Physical Geology

Midterm #1 Study Guide
Origin of the Earth • Big Bang – Evidence o Big Bang- An energy expanded into vaccum, subatomic particles then atoms condensed o Evidence- Nuclear fusion combined 2 elements  Doppler effect- (red shifting of galaxies) noticed by Hubble in 1929.  Background radiation- when all forms of light are taken away, heat still exists. (Pervasive background radiation near absolute zero) • Composition? o Consisted of pure, hot energy o Mostly hydrogen and helium (H, He) • Solar System Origins o After big bang, atoms and dust particles floating freely in space o As particles spun in orbit, particles went to center while gases when to outer. o Formed planets and atmosphere • Goldilock’s Effect – Reasons why? o Earth is perfect distance from the sun o Any hotter= water would vaporize o Any colder= water would freeze • Differentiation into Earth Structure o Gravitational effects- Closer to the sun= denser material and hotter o Mercury, venus, earth and mars are all made up of rock solicates and and iron/ nickel core o Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune= made up of H gas and liquid, water, and rock o Earth= contain life: location from sun, H2O, mass, plate tectonics, O levels, CO2 levels Earth Structure (KNOW DETAILS ABOUT EACH PART OF EARTH – COMPOSITION) • Layers formed by different density levels • Evidence for layers? o Xenoliths- direct analysis of country rocks picked up by magma extruded by volcanoes (Foreigh rock in greek) o Meteorite composition- assumption is that meteorites originated from a parent body similar in composition to the inner planets o Seismology- the velocity and travel of earthquake P and S waves inside earth’s interior (denser = faster)

o Was thought to have created the major geologic features in Alps . Mg.• • • • Core – Inner & Outer and source of magnetic field o Outer (liquid)  Mostly metallic alloy (90%) Ni-Fe o Inner (solid)  Metalis Ni-Fe alloy o Flow of liquids around solid generates electromagnetic field Mantle – Subdivisions of Mantle? o All ultramafic o Upper  10-410 km  60% olivine  (Mg.0 g/cm3  ocean floor o Continental  25-70 km thick  Roughly felsic  Density= 2. spinel. o Asthenosphere.rigid outer layer (60-200 km thick)  made up of crust and upper mantle.8 g/cm3 Lithosphere vs. Asthenosphere o Lithosphere. Al.mantle boundry  <5% Al-silicates  (plagioclase.Fe)2SiO4 o Transition zone  410-660 km  35-40% pyroxones  (Fe. Na. The lithosphere is broken into giant plates that fit around the globe like puzzle pieces.plastic mis-upper mantle (100-150 km thick)  Upper fluid part of mantle that allow for plate tectonics to occur Geologic Time • Catastrophism o Theory stated that certain vast geological changes were caused by catastrophes rather than gradual evolutionary processes. Ca)SiO3 o lower  660-2898 km  D” Layer at core. garnet) Crust (Continental and Oceanic) o Oceanic  5-10 km thick  mafic composition  density= 3.7-2.

disconformities.Flat layers with an eroded or disturbed layer within the flat ones  Noncomformity. angular unconformities o Unconformities.deals with time in a comparative time between events  Principle of horizontality.different tree systems allow for time line to extend 100.uplifting allows for hills to form and sediments contune to deposit in a w-like pattern Absolute Time – Techniques other than radiometric o Absolute time.glacial lake sediment dating.• Uniformitarianism o The idea that geological processes that went on in the past are the same as today o Central pillar of our understanding of geology o James Huton came up with theory.States all rocks formed on surface will do so in horizontal beds (layers)  Principle of Superposition.000 yrs • • • .small changes over time allow significant features to occur Principles of Relative Time (Original horizontality.breaks in the sedimentary rock record where an erosional surface is present before deposition resumes  Disconformity. they end by grading into other sediments or run into natural boundries of deposition.cutting relationships.describes how sedimentary layers will form continuous sheets the go for long distances and thin out to nothing.provides a specific number  Dendrochronology (tree ring dating).states that whatever is included within something else has to be older then surrounding rock  Principle of Faunal succession.2rings yr • 8.000 yrs  Varves.states that whatever cuts across a rock layer has to be younger then the rock layer  Principle of inclusions. etc.an only occur if all of the rocks overlying the metamorphic or intrusive igneous rocks have been removed by erosion.states that each undisturbed layer of sedimentary rock is younger then the layer beneath it. so those rocks must have been formed at the same time.states that sedimentary rocks contain fossils in distinct sequences and those sequences of fossils can be found in rocks elsewhere.  Principle of lateral continuity. Unconformities – nonconformities.600 yrs  Cross dating. light & dark layer= 1yr • Useful for up to <50. superposition.  Principle of cross.) o Relative time.  Angular unconformity.

stable elements o Exponential decay curve. examples o Primary dating technique o Based on idea that isotopes will break down over time by radioactive processes to form new. coal. fixed rate over time . half-life= 5730.• Radiometric Dating – Principle. o Ex: Carbon.14 Nitrogen-14. shells Geologic Time Scale – Breakdown of Eon-Era-Period-Epoch o Eon  Precambiran • Hadean • Archean • Proterzoic  Phanerozoic o Era  Phanerozoic • Palezoic • Mesozoic • Cenozoic o Periods:  Palezoic era: • Cambrian • Ordovician • Silurian • Devinian • Mississippian • Pennslyvanian • Permian  Mesozois era • Triassic • Jurassic • Cretaceous  Cenozoic era • Tertiary • Quaternary o Epoch  Teritary • Paleocene • Eocene • Oligocene • Miocene • .number of radioactive atoms declines at a precise.000 yrs. exponential decay curve. materials that can be dated= wood. effecti dating range= 10070.

also why not accepted? o Suggested all contenents were connected as one. Pole wandering and Reversals o Over periods of 10. o Suess found the fern Gloaopteris in south America. • Plate Tectonic Theory – MOR & Trenches (who also) – MECHANISM! o Ships developed sonar to measure ocean depth o Harry Hess came up with sea floor spreading theory o Trenches were found on west coast of America and east coast of asia.6 billion yrs o Proterzoic.Cenozoic: 65. India.5 million years ago o Pliocene.e.4.phanerozoic boundry. antartica. • Pliocene Quaternary • Pleistocene • Recent or Holocene • anthropogene • Major Time Events o Age of earth.Pleistocene boundry: 1. Suess and Glossopteris) o Said that continents were once connected by land bridges that sank. and australia • Continental drift hypothesis – Wegener’s evidence and problems. creates a trench o mid ocean ridges.continents were plowing through the oceans o Was rejected because was not taken seriously was a meteorologist and scientists would have had to get rid of all of the work and theories they originally had. Africa.542 million yrs ago o Paleozoic. Was known as Pangea o Found similar rock types across the continents as well as glacial striations o Continental drift.Mesozoic: 251 million years ago o Mesozoic.8 million years ago Plate Tectonics • Early ideas on Earth? o Original theory said that continents were stationary • Pre-Wegener challengers? (i. Was known as Gondwanaland.000 yrs magnetic poles correlate with rotational pole o Rocks gain megnetism by:  Thermal remnant magnetism • Magnetic minerals freeze below 580 C and record magnetic field present  Detritial remnant magnetism .result of sea floor spreading which states that oceanic lithosphere is created along undersea mountain chains • Paleomagnetism – Origin of paleomagnetism. While crust sinks to the lithosphere.

ocean crust subducts under ocean crust  subduction continental arcs.create mountain belts Minerals • Chemical Bond Types and Characteristics o Ionic:  Formed when valence e are transferred from one ion to another  Based on electromagnetic attraction  Characteristis: • Moderately high hardness . we know that contientns must have moved Major Plates o NA o SA o Eurasian o Pacific o African o Australian o Indian o Arabian o Nazca o Cocoa o Carribean o Juan de-fuca Boundary types and Characteristics o Divergent (together)  Found at mid ocean ridge and continental ridge  Major cause of volcanoes and earthquakes o Convergent (apart)  Play important role in tectonics  Responsible for splitting of pangea  Ring of fire o Transform (slide passed)  Continental =Large earthquakes from built tenssion Subduction zones (how do they differ and why) o Dictated by density differences.composition and age are prime factors o 3 types  subduction island arcs. path would be the same on all contents Because it is not.• • •  Chemical remnant magnetism  Isothermal remnant magnetism o If poles wantered over time.ocean crust subducts beneath continental crust (trenches)  continental-continent collisions.

 Some sharing and some taking of ions o Characteristics:  High energy bonds  High hardness  Poor conductor  Low solubility  Low degree of symmetry o Van der Waalso HydrognMineral Definition o Chemistry and structure make minerals differ from one another o Characteristics:  Solid  Naturally occurring  Crystal structure  Defined crystal chemistry Classification o Silicates o Carbonates o Sulfates o Phosphates o Native elements o Oxides and hydroxides o Sulfides o halides USES! o Zircon.gem stone o Gypsum. soil additive.food additive.o Metalic:  Form between metals with valence electrons scattered through structure  Characteristics: • Electrical conductivity • Low hardness • Metallic luster • High degree of symmetry o Covalent Between ionic and metallic bonding. artificial body parts o Tourmaline.knives. sculptures • • • Well-defined cleavage Poor conductors High degree of symmetry • • • .

of melting point • Where do we generate magma from those processes? o Continental rifts and mid ocean ridges Magma Characteristics • Silicate magma and role of polymerization • Viscosity and factors affecting it o Viscosity-resistence to flow when shear stress is applied o Dependent on composition of melt. How do pyroclastics form? • Six Eruptive Styles – differences and where do they occur? • Origins of calderas and their effects • Volcanic impacts .decrease temp.tooth paste ABUNDANCES Bowen’s Reaction Series Magma Types and Origins • Three main processes that generate magma (why does it work and think of relationship of the phase diagram) o Reduce pressure o Add heat o Add h20.• • o Fluorine. o • Lava flows and pyroclastic material.higher polymerization= higher viscosity • Use of melt inclusions Volcanoes • Five types of volcanoes and characteristics of each.

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