifer Rhinella dapsilis Dendrophryniscus Dendrophryniscus minutus

Frogs and Toads Toads Cane Toad Crested Forest Toad Sharp-nosed Toad Leaf Toads Orange bellied Leaf Toad

Phyllomedusa tarsius Phyllomedusa tomopterna Phyllomedusa vaillanti Scinax garbei Scinax rubra Trachycephalus venulosus Microhylidae Chiasmocleis bassleri

Centrolenidae Centrolene sp.

Glass Frogs undescribed Glass Frog Leptodactylidae Edalorhina perezi Rain Frogs Eyelashed Forest Frog

Cochranella anetarsia Cochranella midas Cochranella resplendens Dendrobatidae Ameerega bilinguis

Glass Frog Glass Frog Glass Frog Poison Frogs Engystomops petersi Leptodactylus andreae Leptodactylus knudseni Leptodactylus mystaceus Ruby Poison Frog Leptodactylus rhodomystax Leptodactylus wagneri Lithodytes lineatus Sanguine Poison Frog Oreobates quixensis Vanzolinius discodactylus Ucayali Rocket Frog Duellmans Poison Frog Tree Frogs Pristimantis aff peruvianus Peruvian Rain Frog Amazonian Rain Frog Chirping Robber Frog Striped-throated Rain Frog Malkini's Rain Frog Amazon Leaf Frog Pristimantis altamazonicus Pygmy Hatchet-faced Tree Frog Upper Amazon Tree Frog Neotropical Marbled Tree Frog Pristimantis conspicillatus Pristimantis lanthanites Pristimantis malkini Strabomantidae Pristimantis acuminatus Moustached Jungle Frog Wagneris Jungle Frog Painted Antnest Frog Common big headed Rain Frog Dark-blotched Whistling Frog Rain Frogs Green Rain Frog Painted Forest Toadlet Cocha Chirping Frog Rose-sided Jungle Frog

Ameerega ingeri Ameerega insperatus Ameerega parvulus Allobates zaparo Colostethus bocagei Colostethus marchesianus Dendrobates duellmani Hylidae Cruziohyla craspedopus

cf. Sphaenorhychus carneus Dendropsophus bifurcus Dendropsophus marmorata

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Pristimantis martiae Pristimantis ockendeni complex Pristimantis sulcatus Pristimantis variabilis Hypnodactylus nigrovittatus Strabomantis sulcatus Ranidae Rana palmipes

Marti's Rain Frog Carabaya Rain Frog Broad-headed Rain Frog

Pieridae Appias drusilla

Dismorphia pinthous Variable Rain Frog Eurema cf xanthochlora Black-banded Robber Frog Perrhybris lorena Broad-headed Rain Frog Phoebis rurina True Frogs Lycaenidae Neotropical Green Frog Celmia celmus

Janthecla sista CLASS ARACHNIDA Thecla aetolius Araneae Thecla mavors Nephila clavipes Ancylometes terrenus Golden Silk Spider Riodinidae Giant Fishing Spider Amarynthis meneria CLASS INSECTA Order Grylloptera Panacanthus cuspidatus Spiny Devil Katydid

Ancyluris endaemon Ancyluris aulestes Ancyluris etias Anteros renaldus

Order Hemiptera Dysodius lunatus Lunate Flatbug

Calospila cilissa Calospila partholon Calospila emylius

Order Coleoptera Euchroma gigantea Homoeotelus d'orbignyi Scarabaeidae Canthon luteicollis Deltochilum howdeni Dichotomius ohausi Dichotomius prietoi Eurysternus caribaeus Eurysternus confusus Eurysternus foedus Eurysternus inflexus Eurysternus plebejus Giant Ceiba Borer Pleasing Fungus Beetle

Calydna venusta Cartea vitula Emesis fatinella Emesis lucinda Emesis mandana Emesis ocypore Eurybia dardus Eurybia elvina Eurybia franciscana Eurybia halimede Eurybia unxia Hyphilaria parthenis Isapis agyrtus Ithomiola floralis

Order Lepidoptera Papilionidae Battus belus varus Battus polydamas Papilio androgeus Papilio thoas cyniras Parides aeneas bolivar Parides lysander Parides pizarro Parides sesostris

Lasaia agesilaus narses Lasaia pseudomeris Leucochimona vestalis Livendula amaris Livendula violacea Lyropteryx appolonia Mesophthalma idotea Mesosemia loruhama Mesosemia latizonata Napaea heteroea

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Nymphidium mantus Nyphidium nr minuta Nymphidium lysimon Nymphidium balbinus Nymphidium caricae Nymphidium chione Pandemos pasiphae Perophtalma lasus Pirascca tyriotes Rhetus arcius Rhetus periander Sarota chrysus Sarota spicata Setabis gelasine Stalachtis calliope Stalachtis phaedusa Synargis orestessa

Dynamine athemon Dynamine gisella Ectima thecla lerina Eunica alpais Eunica amelio Eunica clytia Eunica volumna Hamadryas albicornus Hamadryas arinome Hamadryas chloe Hamadryas feronia Hamadryas laodamia Nessaea obrina Nessaea batesii Nessaea hewitsoni Nica flavilla Panacea prola Panacea regina

Nymphalidae Nymphalinae Anartia amathae Anartia jatrophae Baeotus deucalion Eresia eunice Eresia pelonia Eresia (Phyciodes) plagiata Historis odius Historis acheronta Metamorpha elisa Metamorpha sulpitia Siproeta stelenes Smyrna blomfildia Tigridia acesta Colobura annulata Colobura dirce Biblidinae Biblis hyperia

Paulogramma peristera Phrrhogyra amphiro Pyrrhogyra crameri Pyrrhogyra cuparina Pyrrhogyra cf nasica Pyrrhogyra otolais Temenis laothoe Charaxinae Agrias claudina Archaeoprepona amphimachus Archaeoprepona demophon Archaeoprepona demophon muson Archaeoprepona licomedes Consul fabius Hypna clytemnestra Memphis phantes Memphis arachne Memphis oenomaus Memphis philomena

Callicore cynosura Catonephele acontius Catonephele antinoe Catonephele esite Catonephele numilia Diaethria clymena Dynamine aerata Dynamine arthemisia

Memphis offa Prepona eugenes Prepona dexamenus Prepona laertes Prepona pheridamas Zaretis isidora Zaretis itys Coenophlebia fabius

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Cyrestinae Marpesia berania

Euptychia renata Hermeuptychia hermes Magneuptychia analis

Marpesia crethon Marpesia petreus Apaturinae Doxocopa agathina

Magneuptychia libye Magneuptychia ocnus Magneuptychia ocypete Magneuptychia tiessa Pareuptychia hesionides Pareuptychia ocirrhoe Taygetis cleopatra Taygetis echo Taygetis mermeria Taygetis sosis Sosis Satyr Morphos Cleopatra Satyr Echo Satyr

Doxocopa griseldis Doxocopa laurentia Doxocopa linda Limenitidinae Adelpha amazona

Adelpha cocala Adelpha cytherea Adelpha erotia Adelpha iphicleola Adelpha iphiclus Adelpha lerna Adelpha melona Adelpha mesentina Adelpha naxia Adelpha panaema Adelpha phrolseola Adelpha thoasa Adelpha viola Adelpha ximena Satyrinae Haeterini Satyrs and Woodnymphs

Morphini Antirrhea hela Antirrhea philoctetes avernus Morpho achilles Morpho deidamia Morpho helenor Morpho menelaus Morpho peleides Morpho polycarmes Brassolini Bia actorion Caligo eurilochus Caligo idomeneus idomeneides Caligo illioneus Caligo teucer Caligo placidiamus Catoblepia berecynthia Catoblepia cassiope Catoblepia generosa Catoblepia soranus Catoblepia xanthus Catoblepia xanthicles Opsiphanes invirae Heliconinae Acraeini

Common Brown Morpho

Cithaerias aurora Cithaerias menander Cithaerias pireta Haetera macleannania Haetera piera Pierella astyoche Pierella hortona Pierella lamia Pierella lena Pierella lucia Euptychiini Caeruleuptychia scopulata Chloreuptychia agatha Chloreuptychia herseis Euptychia binoculata Euptychia labe Euptychia myncea

Passion Vine Butterflies

Actinote sp. Heliconiini Dryas iulia Eueides eunice Eueides isabella Eueides lampeto Eueides lybia

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Heliconius erato Heliconius hecale Heliconius melponmene Heliconius numata Heliconius sara Heliconius xanthocles Heliconius doris Philaethria dido Danainae Danaini

Danaus plexippus Ithomiini Aeria eurimidea Ceratinia tutia Hypoleria sarepta Hyposcada anchiala Hyposcada illinissa Hypothyris anastasia Hypothyris fluonia Ithomia amarilla Ithomia salapia Mechanitis lysimnia Mechanitis mazaeus Mechanitis messenoides Methona confusa psamathe Methone cecilia Oleria gunilla Oleria ilerdina Oleria tigilla Tithorea harmonia

© GVI – Ecuador, Yachana Reserve, September- December 2010

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