Annex-IV

Case Studies
Case-1: Sardikhola-Puranchaur Irrigation System
Location: Sardikhola-Puranchaur Irrigation System lies in the northern part of Kaski District in the western mid hills. The construction of the irrigation scheme was undertaken in 2047 BS and prior to this time irrigation was possible only during monsoon through several temporary canals developed by the large landholderws. The source of water supply for the system is Sardi Khola which is a perennial stream. The command area of the system lies in two VDCs which include 150 ha in Ward No. 1 of Bhurjung Khola VDC and 350 ha in Ward Nos. 6,7,8 and 9 of Puranchaur VDC. Since the area under the irrigation command is large in Puranchaur VDC irrigation water is allocated for 24 hours in Bhurjung Khola and for 48 hours in Puranchaur area. The total number of households within Puranchaur VDC alone is 687 and the households who are direct beneficiary of this irrigation system is about 500.

Fig1: Intake of Sardikhola-Puranchaur Irrigation System

Historical Context: In Puranchaur, prior to the development of the irrigation scheme, irrigation was neither reliable nor accessible to the most farmers. Large landholders used to develop earthen canals during the monsoon to grow monsoon rice which were called Sahu Kulo (Sahu is the word in the local parlance, used in the hills of Nepal to mean large landholders and also those economically well to do). Others could access

irrigation only when there was excess water in the canal and after Sahus would complete irrigation in their fields. These canals were essentially private canals. The farmers in the area made written request for support for the development of the irrigation system as early as in 1980 through the then Pradhanpanch of the village council. The first option for irrigation that was thought of was obtaining water from Bhurjung Khola located in the adjoining Bhurjung Khola VDC. However, the farmers in Bhurjung Khola did not agree to share water from the source with the fear that this might reduce water supply in their canal developed from the same source. As an alternative option, developing irrigation canal from Sardi Khola was thought of. Sardi Khola though located far from Puranchaur VDC was relatively larger stream with dependable flow even during the dry season. The construction of the irrigation system was taken up in 1991 under Nepal Irrigation Sector Project (NISP) that was completed in 1997. The farmers contributed 1% of the total cost as upfront cash and mobilized 6% equivalent of labor in the construction. Socioeconomic Settings: All the users are the original inhabitants of the area. The Brahmin and Chhettri are in majority who constitute around 60% of the beneficiary households while Gurung constitute another 15% of the households and remaining are people of other castes. In Puranchaur the source of supplemental earning for most households is jobs in the government and private organizations while in Bhurjung Khola, which is inhabited by Gurung households, foreign employment in the British and Indian armed forces and remittance from pension have been sources of supplemental earnings.

Fig 2: Command area in a) Bhurjung Khola VDC and b) Puranchaur VDC As many as 25% of the households in the command area have landholding size larger than 20 ropanies (20 ropani is roughly equal to 1 ha) while majority of the households (60%) have landholding size between 10 to 20 ropanies and about 14% of the households have landholding size smaller than 10 ropani. Around 1% of the households in the command area are landless. As many as 90% of the farmers are owner operator who cultivate their land themselves while 9% of the households, especially those

with smaller landholding size, also practice share cropping or contract farming. The landless households essentially make their living through agricultural wage earning.

Water Users’ Association: The WUA in the system was formed and registered in 2047 BS at the time of initiation of the construction works under NISP support. The executive committee of the WUA consists of 11 functionaries where two seats are reserved for women. The selection of the functionaries in the executive committee is made though election in the general assembly of the users which is conducted after every 3 years. There are 6 branch canals in Puranchaur and 7 in Bhurjung Khola VDC. Each branch canal has a branch level committee that consisting of 5 to7 functionaries who are responsible for the distribution of water among the users within each branch canal.

Resource Mobilization: Initially, ‘Jhara’ system, which was a system of compulsory labor mobilization was practiced in the irrigation system, wherein each household was required to send one able men in the household to work at the time of annual desilting of the canal or in case of the needs for emergency repair and maintenance of the system. With time, the trend of households sending women, children and elderly people for work in the canal started increasing that started undermining the labor mobilization for the maintenance and upkeep of the system. In order to ensure equity in labor mobilization, the WUA decided to collect cash for the annual and emergency repair and maintenance, based on landholding size from among the users, rather than compulsory labor mobilization. At present, WUA collects NRs 100 per ropani of irrigated land as an Irrigation Service Fee. Out of this, NRs 25 per ropani is allocated for the annual canal maintenance and desilting operation which is carried out before the start of the monsoon. The canal is cleaned and desilted (Fig. 3) by hiring labor on daily wage basis who are paid in cash based on the prevailing wage rate. The labors hired to work in the canal are the farmers themselves, especially those landless and with smaller landholding size. The remaining cash raised from the users is used in paying permanent employees and in buying construction materials for permanent construction in the system. WUA is responsible for maintaining the records of the income and expenses which is presented in the general assembly of the users called annually. A water guard (Pani Heralo or Pani Pale) has been appointed by the WUA who works as a permanent employee in the system. The water guard is responsible for regular maintenance and monitoring of the canal operation and also accomplishing minor repair in the system on day to day basis. In the monsoon season, when the work load of the water guard increases, WUA appoints 4 other ‘pani heralos’ on temporary basis for the period of four months from June to September. The permanent ‘pani heralo’ is paid Rs. 3,000 per month while those employed temporarily during the four monsoon months are paid Rs. 5,000 per month. At the time of construction of the irrigation system, a building was constructed to house the office of the WUA (Fig. 4 b). Similarly another single room building was constructed near the

intake for use by the water guards (Fig 4, a). Both these buildings are not in use by the WUA because of their location away from the settlement.

Fig 3: Desilted Main Canal before the start of Monsoon

Fig.4: Deserted Buildings at a) intake site and b) Puranchour VDC

The irrigation system has undergone serious to very serious physical damages in the past due to flood events. The major flood events in the memory of the people that have resulted to serious damage in the system have been floods of 1999, 2000 and 2007. The WUA has succeeded taking up rehabilitation and restoration works of the flood damage on its own without any external assistance. The cash spent by the WUA in the flood damage rehabilitation and restoration works to date has been over Rs 2,000,000. Initiation of Multiple Water Use System and Multifunctional Engagements of WUA Water Mill: There are two water mills in operation in the systems that use water from the main canal to operate the runner of the water mill. The first one was developed in 2002 in Puranchaur. Another water mill was developed in Bhurjung Khola in 2005. Prior to the development of the water mills people in the

area were required to walk about 4 km to reach to another water mill located at Sardi Khola. With the water mills developed within the command area, the drudgery of the people in carrying gains for grinding to long distance has reduced. The water mills are operated by local entrepreneur who pay a fee of Rs. 200 per month to the WUA. Of the two water mills, the one at Bhurjung Khola is operational year round except for the period of annual desilting of the canal while the mill at Puranchaur is in operation for almost four months after the harvest of maize and used for grinding of maize. About 50 households are directly benefited by each of these water mills.

Fig.5: Water mill at Bhurjung Khola VDC The WUA had planned developing a micro-hydropower plant in Bhurjung Khola at the site where the second water mill is located. Since the VDC was electrified with the national grid supply, the WUA decided not to invest in developing the micro-hydropower plant.

Fig.6: Water mill at Puranchaur VDC

Co-operative: Prior to 1994, the farmers in the area had to rely on local money lenders for their needs of credit. Though the people in the area had started a cooperative institution- Paropakar Sahakari Sanstha at Lamachaur as early as in 1960, this could serve only limited households. Realizing this need, the WUA decided to initiate a Saving and Credit Cooperative in 1994 which was named Janasewa Saving and Credit Co-operative Ltd. At present this cooperative institution is located in its own building in Ward No. 7 of Puranchaur VDC. This cooperative started with 65 members with initial share capital of Rs. 6,500 has now grown into a full saving and credit cooperative with capital of 12.31 million and capacity of advancing credit up to Rs. 500,000 on request of the farmers at an interest rate of 13%. The office of the WUA is also located in the cooperative building. With the availability of dependable irrigation in the system upon construction of the system in 1991, the level of income of farmers started increasing. This also led to increasing the demands for seeds, fertilizers and other production inputs in the command area of the system. Since the command area of the system is far from the market centers, this created incentive for the farmers to invest in developing a cooperative institution. For about 5 years from the establishment, all the functionaries of the cooperative, most of who were also the functionaries of WUA, worked voluntarily without any monetary incentives. The general practice was to complete all the accounts on the first day of every month. This helped them reducing the administrative cost by not appointing any paid employee for maintaining the account that kept the cooperative in the operation in the initial stage. With the increase in the number of shareholders and clients to serve, the work load of the cooperative started increasing. At present the cooperative is operated by three permanent employees, who include a manager, an assistant and a helper. The co-operative has one executive committee consisting of 15 functionaries for the policy and management decisions. Three sub-committees of the executive committee have been made responsible for specific functions in the cooperative. These include; i) Loan Sub-Committee consisting of 5 members, ii) Accounts and Monitoring Sub-Committee comprising of 3 members, and iii) Education Sub-Committee with 5 members. The co-operative has started different types saving schemes for the people in the area, serving the interest of clients of different age group and occupation. These include- monthly savings, children savings, fixed deposit saving, special saving and petty cash (khutruke) savings. The number of people maintaining different kinds of the saving accounts in the cooperative as in the beginning of 2010 is shown in Table- 1. Table 1: Members in the Saving Schemes of the Cooperative S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Type of Saving Scheme Monthly Saving Children Saving Fixed deposit Saving Special Saving Khutruke Saving Total Members Male Female 612 469 142 132 6 7 104 88 10 10 874 706 Total Members 1081 274 13 192 20 1580

The cooperative has also been engaged in the distribution of seeds and fertilizers to the farmers at fair price. In 2009, the co-operative sold 64 quintals of DAP (Diammonium Phosphate) and 45 quintals of Urea to the farmers.

Fig. 7: Co-operative Building with its Fertilizer Distribution Center at Puranchaur Forestation by WUA: Soon after the completion of construction of the canal in 1994, the WUA started taking initiative in planting trees mainly ‘Uttis’ (Alnus nepalensis), Bamboo and Napier grass along the main canal bank in order to protect the canal and to stabilize the land slope. In Puranchaur VDC, the WUA has also planted mainly ‘Uttis’ (Alnus nepalensis), Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sp.) and Napier grass in a degraded public land in an area of about 25 ropanies. This area was a degraded public land prior to the plantation by the WUA. The ‘pani heralo’ appointed by the WUA is also responsible for guarding the plantation area. In 2009 the WUA made an income of Rs. 58,000 with the sale of the forest products.

Fig 8: WUA Planted and Managed Forest Area in Puranchaur

Organic Coffee Farming: 33 farmers from Puranchaur formed a group for coffee farming in 2006. The WUA provided support to this group in purchasing 2400 coffee saplings from Begnas area where coffee plantation was initiated under BegasTal-Rupa Tal Watershed Management Project (BTRTWMP) as early as in 1997. The coffee plantation in the system is mainly concentrated in Ward no 6 and 7 of Puranchaur VDC. Most of the farmers have planted coffee in non-agricultural lands mainly as intercropping with the fodder trees.

Fig. 9: Coffee Farm in Puranchaur, Ward No 7 The farmers use no chemical fertilizers and pesticides in coffee plantation to produce organic coffee. Farmyard manure and composts are used as main source of fertilizer. Since the coffee is planted organically, it has a huge demand in the market. In 2009, about 35 quintals of raw coffee bean was produced and sold by the people in the area at Rs 27 per kg. The list of the farmers engaged in coffee farming in Puranchaur is provided in Table-2. Other farmers in the area also have planted on an average of 50 coffee saplings in their homestead and backyard. Table 2: Major Coffee Producing Farmers in Puranchaur S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Name of Farmer Indra Gauchan Dr. Gunanidhi Poudel Man Bahadur Adhikari Dilliram Poudel Bishnu Prasad Dhungana Himlal Poudel Minraj poudel Surendra Bahadur Bhujel Dil Bahadur Gurung Madhav Prasad Poudel Tej Bahadur Adhikari Man Bahadur Bhujel Manohari Adhikari Lila devi Poudel Keshabraj Adhikari Ward No. 7 6 7 7 7 6 6 7 7 6 7 7 6 6 7 Seedling Planted 3000 2000 1150 500 300 300 300 200 200 100 100 100 100 100 100 Area (Ropani) 14 12 8 10 3 3 6 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 2

Livelihood Changes: With the availability of dependable irrigation after the development of the irrigation scheme, the productivity of crops in the area has increased significantly. This has been possible with the introduction of high yielding crop cultivars and application of fertilizers and improved cultural and crop management practices. A farmer initially producing 30 ‘pathi’ of rice from plot of land (1 ‘hal’) is now able to produce 8 to 10 ‘muri’ (1 ‘muri’ = 20 ‘pathi’)of rice from the same land with the availability of the irrigation. The availability of dependable irrigation has also led to diversification of cropping int he area. The farmers with smaller landholding size have now attracted to vegetable farming. Farmers in Ward no 6 of Puranchaur VDC have completely shifted to vegetable farming from traditional cereal farming. The development of road connectivity to Pokhara and huge market for vegetables in Pokhara has created incentive for vegetable production. Vegetable farming is not common in adjoining Bhurjung Khola command area. Farmers in this area feel that canal water is too cold in the area that affects the winter vegetable production adversely. This is the reason that all the dry season flow in the canal is taken only to Puranchaur for irrigation.

Case-2:
Location:

Hemja Irrigation System

Hemja Irrigation System is located in Hemja VDC of Kaski District about 10 km north-west of Pokhara, the headquarter of Kaski District which is major urban center and tourists’ destination in the western Nepal. The VDC lies between 28024’ to 28030’N latitudes and 83087’ to 83097’ E longitudes. The altitude varies from 860m to 1415m above msl. The area has warm and humid climate with the average maximum and minimum temperatures 26.60C and 15.30C, respectively. Similarly the area falls in the region known for highest rainfall receiving areas in the country where the average annual rainfall is as high as 4331.66 mm. The total area of the VDC is 1731.23 ha out of which 61.8% is flat land good for intensive farming while 34.06% of the area is under forests and the remaining area is under settlement. The area under the irrigation command of the system is about 350 ha which includes ward no 1, 2, 3, 4, and 9 of Hemja VDC. Though the official name of the system is Hemja Irrigation System, local people prefer calling it Annapurna Kulo for its value in enhancing food production and its contribution in achieving food sufficiency in the area.

Historical Context:
Chaurasi Kulo Irrigation System was in existence prior to the construction of Hemja Irrigation System. The area under the irrigation command of Hemja Irrigation System lied on the tail reach of Chaurasi Kulo, however this area was not receiving dependable irrigation because Chaurasi Kulo was already overstretched in comparison to water supply available at the source (Pant, 2002). The farmers therefore

made continued efforts in convincing the local authorities and District level of office of Department of Irrigation for support for the construction of a new canal. When no initiative was made, they decided to construct an earthen canal with the intake at the downstream of Chaurasi Kulo. In the mean time the Government declared 1976 as ‘Agricultural Year’ and came up with support programs to motivate farmers in enhancing agricultural productivity. The farmers in the area were provided support of Rs. 30,000 for the development of the irrigation canal however this support could not make much value in improving the physical infrastructures and services in the area. In 1982 the Government of Nepal with the financial assistance of ADB decided to invest in developing the new irrigation canal on the request of the farmers. This led to development of existing Hemja Irrigation System. The construction of the system was completed in 1984 that involved cost of Rs. 9 million. The headworks consists of a weir across the river with two under sluice gates and a side intake.

Fig. 1: Headworks and Main Canal of Hemja Irrigation System Socioeconomic Context: The total population size of Hemja VDC is 8702 people in total of 1902 households. The Brahmin and Chhettri constitute around 73% of the total households. Newar and Gurung households each constitute about 8% of the households. Remaining households are dalits that include Kami, Sarki, Damai and Gandarva who together constitute about 11% of the total population. All the users are the original inhabitants of the area. About 72% of the total population is directly involved in agriculture as a main source of income whereas only about 10% have jobs in government and private organizations. All the households in the command area of the system at present are owner operators. In the past, Brahmin and Chetrri households who were large landholders, and also commanded higher status in the social hierarchy, used to lease out land to others for share cropping. This practice has declined over time due to fragmentation of the landholdings. At present, less than 5% of the households have landholding larger than 20 ropanies while majority (60%) of the households have land less than 10 ropanies of land. Around 1% of the farmers are landless and the remaining farmers have the landholding between 10 and 20 ropanies

Water Users’ Association: The Water Users’ Association in the system was formed only in 1993. Until this time the operation and management of the system was the responsibility of Western Regional Irrigation Directorate of Department of Irrigation. The government initiated participatory irrigation management program in the system in 1997 that led to complete transfer of the primary management responsibility of the system from the Department of Irrigation to WUA in 1999. Since this time, WUA has been managing the operation and management of the system and the delivery of the irrigation services to the farmers. The Regional Agricultural Research Station of Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC), located at Lumle, decided to establish its outreach research site in Hemja VDC in 2001. The research station has been conducting on-farm research and agricultural technology demonstration in the farmers’ field beginning this time which has been instrumental in the dissemination of agricultural technology in the area. The office of the outreach research program and the WUA office are located in the same building which has brought them closer and WUA has been playing active role in collaborating with the research center in disseminating improved agricultural technology and practices in the command area of the irrigation system.

Fig. 2: Contact Offices of WUA and Outreach Research Site located in the same building. Resource Mobilization: The WUA has appointed a water guard (pani heralo) who is responsible for regular maintenance and upkeep of the system and also monitors the canal operation. Specific tasks of ‘pani heralo’ includes operation of the canal gates at the intake, allocation of water in the branch canals and communicating the decisions of the WUA among the users throughout the year. The WUA hires one additional ‘pani heralo’ for four months during the monsoon when the work load in the system increases and incidences of canal breaching and therefore the need of more closer watch on canal operation intensifies. A permanent building was constructed at the intake at the time of the development of the irrigation

system. This building comes in use by the water guard in the rainy season, when there is a need of managing and diverting the water even in the night time.

Fig. 3: Building for ‘Pani heralo’ near intake site

The WUA was not collecting any irrigation service fee until 2007. It was only from 2008 that the WUA decided to collect ISF at the rate of NRs 10 per ropani per year. The collected ISF was not sufficient for the regular operation and maintenance of the irrigation system, so WUA have increased the ISF from NRs 10 to NRs 50 per ropani per year. Out of the total ISF collected 60% is separated for main canal and 40 % for the branch canal repair and maintenance.

Multiple Engagements of the WUA in the Irrigation System Co-operative: The users of the system had organized a Farmers’ Group (Krishak Samuha) as early as in 1996 which functioned as credit and saving cooperative of the farmers that advanced credit among the members involved in the group. The executive committee of the group included 9 functionaries out of which 33% of seat was reserved for women in order to motivate women members to play active role in organizing and managing the credit and saving cooperative.

The availability of irrigation upon completion of the construction of the system in 1984 led to significant increase in the agricultural productivity and also transformation in the cropping system in the area. The farmers started growing more cash crops in place of traditional cereals. This led to significant increase in the income level of the farmers. Alongside the demand for improved seeds, fertilizers and other production inputs also increased significantly. In 2001, WUA took initiative in starting a multipurpose cooperative institution that could run a credit and saving program and also actively engage in the supply of seeds, fertilizers and other production inputs. The cooperative was named Bahuyuddhesiya Kisan Sahakari Sansthan Ltd. Started with small number of farmers the capital of the cooperative has now grown to Rs. 14.1 million that advances loan up to Rs. 700 thousands on the request of the farmers at the interest rate of 12% per annum.

The co-operative has been actively engaged in providing improved seeds of vegetables and other crops and also selling fertilizers to the farmers at the local level. With the availability of irrigation in the system, the area under potato production in the command are of the system has increased significantly. In fact, Hemja is known for its potato production in Kaski District which has emerged as major source of cash for the farmers. Use of poultry manure in potato and other vegetables has been very popular among the farmers that have increased the demand of poultry manure in the area. The farmers in the area have been importing poultry manure worth of Rs. 10 million annually from Chitwan District. The cooperative has been instrumental in mobilizing cash to the farmers for the import of poultry manure (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3: Fertilizer sales depot of the Co-operative

Highway Area Agriculture Produce Marketing Center: The command area of Hemja Irrigation System is very close to Pokhara that creates huge market for agricultural produce that are produced in the area. Traditionally, the farmers in the area have been selling there agricultural produce, mainly potato and vegetables, through middlemen. Because of the involvement of the middlemen in marketing of agricultural produce the farmers were not getting good price for their agricultural produce. The collection, transportation and marketing of agricultural produce has been major problem to the farmers. WUA realized the constraints faced by the farmers and took initiative in developing a vegetable collection and marketing center. A building for the Vegetable Collection and Marketing Center was constructed in 2010 which is located in Ward No. 4 of Hemja VDC, along Pokhara-Baglung highway. The center is yet to come to operation.

Fig. 4: Informal Vegetable Collection Center

Fig. 5: Highway Area Agriculture Produce Marketing Center, Hemja-4 Livelihood Changes: The cropping system in the command area of the irrigation system has transformed from traditional cereal based farming to potato and vegetable based farming. In fact the area has now emerged as an important area for off-season vegetable production. Lumle Agricultural Research Center has been instrumental in dissemination of improved agricultural technology and practices in the area. The farmers in the area now grow off-season tomato, cauliflower, cabbage and cucumber. The income made per ropani of land with the cultivation of these crops has been Rs 16,310, Rs 7,538, Rs 5,153 and Rs 12,496, respectively (Pant, 2009). Nearly 95% of the off-season vegetables are sold in the market in Pokhara. For off-season vegetable production, most farmers use poly houses to create favorable environment for crop growth and development. Poly houses in almost all the field plots have become a common site in Hemja. The increased income from vegetable production has made very important contribution to improving the living standard of the people in the area.

Fig. 6: Rainy Season Vegetable (Tomato) Farming under Plastic House Condition

Case-3:
Location:

Naubise Phant Irrigation System

Naubise Phant Irrigation System is located in the western part of Kavrepalanchok District, 45 km east of Kathmandu. The system is designed to irrigate 150 hectare of land in Ward No. 10 of Panauti Municipality and Wards Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5 and 9 of Sharada Batase VDC. The source of the irrigation scheme is Salamdu Khola which is a perennial stream fed by spring sources on the upstream and sub-surface flow. The length of the main canal is 5 km. The canal alignment crosses two streams where two pipe siphons of 175 m and 1925 m in length have been developed for canal crossing. These have been among longest siphons ever built in the hill irrigation schemes in Nepal. The irrigation coverage in the system during monsoon is as high as 2500 ropanies while during winter and spring seasons the area under irrigation is decreases to 2000 ropanies. The tail end of the irrigation faces water shortage during winter and spring seasons. The farmers in the tail end have developed dug wells, which are used for drinking water and also for irrigation in smaller areas during winter and spring.

Fig: Headwork at Chalal Ganesthan VDC

Fig: First Syphon of Sheme

Fig: Dug well constructed in command Area

Historical context:
There command area of the system was under rainfed farming prior to the development of the irrigation scheme. The farmers were growing maize and millet during monsoon and winter. The area was food deficit and poverty was widespread. The farmers in the area had been making request for the development of an irrigation canal for last several years with Salamdu Khola as the source. This stream was being used for the operation of several water mills and the farmers were convinced that this water could be brought for irrigation. During 1972-1986 several studies were taken up to assess the possibility of construction of an irrigation system with this stream as the source. In 1996, Department of Irrigation decided to undertake still another feasibility study of the irrigation project on request of the users. The study identified the project unfeasible because of smaller irrigation coverage compared to the investment needed in the project. On pressing demand of the farmers and local leaders, Department of Irrigation decided to undertake the construction of the scheme in 2001 under Second Irrigation Sector Project. The construction of the scheme was completed in 2004 with the total investment of Rs. 29,500,000, of which Rs. 26,500,000 was supported by the project and remaining cost was mobilized by

the farmers in cash at the rate of Rs. 500 per ropany and also in labor. The water mill operators, who were prior appropriators of water from the source, were compensated for allowing use of water for irrigation in the system. The main reasons for the development of the project are seen as    Need of irrigation for combating the dry periods for paddy, the miserable condition being one ropani land only gave about 10 pathis of paddy Investment in wheat was not justified due to low return Realization of switching to vegetable farming for better returns

Socioeconomic Context: The irrigation system serves over 350 households who are the beneficiary of the system. Majority of the households are Brahmins and Chhetris. About 35 households are Newars, 7 households are Tamang, 50 households are Danuwars and 7 households belong to Dalit community. Most of the households are original inhabitants though small number of migrant households also came to settle in the area from Falametaar, Kaamidanda, Chyamrang Bensi and Faparbari of adjoining Makawanpur District after 1996 Majority of the households are smallholders with land holding size between 2 to 10 ropanies. Only 5 households have landholding size larger than 10 ropanies and that about 10% of the households have their landholding size smaller than 2 ropanies. There are about 15 households who are landless. Most of the households are owner operators who cultivate the land by themselves. Share cropping and contract farming is practiced in less than 9% of the land in the command area. The usual arrangement for share cropping is that the tenants pay the landlord in rice grain during monsoon while the tenant is allowed to keep potato grown during winter and spring. Raising dairy animals has emerged as important source of supplemental earning for most households. Most households now keep at least one cow for milk production which is sold to local milk collection center. Besides this the people in the area are also engaged in off-farm income opportunities. As many as 25% of the households have one or more members of the family engaged in the government or private jobs, as many as 50 households also have one or more members in the foreign employment and about 5% of the households are also involved in shops and businesses at the local level, which have been important source for supplemental earning in the households. The trend of the people in the area getting involved in supplemental earning started only after the construction of the irrigation scheme. The livelihood of the people has transformed significantly after the availability of irrigation. Most households now own permanent house made of cement-concrete and brick. Panuti has been nearest market, at a distance of 3 km from the command area of the system. Most farmers sale their farm produce at Panauti and also purchase essential supplies and farm inputs. The main farm products brought to sale are rice, potato and vegetable.

Fig: Command area of Naubise Phant Irrigation scheme

Water User's Association:
At the time of the construction of the scheme in 2002, a construction committee of the users’ had been constituted to undertake monitoring and supervision of the construction works. The construction committee was headed by Mr. Min Bahadur Bhandari who was a prominent local leader. Soon after the completion of the construction of the system in 2004, the same construction committee was transformed into the executive committee of WUA. This decision was endorsed by general assembly of the users. In the same year WUA was also registered with District Water Resources Committee. The system was identified as pilot site for Integrated Crop and Water Management Program of Department of Irrigation during 2004-2006, soon after the completion of the construction works, wherein on-farm testing and demonstration of irrigation and irrigated agricultural technology and demonstration of onfarm water management practices was carried out in the system. This program has been instrumental in bringing improvement in the crop and water management practices of the farmers which they continued improving in the later years. After completion of the construction of the system, the District Irrigation Division Office No. 7 at Dhulikhel organized series of capacity building programs for the water users and WUA functionaries. These included training on management of resources, management of construction works and quality control and canal operation and operation and management of the system. In all the training programs the farmers from the head, middle and tail reaches of the system were involved alongside of the functionaries of the WUA that have been beneficial in insuring participation of the users in decision making processes in the later years. Changes in the general characteristics of the irrigation system: Due to the excessive flows of water in the canal in the year 2060 B.S., i.e., the year of initiation, the WUA installed two siphons of length 30 m each in each of the siphons of the system for draining out the excess water. Every year, leaking of siphons has been recorded in the monsoon season. In the second year of the leakage, the members of WUA repaired the leakage by themselves. In the year 2064 B.S., the region had to suffer a long dry spell. The advantage derived by the system due to this was that ISF

collection became more efficient. In the year 2066 B.S., due to untimely repair of the leakage and delay in rainfall, water distribution by the system was delayed, and thus, the production was affected. Other changes that took place were the number of gates was increased to 12 in year 2064 for making permanent. Agricultural and Livelihood Transformation: The command area of the irrigation system was under maize and millet farming prior to the development of the irrigation scheme. Though some farmers were also cultivating monsoon paddy during monsoon in small area, the productivity of paddy was 2 to 2.5 muri per ropani (??????). The whole area was food deficit and poverty was widespread. The economic condition of most households was so bad that they had difficulty supporting the cost of the medical aids even in the cases of serious ailments. The most significant agricultural transformation in the area after the development of the irrigation system has been that the farmers now grow irrigated paddy during monsoon and most farmers grow two potato crops during winter and spring. In fact, potato has emerged as important cash crop for the farmers in the area that has increased the income of the farmers and became basis for livelihood transformation in the subsequent years. With the availability of dependable irrigation, the productivity of paddy rose on an average of muri per ropani and also the farmers harvest 900-1050 kg of potato ropani per harvest. At present, the income made by the farmers per ropani of land is as high as Rs. 40,000-50,000. Nearly 85% of the households were food deficit prior to the development of the irrigation system while nearly 65% of the households are now food surplus and 35% of the households can produce enough to meet their food needs for 6 to 8 months. The increase in the income level of the farmers increased the investment capacity of the households in health and education and also in diversifying their livelihood opportunities. There was only one lower secondary school in the area established in 1986 that was upgraded to a higher secondary school 2008. One higher secondary school was established recently. Most households now send their children to school and also support higher education of their children in city centers like Kathmandu. In fact, investment in education has now enhanced income earning of many households with youth seeking foreign employment and also getting engaged in the jobs in the government and private organizations. Another transformation in the area has been involvement of the farmers in the cultivation of vegetables and orange. Nearly 25% of the households are involved in commercial vegetable cultivation. The vegetables produced in the area are sold in the market in Panauti or brought to Kathmandu. Recently, 40 households have started plantation of orange in the sloping lands that do not irrigation access. The orange production in the area last year has encouraged the farmers to increase the area under orange plantation. Most households now keep at least one cow for milk production. Some of the households have started commercial milk production. A dairy cooperative has been established in the command area of the system that has milk collection and chilling center. The milk produced in the area is brought to Kathmandu by Dairy Development Corporation. With increase in the livestock in the households, many households have now installed gobar gas plant.

Multfunctionality of WUA: Development of Cooperative Institution: The first credit and saving cooperative in the area had been established in 1997. The motive behind developing this cooperative was that this could provide credit support to the members in case of needs in the medical emergencies. At present, as many as 12 credit and saving cooperative are in operation in the command area of the system and in the vicinity. Most of the cooperatives were developed after 2004 with the increase in the income level of the farmers and development of their capacities to make savings. Almost all the households are members in one or more of these saving and credit cooperatives and they have been making savings of Rs. 50 to 100 per month. Many of these cooperatives have been solely managed by women which have been instrumental in empowering the women financially. These cooperatives have been providing credit to the members in case of needs on reasonable interest rate. Though WUA has not been instrumental directly in developing these cooperatives, the water users and WUA functionaries have been actively involved in the management of these cooperatives. Community Forestry: The farmers in the area got organized in starting community forestry in the area in 1996. They started conserving the forest and also developed new plantation at Jogini Ko Pakho, which used to be a degraded forest area prior to this time. This forest has been source of supply of fuel wood and timber for construction for the people in the area. The community forestry program was started alongside of the initiative in constructing the irrigation canal. Investment in Lift Irrigation: The tail end of the irrigation system has been facing the problem of water shortage during dry season. In attempt to addressing this problem, the WUA has taken initiative in developing a system to pump water from Roshi Khola. The construction at the site of this proposed lift irrigation is already started which is expected to complete shortly.

Figs: Location of planned water pumping from Roshi Khola ( Under construction)

Case-4:
Location:

Hamsambhe Nimu Khola Multipurpose Irrigation System

Hamsambhe Nibukhola Irrigation System is location in Chiling VDC in Panchthar District, in the eastern mid-hills of Nepal. The system serves irrigation needs of 60 households in Ward No. 1 of Chiling VDC and 13 Kw of electricity generated from a micro-hydropower system is distributed to 120 households in Ward No. 1 and 8 of Chiling VDC and Ward No. 4 and 5 of Pauwasartap VDC. A water mill has also been in operation using the water available in the canal that serves milling and grinding needs of people in the area. The source of water in the system in Nibukhola which is a perennial stream flowing in the area.

Historical Context:
The area was under rainfed farming prior to 1969. The farmers were growing maize and millet and the crop productivity was too low to meet the food needs of the people. In 1969 a local farmer leader- Mr. Brishabhdhwaj Nemwang, who had realized the value of irrigation in the area took initiative for the construction of an irrigation canal with intake in Nibukhola. The canal and intake was washed in a flood and landslide in the same year. In 1970, the farmers in the area made another initiative and succeeded constructing 2.5 km long earthen canal and brushwood intake in Nibukhola. In 2006 the farmers in the area constituted a water users’ organization with the aim of organizing the operation and management of the system and also mobilizing external support towards system improvement and diversification of irrigation water use. In 2007, they contacted UNDP supported Rural Energy Development Program (REDP) which has been working in the area for the development of micro-hydropower system. They decided to invest in the development of a micro-hydropower with the head available in the irrigation canal. REDP provided Rs. 840,000 and all the technical support for the development of microhydropower system, the farmers obtained a credit of Rs. 200,000 from Agricultural Development Bank and mobilized cash at the rate of Rs. 8,000 per household that raised Rs. 2 million for the development of the system. This led to generation of 13 Kw of electricity that is distributed among 120 households in Ward No. 1 and 8 of Chiling VDC and Ward No. 4 and 5 of Pauwasartap VDC. Encouraged by the success of micro-hydropower system, the water users’ organization decided to invest in developing a water mill using the available infrastructure in the micro-hydropower system. Equipments for milling and grinding and oil expelling were added in 2008 that has been serving almost 400 households in the area. In the same year the users obtained a support of Rs. 590,000 from UNDP that has been used in developing drip and sprinkler irrigation system. The water from the canal is stored in a stored in a concrete tank which is lifted using pumps to 75 m head and stored in two tanks of 2000 litres each for the operation of drip and sprinkler irrigation in 2 ha of are under cash crops.

Socio-Economic Context:
This area is traditionally inhabited by Limbu households who have been living in the area for more than 250 years. The social composition of the area has changed with time due to internal migration. At present, of the 60 user households who are prior appropriators of the system, 48 households are Limbu, 7 households are Brahmin and Chhetri and 3 households are dalit. Majority of the households are

smallholders with the landholding size of 5 to 15 ropanies (20 ha = 1 ropani). Only 6 households have landholding size larger than 15 ropanies while as many as 25 households have landholding size less than 5 ropanies. All the households are owner operators. As many as 20 households in the area have one or more members in the family in foreign employment. Of those in foreign employment, majority are in the British armed forces. The farmers in the area are attracted towards the production of cash crops. They have been growing cardamom, vegetables, orange and green pepper. With the production of cash crops, the incomes of the households have diversified despite their smaller landholding size.

Water Users’ Association:
The operation and management of the irrigation canal and multiple water use system is coordinated by a Water Users’ Association (WUA) that has 9 functionaries. There are three women functionaries in the WUA. The WUA has appointed two water guards who are responsible for day to day monitoring and supervision of the system and to carry out minor repair and maintenance. A WUA has also appointed an accountant cum manger to collect electricity tariff and maintain the records of income and expenses in the system. The accountant is paid Rs. 2,500 per month while the two water guards are paid Rs. 2,000 per month each. The operation of the water mill was in the control of the WUA which decided to lease out the operation of the water mill to a local entrepreneur who is required to pay Rs. 44,000 annually in three instalments.

Livelihood Diversification from Multiple Water Use System
Hamsambhe Nibukhola Irrigation System presents a typical example of multiple water use system with four uses of water integrated into the system: irrigation canal, micro-hydropower, operation of a water mill and non-conventional irrigation. All these uses are coordinated by the WUA. The 120 households who are the users of hydroelectricity pay electricity tariff at the rate of Rs. 80 per 100 watt of electricity use per month. The income earned from the operation of the water mill and micro-hydropower is sufficient for the maintenance and upkeep of the system. Last year, the WUA decided to distribute 50% of the income earned from the multiple water uses in the system as bonus among 60 households who are the beneficiaries in the system. Followings have been the most significant changes in the livelihood of the people in the area: Entrepreneurship Development: A Lokta (a natural fibre produced in the forests in the area) based local paper making cottage industry has been in operation in the area that was developed with the availability of electricity. This cottage industry has provided employment to 8 women in the area. Another entrepreneur has invested in installing a saw mill that uses the electricity produced in the system. These cottage industries are based on local resources. An entrepreneur has started a computer training centre where local youth can obtain computer training. Living Quality: With the availability of electricity, the access of the households to information and communication has increased significantly. Most households have electricity connection in their houses, either through micro-hydropower system or they have their own solar PVC system. The households have radio and television and most of the people now use cell phone to communicate. Almost all the households have toilets and many of them have connected their toilets to biogas plants. There is piped

drinking water scheme in operation in the area. The availability of water mill has reduced the drudgery of the people in carrying grains for long distances for milling. Income Level: The income level of the households has increased with their involvement in the production of cash crops. About half of the households are now involved in year round vegetable production. Cardamom, ginger, orange and green pepper has emerged as major cash crops in the area. As many as 30 households have started cardamom plantation, 7 households have started orange plantation and all the 60 households are engaged in the production of green pepper (akbare Khursani). Production of green pepper has emerged as major cash earning activity of women farmers in the area. This product costs Rs. 300 to 500 per kg in the local market. The 2 ha of area under drip and sprinkler irrigation is exclusively in the production of green pepper and vegetables. The area which was food deficit prior to the development of the irrigation system is now completely transformed into food surplus area. Women Cooperative: The women farmers in the area have started their own saving and credit cooperative. This cooperative is managed by a 7 member executive committee that has started compulsory saving program and advances credit for the start of income generating activities by the women farmers in the area.

Case-5:
Location:

Baise Kulo Irrigation System

Baise Kulo is located in Ward Nos. 1 and 2 of Dumkibas VDC in Nawalparasi district in the western Terai region. The system is located close to Dumkibas which is an emerging township along Naranghat-Butwal section of east-west highway. The area under irrigation in the system is located in the foot hills of Shiwalik range of hills that runs east to west of the country, almost parallel to the highway. The climate of the area is monsoon tropical with summer temperature between 350C to 400C and winter temperature ranging between 80C to 170C. The source of water in the system is Jyamire Khola which is a perennial stream though available supply at the sources diminishes significantly in the dry season.

Socio-Economic Context:
At present, there are 150 households who are the users of Baise Kulo. Of this, Magar and Gurung constitute 40% of the households, Brahmin and Chhettri together account 30% of the households, Newar include 15% of the households and remaining 15% of the households are dalits and people of other caste groups. Prior to the development of the irrigation system, the farmers in the area were growing rice in about 35 bigha (1 ha = 1.5 bigha) of land in the head reach and mustard during winter. The availability of dependable irrigation beginning 1984 created possibility of expanding the area under monsoon rice and the farmers started growing maize during spring. The winter cropping also got diversified as the farmers started growing wheat along with mustard and vegetables. Farmers in the head reach of the system where more reliable irrigation supply is available throughout the year have started year round vegetable cultivating.

Historical Context:
The system has relatively recent history of development. Most part of the command area of the system was under cultivation even before the development of the system where farmers were growing maize during monsoon and mustard during winter under non-irrigated condition. The cadastral survey of the area was completed in 1984 and the government started distributing land titles to the settlers beginning 1984. This led to migration of people from adjoining hill districts of Baglung, Syangja and Parbat that increased the population of the area in the subsequent years. In the meantime the construction of Butwal-Narayanghat section of east-west highway further accelerated migration of people into the area. The initiative of construction of an irrigation canal in the area began in 1978 when 15 households from the head reach, in the existing region-1 and 2 of the system, mobilized Rs. 22,000 from 44 bigha (1 ha = 1.5 bigha) of land and contracted out the work of digging of the canal to contract labors. The construction of the canal was completed in the same year with brushwood intake in Jyamire Khola, however the water was available to irrigate only in 10 bigha of land. The initial canal alignment almost totally vanished by 1982 because the head reach of the canal alignment passed through a rocky terrain, in a landslide prone zone, with frequent occurrence of slope failure and landslide. Though this initial attempt of canal construction failed, this raised the confidence among the users that irrigation was possible. Encouraged by the early success, the farmers, currently under region-3 of the system, joined the farmers from regions 1 and 2 and contributed Rs. 8,000 towards system reconstruction and expansion of the system in 1984. Though irrigation was expected in 80 bigha of land following this reconstruction and expansion of the system, the area that could be irrigated upon completion of construction in this phase was only 43 bigha. In the same year the users constituted an informal users’ organization with 9 functionaries nominated from different parts of the system to organize the task of water distribution. The success in developing the system in 1984 further encouraged the farmers from existing region- 4, 5 and 6 to join the prior users, who contributed Rs. 12,000 for system development and expansion in 1988. With the construction works in this phase the area under irrigation expanded to 120 bigha. The physical infrastructures in the system were unreliable because the canal in the head reach was passing through landslide prone zone with frequent occurrence of landslide and the losses in the system were high. In 1992, the farmers approached District Irrigation Office of Nawalparasi for support for the system improvement. In the same year the system was adopted for support under Irrigation Line of Credit (ILC) Program. The construction of physical infrastructures were started in the following year with total investment of Rs. 4.9 million, of which the users mobilized Rs. 22,000 in cash and contributed all unskilled labor needed during construction that was equivalent to NRs. 1,05,000. Following this rehabilitation and improvement, the reliability of the system improved tremendously. In 1996, a portion of canal in the head reach was washed in a major landslide that rendered the system defunct when rice transplanting in the system was in progress. The users’ organization again approached the District Irrigation Office and they were provided Rs. 50,000 in cash, 150 pieces of gabion boxes and 27 quintals of rice for the reconstruction of the system and for the protection works in the landslide prone zone. All the users contributed voluntary labor, day and night for three consecutive days to make the system functional. No major failure in the system has occurred after this time and the operation of the system has been undergoing uninterrupted. At present the total area under the irrigation command of Baise Kulo is 120 bigha (1 Bigha = 0.6772 ha). The length of the main canal is about 3 km among, of which 800 m section in the head reach is lined.

The intake of the system is temporary brushwood type, made of stones and wooden logs. The command are of the system is divided into six regions with a branch canal to convey irrigation water to each region.

Water Users’ Association
The users in the system constituted an informal water users’ organization as early as in 1984 to organize and coordinate the construction works in the system. This irrigation organization was also entrusted to coordinate the system rehabilitation and improvement under ILC support. In the course of undertaking of the system improvement under ILC support, the users raised corruption charges against the chairperson and other functionaries of the users’ organization. A general assembly of the users was called in the monsoon of 1994 and election of new functionaries of the users’ organization was completed through secret ballot that led to electing 11 functionaries in the users’ organization. In the executive committee chairman, vice-chairman, secretary, vice-secretary and a member are elected/selected by general assembly and one member representing each of the six regions of the system are nominated by the users of the respective regions. The new executive committee drafted the constitution of the users’ organization which was registered with the District Administration Office of Nawalparasi District. Following this change, the tenure of the WUA functionaries was set to be two years. Though other functionaries of the executive committee have been changing since this reorganization of the WUA, the same person who was elected as the chairman in 1994 continues to this position to date. The available supply at the source is low even during monsoon therefore one of the important tasks of the WUA has been allocation of irrigation water among different regions of the system and distribution of water among the users within each region to ensure equity in water distribution. The WUA needs to keep constant watch on the available supply at the source and develop irrigation distribution among the users based on available supply. The representatives from each of the six regions of the system are responsible for irrigation distribution in the respective region. Due to the nature of the source and the canal, the available supply has been limited even during the monsoon. To obtain water for transplanting of monsoon paddy, the users are required to submit their demand one week ahead of the date of transplanting, stating the area to be transplanted and the date of transplanting. Based on the demand collected from all the users, the WUA prepares water allocation plan and the schedule of water distribution is communicated to all the users through six regional members in the executive committee. During the day time, water is supplied to carryout rice transplanting and at night water is supplied to maintain already transplanted crops. During this period the executive committee meets more frequently to decide upon water distribution schedule. This pattern of water distribution is followed until transplanting is completed in the entire command area. After completion of transplanting in the entire area, irrigation allocation is done on a rotational basis – rotating from region 1 to region 6. On each turn, the time for which water would be available is @ 2 hr per bigha. The WUA has the records of area under irrigation of the users in each region and the executive committee prepares a schedule of water distribution stating irrigation time of each user in each irrigation turn. The schedule is then posted in the house of the regional member of the respective regions where from each user can obtain the information about their turn. The turn may fall during the day-time or at night. After completion of one cycle of irrigation in the entire command area, the executive committee prepares the schedule for the next cycle of irrigation. For irrigation in wheat during winter, water allocation is done on a rotational basis, rotating from region – 1 to region 6. The distribution of rotation is not timed i.e. the turn is shifted from one user to another after completion of irrigation in the entire crop area of the first user. Usually

the first irrigation is given 22 days after the date of sowing and a total of three irrigations are given in wheat crop. Considering limited supply in the system during monsoon and winter, unauthorized use of water is considered serious offense. The rates of penalty set in 1984, which are effective to date, are: Rs. 250 per turn of water stealing during day time and Rs.500 for each turn of water stealing at night. The enforcement of rules for penalty and actual collection of penalty was not effective until 1994 however with the reorganization of executive committee of WUA in 1994, the monitoring of water distribution and enforcement of rules have become more effective. In fact no one dares to steal water at present.

Multiple Activities of the Users and the WUA Community Forestry: The farmers in the area noticed that the available supply at the source has
decreased significantly since the initiation of the system development in 1978 and its subsequent expansion in 1982, 1984 and 1992. The reasons that they identified was degradation in the upstream catchment and loss of area under the forest cover. In order to address the problem of watershed degradation, the users initiated a community forestry program in 1997 and started conservation and plantation works in the headwater area. The initiative for the community forestry program came from the WUA though the users decided to create separate organization for community forestry. Total of 252 households participated in the community forestry program that included users in the system and also those who are not the users of the irrigation system. At present two community forest user groupsPahelo Bhitta Samudaik Ban and Binaya Samudaik Ban, are responsible for the conservation and management of the water source at the head water of the source. These forest user groups are registered with the District Forest Office (DFO) of Nawalparasi district. The present president of WUAMr. Man Bahdaru B.K. has been instrumental in the registration of the WUA.

Women’s Dairy Cooperative: The women farmers in the area have been very active in livestock
raising in each household. They started goat raising and encouraged by the earning possible with livestock raising, they started raising milk animals beginning 2005. In the same year they organized a dairy cooperative which was named- Mahila Dugdha Utpadak Sahakari Ltd. with 60 women as the members in the cooperative. District Livestock Office provided this cooperative a support of Rs. 2.5 million, part of which was used towards purchase of 60 cows of improved breeds for distribution among the 60 women cooperative members. The plan of the cooperative is to produce 500 liters of milk on a daily basis for sale to Butwal Dairy. The women users in the system are also active in other activities relating to social empowerment and awareness building. In 2008 they organized a community based organization named- Pairabi Mach, which has been instrumental in undertaking activities relating to women empowerment and capacity building. This organization has also initiated activities relating to creation of awareness on healthy living and sanitation in the households.

Case-6:
Location:

Khaurawa-Hadha Irrigation System

Khaurawa-Hadaha Irrigation System is located in Ward No. 6 of Madan Pokhara VDC in Palpa District in the western mid-hills of Nepal. Geographically the system is located between 27051’ to 27052’N latitudes and 81034’ to 81036’ E longitudes. The command area of the system is connected by a 14 km long all weather road to Tansen, the headquarter of Palpa District which is major commercial center in the western mid-hills. Alternatively, the area can be reached by a 7 km approach road from Banstari which is located on the road head of Sunauli-Pokhara highway. The command area of the system is located in a river valley which is relatively flat and popularly called Taalo Madi Phant (lower flat terrain of Madi), an area known as rice bowl in Palpa District. The climate of the area is cold and dry during winter and warm and humid during summer. The winter temperature ranges between 50C to 120C while summer temperature rises as high as 330C to 380C. The average annual rainfall of the area is around 1800 mm and most of the rainfall occurs during summer monsoon, from June to September. The major crops grown in the command area are paddy, maize, wheat, potato, oilseeds and pulses. The source of water in the system is Chhis Khola which is a perennial stream fed by numerous spring sources on the upstream. The dry season flow of the river is significantly low. Historical Context: Prior to the construction of irrigation system, farmers in the area used to cultivate corps only during monsoon and in rest of the periods the land would remain fallow due to limitation of soil moisture. In an early initiative some farmers started diverting water from Chhis khola by making temporary diversion structure across the river to irrigate small portion of land near the head reach of the present command area, on the left bank of Chhis Khola. The availability of irrigation was unreliable due to temporary nature of the canal and the intake structure. The canal was serving only the large landholders in the area. In 1995, farmers in the area made organized effort and constructed 300 m long earthen canal with intake built in Chhis Khola at the same location. Encouraged by the initiative made by the farmers in developing an irrigation canal on their own, the District Development Committee of Palpa provided the farmers a sum of Rs. 21,000 which was decided to be used in constructing a semi-permanent diversion structure at the intake in Chhis Khola. In 1998, the users formed a water users’ association that was named Khaurawa -Hadaha Water User Association. The construction of the intake was completed only in 2000 though the farmers continued expanding the irrigation canal and improving the cross-section for increased carrying capacity. In the mean time the farmers on the left bank of the stream also decided to construct and earthen canal with the same intake in 2000. The farmers on both the banks of the stream decided to make joint initiative in the development of the irrigation system and decided to constitute a common WUA. In 2006, the Agricultural Service Center at Madan Pokhara invested Rs. 34,678 used towards improvement of the physical infrastructures in the system. In the following year, the District Agricultural Development Office of Palpa provided support of Rs. 174,405 under small irrigation development program and the farmers mobilized Rs. 53,280 in cash and 444 labor days of work, used towards improvement of the physical infrastructures of the system on both the banks of the stream. Since major

portion of the command area lied on the right bank, it was decided to make 500m long lined canal on the right bank and 250m long lined canal on the left bank. The lining of the canal was carried out without much technical considerations, therefore losses in the system continued to remain high even in the portion of lined canal. Khaurawa-Hadaha Irrigation System in its present form includes two independent canals on the left and right bank of the river. The canals built on the left and right bank are 375m and 675m length of which 250m and 500m of the canal length on the left and right bank is lined. Unlined water coursed have been developed from the main canal which deliver water to the farmers’ fields. The intake of the system includes a permanent diversion weir 1.25 m in height and 5 m in length built across the river. In the monsoon the existing height of the weir is capable of diverting enough water in the system, however in the dry season farmers increase the height of the obstruction by adding brushwood on the dam crest.

Fig. Intake Structure and Lined Canal on the Right Bank in Khaurawa-Hadaha Irrigation System Socio-Economic Context: The khaurawa Hadha Irrigation System serves about 98 households of which Brahmin and Chhetri are in majority who constitute 50% of the households, Gurung and Magar constitute 40% of the households while the remainder 10% of the households are dalits. Majority of the households in the system are smallholders. The landholding size of as many as 52 households is between 4-5 ropanies while 40 households in the system have their landholding size larger than 5 ropanies. About 6 households are landless who maintain their sustenance as agricultural labour.

Fig.

Lined Irrigation Canal on the Right and Left Bank of the System Passing through Flat Terrain of River Valley

Cropping System and Crop Productivity Paddy, maize, wheat, potato, pulses, oilseed have been the crops traditionally grown in the area. After the construction of the system, the most significant change in the area has been increase in the area under vegetable production. The area is also known for ginger production which is the major cash crop grown in the unirrigated uplands. Another change after the development of the irrigation system has been increase in the area and productivity of potato. The average productivity of potato in the area has been about 10 Tons/ha. Madanpokhara VDC is known for significant transformation of livelihood of the people resulting from innovative farming practices, especially with the shift in the production of vegetables and cash crops. This area is also known for cooperative institutions that the people in the area have developed. The farmers in the area have been very receptive to modern agricultural technology and practices. Water Users’ Association: The WUA in Khaurawa-Hadaha irrigation system was constituted in 1998 with active support of Agriculture Service Centre at Madanpokhara. The existing WUA consists of executive committee of 15 functionaries that include a chairperson, a vice-chairperson, a secretary and 12 members. Three of the functionaries of the WUA are women. In fact the present secretary of the irrigation system is a woman user. In 2009 the farmers made initiative of getting the WUA registered with the District Water Resources Committee. Multiple Involvements of Water Users and WUA Cooperative Institution: In Khaurawa-Hadaha Irrigation System the involvement of WUA is limited solely to the operation and management of the irrigation system , however the users and the system and the functionaries in the WUA are actively involved in the in other activities relating to production and livelihood promotion.

At present 60 out of 98 households in the system have memebership in Udyamshil Krishak Multipurpose Cooperative Limited. This cooperative was started by 25 women members in the system n 2009. The cooperative started saving and credit program with the aim of providing credit among the members with their own savings. This was a revolutionary step taken by the women users in the system. In 2004, the District Agricultural Development Office got interested in providing physical infrastructure support in the system under small irrigation development program, however on the requirements was organization of the users and its registration. The existing WUA in the system was unregistered. The users decided to use already existing women cooperative in the system that was already registered with the District Cooperative Office in mobilizing the support from District Agricultural Development Office. The users decided to obtain membership in the existing women cooperative upon paying Rs. 100 towards share cost, Rs. 10 as membership fee and Rs. 10 payable each month towards welfare fund. The name of the women cooperative was changed to Udyamshil Krishak Multipurpose Cooperative Ltd. This cooperative has been actively engaged in supplying improved seeds, fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals to the farmers, marketing of food and other daily necessities to the farmers at cheaper rates and in promotion of improved agricultural practices among the farmers in coordination with the Agricultural Service Center operating in the VDC. As many as 20 users in the system are members of Multipurpose Agricultural Cooperative Limited established in 2009. This cooperative has been engaged in marketing of agricultural produce, essentially cash crops in the area. The agricultural produce in the area include fresh vegetables and cash crops like ginger. Madan Pokhara has emerged as off-season vegetable production area in the region. The farmers have been engaged in the production of tomato and cucumber. The cooperative maintains an agricultural produce collection centre where farmers in the area bring their agricultural produce. The agricultural produce of the area is marketed by the cooperative at Tansen and Butwal which are two major markets in the area. The engagement of the cooperative in the marketing of the agricultural produce has started giving the farmers good price for their produce. The average daily transaction of the cooperative has increased to Rs. 90,000 to 100000. Community Forestry: Most users of the system are also members of Andheri Char Chare Community Forest Users Group which was started in 1998. There are 181 member households in this forest user group and of them 89 are the user households of the Khaurawa-Hadaha Irrigation System. The forest users’ group has been among well functioning forest users’ group in Palpa District. The users are allowed to collect fuel wood and other forest products from the community forest under the rules set by the forest user group. The users are also provided timber from the forest for their construction need once in five years. The forest users’ group has succeeded developing good financial resources which is used towards other social and welfare activities. For example, the forest users’ group has been awarding Rs. 1,000 every year to the highest scoring student in the SLC examination from local Damkada Higher Secondary School. Recently the forest users’ group also decided to provided financial support to the members for their medical emergencies, especially for those whose financial conditions are weak Community Radio: In 2000, the people of Madanpokhara decided to develop a community radio station that led to the development Madanpokhara Community FM Radio (106.9 Mhz) that started broadcasting its program beginning March 2000. This has been the first community radio station in the

country which has been engaged disseminating information relating to improved agricultural technology and practices. This radio station has been providing information on the prices of the agricultural produce in the local market and in other parts of the country to the farmers two times a day- in the morning and in the evening. District Agricultural Development Office has been sponsoring Rs. 10,000 per month towards agricultural promotional programs broadcasted by the radio station.

Case-7:
Location:

Palung Khola Irrigation System

Palun Khola Irrigation System is located in Dhusa and Tyan villages in Chhisti Village Development Committee (VDC) in Baglung District. The area is located in the mid-hills and is characterized by inaccessibility and remoteness. The area under irrigation in the system is 27 ha.

Socio-Economic Context:
Majority of the households in the area Magar, followed by Brahmin and Chettri and dalit. Farming is the major occupation of the people in the area which is also the most important means of sustenance for most people. Many of the households also have one or more members in the family in foreign employment, mainly in India, which has been major source of supplementary income. The socioeconomic condition of the people was very poor until a decade back, however this has changes significantly with increasing awareness of the people. The most significant change has been increasing awareness for children education. Most people now send their children to school.

Historical Context:
The farmers in Dhusa and Tyan started initiative for the development an irrigation canal as early as in 1960 with Palun Khola as the source of water supply. This initiative of the farmers coincided with the construction of a suspension bridge in Palun Khola, however the efforts of the farmers went into vein as the construction of the canal could not be even started. In 1968, the District Administration Office provided Rs. 2,500 for the construction of the canal and the farmers from these two villages mobilized additional Rs. 50,000 in terms of cash and grains and started fresh initiative of constructing the canal. The resources available were merely adequate to construct 1 km long canal in the head reach. The water could not be brought to the farmers’ field even with this effort made by the farmers. This failure led to abandoning the canal construction for more than a decade due to lack of resources. The canal alignment in the head reach was to pass through a rocky terrain that made the canal construction almost impossible with the farmers’ efforts alone. In 1980, the District administration office again allocated Rs. 40,000.00 for the construction of the canal on the request of the users. A construction committee was constituted under the leadership of a prominent farmer leader from the area- Mr. Hastaram Thapa. The digging of the canal through the difficult terrain was contracted out to a local contractor for Rs. 36,000 while the local farmers mobilized free labor to dig the canal through the easy terrain. After a year of the hard works of the farmers the construction of the canal was completed and

the irrigation was possible. Prior to this time the farmers in the area were growing rainfed crops, mainly maize, millet, groundnut and cotton. The availability of irrigation created the possibility of cultivation of rice. The farmers had foreseen the possibility of expanding the area under irrigation with the water available at the source however they lacked resources to undertake system expansion. In 1989, the system was selected for rehabilitation and improvement under Dhaulagiri Irrigation Development Program (DWIDP) under technical and financial support of ILO and DANIDA. The rehabilitation and improvement of physical infrastructures in the system was completed in 1992. The local farmers mobilized 10% equivalent of the cost in terms of labor contribution while the rest of the cost of construction was supported under DWIDP. Following this rehabilitation and improvement in the system, the command area of the system expanded to 65 ha with almost 5.5 km long canal with design capacity of 200 liters per second. The farmers had constituted a construction committee at the time of physical infrastructure improvement under DWIDP. The same committee was converted into water users’ committee upon completion of the physical construction works. This users’ organization was later registered with the District Administration Office in 1992 in the name of Palun Khola Water Users’ Association.

Fig. ?? Landscape in Dhusa (left) and Tyan Villages In the course of rehabilitation support under DWIDP, the project had provisioned support either for the development of a water mill for mechanical power harnessing for grain grinding or for the development of a micro-hydropower system, based on the farmers’ preference for the either of the two. The users decided to opt for the development of a water mill with the project support because grain milling and grinding involved excessive drudgery in the absence of milling facility in the nearby area. Also, majority of the houses in the two villages had thatched roof and the farmers feared that electrification in thatched roof houses could result to incidences of fire hazards. The women in the area also preferred development of the water mill because they had to carry grains for long distances for milling. Based on the farmers’ preference a water mill with equipments for milling and grinding of grains and oil expelling was installed with the project support. Available head and flow of water in the irrigation canal was used in operating the runner of the water mill. Initially the operation and maintenance of the water mill was

controlled by the WUA which had set charges for milling and grinding of different kinds of grains. Later the operation of the water mill was leased out to a local entrepreneur for annual rent of Rs. 6,000. With the dependable water supply at the source and the needed head in the canal, the users' had seen the possibility of electricity generation though they did not opt for micro-hydropower plant when this option was given to them under DWIDP support. In 2004, Dhaulagiri Community Research and Development Center (DCRDC) conducted a study to evaluate the feasibility of developing a microhydropower plant with the available head in the irrigation canal on request of the farmers in five villages- Wainakuna, Marnas, Rithawat, Dhusa and Tyan. The study assessed the possibility of generating 50-60 Kw of electricity, however the cooperation among the villagers could not be continued and the initiative was abandoned. The farmers in Dhusa and Tyan however decided to make a fresh initiative of micro-hydropower development on their own and they approached M/S Seimens Hydro Engineering and Energy Product, a micro-hydropower manufacturer and developer which has been working in the area. They constituted a construction committee under a local leader- Mr. Man Bahadur Sarbuja. The committee decided to add a turbine in the existing water mill and develop transmission lines to distribute electricity in the two villages. The idea was to use the existing infrastructure of water mill and the penstock to run the micro-hydro turbine alongside running the water mill. The 34 households in Dhusa and Tyan mobilized Rs. 204,000 at the rate of Rs. 6,000 collected from each household. While the construction work was in progress, the cash mobilized from the users was found deficient by Rs. 100,000 and the households in these two villages were not in a position to make further cash contributions. They decided to include 48 households from adjoining Phoksing village as beneficiary of the hydroelectricity who contributed the deficit amount. This amount was spent in the construction of the plant and in the development of the transmission line. The construction of the scheme was completed in 2006 which generated 10 Kw of electricity.

Fig. ??? Brushwood Intake (left) and Flow Control in the Canal to Divert Water for the Operation of Water Mill (right)

The irrigation canal that was developed by the farmers in Dhusa and Tyan villages in 1980 for irrigation of their lands, involves three uses of at present- irrigation in 27 ha of land, operation of a water mill and generation of 10 Kw of electricity. During the day time water is used exclusively for irrigation and for the operation of the grain mill and the micro-hydropower plant is operated from 5:00 p.m. to 11:00 p.m. in the evening and from 4:00 a.m. to 7 a.m. in the morning to generate electricity.

Governance of Multipurpose Water Use in Palun Khola Irrigation System
The access of the users to the use of water for irrigation, hydroelectricity and water mill is decided by the contributions of the users in the development of the three systems. The 34 households from Dhusa and Tyan villages are prior appropriators of irrigation and have access to all the three uses. The 48 households from Phoksing have access to hydroelectricity only for their contribution in the development of micro-hydropower system. Similarly, 36 additional households from three other villages- Wainakuna, Rithawat and Baralaba, who have their land within the command area of the system but thier houses are located away, have access to irrigation only. This differential access of the users based on their contributions in the development of water systems makes the governance of the system unique and complex. The users in Palun Khola Irrigation System have created two independent users' organizations to govern the operation and management of irrigation and hydropower generation in the system. The electricity users' committee is composed of 11 functionaries that include a chairperson, a vice-chairperson, a secretary, a treasurer and 7 members. In the formation of electricity users' committee, 34 households from Dhusa and Tyan and 48 households from Phoksing are the designated voting members who select/elect the functionaries of the electricity committee. The Irrigation Water Users' Organization is composed of 11 functionaries, wherein the irrigation water users from 70 households in the system are the voting members. Of the 11 functionaries in the irrigation water users' committee, provision of 3 women representative was made beginning 2009. The hydroelectricity generated in the system is distributed at the rate of 80 watts to each of the 34 households in Dhusa and Tyan villages who are prior appropriators of the system and 48 households in Phoking village who joined the system for electricity use at later time. The electricity is used only for lightning and the households are required to pay an electricity tariff per month. The electricity tariff, which is Rs. 60 per household per month, is uniform for the 34 households from Dhusa and Tyan and 48 households from Phoksing. The electricity users committee has employed an operator who is responsible to oversee the operation of the hydropower plant and related equipments and facilities. The monthly revenue generated from electricity tariff is Rs. 4,920. This amount is used for paying the salary of the operator and a guard, who are paid Rs. 2,500 and Rs. 700 per month, respectively. The remaining amount is saved for use in the repair and maintenance of the electromechanical components in the system. The turbine and the generator in the system have been repaired twice since the original construction.

At present the area under irrigation in the system is about 540 ropani (27 ha) that belong to total of 70 households who are beneficiary of the irrigation system from Dhusa, Tyang, Baralaba, Wainakuna and Rithawat. The WUA has employed a water guard on full time basis who is responsible to oversee the canal and physical infrastructures on day to day basis and distribute water to the users in different villages based on the schedule of water distribution. The users collect Rs. 3 per ropani of land per annum to pay for the salary of the watchman. Earlier the farmers were mobilizing labor to carry out annual repair and maintenance by themselves but now the work of annual repair and maintenance is carried out by employing labourers on contract. The users mobilize Rs. 20 per ropani of land per annum towards annual repair and maintenance of the system. Separate distribution canals have been developed to distribute water to different villages. The first branch canal off-takes immediately after the hydropower plant to distribute water to the Upper Dhusa village. There are two separate branch canals to distribute water to lower Dhusa and Tyan villages. The water available in the system is not sufficient to bring the entire area in irrigation at a time, even during monsoon. Therefore, WUA has developed a times irrigation distribution schedule. Irrigation is distributed on rotation between the branch canals of upper and lower Dhusa, wherein the area under the two branch canals receive water for three days and three nights on turns. In the branch canal supplying water to Tyan, water flows continuously however water is distributed to the farmers on rotation from head to tail or from tail to head reach of the branch canal.

Fig. ??? Penstock for Water Mill and Micro-Hydropower Plant (left) and Grain Milling and Oil Expelling Units in the Water Mill (right)

Livelhood Impacts of Multiple Water Use Systems
Agriculural Productivity and Food Security: There has been significant change in the agricultural productivity and food security situation in the command area after the development of the irrigation system. Prior to the development of the system, most households in the area were food deficit. The entire area was under maize and millet farming though the farmers were also producing cotton, ginger

and groundnut in small quantities. The cropping was limited to one crop during monsoon and they were cultivating winter crops only occasionally. Since it was not possible to grow rice, the farmers used to exchange ginger and cottom for rice in other villages. After the development of the irrigation scheme two noticeable changes in the cropping system in the command area have been: year round cultivation of crops in most parts of the command area with rice in the monsoon and significant increase in the productivity of the crops. The coverage of crops in the command area of the system at present have been as shown in the table below: Coverage by Crops in Command Area of Palun Khola Irrigation System Crops Rice Wheat Maize Mustard Potato Vegetables Month June-September September-April April-June September-April September-April Year Round Area 100% 60 % 80% 40% 10% 10%

With the availability of irrigation, the productivity of the crops increased significantly. The change in the crop productivity before and after the availability of irrigation is shown in the table below. There has been steady increase in the crop productivity with time with the availability of irrigation initially and with the adoption of improved agricultural practices and technology by the farmers at the later periods. Changes in the Crop Productivity Before and After Irrigation in Palun Khola Irrigation System Crops Before Irrigation (Tons/ha) 1996 Rice Wheat Maize Mustard Potato NA = Not applicable NA NA 0.40 NA NA 2.4 0.56 0.40 0.40 3.20 After Irrigation (Tons/ha)

2000 3.2 0.80 0.80 0.64 3.20

2009 5.6 0.96 0.90 0.64 6.40

The increased crop productivity has contributed to enhancing the food security in the area. Some of the households have also started producing marketable surplus. Cultivation of potato and vegetables that were possible with the availability of irrigation have been source of cash earnings for the households. Farmers Investment Capacity: The users took initiative in the development of hydropower plant in 2004 on their own which clearly indicates of increased investment capacity of the users that has been possible with the increased income opportunities of the farmers with the development of the irrigation

scheme. People in upper Dhusa and Tyan have been using canal water for drinking purpose as well while the users in lower Dhusa have developed gravity pipe water scheme using a local spring source with the support of Rs. 150 thousands provided by District Administration Office. People in Tyan and upper Dhusa have been experiencing progressive deterioration of water quality due to increasing use of canal water for washing and cleaning in the upper reaches and increased disposal of effluents in the canal from Winakuna, a settlement located in the upper reach. The people in these two villages have been seeking external support for the development of a piped drinking water scheme. They have shown their willingness to support the cost of the scheme on their own in case they fail to get the external support. Education and Health: The awareness level of the people and their motivation to send their children to school has increased with the development of the irrigation scheme. There is a primary school between the Tyan and Dhusa villages for primary level education while the students walk to adjoining village of Rithawat for high school level and to Nepane for higher secondary level education. All the households in the area now send their young children to school. For health related services there is a health post located at Nepane that offers primary health care services for the residents in the area. Women’s Cooperative: At the time of the DWIDP support for system rehabilitation in 1989, the project had supported to organize a women cooperative with the women in Dhusa and Tyan as the members in the cooperative. This cooperative had initiated credit and saving program with women members making compulsory monthly savings in the cooperative. This cooperative had succeeded raising the funds up to Rs. 29,000 and was advancing loan among the members for small income generating activities. This cooperative became defunct three years back due to conflict among the members. Recently women in Dhusa started another credit and saving cooperative with 21 members which has been named Durga Women Group. Community Forestry: With the DWIDP support in the system the farmers had started plantation of trees and shrubs along the canal for prevention of landslides. This had created awareness among the farmers for the conservation of forest. Later the farmers took initiative to start community forestry in the area by initiating new plantation and conservation of forest areas. Three community forests now exist in the head reach of the system. These include- Naule Community Forest, Bhoja Community Forest and Dhakal Pokhari Community Forest. The households in the area are users of one or more of these community forests.

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