Machine Design II Unit 4 1) Explain the methods of estimation of dynamic load on spur gear.

2) A spur gear with 200 full depth involute teeth consists of 21 teeth pinion meshing with 40 teeth gear. Pinion and gear are made of steel with 600 N/mm2 and 400 N/mm2, ultimate tensile strength respectively. The pinion shaft is connected to 5 kW at 720 rpm electric motor. The starting torque of motor is approx. 1.25 the rated torque and factor of safety is 2. Assume load concentration factor as 1.6. Calculate: 1) Module based on velocity factor C v = pinion 0.326 and form factor for gear 0.389. 2) Select the standard module and calculate gear dimensions 3) Specify the surface hardness of gear Use following data: •
 BHN  2 Load stress factor – K = 0.16   N/mm  100 
2

6 . Assume form factor for 6 +V

• Standard module in mm – 1, 1.25, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10 • Assume pitch line velocity V = 5 m/s for module calculation. 3) State and explain different types of gear tooth failures. 4) A pair of spur gear with 200 full depth involute teeth consists of 21 teeth pinion meshing with 60 teeth internal gear. The pinion shaft is coupled to a 7.35 kW electric motor running at 1440 rpm. The application factor is 1.5. The pinion as well as gear are made of alloy steel (Sut = 1500 N/mm2). The module and the face width of gears are 3 mm and 35 mm respectively. The gears are machined to meet the specification of grade 8 and heat treated to a surface hardness 400 BHN. The deformation factor is 11500. e, N/mm. assuming dynamic load accounted by Buckingham’s equation calculate 1) Factor of safety against bending failure. 2) Factor of safety against pitting failure. Use following data: • • • • 5) 6) 7) 8)
2.87 z 2  BHN  Load stress factor – K = 0.16  N/mm2  100   m For grade 8, e =16 +1.25 m + 0.25 d µ 21V (bc + Pt max ) Buckingham’s equation Pd = 21V + bc + Pt max

Lewis form factor - γ = 0.484 −

[

]

Where Ptmax = ka km Pt State and explain, factors to be considered while selecting the type of gear drive for given application. What is the effect of helix angle on the performance of helical gear? What is pitting in gear? State causes and remedies. A pair of spur gear with 200 pressure angle consist of 25 teeth pinion meshing with 60 teeth gear. The module is 5 mm while the face width is 45 mm. the pinion rotates at 500 rpm. The gear pair is made of steel (Sut = 600 N/mm2) and heat treated to a surface hardness of 220 BHN. Assume dynamic load

while the load distribution factor is 1.9 M n + 0. The deformation factor for gear pair is 11500.16  9) A spur gear pair is used to transmit 7. 2. 1.Y = 0.75 and 2 respectively while load deformation factor is unity.accounted by velocity factor. 5. The gears are machined to meet the specification of grade 6. 3.111 e   E p Eg  . 6.87 z 2  BHN  Load stress factor – K = 0.5.e N/mm. 10) A spur pinion having 21 teeth made of plain carbon steel 55C8 (Sut = 720 N/mm2) meshing with a gear made of 40C8 (Sut = 580 N/mm2). Also suggest the surface hardness of gear pair.484 − [ ] Deformation factor c = 0. Use following data: • • • • • • 2. The factor of safety is 1. the pinion and gear are made of plain carbon steel (Sut = 720 N/mm2 ) and steel (Sut = 600 N/mm2 ) respectively. Calculate 1. The gear and pinion are case hardened to 400 BHN and 450 BHN respectively. Rated power that can be transmitted by gear Use following data: • • • Lewis form factor . Wear strength 3. The factor of safety is 1. The face width is 10 x module and tooth system is 20o full depth involute. Beam strength 2.87 z  Load stress factor – K = 0.0 + 0. 8.25.5.5 kW power from an electric motor running at 1440 rpm to a machine tool at 370 rpm. . Design the gear pair by using velocity factor Cv = dynamic load.2 respectively.2 while the face width is 12 x module. Static load that the gear can transmit 4. The tooth system is 200 full depth involute and no. 2.25 and 1. The gears are machined to meet the specification of grade 7. N/mm E p + Eg    Modulus of elasticity for pinion and gear = 210 x 103 N/mm2 each i.16  N/mm2  100   For grade 7.484 − Velocity factor Cv = 3 3 +V BHN  N/mm2  100   2 2.5. 12.25 d µm 3 3 +V and Buckingham’s equation for Lewis form factor . e = 11 . 16. 10. The service factor and load concentration factor are 1. of teeth on pinion are 18. The gear pair required to transmit 22 kW power from an IC engine running at 1000 rpm to a machine running at 300 rpm. The service factor and factor of safety are 1.e.Y = 0. The starting torque is 200 % of rated torque. 4. Ep = Eg = 210 x 103 N/mm2 Buckingham’s equation Pd = 21V (bc + Pt max ) 21V + bc + Pt max • Standard module in mm – 1.

3 and 1. design the gear pair by using the velocity factor and Buckingham’s equation for dynamic load.75. Deformation factor for gear pair is 11000. 6. Determine the rated power that the gears can transmit.Y = 0. 15) What is pitting? State its causes and remedies.9 M n + 0.16  N/mm2  100   For grade 6. 1. Assume factor of safety 1. The face width is 10 x normal module (10 Mn ) and tooth system is 200 full depth involute.484 − 14) Explain the methods of estimation of dynamic load on spur gear.25 d µm [ ] . Material for pinion as well as gear is steel with an ultimate tensile strength 600 N/mm2.Design the gear pair by using the dynamic factor. 4. Assume velocity factor accounts for dynamic load.γ = 0.484 − / z • • Velocity factor v = 5.484 − 6 and Buckingham’s 6 +V 2. 12. 8. 10. 5. Also suggest suitable surface hardness for gear pair. 2.25.87 z 2  BHN  Load stress factor – K = 0. e. The gears are heat treated to a surface hardness 400 BHN. The pinion rotates at 1450 rpm and service factor 1.5. Use following data: 2. Unit 5 Helical and Bevel Gears 1) A helical pinion having 14 teeth made of alloy steel (Sut = 800 N/mm 2) is mesh gear made of plain carbon steel (Sut = 720 N/mm2 ).6 5. 11) What are the effects of increasing or decreasing pressure angle in design of gear? 12) What are the advantages and disadvantages of addendum modification factor? 13) A spur gear pair with 200 full depth involute teeth consists of 20 teeth pinion meshing with 41 teeth gear. Cv = equation for dynamic load.25 d µm 21V (bc + Pt max ) Buckingham’s equation Pd = 21V + bc + Pt max [ ] • Standard module in mm – 1.87 z 2  BHN  Load stress factor – K = 0. N/mm.87 • Lewis form factor . The gear pair is required to transmit 30 kW power from an electric motor running at 720 rpm to machine at 225 rpm. The module is 3 mm while the face width is 40 mm.5.16  N/mm2 100    6 Velocity factor Cv = 6 +V Lewis form factor . 3. Use following data: • • • • Lewis form factor . Use following data: • • • 2.Y = 0.1 respectively while the factor of safety is 2. e = 11 .0 + 0. The application factor and load concentration factor are 1. e = 8.63 M + 0. 16. 2.0 + 0.6 + V For grade 7.

4) State two advantages and disadvantages of Herringbone gear and double helical gear with sketch. a) In the initial stage of gear design assume velocity factor accounts dynamic load and face width is 10 x module and assume pitch line velocity V = 10 m/s for estimating normal module. 1.0 respectively. Both the gears are made of hardened steel (Sut = 750 N/mm2). 2. b) Select first preference module and calculate dimensions of gear. • No.484 − / z 21V (bc cos 2 ψ + Pt max ) Cos ψ Pd = • Buckingham’s equation 21V + bc cos 2 ψ + Pt max • Ptmax = Cs km Pt • Assuming surface hardness – 350 BHN. Determine: i. The gears are finish to meet the specifications of grade -4.16  21V (bc Cos 2ψ + Pt max ) Cos ψ 21V + bc Cos 2ψ + Pt max 2 BHN  N/mm2 100    Standard module in mm – 1. of teeth on pinion = 18 • Centre distance = 180 mm • Helix angle = 260 • Face width = 12 x Normal module • Tooth system = 200 full depth involute • Permissible bending stress for steel pinion and gear = 150 N/mm2 • Service factor = 1. Factor of safety against pitting failure Use following data: 2. 3) Following data is given for a helical gear pair transmitting 15 kW power fro an electric motor running at 720 rpm to a machine running at 360 rpm. d) Specify surface hardness at factor of safety 2.Pd =  Load stress factor – K = 0. c) Determine the dynamic load by Buckingham’s equation also calculate factor of safety in bending. the normal pressure and helix angle are 200 and 230 respectively. 4. 5. 6.5 and 2. 8. 5) A pair of helical gear consists of 24 teeth pinion rotating at 5000 rpm and supplying 2. The speed reduction is 4:1.25 • Load concentration factor = 1.0 Use following data: . Factor of safety against bending failure ii.• • • Buckingham’s equation .87 Lewis form factor . 3. The service factor and factor of safety are 1.14 • 2) What is formative number of teeth in helical gear? Derive the expression for the same with sketch.γ = 0.5 kW power to a gear.12.25.1 • Combine teeth error = 40 microns • Deformation factor = 11600 x error N/mm Assuming dynamic load accounted by Buckingham’s equation. 10.

8.5. 3. The gear pair is manufactured by generation. The pressure angle is 200.25.87 z/ For grade 4. 2. 10.γ = 0. 5. Assume velocity factor accounts for dynamic load. of teeth on pinion and gear are 21 and 28 respectively. State the advantages of hypoid gears over the spiral bevel gears.• • • • • Lewis form factor . 2. 6. The gears are machined in such a way that the combine teeth error between meshing teeth is 10 micron. 6. The module and face width are 4 mm and 20 mm respectively. explain the difference between the spiral bevel gears and the hypoid gears. 2. e = 3.12 and 16 10) A pair of straight bevel gears is mounted on shafts which are intersecting at right angles. spiral bevel gear and hypoid gear with sketch.6 + V 2. 4.87 • Lewis form factor .484 − Velocity factor v = 5. 5.20 + 0. 9) A straight bevel pinion having 24 teeth pinion meeting with straight bevel gear with 32 teeth.75 times the rated torque.16 and 20 [ ] 6) With neat sketch explain straddle mounting of bevel pinion and gear.25 M n + 0. The no. 2. z . The pinion and gear are made of plain carbon steel and grey cast iron with Sut = 580.6 5. design the gear pair for factor of safety 1. 4. The pinion shaft is connected to electric motor developing 5 kW rated power at 1440 rpm. The application factor can be taken as 1. If the surface hardness of gear pair is 300 BHN. 8) Compare straight bevel gear. 8.25. The pinion and gear are made of steel with Sut = 750 N/mm 2 and both are heat treated to a surface hardness of 380 BHN. Determine i) Factor of safety in bending ii) Factor of safety in pitting Use following data: 2.5.Y = 0.16  N/mm2  100   Cs Pt Effective load Peff = Cv 2 First preference module in mm – 1.25 d µm 21V (bc Cos 2ψ + Pt max ) Cos ψ Pd = Buckingham’s equation 21V + bc Cos 2ψ + Pt max First preference module in mm – 1. The pinion is connected to 10 kW.87 • Lewis form factor .5. 3.12.5. 1. and Sut = 350 respectively. 10. The axis of the pinion and gear intersect at right angle. 1.γ = 0.484 − / z • • •  BHN  Load stress factor – K = 0. The starting torque of motor is 1. 1000 rpm electric motor.484 − . Use following data: Use following data: 2. 7) With the help of neat sketch.

describe any three types of construction of worm gears.16  N/mm2 100    6 Velocity factor Cv = 6 +V 2 Buckingham’s equation Pd = 21V (bc + Pt max ) 21V + bc + Pt max Standard module in mm – 1.04 and pressure angle is 200. Assume worm PS above the worm gear and rotates clockwise direction when viewed from left.Y = 0. The starting torque is 110 % to the rated torque. 5. Pitch circle diameter of worm = 48 mm .16  N/mm2  100   6 Velocity factor Cv = 6 +V 2 Buckingham’s equation Pd = 21V (bc + Pt max ) 21V + bc + Pt max 11) A straight bevel pinion and gear made of alloy steel with ultimate tensile strength 800 N/mm2. Calculate: i) the centre distance.0 + 0. determine i) Component of tooth forces acting on worm and worm gear. 3. What are the advantages of double enveloping worm gear drive over single enveloping worm gear with neat sketch? Why worm gear always governs the design in worm gear pair? What is self locking of worm gear pair? Explain factors affecting the efficiency of worm gear. The tooth system is 200 full depth involute. With neat sketches. The gears are cut to meet the specification of grade 6. • No.63 [m + 0.87 ' • Lewis form factor . The gear pair required to transmit 15 kW power from a spindle running at 600 rpm to a machine running at 300 rpm. A pair of worm gear designated as 2/52/10/4 transmit 10 kW power at 720 rpm supplied to worm shaft. Use Buckingham’s equation for dynamic load.25. The deformation factor is 11000 x e N/mm. ii) the reduction ratio. A pair of worm and worm gear is designated as 2/30/10/8. The pinion and gear are case hardened to 350 BHN. 6. The axis of pinion and gear intersect at right angle. iii) the dimensions of worm. The coefficient of friction is 0. 4. If worm is left hand. 10 and12. Design the gear. 1.5.25 d ] µm 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Unit 5 Worm Gears Write a short note on thermal considerations in worm gear.• • •  BHN  Load stress factor – K = 0.75. The factor of safety required is 1. 2. ii) Efficiency of worm gear. A worm and worm gear drive has following specifications. iv) the dimensions of worm gear. 2. z • • • • •  BHN  Load stress factor – K = 0. of teeth on pinion = 21 2. 8.484 − . For grade 6 e = 8.

It is subjected to the following loads in respective of speed ratios.Y = 0. α = normal pressure angle γ = Lead angle µ = Coefficien t of friction Unit 1 Rolling Contact Bearings 1) Explain the various types of failures in rolling contact bearings.2 + 8. .88 m2 (a = centre distance) Frictional losses in bearing = 4.025 Overall heat transfer coefficient without fan = 16 w/m2 0C Overall heat transfer coefficient with fan = 15.87 z 6 6 +V cos α − µ tan γ • Efficiency = cos α + µ cot γ Where . The bearing is expected to be in use for 4500hr.85 mm Pressure angle in normal plane = 200 Lead of worm = 18.the static and dynamic load carrying capacities of the bearing are 11800N and 17300Nrespectively.p.m.Pitch circle diameter of worm gear = 192 mm Axial pitch of worm = 18. Table: x and y factor for single Row Deep Groove ball bearing.25 x 10-3 x Nworm w/m2 0 C Effective area of housing = 9 x 10-5 x (a)1. Refer the following data. Use. Gear Axial load (N) Radial load (N) % time engaged First gear 3150 4500 2 Second gear 575 3250 5 Third gear 75 3250 23 Fourth gear Nil Nil 70 The lay shaft is fixed to the engine shaft and rotates at 1600r.85 mm Effective width of worm gear teeth = 36 mm Worm speed = 3500 rpm Permissible bending stress for worm gear = 90 N/mm2 Worm gear wear factor = 0. • • Lewis form factor . 2) A single row deep groove ball bearing is used to support to the lay shaft of a four speed automobile gearbox. Is fan necessary? Comment.of operation find out the reliability with which life could be expected.484 − Velocity factor Cv = 2.83 N/mm2 Coefficient of friction between worm and worm gear = 0.5 % of total input power Determine: 1) dimensions of worm gear pair 2) input power rating on strength basis 3) temperature rise of lubricating oil with or without fan.

The shaft transmits power to another line shaft through flat pulley of 250 mm diameter. The inner and outer diameters of contacting surfaces are 70 mm and 100 mm respectively.25 N/mm2.2 while the angle of lap is 1800. State the applications of rolling contact bearing. The machine is equivalent to a rotor of mass 125 kg and radius of gyration of 350 mm. which is supported by two cylindrical roller bearings. 5) Explain the causes and various types of failures in rolling contact bearings. The coefficient of friction and average allowable pressure intensity for the friction lining may be assumed as 0. The coefficient of friction is 0. The load factor is 1. so that bearing can be selected from the manufacturer’s catalogue. Also describe any one of the pretensioning device with suitable sketch. which is placed midway between two bearings. Find the dynamic load carrying capacity of the bearing. 2) What are silent chains? Sketch and explain their advantages over roller chains.12 and 380 KPa respectively. Assuming the clutch is new determine i) Power transmitting capacity of the clutch ii) Time required by the machine to obtain its full speed iii) Amount of heat generated during engagement 3) The semi cone angle in cone clutches is usually 12. Rope and Chain Drives 1) Explain the need for pre-tensioning of belts.18 and intensity of pressure is limited to 0.50. Determine i) No. 7) Derive Stribeck’s equation for the basic static capacity of bearing. . State the assumptions made. 4) A multiplate clutch is used to transmit 12 kW at 1440 rpm. Justify the statement giving reasons. 4) 20 kW.3) Sketch ‘back to back’and ‘face to face’ arrangements of two roller bearings to mount a stepped shaft. pr. 6) What is preloading of bearing? Draw one typical bearing mounting showing preloading arrangement. The coefficient of friction between the belt and pulley is 2. the clutch is engaged suddenly so as to contact the stationary machine with the electric motor. Unit 3 Belt. 3) Explain the causes and various types of failures in roller chains.75. if the expected life of the bearing is 60000 hours. 2) A single plate clutch which consists of two pairs of contacting surfaces is used to connect an electric motor running at 1440 rpm with a machine. of plates ii) Axial force required to transmit power iii) The actual avg. 8) Compare ball bearing with roller bearings. 1440 rpm electric motor is directly coupled to a shaft of 30 mm diameter. pressure iv) Actual max. the inner and outer diameters of contacting surface are 120 mm and 240 mm respectively. The belt is horizontal. Intensity after wear 5) Draw a labeled sketch of a multi-plate clutch. 9) What do you understand by rating life and median life of the bearing? Unit 2 Friction Clutches & Brakes 1) Compare the asbestos based friction materials with sintered metal friction materials used in clutches.

the allowable tensile stress for the belt material is 2 N/mm2 and the coefficient of friction between the belt and pulley is 0. 8) Draw the neat sketch of rope drum constructions and explain its design procedure. 9) A pulley of 1000 mm diameter is driven by an open type flat belt from 20 kW. determine: i) the power transmitting capacity of the belt ii) the initial tension required in the belt 6) Write a short note on lubrication and failure of roller chain.22. 5) A single V belt is used to transmit power from a grooved pulley of pitch diameter of 210 mm running at 1440 rpm to a flat pulley of diameter 500 mm. 1440 rpm electric motor.4 kg/m. .4) Draw a labeled neat sketch of 6 x 7 wire rope.28. The density of the belt material is 900 kg/m3.0 m. The V belt groove angle 400. the coefficient of friction between the belt and pulley is 0. 7) Explain polygonal effect in chains. If the width of the belt is 125 mm determine i) the thickness of belt ii) the length of the belt iii) the initial tension required in the belt. If the allowable tension in the belt is 850 N. The pulley on the motor shaft is 250 mm in diameter and the center distance between two shafts is 2. the center distance between the pulleys is 950 mm. the mass of the belt is 0.

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