SUPERCAPACITORS : NEW SUPER ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE

Nitin Kathuria, Assistant Professor
Electronics and Communication Branch Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology for Women Ghaziabad, India nitin.kathuria.rkgitw@gmail.com

Richa Sharma, Lecturer
Electronics and Communication Branch Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology for Women Ghaziabad, India sharma86richa@gmail.com

Abstract— Supercapacitor is a new class of electrochemical double layer capacitor which stores charge in it around two carbon electrodes dipped in alkaline electrolyte. It has emerged with the potential to enable major advances in energy storage. Supercapacitors are governed by the same fundamental equations as conventional capacitors, but utilize higher surface area electrodes and thinner dielectrics to achieve greater capacitances. This allows for energy densities greater than those of conventional capacitors and power densities greater than those of batteries. As a result, supercapacitors may become an attractive power solution Its charging and discharging is not a chemical process as in batteries, which is not an aging process so they live longer than batteries and also they provide very high power output. Keywords- Batteries, Supercapacitors, Comparison

physical formats from small surface mount components to size of a cylindrical can. It consists of two electrode immersed in an electrolyte as shown in the Fig (1) [1].

I.

INTRODUCTION Fig 1&2 UltraCap layer and Electrode structure [1]

Electrical energy is required in many applications –like telecommunication devices, cellphones, cordless, standby power systems, electric vehicles etc and energy used in these devices are specified in the terms of energy (Wh) or power (W) .Now with the advancement in technology the devices need high and more lasting power device, so it is often reasonable to think about a new power device which can provide high power in the form of pulses which can be charged periodically from a primary storage device(battery).As traditional capacitors cannot store that much charge ,so is the need of Supercapacitors or Ultracapacitors .As the name suggests ‗Super‘ or ‗Ultra‘ it is having high capacitance nearly three times the magnitude of the conventional capacitors .Their characteristics differ from those of batteries and they are useful because they complement the short comings of batteries and other power supply devices. [2, 4] II.
WHAT IS SUPERCAPACITOR?

Basically, Supercapacitor or Ultracapacitor or EDLC (Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitor) is, however a capacitor _ a two terminal component available in variety of

When the electrodes are charged electrically, the ions in the electrolyte tend to move to the oppositely charged electrode balancing the excess charge at the carbon electrode. The electrode are made of high surface area, porous material having pores of diameter nanometer (nm),preferably carbon. ―The extremely small pore gives a very large active internal surface, in the order of 1000square meters per gram.‖[3] ―Thus across the phase boundary between carbon and electrolyte there are two layers of excess charge of opposite polarity .This is called Electrochemical Double Layer [1].‖ The capacitance is dependent on the material of electrode such as area, pore size and pore size distribution. Energy stored is purely static rather than electrochemical as in battery And charging and discharging is purely dependent of movement of ions and capacitance is stored in whole Farads (F), instead of mere microfarads (uF)[1].

The rate at which energy is released is low i. low power density whereas in case . COMPARISON BETWEEN SUPERCAPACITORS AND BATTERIES Fig 4. Fig 4 shows graph of energy density vs power density in batteries and supercapacitors with other power devices [4]. The Supercapacitors characteristics show a simple relationship between voltage level and charging condition (Fig. Charging and Discharging Charging and discharging occurs upon movement of ions within the electrolyte.of supercapacitor energy density is low but power density is high.For aqueous electrolytes the cell voltage is 1V.Schematic of double layer Super capacitor [2] As shown in the ions displace in forming the double layer in the pores are transferred between electrodes by diffusion through electrolyte. the stored energy in a capacitor device increases as the square of the cell voltage "V" as charge is accumulated [6]‖ A. In comparison it is not necessary to reach a certain state of charge (output voltage) in order to use a Supercapacitors. The battery output voltage does not indicate the actual charging condition and is not easy to control (flat voltage level between fully charged and discharged).because water gets decomposed at higher voltages and for organic electrolytes such as potassium hydroxide(KOH)or sulphuric acid(H2SO4).e. for a battery. according to Equation C = q/V or q = CV which defines the relation between capacitance "C" and the inter-plate voltage "V" that arises from accumulation of a charge "q": In contrast. ―The energy and charge stored in super capacitors are 1/2CV 2 and CV. These parameters are calculated in terms of energy or power per unit volume or per unit weight.‖ Therefore supercapacitor is having longer lifetime. an ideal battery has a constant voltage during discharge or recharge except as the state of charge approaches 0 or 100%.The capacitance is dependent on characteristics of electrode and can be written as C/g= (F/cm^2) act* (cm^2/g) act where surface area referred to is the active area in the pores on which the double layer is formed[2]. since they are based on the formation and dissolution of chemical compounds on the battery electrodes (Faraday reactions).‖ Fig 3 .―Batteries have a high level of energy stored (energy density).‖ The cell voltage of super capacitor is dependent on the electrolyte used .‖ ―This important difference between charging a capacitor and charging a battery is that there is always an intrinsic increase of voltage "V" on charge (or decrease on discharge) of a capacitor as the charge per cm2 is increased or decreased. without any reaction on the electrode surfaces. twice as much as that for a capacitor charged to the same cell voltage "ΔV".the voltage is 3-3. the corresponding stored energy (or energy density) is qΔV. The chemical reactions on the electrodes have the major influence on the aging of batteries.Comparison of Storage Technologies [1] C. especially lithium-intercalation batteries. based on Equation .e. most batteries exhibit some dependence of cell voltage on state of charge. The consequence of the above difference. In the capacitor.5 V. Thus. the latter for fundamental reasons arising from intercalation). This mode of energy storage is in contrast to all battery technologies. (Practically.[1] B. For getting high voltage output the capacitors can be connected in series but it decreases the capacitance so in order to maintain the capacitance with high voltage requires an array i. electric energy is stored direct as a positive and negative charge on the plates. The aging of capacitors is not directly affected by reverse charging process. 3] III. and they can be charged and discharged frequently without noticeable changes in the capacitors[1]. Energy Density and Powe Density The major difference in super capacitors and batteries in the values of their energy density and power density. is that the energy stored by a capacitor is 1/2 CV2 or 1/2 qV while. Lifetime ―The electric energy in batteries is stored in directly in the chemical compounds and released on the basis of Faraday‘s oxidation and reduction process of electrochemically active material. Series/parallel array [2. respectively. 5) [1].

Typically 1 to 10 Time to seconds 12) to ms 50 to 300 Hours (10 -3) hrs.001 to 0. Operating Temperature Operating Voltage Capacitance Life -40 to +85 -20 to +25 to -20 to +65 °C +100 °C +90 °C °C 2.25 to 0.2 mF N/A to   30.01 to 300 to 8 to 600 Wh/kg 0.5 V to 5 V 6 to 800 0.1 0.V.5 to 2.005 to kW/kg 104 0.01 to 103 0. Instant charge (refuel). Voltage balancing is required if more than three capacitors are connected in series High self-discharge . Disadvantages    Linear discharge voltage prevents use of the full energy spectrum Low energy density .000 to >100.typically holds one-fifth to onetenth the energy of an electrochemical battery Cells have low voltages .the rate is considerably higher than that of an electrochemical battery.Comparison of Battery and Ultra Capacitor charging and discharging curves [1] D.[8] Table: The following table gives a brief summary of some critical properties of each technology [5].05 3000 Wh/kg Wh/kg Wh/kg 0. This is why batteries and supercapacitors are used in conjunction with each other. Requires sophisticated electronic control and switching equipment [9] VI.0 1000 A cm2 A Energy Density Pulse Load .000 hrs cycles 10. Supercapacitors are not as volumetrically efficient and are more expensive than batteries but they do have other advantages over batteries making the preferred choice in applications requiring a large amount of energy storage to be stored and delivered in bursts repeatedly Fig .25 to 3. APPLICATIONS Supercapacitors have found uses include:  Computer systems  UPS systems  Power conditioners  Welders  Inverters  Automobile regenerative braking systems  Power supplies  Cameras  Power generators[8] Charge/Discharge Milliseconds ps (10 .1 to 100 A 0.000 1500 hrs cycles 1 to 2 grams grams Weight Power Density 20 g to g to many 5+ kg kg 0.6 V cell V 100 mF to > 10 pF to N/A 2F 2.6 V / 1.05 to 10 0.000 1500 to 150 50.5.1 to 150 mA / 0.4 kW/kg kW/kg kW/kg 0. The supercapacitors will supply power to the system when there are surges or energy bursts since supercapacitors can be charged and discharged quickly while the batteries can supply the bulk energy since they can store and deliver larger amount energy over a longer slower period of time. Advantages Supercapacitors have the highest capacitive density available today with densities so high that these capacitors can be used to applications normally reserved for batteries. Low Temperature Dependence As chemical reactions are temperature dependent therefore chemical reaction in batteries will slow down at low temperatures and there is no chemical reaction in Supercapacitors so they are very less affected by temperature change but until the changes are within the range of Supercapacitor [3]. COMPARISON CHART Advantages:  Power density  Recycle ability  Environmentally friendly  Safe  Light weight The most significant advantage supercapacitors have over batteries is their ability to be charged and discharged continuously without degrading like batteries do. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SUPERCAPACITOR A. IV. Property Supercapacitors Capacitors Micro-Fuel Cells Batteries B.serial connections are needed to obtain higher voltages.

edu/ed/encycl/art-c03-elchemcap. by merging a supercapacitor and a battery together .com/resources/reviews/strge_cmprsn. This is because of its high energy storage capacity. Soon the price point will be where most every electronic device will use them as a hybrid battery.capxx.htm http://www. CONCLUSION This new source of electricity will replace the batteries in all the applications of telecommunications.ht ml http://www.cgi?article=105 0&context=itsdavis http://www. Supercapacitors need batteries to store the energy and are basically used as a buffer between the battery and the device.com/Ultracapacitor/industry.advancedautobat.skeletontechnologies. That is why supercapacitor and battery work together. short charging time.com/pdf/Papers/supercapacitor s.illinoiscapacitor. Supercapacitors can be charged and discharged hundreds of thousands of times where a battery cannot do that.VII.akamai. supercapacitors have some intrinsic characteristics that make them ideally suited to specialized roles and applications that complement the strengths of batteries. In particular.epcos.pdf http://a330.supercapacitors. It will be the new super battery. and long shelf life.org/ .cdlib. hybrid cars and others. high power and good reliability and robustness as compared to the batteries.com/inf/20/35/ds/tecchnology.com/contents/images /268379. long life. [7] Because of their flexibility. [9] REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] http://www.pdf http://www.pdf http://www.net/7/330/2540/20030102222605/ww w.com/docs/pdf/SuPCaP_web.g. supercapacitors have great potential for applications that require a combination of high power.edn.cwru.org/cgi/viewcontent. high cycling stability.htm http://electrochem.like a "Hybrid Battery" it will be possible for supercapcitors to replace the battery as we know it today. Also.pdf http://repositories. however. supercapacitors can be adapted to serve in roles for which electrochemical batteries are not as well suited.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful