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com weblog « MIT¶s PROJECT BICYCLE BOTCHED AT GROUND LEVEL History of Media By manishkr2588 History of Indian Newspaper
Birth of Journalism in India: The history of the contemporary journalism beings with the establishment of the printing press by Christian missionaries in India. The Christian missionaries set-up printing press by India at such a time when our country was struggling with several social evils and malpractices like child marriage, sati system, illiteracy, superstitions etc. Christian missionaries established printing press at the end of fifteenth century for spreading the messages of Christianity in the country. With the advent of the East India Company in India in the year 1600, heavy printing machines were installed in Bombay, Madras and Calcutta in India in the years 1674, 1772 and 1778 respectively. In India Press was used for journalist purpose for journalistic purpose for the first time in the year 1780. Birth of Bengal Gazette: There were two rival groups in the council of then Governor- General- one group supporting Warren Hastings, then Governor General and another group led by Philip Francis who himself an aspirant of the post of the Governor General. In his patronage, a British named James Augustus Hickey began the publication of a weekly newspaper called µBengal Gazette¶ (also known as Calcutta General Advertiser/ Hickey Gazette) on January 29, 1780. It was meant mainly for the Europeans. Its contents were non- serious, spicy and vulgar. Bengal Gazette claimed itself to be political and commercial newspaper. Hickey described the newspaper in the following words ³A weekly political and commercial newspaper open to all parties but influenced by none´ But in reality, the newspaper was entirely against Warren Hastings and his friend Elijah Impey, the chief justice of the Supreme Court. Bengal Gazette was known for its personal attacks on Hastings and his friends. It had given Warren Hastings several nicknames like µMr. Wronghead¶, µThe great Moghul¶, µThe Dictator¶ etc. The newspaper survived only for two years. It was closed down in 1782 with the departure of its patron Philip Francis to Rangeland. After Philip, it had faced the hardships imposed by the administration. Hastings ceased its types and ordered its closure. An impartial evaluation of the newspaper makes it clear that it can be a pioneer-
both the rival newspapers remained indulged in war of words. It was completely away from the cheapness promoted by Hickey¶s gazette.newspaper of India but its contents were not up to the mark. The Oriental star (1795-1857). Delhi and Bombay. Madras Courier (1785). After Bengal Gazette: Hastings established India Gazette in the year 1780 as a voice against Bengal Gazette. It was away from objectivity and was very biased. commercial and literary news stories. Roy was essentially a social and religious reformer. Some Europeans residing in India were dissatisfied with the politics of East India Company. As a result. The Harkaru (1791). the Calcutta Monthly Journal (1794-1841) and The Bengal Harkaru (1795-1857). Calcutta Gazette (1784-1878) . The Bombay gazette (1780). Madras Gazette (1795). Calcutta became a melting pot of this dissatisfaction and anger. India gazette (1780) and The Voice of India (1882) are counted among the pioneer-newspapers of India. His newspaper had an effective presentation of political. It was a new paper of quality and standard in comparison to Hickey¶s newspaper.1820). Newspaper that continued their existence were-India Gazette (1789-1834). His objective and impartial journalistic approach led to the popularity of the newspaper. abilities and a multidimensional personality. The Calcutta morning post (1799-1878). It was better to call it the µFounder of Yellow Journalism¶ in India instead of µFounder of the Indian Journalism¶. He is the real guide to Indian Journalism. But I reality it stood against µCalcutta Journal¶ under the editorship of Reverend Samuel Bryce. Buckingham: Guide to Indian journalism: The real and stable form of the Indian journalism came on the force with the arrival of James Silk Buckingham to India as the editor of Calcutta Journal in the year 1818. his immigration permit was cancelled and he was forced to quit India for good. Asiatic Mirror (1788. . Their friendship was a paradox in itself because both belonged to different backgrounds and different ideologies. some personnel of east India Company announced the publication of µJohn Bull in the East¶ in 1882. he criticized Bishop of Calcutta in very harsh words. On the other hand. Approximately 200 newspapers/ journals came into existence between 1780 and 1857 but most of them were closed within short duration of time. Within a short duration of three years the bi-weekly turned to Calcutta¶s first daily. despite his British origin did not hesitate to highlight the malpractices of the British administration. Buckingham was a close friend of Raja Ram Mohan Roy. India Gazette enjoyed the patronage of Warren Hastings in the form of all facilities from him. It also became a source of inspiration for other newspapers that came into being from Madras. Bombay Herald (1789). Maintenance of social and civil system was its declared objectives. Both of them struggled a lot for the freedom of Indian Press and left an unforgettable impression in the field of the Indian Journalism. This led to the birth of Hickey¶s Gazette and thus hickey¶s gazette came to be known as first newspaper of the country. During his last days of stay in India. Buckingham. he was the person with true journalistic spirit .
Buckingham was forced to quit India on January 13. Akhbar Allahabadi. But Samachar Darpan continued its existence till 1840. But it could sustain only for a year. the British crown took over the administration after the µSepoy Mutiny¶. µSamachar Darpan¶ (Weekly Bengali Newspaper) and µFriend of India¶ (Monthly English Newpaper). Both the magazines were closed due to financial problems. on Indian Journalism emerged as a mission when some freedom fighters used Journalism as a weapon to fight against the British. Brahminicial Magazine (English) Raja Ram Mohan Roy in Journalism: Samvad Kaumudi began under the editorship of Bhabani Charan Banerjee. But Banerjee left the Newspaper after 13 issues because of the dispute with Roy on the points of Sati System and other social reforms. The Indian Journalism could not take its real shape by this time in the true sense. Freedom Fighters In Journalism: The Journalists in the initial days were mainly the foreigners who were promoting the interest of the East India Company. John Fedel and William Butterworth. µHarkaru¶ was the first English newspaper of India. µBengal Gazette was the first English Newspaper of India with an Indian ownership.General. .Three members of the council of the Governor. which had a non-Indian ownership. As far as the question of the contributions of an Indian Journalism is concerned. It came into existence on April 29. Banarjee launched a separate newspaper called µSamachar Chandrika¶ and promoted staunch Hindu values with its help. John Adams. their country or were promoting Christianity in the country. Adams became the Governor-General. Sambad Kaumudi (Bengali) 2. Sirampore Missionaries also began the publication of three newspapers/journals called µDighdarshan¶ (Monthly Bengali Magazine). After Hastings. Na Talwar Nikalo/ jab Tope Ho Muaqabil To Akhbaar Nikalo¶ implying µfight the war with a newspaper and not with a sword¶. In 1818 John Burton and James Enzee obtained the approval of the publication of a weekly newspaper called µGuardian¶. Later. the well known Urdu poet has said µKhaincho Na Kaman Ko. 1823. Gangadhar Bhattacharya began its publication in 1816. In 1857. He is truly said to be the µFather of the Indian Journalism¶. But Buckingham¶s influence on the Indian Journalism was seen for the next 35 years. With his inspiration following three newspapers came into being: 1. were staunch opponents of Buckingham back to England. Mirat-ut Akhbar (Persian) 3. first name that comes to mind is of Raja Ram Mohan Roy. He was basically a social reformer who contributed significantly for the elimination of the Sati System and for the spread of Women Education in the country. 1819.
Persian. Amidst controversies and resistance. In 1853 another English newspaper called µPatriot¶ came into existence under the editorship of Girish Chandra Ghosh. also took birth in Calcutta. Harishchandra Mukherjee became its editor. µUdant Martand¶ which enjoys the pride of the being the Hindi Newspaper of the country. Its noteworthy that seeds of the Hindi Journalism were also sown in Calcutta. two weekly newspapers were published in Tamil and English language respectively. One common aspect in all newspaper published in this period was that most of them were inclined towards the policies of the British government. Out of this. There were two weekly one and quarterly Tamil Newspaper published from Madras. Manmohan Ghosh was its founder-editor. After his death. The government provided grants to these newspapers because of certain reasons. The reason of this concentration was not only the availability of the printing facilities but Calcutta being the centre of the administration also. Beginning with English newspaper/ journals. Hindi and Urdu newspaper/periodicals. He also began a Bengali newspaper called µSulabh Samachar¶. All these newspapers were the promoters of Progressive Hinduism. After two years. He also supported the publication of µBengal another English Newspaper µEnglishman¶ financially and morally. two were. 33 were in English and 16 were in Bengali. In 1871 Keshav Chandra took over its responsibility. Calcutta became the main centre of the publication of Newspapers and journals. Only a handful of Newspaper raised the issue of the country¶s independence. a fortnightly was an important newspaper of this period. three more newspaper continued their publication between 1821-1891. Apart from this.spread of English education and popularity of English language in India and the attention of British journalists towards the socio-economic problems of India. Later Development from Calcutta: The initial 40 years of the Indian Journalism were entirely controlled by the Europeans. Dwarkanath Tagore waqs the renowned journalist of then Bengal who initiated the publication of µBengal Herald¶ and µBangadoot¶ in English and Bengali respectively. µThe Enquirer¶ and µGyan Anveshan¶. he passed such a responsible Press law. Most of the newspapers were published by Christian missionaries. which allowed publication with some restrictions but without government¶s approval. Charles Metcaftle ignored the suggestions of friends to monitor .With the inspiration of Raja Ram Mohan Roy. When Charles Metcafle succeeded William Bentick for some time. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar managed it. They were µThe Reformer¶. 1857 Revolt and Press Laws: The number of Newspapers in Indian languages before Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 was very negligible. Indian Mirror. Out of the important factors facilitating the publication of newspapers in India. Calcutta later on also witnessed the publication of several Bengali. publication of 49 new newspapers began from Bengal and Bombay between 1831-1833. In 1861 Christo Paul became its editor who continued till 1884.
He advocated social reforms with cooperation from the British government. Mahagovind Ranade used journalism and stage through his life to fight the freedom struggle. Karan Das went launched campaigns for widow-marriage while Malabari was trying to uplift the Dalits and marginalized sections of the society. Bal Shastri Jambhekar began publishing an Anglo-Marathi fortnightly and a Marathi fortnightly called µDig¶ in the years 1832 and 1842 respectively. Social reform was the main goal of the publication.the Indian Newspapers. Another newspaper µPrabhakar¶ also championed the cause of social reforms. He was termed as the . Press of Bombay. He launched a countrywide program for discouraging child marriage.1891 the well known social reformer Behram Malabari used the Indian press to raise voice against the evils and malpractices of the contemporary Hindu society. Journalism and Social Reforms: Some of the vernacular language newspapers of Bombay were inclined towards social reforms. Indu Praksh and Lokhitvarta. He even refused to differentiate between English and vernacular newspapers. They looked Journalism as a powerful means of expression. But the Indian press did not come forward to raise a voice against the poisonous attitude of the British press. He is also known for his campaign for widow marriage. Deshmukh initiated µIndu Prakash¶ an Anglo-Marathi daily in the year 1861. The attitude of the British government towards Indian press changed considerably after the 1857 revolt. Bengal and Madras did not show considerable interest in this revolt. This was the time when intellectuals from Western India got attracted towards Journalism one way or other. His articles were mainly on the social issues. Social reforms of Malabari and Karsan Das went on simultaneously although both had a different methodology of working. He organized conference for the journalists of vernacular press. Revolutionary Vasudev Phadke (1845-1883) was another supporter of the vernacular press of this period. Both the reformers were ardent advocates of English language. Lord Canning¶s liberal policies were criticized by the British press. This gulf gradually got widened. But his press-friendly approach ruined his career and he never got the chance of becoming a Governor-General on a permanent basis. Gopal Rao Deshmukh a well known social worker used to write for the newspaper. He also wrote some other newspapers like Gyan Prakash. From 1884. Vishnu shastri Pandit was the editor and Mahagovind Ranade was the columnist in that. This conference was aimed to protest against the Vernacular press Act 1878. He made it clear that efforts of suppressing public opinion would be crushed. This divide was very much conspicuous from 1920 onwards with the advent of Mahatma Gandhi on the scenario of the freedom struggle. The rebellion of 1857 created a wide gulf between the owner¶s of the English and vernacular language press. Ranade also came forward to give his support to Tilak and Agarkar. This was the time Bal Gangadhar tilak and his follower Shri Agarkar were planning to initiate µKesari¶ and µMaratha¶ in Marathi and English language from Pune. British Press went aggressive after this revolt and presented the revolt negatively.
jaunpur.Sacchinananda Sinha¶s µIndian People¶ from Allahabad (Editoe. µAmritBazar Patrika¶ edited by Motilal Ghosh from Calcutta. one from Ludhiana. History of the initial days of Indian Journalism are represented by newspapers like µHindu¶ a weekly by C. In 1861 µBombay Times¶. pandit Madan Mohan Malviya¶s leader from Allahabad in 1909. Various Urdu newspaper were ceased to be published at the time of 1857 Sepoy Mutiny.µrevolutionary¶ by the British government because of his revolutionary steps taken against the British Raj in India. µThe Courier¶ and µThe Telegraph¶ were merged. Sir Ferozshah Mehta began the publication of µBombay Chronicle¶ under the editorship of Benjamin Goy Horniman.C. The µHindu¶ followed it. Dayal Singh Majithya¶s µTribune¶ from Lahore. two each from Ajmer and Etawah. Allahabad and kanpur. The Delhi edition of the Statesmen came into being when Delhi became the capital of the country. µCivil and Military Gazette¶ from Lahore and µStatesmen¶ from Calcutta came into being during this period. Vernacular Press Majority of the newspapers published during the half of nineteenth century were Urdu newspaper. It was edited by Syed Mohammed Khan. Saharanpur. But he could not sustain it for long as its involvement with educational activities. Chintamani) and µHindustan Review. which had an Indian war-reporter. Prominent among them were µJaam-e-Jamshed¶ (1878) published from Meerut. Subramanyam Aiyer from Madras. a shareholder of the newspaper told him to give an assurance in writing to keep his voice low.Indian newspapers µPioneer¶ from Allahabad. The viewpoint of the Times of India became more nationalist under the editorship of Sir Stanley Reed. Delhi College and Agra College were also publishing newspapers. Times of India was the first newspaper. Out of these newspapers eight published from Agra. Robert Knight was made the editor in place of Bust. six Hindi and one newspaper by missionaries. µSaeedul Akbhar¶ began in 1837 is considered to be the first Urdu newspaper of Delhi. Dr. Alfred Watson was the editor of the statesmen for some time but his achievements were negligible. µIndian Patriot¶ from Malabar Kerala. Meerut. Three important Anglo.Y. After some time Horniman left Bombay chronicle to join µBombay Sentinel¶. µTimes of India¶ was established to the soaring height of success. µHindu Patriot¶ by Harischandra Mukherjee from Calcutta. Bombay government did not take care to punish the editor of but Naurozi Fardoonji. Under the editorships of the succeeding editors Arthur Moore and Ian Stephens. In 1861 there were 17 vernacular newspapers that included eleven Urdu. Two renowned newspapers from 1878 onwards were. On his refusal. These Urdu newspapers were replaced by several such newspapers that had Hindu editors. elder brother of Sir Syed Ahmad khan because its editor after his brother¶s death. Its editorial articles were considered to be unique. Another paper µMadras Mail¶ is also worth mentioning because it is credited to the first evening newspaper of the country. . Statement had a liberal attitude towards India. Editorial of Times of India started gaining popularity since the Second World War. Some newspapers began publishing from Agra and Delhi. George Bust who was the editor of Bombay Times at the time of revolution of 1857 strongly recommended the actions against the Indians by the British administration.
Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi began µPratap¶ in 1913 from Kanpur while Mahendra Chandra in 1916. Free Press journal. National Herald. In 1923 Mahashay kushhal Chand established µMilap¶. all English. µPatriot¶. Swadedshmitram (Tamil). which gave impetus to the mission of Journalism. In 1920 Babu Shiv Prasad Gupta from Varanasi initiated µAaj¶. which later on converted into a daily. Banaras Akhbaar (Naagri) and Banaras Gazette 9urdu). Gandhi and Journalism: The country was experiencing the environment of the freedom struggle. Pratap and Milap are the two prominent newspapers that are still being published. it was in Bengali language but switched to English language overnight with µVernacular Press Act¶ being passed. After partition publication of Pratap shifted to Delhi. The tribune. After 1857. The then public opinion of the country was much influenced by the newspapers from Bengal like µNeel Darpan¶. The Leader. Sudhakar Akhbar was published by Pandit Ratneswar Tiwari while the remaining two by Babau Raghunath Fatheh (Thatte). Newspapers were considered by such journalists for the freedom struggle. . In the twentieth century. The scenario of the Indian Journalism witnessed a sea change with the publication of µAmrit Bazaar Patrika¶. the well known Urdu daily newspaper in 1919. Bombay Chronicle. Gandhiji once said ³Understanding and expressing the public opinion is the first objective of Journalism. Mahamana Madan Mohan Malviya began the publication of µAbhyudaya¶ in 1907. The Civil and Military gazette. the Indian Press especially the Vernacular Press witnessed the atrocities of the British government. Many patriot Journalists began publication of newspaper on the theme of independence. µHamdam¶ came into being by Abdul Bari in Lucknow. µMilap also shifted to Delhi after partitions. µKesari¶ and µMaratha¶ (Marathi). µShome Prakash¶. but the language of all the newspapers were Urdu. Anees Ahmad Abbasi established weekly µHaqeeqat¶. Amritbazaar Patrika. The period witnessed the beginning of several important Urdu newspapers as well. In 1859 Lord Canning became the viceroy of India and was implemented the Indian Penal Code in 1860. During this period Shekh Abhdullah began the publication of µShimla Akhbar¶ from Shimla in Hindi language. According to the report one newspaper was in Persian and two other were in Nagri Script.´ The prominent newspaper of that time were µVande ma taram¶ (Hindi). During this period the British crown had taken over the administration from the East India Company. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad began µAl Hilal¶ in 1912 from Calcutta. various Hindi newspapers came into being. . µIndian Mirror¶ and µBengal¶.The assistant secretary of then government has mentioned three newspapers under the newspapers of the Northwest province in his report. µThe Hindu¶. Various freedom fighters joined English/vernacular press for fighting against the British government for freedom. Madras Standard and The Hitavada. These were µSudhakar Akhbhar¶ (Naagri). the second is expression of public aspirations and the third is the expression of the shortcomings of the popular beliefs. Earlier. Mahashay Krishnan in Lahore established µPratap¶.
According to some opinions. Premchand and Suryakant Nirala were also associated with this magazine for some time. The period is called as Bhartendu Era. His works also inspired other poets like Maithali Sharan Gupta and Ayodhya Singh Upadyaya µHariaundh¶. He had excellent command over English and Gujrati language. Different Era of Journalism: Hindi prose and poetry both witnessed tremendous development due to concerted efforts of Bhartendu harischand. The contemporary Indian Newspapers have established certain values and guidelines for themselves that include . The literary magazine µMadhuri¶ also came out during this period in 1922.. Pandit Shukul was the editor as well as publisher. Karmveer. 1826. Pratap. its date of publication was February 9. The Indian Constitution recognized µright to expression¶ as a constitutional right of every Indian citizen. This age came to e known as Dwivedi era because of the dedicated literary Journalism of Pandit Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi.Harishchandra magazine. His pieces of writing were very simple and encouraging. Nrisingh Gandhian Era is mainly known for the journalistic works of Mahatma Gandhi. 1826 while according to J. He began the publication of English newspaper µYoung India¶ with µTarun Bharat¶ as the Hindi edition. Pandit Shukul also began the publication of Samdand Martand. He himself began the publication of several newspapers/journals. Important among them are-Kavivachan Sudha (1867). Post Independence India: The Journalistic values went a sea change along with the changes in the Nationalistic values. In 1933 Hindustan the Hindi Version of Hindustan times came into existence. 1827 due to financial crisis. Navbharat (1938) from Nagpur. Vishva bandhu (1942) from Lahore and Dainik Jagran (1942) from Kanpur came out.. India is one of those countries in the world where in citizens are free to express their views. All these magazines were inclined towards social reforms and elimination of the caste system.The Rising Era commenced with Udant martand. Pandit Jugul Kishore Shukul began the publication of µUdant Martand¶ (the rising Sun) from Calcutta in 1826. Hans was the most revolutionary magazine of that time. There are controversies about its exact date. Important newspapers of the period were Karmyogi. Hindi language became very rich by Dwivedi (Tilak) Era. Its publication was closed down on December 04. this period is also known for the publication of several literary and patriotic newspapers. µHistory of Indian Journalsim¶. Almost two dozen newspapers came into existence because of his role. This was the first independent Hindi Newspaper of its kind. Premchand established µHans¶ from Varanasi in 1930. Natrajan¶s book. Aaryavarth (1942) from Patna. its first issue came out into on May 30. The press is allowed to perform the twin-task of highlighting the weaknesses of the government and the administration and also unearthing the corruption. Harishchandra Chandrika (1874) and Balabodini (1874). After µSaraswati¶ and µVishal Bharat¶. Aaj was a very popular newspaper of that time.
The print media has maintained its supremacy amidst cutthroat competition and diversification . Apart from a few incidents. encouragement to literary personalities. information dissemination to the people.development of a new outlook. the Indian Journalism is peacefully moving on the path of Independent and healthy journalism. their education and their entertainment. Promotional of harmony among different Indian languages. The competition due to electronic media has strengthened the roots of the Indian Journalism. The Indian Press had to experience the severity of the government in the past. conservation and dissipation of the Indian Culture.