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System, vel. PAS-96, no.

6 , November/Dece&er
IEFX Transactionson Power Apparatus and 1977



F. Iliceto
Senior Member IEEE E. Cinieri
University of Rome
Rome (Italy)


Series and shunt compensation schemes for medium considered forthe line sections are illustratedinFig.1.
and long distance AC transmission lines are compared
from the points of view of the compensation effective
ness (improvement of system stability), the total COP
pensation WAR requirement, the profile of line volta-
ge and the efficiency of power transmission. 0
The results reported in the paper enable the
choice of optimized Compensation schemes,fromtheabove
indicated aspects. 0

It is a well-known fact that long-distance EHVAC

transmission systems require the use of series capac-
itors and shunt reactors. The purpose of this equip-
ment is to artificially reduce series reactance and
shunt susceptance of the lines, so as to improvesystem
stability and voltage control, increase the efficiency
of power transmission, facilitate line energizationand
reduce temporary and transient overvoltages.
Practical and economic reasons lead toconcentrate
the compensating elements at a few points along the
lines. Fora given totalWARS of series and shuntcog
pensation of a transmission system, maximumpower trans
fer capability, voltage control conditionsandefficien
cy of power transmission depend on the number,location
and circuit schematic of the series capacitor and the
shunt reactor stations. F i g . 2 - Schemes for series and shunt compensation of a
When planning long-distance transmission,it isnec line section.
essary to determine not only theaveragedegreesofcog
pensation required, but also the most appropriate lo-
cation of the reactors and capacitor banks,the optimal In the literature,a concept of effectivenessofse
connection scheme and number of intermediate stations. ries compensation was first introduced[ 31in -
and discus
Transmission engineers who have faced this problemknow sed for a 1000 km long line. In this paper two new in-
the complexity of the total optimization. On theother dexes of compensation effectiveness are proposed, which
hand, experts' opinion differs about optimal series ca are deemed appropriate for the assessment of the tran-
pacitor location: at the line terminals, or at interme sient stability performance of the variouspossiblecom-
diate points along the lines. pensation schemes.A physical explanation isprovided of
In a previous article[ 4 1 , co-authored by the au- the different effectiveness and voltage profiles along
thors of this paper, the results of research on tran- the line, that the studied schemes exhibit.
sient overvoltages and overcurrents have beenreported,
with special reference to the influence of series ca- 2 . DEFINITION OF COMPENSATION EFFECTIVENESS INDEXES
pacitor location and conpensation schemes. The present
article is devoted to a comparative examination of The two coefficients here introduced are dimension
steady-state performances and transient stability. less. The first one,El,is defined as an index of scheme
To render the results as widely applicablePO?as effectiveness; the second one,€ 1 , is defined as an in-
sible, the examination was focused on point to point dex of transmission system effectiveness.
transmission systems 3 0 0 to 1800 km long, built on a Considering a point to point powertransmissionsyz
modular basis by cascading a variable number of compe; tem with series and shunt compensation,letuscallsche
sated line sections (lfhr.ough6). The section lengths effectiveness € 1 the following ratio:
adopted ranged from 3 0 0 to 600 km, the latter value
being considered as the upper technical limitfor 50 Hz sending-end maximwn transmissible power
transmission [l] Series and shunt compensations were E1 =
of actual system
maximwn transmissible power (1)
varied between0% and 100%. Theschemesof compensation
of idealized system with same compensa-
tions uniformly distributed
Let K, and K,J be the degreesof series and shunt compe;
sation, defined in the usual manner. us Letcall system
F 77 239-7. A paper nxmmr&d and apprwed by effectiveness €1 the following ratio:
the lEEE hrmsniSSlcn and Distribution carmittee of sending-end maximwn transmissible power
the 5 P w e r Engineering S c c i e q for presentaticn =
of actual system
at the EEE PES Winter keting, New Yo&, N.Y., Jan- (2)
sending-end maximum transmissible power
~ a r y30-Febr~ary&, 1977. Manuscript rmhnitted Feb- of idealized system with uniformly dis
bruary 3, 1976 ; mk available for printing Decenhr trihted compensations, Q = 100% and az
17, 1976. tual Ks
Hence the ideal system cpnsidered at the denominatorpensation of effectiveness than the unspetrical ones,ex-
index €1 is electrically equivalent tonearlythe series cept for schemes D F, andwhose effectivenessisgeneral
impedances only, the shunt susceptance being nil. ly very high and consequently the electrical angle of
The analytical expressions of the above defined iz transmission is relatively small. In longdistancetram-
dexes can be easily found. Let us call&, E, 2, and 2 mission systems, this good property of schemes D andF
the constants of the double bipole equivalent to as theis acompanied by voltage profiles very uneven,which are
tual transmission system (underlined symbols stand for unacceptable. In a 1200 km long line, the voltage may
complex values); letA', B', C ' , and 2' betheconstants reach at some locations 1.2 - 1.25 rated value , when
for the ideal system with uniformly distributed seriesline is loaded at surge impedance 1oading.The situation
and shunt compensation and z",
A", C" and 2" the con- is worse when loading is differentSIL, because of
stants for the ideal line with uriiformly distributed the concentration of large compensation equipments at a
100% shunt compensation and effective degree of seriesfew points.
compensation. Let B , B ' , B", 6, 6' and 6" be the ar- The other unspnmetrical schemes exhibit worse sta-
guments of constants E, B', E" and 2, 2' and 2". bility properties (lower values of€1 and € 2 ) and less
The above constants A', E', C' and 2' are readily favourable voltage profiles along the lines thanthesF
calculated by varying the primary line constants appro- metrical schemes.
priately, i.e. by multiplying inductanceandcapacitance In this article only the synmetrical schemes ,B A
per unit.of length of the general sectionof compensated and C will be analyzed in detail. Theresultsconcerning
- -
line by (1 Ks) and by (1 %), respectively, K, and the other schemes are available by the authors.
Q being the degrees of seriesand shunt compensation.
As usual,Q = Xc/Ex, whereX, = total reactance of se- 4. COMPARATIVE EXAMINATIONOF COMPENSATION EFFECTIVE-
ries capacitor banks inserted in one phase of the line, NESS OF TEE SYMHETRICALSCHEMES
x = line reactance per unit of length, &=line length.
And alsoQ = Br/Eb, whereB, =susceptance of all shunt The evaluation of the compensationeffectivenessof
reactors connected to one phase of the line, = shunt
b the various schemes can be made in two manners: (i) fo
susceptance per unit of length of line. assigned totalW A R s of series capacitorsandshuntrea5
For the calculation of indexes€1 and €2, it suf- tors,determine the transmission capacities at the sta-
fices to recall that the active power P, at the sending bility limit of systems differing only on compensation
end of a double bipole of constants A, 2, 5 and gisgix scheme; (ii) for an assigned transmission capacity, de-
en by the expression: termine the required WARS of series and shunt compensa
tion for various schemes. Both these methods have been
used by the authors.
The cost of compensation equipmentisvirtually pro
where E, and E, are terminal voltages and 0 the phase portional to totalWAR ratingsof series capacitorsand
shift thereof. Maximum transmissible powerP,,, is ob- shunt reactors. Therefore the various schemes should be
tained when8 = n - B , i.e.: compared on the basis of total WARS requirement,rather
than in terms K, of and Q, which are proportional toto
D Es
Ps,m = - ' E COS(B-6) +B tal reactance of series capacitors and susceptance of
B s shunt reactors. Eowever, the computer calculations made
by the authors (see further ahead Table I and coments
Assuming that the terminal voltages of the trans- thereof) and also the below reported considerations on
mission system are equal (Er = E, = E = V/6), the fol- equipment specification, show that MVAR the ratings are
lowing expressions are readily derived for the effect-in practice univocally definedK, by and %,whatever is
iveness indexes: the compensation scheme. This enables the economical corn
parison of the schemes on terms ofK, and Q.
The rated power of the series capacitor banks is
proportional to the square of the current that can fl
through them under the severest operating conditions,
i.e. in overload (usually the outage of one line in a
multiline system, at peak transmission load). In fact
various emergency operating conditions must be consid-
e r d , including the current swing due to the electromt
chanical perturbances. It thus ensues that insizing the
capacitors it is not usually possible to take advantag
of the fact that, undernormaloperatingconditions, with
a particular compensation scheme, the voltage is a li
The definitions of€1 and €2 evidence thattheseig tle higher and the current is a little lowercaps for a
dexes give a comparative measurethestabilityperfor
of citor bank installed at a certain location along the
mance of the various schems with concentrated compensa line. Also the requirement of standardization ofcathe
tion. The justification of having called schemeandsyz pacitor banks located at different points thesame along
tem effectiveness the indexes€1 and €2, will be given line must be considered. These points usually lead to
in chapter4. the choice of the same rated current of capacitors,wh
ever the scheme, thus enabling comparison of cost made
3 . COMMENTS ON COMPENSATION SCHEMES in terms of K, (reactance of capacitors) rather than
The schemes of Fig.1 covermany possible combina- A similar line of argument may be advanced for
tions, with the assumption that: (i) the capacitor banks shunt reactors, whose rated voltage,whichdeterminesthe
and the reactors are not more than two per linesection; rated W A R s thereof, is generally the maximum system OF
(ii) the capacitors are located at line section ends or erating voltage, whatever the compensation schemeand lo
at midpoint and reactors are located at section ends. cation involved.
Schemes A, B and C are synmetrical; the remaining are In this chapter the effectiveness of compensation
unsyumetrical. Schemes A, B and C for the aim ofstabilityimprovemen
The calculation of indexes€1 and € 2 , voltage pro- is evaluated through the analysis of indexes €1 and EZ as

files along the line and load flows has been performed functions ofK, and Q. Line section lengthsof 300, 450
for all the schemes of Fig.1. The computeranalysishas and 600 km and total line lengths in the 300kmto range
shown that the spnmetrical schemes exhibit higher com- 1800 km have been considered. The correctnessof apthis

proach is confirmed by the transient stability analysis tributed compensation. In this caseitisworthwhileadop
of significant examples, reported in chapter 5. ting schemes with compensation concentrated at a few
Indexes €1 and €1 have been computer calculated for points, that is to choose the longest linesectionscon-
various line electrical constants, to cover a widesistent range with the othertechnica1requirements.Thecurves
of E W levels (345-8OOkV) and conductors (number of ca- charts of Fig. 2 , whichwillbe better illustrated fur-
bles per phase and cross sectional area). This analysis ther ahead, show that the numerical valuesof €1 fall in
showed that, as long asKs(80%, the influence of line the range0.60 through 2 . 5 0 .
constants is minor, departures being higherthan2I.
not If, instead, the index €1 is found less than unity,
For an assigned line geometrical configuration, the the in- situation being in favour of distributed compensa-
fluence of cross sectional area of conductors is neg- tion, it may be better to spread compensation over a
ligeable for K, values up to 90%. These results hold greater number of stations.
good for all the compensation schemes and line section As would therefore be expected, ananalytical check
lengths considered, whatever the valueQ.of confirmed that, for the symmetrical schemes considered,
The analysis also showed that the results are sim- the coefficient €1 depends practically on the compensa
ilar for 50Hz and60Hz systems, if line section lengths tion scheme alone and not on the number of con sections
are inversely proportional to frequency. stituting the transmission system (see Appendix). Hence
The curve charts of Fig. 2 3and have been plotted it is possible to compare scheme effectivenesses of two
for the following 760 kV - 50% line constants: transmission systems formed of a different number of
r = 0 . 0 1 2 2 Wkm ; x = 0 . 2 8 2 nlkm equal sections, by examining the €1 indexes of eachcog
stituent section.
g = 19.10-9S/km ; b = 4.O4-1O6S/km The following points emergefrominspection of Fig.
Keeping in mind that series compensation degrees 2 :
exceeding 80% have no practical interest, from fore the (i) For assignedvaluesofKs and %,E] increases as line
going it can be said that the curve charts of Fig.2 and
section lengthincreasesif~ 1 > 1 ,but if it is less than


O l l l l t l l l i l _ L ,
0 50 100
K. 1%1
0.7 0
0 50 100
Fig. 2 - Scheme effectiveness € 1 versus degree of series compensation K, f o r the compensation schemes A, B and C
and three values of shunt compensation (OX, SO%, 100%); at = length of line section.
3 possess universal value, for any EHV line configura- unity, the reverse is the case.
tion. If 60Hz systems are considered, the line lengths (ii) For given lengths of line sections compensated as
specified in the curve charts should be reduced accord- per Schemes A and C, it emerges that~ l > for
1 relative
ing to frequencies ratio 50160. ly low degrees of series compensation, while € 1 < 1 for
It will be readily appreciated that, for given Val high degrees. On the other hand, for SchemeB,exceptfor
ues of Ks and Q , comparison of the effectiveness €1 of the caseKd = 0% when Schemes BandAcoincide,El > 1 for
various compensation schemes provides a direct assess-all Ks values; €1 increases rapidly as series compensa-
ment of their relative power transfer capabilities. tion increases up to K, values of around 95%.Alsoonthe
This is because in the €1 expressions for twoactualsyz grounds of item (i) above,it ensues that inthecaseof
tems with the same degrees of compensation,but with transmission
dif systems built as per Scheme B, it is advan-
ferent numbers of capacitor and reactor banks at differ tageous for stability improvement toadopt long lines e t
ent locations along the lines, the value of the denomina tion lengths, whatever thedegreeof series compensation.
tor is the same. Thus comparison €of 1 values is effec- If, instead, the system is built according toschemes A
tively a comparison of the numerators, i.e. ofthepower or C, it is theKS value which suppliesindications for
transfer capability. assessing the number of line sections allowing for the
Scheme efficiency€ 1 maybe above or below or equal higher effectiveness of compensation.
to unity. When€1 > 1 , the stability limit of the actual(iii) The three €1 curves relevant to Schemes A,BandC,
system with compensation concentratedata few points is plotted for equal Kd and sectionlengthvalues,originate
higher than that of the ideal system uithuniformlydis- from the same point for = Ks 0. If Kd is not near zero,

the effectiveness degree of the schemes B,is C, A in transmission distances of 6 0 0 , 1200 and 1800 km are
that order. With Q near zero, the effectiveness of shown in the first, second and third columns. The dia-
Scheme C is slightly better than those of and B, grams also include the curve for the denominatorofthe
which are virtually equal. EZ expression, namely of the maximum power transferca


2.00 48

1.30 'I

1.75 6
1.00 1.25

1.00 2
0.80 1.00

0.90 0.80
0 50 0 50 100

2.50 2.50

2.00 2n0

1.50 1.50

1.00 1.00

0.80 i O W

0 50 100 0 50 100
K, [%I K, E41

Fig. 3 - S y s t e m effectiveness €2 versusdegree of series compensation Ks, f o r the schemes A,B and C o f F i g . 2 and
threevalues of s h t conpensatia ( O X , so%, 100%); 11 = = total length of transmission system.Dot-&&&
CUrVes give m mium ideal power Pm,id, i n p . u. of SIL, versus KO.
The significance of thesystemeffectivenessindex pability Pm,id of an ideal system with uniformly-dis
EZ is more readily apparent. In the expression €of 2, tributed compensation (actual degree of series compenz
the denominator is the maximum power transfer capabilsation and 100% shunt compensation) as a function of
ity of a line whose shunt susceptance is zero. Hence IC,.Thus for every scheme and degree of compensation
this power depends only on the degree of series com- it is possible to determine the absolute value of the
pensation and not on the scheme nor on the degree of maximum power transfer capability simply by multiply-
shunt compensation nor on the length of line section ing the P,,id values by the corresponding EZ values.
adopted. The €2 diagrams highlight the following points:
Fig. 3 is a curve chart of €2 as a function of&. (i) In the case of Schemes A and C, whatever the de-
Diagrams are set out ont w o lines and three columns. gree of series compensation, the lower the degree of
The first line refers to 300-km line sections and the shunt compensation within any given scheme,the great
second to 600-km sections, while results obtained for er is c 2 . This confirms that disconnection of shunt

reactors at heavy load in transmission systems that
adopt compensation Schemes A C, andimprovesstability.
If compensation Scheme B is adopted, this situation 05
curs for relatively low degree of series compensation,
below a given value. However, once this value is ex-
ceeded, the situation is reversed. For instance, in a
system built up of two 600 km sections withK, = 75%,
passing fromQ = 0% to Q = loo%, theeffectiveness~2
rises from 0.94 to 1.40, for an increase of over 40%.
(ii) For an assigned value ofQ and except for the
case of Q = 0% or when it is very small, lines compel
sated as per Scheme B have the highest maximum power
transfer capabilities, followed by Schemes C A,and in
that order, whatever the valueK,.of
(iii)The point (i) made earlier regarding € 1 is read-
ily verified by comparing the Fig. 2 and 3 diagrams,i.
e. if € 1 >l,then €1 is higherwhenthe transmissionline
is built with longer sections, while the reverse is
true if € 1 <1. The check can be made by comparing the
values of in the two alternative cases, as can be
deduced from the corresponding diagrams of a given coL
umn of Fig. 3: transmission system formed by n sec-
tions of given length and by 2n sections of half
length. Indeed, in these two cases, as the degree of
series compensation and the total transmission length
are the same,€1 is proportional to the maximum power
transfer capability of the two systems, according to
the same factor.



To appraise the different behavior of the schemes

A, Band C as regards the profile of line voltage and
efficiency, a study was made of a kV, 760 50 Hz point
to point transmission circuit,1200knlong,formedoftwo
600 km sections or four 300 km sectionsandcompensated
as per Schemes A,B and C of Fig. 1. For brevity , the
systems are indicatedsymbols by - A2~600,Aqx300,B2~600
etc.-whosemeaningis self evident.
It is assumed that the economic loading of the
1200 km long line is equal to SIL,i.e. 2200 MW for the 750
760 kVline studied.
Line compensation was fixed in such a manner to 700
assure sufficient transient stabilityina multicircuit
transmission 1ine.Accordinglyitwas chosen K, = 61.2 %
and Q = 62% resulting in a total line electricalangle
of about 30‘ for compensation Scheme A2x6W.
Load flow was studied assuming the voltagesat the
sending and receiving ends to be the same, 760 kV. The
angle between the terminal voltages 6, the voltageprz
files and the transmission efficiencies rl were deter-
mined in this manner. The results of the investigation
for operation at no-load, 50% load, rated load and 50%
overload conditions, are shown in Fig. 4 only for the
2x600 km systems.
Let us consider the operation of the synmetrical
schemes A, B and C, transmitting an active power equal 800 1200
[ kml
to SIL. In TableI are reported, in decreasing order,
the transmission angles 6. The relevant values of € 1
and € 2 , calculated for the adopted values of K,andQ, F i g . 4 -Voltage p r o f i l e along the 2 x 600 km l i n e f o r
ent that the phase shift,
are also reported in the Table It is readily appar-
6 , decreases in the same or-
various schemes of compensation and loading conditions .
Vs = Vr a 760 kV.
der as €1 and €2 .
The differences of 6 are bound up with the differ hence the compensation effectiveness is higher - for
ent profiles of transmission line voltage. Indeed, the the scheme which exhibits highaverage transmissionvolt
phase shift between voltages at the two ends isal the ages along the line sections and low ones at the ter-
gebraic sum of the angles at the ends of each line sec minals of series capacitors.
tion and of the series capacitors (the latter being of In the particular case in point, it ensuesthat in
opposite sign to the former, thus providing compensa- the A z x ~ ~ Csystem
, the average voltages at seriesca the
tion). In order to reduce the overall angle for a giv- pacitor terminals and in the line sections are 2% and
en power transmitted, it is as well to have low phase4% lower, respectively, than in the Bgx6w system (see
shift between the ends of the individual line sections Table I). Consequently, passing fromSchemeAto Scheme
and high angles astride the series capacitors. But as B, owing to the voltage increase, the percentage de-
for a given power value both angles decrease as oper- crease of the angle at the series capacitor terminals
ating voltage rises, the total angle -
is smaller and is less than that at the ends of the individual line
Table I - Smary of steady-state operation of a 760 kV - 50 Hz - 1200 km line, loaded a t SIL (2200 MW)

6 €1 €2 6, 6k '
c Vme VM Vm Qc 9.
[ "I ["I ["I [kV] [kVl [kVl [kVl [WAR] [WAR

26.0 1.080 43.4 69.4

1.130 767 775 1788 1652
B2 x 600

27.7 43.8 71.5

1.060 1.021 764 762 1755 1654
B4 x 300

2' x 600
27.9 I 1.005 39.5 1.040 786 825
802 67.4 1736 1507

c4x 300 28.1 1.001 71.1 43.0

770 1.039 1737 1617

28.7 1728
0.985 764 756 756 167172.8 747 44.1 1.02
A4 x 300

30.0 752 75.1 763

45.1 744 1
0.980 0.941 1724 1714
A2 x 600

6 = transmissionangle; € 1 , €2 = scheme and system effectiveness;bc,b& = swn of phase shifts relarant,respective-

l y , to line sections and seriescupacitorbanks(6 = 6&-.6,); Vmc, Vm, = average voltages at s e r i e s capacitor tern:
nals and along line sections; VM, Vm= m m
iLr andmznumnn voltages i n t h e system; Qc, Qk = total reactive
m power
absorbed respectively by capacitor banks and shunt reactances.
sections. For this reason the compensation effective- tive reactive power which flows through the series ca-
ness is more marked in Scheme B , notwithstanding the pacitors and causes the voltage to increase frombus to
fact that the value of 6, is lower here. line side terminals of the capacitors .
The relevant
Passing from system B2x600 to system c2x600, el it voltage profile is indicated as 3 in Fig. SA.
sues that the average linevoltage,VmQ,c , is a little
greater (some 2%) thanVd,~, while the average voltage
at the capacitor terminals, Vmc,c, greaterthanVmc
is B
(about 5%). The overall compensation angle in Scheme 6,
6, B, is some 4" greater than 6, c, while angles ~ E , B
ana 6 ~ , c ,differ by a mere 2". Thus, even though much
higher voltages are reached in the line with Scheme
the effectiveness of compensation is thaninscheme
"" V
B. Similar cormnents canbe made for the other reported
compensation schemes. 3 3
Table I shows for some significant examples that,
for assigned values of Ks and Q , in normal operation
the total power requirement of series capacitors,& and
shunt reactors,QL, generally exhibit small departures Fig. 5 -
&Zitative voltage profiZe a- line sections
for the various compensation schemes. compensated as per Schwnes A, B and C
Let us now examine voltage profilesalong the 1lines. no-load or small load
Fig. 5 gives an insight on the involved physical phenom 2 SIL
ena. It shows, for a general line sectionbuiltupas per 3 overload
Schemes A, B and C, the trend of the voltage profiles
for no-load or small load operation, Sfor I L and for an If compensation scheme is B, the phenomena ares@
overload condition. The assumption is made thevolt that ilar except that, due to the different locationof shun
ages at the terminals of the line section are fixed toreactors, the reactive power flowing through the capa-
the same value, Vn. citors is the algebraic sum of the power generated (or
If active power flow is nil or small, the ge" lineabsorbed) by half the line and by a shunt reactor. The
erates reactive power that travels towards the ends. voltage profiles which come out have the trends repre-
The highest voltages are reached in the central parts sented in Fig. 5B. It is worthwhile noting that all
of the line section. If compensation Scheme is A, the the curves are moved upwards compared with the corre-
reactive power in question flows through the series ca sponding curves of Fig. SA.
pacitors before being partly or fully compensated by Fig. 5C shows the voltage profiles relevanttocorn_
the shunt reactors installed there. Hence the voltage pensation Scheme C, for no-load, S I L and an overload
increases across the capacitors, passing from the line condition. It is interesting to note that the curves
to the bus side terminal. The relevantvoltage profile are decaying from line midpoint, where series capaci-
is indicated as 1 in Fig. SA. tors are located, to line ends. This is due to the
As long as line power flow increases, it occurs flow of the capacitive reactive power produced by the
that, owing to the greater absorption of reactive pow- capacitors, which is superimposed to the reactive power
er in line series reactance, the capacitive power flow produced or absorbed by the line,according to line load
across series capacitors decays. The latter power be- ing conditions.
comes nil when the line is loaded at SIL. Then volt- The diagrams of Fig.4 display that under no-load
age across series capacitors is about nil. On the otb and low-load conditions, themaximum voltage along the
er hand, at SIL, line voltage is rather levelled and system with Scheme A remains moderate (lower than 785
the relevant voltage profile is indicated as 2 inFig. kV), while with Scheme B it is fairly high(798kV).With
5A. Scheme C the voltages become very high at some points,
If line is loaded above S I L , it absorbs capaci- namely at the capacitors stations (834 kV).

Tcble II - Smary of transmission e f f i c i e n c i e s 6. TRANSIENT STABILITY
2 x600 km 4 x 300 km Transient stabilityanalysishasbeenperformed for
ing end
Scheme I Scheme
the point to point 50 Hz 760 kV transmission system,
composed of two lines in parallel each 1200km long.
Compensation schemes A, B and C and line section
I A I BI C l A l B I C 4 lengths of 300 bn and 600 km have been considered,thus
obtaining in total six transmission schemes: Aqx300,
B4x3001 c4x300, A2x600, B2~600, c2~600.
The single-line diagram of systems studied re2 is
resented in Fig.6. For brevity,the transmission lines
are drawn only for scheme Azx6@. At the receivingend,
it is assumed that the 760 kV lines contribute to feed,
pn = rated power QWZ t o 2200 MW. through autotransformers, a large load area including
important local generation. At sending-end a steam pow
Under overload conditions (aboveS I L ) , the situ2 er plant is considered. The assumed data of aggregate
tion changes radically. It ensues that
themaximumvolt generators, transformers and loads arespecifiedinthe
age value attained is higher in Schemes andCand
B low scheme. Line constants are the same reported in Chapter
er in Scheme A. 4. Series and shunt compensation degrees are specified
for each case in Figg. 7 8. and
For the sake of comparison of various transmission

I x =15%
760/400 kV
7 1 schemes, it was deemed sufficient to simulate the gen-
erators as constant e.m.f.s behind thedirectaxistrG
sient reactances and the loads as constant impedances.
In all the transient stability cases studied, the
steady state conditions prior to perturbance were the
following : 4400 MW injected at sendingendof transmi2
2200MW sion lines; 760 kV at sending-end busbar and 380 kV at
receiving-end busbar. The load flows prior to pertur-
400MW+ i250MVAR
bance for some of the cases studied can be found in
760kV Fig. 4 and in TableI.
(Equivalent to receivlng system1
Pn = 5500MVA Pn = 15000 MVA The assumed perturbance was a 3-phase fault lo-
Xb= 27% X i = 50% cated at the sending-end of one of the lines outgoing
H = 3.5s H = 3.5s from the power plant. By-passing and fast reinsertion
of series capacitors were simulated for the bankswhose
Fig. 6 - System consideredfortransientstabilitystudy transient overvoltage at fault initiation exceeded 2.7
The above described behaviour A,BandC
of systems, rated voltage. Overvoltages were precalculated with a
is readily explained by thecoments made with refer- transient voltage computer program.
ence to Fig.5 . Fault was cleared andfaultylinewas either
Table I1 is a surmnary of the transmission effi- opened permanently or successfully reclosedafter0.5~.
ciencies calculated for systems2~600kmand4 x300 km. The curve chart of Fig. 7 summarizes the results

6[a 6 Io

150 150

100 100

' / I

50 50

1 C .......... KS=69.0% I
I Kd= 70.1 % I
0 I I 0
1 -
03 os 1.0 1.5
t 1.1

Fig. 7 - Rotor mjing curves after a 3-phase line f a u l t Fig. 8 - Rotor swing curves after a 3phase line f a u l t
a t sending end, cleared in 0.1s. Trmrmnission lines corn_ a t sending end, c h e d in 0.1s. Transmission lines corn_
posed of two 600 km sections. posed of four 300 km sections.

for transmission schemes A2x600,B2x600 and c2x600. For(c) Schemes involving compensation concentrated in a
each scheme, series and shunt compensation has been few points may be more effective than schemes dis with
chosen in order to have about the same maximum rotor tributed compensation, while also ensuringgoodvoltage
displacement and stability limit. The curves show thatprofiles along the lines and transmissionefficiencies.
for all the three schemes, system is stable if faulty (d) Compensation effectiveness and saving of compen-
line is successfully reclosed and becomes unstable if sation equipments thereof, is closely tied to voltage
faulty line is definitely opened. profile and reactivepower flowalong the line sections.
In Fig. 9, the calculated r.m.s. valuesofcurrent
flowing through the most loaded series capacitor bank (e) The analysis hasshownthatthesymmetricalschemes
of the line in parallel with the faulty line, are exhibit
plot greater effectivenessof compensationandbetter
ted, for the same cases reported in Fig. 7. It shows voltage profiles along the lines,thantheunsymmetrical
that the currents during power swings are very close schemes. This holds good for long transmission lines,
for the three schemes A, B and C. composed by cascading at least compensatedlinesec
tions. For the medium distances (say 300 to 750 km at
SO&) also some unsymmetrical schemes exhibit good st5
bility performances and voltage profiles. For dis long
stance transmission,Scheme B exhibits the greatest cot
pensation effectiveness among the symmetrical schemes
examined. Line voltage profile is more favourable for
Schemes Aand Bthanfor SchemeC, at low load or
When load is much above SIL,voltagecontrolbecomesdif
ficult, if line sections are very long.
(f) The difference in transmission efficiency of the
three symmetrical schemes for the examples considered
is not great, but Schemes
BandC exhibitasomewhathiigher
efficiency than Scheme A.
(g) When selecting compensation schemesthedifference
in behavior during the electromagnetic transient

0 0.1

1.0 1,s
- alsoanessential r6le.The results of the comparative
examination of transient overvoltages and overcurrents
for schemes A,B and C have been inpaper

fadt ~ M C l ~ U N t1
elmaring An interesting prerogative of symmetrical scheme
F i g . 9 R m 8 currents through more hzied capacitor
effectiveness ~1 is that it depends almost solely on
the compensation scheme (Fig.1) and not on the number
banks for system and perturbace considered in F i g . 7. of line sections constituting the transmission system.
The results reported in Fig. 7 confirm the evalua To explain analytically this fact, let us considerequa
tion of the stability performance ofthevarious schemes tion ( 5 ) for €1. This is formed of two factors:
based on examination of compensation effectivenessiz
dexes, €1 and 9 2 (see Table I). It is interesting to -
cos (6 6 )
p = By' ; 0 - 11 ++ DD'cos ($- 6')
point out that scheme %?x600 requires about5% less of
series and shunt compensatlon than scheme AZxdm, with
a saving of some 585MVARs of series capacltors and
It has been numerically verified that for all th
schemes and the line section lengths examined,the cog
3 5 5 MVARs of shunt reactors for the two circuits.
stant A1 =E1 of a line section with concentrated com-
The curve chart of Fig. 8 presents the resultsfor
pensation, is virtually coincident with the constant
transmission schemes composed of four line sections, 3;=%: of the corresponding ideal line section with
having equal values of Ks and Kd. It shows that themax_
dlstrlbuted compensation. Furthermore the constants
imum rotor displacements for schemes A,B and C exhibit
non negligeable differences and lie in inverse order -
A2 =E2 for the double bipole constituted by two cas
with respect to the indexes 91 and 9 2 .
caded line sections with concentrated compensation are
Summing up, the transient stability study con- equal to:
firmed that the preliminary evaluation of stability
behaviour of compensation schemes based on effective-
ness indexes EI and ~p is sound and should be consid- E1
Since, as indicated =A1 = A \ = D \ , for the first
ered a useful tool for the choice among the schemes in
one of equations(A.1):
2 2 =A2 =A'2=D'2

(a) The curve charts of effectiveness indexes defined And also:

in the paper can be used for the evaluation of stabili
ty improvement which can be obtained WithdifferentcE
pensation schemes and line section lengths. This has
been confirmed by a set transientstabilitystudies.
of Finally, since6 is always very close nto / 2 (ex-
The effectiveness indexes appear useful also for medi cept for Ks = l), since D D' and 6 = 6', it ensues
um distance transmission, whenever series and shunt that
compensation is needed.
a2 = 0 1 = 1.
(b) For given transmission distances and given series
and shunt compensations, the maximum power transfer ca
pability of long lines may be markedly diverse ac- It is apparent from the foregoing thatcoeffi the
cording to the adopted compensation scheme and line cient €1 is practically thesame in a transmissionsys
section length. The differences may amount to as much tem formed of one section only and in formedof
one two
as 40% while still remaining within a degree of series equal cascaded sections. A similar line of argument
compensation of practical interest(Ks < 80%). holds good for the case of three or more sections.This

s t a t e m e n tf o l l o w sf r o mt h ef a c tt h a tf o rt h r e ec a s c a d e d
s e c t i o n s ,t h ee x p r e s s i o n sf o r & and 4 are:


t r i b u t e de q u a l l y , h a s b e e n c a r r i e do u t w i t ht h ef i n a n c i a l
supportofthe CNR ( I t a l i a n N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l ) .


[ l ] F. I l i c e t o : ” C o n s i d e r a z i o n i s u l l a p o s s i b i l i t a d i trg
s m i s s i o n ed e l l ’ e n e r g i ac o nl i n e ec o m p e n s a t ei nc o r -
r e n t e a l t e r n a t a a d i s t a n z e s u p e r i o r i a 1500 km.”Re-
p o r t A.78, A n n u a l Meeting of the Italiun Electric-
al Engineers Association, Rome, 1974.

[ 2 ] E.W. Du Bois, J.F. Fairman j r . , D.E. Martin, C.H.

Murphy, J . B . Ward: “ E x t r al o n gd i s t a n c e transmis-
sion”. A I E E Transactions, p t . 111, v o l . 80, Feb-

[ 3 ] Belur S . Ashok K u m a r , K. P a r t h a s a r a t h y , F.S.Prab-

hakara, H.P. K h i n c h a :“ E f f e c t i v e n e s so fS e r i e s Ca-
p a c i t o r si nl o n gd i s t a n c et r a n s m i s s i o nl i n e s ” . =
Transactions on Power A p p a r a t u s and Systems. Vol.
PAS-89, May-June 1970,pp. 941-951.
Fig. 1 Series andshunt compensation schemes for EHV Long Lines
141 F. I l i c e t o , E. C i n i e r i , G. Santagostino, M. Cazza-
n i :” T r a n s i e n tv o l t a g e s and c u r r e n t s i n series com REFERENCES
pensated EHV l i n e s ” . Proceedings IEE ,August1976.
pp.811-817. [ I ] S. R. Gupta, and S. P. Seth, “Shunt Compensation of EHV Long
Lines”. Journal of Institution of Engineers (India), Vol. 53, EL 5,
June 1973, pp.223-229.
[2] S. P. Seth, and S. R. Gupta, “ShuntCompensation of Series
Compensated EHV Long Lines”. Journal of Institution of Engine-
ers(Indin). Vol. 55, E L 3 , February 1975, pp. 139-144.
Discussion [3] S. P. Seth, and S. R. Gupta, “Analysis of Shunt Compensation of
Series Compensated EHV Long Lines”. Journal of Institution of
S. P. Seth and J. S. Cupta (Regional Engineering College, Kurukshetra, Engineers (India), Vol. 56, EL 5, April 1976, pp. 199-205.
Haryana, India): We would like to congratulate the authors for an ex-
cellentpaper on compensation. Theauthors have defmed the ef-
fectiveness coefficients €1 and €2 for-compensated lines mainly from
power transfer point of view, but due consideration has not been given Edgar R, Taylor, Jr. (Westinghouse ElectricCorporation East Pitts-
to internal overvoltages in mixed compensated transmission lines under burgh, PA): The authors have presented an interesting comparison of
varying load conditions. However, we are of the opinion that it will be schemes combining series and .shunt compensation in this paper, and
better if the effects of series and shunt compensation are considered the paper is- to be recommended to. those seeking an understanding of
separately and in steps for fmding out the optimumlocation and rating the combinedeffects of series and shunt compensation. Since the
of series capacitors andshunt reactors as the series capacitors are deliverable powerfroma transmission linewithany ofthe various
beneficial in increasing the powertransferof the lines while shunt schemes andvalues of series and shunt compensation is often of interest,
reactors mainly reduce internal overvoltages. Series capacitor rating and I would like to suggest theauthors extend their work withratios
location be firstdecided on the basis of the desired power-canying similar to equations (1) & ( 2 ) but in terms of receivingend quantities.
capacity of the line and compensation effectiveness of the scheme, and It is interesting thatthe transmission line of Scheme “B” of
then the location and rating of shunt reactors be determined. A shunt Figure 1 (the series capacitors being placed on thebus side of the
reactor has minimum rating when located at the point of maxinium shunt reactors) exhibits such significant improvement in transmission
power-frequency overvoltage on the line under no loadconditionl, and capability over the other, more widely used schemes, such as Schemes
for a series compensated line this point is the capacitor bank terminal A & B (the placement of the series capacitors on the line side of the
near the line end.2 Considering the compensation schemes of Fig. I for shunt reactors). Perhaps the authors would comment on the disadvan-
which we have calculated the reactor ratings, the scheme (A) requires tages of Scheme B with regard toother considerations. Obviously,
three reactors, one in the middle to control the power-frequency over- unless meam are takento reduce if, the voltage “trapped” on the
voltages on the line and one each at the line ends to control Ferranti capacitors when switching the line of Scheme B introduces other
overvoltages. Comparing the schemes (B) and (C)from reactor rating conSiderations in the transmission design; e.g., switching surge and
point of view for any degree of seriescompensation, three reactor ar- circuit breaker recovery voltages. However, with certain series capacitor
rangement is better if the capacitor bank is located anywhere on the protective schemes possibly any problems arising from this action may
fmt or last P/3 section of the lineand four reactor schem is better be reduced. Perhaps the authors may wish to comment on whether this
when capacitor bank is in the middle P/3 section of the line 9 . Scheme Scheme “B” has been considered in any specific application and what
(C) has better compensationefficiency than scheme (B). For two considerations were given with regard to any problems foreseen.
capacitor bank system, scheme (E) has.been found to be better than
scheme (D)3. Manuscript received February 24,1977.
The requirement of series capacitors decreases under light load
condition, whereas the need of shunt reactors increases. Under loaded
condition large rating of series capacitors is needed but therequirement
of shunt compensation decreases. Combined compensation cannot be E. C. Stprr (Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR): This is
considered even from this point of view. The method suggested by us a very thought provoking paper and contains a great deal of analytical
can take this fact into account. information of value to transnission engineers involved in designing
Manuscript received February 1,1977, Manuscript received February 25,1977.

compensated long distance trananjssion systems. Some additional data
would have been of value. For example,Figure 4, showing voltage
profdes for a 12oakm line composed of two equal 6 W m sections,
could have been repeated for the same line composed of four 3OO-km
sections to indicate the important differences in voltage profdes. The
sending end MW loadings are indicated but it would have been helpful
to indicate also the sending and receiving end reactive power levels in
addition to the voltages.
It is interesting to note in comparing the swing curves of Figures
7 and 8 that for stable recovery after high speed reclosure the k c t i o n
double circuit line required more than 6 percent less series and shunt
compensation for capacitor arrangement B and about 11 percent less
for arrangement C than for the corresponding capacitor arrangements
in the 2section doublecircuit line of thesame length.
Figure 9 showing the series capacitor swing currents in the un-
faulted parallel line section indicates that the capacitor current ratings
would have had to be in excess of 2 KA in order to avoid bypassing
at the stated 2.7 timesrated voltage during thetransient swing. It
would have been informative to show this same chart of swing currents
for the k c t i o n linedepicted in Figure 8 although the levels were
probably not materially different. Maximum and minimum voltages
developed at critical points along the line during the swings would
also have been of interest.
It is particularly interesting that schemes B and C, the first having
series capacitors adjacent to the station bus inside the line shunt reac-
tors, and the second having series capacitors attheline center, are
essentially equally effective at 50 to 60 percent series and shunt com-
pensation, the levels most frequently considered in usual line design.
The statement near the bottom of the first column on page 6 to
the effect that "at surge impedance loading the voltage across the series
capacitors when installed on the line side of the shunt reactoris about
nil," should be revised to indicate that the line side voltage is essentially
equal to the bus side voltage although their phase angles differ by the
reactive voltage drop across the capacitors.
It is obvious that this paper is based upon the analysis of a great
deal ofinteresting data obtainedduring the authors' studyof com-
pensated transmission systems. They are to be complimented for 800
making it available to the industry.

F. niceto and E. C i r i : The authors wish to thank the discussors for Ckrn3
their comments, for the appreciation of the paper, and for the request Fig. 10. Voltage profiles along the 4 X 300 km line for various schemes
of additional information which must add to the contents of paper. of compensation and loading conditions. Ks = 61.2%; Kd =
Reply to Dr. E. C. Starr. 62%. Vs = Vr = 760 kV.
As suggested by Dr. Starr, the voltage profdes for a 760 kV-50 TABLE I11
Hz-1200 km line composed of four 300 km sections are provided in
Fg. 10. They show that for all the compensation schemes considem, Reactive power Qs and Qr at sending and receiving ends of the 760
the profdes are more levelled than for the line composed of two 600 kV-1200 km lines, for differentloading conditions P, and schemes
km sections. The advantage of the reduced voltage variation is more (Pn = 2200MW).
marked for Scheme C.
The required reactive power levels at the sending and receiving Q, [WAR] Q, [MVARI
ends are collected in Table I11 for a 760 kV-1200 km long line. It shows
that the departures among the three Schemes A , B and C are relatively s' 0 0
small in all the loading conditions. The differences are smaller for the 0.5Pn l.OP, 1.5Pn 0.5Pn l.OPn 1.5Pn
line composed of four 300 km sections.
Thecontinuous rating of series capacitors ofthe transmission
lines considered for transient stability studies is 2.5 k A rms, or 3300 A.,r6nn -500 -472 -146 562 562 25: -287 -1208
MVA per circuit.
The additional information on current and voltage swings deemed
of interest by Dr. Stan are provided in Fig. 11 and in Table IV. The
comparison of the curves of Fig. 11 with the ones of Fig. 8 confirms
that the rms currents through the more loaded capacitor banks during
the swings are very close for thelines composed of 4 X 300km sections,
and of 2 X 600 km sections, as anticipated by Dr. Starr.
The maximum and minimum voltages developed at critical points
along the line during the swings are collected in Table IV. The voltage
values are given for the line ends, for all the intermediate substations
and for the receivingend 380 kV busbar (R.E.). In the last column the Reply to Dr. E. R . Taylor.
maximum and minimum voltages are provided, taking into account also The coefficients of effectiveness €1 and €2 had been calculated in
the values at all the terminals of series capacitors (VM, Vm). The maxi- terms of sendingendpowers which is of interest for thecase of a power
mum voltage at the terminalsof series capacitors is 1.1 5 p.u. with plant connected by means of long lines to a large receiving system. We
Schemes A2 x 600 and C2 ~ 6 0 0 Voltage
. at the busbars where shunt fully agree that in many other cases the deliverable power from a trans-
reactorsandtransformers are connected, doesnot exceed 1.1 p.u. mission system is offen of interest. As suggested by Dr. Taylor, we are
for all the Schemes. providing the expressionsand the curve chartsof ratios €7 and €2
We agree that the statement near the bottom of the first column similar to Equations (1) and (2) butin terms of receivingend quantities.
on page 6 requires the revision indicated by Dr.Starr. We apologize for With the assumption that the receiving and sendingend voltages
this trivial mistake due to unproperwriting in English of an elementary are equal, the following formulas are obtained.
E, =
- 1-Acos (6-a)
Manuscript received April 20, 1977. B l-A'cos(B'-a')

Maximum and minimum voltages developed along the 760 kV-1200 krn
linesduring rotor swings of Figs. 7 and 8 (1 p.u. = rated voltage).

0 300 600 900 1200 R.E.

km ,.km lan lan . VM
1.UB a
i.0M - 1.04 1.02 1.15
3.54 - 0.46 - 0.42 0.84 0.6
1.08 - 1.09 - 1.02 1-10
3.56 - 0.51 - 0.71 0.85 0.46
1.08 - 1.08 - 1.04 1.02 1.15
0 0.1 0.6 t [SI '2x600
fault clearing reclosure
0.59 - 0.54 - 0.72 0.86 0.52
Fig. 11. Rms currents through moreloadedcapacitor banks for systemand
perturbance consideredin Fig. 8. 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.04 1.02 1.05
B" 1-Acos (B -a)
= - 0.49 0.48
0.58 0.86 0.46
0.72 0.58
B 1-A"cos ( B''-a")
1.09 1.09 1.09 1.04 1.02 1.10 1.02
The curves obtainedfrom Equations (7) and (8) are plotted in B4x300
Figs. 12 and 13. The comparisonwith the corresponding curves of
Figs. 2 and 3, which were plotted for the sending-end powers, shows 0.58 0.56 0.760.64 0.65 0.55 0.88
that there are some differences on the absolute values, but the relative 1.09 1.10 1.09 1.08 1.12
1.05 1.02
effectiveness of compeniation among the Schemes A, B and C remains '4x300 I
unchanged. Therefore the classification of the scheme performances 0.61 10..53 10.53 10.61 10.74 10.87 10.53.
given in the paper holds good.





0 50. I00

- 0 50
100 0 50
Fig. 12. Scheme effetiveness E ; versus degree of series compensation %, for the cornpensation schemes A, B and C and three values of shunt compensation (OXD, SO%,
10096); Pt =length of h e section. The coefficient ~f is defined as per formula (7).
The problem of trapped charges mentioned by Dr. Taylor is very needed for ensuring the arc extinction before the highspeed 3-phase
important. The comparative analysis of transient voltages and currents reclosure.
typical of Schemes A, B and C has been made in a paper co-authored With Scheme B the secondary arc current does not flow through
by the authors [ 4 ] . One of the authors has been involved in a similar the capacitors, as in a line without series compensation, and will self-
analysis as consultant for the Turkish EHV transmission system, where extinguish in normaltime. Currents of less than 60 A peak are A-
both the Schemes B and C are considered for two specific applications. cdated at time0.34.4 sec after fault clearing [41, [SI.
Other results were recently reported in ref. [ 51. With Schemes A and C, the dlscharge transformer usuaUy con-
We shall comment at fmt on the problem of trap nected in parallel with the capacitors undergoes a subsynchronous oscil-
With Schemes A and C, the transient recovery voltages &$En latory voltage afterline dropping, and does not necessarily saturate.
clearing afault through series capacitors are the outcome of a beat Unless the circuit is specially designed, it will not as~urethe fast dis-
between three frequencies;powerfrequency,freeoscillation ofthe charge of the capacitors, nor the fast extinction of the secondary arc
line capacitance with shunt reactors, and free oscillation of the series current. With Scheme B, the discharge transformerundergoesa d.c.
capacitorswith shunt reactors. With Scheme B, insteadof the latter trapped voltage and assures the fast discharge of capacitors as in a line
oscillation, a d.c. component is present. Our investigation [4] showed without shunt compensation.
that the maximum TRVs differ by no more than 5% with the three The above reportedresults on TRVsand on secondary arc cur-
compensation Schemes considered. rents have beenobtained by neglecting the effectof the discharge
Anotherimportant problem that we have analyzed dealswithtransformer.
the secondary arc currents, namely the current which flows in a fault The reenergization overvoltages have been found very close for
after the breakers at both ends ofafaultedline have cleared. With thethreelocationsofseriescapacitors. Scheme B exhibitsameanvalue
Schemes A and C the secondary arc current exhibits oscillatory com- of the reenergization overvoltage a few percent higher than M e m e A;
ponents which flow in a loop including series capacitorsand shunt this is equivalent tothe difference ofthe powerfrequency voltage
reactors in series in the arc path. Our investigation evidenced that the applied to the line. The standard deviation is the same.
secondary arc current haspeaks in the range 100 through 350 A at time The reinsertion overvoltages across the capacitors have been found
0.3 - 0.4 sec after fault clearing [4] , [ 51 . Therefore special measures are similar, no matter which of the compensation Schemes is analyzed [41,

0 50 100
versus degree of series compensation &, for the schemes A, B, and C of Fig. 1 and three valuw of shunt compensation (W, SO%, 100%);
of transmission system. Dotdahed curves give maximum ideal power at receiving end, P*,, id, in p.u. of SIL, versus &. The coefficient
€3 is defked as per formula (8).

[SI. This is because the phenomenon is essentially alow-frequency tence, it is suggested that the shunt reactor location, i.e. the scheme of
transientcontrolled byan equivalent series impedance seen from compensation, be decided after definition of series compensation.
capacitor terminals. We could not have access to the three papers mentioned by the
The transient and steady state short circuit currents, and the over- discussors, because the referenced Indian Journal cannot be found in
voltages across the,capacitors due to fault initiation are very close for Italy. As far as we can understand,the schemes compared bythe
Schemes A and B, for similar reasons. The line protection problems are discussors are non homogeneous, because the assumed numberof
also equivlanet for Schemes A and B. shunt reactors and intermediate stations is different also for an as-
Summing up, we believe that Scheme B is the mostattractive signed line length and degree of compensation; furthermore scheme (A)
from the point of view of the secondary arc current extinction. For the does not include series capacitors. The transmission lines are not
specific applications that we have analyzed, Scheme B did not present modular. We believe that the comparison of the compensation effective-
shortcomings in comparison with Scheme A. ness of different schemes involving the same total amount of MVARs
Reply to Professors J. S. Guptu and S.P.Seth. of shunt reactorsandseriescapacitors is meaningful only among
We cannot agree with the discussors’ opinion that series and shunt homogeneous schemes, i.e. with the same cost of the kVAR of com-
compensation should be considered separately. This type of approach pensationequipments, as we assumed in ourstudy. The schemes
may be useful for preliminary system planning to define approximate considered by the discussors do not appear to be correctly comparable
average degrees of compensation along the lines, without consideration on economical basis.
of compensation effectiveness. In fact the effectiveness of compensa- Apart the above reservations, we are not able to comment on the
tion is a function of several variables: degrees of series and shunt discussors schemes because many data are not provided (linelength,
compensation, number of linesectionsandcompensation schemes voltage level, degrees of compensation).
thereof, as it is discussed in the paper. In order to take advantage of the Concerning the last paragraph of the discussion, we would like
concept of compensation effectiveness, it is necessary to optimize the to commentthatthe concept of compensation effectiveness is of
interrelated parameters simultaneously. We believe that the curve charts practicalinterestonly for the lines operation at maximumrequired
of the type reported in the paper allow such a global optimization, in load, i.e. for the most severe condition of stability. At lght loading,
a more rational manner than the empirical approach of variation by voltage control and reactive power balance may be the predominant
steps prospected by the discussors. requirements, and the degrees of series and shunt compensation, and
Some statements of the discussion are not well understandable to to some extent the schemes thereof, can be modified accordingly by
us and appear contradictory.The discussors propose that “series appropriate switching[S].
capacitor ratings and location should be first decided on the basis of
the desired power carrying capacity of the line and compensation ef- REFERENCE
fectiveness of the scheme, and then the location and rating of shunt [SI A. Capasso, F. Iliceto: On theVoltage Control andTransient
reactors be determined”. At first, the compensation effectiveness, Overvoltages of Extra-Long-Distance AC Transmission Lines.
and therebythe scheme, are assumed as known. In the second sen- L’Energia Elettrica, Milan, December 1976 (in English).