CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
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R&D organizations. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . the Federal Government vide notification No.). certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. The world has turned into a global village.ALTAF ALI G. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. D773/76-JEA (cur.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. 63. It also aimed to give a basic. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. degree awarding institutions. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. and 36. PROF. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. DR.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. Lahore. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. dated December 4th 1976. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. universities and other institutions of higher education. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. therefore. It is. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream.

HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. PREP. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. Preparation 5 . OF CURRI. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. R&D. REC. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. OF FINAL CURRI. UNI. COL. OF NCRC. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. EXP.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI.

Member 5. Karachi from 28-30. Dr. Dr. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. 7. Rawalpindi Dr. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Member 4. Following attended the meeting:1. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Lahore Member 6. Dr. Member 6 . April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Member 3. Rawalpindi Dr. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall.

Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. 13. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Prof. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. 7 . Dr. Dr. Member 15. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Member 16. Member 14. Member 10. Dr. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Dr. Dr. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Member 11.8. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Dr. Karachi Member 12. Prof. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr.

Director of HEC Regional Center. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. Mr. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. 8 . Faisalabad Member 18. Mr.17. At first. Dr. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. Secretary Dr. Dr. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. The meeting was opened by Mr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Member 19. 2. 1. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Chairman. Member 20. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. Karachi. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting.

6. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. 1. In last few centuries. 2. 4. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development.3. 3. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. 5. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. The committee thanked Mr. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop.

The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. Apply theoretical understanding. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. ii. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. 5. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. regional and global contexts. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. This committee. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. skills and behaviour patterns. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. in its preliminary meeting. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today.

5. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. 4. 1. 3. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. 2. with consensus. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. Sc. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. A. that: 1. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals.e. The 11 . Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. Integrating natural sciences. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. The medium of instruction. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F.. eight semesters in the semester system. 6. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme.

Biology –I* 3. Basic Chemistry* 4. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Environmental Microbiology 21. Climatology* 23. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Introductory Economics* 17. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Environmental Physics 16. Introduction to Computer 14. English-II 12. Introduction to Earth Science 8. English-III 18. Biology –II* 9. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Psychology* . Environmental Pollution 22. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. English-I 6. Environmental Chemistry 15.

ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. Applied Ecology 26. Opt. 45. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. Environmental toxicology 27. English-IV/ Univ. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. Climate Change 38. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . Environmental Biotechnology 32. Environmental Monitoring 36. 46. Environmental Economics 29. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. Environmental Management Systems 34. Natural Resource Management 40. 44. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25.24. ELECTIVE-III 42.

• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .

and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. Recommended Books: 1. Human environment and its problems: global. 4th Ed. national. and their relationships with various environmental factors. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. E.A.B & Keller. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. G. biological and social. 4. Miller. environmental pollution. Wright. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. current global. 2. 2007. 2007 3.T. history. lipids. Schoch. D..L. L. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. 6th Ed. proteins and nucleic acids. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . socio-economic. Different aspects of environment: physical. & Nebel.M. its importance in human life. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. & Yonavjak. regional. Environmental Science: working with the Earth.J. R. ethical. urbanization. Pearson Educational.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. M. R. Thomson Learning. John Wiley & Sons. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet.. ecological. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. 15 . 2002. philosophical.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. Botkin. McKinney. 10th Ed. poverty and resource depletion. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. B. 2007. development in industry and agriculture. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future.

Starr. 1. 2003. USA. R. 5th Edetion. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. Crossley. New York. coordinate covalent bond. Plopper. polypeptides in protein diversity. Cassimeris. Ionic. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. J. M.. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. 5. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols.. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. 2007. 2. Canada. G. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. the molecule of genetic information and replication.. Ltd. Wadsworth Group. Origin of life: chemical evolution. lipids. amines). Study of mitosis in onion root tip. C. carboxylic acids. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. lipids. proteins. 2007. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. McGraw. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. 16 . Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. origin of metabolism. Aromatic compounds. Lewis. 4. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. 8th Ed. Nucleic acids.. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. N. phospholipids in membrane systems.Hill International Edition. A. Lingappa. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. 2008. Bulter. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. Introduction to cell biology. Cell division. USA. Cells. protobionts. 3. chemical basis of life. Shier. and Lewis. 1996. USA. R. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. esters. Self Assessment and Revie. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. carbonyls.. covalent. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. Molecular Biology through Questions. E. Structure and the basis of function. and Whitelaw. carbohydrates. chemical diversity. Biology: a Human Emphasis. V. B. D. Australia . L.

2004... An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry.D. W..J. M. expansion of determinants. 2003. equations of lines (linear equations). 8th Edition. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions.. Surface chemistry. 2nd Edition. straight line and related concepts. USA. Jickells.A. Lab Work Preparation of molar.. Freeman and Company.Special Products (Binomial Expression). radicals. 6th Edition. P. molal. Photochemical reactions. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. 2005..C. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Osmosis and Dialysis. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. Thin layer chromatography. angle-sum formula. Harris. 1st Ed. 2. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. D. Thomson and Brooks. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. simultaneous equations and their solutions. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. P.E. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. graphs. UK. 3. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. West. double angle formulas. Algebra of matrices.K. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. Column chromatography. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. EC and TDS in waste water.J. J.S. UK. Binomial theorem (Simple applications).H. D. B. Measurement of pH. Understanding Environmental Pollution. real line. 2nd Edition. 4.ions. Recommended Books: 1. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. 2004. 17 . and Holler. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Liss. law of Cosines. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. T. Jones and Barlett. Hill. geometric and harmonic sequence.. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). 2004.. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional).E. Girard. D. J. Andrews. Colloids chemistry. values of trigonometric functions. determinants. Skoog. 5. minor and cofactor of a matrix. series and means. normal solutions/buffers. Cambridge University Press. USA. F.M. Solution chemistry. Blackwell Science.. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. Canada. and Reid. Brimblecombe.

R. Addission. 1999.. and Finney. Analytical Geometry. Weathering. Abraham. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. K. irreducible quadratic factors. product and quotient rules without derivations). Smith. age. nonrepeated linear factors. Chatterjee. Jr. Introduction to sedimentary. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. Introduction to folds. earthquakes and volcanoes. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. weathering and erosion. New Delhi. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. foliation. L. Narosa Publishing House.Wesley.Cramer’s Rule. composition and its internal structure. earthquakes. Chain rule. S. igneous and metamorphic rocks. the processes of their formation. Integration: Formulas of integration. erosion and related landforms. 2. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. cleavages. Introduction to rocks and minerals..B. Recommended Books: 1. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. difference. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. faults. Scott Foresman and Company. G. theorems on differentiation (sum. 10th Ed. 4th Ed. lineation and unconformities. by parts integration (simple applications). J. Pacific Grove. its origin. joints. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . theorem of integration. 18 . California. mountain building. Earth as a member of solar system. different earth processes like mountain buildings. D. plate tectonics. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. 4. 3. Thomas. Trignometry for College students. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. Fossils and their significance.

Park. causes of extinction. 9th Edition. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. Recommended Books: 1. interactions among diversified life. protocell formation. G. Use of brunton compass and GPS. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. 2005.. Darwinism. Tarbuck. 11th Edition.. Biodiversity of deserts. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species.. and Monroe. Field Study tour. Wicander. 2004.. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. Earth Science. 3rd Edition. J. Geological time chart with biodiversity.. Routledge..Identification of rocks and minerals. Smith. modern concepts. Physical Geology and Process of Science. Life in sea. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. 5. and Tasa. and Pun. animals). different classification systems. R. Prentice Hall. E. Biodiversity of hilly areas. Biodiversity of canal. G. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. 2007 2. Prentice Hall: 2006. 5th Edition. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY .. invasion of life on land. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. J. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. A.. 19 . K. examples of adjustments in varied environment. E. unicellularity. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. 2007 3. D. Tarbuck. biodiversity crises.. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. F.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. How Does Earth Work. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. molecular basis of biodiversity. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. J. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. 4. consequences of losing biodiversity. Foundations of Structural Biology. measuring biodiversity. Lutgens. multicellularity. and Tasa. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. Prentice Hall. Lamarckism. D. Lutgens. F. R. Brooks/Cole. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. population loss and decline. K. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources.

New York: New York University Press. Wadsworth Group. Biology. P. Contemporary environment issues and debate. Environmental Risks and the Media. John Wiley and Sons. 3. 2001. and Spicer. Culture. 2009. and concerns. Chronological.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. The Biosphere. Gaston. 2nd Edition. 2005. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. (editor). The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. L. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. USA. Prospect Heights. IL:WavelandPress. culture and society. C. R. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology.. Inc. Inc. 2. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. I. 2. Routledge.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. Walnut Creek. Allan & Carter. K. I. The Ecology of global consumer culture. K. power & hegemony. 2006. Crumley. Townsend. Scope and application. Recommended Books: 1. Hannen. Consumption. Starr. Understanding the environment-human relationship. Use of environment for vested interest. CA: AltaMira Press. Tripartite nature of environment. Nora and Wilk. Blackwell Science Ltd. 20 . J. Adam. globalization and environmental issues. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. 2009. J. 2000. 4. Biodiversity (An Introduction). Conceptualizing environment. (editors). COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . Goals and expectations.K. Bradbury. a Human Emphasis. UK. 3. C. 5th Edition. Contemporary environmental status. Perspective of human-environment evolution. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. and Sustainable Living. UK.. 2003. UK.

. Long l. Course Outlines Definition. Ms-Power Point..Microsoft office 2000. Selin. Operating system (Windows). After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. Local Area Network. 21 .London 1996. system software. Ms-Excel. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. Storage hardware. Kluwer Academic Publishers.1999.5. output hardware.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. Software: Application software. Long N. 2003. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. Ed.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . Milton. G. processing hardware. Ms-Access. Types and classification of computers. computer programs and basic applications. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. K. 6. Fundamentals of computer. Marquis A. Configurations. software packages. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. Courter.6th Ed. Rutledge. 2. as are their effects on the biosphere. Introduction to MS-Word. Hardware: Input Hardware. Recommended Books: 1. internet.H. e-mail. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse.

S. Human perceptions and noise criteria. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. J. Turbulent diffusion. M.. Fundamentals of aquatic. P. Turbulent jets and plumes. J. G. Solids. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. 1st Edition. UK. Fate of pollutants in environment. Energy. Fregoso-Infante. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. Conversion of mass. Girard.. Isotopes and radioactive decay.E. and Reid. 1999. trophic level. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light.J. 2. Miller.G. interaction of light with matter.D. Andrews. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. Ozone chemistry. Particle physics. atmospheric and soil chemistry. J. Turbulence. M. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. Equations of fluid dynamics.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. Recommended Books: 1. Ozone and UV light.. Energy conversion. B. Sound and Noise. Germany. 2004. DoriaSerrano. Liss. Blackwell Science. Measurement and comparison of the 22 ... Environmental Chemistry.M. Brimblecombe. Samir. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry.. 5.. their sources and toxic actions. Environmental impact of various industries. Entropy. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. 2005. Global climate and climatic change. T. 4. 2nd Edition. 2004. its causes and adverse effects on environment. Canada.. Diffusion. Liquids and Gasses. Thomson-Brooks. Nuclear energy. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. Springer. Environmental Science. A.T. Heat radiation and heat transfer. Solar spectrum. photosynthesis. Environmental Chemistry. Jones and Barlett. Reducing the transmission of sound. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Jickells. C. India. Active control of sound. 2008. Electromagnetic radiation. K. Transport of pollutants. and Singh. P. Chemical reactions.. 3.. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. Hernandez-Esparza. Ibanez. USA. Radioactivity and nuclear physics..E. Basic acoustics. Gaussian plumes in the air.

2008. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. Recommended Books: 1. Boeker. and Resource allocation. 2. USA. C. concepts and measurement. Measures for sustainable development. World Bank Publications. 3. Recommended Books: 1. Growth and Environment. 23 . poverty. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. USA. Environmental economics. 7th Ed. M. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. Economic management and environmental quality. Introductory Environmental Physics. R. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. Praxis publishing.Economic development. 2008.1998. Impact of economic activity on environment. Guyot. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. economic growth and its measurement. John Wiley and Sons Inc. H. 2006. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. and Pandis. J. Yusuf. UK. population and environmental quality. Man environmental relationship. Smith. 2001. 2. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. Physics of the Environment and Climate. S. USA. economic growth.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. USA. Economic Development. producer and community point of view. Todaro. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. Economic functions of environment. Kentucky USA. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. Natural resources and the economy. E. Seinfeld. and Van Grondelle.. Wesely Publishers. interaction between ecology and economic management. Environmental Physics. Pakistan economic context: National income. Sustainable development. S. 4. Field visit. economic progress. 2001. G. John Wiley and Sons Inc. P. economic welfare and difference among all. Producer behavior. N. New York. Growth and development. Routledge.

Recommended Books: 1. B. 2008. 2009. B. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. C. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. A History of Western Philosophy. B. Hanley.3. DeVeer. branches of ecology. Portland 1967. London. 4. World Bank Publications. Environmental philosophy and ethics. 2002. Russell. USA. ethics and ecology. Course Outlines Introduction. community. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. population. its fundamental concepts. Ecosystem and its types. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. Palgrave Macmillan. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . N.. 2007. International Thomson Publishing. R. J. species. soil. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. Touchstone Books. 2008.. levels of ecological organization. D.. WCIV7AA. Natural philosophy. 2. description of population. Swift. Economics. concepts and approaches. Environmental Critics of agriculture. water. Shogren. and systems ecology. temperature. role of light.V.A.. biogeography. USA. community and ecosystem. England. 24 . MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. Farmington Hills. LLC. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. 3. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. and White. the ethics of soil. & Pierce. Callicott. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. 4.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. J. Frodeman. Ecology. Kessinger Publishing. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. M. Introduction to ethical theory.

Fundamentals of Ecology. 6th Ed. New York. landscape ecology. Biomes of the world. C. and Barett. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. Dash. biotic factors. ecological modeling. 1st Ed. Ecosystem: structure and function.topography and air as ecological factors. Fundamentals of Ecology. After completion of this course. Population distribution and abundance. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. population dynamics. UK. Biogeochemical cycles of C. 2. community dynamics.) Moles. M C J 1st ed. various concepts of community. landscape changes and their importance. distribution limits. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). WCB/McGraw-Hill. Lab Work 25 . M J. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. Recommended Books 1. N. bacteria and eukarya. Populations. productivity of different ecosystems. 2000. Ecology (concepts and applications. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. 1999 4. Tata McGraw-Hill. Thomson Brooks/Cole. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. B. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. 1992. Microbial metabolism.Cox. Chapman. 2001 5. plant geography and animal distribution. and S. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. UK. Cambridge University Press. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. Odum. aquatic microbiology.L and Reiss. characteristics of urban. M. New Delhi. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. C. J. Ecology (principles and applications).W. and More. P. students will be able to understand the significance. Systems ecology. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. Concepts of Limiting factors. E P. 5th Ed. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. 3. King’s College London. G. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. 2004. J. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. habitat and niche.

D. C. M.. Prentice Hall. Academic Press. Solid Waste generation. P. F. USA. 3. Butterworth-Heinemann.. Harley.Gerba. Collection. Pollution Control Strategies.D.J. Soil. Microbiology.1998. 3. R. peppor. and Klein.P..K.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. 26 . 2007. Peiece.A. 1995. McGraw Hill Inc. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. A. transportation & treatments. Hill. purification and preservation. Washington DC.J. P. and Jeffery. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. Weiner. Crawford. M. UK. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. Environmental Microbiology. USA.and Vesilaind. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). 2005. New Jersey.M.. Hartel. Marine & Industrial pollution. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual.C. 2. 2. Effects of Pollutants. Environmental Pollution and Control. American Society for Microbiology.A.L.W. 2 Edition.. L. Academic Press.J.G. 2nd Edition. Recommended Books: 1. L.P. Case Studies.. isolation.. 2005. USA. Dilution plate technique. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. USA. D.R. and Stetzenbach.P. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. Pepper. W. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water.. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. Recommended Books 1.F.J. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. 2009.B. 5.. C. Fuhrmann. Sylvia. London. Cambridge UK..A. 4. (Elsevier) USA.. Knudsen.L.M. Mean plate count. and Zuberer. Academic Press. J. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. Cambridge University Press. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. McInernery. Noise. J. G. Maier. J.V.J. I. Prescott. 4th Edition.and Brendecke.L.M. 2005. R.. Human & other living organisms. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. D. USA. its sources and their effects. Hurrst. and Gerba.I. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. 2002. Water..

M.2nd Editions. global circulation. 4. Marcel Dekkar. 1992. Shamshad.E. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. Cloud Classification.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). 2002. Mechanism of heat transfer. The Hydrologic cycle. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. 5. Radiation and climate. Weather and Climate. Lawrance K. N.J. Methods of psychology. John Wiley and Sons. Surface winds. Houghton J. 3. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. Environmental psychology. Austin Miller. climatic zones of Pakistan. Royal book company. Four Spheres of the Earth. The Atmosphere. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. 6th Edition.F. condensation and cloud Formation. local winds. 2003. Climatology. John H. Solar radiations. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. air pressure.K. Tarbuck.4. Karachi. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. Factors affecting air Pressure. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. Lutgens. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. 2. Recommended Books: 1. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. American Public Health Association (APHA). 1988. The Physics of Atmospheres.. Cambridge University Press. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. Sadder. A. K. .. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. Pandis. Spyros.. 2006 5. A brief historical background and schools of psychology.W.. The climate of Pakistan. 27 .

Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. limitation of irrigated agriculture. Pollution control through Ecology.C. High population density and psychological impacts. species response to pollutants. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. Water and distribution of species. Soil as a natural resource. P. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. soil resources of Pakistan. energy and carbon balance. Ecology of food production. techniques and methods of restoration. soil erosion and conservation. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. threats and mitigation.. London. Greene.characteristics and research methods.W. rivers. 2.A. Sustainable livestock management practices. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. 5th Edition. T. Recommended Books: 1. their management and ecological restoration. and Baum A. soil salinity and water logging. 1992. Environmental perception and cognition. Eysenck. CRC Press. sustainable agriculture. Ecological restoration. carbon dioxide and global climate change. Background and scope. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. solar radiation and primary production. Environmental Psychology. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. 28 . Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. Future water scenario of Pakistan. 2001. Course Outline Introduction. Routledge. M. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. Sustainable agricultural practices. Water as an ecological resource.. Bell. Fisher J. Routledge. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. CRC Press. London. Fundamental of Psychology. concepts.D. Restoration of derelict lands.

long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. terminologies: Poisons. K and Habib. Soil Science. A.S. Chemical interactions and their types. Newman. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. and Memon. Odum E. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. Thomson Brooks/Cole. 2nd ed.A. Israr-ud-Din. soil and air samples. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. from natural and anthropogenic sources. E. P. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air.1998. on human and other living organisms. Oxford. K.. toxins & toxicants. 4. toxicity screening using microbial systems. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. biological effects. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. Zedler. B. Shirkat Gah. Islamabad. A. Falk. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms.Recommended Books: 1. 2000 2. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. 1996. and Hobbs. J.. 5th Edition. and Barett. Synergism. 1989. toxicology of chemicals. 3. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. Immunological considerations in toxicology. their containment and control strategies. Pakistan’s Environment. Margaret A.National Book Foundation. Rashid. Fundamentals of Ecology. water and soil. Studies in Pakistan Geography. D.I. Peshawar.. R. USA. Island Press. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. toxins vs toxicants. 29 . COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water.W. University of Peshawar. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. J. Lahore.. 2004. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. Organs. Mumtaz. 5. Potentiation and Addition.P. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. G. in vivo & in vitro assays. dose response relationship in living organisms. 2006. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants.

State of the Environment-Pakistan . W. General and Applied Toxicology. clean development mechanism. B. P.. geography. land. economic development and the environment. McGrawhill. education. major ecosystems. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. 1st Edition. topographic zones. T and Turner. 2005 2. USA. 5th Edition. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. health. pollution control-a general model. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. 1992.D. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. (ed. 3. Government of Pakistan. the economy and the environment. Macmillan Press Ltd. measuring environmental benefits. M. 1993. international trade and the environment. economic aspects of different environmental problems. 1996. Vol. Recommended Books: 30 . Course Outlines Introduction. Recommended Books 1. USA.2005 2. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. First and Second law of Thermodynamics.Science of Poisons .Recommended Books 1. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. industry. urbanization and pollution. USA. Williams. Klassen.M. people.1 & 2. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. Ballantyne. 3.). Course Outlines Introduction to history. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. Ecological: ecological zones. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. Economic: agriculture. Hughes. 1st Edition. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. W. culture. water resources. CRC Press Llc.

Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. handling. preparation and storage. Sample preservation methods. Sparrow and D. New York. B. 31 . D. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. 3. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. Use of Potentiometery.. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. 2000.. Lab Work S. water and plant analysis. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater.A. D. Kolstad. Data interpretation for quality control.D. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH.2004. Conductivitymetry. Gravimetery.K. M. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). C. West. BOD. 8th Edition. Sample collection.L. and F. Holler. and Batemen. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. All Solids. NO3–N & NH4-N). and derived S.UK. Titrimetery. Standard solutions and standard curves. Field. Skoog.. Qualitative Chemical Analysis.. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. Thomson and Brooks. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. Fluoride. Reuter.I.W. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. 3. D. K. precision and accuracy. 2. 1993. A. Conductivitymetry. L. Australia. I. M.R. 4. Turner.and Field..1.K. C. D. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. Analytical techniques for soil. J.I. Oxford University Press. Collingwood. COD..J. 2003. CSIRO Publ. 1999. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. Oxford. 2005. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. Johns Hopkins University Press. USA. Recommended Books: 1.C. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Peverill. units. Harris. Freeman & Co. 2. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. Pearce. salinity & sodicity). Titrimetery. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. 6th Edition. Gravimetery.2002. Environmental Economics.

After completion of this course. Derbre. 2005. Bioreactors. J. Recombinant DNA technology. Sambrook. 2009. 2nd Ed. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. Biosensor. Oxford University Press. 5th Ed. Government of Pakistan. Environmental Biotechnology. and application of biotechnology in the environment. J.E. Isolation.). students will be able to understand the significance. (ed. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. 2001. Scragg.W. Tools in environmental biotechnology. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. England..living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. USA. A. Recommended Books 1. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. Germany. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. National Biosafety Guidelines. New York. purification and preservation of DNA. USA. 2007. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants.1999. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. Biotechnology. USA. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. Hans- Joachim. Biomarkers.P. Introduction to microbial kinetics. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. and Russel. PCR. 3.. and Josef. Smith. Wiley-VCH Verlag.D. 2. New York. 2005. D. Chichoster. 4. National Biotechnology Commission. J. Cambridge University Press. Course Outlines Introduction. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. W.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments.

Cartography. Jensen. 2000. Satellite Imageries. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. map projection and coordinate systems. Types of data used in GIS. Different types of maps. Inc. Data entry and output. Interpretation. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. Aerial photography. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. John Wiley and Sons. Inc. eradication of the duplicated data. 2000. A. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. History and data collection. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Inc. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. Active and Passive remote sensing. analysis and output. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Image Processing. Guilfoud press New York. Preparation of thematic maps. Campbell. Using and reading GPS in field. 4. advantages and limitations of process. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. John Wiley and Sons. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. 5. Rancez. Introduction to GIS. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Lulla. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. 2. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. F.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. K and L. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Fishery and wildlife. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . 3. Data acquisition. V. history and platforms. Z. Dessinov. 2008. 1999. Agriculture. Introduction to Photogrammetry. Mc Graw Hill Education. R. Pearsons Education. Harvey. integration of information from many sources. 2009. Energy Sources. Forestry.

Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. 4. etc. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. need and approach. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. 34 . Michigan. Environmental Management tools. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). 2006.). and Yoxon. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. principles of Cleaner production. Sheldon. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor.3rd Edition . EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. 2005. Methods of environmental protection. F. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS).. WWF Pakistan. American Society for Quality. 1998. hot spots of biodiversity. 3. M..This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. economic. plant. Related Environmental legislation. and Qasim.. philosophical. Conservation of biodiversity. 2. B. M. alpha and beta diversity. social and ethical values of biodiversity. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. A. Environmental aspects and impacts. American Society for Quality. 2001. types of biodiversity. threats to biodiversity. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. International Organization for Standardization. Course Outlines Introduction. Khan. cleaner technologies. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. Environmental Economy. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. Environmental Management Systems Principles.2nd Ed. Certification of EMS. standards and guidelines. Environment and sustainable development.C. Systems and Support Techniques. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. eco-design. ecological.

Rawalpindi. Publ.conservation at species.B. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. C. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. plants. Lahore). international agreements.. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. croplands. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. Kings College. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air.R. Quality assurance and quality control. design and types of samples.. cities. air.B. Course Outlines Introduction. Sunderland. Saad Printers. habitats. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. forests. ecotourism. management.. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. Biogeography. Cox. quality control sampling. protected areas. 1998. 2. conservation strategies. Conservation of wildlife. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. quality assessment. community and ecosystem level. population. Associates Inc. 3. 2ndEd. 2000. chemical addition. their categories. Legal protection of species. laboratory custody. sampling and design purposes. Mirza. Considerations. Sinauer. field custody. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. P. 2000.D. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city.B. and Morre. water. 35 . A Primer for Conservation Biology. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. conservation in man-made ecosystems. Recommended Books: 1. EIA requirement. Z. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. NOC for plant operation. Preservation methods including pH control. conservation and livelihood. refrigeration and freezing methods. soil and living organisms.e. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. London. national and international laws and regulations. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. P. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. presampling requirements/information.

agriculture. Energy and Temperature. S. Lewis Publisher London. 2. 1992. regional. E. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. (eds. 2nd Edition. altered community structure.1999. biological. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. Human responses to potential climate change. Moisture in the Atmosphere. Peakall. Regional droughts and 36 . Technomic Publishing Company Inc. USA. Recent Climate Change Indicators. Keith. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. (ed) Springer. R. Murai. 6. and the interactions between climate and the global environment.Recommended Books: 1. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. N. Physical. Manahan.) McGraw-Hill. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. Forstner U. D. Korte. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. S. UK. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. 2002. USA. 2002. 8. H.USA. USA. McKlivie. Tokyo.. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources.1996. Burden. Earth Observation of Global Change. F. Remote Sensing Note. extinctions. and Guethner. Ozone depletion. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. The Measurement of Climate Change. 2000. . Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. L. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. 3. Chapman and Hall. Chuviero. D. phenological changes. chemical. New York. Environmental Chemistry. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. 2008. Precipitation. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. I. 5. its causes and effects. 2008. E.. 7. human health.

. Ministry of Housing and Works. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. D. 2000.. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. Main stages in EIA process. EIA project management. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts.).T. Global Warming and Climate Change. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. Effects. 2. Oxford. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. Recommended Books: 1. decision-making to implement the project. Petts. London. Islamabad. Glasson. London. 2003. & Nixon. R. and noise. scoping.. J. Global Change and the earth system. John Wiley & Sons. John Wiley & Sons. 1994. Sringer. 1st Edition. Earthscan Publication Ltd. and Solutions. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. J. Houghton.. and Solutions. public involvement. social impact assessment (SIA). Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Recommended Books: 1.Causes. J. Therivel. Routledge. Hardy.Causes. National Book Foundation. 3. 2005.cataclysmic climate change. mitigation and impact management. project implementation and follow up. Islamabad. 1999. A. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. law. Effects. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. 3. 6. J. Harrop. solids. 4. Hardy. Blackwell. and Chadwick. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). 2004. Keith.. 2005. Cost and benefits of EIA. (ed. Types & Resources to produce Energy. 2. 2005. liquid. screening.(ed). possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized.. Climate Change .O. A. 37 . 5. 2003. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. review of EIA quality. reporting. impact analysis. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. 1986.. J. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. 4. T. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. overview. Climate Change .A.

agriculture products and their share in GDP. USA. Everitt. B. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. Development of Management Plan: needs. Ludwig. wind power and nuclear power. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. national and provincial legislation. B. J. Types. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning.. A. 6. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. management options. Asian Development Bank. problem in agriculture. agriculture chemicals. process and contents of the management plan. management options. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations.B and Warren.. John Willey & Sons.. Lohani. Rangeland Management: existing status. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. national agriculture policy. Carpenter. forest types and its existing management. requirement. 1997. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources.5. threat and its causes. solar power. effective management. New York. their current status and threats. 2002. (ed. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. national example.. 38 .. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. limitation in the future. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. and Tu. H. Recommended Books: 1. importance. M. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. methodologies. existing management approaches. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. best available option for future. R. F. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. R. Evans. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. Conservation in Progress. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual.. United Nations Environment Programme. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. Goldsmith. & McCabe.). wildlife census. their pros and cons. causes and methods for its improvement. threats. S.. Sadler. 1993. 2nd Edition.

Research Proposal: its importance . Case Studies.E.L. Thousand Oaks. John Wiley & Sons. types of sampling design/. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. J. Selecting the Research Method. Review of Literature. Research Design & Research Methods.F. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice.Amsterdam. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Scientific Methods. and Jorqensen. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. Creswell. USA. Review of Literature. New York. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. S. research methods.E. Literature Search: Database. Methodology. 1992. Sampling: the logic of sampling. 1984. Material Methods. population and sampling frames. 3. Bibliography. Environmental Conservation. V. Sage CA. 1990.A pre-requisite for Research. 4. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). Search Engines. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. Dasmann. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. Inference based on findings. Hansen. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. Experimental Research. P. Objectives. Interviews. 2007. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). W. GOP and IUCN. R.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. Islamabad. Questionnaire. concepts and terminologies.2. How to put things together? Introduction. to introduce students to research design. & Plano Clark. London. Elsevier. 39 .. Scientific Research: Science. 5. Surveys.

USA. 2nd Edition. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. 2001 and the rules of business made there under.Harrad. Recommended Books: 1. 5. Qadar.2. and Arhonditsis.S. regulations made there under.USA. USA. 3. Robert Yin. 2003. 1997. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. Chichester. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. Diamon. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. Moriarty. Students project in Environmental Science.Batty. Marilyn F. Government of Pakistan 3.. G. National Environmental Policy 4. Law Books House. Belmont California. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. M. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. Wadsworth Publishing Company. Univ. Booth. John and sons Ltd. 1989. 2000. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. R.. 3rd Edition. 2008. National Conservation Strategy 5. 1997. Survey Research Methods. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. 6.. 4. Sage Publishers.. S.h. E. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. England. Babbie. 2001. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. 2. of Chicago Press. 2003.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

4.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. recycling and re-use of wastewater.K. and Tortajada. Islamabad. fisheries management. 2003. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. A. R. Islamabad... climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. tubewells. hydrological cycle. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. (eds.. Oxford University Press Karachi. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. U. A.1993. Briscoe. Ahmed. Asia Printer.Varis. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. Biswas. P. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. N. and Qamar. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). R. (ed. 2006.. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. K. flood and droughts. 5. Cheema. wetlands resources management. A. N. 3.Lahore. C. I. water supply and demand management measures. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. The Politics of Managing Water. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. Indus Water Accord 1991. Lahore.). Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. J. Mirajuddin Publication . Revised & enlarged edition. 2006.. groundwater exploitation. Mirajuddin Publication . Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. Oxford University Press New Delhi. flood and drought management. Recommended Books: 1. Ahmed. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. 2. integrated water resources management (IWRM). Khan. water quality and quantity aspects. 1993. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. 6. 44 . Pakistan. Bengali. O. with drinking water facilities like springs.). precipitation distribution in Pakistan. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment.. watershed/catchment. Pakistan . virtual water. SDPI Oxford University Press. and Malik. 2005. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. pollution aspects..

USA. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. Soil Science. CA. PrenticeHall. Miller. Types and properties of parent materials. urbanization in Pakistan. Forms of urbanization. urban settlements. transport. Physical and chemical properties of soil. urban flora and fauna. 11th Edition. and Weil. E.T. 1996. Pakistan. soils. Course Outlines Introduction. Soil degradation.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. After completion of this course. 2008. Urbanization. R. Upper Saddle River.. 45 . Physical and chemical processes of weathering. 1. urban political ecology. USA. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. R. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. humans as components of urban ecosystems. 2007. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. San Diego. Brady. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. management and green productivity. and Bantel. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. R.C. 2007. NJ. Bashir. N. Course Outlines Introduction. Islamabad. hydrological processes. USA.W.R. Factors and processes of soil formation. D. Definition. urban landscapes characteristics. future of urban centers. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. Gardiner. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. the salient features of urban environments. D. Soil forming minerals. Upper Saddle River. National Book Foundation. Causes of urbanization. Hillel. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. Academic Press.. Cation and anion exchange. NJ. Urban ecosystem. Process and outcome. Prentice Hall. Soils in Our Environment.

The Ecology of Urban Habitats. City Design for Sustainable Development. UK. Planning theories and concepts. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. Smith. A. Hough. 2.. Planning and Urban Change. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area.S. 3. Planning and its relationship with other professions. London. 2004. M. CRC Press LLC.. SBS academic publishing. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels.. New trends in planning and city management. Recommended Books: 1. Principles of planning. Ward. UR. 2007. Alberti. Types of Urban Plans. USA. 2009. Sukopp. The planning process. I. UK... Chapman and Hall. 2006. Routledge. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. nature and purpose of urban planning.1990. Aims and Objectives of planning. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. Justification for planning for city management. 2004. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Gilbert. S. Kate. Springer. 1989. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. 5.and Kowaril. Penguin Group. Scope.L. London.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. Routledge. Silberstein. C. S. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. 2000. Land use planning theories. 2. The Works: Anatomy of a City. D. Hejny. 1. SAGE Publications Ltd. O. Hague. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. 46 . New York. Levels of planning. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. Elements of urban planning. UK. V. USA. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. H. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. J.and Maser. 4. M. nd 2 Edition.

and Woodrow.. Longman Group.e. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. 1993. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. 1993. P. Boulder . Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research.. ADB. Paris. H...J. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. Clara. 47 . Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. 3. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. Disaster Management: Components of management. International phenomenon.W. UK. Recommended Books: 1. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Earthquake. D. Flooding. Political factors. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards.F. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. Earthquake Management. 2. M... Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Chapman & Hall. and White G. Government of Pakistan.UNESCO. Manila. 4. Natural cycles and their role. Physical factors. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization.W. Disaster as an opportunity for development. Socio-economic factors. Natural Disasters Alexander. 1991. Different approaches and Indicators. E&UA Div. Islamabad. Prediction. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. New York. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. 1993. 4. Hazards. 1989. Westview Press. It discusses a wide range of aspects.3. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. 1986. Flood Management: Organizational Role. i. The Guilford Press. 2nd Edition.B. Kates. Role of Media in Disaster Management. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. Introducing Town Planning. Landslide. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. New York. Ministry of Housing and Works. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum... R. Cultural factors. G. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches.

alternate energy resources. Ecological concept in crop and food production. merits and demerits of wind. Sustainable livestock management. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. and Yonavjak. 6th Edition. sustainable energy management. energy resources. local.. Westport. 1984.M. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem.. uses. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. hydropower. Perry R.W. energy resources of Pakistan. Quorum Books. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. L. decomposers. 1983. 2001. F. primary producers. Schoch.A. USA. A. Biotic structure. 4th Edition. John Wiley and Sons. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. 2. M. New York. 2007.. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. R. 1. Agroecology. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. biomass resources. 3. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. 48 . E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. types. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Botkin.H. McKinney.C. Paris. 2007. 6. Consumer and producer relationship.5. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. OECD/IEA. solar. Disasters and Development Cuny. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. consumers.L.B and Keller. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. E. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. D. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. and Mushkatel.

Experimental Plant Ecology. Recommended Books: 1.R. Kapur. and Sudha. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. Yandermeer J. New Delhi. Boulder. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. Corol.G. USA. 2. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. E-11 Seminar 49 .H. 3. C.A.P. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. Study of index of diversity. and Rossel. Altreri. 1990. CBS Publishers and Distributors. India. R. 1995. M.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. Agrocology.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. USA.. New York. Westview Press. Study of stratification and profile diagram.M. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. P. 2000.

The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. 3. 50 . that: 1. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. the Committee agreed on the following principles. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. 4. availability of the faculty and other facilities. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. 2. 5.

8. 8. 21. 19. 10. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 9. 24. 4. 15. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 16. 23. 18. 6. 20. 11. 5. 7. 12. 13. 9. 17. 4. 5.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 12. 22. 10. 11. 25. 7. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 6. 3. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 26. 14. 2. 3. 2.

Instruments and methods. Draft National Environmental Policy. Elsevier. 4.. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan.1994.. FURTHER READINGS 1. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. Treaties. 1987. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. London Black Stone Press Ltd. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). and Bell. development of concepts. F.S. S. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. Conservation Strategies. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Provincial and Local Strategies. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. 3.T. 52 . Mackenzie J. Oxford University Press. 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press.E.1994. GOP and IUCN. Ball. NCS.F. technology and resource use. WCS. 1991.. Islamabad. Money. Amsterdam.A. Khan K. Recommended Books: 1. 2.. status of Terrestrial. S. Mackenzie.E. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. London.DETAILS OF M.1991. D. Environment People and Economy..1995. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. Karachi. and Jorqensen. Hodder and Stoughton. Conventions and Protocols in Global. Relationship of culture. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. 3. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. S. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. Environmental control Policies. P. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. Regional and International Environmental Issues. 2. Geography of Pakistan. Hansen. 1992.

Government of Pakistan. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. DC. World Bank. F & Bronstein. Chichester. Demographic impact assessment. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. Case Studies and review. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. Recommended Books: 1. D. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. 1995. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Environmental auditing. sampling rules. 2. process. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. ecological impact assessment. History.Vanclay. 3. economic impact assessment. social impact assessment. opportunities and issues. 53 . Washington. 2. Recommended Books: 1. England. Ed. 1995. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). Harlow Essex. Gas Chromatography etc. sample collection and preservation. role and importance. Environmental and Social Impact assessment.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction.. Wood. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. A. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. procedures and methods of EIA. Longman Scientific and Technical. Cost benefit analysis of projects. Ministry of Environment. Longman House. Environment Department. Air and Solid Waste. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). A one Publishers Lahore. Burnt Hill. ed. FURTHER READINGS 1. 1993. Assessment of environmental impacts. Ahmed. C. John Wiley & Sons. Principles of physical.A. Environmental Chemical Analysis. UK. Wastewater. K. WB.

R. 2. Yassi. Kjelllström. John Wiley and Sons. Mantel s. Project Management Institute. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. UK. prevention and control. 2001. Park. 1998. 1997. safety techniques. Planning Commission Performas. A Guide to Project Management. outputs. Environmental Health Engineering. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. S. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. Accident prevention and safety plans. assumptions. 1992. Caeneross. B. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. 2nd Ed. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. Basic Environmental Health..2000. means of verification. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. Reasons for Project success or failure. London. 54 . K. 1st ed. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works).. 2. 4. 3. work breakdown structure. Lippmann. de Kok. Meredith J. Nebel. Public health concept. Project Planning and Approval Processes. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. 2002. T. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. Project Initiation. economic evaluation... feasibility study. M/S Banarsid. development objectives. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). L. 1st Ed. air borne. 1st Ed.. Need identification. Project Life Cycle. Project Planning. J. Defining Project objectives. Writing Project Proposal. 5. specific objectives. M. R. USA. Oxford University Press New York. USA. and Wright. indicators. Resource Mobilization.. T. T. principles and practices. Ergonomic and Safety. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. Inc. and Guidotti... activities. New York. Occupational Health: problems and issues. Government Policies and Programs. inputs. Prentice Hall International Inc. Primary health care services. A.. 1993. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. Recommended Books: 1. J. Wiley Interscience. T.

B and Keller. McKinney. 1990b. merits and demerits of wind. 4th Edition. John Wiley and Sons. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. petroleum. 2.M.L. principles and elements of the process of EMS.A. 2. Paris. bio-energy resources. Environmental Auditing. OECD/IEA. St Luise Press. data collection and interpretation. Principles of cleaner production. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. alternate energy resources. 4. hydropower. M. Related Environmental regulations. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. Botkin.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. 3. solar. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Sayre. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. Michigan-January 2001. energy resources. ISO Central Secretariat. industry and domestic sectors. USA. 2001. 55 . Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). 2007. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. 3. Environmental auditing. Schoch. uses. Paris. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). gas. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. 1998. 6th Edition. L.. and Yonavjak. E. D. 2007. Recommended Books: 1. energy resources of Pakistan. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. types. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. R. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Switzerland. Sources of data. D. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. nuclear) local. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. sustainable energy management for agriculture. transport. non-renewable and renewable.

Plant population dynamics.T. 1st Edition. The Green House Effect. E. global aspects of plant ecology. Effects.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. 2. Climate change and food production. Beck. John Wiley & Sons. John Wiley & Sons. UK. forests. Climate Change . Climate Change and Ecosystems. Warrick. water resources. & Charlesworth. 3. (Ed. Blackwell Publishing. J. Silvertown. Plant Ecology. Shulze. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. 2. 2005. Houghton. management and restoration. 2004. plant invasions. Recommended Books: 1. Effects. K. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. 4. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. vegetation dynamics. Life history strategies of plants. Species richness. 2005. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. Hardy. plant conservation. 2005. Springer. Earthscan Publication Ltd. survival and extinction. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. Maarel.Causes. resources and plants. types and their climatic effects. ED. Vegetation Ecology Ed. Chichester. D. Oxford. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T.. Climate Change . human activities and vegetation dynamics. Modeling of climate change. ECOPE 29. 1. John Wiley & Sons. UK 1991. competition and coexistence. Oxford UK. 56 . 3. T. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. 2005. D.). 2003. Recommended Books: 1.Causes. Hardy. J. E & Muller-Hohenstein. London. and Solutions. and Solutions. Green House Gases.D. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. Blackwell Publishing. Berlin. etc. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. B & Jager.. types of climate change models. 2003. 5. J. geographical and temporal patterns.

A. Blackwell Publsihing. Publishers Sunderland. 2. Biodiversity: An introduction. Cambridge. J.) Gaston. & Ripley. 57 . The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Consumptive. Participatory forest management. their ecological and economic importance. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. Sinauer Assocaites. S. 2002.G. Essentials of Conservation Biology. Forests. 1973 2. 5. 3. II). Threatened animals and plants. Weddell.L. John Wiley And Sons. USA. Wildlife of Pakistan. Recommended Books: 1. Global and national biodiversity.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Status of forests in Pakistan. J. status. Forest plantations.J. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. Oxford University Press. types. Roberts. distribution. London.B. problems and solutions. Loss of biodiversity. their types and role in conservation. UK. Oxford University Press. Robinson. Roberts. Conserving Living Natural Resources. Wildlife Ecology and Management. R. 1992.(2nd Ed. Recommended Books: 1. Oxford. 4. habitats and ecosystems. 1998. Principles of Wildlife Management. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. T. UK. W. their importance. 2004. B. Oxford. its causes.J. deforestation and its control. T. Oxford. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. Rangeland management. 3. Protected areas. biological diversity. 2002. management. And Bolen. Wetlands. Cambridge. Establishment and management of protected areas. E. Inc. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. kinds. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. S. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. K. Protection and restoration of species. Cambridge University Press. Oxford University Press.J. types. Protected areas in Pakistan. Sustainable forest management. 1986. I). Primack. distribution. & Spicer. Bailey.J. Extinction of species.D. Mcmillan. distribution and management. threats and conservation. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. 1984.

Urban land use planning and management.. H. Planning and Urban Change. G. Penguin Group. drinking water and solid waste in cities.. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. 2004. E&UA Div. Government of Pakistan. C. urban political ecology. Kate. 1986. S. urban systems and their characteristics. USA. UK. 2000. J. sanitation.and Maser. 4. Introducing Town Planning. UK. future of urban centers. London. urban landscape characteristics. Environmental problems of urban life.. Islamabad. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Clara. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Ward. CRC Press LLC. New York. USA. Forms of urbanization. 3. Longman Group. SAGE Publications Ltd. Sustainable cities. Recommended Books: 1. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. V. management of transport. 58 . Ministry of Housing and Works. 1993. urbanization in Pakistan. A. 2.. 2007. Silberstein.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction.

A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. ISBN 0194313492 59 . Martinet. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure.J.Annexure . Oxford University Press. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. Exercises 1. a) Functional English Grammar 1. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. Practical English Grammar by A. 1997.V. Third edition. Thomson and A.

ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Thomson and A. Martinet. Oxford Supplementary Skills.2. Reading.V. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. Exercises 2. Oxford Supplementary Skills. 1997. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. minutes of meetings. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet.J. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. Oxford University Press. Third edition. Writing. Third Impression 1992. b) Practical English Grammar by A. and speed reading. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. Upper Intermediate. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. Fourth Impression 1993. intensive and extensive. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. Reading/Comprehension 1.

Thomson and A. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Martinet. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Oxford University Press 1986.V. discursive. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Third edition. Exercises 2. Reading. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. Fourth Impression 1993. 2. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. language. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . narrative. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Writing. b) Writing 1. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1.J. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. Third Impression 1991. Fourth Impression 1992. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. clarity. Oxford Supplementary Skills.1. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Practical English Grammar by A. descriptive and argumentative writing). Advanced. Writing. form. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). 2. Reading 1. Oxford Supplementary Skills. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Writing. introduction to presentations. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Advanced by Ron White. Third Impression 1992. content.

General Editiors: Janice Neulib. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. Compiled by norther Illinois University. argumentative and report writing).(particularly suitable for discursive. 2004. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. descriptive. 62 . 3. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. A Custom Publication. College Writing Skills by John Langan. without taxing the taste of engineering students). Martin’s Press. 2. St. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. Mandell. Kathleen Shine Cain. Kirszner and Stephen R.

Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Historical Perspective a. S. 2000. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. 1947-58 b. Course Outline 1. State & Society in Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Contemporary Pakistan a.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. . Mehmood. ideological background of Pakistan. 3. 1988-99 f.Annexure . Karachi: Oxford University Press. Shahid Javed. Society and social structure c. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. Ethnicity d. 4. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. Safdar. 63 Books Recommended 1. contemporary Pakistan. Zaidi. Indus Civilization ii. Location and geo-physical features. 1958-71 c. b. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. Lahore. S. 2. national development. 2. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. government. 1999 onward 3. Economic institutions and issues b. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. 1994. 1971-77 d. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki.M. People and Land i. Muslim advent iii. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. politics. Akbar. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. 1977-88 e. Study the process of governance. 1993.

Aziz. Tahir. Party. Lahore: Vanguard. 12. Karachi: Royal Book Company. II & III. Noor ul. 1976. 64 . Islamabad.The Emergence of Banglades. Amin. 14. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. 1980. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1987.5. 1972. Ziring. Lawrence. I. Haq. Zahid. 13. Afzal. 10.. History & Culture of Sindh. The Political System of Pakistan. K. 6. 1980.K. Muhammad Waseem. 1967. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Vol. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Club Road. Khalid Bin. 11. 9. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. Political Parties in Pakistan. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. 1993.National Movement in Pakistan. Sayeed. Wayne. 1998. nd. Institute of Public Policy Research. Pakistan Under Martial Law. Washington: American Enterprise. Rafique. Safdar. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. Mehmood. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. 7. Ansar. M. Ethno . Wilcox. Politics in Pakistan. Enigma of Political Development. 8.

A.A.19.A.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.20) Related to thinking.Tadabar (Verse No1.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 . 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.Annexure .W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.40.57.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.21.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.A.58. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.56.6.

3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt. in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .

“Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. “Emergence of Islam” .S. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. Ahmad Hasan. International Islamic University. IRI. Bhatia. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. Pakistan. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. Islamabad (2001) 67 . “Studies in Islamic Law. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University.

D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. Beckenback EF. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Wooton W. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. geometric progression. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. set operations. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. College Algebra and Trigonometry.Annexure . harmonic progression. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. functions. Boston 68 . introduction to sets. PWS-Kent Company. cube roots of unity. 1987. 1978. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. matrix inverse. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). Sharron S. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. types. equations reducible to quadratic equations. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. types of functions. complex numbers. 1986. Houghton & Mifflin. Cramer’s rule. trigonometric identities. not majoring in mathematics. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. determinants. system of linear equations. Boston Swokowski EW. PWS-Kent Company.

derivatives. inequalities. intersection of two lines. Bevens I. 1983. PWS-Kent Company. 2005. solution of equations involving absolute values. John Wiley. equation of a line. Recommended Books: Anton H. not majoring in mathematics. Reading. various forms of equation of a line. slope of a line. 1995. continuous functions. parallel and perpendicular lines. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. distance between a point and a line. not majoring in mathematics. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. differentiation of polynomial.2. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. left-hand and right-hand limits. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. integration by parts. New York Stewart J. distance between two points. Ma. Calculus (11th edition). functions and their graphs. Addison-Wesley. integration by substitution. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. change of variables in indefinite integrals. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). rational and transcendental functions. continuity. Calculus (3rd edition). Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. Davis S. 2005. 69 . Boston Thomas GB. Finney AR. USA 3. angle between two lines. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function.

Freshman and Company. PWS-Kent Company. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. nature of roots of quadratic equations. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. hyperbola. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). 1987. set operations. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. Introduction to sets. PWS-Kent Company. intersection of lines and circles. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. functions. inverse of matrices. ellipse. types of functions. system of linear equations.Circle: Equation of a circle. 1986. locus of a point in various conditions. Analytic Geometry. 70 . determinants. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. Cramer’s rule. • Contents 1. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. circles determined by various conditions. Boston 4. equations reducible to quadratic equations. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). Boston Swokowski EW. types of matrices. Conic Sections: Parabola. 1969 Kaufmann JE. Scott.

discrete and continuous series. W. types of frequency series. tally sheet method. relationship of statistics with social science. standard deviation. 71 . ungrouped and grouped data. 5. J. moments. characteristics of statistics.. 2. Boston. 2. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. quartiles. R.. E. Prentice Hall. deciles and percentiles. 4. array. Wilcox. Kaufmann. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. bar frequency diagram histogram. 3. Graphs: Graph of straight line. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry.geometric and harmonic progressions. Measures of dispersion: Range. cumulative frequency curve. variance. E.. trigonometric identities. Swokowski. circle and trigonometric functions. skewness and kurtosis. Walpole. PWS-Kent Company.. R. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. E. Books Recommended: 1. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. individual. R. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. Latest Edition. Latest Edition. Latest Edition. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. frequency polygon.

Thomas. Continuity. John H. 1983. Second Edition 1992. Rational and Transcendental Functions. Davis. reduction formulae. implicit differentiation. 3. Calculus. logarithmic differentiation. et al. 2002. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. Inc. I. Extreme Values of Functions. 2. Boston. Leibnitz’ theorem. 3rd Edition. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. Rational Functions. theorems of differentiation. Elliott Mendelson. integral inequalities. Contents 1. • Integration Integration from first principles. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. Frank A. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. and Transcendental Functions. Integration by Parts. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. Calculus Single and Multivariable. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . sinusoidal function. Prentice-Hall. W. Inequalities.Jr. 6. John Wiley & Sons. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. 2005.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. Hughes-Hallett. integration using partial fractions. 4th edition. Addison Wesley publishing company. McCallum. 2005. Recommended Books: 1. Slope of a Line. 1999. 11th Edition. quotients. 2. Gleason. Continuous Functions. Calculus. products. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. Bevens. Equation of a Line. 6. 5. Jhon Willey & Sons. the chain rule. integration by inspection. H. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. Solution of equations involving absolute values. 8th edition. special points of a function. infinite and improper integrals. logarithmic integration. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. Anton. substitution method. integration by parts. Mathews. Trigonometric Functions. E. 4. Swokowski. Least-Squares Line. Calculus. plane polar coordinates. applications of integration. the inverse of differentiation. Inc. Schaum’s Outline Series. S. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions.

arithmetico-geometric series. complex conjugate. multiplication. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. inverses of hyperbolic functions. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3.Additions and subtraction. finding the nth roots of unity. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. solving hyperbolic equations. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. the difference method. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. approximation errors in Taylor series. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. identities of hyperbolic functions. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. series involving natural numbers. modulus and argument. geometric series.

scalar triple product. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices.5. 6. of a unitary matrix. Hermitian. moments of inertia. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. masses. vector product. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . Pappus’ theorems. the inner product. orthogonal. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. line to line. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. centers of mass and centroids. point to plane. symmetric and antisymmetric. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product.

differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. spherical polar coordinates 75 . curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. divergence of a vector field.8. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. combinations of grad.

Diagrams. Types of frequency curves. Standardized variables. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Exercises. Unit 3. Pie chart. Box and Whisker Plot. Unit 2. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Exercises. Median and mode. sampling and non sampling errors. definition of outliers and their detection.Annexure . Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Bar charts. Unit 7. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Range. Presentation of Data Introduction. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Difference of means and proportions. Historigram. Graphs and their Construction. Change of origin and scale. sample design and sampling frame. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Absolute and relative measures. Quantiles. Stem and Leaf Display. Collection of primary and secondary data. The Variance and standard deviation. Exercises. sampling with and without replacement. Editing of Data. acceptance and rejection regions. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Empirical Relation between Mean. Errors of measurement. Significant digits. Statistical problem. The Mean Deviation. Population. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Discrete and continuous variables. Coefficient of variation. Observations. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Rounding of a Number. null and alternative hypothesis. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Data. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. 76 . Test statistics. probability and non-probability sampling. level of significance. Different types of Averages. Exercises. Type-I and Type-II errors. Sources. Unit 4. properties of Good Average. Moments and Moments ratios. Histogram. Exercises.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. bias. Probability and Probability Distributions. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Constructing of a frequency distribution. Exercises Unit 6. The semi-Interquartile Range. Exercises. The Mode. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Unit 5.

“Introduction to Statistics”. Unit 11. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. Kitab Markaz. Exercises Unit 9. R. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. 2005. simple linear regression.Unit 8. Regression and Correlation Introduction. Macmillan Publishing Co.. Correlation. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. 1982. E.Single Population Introduction. cause and effect relationships. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. F. Coefficient of linear correlation. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. its estimation and interpretation. examples. Testing of Hypothesis. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. Inc. Contingency Tables. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. 77 . r and R2. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples.. New York. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. 2 Muhammad. Exercises Unit 10.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. 3rd Ed. Exercises.

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