You are on page 1of 10

Homework 3



Submitted By:
Submitted To:

Pal winder Singh Miss Gurleen




Q1. What are the steps involved in prototyping? Explain with an

Prototyping: Prototyping is the process of building a model of a
system. In terms of an information system, prototypes are employed
to help system designers build an information system that intuitive
and easy to manipulate for end users. Prototyping is an iterative
process that is part of the analysis phase of the systems development
life cycle.
During the requirements determination portion of the systems
analysis phase, system analysts gather information about the
organization's current procedures and business processes related the
proposed information system. In addition, they study the current
information system, if there is one, and conduct user interviews and
collect documentation. This helps the analysts develop an initial set of
system requirements.
Prototyping can augment this process because it converts these basic,
yet sometimes intangible, specifications into a tangible but limited
working model of the desired information system. The user feedback
gained from developing a physical system that the users can touch
and see facilitates an evaluative response that the analyst can employ
to modify existing requirements as well as developing new ones.
Software Prototyping Steps

Step 1: Evaluate whether the software to be developed is a good

candidate for prototyping
Step 2: Analyst develops an abbreviated representation of the
Step 3: After requirements model review, create abbreviated design
Step 4: Create, test, and refine prototype
Step 5: Prototype presented to and tested by customer
Step 6: Iterate steps 4 and 5

Q2.As a designer which areas will you focus for designing?

1. Specify the Logical Design Elements
2. Support Business Activities
3. Ensure that System Features meet User Requirements
4. Provide a System Engineered for Ease of use by People
5. Provide Detailed Software Development Specifications
6. Conform to Design Standards
Q3. Draw a DFD for an examination system?
Lower Level

higher level
Higher level

Q-4 How CASE tools can help in a system development?

Ans the output is a formatted report or a simple listing of the contents
of a file; computer process will produce the output

System output:

1) A report
2) A document
3) A message

Depending on the circumstance and contents, the output may be

displayed or printed
Output contents originate from these sources:
1) retrieved from a data store
2) Transmission from a process or system activity
3) Directly from an input source

The data flow diagram is annotated indicate output design concerns.

They also indicate the need for multiple copies, multipart form, and
other design details

Ans.: Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE Tool)

Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools offer many

benefits for developers building large-scale systems. As spiralling
user requirements continue to drive system complexity to new levels,
CASE tools enable software engineers to abstract away from the
entanglement of source code, to a level where architecture and design
become more apparent and easier to understand and modify. The
larger a project, the more important it is to use a CASE tool in
software development.

As developers interact with portions of a system designed by their

colleagues, they must quickly seek a subset of classes and methods
and assimilate an understanding of how to interface with them. In a
similar sense, management must be able, in a timely fashion and from
a high level, to look at a representation of a design and understand
what's going on. For these reasons, CASE tools coupled with
methodologies give us a way of representing systems too complex to
comprehend in their underlying source code or schema-based form.

Select Business Solutions has been developing and building these

CASE tools since the late 1980s, as well as developing processes and
methods to support high quality application development.
Solution Breakdown

Select Architect - a Business Process Modeling (BPM/BPMN),

Unified Modeling Language (UML), and Data (ERD/TRD) Modeling
Select Solution Factory - couples the modeling power of Select
Architect with code synchronization and software asset management

Select SSADM - a Structured Systems Analysis and Design

Methodology CASE Tool
Select Yourdon - a real time CASE Tool supporting the Yourdon,
Hatley-Pirbhai and Ward-Mellor real-time extensions

Q-5 Explain the various types of outputs?

Q-6 Elaborate various uses of prototyping with live examples?
Software prototyping refers to the activity of creating prototypes of
software applications, i.e., incomplete versions of the software
program being developed. It is an activity that can occur in software
development and is comparable to prototyping as known from other
fields, such as mechanical engineering or manufacturing.
Outline of the prototyping process

The process of prototyping involves the following steps

Identify basic requirements

Determine basic requirements including the input and output

information desired. Details, such as security, can typically be

Develop Initial Prototype

The initial prototype is developed that includes only user
interfaces. (See Horizontal Prototype, below)


The customers, including end-users, examine the prototype and

provide feedback on additions or changes.

Revise and Enhance the Prototype

Using the feedback both the specifications and the prototype can
be improved. Negotiation about what is within the scope of the
contract/product may be necessary. If changes are introduced then a
repeat of steps #3 and #4 may be needed.

A prototype typically simulates only a few aspects of the final

solution, and may be completely different from the final product.

Prototyping has several benefits: The software designer and

implementer can get valuable feedback from the users early in the
project. The client and the contractor can compare if the software
made matches the software specification, according to which the
software program is built. It also allows the software engineer some
insight into the accuracy of initial project estimates and whether the
deadlines and milestones proposed can be successfully met. The
degree of completeness and the techniques used in the prototyping
have been in development and debate since its proposal in the early