‫ ض آ

 ر ‪1‬‬
‫ذ ‪ .‬اال‬
‫( ' ا‪ /‬ا‪- 1)2 – ,-.‬‬

‫ 
ى ‪ :‬ا) ( ' ( 'ي ‪$%‬ه ع ‪ .‬ح ‪ .‬أ‬
‫ا م ا ‬
‫‪91%‬و'‪ 6 7‬ا‪www.ibnalkhtib2.canalblog.com :  45‬‬

‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ‪1‬‬

‫! و ذ‪# )  
،‬‬
‫ &אل‪ (1‬‬
‫‪ (1‬ﻧﺤﺪﺙ ﻣﻮﺟﺔ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺣﺒﻞ ﻣﺮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ ) ﺷﻜﻞ ‪(1‬ﻣﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻈﺔ ‪ . t1‬ﻧﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻈﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺒﻊ ‪ S‬ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻈﺔ ‪ t1‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻓﺼﻮﻝ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺔ ‪ x1 = 0,5 m‬ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻓﺼﻮﻝ ‪ x2 = 1,2m‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻈﺔ ‪t1 + τ‬‬

‫= ‪t2‬‬

‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬

‫‪70ms =τ‬‬
‫‪ (11‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﻞ ﻣﻮﺟﺔ ﻣﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ (21‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺔ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﻞ ﻫﻲ ‪V 1 = 10 m.s-1 :‬‬
‫‪ (3.1‬ﻣﺪﺓ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻫﻲ‪ ) θ = 0,030 s :‬ﻣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺔ(‬
‫‪ (2‬ﻧﺤﺪﺙ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺮﻑ ‪ S‬ﺍﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯﺍ ﺗﺮﺩﺩﻩ ‪ f = 100Hz‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺒﻴﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪.2‬‬
‫‪ (1.2‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﻞ ) ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﻌﺘﺒﺮﻩ ﻻ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ (‪.‬‬
‫‪ (2.2‬ﺃﻭﺟﺪ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺔ ‪ λ‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺔ ‪V2‬‬
‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ‪2‬‬
‫ﻧﺤﺪﺙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺟﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺟﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﺗﺮﺩﺩ‪f = 40 Hz‬‬
‫‪(1‬ﻣﺎ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺛﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬
‫) ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪(3‬‬
‫‪ (2‬ﻧﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻤﺎﺭ ﺑﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻄﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻧﻀﻊ ﺣﺎﺟﺰﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺽ‬
‫) ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪(4‬‬
‫‪ (1.2‬ﻣﺎﺇﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻬﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﻂ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎ ﻟﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (2.2‬ﺍﺭﺳﻢ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﻜﻞ ‪ 4‬ﺗﺒﺮﺯ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (3.2‬ﻫﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺮﺩﺓ ؟ ﺗﺤﺪﺙ ﺑﺈﻳﺠﺎﺯ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻜﻮﻥ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻱ ﻟﻠﺤﻮﺽ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺀ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻧﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺤﺪﺙ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺣﻤﻀﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﻳﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﻛﺮﻭﻣﺎﺕ ‪ Cr2O72-‬ﻭ ﺃﻳﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪ ‪II‬‬
‫‪Fe2+.‬‬
‫ﻧﻤﺰﺝ ‪ 120ml‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﻛﺮﻭﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺗﺎﺳﻴﻮﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰﻩ‪ c0 = 0,05 mol.L-1 :‬ﻣﻊ ‪ 130ml‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻛﺒﺮﻳﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪ ‪ II‬ﺫﻭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ‪ . Cr = 0,5mol.L-1‬ﻧﺤﺼﻞ ﻛﻨﻮﺍﺗﺞ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ‪ Cr3+aq :‬ﻭ ‪ . Fe3+aq‬ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻭﻡ ‪ III‬ﻣﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬

‫‪ (1‬ﺃﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺘﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (2‬ﺍﻋﻂ ﻋﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﺣﺮﻛﻴﻴﻦ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺻﻞ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (3‬ﺍﻣﻸ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻭﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ‪.‬‬
‫اد‬
‫ا م‬
‫)‪x (mol‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫ا ‬
‫ا  ا ‬
‫)‪(mol‬‬

‫‪x‬‬

‫>=ل ا
‪5‬ل‬

‫‪x max‬‬

‫ا  ا‬

‫ت‪.‬ع‬

‫)‪(mol‬‬

‫‪ @ (4‬ف ا @ ا‪ A15‬ا‪V R 4@  
A‬و @‪D% @ G /@ C‬ن أ' ت ا‪ D‬وم ‪H9 V(Cr3+aq ) : III‬‬
‫‪ @ G‬ا 
@‪.4‬‬
‫‪ (5‬ا@
‪ A‬دا @‪ K‬ا‪ K)5)A‬أو‪ 9J‬ا @ ا 
@‪ 9)@ 4‬ا‪t = 18 s I5‬‬
‫‪ (6‬ا‪ ,P‬ا
آ ا‪NO‬ي ‪ 'M‬ت ا‪ D‬وم ‪. III‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

: ,)‫ و ا‬GU‫ا‬

QR 9   5 
‫ ور ا‬6 ‫ ار‬ST‫ د ه‬%

:

www.ibnalkhtib2.canalblog.com

‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﻲ‬ 
1 
(1 
‫ ل‬%!
)‫ *א‬+ ! ,-!‫א‬./0 ‫ن‬#'!( ‫ لو‬%!
&‫
" ! و د‬# 
  ‫אאא‬1
X 2 − X 1 = V (t 2 − t1 ) ⇒ V = 

 l = V .θ ⇒ θ =

X 2 − X1

τ

=

1.2 − 0,5
-1
= 10ms −1 ‫ن‬M V = 10ms 2 -!
)‫א‬3
(1 .1
0,07

l 0,5 − 0,2
=
= 0,03s  0+ "+ ‫لאو‬678 5&‫  א‬5&
‫א‬،
(1.3
V
10 

(2 
2‫(אאא    
 !אودو‬2.1 
 

V = λ.N = 0,2.100 = 20m.s −1 :‫א‬2 -!
‫א‬3,0 ‫ و‬λ = 20cm = 0,2m ‫لא‬6   
(2.2 
2 
,0 ‫ و‬λ = 0,5cm  "! ‫ل‬6>‫دא‬2‫ <א ;  !אدو‬.3=+:‫( אא‬1 
 V = λ.N = 0,5.10 −2.40 = 0,20m.s −1 
 (2 

%=,8?  "!@‫ د‬A +03‫א‬B C‫א‬DE3C 0‫א‬FG H‫א‬IGJ‫אد‬FG KIG%=‫ א‬G"H‫א‬FG H‫א‬2.1 
(2.2 

3.2)  

 FG H‫ددא‬.3‫'ددא ض‬+03‫ لא ضو‬P!‫א‬Q(‫א‬+FG K)F‫د‬L‫א‬7 8FG H‫א‬0   M) 
(R 8ST  
FG H‫א ددא‬+5‫  نددא ض‬+03) G K 

; P ‫א‬ 
:‫و 
! ن‬U V‫(א د! نא‬1
2−

Cr2O7 + 14 H + + 6e − → 2Cr 3+ + 7 H 2O 

Fe 2+ + 1e − → Fe 3+
3 

Cr2 O7

2−

+ 14 H + + 6 Fe 2+ → 2Cr 3+ + 7 H 2 O + 6 Fe 3+  

F2‫אא‬2‫ود‬W&3 X!PI‫و‬#‫?א‬SU‫א‬:S‫( אא א‬1 
IXZ‫ولא‬+Y‫( א‬2 

Cr 2 O 7 

‫اد‬ 
‫ا‬  
‫ا  ا‬

2−

+ 6 Fe

2+

→ 2 Cr

3+

+ 7 H 2 O + 6 Fe

3+

x (mol)
C0.V0=6.10-3

‫ل‬5 
‫>=ل ا‬

x

6.10-3-X 

‫ا  ا‬

x max

6.10-3-Xmax

(mol)

+

‫ا م‬

0

(mol)

+ 14 H

‫ ة‬WWWWWWWW Cr Vr=6,5.10-2
‫ ة‬WWWWWWWW 6,5.10-2 - X
‫ ة‬WWWWWWWW 6,5.10-2 -6Xmax
2,9.10-2mol

0

‫ع‬.‫ت‬

0

‫ ة‬WWWWWWWW

0

2X

‫ ة‬WWWWWWWW

6X

2Xmax

‫ ة‬WWWWWWWW

6Xmax

12.10-3

18.10-2 

W ‫א و‬I> 0=W 
[G+:‫ א‬3 X!‫א‬ 
I3 X!‫\א`א‬TV‫مو‬+%!‫_ א‬x 

]T v =

1 dx
V dt ‫א‬P\‫א‬3(‫(א‬4

2−

n(Cr 3+ ) n(Cr2 O7 ) n( Fe 2+ ) n( Fe 3+ )
=
=
=
2
1
6
6
3+
2+
V (Cr )
V ( Fe ) V ( Fe 3+ )
2−

= V (Cr2 O7 ) =
=
= Vreaction 
2
6
6
⇒ V (Cr 3+ ) = 2Vréaction 

‫ א د‬ 

‫ س‬PP,‫א א‬P5‫( و‬H/‫א‬BbG+033(‫א‬P5t =18s H/‫א‬+03‫ س‬P‫  א‬5&
‫وא‬.0/0‫( א‬5 
 V (Cr 3+ ) = 


(40 − 25).10 −3
= 8,33.10 − 4 mol.l −1
18 − 0  

III‫א وم‬W 
#A%‫?א‬SU‫(א‬6  

[Cr 3+ ] =

nmax 2 X max
12.10 −3
=
=
= 4.8.10 − 2 mol.L−1
−3
VS
VS
(120 + 130).10

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