Engineering Procedures for Micro Hydropower Systems

EBARA Hatakeyama Memorial Fund Tokyo, Japan

Micro Hydro Unit beside Irrigation Weir
A
Irrigation Weir

B

C G E

F
A B C E F G Intake Lateral By-pass Canal HeadTank GeneratingUnit Tailrace Transmission/Distribution Line

- whenever a weir imposes an excess head relatively to the downstream delivery flow, a micro unit can be envisaged in order to replace a dissipation structure. - along an irrigation canal system, significant difference topographic level can be used and diversion scheme can be implemented out of irrigation period.

“Run of River” type Micro Hydro Generation System
A Intake

B C

B Lateral By-pass Canal

A

C Head Tank D Penstock Pipe E Generating Unit G Transmission/Distribution Line

D G E
In order to take the advantage of a local significant difference topographic level created by a weir or a small dam, only a part of stream flow is used to generate power.

Micro Hydro Selection Chart

Features :
-Irrigation Pump as Turbine type generating unit -Low head range from 2(m) to 12(m) is applicable for Micro Hydro Generating Unit.

To be given Q, Hg, L

Flow Chart of Micro Hydro Turbine Selection

Predetermination of penstock dia., configuration of intake and trash rack

Calculation of Head Losses Hι Selection of other penstock diameter

Calculation of Net Head He

Determination of Unit Number to be installed

Finding Unit Output from “SELECTION CHART” by using He and Q

Investigation of necessity for step-up transformer

No

Can Max. Unit Output get from Q, Hg, and L given ?
Yes

An Example of Flow Duration Curve
Hydrograph :
Hydrograph shows how flow varies through the year and how many months in a year that a certain flow is exceeded.

Flow Duration Curve (FDC):
FDC can be produced by ordering the recorded water flows from maximum to minimum flow as shown in this figure.

Turbine Design Flow(Qt)
Qt = Qr - Qc
Qt : Turbine Design Flow Qr : River Flow Qc : Compensation Flow

River Flow Duration Curve : Qr

Turbine Design Flow Qt Qc

Design Flow for Stand-alone System :
The design flow should be the flow that is available 95% of the time or more.

An Example of Case Study
Gross Head Hg=4.3(m) Hydrograph at the site :

Flow (m3/s)

Spill Way at Kampong Tuol
Photo at the end of dry season There is no spill water from Spillway.

Photo at the end of rainy season

Since the rainfall volume is quite different at the rainy season and dry season, the micro hydro hybrid system with solar and/or biomass will be suitable for this area.

View from downstream side

Proposed location of Micro Hydro Unit
Pump Station

Irrigation Gates

Proposed Location for Micro Hydro Unit

About 100 households are located around this bridge. Only few rich houses are connected to private power supplier, the unit cost of electricity is US$0.56/kWh .

View from downstream side of irrigation gates

Head Losses Calculation
Existing Gates Facility

Penstock Length : Φ450mm = 3.5m, Φ350mm = 25m
Siphon Intake Facility

Existing Right Bank Power House

Bridge for National Road No.3

Elbow②
Turbine Generator Unit Φ350 mm

Intake Screen

Elbow③
H.W.L. L.W.L. Φ450 mm

Elbow④
Penstock

Hg=4.3(m)
T.W.L.

Inlet ①
Reservoir

Downstream

One Unit Stand-alone System

Turbine Design Flow
Hydrograph

0.25(m3/s)

0.9 0.8

Flow Duration Curve

River Flow (m 3 /s)

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

Turbine Design Flow(=0.25m3/s) River Compensation Flow(=0.2m3/s)
Days

Head Loss in the Penstock
HL1=HLp x L
where, HL1 : Head loss in the penstock(m) HLp : Head loss per 1 m of penstock(m) L : Total Length of Penstock(m)

0.025

D(m)
0.0072

L(m) 3.5 25.0

HLp 0.0072 0.025

HL(m) 0.025 0.625 0.650

0.45

HLp

0.35

ΣHL1

Siphon Inlet Head Loss(HL11)
V1 2 1.572 HL11 = ζ = 0.3x 2 x 9.8 =0.038(m) 2g ζ=0.3 Q=0.25(m3/s)

Q V1= (π/4・D 2) 1 = 0.25 =1.57(m/s) 2) (0.785 x 0.45

Bend Pipe Head Losses (HL2-4)

V2 HL= ζ 2g
D(m) Bend② Bend③ Bend④ 0.45 0.35 V(m/s) Θ(deg) 1.57 2.60 135 45 90 2.5 R/D ζ 0.169 0.097 0.138 ΣHL2-4 HL(m) 0.022 0.033 0.048 0.103

Draft Tube Outlet Head Losses(HLd)
Type : 350SZT D1=350(mm) D2=550(mm)

Vd 2 1.052 = HLd= =0.056(m) 2g 2 x 9.8 Q Vd= (π/4)xD 2 =1.05(m/s) 2

Turbine Net Head (He)

He=Hg-HL=4.3-0.847=3.45(m) Hg =4.3(m) : Gross Head HL=HL11 + ΣHL1 + ΣHL2-4 + HLd

Say He=3.4(m)

=0.038 + 0.650 + 0.103 + 0.056=0.847(m)

Rough Net Head Calculation
The Net Head(He) can calculate roughly by “Table 1” and Fig.4 He=Hg – (ΣHL2-4 + Hι2)=4.3 -(0.650 + 0.17)=3.48(m) Fig.4 Table 2 ≒3.45(m)
Table 1 Head Losses in Unit Conduit System
Bore Diameter (mm) Turbine Speed (rpm) Generator Speed (rpm) Generator Output (kW) Head Losses Hι2 (m) 200 250 300 350

1000

750

600

500

1000

750

600

500

750

600

500

429

750

600

500

429

1,500

1,500

1,500

1,500

6

3

1.75

1

12

10

5

3

22

12

7

5

33

25

15

8

0.23

0.17

0.10

0.07

0.30

0.22

0.17

0.12

0.31

0.24

0.15

0.11

0.35

0.31

0.24

0.17

(Note)The Head Losses(HL2) includes Siphon Intake and Draft Tube Outlet.

Micro Hydro Selection Chart

He=3.4(m) Qt=0.25(m3/s)

Select Turbine Type : 350SZ Turbine Speed : 429(rpm)

Turbine Performance Curves
Q – H Curve
8.00

Q – ηt Curve
85.0

Bore Dia.=350(mm)
7.00

ηt=80.5(%)
80.0

Turbine Speed=429(rpm)
6.00 5.00

Turbine Efficiency (%)

75.0

Net Head (m)

70.0

4.00

He=3.4(m)
3.00

65.0

60.0

2.00

1.00

55.0

Q=0.25(m3/s)
0.00 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40

50.0 0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25
3

0.30

0.35

0.40

Turbine Flow (m 3 /s)

Turbine Flow (m /s)

Turbine Expected Output PT =9.8 x Q x He x ηt =9.8 x 3.4 x 0.25 x 0.805=6.7(kW)

Recommended Turbine Operating Range
Q – ηt Curve
85.0
8.00 7.00

Q – H Curve

80.0

6.00

Turbine Efficiency (%)

75.0

70.0

Net Head (m)

5.00

He=5.0(m)

4.00

65.0

3.00

He=2.7(m)

60.0

Recommended Operating Range

2.00

55.0

1.00

Recommended Operating Range
50.0 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25
3

0.30

0.35

0.40

0.00 0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25
3

0.30

0.35

0.40

Turbine Flow (m /s)

Turbine Flow (m /s)

Range of Turbine Output =4.8~11.0(kW)

Expected Annual Energy Output
Expected Generator Output Pg : Pg=PT x ηb x ηg =6.7 x 0.9 x 0.9=5.4(kW)
PT : Turbine Output (=6.7kW) ηb : V belt pulley transmission efficiency (≒90%) ηg : Generator Efficiency(≒90%)

Annual Energy Output E : E=Pg x Day x 24 =5.4 x 295 x 24=38,232(kWh)
Pg : Generator Output(=5.4kW) Day : Available running day number

Two Units System

Turbine Design Flow

0.15(m3/s)

0.15(m3/s)

Micro Hydro Selection Chart

He=3.4(m) Qt=0.15(m3/s)

Select Turbine Type : 300SZ x 500(rpm) or 250SZ x 600(rpm)

Turbine Selection Procedure
1. Select the bore diameter of Turbine from “Selection Chart” by approx. Net Head and Turbine Flow. 2. Obtain the operating point on each bore diameter’s performance curves(i.e., Q-H, Q-Eff. Curves) by changing turbine speed. 3. Re-calculate the Net Head for one unit and two units operation by using the turbine flow obtained from turbine performance curves. 4. Re-check the operating point of turbine. 5. Calculate “Annual Energy Output” based on Flow Duration Curve.

Similarity Law for PAT
Similarity Law can be applicable to PATs with similar flow shapes.

The performance of large scale PAT will be slightly improved by “Dimensional Effect”.

Turbine Tu rbin e Head an d FlowDiffereDifferent Speeds Head and Flow at at nt Spe eds
9.00 8.00 7.00 6.00 He ad (m) 5.00 4.00 3.00 7 5 0 (r pm) 2.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 5 0 0 (r pm) 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 6 0 0 (r pm) ▲ me an s th e Be st Effic ie n c y P o in t fo r e ac h Tu r bin e 1 ,0 0 0 (r pm) P u mp Bo r e Dia. : 2 5 0 (mm) I mpe lle r Type : Mixe d Flo w t ype

Tu r bin e Flo w (m 3 / s)

90.0

Q-Eff. Curves
85.0 80.0 Efficiency (%) 75.0 70.0 65.0 60.0 55.0
600rpm

750rpm

Turbine Performance Curves at Speed Change
The speed of the turbine will vary according to the load, and there is a different head-flow curve for each speed. Three such curves are shown in the left. The middle curve, labeled 600rpm is for the normal operating speed. The curves labeled 750rpm and 500rpm are for speed higher and lower than normal operating speed. Note that for each speed, the operating point is given by the intersection of the turbine curve with the site curve.

500rpm

50.0 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 Turbine Flow (m3 /s)

4.00 3.50 3.00 Head (m ) 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50

Q-H Curves
Site Curve

Site Curve : H=Hg – KQ2
750rpm 600rpm

500rpm

0.00 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 Turbine Flow (m /s)
3

35.0 30.0 25.0

Site Curve without valve control
Operating point

Output Control by Valve

Head (m)

20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0

Q-H Curve under constant speed

bep Site Curve with valve control Site Curve :

0.0 0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15 Turbine Flow (m /s)
3

0.20

0.25

0.30

Gross Head – Friction losses in the conduit

60.0

50.0

40.0 Output (kW)

30.0

P2=32kW

P1=37kW

20.0

Turbine Output Curve
10.0 0.0 0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15 Turbine Flow (m3/s)

0.20

0.25

0.30

300mm Bore Dia. Turbine
6.0 5.0

Turbine Speed : 550(rpm)
Gross Head Hg=4.3(m) He=3.7(m)

4.0

Head (m)

3.0 2.0

C

Q -H

1.0 0.0 0

Q

-H

e rv Cu

He=2.95(m) Site Curve

0.05

0.1

ur
0.15

ve

0.2

0.25

0.3
3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

Flow (m /s)

85 80

Efficiency (%)

75 70 65 60 55 50 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3
3

Two Units Running One Unit Running

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

Flow (m /s)

250mm Bore Dia. Turbine
6.0 5.0 4.0 Head (m) 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 Flow (m /s)
3

Turbine Speed : 600(rpm)
He=4.0(m)
ur ve C

Gross Head Hg=4.3(m) He=3.45(m) Site Curve

Q

-H

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

85 80 Efficiency (%) 75 70 65 60 55 50 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 Flow (m /s)
3

Two Units Running One Unit Running

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

Expected Annual Energy Output
300SZT He(m) Q(m3/s) ηt(%) Pt(kW) Pg(kW) He(m) Q(m3/s) 250SZT ηt(%) Pt(kW) Pg(kW)   At One Unit Running

3.70

0.180

81.0

5.29

4.28

4.00

0.133

77.5

4.04

3.27

At Two Units Running

2.95

0.157

81.0

3.68

2.98

3.45

0.125

79.8

3.37

2.73

Annual Energy Output (kWh)

48,559

46,283

- Equivalent CO2 Gas Reduction : approx. 34~36(t-CO2/year)
(GHG emission rate : 0.740kg CO2/kWh at the island of Java)

- Equivalent Capacity of Photovoltaic Generation : ≒58kWp
(Average Solar Radiation : 4.86kWh/m2/day)

Different Penstock Diameter
Turbine Bore Dia. : 300(mm) Turbine Speed : 550(rpm)
5.0 6.0

  Site Curve "A" Site Curve "B"

Penstock 450mm Dia. X 3.5m, 350mm Dia x 25m 450mm Dia. X 3.5m, 400mm Dia x 25m

Gross Head Hg=4.3(m) Site Curve “B”

4.0

Head (m)

3.0 2.0

1.0 0.0 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3
3

Site Curve “A”
0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5

Flow (m /s)

85 80

Efficiency (%)

75 70 65 60 55 50 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3
3

One Unit Running
0.35 0.4

Two Units Running

0.45

0.5

Flow (m /s)

Generator for Micro Hydro Plant
Generator type Synchronous Generator Induction Generator Advantages Disadvantages ・available of isolated operation ・need for complex control and insulated rotor winding ・adjustable of voltage,frequency & power factor ・simple construction ・simple control system ・to be get excitation from the grid ・parallel operation only

Items to be considered at Generator Selection : ★In case of isolated operation, Synchronous generator shall be applied. ★Rotor & bearing shall be designed to withstand the overspeed at load rejection Estimated Overspeed : approx. 1.8 times of rated speed Diesel Engine Generator can be applied by Siphon Intake System

Construction of Synchronous & Induction Generator

Synchronous Generator

Induction Generator

Turbine Runaway Speed
Net Head vs Runaway Speed Curve
2,500

2,000

Runaway Speed (rpm)

1,500

1,000

500

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Net Head (m)

If the turbine generator load is cut off under this running (on the other words, turbine generator load rejection), the unit speed will be increased to approx. 1,500(rpm) without the closing of turbine inlet valve. If this speed is continuing for a long hours, the turbine generator will be damaged by extreme high temperature of bearings and etc

Siphon Intake System

The generator for diesel engine, available to purchase in the market, can be connected to the turbine by applying Siphon Intake System.

Skeleton of Test Stand for SZ type Micro Hydro Generating Unit without Vacuum Pump
Siphon Priming Tank(approx. 1m3) Siphon Valve Operating Lever Domestic use Water

Dummy Load Governor Head Tank(approx.21m3)

ELC
Loads

Booster Pump

250φSZ type Micro Hydro Unit

Dummy Load Resistance

M
Sump Pit

P
Over Flow Pipe

Approx. 3.0 ~3.2m

P

M

Dummy Load Pump

Siphon Valve
View “A” ④ “A”

Opened Position

Closed Position

Starting Procedure of Micro Generating Unit :
1. 2. Keep the Siphon Valve Disc in “Closed Position” by Valve Operating Lever & Locking Rod. Prime the Siphon Pipe with the water of “Siphon Prime Tank” . Open the Turbine Inlet Valve and Siphon Valve simultaneously, then the Unit will be started. Lock the Valve Operating Lever in “Open Position” by Valve Locking Rod”. ① ② ③ Siphon Pipe Valve Disc Operating Rod Valve Yoke Valve Operating Lever Valve Locking Rod Vortex Prevent Plate


3.

WL

4.

④ ⑤ ⑥ ⑦

Turbine Construction

Turbine Runner Turbine Casing

Bore Dia. : 200~250mm

Bore Dia. : 300~350mm

Single Line Diagram for Generator Control Panel

#51 : Over Current Protection Relay #52 : Circuit Breaker #59 : Over Voltage Protection Relay ELC : Electronic Load Controller

Generator Control Panel (Dummy Load Governor)

Dummy Load Governor

- It is necessary for the output of a micro-hydro power plant, which has no back-up power generation source, to always exceed the demand. - A dummy load governor is usually installed to control the load (demand) fluctuation, on other words, to control the balancing of both actual load and dummy load by thyristor (i.e., to keep the summation of both actual and dummy load in constant for the same output of generator.)

Principle of Light Dimmer by Thyristor
Thyristor OFF Thyristor ON

Bright

Little Bright

dark

Thyristor
Before adjusting Little adjusted adjusted

Light Dimmer by Thyristor
Thyristor Control Lamp Brightness

Features of each Dummy Load type Governor
Type of Governor Theory of Governor Control Features
・The same principle with Triac used in Light Brightness adjusting ・Not available for Induction Generator System ・Waveform distortion which produces increased heating in the generator windings. To compensate for the waveform distortion, the generator should be oversized.

Phase Angle Control

Binary Weighted Loads

・Prototype of Dummy Load Governor ・Waveform distortion is not produced and the ballast load is resistive. ・Complexity resulting from requiring a number of ballast loads, each with its connections, wires and switching device. ・Because the ballast load is only varied by fixed steps, the voltage is only controlled within a range. →Poor voltage control The mark-space ratio controller, in its simplest form, requires just a single ballast load. The ballast load is connected across the rectified output of the generator and switched on and off by means of a transistor. ・Good voltage regulation, simple connection of ballast loads and an effectively resistive ballast load. ・There is no phase balancing and there is increased waveform distortion.

Mark-space Ratio Controller

Effective use in the daytime electricity

To avoid the consuming of excess electricity by dummy load due to small demand in the day time, it is preferable to plan the use of excess power for local industries such as rice mill, coffee mill and etc. in the day time.

Transmission and Distribution Lines

If the voltage drop at the terminal of distribution line and/or transmission line is over 5% of rated generator voltage, the using of large size power cable and/or voltage step-up transformer is preferable.

Voltage Drop in Transmission Line

Existing Micro Hydro Unit in Indonesia

Head Tank

Intake Screen(20mm Space x 5mm t)

“A”

Spillway Penstock

Water Conduit from Intake Weir(450~500mmdia)

Intake Screen

View “A”
Overflow WL Penstock

Outline Dimensions of Head Tank

Head tank
Functions of Head tank:
- Controls the variation of flow from the headrace and into the penstock cause by load fluctuation. - Finally remove the debris (sediments, leaves, driftwood, etc.) in flowing water.

(Source) Manual for Micro-Hydropower Development(JICA))

Generator : Maker : Huafa AC Synchronous Generator 5kW Cosφ 1.0 230V 21.8A 50Hz 1,500rpm 1 Phase Excit Volt 49V Exciter Circuit 2.6A Insulation Class B RAT S1

Turbine : Model 200SZ (EBARA) Serial No. P0690-03 Date B-01 Bearing 93008ZZ 9309ZZ

100kW Micro Hydropower Plant
(installed for a tea estate in West Bengal, India)

Mini/Micro Hydro Development Cost
* The cost of micro hydro schemes installed by PLN range from $1,000/kW to $2,900/kW. Low project development costs for micro hydro systems have mostly been obtained by utilizing electro-mechanical equipment of local manufacturers. *For mini hydro development the range is roughly between US$1,500 and US$2,500 depending on local conditions. Economic analyses show that the schemes installed by PLN are substantially less expensive than the conventional diesel option as the electricity cost range from 2.5 to 6.9 cents USD/kWh.

Feasibility Studies for Micro Hydropower Generation
Part 1:
1. 2. 3. 4. “Walk the site” to understand the existing site layout Take accurate measurement of all relevant levels across site Identify the load connected to the Micro Hydropower Generation Discussion with client on site potential Use long-term flow data(if available) to produce an estimated flow duration curve for the site. Specify most appropriate turbine type and size. Discuss most suitable location for the hydro systems. Outline civil engineering works required. Specify distribution and generator type Calculate expected power output, annual energy production and value of electricity produced. Estimate total project cost.

Part 2:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

End

Micro Hydro Turbine Driven Pump

For further Questions, please contact to hermoko@ebaraindonesia.com or ehmf@ebara.com

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