1.

0

Introduction

Leadership is one of the most researched areas around the world nowadays. It has gained importance in every aspect of life from politics to business and from education to social organization. Leaders must get prepared to address the changes that will come about as a consequence of the globalisation of the market. Business markets are becoming unstable, customer needs and desires are changing, leadership styles and their influence towards managing the entire organisation remain an uphill task for all management personnel in an organisation. Organisation variables such as size, environment itself, type of strategy and technology applied and organisational forms which are likely to impose different demands on leaders thus requires motivational values as an influence factor to promote effective leadership behaviour. Leadership research has always had the element of psychology associated with it in the different theories of traits, dispositions, motivations but eventually focus on the psychological process of leadership. As for motivation it is described as a psychological energy or force that initiates, directs and sustains human behaviour over time. According to Daft, L. R. (2008) Motivation also defined as the forces either internal external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action. Employee motivation affects productivity, and so part of a leader’s job is to channel follower’s motivation toward the accomplishment of the organisation’s vision and goals. In this study, the highlight point would be how motivational values could influence and lead towards effective leadership behaviour in the manufacturing sector.

1

R (2008) defines the simple model of human motivation in which the elements of Need which creates desire to fulfil needs.2. For an effective leadership behaviour to take place. and achievement) BEHAVIOR Results in actions to fulfil needs REWARDS Satisfy needs . Leaders often use motivation theory to help satisfy follower needs and simultaneously encourage high work performance. or individual. From the above illustration and studies found that the high employee motivation and high organizational performance and profits go hand in hand.1 A Simple Model of Motivation NEED Creates desire to fulfil needs (money. Refer to below illustration details. The follower needs can be either “intrinsic or extrinsic” system wide. Intrinsic rewards are the internal satisfaction a person receives in the process of performing a particular action.1 Daft. intrinsic or extrinsic rewards FEEDBACK Reward informs person whether behaviour was appropriate and should be used again. Behaviour that results in actions to fulfil needs and Rewards which eventually satisfy the needs and this process will be continued by close loop flow of feedback system. Exihibit 8.0 Literature Review A simple motivation model illustrated in Exhibit 8. The importance of motivation factors is that it can lead to behaviours that reflect high performance. friendship. L. 2 . the sub-ordinates so called the “followers” must be valued at the very best in order to obtain optimum job performance. recognition. It is also norm that when workers are not motivated to achieve organizational goals the leader is the first to be blamed.

2 Examples of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards Extrinsic Large merit increase Individual Insurance benefits System-wide Intrinsic Feeling of self-fulfilment Pride in being part of a "winning" organization According to Butler. cultures and 3 . and include promotions and pay increases. Although extrinsic rewards are important. C. Exhibit 8. This style of leadership behaviours also present followers with material or psychological rewards contingent on the accomplishment of contractual commitments. An intrinsic. 2004). C.An intrinsic reward is internal and under the control of the individual whereas the extrinsic rewards are given to by another person typically a supervisor. individual reward would be sense of self-fulfilment that an individual derives from their work respectively. which refers to the ways by which leaders energize their followers by viewing the future with optimism.R (2008) defines as below for details. According to the recent review (Pierce & Gardner. the group engaged most frequently in inspirational motivation. practises. OBSE – Organization based self-esteem antecedents include organizational structure. (2005) also derives that the three transactional leadership behaviour from which the most frequent behaviour was “contingent reward” which refers to behaviours of leaders focus on task accomplishment. In additional.2 Daft. (2005) of the five transformational leadership behaviours. Butler. communication to the followers that the vision is attainable is considered an inspirational motivational behaviour. L. Exhibit 8. Behaviours such as stressing ambitious goals and projecting an idealized vision for the organisation fall into this factor. leaders work especially hard to help followers achieve intrinsic rewards both individually and by system wide approach.

as illustrated at Exhibit 8.R. Von Hippel. workers are highly motivated and satisfied. (2008) – Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory proposes that humans are motivated by multiple needs and needs exist in a hierarchical order.R. Recognition. L. ( 2008) Two Factor theory we look into the aspect of “motivators “ and “hygiene factors” that influence the leadership behaviour. L. approval. (2005). intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction count among the most important consequences of OBSE (Pierce & Gardner). growth. D. According to study conducted by (Hislop.role conditions. Heat. some previous research claims that intrinsic motivation is more important to trigger non-routine behaviours than extrinsic rewards. Work groups. fringe benefits and job security. autonomy. clients. E. Need Hierarchy Self –actualization Needs Esteem Needs Belongingness Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs Fulfilment on the job Opportunities for advancement. However as intrinsic motivation is no prerequisite for effective implementations. By referring to Frederick Herzberg . and creativity. Organizational citizenship behaviour.R. hygiene factors and motivators represent two distinct factors that influence motivation. job performance. L.4 ( Daft. air. Herzberg believe that when motivators are present. Safe work. Daft. co-workers. base salary. increased responsibilities. According to the Needs Based Theory ( Daft. Thus. supervisors. (2008). high status. (2005 ) based on contrast of interviewers’ experience. 4 . rewards may well be used to trigger high-quality application behaviour of employees.

responsibility.5 – Herzberg’s Two –Factor Theory Area of satisfaction Motivators Achievements Recognition Responsibility Work itself Personal growth Motivators Influence level of satisfaction Highly Satisfied Area of Dissatisfaction Hygiene Factors Working conditions Pay and security Company policies Supervisors Interpersonal relationships Hygiene factors Influence level of Dissatisfaction Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied Herzberg theory describes as high level motivators such as challenge. and recognition must be in place before employee will be highly motivated to excel at their work.Exhibit 8. 5 .

By providing a contingent reward system. Based on study indicate that workers are motivated when leaders model selfconfidence. leaders can motivate employees to work harder to achieve desired results.3. personal conviction. and who are considerate to others are most likely to increase motivation among all subordinates and co-workers. When all this attributed charisma is combined the individual is able to perform as positive leadership behaviours. The importance of the study carried influence to a great degree how motivational factors play important roles in leadership management as a macro factor. This useful motivating factor could lead to a well prepared of human capital to overcome all hurdles for present times of economic uncertainty.0 Summary 6 . power and assertiveness. high energy. This motivational factor must be in place at every organisation especially at human resource development of manufacturing company for this case study. The higher level of motivation may be achieved when leaders provide specific plans of rewards and create cultures of affirmation. 4. Leaders who focus on attention on behaviours associated with charisma or intellectual stimulation.0 Findings and Discussion Based on the above literature review. consideration and appreciation for workers abilities and effective actions. Motivating factors are the major factors that influence positive leadership styles and reflect to high motivating abilities in any organization and management practises. the importance and influence of motivation factors lead to effective leadership qualities.

Lastly. the factors of motivational values need to be taken as an important element of any organization in order to sustain in the challenge business world. job performance. job satisfaction. high moral values. The importance of this study on leadership behaviour provides evidence of how important the motivating influence factors which resulted to positive gain in human relationship in work place. employee to superior communication.Finally this study about how motivational values leading to effective leadership behaviours would give a insights of the importance of leadership behaviours in an organization. 7 . high responsibilities and other human related behaviours.

S. 8 .com. Oxford.D.A. Butler.business. U. Daft.A Critical Introduction. Oxford University Press. Proquest Direct reference journal from web based library. UUM – e-library source – EBSco host. 3. Pierce & Gardner. Colorado. http:// www. Boulder. 5. dissertation. Hislop. Emerald Insight. ( 2005).A. U. http:// www. 2. highbeam. D. Knowledge Management in Organizations . The Leadership Experience. L. Owen Graduate School of Management Vanderbilt University. ( 2005). “Emotional intelligence and leadership behaviour in construction executives. ( 2004) 4. 6. South Western. University of Colorado. Leadership and Motivation behaviours journal.com.S.” Ph.References 1.all. ( 2008 ). R. C.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.