This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Efforts to stem the Deepwater Horizon oil spill
Efforts to stem the Deepwater Horizon oil spill were ongoing from the time that the Deepwater Horizon exploded on April 20, 2010 until the refinery was sealed by a cap on July 15, 2010. However, it will most likely end with BP bringing relief wells into the area to permanently solve the problem. Various species of dolphins and other mammals (61 casualties), birds (2,095 casualties), and the endangered sea turtles (467 casualties) have been killed either directly or indirectly by the oil spill. The Deepwater Horizon spill has surpassed in volume the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill as the largest ever to originate in U.S.-controlled waters; it is comparable to the 1979 Ixtoc I oil spill in total volume released (Ixtoc discharged 140 to 148 million gallons; as of mid-July 2010, Deepwater Horizon has spilled 90 million to 180 million gallons).  Much of the oil is so far down in the Gulf that only nature, including microbes, will be able to remove it using a process called bioremediation. Terry Hazen of the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory said the process could take months or years. But after six weeks of research, he said that microbes could work quickly in 84 °F (29 °C) water as opposed to colder-temperature waters. The A Whale, which is an oil tanker converted into a giant oil skimmer owned by the Taiwan Marine Transport Co (TMT), could do little because the oil is so far down, the company said on July 16. Robert Bea of The University of California, who worked on the Ixtoc spill and the 1969 Santa Barbara oil spill, said the old methods would be the best ones. Dispersants, he said, did not work except in keeping beaches clean, and they hurt the environment.
Non-explosive closure attempts
The first attempts to stop the oil spill were to use remotely operated underwater vehicles to close the blowout preventer valves on the well head; however, all these attempts failed.  The second technique, placing a 125-tonne (280000 lb) containment dome (which had worked on leaks in shallower water) over the largest leak and piping the oil to a storage vessel on the surface, failed when gas leaking from the pipe combined with cold water formed methane hydrate crystals that blocked the opening at the top of the dome. On May 14, engineers began the process of positioning a 6-inch (15 cm) wide riser insertion tube into the 21-inch (53 cm) wide burst pipe. There was a stopper-like washer around the tube that plugs the end of the riser and diverts the flow into the insertion tube. The collected gas was flared and oil stored on the board of drillship Discoverer Enterprise. 924000 US gallons (22000 barrels) of oil was collected before removal of the tube. On May 26, BP tried to close the well using a technique called "top kill", which also failed. This process involved pumping heavy drilling fluids through two 3-inch (7.6 cm) lines into the blowout preventer to restrict the flow of oil before sealing it permanently with cement.  
Oil containment dome under construction in Port Fourchon, Louisiana, at Wild Well Control on 26 April
oil had been leaking continuously into the Gulf of Mexico for 85 days. stated that the amount captured was "probably the vast majority of the oil. A broken pipe was taken out on July 11 and replaced with a flange spool resembling a pipe. Until July 19. BP announced that the test would be delayed under Allen's orders. 790 cubic metres) of oil per day. In addition. this meant all of the leaking oil would escape until the new cap was in place. Allen believes it probably has nothing to do with the well. On July 14. As Discoverer Enterprise's processing capacity was insufficient. its valves will be reopened temporarily in order to allow for seismic tests to ensure that oil is not escaping into the bedrock.300 barrels. 2010. when relief wells have been completed. and the system began to capture the leaking oil. seepage was detected from the seafloor within two kilometres of the well. 119000 cubic metres). is now bolted to the failed blowout preventer. The cap.  Each tanker has a total capacity of 750000 barrels (32000000 US gallons. On June 6. the FRTG member Ira Leifer claimed that more oil was escaping than before the riser was cut and the cap containment system was placed. as oil and gas are known to ooze naturally from fissures in the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico. oil continued to flow into the Gulf. weighing 75 tons and standing 30 feet (9.  Temporary closure On July 15. BP announced that it had successfully plugged the oil leak using a tightly fitted cap." However. meaning that the cap appeared to be working. the CEO of BP Tony Hayward. offloading oil with tankers Evi Knutsen.  The well integrity test was scheduled to take place after the installation of a three-ram capping stack over the lower marine riser package of the Deepwater Horizon semi-submersible rig on July 13. the cap will be used to channel the flowing oil to surface ships for collection after the 48-hour test period and will be used to shut the well down during bad weather rather than permanently cap the well. there was no evidence that the well had ruptured. It consists of a Flange Transition Spool and a 3 Ram Stack and is a temporary solution. However. 2010.  President Barack Obama cautiously welcomed the news that the leak had been stopped. "it is important we don't get ahead of ourselves". The cap was attached on June 3. They are offloaded by shuttle tanker Loch Rannoch.Efforts to stem the Deepwater Horizon oil spill 2 On May 29. though stressing. On July 10. At the time of the stoppage. a second containment system connected directly to the blowout preventer became operational carrying oil and gas through a subsea manifold to the Q4000 service vessel with a processing capacity for about 5000 barrels (210000 US gallons. and the flaring off of 57.  . on top of which the new cap was located. The Q4000 and the Discoverer Enterprise during the failed top kill procedure On June 16. On July 5.  According to Thad Allen. BP moved to the Lower Marine Riser Package (LMRP) Cap Containment System by removing the damaged riser from the top of the blowout preventer and covering the pipe by the cap which connects it to a riser. storage and offloading (FPSO) vessel Helix Producer 1 were added. FPSO Seillean. drillship Discoverer Clear Leader and the floating production.980 barrels of oil. If the cap holds for the planned 48 hours. which is expected to happen in mid-August 2010.1 m) high. 16 hours and 25 minutes since the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig exploded on April 20. The government's estimates suggested the cap and other equipment were capturing less than half of the oil leaking from the sea floor as of late June. BP announced that its one-day oil recovery effort accounted for 24. The total oil collection to date for the spill was estimated at 657. on July 19. 2010. the retired US Coast Guard admiral in charge of the operation to stop the leak. and Juanita. and well testing vessel Toisa Pisces would process oil. robots removed the containment cap to replace it with a better-fitting cap ("Top Hat Number 10").1 million cubic feet of natural gas. Oil and gas are both burned on Q4000 in a clean-burning system. 2010.
sealing that part of the flow channel permanently. with Adm. Starting at 15:00 CDT on August 3. the first phase of stopping the leak was expected to start on July 30. Adm. the operator will pump drilling fluid into the original well.      The relief wells are expected to begin operating in August 2010 at a cost of about $100 million per well. made the decision to leave the valves closed. Thad Allen said on July 26 that the "static kill". Allen declared the well "officially dead". Allen said the static kill was working. BP had to make sure pressure would not build up again. the relief well reached its destination and pumping of cement to seal the well began. Allen. On August 4. On September 10. though. Officials said on September 18 that the cement pumped in from the base of the well had completed the sealing of the well. Efforts to close the well on a permanent basis soon began. Adm. Two weeks later. using mud and cement poured into the top of the well. Even when the relief well was ready. Transocean's Development Driller III started drilling a first relief well on May 2 and was at 13978 feet (4260 m) out of 18000 feet (5500 m) as of June 14. Kent Wells. Forecasts of the track of tropical storm Bonnie made it imperative that the support ships and rigs leave the site. Allen said the bottom kill could start sooner than expected because a "locking sleeve" could be used on top of the well to prevent excessive pressure from causing problems. that would obviously have the effect of turning back on the gush of oil and gas. he said. after pressure testing. BP said the relief well was about 50 feet from the intersection. . and a relief tunnel would take a week to drill but may be needed if phase one does not work.Efforts to stem the Deepwater Horizon oil spill On July 22.” Since the storm proved weaker than expected on July 24. The "bottom kill" would follow. The bottom kill had yet to take place. possibly by August 7. Allen's approval. Thad Allen faced a difficult decision. Once the relief wells reach the original borehole. the ships returned to finish off the job once and for all. BP began pumping cement from the top. said “We have enough confidence to leave the well shut in. On September 16. and finishing the boring would take four more days. 3 Permanent closure BP is drilling two relief wells into the original well to enable them to block it. however. at the end of which time the well was declared to be "in a static condition. and the relief well had been delayed by storms. Allen said it was uncertain when the well could be declared completely sealed. The safe option would have been to open the valves and relieve pressure in the riser. could start on August 2. in consultation with Energy Secretary Steven Chu. Lining a relief shaft with steel casing was expected to resume on July 28. The capping stack would thus be unsupervised for several days. with no option to either collect it or burn it off." At 09:15 CDT on August 4. Pumping continued for eight hours. with mud and cement entering the well under the sea floor.  Despite delays caused by Tropical Storm Bonnie. On September 19. a senior vice president of BP. GSF Development Driller II started drilling a second relief on May 16 and was halted at 8576 feet (2614 m) out of 18000 feet (5500 m) as of June 14 while BP engineers verified the operational status of the second relief well's blowout preventer. first test oil and then drilling mud was pumped at a slow rate of approximately two barrels/minute into the well-head.
29 May 2010.  "BP oil disaster: How much oil is left?" (http:/ / www. com/ 2010/ 06/ 04/ berkeley-scientist-advises-on-clean-up-in-gulf-oil-spill/ ) U.  "Top kill fails" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-06-29. Noah. "BP Prepared for Top Kill to Plug Well" (http:/ / www. Noah. Mohr. Justin. Anthea (2010-06-08). com/ disp/ story.  Kraus.  Nuckols. Retrieved 29 May 2010. On May 24 BP ruled out conventional explosives. including hydrogen bomb designer Richard Garwin and Sandia National Laboratories director Tom Hunter. . "Engineers work to place siphon tube at oil spill site" (http:/ / www. Associated Press. stm).  Nelson. "Rate of Oil Leak. html). 2010-06-17. The New York Times (The New York Times Company). "Gulf awaits word on latest bid to plug oil leak" (http:/ / www. nytimes. html). . com/ live/ article215093. BBC News. csmonitor. Robbie (2010-05-26). CNBC. Retrieved 2010-05-26. Houston Chronicle. ece).  "'Top kill' BP operation to half US oil leak fails" (http:/ / news. uk/ 2/ hi/ americas/ 8656627.  Brenner. . Retrieved 2010-06-08. . Associated Press. Upstream Online (NHST Media Group). CBC News.  "US oil spill 'threatens way of life'. upstreamonline. Upstream Online (NHST Media Group).Efforts to stem the Deepwater Horizon oil spill 4 Considerations of using explosives In mid-April. berkeleyside. because what you may do is create open communication between the reservoir and the sea floor. com/ 2010/ 06/ 08/ us/ 08flow. com/ id/ 37527612/ Oil_Stains_Beaches_and_Tourists_as_Slick_Spreads). co. Retrieved 2010-05-24. html). References  http:/ / www. myself.  Berkeley scientist advises on clean-up in gulf oil spill . .  Breen. ece). Reuters. Clifford. Estelle (2010-06-06). nytimes. . Fountain. Retrieved 2010-05-14. . . . Greg (2010-05-27). Puts Doubt on BP" (http:/ / www. 5 July 2010. United States Secretary of Energy Steven Chu assembled a team of nuclear physicists. Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved 2010-07-14. Fish and Wildlife Service. . Chang. ca/ world/ story/ 2010/ 04/ 25/ oil-rig-leak. ece). Daniel (2010-05-14).  Shirbon." Casing integrity concerns also influenced the pressure chosen for the top kill procedure. cbc. mpl/ business/ deepwaterhorizon/ 7009757. com/ genericarticle. Retrieved 2010-04-25. 2 May 2010. Harry R. com/ 2010/ 05/ 27/ us/ 27spill. com/ From-the-news-wires/ 2010/ 0617/ BP-oil-disaster-How-much-oil-is-left). . pdf)(PDF).S. "BP calls in FPSO for Macondo" (http:/ / www. Lesley. 5 July 2010." Allen also said that the result could be oil seeping through cracks and through the seafloor. Retrieved 2 May 2010. thesunnews. Noah (2010-06-17). I think that's a risk that's too great to take a chance on. com/ news/ world/ article/ 809477--the-6-techniques-that-have-tried-out-on-the-gulf-oil-leak?bn=1). upstreamonline. Upstream Online (NHST Media Group). cnbc. Henry (2010-06-07). thestar.S. Retrieved 2010-06-01. Upstream Online (NHST Media Group). Associated Press. "BP misses on first tube try" (http:/ / www. Knoxville News. BBC News. com/ 2010/ 07/ 16/ us/ 16spill. stm). "Robot subs trying to stop Gulf oil leak" (http:/ / www. bbc. Retrieved 2010-06-17. governor warns" (http:/ / news. Clark. Still Not Clear. upstreamonline. knoxnews.June 4. com/ news/ 2010/ may/ 27/ gulf-awaits-word-latest-bid-plug-oil-leak/ ). com/ live/ article217033. fws.  Bolstad. com/ article/ idUKLDE65503H20100606). Pitt. Anthea (2010-05-15). Bluestein. Retrieved 2010-06-08. "We would have denied ourselves all other options. Retrieved 2010-06-28.  Staff writer (2010-04-25). gov/ home/ dhoilspill/ pdfs/ collection_07162010. Retrieved 2010-06-29. nytimes. co. 2010-05-28. Holbrook (2010-06-05). . Anthony. Associated Press. Retrieved 2010-05-22. upstreamonline." Federal officials also ruled out nuclear devices due to environmental and political risks. "BP delays work on stopgap and permanent well fix" (http:/ / www. (2010-07-14).  BP (2010-05-24). U. The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Weber. Tom (2010-05-18). Melissa. Guegel.  Brenner. Admiral Thad Allen stated. com/ 2010/ 07/ 13/ 1584527/ new-bp-cap-set-for-slow-tests. "Hayward says spill 'never should have happened'" (http:/ / www. "Oil stains beaches and tourists as slick spreads" (http:/ / www.  Fowler. html). Toronto Star (McClatchy Newspapers). Ben. Brown. and because it would violate the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. com/ live/ article218091. bbc. html?hp New York Times – July 16. Pitt. . . . "BP Attempts 'Top Kill' Method to Seal Oil Well in Gulf" (http:/ / www. "since we don't know the condition of that well bore or the casings. do?categoryId=2012968& contentId=7062283). reuters.  Gillis. html?pagewanted=1). "and then be uncontrolled until the reservoir pressure equalized with the hydrostatic pressure. chron. Christian Science Monitor. I would be cautious about putting any kind of kinetic energy on that well head. . Tom. "BP chief hopes cap will capture most of Gulf oil" (http:/ / uk. Retrieved 2010-06-30. Press release. bp. . Retrieved 2010-06-08. "Update on Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Response – 24 May" (http:/ / www. uk/ 2/ hi/ world/ us_and_canada/ 10191622. 2010 (http:/ / www. The Sun News.  Brenner. com/ live/ article216214. saying that if blasts failed to clog the well. Erika. . ece). 2010  Collection Report (http:/ / www.
Michael (2010-06-24). The Charlotte Observer. html). BP. . USA Today. com/ 2010/ 07/ 12/ 1582895/ bp-works-to-put-a-tighter-fitting. Retrieved July 16. The New York Times (The New York Times Company). charlotteobserver. reuters. reports $17 billion loss" (http:/ / www. "Gov't has 'high confidence' oil spill almost over" (http:/ / www. thesunnews. Lewis.  Breen. charlotteobserver. Retrieved 2010-06-10. Dan (2010-06-14). Tan. html). Associated Press. . com/ stories/ 2010/ 07/ 15/ national/ main6681825. Dina (2010-08-04). wsj. "Ships prepare to return to spill as storm weakens" (http:/ / www. (2010-07-24). com/ 2010/ 08/ 04/ 1619420/ lawmakers-focus-on-chemicals-used.  Vergano. Angel (2010-07-06). 2010). com/ 2010/ 07/ 24/ us/ 24spill. com/ article/ BT-CO-20100706-707010. Tom (2010-07-12). Tom. Tom (2010-07-09). . . newsobserver.  Fountain. Retrieved 2010-06-15.  "BP postpones Macondo well test" (http:/ / www. html). Associated Press. CBS News (CBS). "Tropical Storm in Gulf Halts Spill Response Efforts" (http:/ / www. cbsnews. com/ 2010/ 07/ 09/ 1578563/ new-cap-ships-could-contain-gulf. Retrieved 2010-05-30. com/ s/ ap/ 20100530/ ap_on_bi_ge/ us_gulf_oil_spill). "BP: About 24. com/ 2010/ 07/ 12/ 1581895/ bp-cautiously-optimistic. shtml). html).  "Second Macondo relief well under way" (http:/ / www. com/ news/ nation/ 2010-06-14-oil-relief-well_N. "Congress calls Halliburton on Macondo" (http:/ / www.  Wells. 2010-05-30. com/ genericarticle. . Henry (2010-07-23). upstreamonline. .  Strassmann. do?categoryId=2012968& contentId=7061663). Mark (July 15. co. com/ 2010/ 07/ 27/ 599545/ bp-confirms-hayward-departure. 2010. 2010. html). BP. . bp. com/ genericarticle. com/ genericarticle. jpg). Kent. . Retrieved 2010-07-06. "Feds: No timeline for completing Gulf relief well" (http:/ / www. "Relief wells aim at pipe 18.  Daly. html). Noah. The Sun News. concerts. com/ 2010/ 07/ 23/ 1600905/ storm-could-take-away-sights-and. .  BP (2010-04-29). htm).  "Update on Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill – 29 May" (http:/ / www. et. com/ gom/ sealingcapinstallationanimationwithkentwells070910. "BP: No New Oil Flowing into Gulf of Mexico" (http:/ / www. upstreamonline. al. The Sun News. html). Retrieved July 16. Josh (2010-06-10). BP says" (http:/ / www. 2010. Pitt. Retrieved 2010-06-01. Retrieved 2010-07-12. Reuters. Hwee Hwee. . do?categoryId=2012968& contentId=7062526). thesunnews. upstreamonline. do?categoryId=2012968& contentId=7062487). Retrieved July 16. Associated Press. The Sun News. Upstream Online (NHST Media Group). Harry R. Anthea (2010-04-30). Retrieved 2010-07-10. Harry (2010-08-19). "Sealing Cap Installation Animation" (http:/ / bp. com/ live/ article215111.Tests End and the Kill Begins. "BP MC252 Gulf Of Mexico Response Continues To Escalate On And Below Surface" (http:/ / www. Associated Press. Anthony.  "Gulf of Mexico oil stoppage going well. . . Associated Press. Associated Press. . html?_r=1& hp). upstreamonline. 2010-07-14. Pitt. thesunnews. . htm). ece). "New BP cap set for slow tests of how it holds oil" (http:/ / www. bbc.  Breen. com/ 2010/ 06/ 24/ 1550150/ oil-spewing-once-again-in-the. 2010).  Dishneau. Harry R. "Sealing to start on BP well" (http:/ / www. BP. "Robots begin work to remove cap from gushing well" (http:/ / www. bp. July 16. uk/ news/ world-us-canada-10665003).  Gonzalez. yahoo. html). ece). Henry Fountain (July 16. Upstream Online (NHST Media Group). Washington Examiner.  "Engineers detect seepage near BP oil well" (http:/ / www. "Obama Reacts Cautiously to Hopeful BP Test Results" (http:/ / www. bp. html?hpid=topnews)  Cappiello. "Heat on White House to do more about Gulf spill" (http:/ / www. Jane (2010-07-27). Retrieved 2010-07-27. . Retrieved -2010-08-05. . bp. Anthea.  "Relief wells and Subsea containment illustration" (http:/ / www. Associated Press. Noah. Richard (2010-09-11). 2010-05-17. com/ 2010/ 08/ 18/ 1630387/ feds-no-timeline-for-completing. Retrieved 2010-07-24.  Wardell. "BP replaces CEO Hayward. Guegel. 5 . Los Angeles Times. nytimes. Retrieved 18 July 2010.  "Update on Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill – 1 June" (http:/ / www.  Breen. html?storylink=mirelated).  BP's Deepwater Oil Spill .  Nuckols. The Sun News. html). usatoday. . Retrieved 2010-07-23. BP. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2010/ 08/ 05/ AR2010080503076. . "Oil spewing once again in the Gulf" (http:/ / www. Associated Press. New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-25. Retrieved 2010-07-13. Weber. Associated Press. Well Reaches Static Condition (http:/ / www. google. Retrieved 2010-05-01. com/ breaking/ feds-reject-notion-of-removing-bp-from-gulf-oil-spill-response-say-government-lacks-resources-94801074. The Wall Street Journal (Dow Jones Newswires). com/ live/ article217477. com/ live/ article213912. thesunnews. Upstream Online (NHST Media Group). Retrieved 2010-06-24.  Brenner. ece). com/ liveassets/ bp_internet/ globalbp/ globalbp_uk_english/ incident_response/ STAGING/ local_assets/ images/ relief_well_diagram.  Robertson. Retrieved 2010-08-19. thesunnews. Weber.  Weber. Ben (30 May 2010). . (26 May 2010). Retrieved 2010-07-14. . Press release. 2010-06-01. com/ hostednews/ ap/ article/ ALeqM5gIXWYBTpLtSayJtg41LKXpxSxVPAD9H2U7VG0). 2010-07-19. . . Helix Producer tapped for Macondo" (http:/ / www.  Fausset. com/ article/ idUSN1813113320100719). Retrieved 30 May 2010. html).  "Is experimental well cap making disaster worse?" (http:/ / www. The Sun News. (2010-07-13). . thesunnews. Retrieved 2010-09-11. washingtonpost. html). David.Efforts to stem the Deepwater Horizon oil spill  Brenner. . Campbell. 2010. com/ live/ article221559. The Sun News. Retrieved 2010-05-26. . Associated Press. Upstream Online (NHST Media Group). com/ 2010/ 09/ 11/ 1683107/ sealing-to-start-on-bp-well. "Clear Leader.  Kunzelman. BBC News (BBC).980 Barrels Of Total Oil Recovered 5 July" (http:/ / online. washingtonexaminer. theoildrum. nytimes.000 feet deep" (http:/ / www. News & Observer. "BP turns to next attempt after top kill fails" (http:/ / news. . Retrieved 2010-04-29. ece). "BP cautiously optimistic" (http:/ / www. . com/ node/ 6810)  BP begins pumping cement in next stage of 'static kill' (http:/ / www. com/ 2010/ 07/ 17/ us/ 17spill. .
. Retrieved 2010-07-04. washingtonpost. 6 . (2010-06-02). William J. James (2010-05-14). html?hpid=topnews& sid=ST2010052903349). MacGillis. "Few cheers for BP well's final plugging" (http:/ / www. html). html). com/ news/ gulf-oil-spill/ index. com/ 2010/ 09/ 20/ 1704210/ few-cheers-for-bp-wells-final.  Achenbach. blogs. The Sun News. nola. nytimes. Retrieved 2010-06-18. Retrieved 2010-09-18.. . html). "Oil spill containment efforts could be putting strain on damaged well" (http:/ / www. . ssf/ 2010/ 06/ oil_spill_containment_efforts. Fox News. co. . thesunnews. Retrieved 2010-09-20. . Retrieved 2010-06-22. "Nuclear Option on Gulf Oil Spill? No Way.  "Update on Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill (Admiral Thad Allen)" (http:/ / wwww.  Revkin. (30 May 2010). html).  Quinn. Retrieved 2010-06-30. com/ us/ 2010/ 09/ 16/ government-relief-intersected-blown-bp-gulf-mexico/ ). Washington Post. "BP's well plugged. nytimes. .S. The New York Times Blogs. . com/ 2010/ 09/ 19/ 1702313/ bps-well-plugged-worries-remain. Richard (2010-09-20).S. org/ program/ id/ 224987) (Video and partial transcript). com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2010/ 05/ 29/ AR2010052900561_2. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-06-16. (2010-06-03). Retrieved 2010-09-19. Rejects Nuclear Option for Gulf Oil Gusher" (http:/ / dotearth. c-spanvideo. foxnews. H. Rebecca (2010-06-18). A.  Fausset. "Barack Obama sends nuclear experts to tackle BP's Gulf of Mexico oil leak" (http:/ / www. The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved 2010-06-30. thesunnews. "No Surprise: U. C-SPAN Video Library. 2010-09-16. com/ 2010/ 06/ 03/ no-surprise-u-s-rejects-nuclear-option-for-gulf-oil-gusher/ ). telegraph. Times-Picayune. com/ 2010/ 06/ 03/ us/ 03nuke. Harry (2010-09-19). Andrew C. Says" (http:/ / www. As 'top kill' effort fails.  Broad. worries remain" (http:/ / www.Efforts to stem the Deepwater Horizon oil spill  "BP: Cement being pumped in to permanently seal company's blown-out well in Gulf of Mexico" (http:/ / www. CSPAN Washington Journal. U. The Daily Telegraph (London: Telegraph Media Group Limited). uk/ finance/ newsbysector/ energy/ oilandgas/ 7726142/ Barack-Obama-sends-nuclear-experts-to-tackle-BPs-Gulf-of-Mexico-oil-leak. BP must fall back on oil spill containment strategy (http:/ / www.  Weber. html). Associated Press.  Mowbray. 2010-05-26. .
GVnayR. Skins Brew. Sonicology. Licenses and Contributors File:Oil containment chamber Port Fourchon LA 100426-G-8744K-021. John Vandenberg. Wavelength. Pd THOR. Smithers7.org/w/index.S.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.wikipedia. Woolysockofdoom.Article Sources and Contributors 7 Article Sources and Contributors Efforts to stem the Deepwater Horizon oil spill Source: http://en. HJ Mitchell. Denelson83. NetRolller 3D. SteveBaker.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: . StuHarris. Barrylb. Eraserhead1.org/w/index. JTSchreiber.jpg Source: http://en. Headbomb. 0/ . Darrell Greenwood. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. Edcolins.S. Bc22233. BeckenhamBear.php?title=File:Q4000-Discoverer-Enterprise. U. Guoguo12. Coast Guard photo by Petty Officer 3rd Class Patrick Kelley. Mono.0 Contributors: U. Stlsportsfan2316. License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. Rory096.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia. WakiMiko. Qmtead. Yousou. Art LaPella. Shinkolobwe. 15 anonymous edits Image Sources. Bearsa113609. Falcon Kirtaran. Vchimpanzee. Coast Guard Eighth District External Affairs File:Q4000-Discoverer-Enterprise. RichardFry. Phonon266737. ThVa.php?oldid=391239623 Contributors: 84user. Rjwilmsi. Lucien504.php?title=File:Oil_containment_chamber_Port_Fourchon_LA_100426-G-8744K-021. Richardshusr.org/w/index.wikipedia.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. Beagel. Neovu79.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.