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1. AAAI – Advertising Agencies Association of India; ABC – Audit Bureau of Circulation;

2. ASCI – Advertising Standards Council of India; ISA – Indian Society of Advertisers;

3. IRS – Indian Readership Survey; NRS – National Readership Survey;

4. NARB – National Advertising Review Board; NARB – National Advertising Review


5. AIDA(S) Model – Attention- Interest-Desire-Action- (Satisfaction) (Nov./Dec.2005). This

model depicts the successive stages a buyer passes through in making a purchase decision.

6. Advertising (Nov./Dec.2005) – Any paid form of nonpersonal communication about an

organization, product, service, or idea by an identified sponsor.

7. Advertising Agency – An independent business organization, composed of creative and

business people, who develop, prepare and place advertising in advertising media for sellers
seeking to find customers for their goods and services.

8. Advertising Appeal – The approach used in an advg. message to attract the attention or
interests of the consumers and influence their feelings toward the product, service or cause.

9. Advertising Appropriation (Nov. Dec. 2003) – Amount allocated for advertising in an

accounting period.

10. Advg. Campaign (May/June 2007) – A comprehensive advg. Plan that consists of a series
of ad. messages in a variety of media, centering on a single idea or theme.

11. Advg. Creativity – The ability to generate fresh, unique and appropriate ideas that can be
used as solutions to communication problems.

12. Advocacy Advertising (May/June 2008) – Advg. that is concerned with the propagation of
ideas and social issues of general importance in a manner that supports the position and
interest of the advertiser.

13. Aerial Advg. (Nov./Dec. 2006) – A form of outdoor advg. Where the message appear in the
sky in the form of skywriting.

14. Advertorial (Nov./Dec. 2006) – An ad. that is half advertising, half editorial, aimed at
swaying public opinion rather than selling products.

15. Banner ad – An ad on a web page that may be “hot-linked” to the advertiser’s site.

16. Benefit segmentation (May/June 2008) – A method of segmenting markets on the basis of
the major benefits consumers seek in a product or service.

17. Big idea – A unique or creative idea for advertising that attracts consumers’ attention, get a
reaction and sets the advertiser’s product or service apart from the competition.

18. Body copy – The main text portion of a print advertisement.

19. Classified advg. – Advertising in newspapers and magazines that generally contains text
only and is arranged under subheadings according to the product, service, or offering, such
as employment, automobiles, or property.

20. Clutter – The non-programme material that appears in a broadcast environment, including
commercials, messages and public service announcements etc.

21. Comparative advg. – The practice of directly or indirectly naming one or more competitors
in an advertisement or commercial and usually making a comparison on one or more
specific attributes.

22. Concept testing – A method of pre-testing alternative creative ideas for advertising in
which consumers provide their responses or reactions towards the ideas.

23. Cooperative advg. (Nov./Dec. 2006) – The manufacturer pays a certain percentage of
advg. expense to the retailer or dealer, who advertises the product in a local market area.

24. Copy platform – This document specifies the basic elements of the creative strategy such as
the basic problem or issue the advertising must address the advertising objectives, target
audience, major selling idea or key benefits to communicate, campaign theme or appeal, and
any other supportive information or requirements.

25. Corporate advg. (May/June 2008) – Advertising that promotes overall awareness of a
company or attempts to enhance its image among target customers.

26. CPRP (Cost Per Rating Point) – A calculation used by media buyers to compare the cost
efficiency of broadcast programmes that divides the cost of commercial time on a
programme by the audience rating.

27. Creative execution style – The manner in which a particular advertising appeal is
transformed into an ad. Message.

28. Creative strategy – It determines what an advertising message will say or communicate to a
target audience.

29. Creative tactics – A determination of how an advertising message will be used so as to

execute the advertising strategy.

30. Creativity – It is the quality possess by persons that enables them to come up with unique
approaches, leading to new and more effective solutions to problems.

31. Creative brief – It is a written statement that guides the creative team for writing and
producing an advertisement. It describes the most importance issues that should be taken
into account while developing the advertisement.

32. Cross-ruff coupon – A coupon offer delivered on one product that is redeemable for the
purchase of another product. The other product is usually one made by the same company
but may involve a tie-in with another manufacturer.

33. Cross selling (May/June 2008) - Persuading an existing customer to buy another product
from the company.

34. CRM (May/June 2008) - Customer relationship management is a broadly recognized,

widely-implemented strategy for managing a company’s interactions with customers, clients
and sales prospects.

35. DAGMAR (Nov./Dec.2005) – Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising

Results. An approach used to setting advertising objectives and goals, developed by Russell
H. Colley.

36. Deception – A misrepresentation, omission, or practice that is likely to mislead the
consumer acting reasonably in the circumstances to the consumer’s detriment.

37. Direct Marketing (May/June 2008) – A system of marketing by which an organization

communicates directly with customers to generate a response and/or transaction.

38. Direct Marketing Media – Media that are used for direct-marketing purposes including
direct mail, telemarketing, print and broadcast.

39. Direct Response Advertising – A type of advertising that elicits sales response directly.

40. Display advertising – Advertising in newspapers and magazines that uses illustration,
photos, headlines and other visual elements in addition to copy text.

41. Dissonance/attribution model – A kind of response hierarchy in which consumers first

behave, then develop attitudes as a result of that behavior, then learn or process the
information that supports the attitude or behavior.

42. Effective reach – A measure of percentage of a media vehicle’s audience reached at each
effective frequency increase.

43. Emotional Appeals – Advertising messages that appeal to consumers’ feelings and

44. Gatefolds – An oversize magazine page or cover that is extended and folder to fit into the
publication. This extends the size of a magazine ad.

45. Halo effect (May/June 2008) – It is the tendency to evaluate one attribute or aspect of
stimulus to distort reactions to its other attributes or properties.

46. HUT (Households Using Television) – The percentage of homes in a given area that are
watching TV during a specific time period.

47. Image advertising – Advertising that creates an identity or image for a product or service
by emphasizing psychological meaning or symbolic association with certain lifestyles,
values etc.

48. Indirect headlines – These headlines do not provide direct information about the product or
service or information regarding the point of an ad. message.

49. In-flight advertising – A variety of advertising media targeting air travelers while they are
in flight.

50. Infomercials – Very long TV commercials, 3 minutes to half an hour or more. These are
designed to provide more detailed information about a product or service.

51. In-house agency – The ad. Agency set-up owned and operated by an advertiser that handles
the company’s advertising programme.

52. In-pack premium (May/June 2007) – A direct premium enclosed in a product package as
an incentive for consumer purchase.

53. Integrated marketing communication (Integrated Promotion -Nov./Dec. 2006) – A

strategic business process used to develop, execute and evaluate coordinated, measurable,
persuasive brand communications programmes over time with con summers, customers,
prospects, employees, associates, and other targeted relevant external an d internal
audiences. The goal is to generate both short term financial returns and build long-term
brand and shareholder value.

54. Interactive media – Various media that allow the consumer to interact with the source of
the message such as Internet or Interactive TV.

55. Interstitial – Animated screens, often ads that pop up momentarily as the computer searches
for or downloads information for a requested web page.

56. Jingles – Songs or tunes about a product or service that usually carry the ad theme and a

57. Jumble display – A loose arrangement of items in a display container.

58. Layout/Advg. Layout (Nov./Dec.2005)– The physical arrangement of different parts of an

ad including the headline, subheads, illustrations, body copy and identifying marks.

59. Media buying services – Independent firms that are specialists in media buying.

60. Media plan – A document that spells objectives, strategies and tactics of reaching a target
audience through different media vehicles.

61. Media planning & Scheduling (May/June 2008) – Media planning outlines how
advertising time and space in various media will be booked in advance to achieve the
marketing objectives of the company.

62. Scheduling refers to the pattern of advertising timing, represented as plots on a yearly
flowchart. These plots indicate the pattern of scheduled times advertising must appear to
coincide with favorable selling periods. The classic scheduling models are Continuity,
Flighting and Pulsing.
63. Media strategies – Action plans for achieving media objectives.

64. Media Vehicle (May/June 2007) – The Specific publication or progamme to carry an
advertising message.

65. Non-commercial advertising – Advertising sponsored by charitable institutions, religious

bodies, political organizations or some other non-profit group to persuade people.

66. Non-Product advertising – Advertising designed to sell ideas rather than products or

67. Objective and task method – A method of budget setting that involves determining
objectives, determining the strategies and tasks and estimating the costs associated with
these steps.

68. Outdoor advertising – An out-of-home medium in the form of hoarding.

69. Patronage reward – An incentive to the consumer for the regular use of a certain product.

70. Point-of-Purchase promotion (POP) – Display or demonstration that takes place at the
point of sale.

71. Pop-ups – Advertisement windows on the internet usually larger than a banner ad and
smaller than a full screen.

72. Positioning Advertising Copy Testing(PACT) – A set of principles endorsed by 21 of the
largest US ad agencies aimed at improving the research used in preparing and testing ads,
offering a better product for clients and controlling the TV commercial cost.

73. Post-tests (After-tests) – Tests that are conducted after the advertising has appeared in the
market to test its effectiveness.

74. Pre-tests (Before-tests) – Advertising effectiveness tests conducted before the

implementation of advertising campaign.

75. Price deal – A special reduced price that saves the consumers money on purchase of a

76. Psychographics (May/June 2008) - The system of explaining market behavior in terms of
attitudes and life styles.

77. Publicity – Communications concerning an organization, product, service, or idea that is not
directly paid for or under the con troll of the sponsor.

78. Public Relations (May/June 2008) – The management function that evaluates public
attitudes, identifies the policies and procedures of an individual or organization with the
public interest, and execute a programme to earn public understanding and acceptance.

79. Puffery – Advertising that praises the product or service based on subjective opinions,
superlatives or exaggerations, vaguely or generally stating no facts.

80. Pulsing – A media scheduling method that combines flighting and continuity.

81. Reach – The number of audience members exposed at least once to a media vehicle(s) in a
given period.

82. Recall tests, what are they used to measure? (April/May 2004) – Tests of advertising
effectiveness designed to measure ad call. Recall test is designed to measure the depth of
impression what an ad leaves on the reader’s mind;

83. Recognitions Method (Test) (April/May 2004) – This is a measure of the effectiveness of
a print ad and allows the advertiser to assess the impact in a single issue of a magazine over
time or across alternative magazines.

84. Refutation appeal (Refutation Advg. -April/May 2004) – In this type of appeal (Advg.)
both sides of the issue are presented in the ad messages, with arguments to refute the
opposing point of view.

85. Sales promotion (Nov./Dec.2005) – All the promotional activities other than advertiing,
personal selling, publicity and direct marketing that encourage or motivate the customer or
re-sellers to buy more or buy early through the offer of such incentives as prizes, premiums,
discounts, games, sweepstakes, samples etc.

86. Script – Written version of a commercial providing detailed description of its video and
audio components.

87. Selective demand advertising – Advertising designed to promote specif brands of a


88. Shock advertising – Advertising in which marketers use nudity, sexual suggestiveness, or
other startling images to get consumers’ attention.

89. Slife-of-life (commercial) (April/May 2004) – A commercial in which the dramatization of

a real-life situation is shown where the product is tried and proves the solution to a problem.

90. Specialty advertising – An advertising, sales promotion, and motivational communications

medium that employs useful articles of merchandise imprinted with an advertiser’s name,
message, or logo.

91. SPIFF – It is the push money paid to salespeople of the dealer to push a particular product.

92. Storyboard (Nov./Dec. 2006) – A series of drawings used to present the visual plan or
layout of a proposed commercial.

93. Sweepstakes (April/May 2004) – A promotion in which the prize may be awarded by
chance draw without any charge or obligation.

94. Target Rating Points (TRPs) (May/June 2007) – The reach of media to number of persons
in the primary target audience and the number of times.

95. Teaser advertising – Ad primarily designed to evoke curiosity and build excitement and
interest in a product without showing it.

96. Tracking studies (April/May 2004) – Measures of advertising effectiveness designed to
assess the effects of advertising on awareness, interest, recall, attitude toward the ad and
intentions to buy.

97. Transit advertising – Advertising targeted to audience exposed to ads on buses, trains, or
airplanes etc.

98. Unique Selling Proposition (USP) (Nov./Dec.2005) – An advertising message strategy

proposed by Rosser Reeves that focuses on a product or service attribute that is distinctive to
a certain brand and offers a persuasive benefit to the consumer and not claimed by any other

99. Window display – A display placed in the window of a retailer’s shop, facing outside to
attract the attention of passers-by.

100. Wobblers – A lightweight display that hangs from a wire and bobs or turns with air

101. What is the objective of advertising in the ‘introductory (pioneering) stage”? (May/June

102. To give information about the product; to make the audience aware of the new brand.

103. What are salesmanship and negotiation skills? (May/June 2008)

104. Salesmanship - It is the personal service rendered to the community with the marketing
of goods.

105. Negotiation skills – Negotiating for win-win; persuasion; bargaining; assertiveness;

active listening; potential responses; clear communication & being focused.

106. Obligations of Advg.(Nov. Dec. 2003) – Communication, persuasion, education,

expansion of market, entertainment, employment, stimulates competition, raises standard of
living & finances mass media.

107. Merits and Demerits of Print media (Nov. Dec. 2003) – Merits: Mass coverage, low
cost, large space, good for current ads, ad. position choice possible, reader controls exposure,

coupons can be inserted. Demerits: Short life of advt., clutter, low education, poor production
quality, selective exposure.

108. Characteristics of a good copy (Nov. Dec. 2003) – Be precise; be simple; be specific;
be personal; be clear; make it possible; make it persuasive; make it believable; keep a surprise in
the copy; follow the headline and illustration and make it interesting.

109. Sales promotional tools (Nov. Dec. 2003) – Premiums, samples, contests,
demonstration, price deals, refunds & rebates, coupons, exchange offers & event sponsorship.

110. Factors considered for selecting an ad. agency (Nov. Dec. 2003) – Services offered,
location, records & reputation, compensation, personnel, size of the agency, other accounts and
media connections.

111. How agencies are paid? (Nov. Dec. 2003)

112. Commissions from media, percentage charges on materials & service purchased for
clients, fees charged to clients and cost plus system.

113. How is advertising campaign classified? (Nov. Dec. 2003)

114. On the basis of area – Local (retail) advertising, regional, national& international

115. On the basis of audience – Consumer advg. Industrial advg. Professional advg. & Trade

116. On the basis of media – Print media, broadcasting and outdoor advg.

117. On the basis of functions – Direct action & indirect action advg., primary & selective
advg., Product & institutional advg.

118. On the basis of stages of Advg. - Pioneering stage, Competitive stage & retentive stage.