SUBMITTED BY: Gurpreet uppal
EEE 3rd year


I have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals and organizations. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them. I am highly indebted to Mr. Vikas kumar (H.O.D.EEE) and all faculty member for their guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the project & also for their support in completing the project.

Gurpreet uppal EEE 3rd year

Contents y Introduction y Properties y Types of insulator y Damaging of insulator y Voltage distribution on string y Methods of improving voltage distribution y Materials of insulator .

When a voltage is placed across an insulator. no charge or current flows. An object intended to support or separate electrical conductors without passing . are used to electrically insulate pylons from live electrical cables. The insulators are connected to the cross arm of the supporting structure and the power conductor passes through the clamp of the Overhead line insulators.Introduction The insulator for overhead lines provides insulation to the power conductor from the ground. as the name suggests. Electrical insulation is a material or object which contains no free electrons to permit the flow of electricity.

Toughened glass is also sometimes used for insulators because it has higher dielectric strength ( 35kV for onetenth inch thickness ) which makes it possible to make use of single piece construction. Glass being transparent. it has lower . The porcelain should be ivory white. feldspar 30%. sound and free from defects. it is very easy to detect any flaw like trapping of air etc.The term electrical insulation has the same meaning as the termdie lec tric These insulators are mainly made of either glazed porcelain or toughened glass. and clay 50%. The materials used for porcelain are silica 20%.current through itself is called aninsulator. whatever be the operating voltage.

as a result the strains due to temperature changes are minimized. The major drawback of glass is that moisture condenses very easily on its surface and hence its use is limited to about 33kV .co-efficient of thermal expansion and.


Highly insulative material is used and a recurring design theme are the watershed fins that discourage conductive water paths during rain and provides the required electrical leakage insulation distance y It should possesss high mechanical strength to bear the conductor load under worst loading condition. y It needs to have a high resistance to temperature changes to reduce damages to power flasheover.PROPERTIES OF INSULATOR y Overhead line insulators are designed to have both electrical insulation and mechanical strength. .

y The insulator material should not be porous and should be impervious to gases in atmosphere and should be free from impurity and cracks which may lower the permittivity. .y The leakage of earth current should be minimum to keep the corona loss and radio interference within limits.

Types of insulators There are three types of insulators used for overhead lines Pin type Suspension type Strain type .

plastic. and provide a means to secure the conductor to the insulator. polymer. The most common way . The earliest pin insulators predate the strain insulator and were deployed before about 1830. glass. provide a means to hold the insulator to the pin. The pin insulator is designed to secure the conductor to itself.Pin type insulators A pin insulator consists of a nonconducting material such as porcelain. Pin insulators continue in production with manufacturers worldwide. the pin insulator is directly connected to the supporting pole. or wood that is formed into a shape that will isolate a wire from a physical support (or "pin") on a utility pole or other structure. By contrast to a strain insulator.

gravity can be used to hold the conductor in place. The pin insulator has threads so that it can be screwed onto the pin. so isolation when wet is a major consideration. To combat this problem. Size . Pin insulators are almost always deployed in the open air. A typical pin insulator is more than 10 cm in diameter and weighs one kg or more. Finally. for heavy conductors. Another method is to design the insulator with self-typing features such as complex slots and grooves formed into the insulator. pin insulators feature extra skirts or wide shells to increase the surface distance between the conductor and the do this is to use a wire to tie the conductor to the insulator. The "pin" is typically a wooden or metal dowel of about 3 cm diameter with screw threads.

.depends on the voltage to be isolated and the weight of span of wire to be supported.

is suspended from the crossarm and has the line conductor fastened to the lower end. It is designed for ease of linking units together. as its name implies. Such composite units are known as string insulators. Each insulator is a large disc shape piece of porcelain grooved on .Suspension type insulator The suspension insulator. Linking of these insulators gives you the versatility of ordering one insulator to be used with varying voltages Theses insulators consists of one or more insulator units flexibly Connected together and adopted to be hung for the cross arm of the sporting structure and to carry a power conductor at its lowest extremity.

Suspension insulators being free to swing. The cap and the pin are squired by means of cement. The cap at the top is increased so that it can take the pin of another unit and in this way a string of any required number of insulators can be built.the undersurface to increase the surface leakage path between the metal cap at the top and the metal pin at the bottom of the insulator. The diameter is taken as 10n as it gives optimum spark over to puncture voltage ratio. The standard unit is 10n X 5. the clearances required . Increasing the diameter further increases the flash over or spark over voltage but it lower the above ratio which is undesirable.75n in size.

The suspension insulators. have the following further advantages. Since the power conductor and string swing together in case of wind . in addition to being economical as compared to pin type for voltage more than 33kV.between the power conductor and the suspension structure are more as compared to pin type insulators. This means the length of the cross arm for suspension insulators is more as compared with the pin type. only that particular unit needs replacement rather than the whole string. Each insulator is designed for11kV and hence for any operating voltage a string of insulators can be used In case of failure of one of the units in string.

the mechanical stress at the point of attachment are reduced as compared with the pin type of insulator where because of the rigid nature of the attachment fatigue and ultimate brittleness of the wire result. The operating of the existing transmission can be increased by adding suitable number of discs in the string instead of replacing all the insulators as is necessary in case of pin type insulators . .pressure.


or in mountainous country. Strain insulators are used when a pull must be carried as well as insulation provided. at comers. Description of strain insulator: A typical strain insulator is a piece of glass or porcelain that is shaped to accommodate two cables or a cable shoe and the supporting hardware on the support . at extra long spans. at river crossings. In such places the insulator must not only be a good insulator electricallybut it also must have sufficient mechanical strength to counterbalance the forces due to tension of the line conductors.Strain type insulators The strain insulator looks exactly like the suspension insulator but is designed to hold much heavier physical loads. at sharp curves.Such places occur whenever a line is dead-ended.

the shape of the insulator becomes critically important. As a practical matter. the strain insulator is usually in tension. since a wetted path from one cable to the other can create a lowresistance electrical path. Strain insulators intended for horizontal mounting therefore incorporate flanges to . Use of strain insulator: Strain insulators are typically used outdoors in overhead wiring. In this environment they are exposed to rain and in urban settings. In practice. The shape of the insulator maximizes the distance between the cables while also maximizing the load-bearing transfer capacity of the insulator.structure (hook eye. or eyelet on a steel pole/tower). for light loads such as radio antennas. pollution.

shed water. and strain insulators intended for vertical mounting are often bell-shaped .

Damaging of insulator The electrical breakdown of an insulator due to excessive voltage can occur in one of two ways:   Puncture voltage is the voltage across the insulator (when installed in its normal manner) which causes a breakdown and conduction through the interior of the insulator. causing a 'flashover' arc along the outside of the insulator. Flashover voltage is the voltage which causes the air around or along the surface of the insulator to break down and conduct. They are . The heat resulting from the puncture arc usually damages the insulator irreparably.

To accomplish this the surface is molded into a series of corrugations or concentric disk shapes. High voltage insulators for outdoor use are shaped to maximize the length of the leakage path along the surface from one end to the other. and particularly water on the surface of a high voltage insulator can create a conductive path across it.usually designed to withstand this without damage. salt. The flashover voltage can be more than 50% lower when the insulator is wet. pollution. to minimize these leakage currents. causing leakage currents and flashovers. so they will flashover before they puncture. Most high voltage insulators are designed with a lower flashover voltage than puncture voltage. These usually . called the creepage length. to avoid damage. Dirt.

but must be increased in high pollution or airborne seasalt areas. Minimum creepage distances are 20 25 mm/kV.include one or more sheds. . downward facing cup-shaped surfaces that act as umbrellas to ensure that the part of the surface leakage path under the 'cup' stays dry in wet weather.

n is the number of insulator units in the string When n=4 . flashover voltage of string n* flashover voltage of one unit or voltage across the whole string n*(v/g across the unit adacent to line conducto) Where.STRING EFFICIENCY String Efficiency is a measure of utilization of material in the string and is defined as.


This would equalize the voltage distribution. The line end units has got the greatest capacitance while top unit the smallest.METHOD OF IMPROVING STRING EFFICIENCY y Use of long cross arm: String efficiency can be improved by reduction in stray capacitance to the ground. y Guard Rings . y Capacitance Grading The voltage distribution can be equalize by assembling a string with units of different capacitance of appropriate voltage.

This increase the stray capacitance to the line and decrease the stray capacitance to earth.This is the most efficient method of equalize the voltage distribution by fitting rings or shield to the bottom insutator or to the clamp and connected to the line. .

Insulator Materials: Overhead line insulators are mostly made of the following materials 1. Porcelain. When modern composite synthetics are used. which may be used for disc and pin types. plastic and resin. which may be a combination of fibreglass. 2. often the insulative core consists of glass fibers in a resin- . which is widely used for all the abovementioned overhead line insulator types. Composite synthetics. It s thermal stability is consistent up to 538 degrees C 3. Glass. These are sometimes used for the longrod and post type insulators and have been in service for more than 25 years.

also referred to as Polymer Concrete has been used for post type insulators. there have been concerns about material lifespan and lack of UV resistance . A rule of thumb operating temperature range spec for housing is -50 to 50 degrees Celsius. which helps reduce leakage current. The housing that encloses a composite synthetic also forms the water-sheds and may be hydrophobic (water repellent).based matrix to achieve maximum tensile strength 4. Polymer Concrete has demonstrated thermal stability in excess of 300 degrees C. Since both these designs utilise organic material. Some housings are designed to remain hydrophobic when polluted. giving composite synthetics a distinct advantage over porcelain types. Plasticised wood. 5.

For ease of load specification identification. Clevis and pins may be specified with a coating of hot-dipped galvanised zinc to protect the base metal against severe corrosion 7. Coupling fittings for overhead line insulators (i. the ball-socket and clevistongue interlocks) are normally galvanised cast iron and forged or mild steel.6. each insulator is marked with its specified Electromechanical Failing Load and the name or trademark of the manufacturer in conformance with IEC 60383 .e.

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