6 , November/Dece&er
IEFX Transactionson Power Apparatus and 1977
F. Iliceto
Senior Member IEEE E. Cinieri
University of Rome
Rome (Italy)
ABSTRACT
Series and shunt compensation schemes for medium considered forthe line sections are illustratedinFig.1.
and long distance AC transmission lines are compared
from the points of view of the compensation effective
ness (improvement of system stability), the total COP
pensation WAR requirement, the profile of line volta
ge and the efficiency of power transmission. 0
The results reported in the paper enable the
choice of optimized Compensation schemes,fromtheabove
indicated aspects. 0
'T
It
1. INTRODUCTION
files along the line and load flows has been performed functions ofK, and Q. Line section lengthsof 300, 450
for all the schemes of Fig.1. The computeranalysishas and 600 km and total line lengths in the 300kmto range
shown that the spnmetrical schemes exhibit higher com 1800 km have been considered. The correctnessof apthis
1820
proach is confirmed by the transient stability analysis tributed compensation. In this caseitisworthwhileadop
of significant examples, reported in chapter 5. ting schemes with compensation concentrated at a few
Indexes €1 and €1 have been computer calculated for points, that is to choose the longest linesectionscon
various line electrical constants, to cover a widesistent range with the othertechnica1requirements.Thecurves
of E W levels (3458OOkV) and conductors (number of ca charts of Fig. 2 , whichwillbe better illustrated fur
bles per phase and cross sectional area). This analysis ther ahead, show that the numerical valuesof €1 fall in
showed that, as long asKs(80%, the influence of line the range0.60 through 2 . 5 0 .
constants is minor, departures being higherthan2I.
not If, instead, the index €1 is found less than unity,
For an assigned line geometrical configuration, the the in situation being in favour of distributed compensa
fluence of cross sectional area of conductors is neg tion, it may be better to spread compensation over a
ligeable for K, values up to 90%. These results hold greater number of stations.
good for all the compensation schemes and line section As would therefore be expected, ananalytical check
lengths considered, whatever the valueQ.of confirmed that, for the symmetrical schemes considered,
The analysis also showed that the results are sim the coefficient €1 depends practically on the compensa
ilar for 50Hz and60Hz systems, if line section lengths tion scheme alone and not on the number of con sections
are inversely proportional to frequency. stituting the transmission system (see Appendix). Hence
The curve charts of Fig. 2 3and have been plotted it is possible to compare scheme effectivenesses of two
for the following 760 kV  50% line constants: transmission systems formed of a different number of
r = 0 . 0 1 2 2 Wkm ; x = 0 . 2 8 2 nlkm equal sections, by examining the €1 indexes of eachcog
stituent section.
g = 19.109S/km ; b = 4.O41O6S/km The following points emergefrominspection of Fig.
Keeping in mind that series compensation degrees 2 :
exceeding 80% have no practical interest, from fore the (i) For assignedvaluesofKs and %,E] increases as line
going it can be said that the curve charts of Fig.2 and
section lengthincreasesif~ 1 > 1 ,but if it is less than
1.w
1.40
1.30
1.20
1.10
1.00
080
0.80
O l l l l t l l l i l _ L ,
0 50 100
K. 1%1
0.7 0
0
0 50 100
Ks[%I

Fig. 2  Scheme effectiveness € 1 versus degree of series compensation K, f o r the compensation schemes A, B and C
and three values of shunt compensation (OX, SO%, 100%); at = length of line section.
3 possess universal value, for any EHV line configura unity, the reverse is the case.
tion. If 60Hz systems are considered, the line lengths (ii) For given lengths of line sections compensated as
specified in the curve charts should be reduced accord per Schemes A and C, it emerges that~ l > for
1 relative
ing to frequencies ratio 50160. ly low degrees of series compensation, while € 1 < 1 for
It will be readily appreciated that, for given Val high degrees. On the other hand, for SchemeB,exceptfor
ues of Ks and Q , comparison of the effectiveness €1 of the caseKd = 0% when Schemes BandAcoincide,El > 1 for
various compensation schemes provides a direct assessall Ks values; €1 increases rapidly as series compensa
ment of their relative power transfer capabilities. tion increases up to K, values of around 95%.Alsoonthe
This is because in the €1 expressions for twoactualsyz grounds of item (i) above,it ensues that inthecaseof
tems with the same degrees of compensation,but with transmission
dif systems built as per Scheme B, it is advan
ferent numbers of capacitor and reactor banks at differ tageous for stability improvement toadopt long lines e t
ent locations along the lines, the value of the denomina tion lengths, whatever thedegreeof series compensation.
tor is the same. Thus comparison €of 1 values is effec If, instead, the system is built according toschemes A
tively a comparison of the numerators, i.e. ofthepower or C, it is theKS value which suppliesindications for
transfer capability. assessing the number of line sections allowing for the
Scheme efficiency€ 1 maybe above or below or equal higher effectiveness of compensation.
to unity. When€1 > 1 , the stability limit of the actual(iii) The three €1 curves relevant to Schemes A,BandC,
system with compensation concentratedata few points is plotted for equal Kd and sectionlengthvalues,originate
higher than that of the ideal system uithuniformlydis from the same point for = Ks 0. If Kd is not near zero,
1821
the effectiveness degree of the schemes B,is C, A in transmission distances of 6 0 0 , 1200 and 1800 km are
that order. With Q near zero, the effectiveness of shown in the first, second and third columns. The dia
A
Scheme C is slightly better than those of and B, grams also include the curve for the denominatorofthe
which are virtually equal. EZ expression, namely of the maximum power transferca
E2
1.40
2.00 48
1.30 'I
1.30
1.75 6
1.20
1.20
5
1.50
1.10
4
1.10
1.00 1.25
3
1.00 2
0.80 1.00
1
0.90 0.80
0
0 50 0 50 100
K,I%1
2.50 2.50
2.00 2n0
1.50 1.50
1.00 1.00
0.80 i O W
0 50 100 0 50 100
K, [%I K, E41
Fig. 3  S y s t e m effectiveness €2 versusdegree of series compensation Ks, f o r the schemes A,B and C o f F i g . 2 and
threevalues of s h t conpensatia ( O X , so%, 100%); 11 = n.it = total length of transmission system.Dot&&&
CUrVes give m mium ideal power Pm,id, i n p . u. of SIL, versus KO.
The significance of thesystemeffectivenessindex pability Pm,id of an ideal system with uniformlydis
EZ is more readily apparent. In the expression €of 2, tributed compensation (actual degree of series compenz
the denominator is the maximum power transfer capabilsation and 100% shunt compensation) as a function of
ity of a line whose shunt susceptance is zero. Hence IC,.Thus for every scheme and degree of compensation
this power depends only on the degree of series com it is possible to determine the absolute value of the
pensation and not on the scheme nor on the degree of maximum power transfer capability simply by multiply
shunt compensation nor on the length of line section ing the P,,id values by the corresponding EZ values.
adopted. The €2 diagrams highlight the following points:
Fig. 3 is a curve chart of €2 as a function of&. (i) In the case of Schemes A and C, whatever the de
Diagrams are set out ont w o lines and three columns. gree of series compensation, the lower the degree of
The first line refers to 300km line sections and the shunt compensation within any given scheme,the great
second to 600km sections, while results obtained for er is c 2 . This confirms that disconnection of shunt
1822
reactors at heavy load in transmission systems that
adopt compensation Schemes A C, andimprovesstability.
If compensation Scheme B is adopted, this situation 05
curs for relatively low degree of series compensation,
below a given value. However, once this value is ex
ceeded, the situation is reversed. For instance, in a
system built up of two 600 km sections withK, = 75%,
passing fromQ = 0% to Q = loo%, theeffectiveness~2
rises from 0.94 to 1.40, for an increase of over 40%.
(ii) For an assigned value ofQ and except for the
case of Q = 0% or when it is very small, lines compel
sated as per Scheme B have the highest maximum power
transfer capabilities, followed by Schemes C A,and in
that order, whatever the valueK,.of
(iii)The point (i) made earlier regarding € 1 is read
ily verified by comparing the Fig. 2 and 3 diagrams,i.
e. if € 1 >l,then €1 is higherwhenthe transmissionline
is built with longer sections, while the reverse is
true if € 1 <1. The check can be made by comparing the
values of in the two alternative cases, as can be
deduced from the corresponding diagrams of a given coL
umn of Fig. 3: transmission system formed by n sec
tions of given length and by 2n sections of half
length. Indeed, in these two cases, as the degree of
series compensation and the total transmission length
are the same,€1 is proportional to the maximum power
transfer capability of the two systems, according to
the same factor.
6 €1 €2 6, 6k '
r
n
c Vme VM Vm Qc 9.
Scheme
[ "I ["I ["I [kV] [kVl [kVl [kVl [WAR] [WAR
2' x 600
27.9 I 1.005 39.5 1.040 786 825
802 67.4 1736 1507
28.7 1728
0.985 764 756 756 167172.8 747 44.1 1.02
A4 x 300
1824
Tcble II  Smary of transmission e f f i c i e n c i e s 6. TRANSIENT STABILITY
2 x600 km 4 x 300 km Transient stabilityanalysishasbeenperformed for

Loadat
send/
ing end
Scheme I Scheme
the point to point 50 Hz 760 kV transmission system,
composed of two lines in parallel each 1200km long.
Compensation schemes A, B and C and line section
I A I BI C l A l B I C 4 lengths of 300 bn and 600 km have been considered,thus
obtaining in total six transmission schemes: Aqx300,
B4x3001 c4x300, A2x600, B2~600, c2~600.
The singleline diagram of systems studied re2 is
resented in Fig.6. For brevity,the transmission lines
are drawn only for scheme Azx6@. At the receivingend,
it is assumed that the 760 kV lines contribute to feed,
pn = rated power QWZ t o 2200 MW. through autotransformers, a large load area including
important local generation. At sendingend a steam pow
Under overload conditions (aboveS I L ) , the situ2 er plant is considered. The assumed data of aggregate
tion changes radically. It ensues that
themaximumvolt generators, transformers and loads arespecifiedinthe
age value attained is higher in Schemes andCand
B low scheme. Line constants are the same reported in Chapter
er in Scheme A. 4. Series and shunt compensation degrees are specified
for each case in Figg. 7 8. and
For the sake of comparison of various transmission
I x =15%
760/400 kV
6000MVA
X=13%
7 1 schemes, it was deemed sufficient to simulate the gen
erators as constant e.m.f.s behind thedirectaxistrG
sient reactances and the loads as constant impedances.
In all the transient stability cases studied, the
steady state conditions prior to perturbance were the
following : 4400 MW injected at sendingendof transmi2
2200MW sion lines; 760 kV at sendingend busbar and 380 kV at
receivingend busbar. The load flows prior to pertur
400MW+ i250MVAR
bance for some of the cases studied can be found in
760kV Fig. 4 and in TableI.
(Equivalent to receivlng system1
Pn = 5500MVA Pn = 15000 MVA The assumed perturbance was a 3phase fault lo
Xb= 27% X i = 50% cated at the sendingend of one of the lines outgoing
H = 3.5s H = 3.5s from the power plant. Bypassing and fast reinsertion
of series capacitors were simulated for the bankswhose
Fig. 6  System consideredfortransientstabilitystudy transient overvoltage at fault initiation exceeded 2.7
The above described behaviour A,BandC
of systems, rated voltage. Overvoltages were precalculated with a
is readily explained by thecoments made with refer transient voltage computer program.
ence to Fig.5 . Fault was cleared inO.ls andfaultylinewas either
Table I1 is a surmnary of the transmission effi opened permanently or successfully reclosedafter0.5~.
ciencies calculated for systems2~600kmand4 x300 km. The curve chart of Fig. 7 summarizes the results
6[a 6 Io
150 150
100 100
' / I
50 50
1 C .......... KS=69.0% I
I Kd= 70.1 % I
0 I I 0
1 
03 os 1.0 1.5
t 1.1
Fig. 7  Rotor mjing curves after a 3phase line f a u l t Fig. 8  Rotor swing curves after a 3phase line f a u l t
a t sending end, cleared in 0.1s. Trmrmnission lines corn_ a t sending end, c h e d in 0.1s. Transmission lines corn_
posed of two 600 km sections. posed of four 300 km sections.
1825
for transmission schemes A2x600,B2x600 and c2x600. For(c) Schemes involving compensation concentrated in a
each scheme, series and shunt compensation has been few points may be more effective than schemes dis with
chosen in order to have about the same maximum rotor tributed compensation, while also ensuringgoodvoltage
displacement and stability limit. The curves show thatprofiles along the lines and transmissionefficiencies.
for all the three schemes, system is stable if faulty (d) Compensation effectiveness and saving of compen
line is successfully reclosed and becomes unstable if sation equipments thereof, is closely tied to voltage
faulty line is definitely opened. profile and reactivepower flowalong the line sections.
In Fig. 9, the calculated r.m.s. valuesofcurrent
flowing through the most loaded series capacitor bank (e) The analysis hasshownthatthesymmetricalschemes
of the line in parallel with the faulty line, are exhibit
plot greater effectivenessof compensationandbetter
ted, for the same cases reported in Fig. 7. It shows voltage profiles along the lines,thantheunsymmetrical
that the currents during power swings are very close schemes. This holds good for long transmission lines,
for the three schemes A, B and C. composed by cascading at least compensatedlinesec
two
tions. For the medium distances (say 300 to 750 km at
SO&) also some unsymmetrical schemes exhibit good st5
bility performances and voltage profiles. For dis long
stance transmission,Scheme B exhibits the greatest cot
pensation effectiveness among the symmetrical schemes
examined. Line voltage profile is more favourable for
Schemes Aand Bthanfor SchemeC, at low load or SIL.at
When load is much above SIL,voltagecontrolbecomesdif
ficult, if line sections are very long.
(f) The difference in transmission efficiency of the
three symmetrical schemes for the examples considered
is not great, but Schemes
BandC exhibitasomewhathiigher
efficiency than Scheme A.
(g) When selecting compensation schemesthedifference
in behavior during the electromagnetic transient
splays
0 0.1
I
0.6
I
1.0 1,s
 alsoanessential r6le.The results of the comparative
examination of transient overvoltages and overcurrents
for schemes A,B and C have been inpaper
APPENDIX
[41.
reported
fadt ~ M C l ~ U N t1
.r
elmaring An interesting prerogative of symmetrical scheme

F i g . 9 R m 8 currents through more hzied capacitor
effectiveness ~1 is that it depends almost solely on
the compensation scheme (Fig.1) and not on the number
banks for system and perturbace considered in F i g . 7. of line sections constituting the transmission system.
The results reported in Fig. 7 confirm the evalua To explain analytically this fact, let us considerequa
tion of the stability performance ofthevarious schemes tion ( 5 ) for €1. This is formed of two factors:
based on examination of compensation effectivenessiz
dexes, €1 and 9 2 (see Table I). It is interesting to 
cos (6 6 )
p = By' ; 0  11 ++ DD'cos ($ 6')
point out that scheme %?x600 requires about5% less of
series and shunt compensatlon than scheme AZxdm, with
a saving of some 585MVARs of series capacltors and
It has been numerically verified that for all th
schemes and the line section lengths examined,the cog
3 5 5 MVARs of shunt reactors for the two circuits.
stant A1 =E1 of a line section with concentrated com
The curve chart of Fig. 8 presents the resultsfor
pensation, is virtually coincident with the constant
transmission schemes composed of four line sections, 3;=%: of the corresponding ideal line section with
having equal values of Ks and Kd. It shows that themax_
dlstrlbuted compensation. Furthermore the constants
imum rotor displacements for schemes A,B and C exhibit
non negligeable differences and lie in inverse order 
A2 =E2 for the double bipole constituted by two cas
with respect to the indexes 91 and 9 2 .
caded line sections with concentrated compensation are
Summing up, the transient stability study con equal to:
firmed that the preliminary evaluation of stability
behaviour of compensation schemes based on effective
ness indexes EI and ~p is sound and should be consid E1
Since, as indicated =A1 = A \ = D \ , for the first
ered a useful tool for the choice among the schemes in
one of equations(A.1):
planningstage.
7 . CONCLUSIONS
2 2 =A2 =A'2=D'2
1826
s t a t e m e n tf o l l o w sf r o mt h ef a c tt h a tf o rt h r e ec a s c a d e d
s e c t i o n s ,t h ee x p r e s s i o n sf o r & and 4 are:
ACKKOWLEDGEMINTS
Thisinvestigation,towhichbothauthorshavecon
t r i b u t e de q u a l l y , h a s b e e n c a r r i e do u t w i t ht h ef i n a n c i a l
supportofthe CNR ( I t a l i a n N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l ) .
REFERENCES
[ l ] F. I l i c e t o : ” C o n s i d e r a z i o n i s u l l a p o s s i b i l i t a d i trg
s m i s s i o n ed e l l ’ e n e r g i ac o nl i n e ec o m p e n s a t ei nc o r 
r e n t e a l t e r n a t a a d i s t a n z e s u p e r i o r i a 1500 km.”Re
p o r t A.78, A n n u a l Meeting of the Italiun Electric
al Engineers Association, Rome, 1974.
1827
compensated long distance trananjssion systems. Some additional data
would have been of value. For example,Figure 4, showing voltage
profdes for a 12oakm line composed of two equal 6 W m sections,
could have been repeated for the same line composed of four 3OOkm
sections to indicate the important differences in voltage profdes. The
sending end MW loadings are indicated but it would have been helpful
to indicate also the sending and receiving end reactive power levels in
addition to the voltages.
It is interesting to note in comparing the swing curves of Figures
7 and 8 that for stable recovery after high speed reclosure the k c t i o n
double circuit line required more than 6 percent less series and shunt
compensation for capacitor arrangement B and about 11 percent less
for arrangement C than for the corresponding capacitor arrangements
in the 2section doublecircuit line of thesame length.
Figure 9 showing the series capacitor swing currents in the un
faulted parallel line section indicates that the capacitor current ratings
would have had to be in excess of 2 KA in order to avoid bypassing
at the stated 2.7 timesrated voltage during thetransient swing. It
would have been informative to show this same chart of swing currents
for the k c t i o n linedepicted in Figure 8 although the levels were
probably not materially different. Maximum and minimum voltages
developed at critical points along the line during the swings would
also have been of interest.
It is particularly interesting that schemes B and C, the first having
series capacitors adjacent to the station bus inside the line shunt reac
tors, and the second having series capacitors attheline center, are
essentially equally effective at 50 to 60 percent series and shunt com
pensation, the levels most frequently considered in usual line design.
The statement near the bottom of the first column on page 6 to
the effect that "at surge impedance loading the voltage across the series
capacitors when installed on the line side of the shunt reactoris about
nil," should be revised to indicate that the line side voltage is essentially
equal to the bus side voltage although their phase angles differ by the
reactive voltage drop across the capacitors.
It is obvious that this paper is based upon the analysis of a great
deal ofinteresting data obtainedduring the authors' studyof com
pensated transmission systems. They are to be complimented for 800
making it available to the industry.
750
0
F. niceto and E. C i r i : The authors wish to thank the discussors for Ckrn3
their comments, for the appreciation of the paper, and for the request Fig. 10. Voltage profiles along the 4 X 300 km line for various schemes
of additional information which must add to the contents of paper. of compensation and loading conditions. Ks = 61.2%; Kd =
Reply to Dr. E. C. Starr. 62%. Vs = Vr = 760 kV.
As suggested by Dr. Starr, the voltage profdes for a 760 kV50 TABLE I11
Hz1200 km line composed of four 300 km sections are provided in
Fg. 10. They show that for all the compensation schemes considem, Reactive power Qs and Qr at sending and receiving ends of the 760
the profdes are more levelled than for the line composed of two 600 kV1200 km lines, for differentloading conditions P, and schemes
km sections. The advantage of the reduced voltage variation is more (Pn = 2200MW).
marked for Scheme C.
The required reactive power levels at the sending and receiving Q, [WAR] Q, [MVARI
ends are collected in Table I11 for a 760 kV1200 km long line. It shows
that the departures among the three Schemes A , B and C are relatively s' 0 0
small in all the loading conditions. The differences are smaller for the 0.5Pn l.OP, 1.5Pn 0.5Pn l.OPn 1.5Pn
line composed of four 300 km sections.
Thecontinuous rating of series capacitors ofthe transmission
lines considered for transient stability studies is 2.5 k A rms, or 3300 A.,r6nn 500 472 146 562 562 25: 287 1208
MVA per circuit.
The additional information on current and voltage swings deemed
of interest by Dr. Stan are provided in Fig. 11 and in Table IV. The
comparison of the curves of Fig. 11 with the ones of Fig. 8 confirms
that the rms currents through the more loaded capacitor banks during
the swings are very close for thelines composed of 4 X 300km sections,
and of 2 X 600 km sections, as anticipated by Dr. Starr.
The maximum and minimum voltages developed at critical points
along the line during the swings are collected in Table IV. The voltage
values are given for the line ends, for all the intermediate substations
and for the receivingend 380 kV busbar (R.E.). In the last column the Reply to Dr. E. R . Taylor.
maximum and minimum voltages are provided, taking into account also The coefficients of effectiveness €1 and €2 had been calculated in
the values at all the terminals of series capacitors (VM, Vm). The maxi terms of sendingendpowers which is of interest for thecase of a power
mum voltage at the terminalsof series capacitors is 1.1 5 p.u. with plant connected by means of long lines to a large receiving system. We
Schemes A2 x 600 and C2 ~ 6 0 0 Voltage
. at the busbars where shunt fully agree that in many other cases the deliverable power from a trans
reactorsandtransformers are connected, doesnot exceed 1.1 p.u. mission system is offen of interest. As suggested by Dr. Taylor, we are
for all the Schemes. providing the expressionsand the curve chartsof ratios €7 and €2
We agree that the statement near the bottom of the first column similar to Equations (1) and (2) butin terms of receivingend quantities.
on page 6 requires the revision indicated by Dr.Starr. We apologize for With the assumption that the receiving and sendingend voltages
this trivial mistake due to unproperwriting in English of an elementary are equal, the following formulas are obtained.
fact.
*
E, =
B'
 1Acos (6a)
Manuscript received April 20, 1977. B lA'cos(B'a')
1828
TABLE IV
Maximum and minimum voltages developed along the 760 kV1200 krn
linesduring rotor swings of Figs. 7 and 8 (1 p.u. = rated voltage).
1.10
1.05
1.oo

0.95
2.90
0
0 50. I00
Ks[%l
09.0
100
 0 50
Ksl%l
100 0 50
Ks[*l
Fig. 12. Scheme effetiveness E ; versus degree of series compensation %, for the cornpensation schemes A, B and C and three values of shunt compensation (OXD, SO%,
10096); Pt =length of h e section. The coefficient ~f is defined as per formula (7).
The problem of trapped charges mentioned by Dr. Taylor is very needed for ensuring the arc extinction before the highspeed 3phase
important. The comparative analysis of transient voltages and currents reclosure.
typical of Schemes A, B and C has been made in a paper coauthored With Scheme B the secondary arc current does not flow through
by the authors [ 4 ] . One of the authors has been involved in a similar the capacitors, as in a line without series compensation, and will self
analysis as consultant for the Turkish EHV transmission system, where extinguish in normaltime. Currents of less than 60 A peak are A
both the Schemes B and C are considered for two specific applications. cdated at time0.34.4 sec after fault clearing [41, [SI.
Other results were recently reported in ref. [ 51. With Schemes A and C, the dlscharge transformer usuaUy con
We shall comment at fmt on the problem of trap nected in parallel with the capacitors undergoes a subsynchronous oscil
With Schemes A and C, the transient recovery voltages &$En latory voltage afterline dropping, and does not necessarily saturate.
clearing afault through series capacitors are the outcome of a beat Unless the circuit is specially designed, it will not as~urethe fast dis
between three frequencies;powerfrequency,freeoscillation ofthe charge of the capacitors, nor the fast extinction of the secondary arc
line capacitance with shunt reactors, and free oscillation of the series current. With Scheme B, the discharge transformerundergoesa d.c.
capacitorswith shunt reactors. With Scheme B, insteadof the latter trapped voltage and assures the fast discharge of capacitors as in a line
oscillation, a d.c. component is present. Our investigation [4] showed without shunt compensation.
that the maximum TRVs differ by no more than 5% with the three The above reportedresults on TRVsand on secondary arc cur
compensation Schemes considered. rents have beenobtained by neglecting the effectof the discharge
Anotherimportant problem that we have analyzed dealswithtransformer.
the secondary arc currents, namely the current which flows in a fault The reenergization overvoltages have been found very close for
after the breakers at both ends ofafaultedline have cleared. With thethreelocationsofseriescapacitors. Scheme B exhibitsameanvalue
Schemes A and C the secondary arc current exhibits oscillatory com of the reenergization overvoltage a few percent higher than M e m e A;
ponents which flow in a loop including series capacitorsand shunt this is equivalent tothe difference ofthe powerfrequency voltage
reactors in series in the arc path. Our investigation evidenced that the applied to the line. The standard deviation is the same.
secondary arc current haspeaks in the range 100 through 350 A at time The reinsertion overvoltages across the capacitors have been found
0.3  0.4 sec after fault clearing [4] , [ 51 . Therefore special measures are similar, no matter which of the compensation Schemes is analyzed [41,
1829
0 50 100
K,[%l
versus degree of series compensation &, for the schemes A, B, and C of Fig. 1 and three valuw of shunt compensation (W, SO%, 100%);
of transmission system. Dotdahed curves give maximum ideal power at receiving end, P*,, id, in p.u. of SIL, versus &. The coefficient
€3 is defked as per formula (8).
[SI. This is because the phenomenon is essentially alowfrequency tence, it is suggested that the shunt reactor location, i.e. the scheme of
transientcontrolled byan equivalent series impedance seen from compensation, be decided after definition of series compensation.
capacitor terminals. We could not have access to the three papers mentioned by the
The transient and steady state short circuit currents, and the over discussors, because the referenced Indian Journal cannot be found in
voltages across the,capacitors due to fault initiation are very close for Italy. As far as we can understand,the schemes compared bythe
Schemes A and B, for similar reasons. The line protection problems are discussors are non homogeneous, because the assumed numberof
also equivlanet for Schemes A and B. shunt reactors and intermediate stations is different also for an as
Summing up, we believe that Scheme B is the mostattractive signed line length and degree of compensation; furthermore scheme (A)
from the point of view of the secondary arc current extinction. For the does not include series capacitors. The transmission lines are not
specific applications that we have analyzed, Scheme B did not present modular. We believe that the comparison of the compensation effective
shortcomings in comparison with Scheme A. ness of different schemes involving the same total amount of MVARs
Reply to Professors J. S. Guptu and S.P.Seth. of shunt reactorsandseriescapacitors is meaningful only among
We cannot agree with the discussors’ opinion that series and shunt homogeneous schemes, i.e. with the same cost of the kVAR of com
compensation should be considered separately. This type of approach pensationequipments, as we assumed in ourstudy. The schemes
may be useful for preliminary system planning to define approximate considered by the discussors do not appear to be correctly comparable
average degrees of compensation along the lines, without consideration on economical basis.
of compensation effectiveness. In fact the effectiveness of compensa Apart the above reservations, we are not able to comment on the
tion is a function of several variables: degrees of series and shunt discussors schemes because many data are not provided (linelength,
compensation, number of linesectionsandcompensation schemes voltage level, degrees of compensation).
thereof, as it is discussed in the paper. In order to take advantage of the Concerning the last paragraph of the discussion, we would like
concept of compensation effectiveness, it is necessary to optimize the to commentthatthe concept of compensation effectiveness is of
interrelated parameters simultaneously. We believe that the curve charts practicalinterestonly for the lines operation at maximumrequired
of the type reported in the paper allow such a global optimization, in load, i.e. for the most severe condition of stability. At lght loading,
a more rational manner than the empirical approach of variation by voltage control and reactive power balance may be the predominant
steps prospected by the discussors. requirements, and the degrees of series and shunt compensation, and
Some statements of the discussion are not well understandable to to some extent the schemes thereof, can be modified accordingly by
us and appear contradictory.The discussors propose that “series appropriate switching[S].
capacitor ratings and location should be first decided on the basis of
the desired power carrying capacity of the line and compensation ef REFERENCE
fectiveness of the scheme, and then the location and rating of shunt [SI A. Capasso, F. Iliceto: On theVoltage Control andTransient
reactors be determined”. At first, the compensation effectiveness, Overvoltages of ExtraLongDistance AC Transmission Lines.
and therebythe scheme, are assumed as known. In the second sen L’Energia Elettrica, Milan, December 1976 (in English).
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