2nd group of Biology-sbi 2009 Chandra Adi P Ika Ratnasari P Nurhayati Ike P Raras Anglir A Samuel Agus T K 4309020 K 4309038 K 4309059 K 4309063 K 4309074


and which generally enclose the flower before it opens y Petals (petal = a leaf. column) the ³stalk´ portion Stigma (stigma = spot) the outer. which consists of: Ovary (ova. the ³male´ reproductive organs (they make microspores which turn into male gametophytes). stylo = a pillar. spread out. flat) (which collectively are called the corolla) which are often brightly colored to attract pollinators (insects. which are often small and green but are colored like the petals in tulips and lilies. a thread). ovi = egg) the bottom end where seeds are produced Style (styl. sticky tip where pollen sticks when it lands or is placed there . which are the reproductive structures of an angiosperm and consist of four whorls of modified leaves (from outside in): y Sepals (sepi = fence in) (which collectively are called the calyx).) and may be very simple to highly modified y Stamens (stam(en) = anything standing upright. which consist of a stalk (the filament) and a tip (the anther) where the microspores are produced and turn into pollen (anthe = flower) y Pistil (note spelling) or carpel (carpo = a fruit). birds. stake. etc.Flower Flowers.

then you have a SEED. The central cell united with one sperm cell to make endosperm. .. and fats to provide for the growth of the embryo. the endosperm is retained as the storage tissue.a nutritive tissue that accumulates starch. a Storage Tissue. In other seeds the endosperm is more or less used up to put storage chemicals into the embryo itself (commonly in the cotyledons).. Below are diagrams and a photo of some seeds. The antipodals and synergids senesce and disintegrate. protein. The integument of the ovule becomes the seed coat. In some seeds. The egg cell of the embryo sac united with the other sperm cell to make a zygote.Seed Structure Keep in mind that the ovule in the ovary is what becomes the seed. and a Seed Coat. The zygote grows and becomes a true embryo inside the integument. When you have a Dormant Embryo. Inside the integument of the ovule was the embryo sac.

Embryogenesis of Monocot Plants Monocot embryo development at the complete can be seen in Najas. Tues aoikal split crosswise into 2 cells (c and d). It is protected as it pushes up through the soil by the coleoptile ² a hollow. The asymmetric zygote divides transversely to form a smaller apical cell and large basal cell.Germination of Seeds When grass seeds ² like corn (maize) or oats (shown here) ² germinate. the coleoptile stops growing and the primary leaf pierces it. the primary leaf of the plant grows up. cylindrical structure. y y Once the seedling has grown above the surface. Tues d divides the transverse (m . y y the primary root pierces the seed (and fruit) coverings and grows down. Basal cell enlarged without a single cell divides to form the haustorium. All embryos derived from apical cell.

and the microspores develop into male gametophytes (= pollen). each of which then produces an egg. In the cell c and m there is double vertical division to form 2 rows of cells each 4 pieces of the cell (Figure 3.and ci) to form 4-cell embryo stage (tetrad) is linear (Fig. and breadfruit. orange.´ Examples include pineapple.c). Fruit Fruit. Note that technically the ³sex organs´ of a plant aren¶t because they produce spore s (micro. y Multiple fruits arise from ovaries in several.´ There are a number of types of simple fruit. G). 3 B). y Aggregate fruits arise from several ovaries in one flower. which convert the proembrio symmetry. produce microspores by meiosis. two sperm nuclei travel . Q splitting Quadran perklinal outer cells will form 4 dermatogen around 4 cells (Figure 3 . E). each with its own official name. the middle form the beginner plerom (Gambar3. such as they are. which are the equivalent of megasporangia. Examples include raspberry and strawberry. The other side of slow growth. and a pollen tube grows down into the ovary. walnut. The ovaries. Examples include cucumber. Eventually. and are where eggs or sperm are actually produced. which are the equivalent of microsporangia. By some means (wind or an animal pollinator). the pollen is transferred to the stigma of the pistil. Rapid growth in the series q form a single cotyledon. The gametophytes bear the true sex organs. produce megaspores which grow into female gametophytes. The anthers. tomato. apple. and grow into beginner epicotyl / initial apex (Figure 3. Proembrio become oval-shaped. tightly-clustered flowers which grow together into one ³fruit. Q In the division which occurred faster than adjoining cells. cherry. (Figure 3. Angiosperms have alternation of generations with the 2n sporophyte being the dominant generation. then formed proembrio globular stage (Figure 3. Cells on row m and a vertical split lengthwise. Q Section consists of 4 cells called quadran. F). which is a ripened (mature) ovary (in which seeds develop/are found) and which serves as protection and means of dispersal for the seeds various types of fruits include: y Simple fruits arise from one ovary in one flower. I). H). and maple ³helicopter. dandelion. mulberry.. peapod.or mega-) which turn into male or female gametophytes.

In general. one sperm nucleus and the egg cell unite to form a new 2n zygote (which grows into an embryo). beneath). The embryo sporophyte consists of: 1. over). having very small cotyledon(s).down the pollen tube. The lower end of the hypocotyl. one or two nutrient-storage areas called cotyledons which are in contact with (and absorb nutrients from) the 3n endosperm. and which will become the stem and leaves. which is the region under the cotyledon(s). Seeds of some species store their nutrients primarily in the endosperm. which is the region above the cotyledon(s). 2. In contrast. When the sperm nuclei reach the female gametophyte. while fertilization is when the sperm nucleus and egg nucleus unite Angiosperms have an unusual thing called double fertilization. many (not all) dicots tend to store food in their cotyledons with the endosperm being reduced to a papery coating around the embryo. which becomes the root system. the hypocotyl (hypo = under. and nutrients are transferred to the cotyledon only as needed. while others have most of their nutrients stored in their cotyledons and the endosperm is very small. 3. is called the radicle (radix = root) and will become the roots. the epicotyl (epi = upon. . monocots tend to store food in their endosperms. Pollination is the transfer of the male gametophyte (pollen) to the stigma of the female. The other sperm nucleus and two nuclei from the female gametophyte join to form 3n endosperm which often serves as food for the embryo.

The characters which distinguish the classes.The number of cotyledons found in the embryo is the actual basis for distinguishing the two classes of angiosperms. This feature is retained in the monocots. .  Pollen structure -. refer to the page on monocot morphology. that there are many exceptions to these characters in both groups. It must be pointed out. and is the source of the names Monocotyledonae ("one cotyledon") and Dicotyledonae ("two cotyledons"). They serve to absorb nutrients packaged in the seed. the standard distinctions between dicots and monocots are still quite useful.The first angiosperms had pollen with a single furrow or pore through the outer layer (monosulcate). The table summarizes the major morphological differences between monocots and dicots. The cotyledons are the "seed leaves" produced by the embryo. however. MONOCOTS Embryo with single cotyledon DICOTS Embryo with two cotyledons Pollen with single furrow or Pollen with three furrows or pore pores Flower parts in multiples of Flower parts in multiples of three four or five Major leaf veins parallel Major leaf veins reticulated Stem vacular bundles scattered Stem vascular bundles in a ring Roots are adventitious Secondary growth absent Roots develop from radicle Secondary growth often present  Number of cotyledons -. Despite the problems in recognizing basal angiosperm taxa. For more information. and that no single character in the list below will infallibly identify a flowering plant as a monocot or dicot. until the seedling is able to produce its first true leaves and begin photosynthesis. but most dicots are descended from a plant which developed three furrows or pores in its pollen (triporate). each character is dicussed in more detail below.

If you count the number of petals. with more of the bundles located toward the stem periphery than in the center. the radicle aborts in monocots. etc.Most seed plants increase their diameter through secondary growth. notably the aroids and Dioscoreales. and new roots arise adventitiously from nodes in the stem. usually three or six. appearing as a ring of spots when you cut across the stem.Vascular tissue occurs in long strands called vascular bundles. This character is not always reliable. This arrangement is unique to monocots and some of their closest relatives among the dicots. however.In monocots.  Secondary growth -. as there are many monocots with reticulate venation. tend to have parts in multiples of four or five (four. The radicle gives rise to an apical meristem which continues to produce root tissue for much of the plant's life. there are usually numerous auxillary veins which reticulate between the major ones. or other floral parts.  Stem vascular arrangement -. Some monocots can produce a substitute however. these bundles appear scattered through the stem. stamens. As with the number of floral parts. In monocots. .In most dicots (and in most seed plants) the root develops from the lower end of the embryo. this character is not always reliable. you will find that monocot flowers tend to have a number of parts that is divisible by three. producing wood and bark.  Root development -. five. from a region known as the radicle. ten.  Leaf veins -. These bundles are arranged within the stem of dicots to form a cylinder. and so do not produce wood. Monocots (and some dicots) have lost this ability. Number of flower parts -. These roots may be called prop roots when they are clustered near the bottom of the stem. in dicots. as in the palms and agaves.). By contrast. and is not easy to use in some flowers with reduced or numerous parts. Dicot flowers on the other hand. there are usually a number of major leaf veins which run parallel the length of the leaf.

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