Al-Fahad A.

Bachelor of Science in Islamic Studies English 108



Expository Writing

The purpose of expository writing is to explain something to the reader by providing facts and examples. It defines what something is, explains how it works, or tells the reader how to do something. Understanding Expository Writing. All expository writing is directed toward explaining something to a reader. To achieve the explanatory purpose, you should establish and maintain an informative tone. Expository writing should have an explanatory purpose and an informative tone. In order to serve its purpose, expository writing should contain factual statements, not opinions. All of the main ideas in expository papers should represent statements of fact. Support for these facts should also be factual and objective, including specific examples, details, facts, and incidents. Often an expository piece of writing will include verifiable information from experts and from reliable sources of facts, such as books, almanacs, and encyclopedias. In any case, you should avoid statements that are controversial or are open to varying opinions. An informative tone will help expository writing fulfill its explanatory purpose. When writing an expository paper, you should choose

straightforward, understandable words to explain the information clearly. If the paper is aimed at readers who are already knowledgeable on the topic,


you can choose more technical terms. In all expository writing, direct, specific language contributes to creating an informative tone. In addition to its primary explanatory purpose and its underlying informative tone, expository writing may sometimes have a secondary purpose and tone. For instance, the explanation in an expository work can define a concept, instruct a reader in a process, or even entertain the reader. The informative tone can range from the serious and formal to the lighthearted and casual. Prewriting, Writing, and Revising. At each stage of writing an expository paper, you should concentrate on conveying information. Focus on explaining your main idea fully and clearly in expository writing. The following guidelines will help you plan, write, and revise effective expository papers. _______________________________________________________ SUGGESTIONS FOR WRITING EXPOSITORY PAPERS ________________________________________________

1. Choose a topic that is appropriate to the length you have in mind and that lends itself to a factual treatment. 2. Determine any secondary purpose and tone. 3. Determine your audience¶s knowledge of the topic. 4. Develop a main idea about the topic and break it down into several factual statements.


5. Gather the supporting information that you need to explain your main ideas thoroughly to your audience. 6. Organize your paper for clarity. 7. Concentrate on explaining as you write. 8. Revise your work for unity and coherence and examine your word choices for an objective, informative tone.


A. Example of Expository Writing




micronutrient are safe for most people, but there are some caveats. If you take aspirin to protect against

heart disease, or if you take any other prescription drug, check with your doctor.

Vitamin E, like aspirin, is a blood thinner, so your

physician may want to adjust how much you take. Also because vitamin E may promote bleeding, don¶t take it prior to surgery or if you use anticoagulant drugs. Pharmacist Earl Mindel, author of the best seller Vitamin Bible, has been extolling the virtues of vitamin E for more than 30 years, and call it the ³miracle supplement´. But he too suggests you use supplements with caution if you have an overactive thyroid or rheumatic heart disease.


B. Conclusion

Expository writing is one of the kinds of writing on which it explains by imparting facts and examples. Through its explanation it defines what something is, how it works, or even telling the reader on how to do something. It directly explains something, and having factual statement, not utilizing any opinions. By establishing and maintaining an informative tone, you can accomplish the explanatory purpose, wherein the informative tone stands as primary explanatory purposes. Expository writing sometimes has a

secondary purpose and tone. Which is the casual tone, it offers information, seeks to entertain as well as humorous examples. Basically saying, expository paragraph must contain an explanatory purpose and an informative tone, it may also contain things that may entertain and has a casual tone.



Persuasive Writing

Persuasive writing attempts to convince the reader to accept new ideas, to change his or her opinion, or to take action. This kind of writing can be found in editorials, speeches, reviews of books and movies, and advertisements. Whenever you write to express an opinion or interpretation or to defend a course of action, you are using persuasion. Understanding Persuasive Writing. ideas and word choices in persuasive writing should work together to win the reader¶s acceptance of the opinion being presented. To convince the reader of something, the language of persuasive writing must appeal to the reader¶s interest and reason. Persuasive writing should have a persuasive purpose and a reasonable, convincing tone. A persuasive topic should be a statement of opinion something arguable, not purely factual. It should also be significant

to other people and supportable with facts and logical arguments. The supports in persuasive writing should consist of specific evidence: useful example, strong facts, well-thought-out reasons, logical arguments, and relevant incidents. Persuasive writing should also achieve a reasonable, convincing tone. The language should be direct and forceful but not offensive. Reasonable language can win the reader¶s agreement, whereas emotionally loaded words may offend the reader.


Like expository writing, persuasive writing may have secondary purposes and tones. Some will be urgent and compelling, emphasizing the need for immediate action. Others may be casual and friendly, simply offering an opinion about something noteworthy.


A. Example of Persuasive Writing

High performance digital equipment is leading the way into the future with slick, sophisticated inventions which focus on entertainment and simple access to the latest information. Now the new Digital Digest which presents an evaluation of what¶s on the market in multimedia, digitalization and audiovisual communications for today¶s and tomorrow¶s world.


B. Conclusion

Other kind of writing is persuasive writing, where it attempts to make somebody believe on something. You can say that you are utilizing a persuasion when the moment you write in a reason to express your opinion, your interpretation, or defending your course of action. Persuasive writing state a controversial or it opens to vary opinions; it must also be significant, and advocating with factual and logical arguments. By supporting persuasive writing it should consist of specific evidence. Which means it consist of useful examples, strong facts, well-thought-out reasons, logical arguments, and relevant incidents. Reasonable tone must a persuasive writing have, because it wins the reader¶s agreement. Humorous tone is the second purpose and tone of a persuasive. Basically saying, persuasive paragraph must contain a persuasive purpose and a reasonable tone. It may also contain things that may entertain and has a humorous tone.



Descriptive Writing

Description focuses on the qualities of a person, place, object, or experience on what the senses observe and what the memory recalls.

Descriptive writing focuses on a dominant impression and draws upon particularly colorful language to describe and elaborate on that impression for the reader. Understanding Descriptive Writing. The basic purpose of

descriptive writing is to transmit the writer¶s impression of some person, place, object, or experience through language that allows the reader truly and fully to imagine the topic under discussion. Descriptive writing focuses on a dominant impression using language that appeals to the reader¶s emotions, senses, and imagination. The dominant impression can be the strongest, most noticeable quality of the topic. It can also be a mood: a feeling that the topic produces in the observer and reader. The dominant impression will often be explicitly stated at some point in the paper. But it should also be woven throughout the language and details of the entire work. Descriptive writing should always contain strong, specific details. Features such as color, size, texture, shape, and condition should be expressed clearly and sharply in action verb, precise nouns, and colorful adjectives.


Descriptive language also includes sensory impressions and figures of speech. Sensory impressions are specific details that appeal to the senses, calling up sights, sounds, tastes, smells, textures, and feelings. Figure of speech, imaginative comparisons such as similes, metaphors, and analogies, can help the reader see the thing described in a new and revealing light. Descriptions, like all writing, need to be well organized. A writer cannot simple give a random catalog of everything in a room and expect the reader to see the room as the writer sees it. Instead, details should be arranged, for example, spatially from top to bottom or near to far so the reader can

grasp the relationship of one detail to another. Descriptive language can also be used to create different impressions and moods.


A. Example of Descriptive Writing

The past thirty years have been an unforgettable journey laden with memories of friends who were there to nurture me and my family to what we have become today. In 1975, when I first set foot in Zamboanga City at early down, the color air reminded me of Baguio and the buildings that of Vigan in llocos Sur. The Zamboangueños I met in those early years gave them warmth I needed that lasted thirty years and this have made my children proud to call themselves Zamboangueños.


B. Conclusion

Descriptive writing is another kinds of writing, it lavishly describe and elaborate a picture with the use of colorful language for the reader. The main purpose of descriptive writing is to transmit the writer¶s impression of certain person, place, object or sometimes the impression of experience. Vague idea or statement is not a descriptive writing. A descriptive writing must explicitly and strongly specifically tell the details. It must contain sensory impressions and certain figures of speech. It also needs to be well organized. It also creates an impression of drifting airiness and mood of exhilaration. Frankly speaking, descriptive paragraph must contain or create an impression of drifting airiness and may also create a mood of exhilaration.



Narrative Writing

Narration relates what happened by presenting a series of events. It is mainly concerned with capturing action. Narrative writing may have many different purposes and may appear in forms as different as letters, novels, and news paper articles. Understanding Narrative Writing. The fundamental purpose of narrative writing is to relate a series of events by utilizing a graphic language, which captures both action and sensory impressions to help the reader witness the events. Narrative writing focuses on telling a series of related events with graphic language. A narrative writing may be a self-contained story or it may be part of a longer story. It have its own beginning, middle, and end. A narrative writing always has a storyteller or narrator who tells the story from a particular point of view.

Point of View (or narrators) _____________________________________________

Points of View First person

How They Work Tells the story as he or she experienced. it uses the pronouns ³I´ and ³me´.


Limited third person

Tells the story from the outside, using the pronouns ³he,´ ³she,´ and ³they´. Does not know what the characters are thinking.

Omniscient third person

Tells the story using the pronouns ³he,´ ³she,´ and ³they´, can see into the minds of the characters and reports their thoughts.


The point of view determines the kind of supporting information that can be includes in the story.


A. Example of Narrative Writing

March Ashore in

1954. Kingston,

Jamaica. As Scotty and I are walking up



someone behind us is yelling, "Scotty, Scotty, Scotty". We both turn round to look. There is this huge Negro woman

running down the street with a big straw hat on her head which she has to hold down with one hand. This is Agnes. She runs a saloon in Kingston called Aggie's Place at #7 Princess Street. Scotty introduces us and tells her our story. She says that we will come and stay with her until we sign up on another ship. I look at Scotty and he looks at me. He says, "Okay, Richard?" And I say, "Okay, Scotty". We pick up our gear, throw our bags over our shoulders, and away we go.


C. Conclusion

The goal of narrative writing is to tell a story or part of a story. Its general characteristics include: first, Plot structure which may consist of introduction, rising action, climax, falling action, resolution. The second is conflict. Third characterization and forth is the setting of the story. The uses of narrative writing appears in and is not limited to novels, short stories, biographies, autobiographies, historical accounts, essays, poems, and plays.


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