CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

2

CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
58

3

appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. degree awarding institutions. 63. and 36. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. respective accreditation councils and stake holders.ALTAF ALI G. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. dated December 4th 1976.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. It is. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. D773/76-JEA (cur.). Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. PROF. Lahore. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. therefore. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. universities and other institutions of higher education. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. the Federal Government vide notification No. The world has turned into a global village. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. It also aimed to give a basic. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. DR. R&D organizations.

UNI. REC. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. R&D. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. EXP. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. OF FINAL CURRI. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. PREP. COL. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. Preparation 5 .CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. OF NCRC. OF CURRI.

Following attended the meeting:1. 7. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Rawalpindi Dr. Member 3.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Member 4. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Member 5. Member 6 . Dr. Dr. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Dr. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Rawalpindi Dr. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Karachi from 28-30. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Lahore Member 6.

Member 11. Dr. 13. Dr. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Karachi Member 12. 7 . Dr. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Prof. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Dr. Prof. Dr. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Member 15. Member 16. Dr. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr.8. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Member 14. Member 10. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr.

Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. 2. 8 . Muhammad Rafiq Rai. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Faisalabad Member 18. Dr. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. 1. Karachi. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Mr. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. Director of HEC Regional Center. The meeting was opened by Mr. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. Chairman. At first.17. Member 19. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Mr. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. Secretary Dr. Dr. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. Member 20. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr.

The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. 2. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. In last few centuries. 3.3. The committee thanked Mr. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. 6. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. 4. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. 1. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. 5. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution.

• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. Apply theoretical understanding. skills and behaviour patterns. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. 5. This committee. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. in its preliminary meeting. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. ii. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. regional and global contexts.

2. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. Integrating natural sciences. Sc. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme.. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. 3. The 11 .graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. 1. 6. 5. The medium of instruction. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. with consensus. eight semesters in the semester system. A. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. 4. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. that: 1. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration.e. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature.

Introduction to Computer 14. Environmental Physics 16. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Psychology* . Environmental Pollution 22. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Introduction to Earth Science 8. English-II 12. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Basic Chemistry* 4. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. English-III 18. Climatology* 23. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Environmental Chemistry 15. English-I 6. Introductory Economics* 17.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Biology –I* 3. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Biology –II* 9. Environmental Microbiology 21.

Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Environmental Management Systems 34. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. Environmental Monitoring 36. Environmental toxicology 27. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. Natural Resource Management 40. Applied Ecology 26. ELECTIVE-III 42. English-IV/ Univ.24. 46. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . Climate Change 38. Environmental Biotechnology 32. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. 44. 45. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Opt. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. Environmental Economics 29. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43.

• Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical.

COURSE 2 BIOLOGY .. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. ecological. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. 4. proteins and nucleic acids. Human environment and its problems: global. urbanization. 4th Ed. R. and their relationships with various environmental factors.B & Keller. current global. 2002. 6th Ed. socio-economic.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. poverty and resource depletion. ethical. 2007. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. M. Wright. & Nebel. B. regional. Thomson Learning. Pearson Educational..L. D. R. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts.M. Botkin. philosophical. national. John Wiley & Sons. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. its importance in human life. development in industry and agriculture. lipids. McKinney. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. E. L. Schoch. Miller. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. 2007. 2007 3.T. history. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. Different aspects of environment: physical. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. G. 2. 10th Ed. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. & Yonavjak. Major components of environment: physico-chemical.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. environmental pollution.J. 15 . biological and social.A. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future.

Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. Ltd.. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. G. Cells. R. Structure and the basis of function.. chemical basis of life. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. 8th Ed. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. 2003. Plopper. Aromatic compounds. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. Self Assessment and Revie. amines). J. D. M. Lewis.. Bulter. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. USA. and Lewis. protobionts. E. Origin of life: chemical evolution. carbohydrates. 5th Edetion. Australia . New York. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. 1. esters. 2007. the molecule of genetic information and replication. V. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. Cassimeris. USA. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. USA. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. Canada. covalent. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. B. proteins. R.. Cell division. McGraw. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. Molecular Biology through Questions. and Whitelaw. chemical diversity. Shier. 3. Starr. polypeptides in protein diversity. coordinate covalent bond. origin of metabolism. Lingappa. Nucleic acids. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. C. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. Crossley. Wadsworth Group. Introduction to cell biology. carbonyls. N. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. 2007. 16 . Ionic. 2..Hill International Edition. lipids. 5. A. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. 4. carboxylic acids. Biology: a Human Emphasis. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. L. lipids. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. 2008. 1996. phospholipids in membrane systems.

concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. F.. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. real line.E. Sequence and series: Arithmetic.ions. Osmosis and Dialysis. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). 2. molal. D. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. Photochemical reactions.C. Measurement of pH. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Harris. values of trigonometric functions... Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. 2003. Thin layer chromatography. Blackwell Science.H. Column chromatography. T. J. Colloids chemistry. UK. and Holler. radicals. 2005. Surface chemistry. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. series and means. 4. Skoog.J. double angle formulas. P. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry.M. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. 2nd Edition. USA. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. Canada. Hill. Liss. EC and TDS in waste water. UK.. D. J. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. 6th Edition. straight line and related concepts. and Reid. minor and cofactor of a matrix. law of Cosines. geometric and harmonic sequence.. Girard.. P.J. Andrews.. 2004. determinants. Thomson and Brooks. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis..S. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). 1st Ed. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. simultaneous equations and their solutions. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. W. 8th Edition.K. Brimblecombe. West. 2nd Edition. B. Recommended Books: 1. angle-sum formula. Jickells.D. M. Algebra of matrices. normal solutions/buffers. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional).A. 5.Special Products (Binomial Expression). graphs.. USA. Freeman and Company. 17 . Jones and Barlett. D. Lab Work Preparation of molar. Cambridge University Press. 2004. expansion of determinants. 3.E. Solution chemistry. 2004. equations of lines (linear equations).

Scott Foresman and Company. earthquakes. foliation. the processes of their formation. California. 1999. Jr. 4. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. difference.. 2. earthquakes and volcanoes.Cramer’s Rule. lineation and unconformities. by parts integration (simple applications). Introduction to sedimentary. and Finney. mountain building. cleavages. Addission. Fossils and their significance. plate tectonics. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. product and quotient rules without derivations). Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. Weathering. erosion and related landforms. Chatterjee. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. Trignometry for College students. Smith. joints. R. Chain rule. nonrepeated linear factors. 3. Introduction to rocks and minerals. Pacific Grove. K. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system.B. Integration: Formulas of integration. age. weathering and erosion. theorems on differentiation (sum. Introduction to folds. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. Analytical Geometry. 18 . D. G. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. 4th Ed.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . New Delhi. Earth as a member of solar system. J. igneous and metamorphic rocks. faults. Thomas. irreducible quadratic factors. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure .B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. S. different earth processes like mountain buildings.. 10th Ed.Wesley. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. Narosa Publishing House. L. composition and its internal structure. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. Recommended Books: 1. Abraham. its origin. theorem of integration.

Smith. Brooks/Cole. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. and Pun. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. 11th Edition. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. D.. Geological time chart with biodiversity.. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water.. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. E.Identification of rocks and minerals. 2005.. modern concepts. 5. R. molecular basis of biodiversity. Recommended Books: 1. 4. 2007 2. Prentice Hall: 2006.. Tarbuck. and Tasa. Lutgens. J. multicellularity. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. Lamarckism. J. Routledge. J. 19 . Wicander. interactions among diversified life. causes of extinction. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat.. D. 2004. How Does Earth Work. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. Physical Geology and Process of Science. F. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life.. Life in sea. Darwinism. G. different classification systems. R. K. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. Prentice Hall. Foundations of Structural Biology. Biodiversity of deserts. Use of brunton compass and GPS. protocell formation. measuring biodiversity. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . biodiversity crises. Prentice Hall. and Tasa. Field Study tour. 2007 3. E. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. unicellularity. 3rd Edition. and Monroe. Park. K. Biodiversity of canal.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. consequences of losing biodiversity. 9th Edition. invasion of life on land. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. Tarbuck. 5th Edition. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species.. Lutgens.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. Biodiversity of hilly areas. A. examples of adjustments in varied environment. population loss and decline.. Earth Science. animals). F. G. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms.

Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. New York: New York University Press. Bradbury. Biology. Adam. CA: AltaMira Press. K. 2nd Edition.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. (editors). and Spicer. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . Inc. The Biosphere. The Ecology of global consumer culture. Crumley.. Routledge. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. Scope and application. Goals and expectations. 2009. I. USA. 2009. 20 . Culture. Chronological. P. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. I. 2003. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. 2005. 2..E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. Starr. Biodiversity (An Introduction). The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. 2. Perspective of human-environment evolution. Blackwell Science Ltd. 2000. 3. Tripartite nature of environment. Prospect Heights. Environmental Risks and the Media. culture and society. UK. Understanding the environment-human relationship. J. Gaston. Conceptualizing environment. Nora and Wilk. Use of environment for vested interest. Consumption. C. Townsend. Recommended Books: 1. Hannen. K. J. UK. John Wiley and Sons. 3. and Sustainable Living. globalization and environmental issues. power & hegemony. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. Wadsworth Group. 2001. L. Walnut Creek.K. Inc. 5th Edition. R. (editor). and concerns. Contemporary environment issues and debate. Contemporary environmental status. Allan & Carter. 2006. C. 4. IL:WavelandPress. UK. a Human Emphasis.

output hardware. Local Area Network.H.1999. Ms-Excel. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. software packages.. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. Course Outlines Definition. as are their effects on the biosphere. e-mail.. Kluwer Academic Publishers. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. Configurations. G. Storage hardware. Ms-Access. Fundamentals of computer.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . system software. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. 6. 21 . computer programs and basic applications. Ed. Courter. processing hardware. internet.Microsoft office 2000. Selin.5.London 1996. Ms-Power Point. Hardware: Input Hardware.6th Ed. Software: Application software. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. Marquis A. Long N. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. 2003. Recommended Books: 1. Introduction to MS-Word. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . Long l. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. Operating system (Windows). Rutledge.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. Milton. K. 2. Types and classification of computers.

S. J. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. their sources and toxic actions. 5. Turbulent diffusion. 2004. Chemical reactions. Solids.D. Particle physics.. Jickells.. its causes and adverse effects on environment. B. USA. 3. 2005.E. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems.E. India. Turbulent jets and plumes..M. 2. Isotopes and radioactive decay. Diffusion.G. and Reid.. Banerji Prentice Hall of India.. Miller. J. Andrews. Environmental impact of various industries. Ozone and UV light. DoriaSerrano. Environmental Chemistry. 2008.. Solar spectrum. and Singh. Hernandez-Esparza. Thomson-Brooks. Recommended Books: 1. Nuclear energy. UK. Jones and Barlett. Gaussian plumes in the air. G. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. Liquids and Gasses. Transport of pollutants.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. Liss. Energy conversion.. Heat radiation and heat transfer. Springer. Active control of sound. Germany. Sound and Noise.J. P. Fundamentals of aquatic.. Reducing the transmission of sound. Environmental Chemistry. Ozone chemistry. atmospheric and soil chemistry.. Ibanez. 1999. C. Electromagnetic radiation. Girard. 2nd Edition. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. J.T. Environmental Science. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. trophic level. Fregoso-Infante. Fate of pollutants in environment. Basic acoustics. Equations of fluid dynamics. Turbulence. P. Human perceptions and noise criteria. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. photosynthesis. M. 1st Edition. Samir. A. Entropy. K. Energy. Canada.. Global climate and climatic change. T. 2004. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. Brimblecombe. M. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. 4. Blackwell Science.. Conversion of mass. interaction of light with matter.

2. Measures for sustainable development. economic progress. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. Smith. R. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Boeker. Introductory Environmental Physics. economic growth. producer and community point of view. Guyot. John Wiley and Sons Inc. S. USA.1998. 2001. Seinfeld. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. Growth and development. USA. Praxis publishing. 7th Ed. 3. and Van Grondelle.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. 2008. Natural resources and the economy. economic welfare and difference among all. population and environmental quality. Kentucky USA. World Bank Publications. Economic functions of environment. Economic management and environmental quality. Economic Development. economic growth and its measurement. Field visit. USA.. Routledge. 2008. 2001. J. H. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. USA. 4. S. concepts and measurement. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. Yusuf. Environmental Physics. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. poverty. Sustainable development. M. Todaro. Man environmental relationship. New York. G. Physics of the Environment and Climate. Recommended Books: 1. Impact of economic activity on environment. C. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. Growth and Environment. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. Pakistan economic context: National income. interaction between ecology and economic management. and Resource allocation. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. UK. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. P. Producer behavior. 23 . and Pandis.Economic development. N. Environmental economics. 2006. Recommended Books: 1. 2. Wesely Publishers. E.

A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. B. 2009. Economics. Swift. D. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. 2007. Frodeman. the ethics of soil. J. description of population. species. DeVeer. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. and systems ecology. role of light. Kessinger Publishing. 2002.V. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. biogeography. its fundamental concepts. Farmington Hills. Environmental Critics of agriculture. 2.. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . Environmental philosophy and ethics. B. Hanley. N. USA. community and ecosystem. LLC. Russell. branches of ecology. Callicott. 2008. Course Outlines Introduction. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. London.3. Recommended Books: 1. 4. 24 . community. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. USA. Ecology. concepts and approaches. 4. Touchstone Books. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. Ecosystem and its types. A History of Western Philosophy. Introduction to ethical theory. Palgrave Macmillan.A. temperature. International Thomson Publishing. World Bank Publications. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. levels of ecological organization. soil. WCIV7AA.. J.. 3. 2008. population.. ethics and ecology. B. & Pierce. water. Natural philosophy. C. England. M. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. and White. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. Portland 1967. R. Shogren. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography.

2001 5. UK. Lab Work 25 . Dash. Ecology (concepts and applications. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. Populations. C. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. community dynamics. bacteria and eukarya. Recommended Books 1. plant geography and animal distribution. habitat and niche. Microbial metabolism. productivity of different ecosystems. Biomes of the world. Systems ecology. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. G.) Moles. students will be able to understand the significance. Cambridge University Press. E P. landscape ecology. Chapman. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. 2000. 1999 4. M C J 1st ed. J. 6th Ed. 2004. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. M. P. and Barett. Tata McGraw-Hill. Ecosystem: structure and function. biotic factors. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. aquatic microbiology. UK.L and Reiss. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. and More. various concepts of community. distribution limits. 5th Ed. Biogeochemical cycles of C. J. Fundamentals of Ecology. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. Ecology (principles and applications). Fundamentals of Ecology. characteristics of urban. Population distribution and abundance. Concepts of Limiting factors. 1992. M J. Odum. New Delhi. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem.Cox. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. B. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. 3. ecological modeling.topography and air as ecological factors. N. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. and S. WCB/McGraw-Hill. landscape changes and their importance. After completion of this course. New York. 1st Ed. Thomson Brooks/Cole. 2. King’s College London. C. population dynamics.W.

American Society for Microbiology. D..B. USA. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution.. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. Hill.J. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. L. and Gerba. USA. D. Noise. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. (Elsevier) USA. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. USA. Human & other living organisms. Academic Press. its sources and their effects. 2nd Edition. isolation.and Brendecke. Academic Press.M.L. 2005. transportation & treatments. 3. J. Pepper. I.A. M.. Pollution Control Strategies. Knudsen. Maier.C..J.P.F. and Jeffery. G. USA. P. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. Butterworth-Heinemann. Case Studies. 26 . 2005. Soil. P.D. 2. 5..I.. 4th Edition. 4.P. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. M. Harley. Microbiology. Recommended Books: 1. Crawford. A. Water. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution.R. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. Cambridge UK. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. 2005.. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. 2002. 2007. 2 Edition.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. McGraw Hill Inc. Fuhrmann. Effects of Pollutants. D. Solid Waste generation. Sylvia. USA. 2. New Jersey.M. UK. 1995. 2009. and Stetzenbach.J. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. Mean plate count. Academic Press..J. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). C. Washington DC.1998.Gerba. Prentice Hall. L. R. J.L. Collection. Weiner...M. Hurrst.W. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. Hartel..P. and Klein. 3. McInernery. F. and Zuberer. J.V. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Environmental Microbiology. Environmental Pollution and Control. Dilution plate technique. W. peppor. purification and preservation. Cambridge University Press.A.and Vesilaind. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines.G. Prescott.. R.A. Marine & Industrial pollution. Peiece..L. C. Recommended Books 1. London.J.K.

J.. Austin Miller. Karachi. Weather and Climate. local winds. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. 3.W. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). Recommended Books: 1. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. . The Physics of Atmospheres. Surface winds. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. Cambridge University Press. 5.K. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. 6th Edition. A. 27 .M. American Public Health Association (APHA). concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. Lutgens. Climatology. Sadder. The Hydrologic cycle. The Atmosphere. Mechanism of heat transfer. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. 2003. Spyros. Royal book company..4. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. climatic zones of Pakistan. John H. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere.F.2nd Editions. Environmental psychology. The climate of Pakistan. Lawrance K. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. K. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . Radiation and climate.. 2006 5. 4. Tarbuck. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. 2. air pressure. N. John Wiley and Sons. Factors affecting air Pressure. Solar radiations.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. global circulation. condensation and cloud Formation. Houghton J. Shamshad.. 1992. Methods of psychology. 2002. Four Spheres of the Earth.E. Pandis. Cloud Classification. Marcel Dekkar. 1988.

2. Routledge. sustainable agriculture. concepts. species response to pollutants. soil salinity and water logging. Environmental Psychology. Water as an ecological resource. and Baum A. CRC Press. Recommended Books: 1. soil erosion and conservation. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues.C..A. Sustainable livestock management practices. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. P. techniques and methods of restoration. M. Fisher J. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. Course Outline Introduction. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives.W. Water and distribution of species. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan.D. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. Restoration of derelict lands. Greene. Routledge. limitation of irrigated agriculture.characteristics and research methods. Ecological restoration. High population density and psychological impacts. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. Soil as a natural resource. energy and carbon balance. Bell. soil resources of Pakistan. Pollution control through Ecology. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. 1992. Sustainable agricultural practices. Ecology of food production. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. their management and ecological restoration. rivers. Background and scope. threats and mitigation. Future water scenario of Pakistan. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. CRC Press. London. solar radiation and primary production. Fundamental of Psychology. Eysenck. 5th Edition. 28 . Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. London. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. 2001. T. Environmental perception and cognition.. carbon dioxide and global climate change.

on human and other living organisms. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. Island Press. Soil Science. 5. Falk. K and Habib.P. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. K. 1996. E. USA. Israr-ud-Din. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. Thomson Brooks/Cole. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. 5th Edition. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. dose response relationship in living organisms. toxicology of chemicals.1998. in vivo & in vitro assays. University of Peshawar. 2006. Rashid. Shirkat Gah. D.I. and Barett. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. Chemical interactions and their types. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. Margaret A. 2004. and Hobbs. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. toxins vs toxicants. G. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. A. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. Immunological considerations in toxicology. Zedler. R. Blackwell Scientific Publications. and Memon.. J. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. 2nd ed.. Odum E. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. Mumtaz. biological effects. soil and air samples. 2000 2. A. from natural and anthropogenic sources. Synergism. Potentiation and Addition. Organs. Studies in Pakistan Geography. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. Fundamentals of Ecology..Recommended Books: 1. 29 . Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. toxins & toxicants.A. Newman. toxicity screening using microbial systems. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms.S.W. 1989. Oxford.National Book Foundation. Pakistan’s Environment. P.. Islamabad. their containment and control strategies. Lahore. J. water and soil. 3. B. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. terminologies: Poisons. Peshawar. 4.

geography. Government of Pakistan. 1st Edition.1 & 2.Recommended Books 1. (ed.Science of Poisons . industry. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. education. topographic zones. 1992. 1st Edition. Recommended Books 1. Ballantyne. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. P. Vol. Hughes. economic aspects of different environmental problems.. T and Turner. Williams. urbanization and pollution. Klassen. major ecosystems. health. 3. Course Outlines Introduction to history. international trade and the environment. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. W. General and Applied Toxicology. USA.D. economic development and the environment. State of the Environment-Pakistan . Recommended Books: 30 . estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement.2005 2. W. pollution control-a general model. McGrawhill. USA.). water resources. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology.M. M. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. 2005 2. CRC Press Llc. Economic: agriculture. 1996. Course Outlines Introduction. measuring environmental benefits. USA. 1993. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. people. 3. land. Ecological: ecological zones. clean development mechanism. culture. Macmillan Press Ltd. 5th Edition. the economy and the environment. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. B.

K. 31 . 2.and Field. Recommended Books: 1. 3. Sparrow and D. I. Skoog. Johns Hopkins University Press.2002. and F. Qualitative Chemical Analysis.1. Gravimetery. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. M. Titrimetery. 2. K. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. D. Fluoride. COD. 1999. Gravimetery. Collingwood. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. handling. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH.I. 4. Standard solutions and standard curves. Sample collection.2004.. Oxford. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. 2003. Pearce. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive.. Conductivitymetry. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. 2000. 8th Edition.. Australia. precision and accuracy. Sample preservation methods.I. Field. 3. All Solids. Turner. Oxford University Press. Freeman & Co.C. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. C. CSIRO Publ. units. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. D. L. Analytical techniques for soil. and Batemen. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. BOD. M. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. Conductivitymetry.J. C.W. Lab Work S. Kolstad. A. 1993. 2005. USA. NO3–N & NH4-N).K.UK. Holler. Environmental Economics.A. J. salinity & sodicity). Thomson and Brooks. D. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. B.D. Titrimetery.. Peverill. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). West. 6th Edition. water and plant analysis. D. preparation and storage. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Data interpretation for quality control.. Use of Potentiometery. New York.R..L. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. and derived S. Reuter. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. Harris.

2. After completion of this course.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. PCR. J. USA.E.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. Recommended Books 1.W. England. Government of Pakistan. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. and application of biotechnology in the environment. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. Course Outlines Introduction. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. 2005. 2009. Recombinant DNA technology. Wiley-VCH Verlag. A. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques.D. New York. Environmental Biotechnology. W. Cambridge University Press. Isolation.1999. Chichoster. 3.. New York. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. and Russel. 4. Sambrook. National Biotechnology Commission. D. Scragg. 2001. Oxford University Press. 2007. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. Hans- Joachim. purification and preservation of DNA. and Josef. 5th Ed. Biotechnology. Germany. 2nd Ed. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . Biosensor. students will be able to understand the significance. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. Smith.). Derbre. USA. National Biosafety Guidelines. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. Bioreactors. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. (ed. USA. J. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Introduction to microbial kinetics. Tools in environmental biotechnology.. 2005. Biomarkers. J.P.

Cartography. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . Preparation of thematic maps. Interpretation. Introduction to Photogrammetry. Image Processing. Data acquisition. 2000. V. Introduction to GIS. Active and Passive remote sensing. Guilfoud press New York. Data entry and output. Rancez. eradication of the duplicated data. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. map projection and coordinate systems. Dessinov. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Different types of maps. integration of information from many sources. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. Fishery and wildlife. Inc. Inc. 2008. John Wiley and Sons. R. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Mc Graw Hill Education. Inc. 2000. Satellite Imageries. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Z. Campbell. 5. Forestry.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. Energy Sources. 2009. Using and reading GPS in field. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. 4. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Agriculture. 1999. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Types of data used in GIS. analysis and output. history and platforms. F. Pearsons Education. A. advantages and limitations of process. John Wiley and Sons. History and data collection. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. Aerial photography. 3. Jensen. Lulla. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. Harvey. 2. K and L.

4. and Yoxon. standards and guidelines. plant. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. Related Environmental legislation. threats to biodiversity. etc. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. M. Sheldon. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). 2. American Society for Quality.. philosophical. ecological. alpha and beta diversity. 3. A.). Course Outlines Introduction. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. F. Systems and Support Techniques. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Michigan.. Environmental Economy. 2006. Environment and sustainable development. hot spots of biodiversity. need and approach. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label.2nd Ed. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. Conservation of biodiversity. American Society for Quality. types of biodiversity. and Qasim.3rd Edition . 34 . Methods of environmental protection.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. Environmental aspects and impacts. International Organization for Standardization. 2001. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. Khan. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. 1998. economic. eco-design. Environmental Management tools.. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. Environmental Management Systems Principles. M. WWF Pakistan. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. 2005. social and ethical values of biodiversity.C. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. cleaner technologies. principles of Cleaner production. B. Certification of EMS. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles.

Course Outlines Introduction.B. plants. Z. P. Quality assurance and quality control. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. air. Considerations. Lahore). conservation and livelihood. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. national and international laws and regulations.e.conservation at species. Associates Inc. cities. soil and living organisms. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. Rawalpindi. A Primer for Conservation Biology. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. Recommended Books: 1. Saad Printers. ecotourism. protected areas. presampling requirements/information. NOC for plant operation. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. sampling and design purposes. EIA requirement. C. water. laboratory custody. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. 3. and Morre. community and ecosystem level. their categories. conservation strategies. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. 2000. forests. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. population. Legal protection of species. Preservation methods including pH control. Biogeography. conservation in man-made ecosystems. 2. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. Mirza. Sunderland. chemical addition. Conservation of wildlife. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. quality assessment. Sinauer.B. 1998.D. habitats. Cox..B. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. quality control sampling. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. croplands.. London. Kings College. field custody.. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. 2ndEd. 2000. refrigeration and freezing methods. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. role of traditional knowledge in conservation.R. international agreements. management. design and types of samples. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. Publ. P. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. 35 .

Burden. 3. (eds. Environmental Chemistry. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. Manahan. USA. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. D. E. McKlivie. Recent Climate Change Indicators. USA. F.1996. and Guethner. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. human health. Chapman and Hall. 2002. UK. Precipitation. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. biological. 1992. 2002. regional. E.) McGraw-Hill. N. Remote Sensing Note. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect.. USA. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. I. Korte. Patterns in Winds and Pressure.Recommended Books: 1.1999. 2nd Edition. altered community structure. Chuviero. S. 2000. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. . D. Lewis Publisher London. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. Energy and Temperature. 2008. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. 6. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. Murai. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. (ed) Springer.. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. Physical. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. 7. 2008. S.USA. L. agriculture. Earth Observation of Global Change. Tokyo. Regional droughts and 36 . Human responses to potential climate change. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. its causes and effects. 8. R. extinctions. 2. Keith. phenological changes. H. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. Ozone depletion. The Measurement of Climate Change. Peakall. chemical. New York. 5. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. Forstner U. Moisture in the Atmosphere.

Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. J. Therivel. A.. 2005. mitigation and impact management. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. law. John Wiley & Sons. impact analysis. screening. 2005. Global Change and the earth system. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. 2.). Effects. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. 2003. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. John Wiley & Sons. Glasson. 2004. liquid. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. J.. 3.. social impact assessment (SIA). Harrop. 37 . R.Causes. J. reporting. London. J. Recommended Books: 1. solids. 2003. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. Hardy.A. 1st Edition. and Chadwick. and noise. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. D. 1999. 4. EIA project management. public involvement. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. T. 5. National Book Foundation. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. 1994.. A. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. Ministry of Housing and Works. Keith. review of EIA quality. 1986. decision-making to implement the project. and Solutions. Cost and benefits of EIA. Hardy. 2000. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. Recommended Books: 1. Petts. Global Warming and Climate Change. J.T.. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis.. and Solutions.(ed).O. Climate Change . London. Oxford. Earthscan Publication Ltd.Causes. 3. Blackwell. Islamabad. project implementation and follow up. Islamabad. Houghton. Effects. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. Routledge. 2. Climate Change . 2005. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). Main stages in EIA process. 4. (ed. & Nixon. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society.. scoping. overview. 6.cataclysmic climate change. Sringer. Types & Resources to produce Energy.

Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. 6. A. Carpenter. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. process and contents of the management plan. 38 . Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. 1997. United Nations Environment Programme. their current status and threats. Asian Development Bank. causes and methods for its improvement. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. methodologies.). B. management options. and Tu. agriculture products and their share in GDP. Sadler. requirement. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. their pros and cons. 2nd Edition. existing management approaches.. (ed.. Ludwig. agriculture chemicals. importance. Goldsmith.. S. New York. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. H. threat and its causes. Everitt. M. national agriculture policy. effective management. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations.B and Warren.. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. Evans. 1993. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. solar power. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. Recommended Books: 1. limitation in the future.. forest types and its existing management. 2002. J. & McCabe.5.. national and provincial legislation. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan.. USA. Rangeland Management: existing status. wind power and nuclear power. management options. Conservation in Progress. R. F. best available option for future. wildlife census. Types. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. R. B. threats. national example. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. Lohani. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. problem in agriculture. John Willey & Sons. Development of Management Plan: needs.

Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Questionnaire. Interviews. to introduce students to research design. Experimental Research. 1984. V. 2007.E.L. Scientific Research: Science. Hansen. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. R.A pre-requisite for Research. Inference based on findings. 1990. GOP and IUCN. Sampling: the logic of sampling. and Jorqensen. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data.2. Methodology. Material Methods. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). How to put things together? Introduction.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. Creswell. population and sampling frames. 5. 1992. Thousand Oaks. Review of Literature. Scientific Methods. New York. Islamabad. Research Design & Research Methods. research methods. S. Objectives. Elsevier. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. London. Research Proposal: its importance . and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. John Wiley & Sons. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. types of sampling design/. P. Case Studies. Environmental Conservation. Sage CA. 4. Bibliography. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. 39 . Review of Literature. USA. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Selecting the Research Method.E. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. W. Search Engines. Surveys. Literature Search: Database. & Plano Clark.F. J. concepts and terminologies. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. 3. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design.Amsterdam.. Dasmann. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem.

Chichester. 1997. 2001.h. Government of Pakistan 3. 4..USA. and Arhonditsis. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . Diamon. 1989. England. Univ. 6. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. 2nd Edition. Moriarty. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. 2.. Booth. Belmont California. 2008. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. Recommended Books: 1. Survey Research Methods.S. 2001 and the rules of business made there under.. Qadar. Law Books House. Babbie. Students project in Environmental Science. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. 2003. of Chicago Press. Wadsworth Publishing Company. National Environmental Policy 4. 5. 2000. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. Sage Publishers. E. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 3. regulations made there under..2. John and sons Ltd. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. Marilyn F. M. National Conservation Strategy 5. 3rd Edition. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. R. USA.Batty.Harrad. G. 2003. 1997. S. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. USA. Robert Yin.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

O. Bengali. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. pollution aspects. U. Indus Water Accord 1991. Revised & enlarged edition. 5. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. Ahmed. and Qamar. A. K.Varis. hydrological cycle. 3.. Pakistan . N.. 2006. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. Mirajuddin Publication . I. Mirajuddin Publication . Khan. 2006. 2003. SDPI Oxford University Press. Islamabad.).. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). recycling and re-use of wastewater. flood and drought management. tubewells. and Tortajada. watershed/catchment. J.. Briscoe. C. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. flood and droughts. water supply and demand management measures. Oxford University Press New Delhi.. with drinking water facilities like springs. 2005. A. N. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. Lahore.).K. wetlands resources management. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. The Politics of Managing Water. (ed. Recommended Books: 1. Asia Printer. 2. water quality and quantity aspects. fisheries management. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. 6. 4. virtual water. A. R. integrated water resources management (IWRM). Oxford University Press Karachi. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources.. 1993.. groundwater exploitation. Cheema. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan.Lahore. Pakistan. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. (eds. and Malik. Islamabad. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. R. Ahmed.1993. Biswas. 44 . P. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment.

Brady. Islamabad. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. Bashir. NJ. Hillel. Soils in Our Environment.R. urbanization in Pakistan. Cation and anion exchange. urban patterns and ecosystem functions.T. After completion of this course. Course Outlines Introduction. the salient features of urban environments. future of urban centers. Causes of urbanization.. Factors and processes of soil formation.. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. 2008. 2007. Definition. Academic Press. Prentice Hall. Process and outcome. Gardiner. R. E. 11th Edition.C. humans as components of urban ecosystems. 2007. N. D. Soil Science. hydrological processes. D. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. 1996. USA. San Diego. Upper Saddle River. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes.W. Miller. Upper Saddle River. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. Physical and chemical properties of soil. Urbanization. National Book Foundation. Forms of urbanization. Soil degradation. Urban ecosystem. PrenticeHall. R. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. Course Outlines Introduction. urban political ecology. urban flora and fauna. 45 . CA. Soil forming minerals. urban settlements. and Weil. 1. management and green productivity. USA. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. soils. Types and properties of parent materials. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. USA. and Bantel. R. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. transport. NJ. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. Pakistan. urban landscapes characteristics.

5. 2004. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. Sukopp. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. Penguin Group. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. Scope. nature and purpose of urban planning. Ward. SAGE Publications Ltd.and Maser. 1989. New York. Kate. Silberstein. Hejny. New trends in planning and city management. 2006. S. The planning process. 2. Recommended Books: 1. CRC Press LLC. Chapman and Hall. Routledge. London. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. Types of Urban Plans. O. Land use planning theories. D. 2000.. V. 4. The Works: Anatomy of a City. C. Aims and Objectives of planning. Gilbert. Routledge. 2004.. USA. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. I. Springer. M. Elements of urban planning.. Smith.1990. Planning theories and concepts. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. 1. H. 2.S. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. UK. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Principles of planning. 46 . Planning and its relationship with other professions.. SBS academic publishing. UK. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. S. 2009. Hough. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. Alberti. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. Hague. 2007. Levels of planning. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments.L.and Kowaril. UK.. M. City Design for Sustainable Development. Planning and Urban Change. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. Justification for planning for city management. UR. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. J. 3. A. USA. London. nd 2 Edition.

Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. 47 . 2nd Edition. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. Political factors. 1993. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson.B.F. 4. Chapman & Hall. Role of Media in Disaster Management. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. 1989. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. Physical factors.J. Longman Group.. Government of Pakistan. 4.. Flooding. Recommended Books: 1.. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. Manila. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. i. Clara. M. and White G. Natural Disasters Alexander. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Islamabad. Paris. and Woodrow. G. Flood Management: Organizational Role. D. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches.UNESCO. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. 1986. New York. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). It discusses a wide range of aspects. Prediction. E&UA Div. Hazards. Westview Press. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation..e. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. Natural cycles and their role. ADB. Disaster as an opportunity for development. R. Ministry of Housing and Works. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. Cultural factors.3. P. 1993.W. Earthquake.. Disaster Management: Components of management. Kates. Socio-economic factors. 1991. The Guilford Press.. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. Landslide. Different approaches and Indicators. Earthquake Management. 3. Introducing Town Planning. New York. International phenomenon. 2. 1993.W. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors.. H. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. UK.. Boulder .

W. OECD/IEA. merits and demerits of wind. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. D. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. local..5. 6th Edition.L. 2001. E. A. 2007. biomass resources. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources.B and Keller. and Mushkatel. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. energy resources of Pakistan. uses. Ecological concept in crop and food production. Westport. R. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. 1983. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Biotic structure. decomposers. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. Botkin. 1984. Schoch. primary producers. Agroecology. 1. energy resources. 3. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. 2. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. M. Paris. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. 6. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. McKinney. Quorum Books. Sustainable livestock management. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. consumers. types. Disasters and Development Cuny. sustainable energy management. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. 48 . hydropower. 4th Edition. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America.. Consumer and producer relationship. 2007. L.H.M. USA. solar. Phytoremediation and bioremediation.A. and Yonavjak. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. F. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. Perry R.C. alternate energy resources. New York.. John Wiley and Sons. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals.

Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. Study of index of diversity.P.M. New Delhi. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. USA. Altreri.R.H. Agrocology. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. New York. Corol. and Rossel. 1995. M. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. 2. R. 3. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species.A. C. Yandermeer J.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram.G. Westview Press. USA. P. CBS Publishers and Distributors. and Sudha.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. Boulder. Experimental Plant Ecology. Study of stratification and profile diagram.. Recommended Books: 1. India. Kapur. 2000. E-11 Seminar 49 . 1990.

The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. that: 1. 5. the Committee agreed on the following principles. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. 50 . The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. 2. 4. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. 3. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. availability of the faculty and other facilities. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work.

11. 16. 10. 11. 9. 5. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 4. 20. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 2. 7. 2. 7. 3. 19. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 21. 5. 26. 12. 6. 3. 8. 12. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 24. 9. 14. 8. 18. 22. 25. 23. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 13. 15. 17. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 4. 6. 10.

D. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. 4. Hodder and Stoughton. P. Islamabad. Treaties. technology and resource use. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. Conventions and Protocols in Global. London Black Stone Press Ltd. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. 2. development of concepts.1994. 2. Conservation Strategies.. Provincial and Local Strategies. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. Instruments and methods. 52 . F. 1987. 1991. 1992.. Mackenzie J. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan.E. Oxford University Press. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future.F. 3. S. S. Regional and International Environmental Issues. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. GOP and IUCN.A. Khan K. Geography of Pakistan. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. FURTHER READINGS 1. Karachi. 2nd Edition. and Jorqensen. Environmental control Policies. and Bell. NCS. Amsterdam. Elsevier.DETAILS OF M. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences.. Relationship of culture.1995. Oxford University Press. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems..S. S. WCS. Recommended Books: 1. Environment People and Economy.1991. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. status of Terrestrial. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. Draft National Environmental Policy. Money. Hansen..1994. London. 3. Mackenzie.T.E. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. Ball.

role and importance. opportunities and issues. WB. 53 . A one Publishers Lahore. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. Ministry of Environment. K. 1993. Wastewater. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. Longman House. 3. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). economic impact assessment. 1995. 2. sample collection and preservation. World Bank. Chichester. Harlow Essex. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution.Vanclay. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. England. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. D. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. Cost benefit analysis of projects. UK. Air and Solid Waste.. Longman Scientific and Technical. History. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. social impact assessment. Principles of physical. Environmental auditing. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. ecological impact assessment. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. 2. Gas Chromatography etc. Environment Department. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). John Wiley & Sons. Demographic impact assessment. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). Recommended Books: 1. Assessment of environmental impacts. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. C. A.A. DC. Burnt Hill. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. procedures and methods of EIA. 1995. Environmental Chemical Analysis.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. F & Bronstein. ed. sampling rules. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Washington. Case Studies and review. Ahmed. process. Wood. FURTHER READINGS 1. Recommended Books: 1. Government of Pakistan. Ed.

1998. T. L. Meredith J. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. 1992.. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. Recommended Books: 1. outputs. 2001. economic evaluation. M. 1st Ed. Environmental Health Engineering.2000. Lippmann.. M/S Banarsid. work breakdown structure. Kjelllström. 5. principles and practices. 1993. Oxford University Press New York. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. J. Defining Project objectives. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. Public health concept. 1st Ed. and Wright. Ergonomic and Safety. Yassi. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. John Wiley and Sons. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. 2. Planning Commission Performas. Occupational Health: problems and issues. London. prevention and control. activities. Primary health care services. Caeneross. Reasons for Project success or failure. T. A. Park. 2002. Project Initiation. 1997. Writing Project Proposal. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). Inc. development objectives. and Guidotti. Mantel s. R. 3.. B. safety techniques. air borne. Wiley Interscience. Nebel. Project Management Institute. K. 2nd Ed.. S. feasibility study.. USA. T. Need identification. USA.. 2. specific objectives. Basic Environmental Health. Prentice Hall International Inc. Project Planning and Approval Processes. 1st ed. Project Life Cycle. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. UK. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. New York. means of verification. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). indicators. T. assumptions. Accident prevention and safety plans. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. 4. J. 54 . A Guide to Project Management.. Resource Mobilization.. de Kok. Project Planning. Government Policies and Programs.. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. R. inputs.

M. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet.L.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. 6th Edition. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. gas. 1998. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Botkin. Paris. Schoch. OECD/IEA. sustainable energy management for agriculture. merits and demerits of wind. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. L. R. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. principles and elements of the process of EMS.B and Keller. Michigan-January 2001. industry and domestic sectors. petroleum. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. ISO Central Secretariat. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. and Yonavjak. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). Switzerland. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. Recommended Books: 1. nuclear) local. John Wiley and Sons.A. Paris. bio-energy resources. 4. uses. 3. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). transport. alternate energy resources. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. 2007. 55 . E. 2007. M. Sayre. 2001. energy resources. St Luise Press. Environmental auditing. McKinney. Sources of data. Principles of cleaner production. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. non-renewable and renewable. D. data collection and interpretation. Recommended Books: 1. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. types. 4th Edition. Related Environmental regulations. solar. 2. D. 3. USA. Environmental Auditing. 2. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. hydropower. energy resources of Pakistan.. 1990b.

3. global aspects of plant ecology. types of climate change models. Modeling of climate change.). Earthscan Publication Ltd.T. John Wiley & Sons. 2003. Vegetation Ecology Ed. survival and extinction. Climate Change and Ecosystems.D. Life history strategies of plants. plant invasions. John Wiley & Sons. Maarel. 2005. Recommended Books: 1. Effects. J. Effects. The Green House Effect. and Solutions. Hardy. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. ECOPE 29. Silvertown. Plant Ecology. plant conservation. T. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. UK 1991. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Hardy. 2005. Warrick. management and restoration. 2004. Oxford UK. Berlin. forests. water resources. human activities and vegetation dynamics. K. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. 2005. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. ED. resources and plants. Species richness. John Wiley & Sons. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants.Causes. (Ed. 56 .. types and their climatic effects. 3. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. 2. Climate Change . UK. Green House Gases. Blackwell Publishing. and Solutions. J. 2003. competition and coexistence. Beck. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. 1st Edition. 1. Oxford. Climate change and food production. 4. D. etc.. vegetation dynamics. 2005. 5. D. Springer. E & Muller-Hohenstein. Blackwell Publishing. Plant population dynamics. geographical and temporal patterns.Causes.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. Chichester. B & Jager. Houghton. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. 2. Climate Change . London. & Charlesworth. Shulze. Recommended Books: 1. J. E.

Principles of Wildlife Management. Consumptive. Rangeland management. 2004. And Bolen. & Ripley. 1998. management. Participatory forest management.J. Wildlife of Pakistan. John Wiley And Sons. Robinson. Threatened animals and plants.A. their importance. Publishers Sunderland. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. Protection and restoration of species. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. Mcmillan. 3. J. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. its causes. 1973 2. J. Primack. I). UK. II). Forests. Blackwell Publsihing. 2. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Cambridge. Oxford. 3. S. Forest plantations. 4. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Wildlife Ecology and Management. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. 1984. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. Biodiversity: An introduction. & Spicer.D. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. W. T. Oxford University Press. types.J. Cambridge University Press.) Gaston. E. Conserving Living Natural Resources. 57 . Oxford. S. UK. K. Weddell. distribution and management. biological diversity. habitats and ecosystems. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. 5. their ecological and economic importance.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. 1992. Inc. Loss of biodiversity. Establishment and management of protected areas. kinds. Sustainable forest management. their types and role in conservation.J. Oxford University Press. Global and national biodiversity. Oxford. 2002. distribution. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. B. Protected areas in Pakistan. Recommended Books: 1. Recommended Books: 1. Extinction of species.L. 2002. Bailey.(2nd Ed. Roberts. R. Cambridge.G. T. London. Essentials of Conservation Biology. threats and conservation. types. Sinauer Assocaites. deforestation and its control. status.J. Protected areas. problems and solutions. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. Wetlands. 1986. Roberts. Oxford University Press. USA. Status of forests in Pakistan.B. distribution.

urban political ecology. G. A. 58 . 1986.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. Planning and Urban Change. Government of Pakistan. UK. Longman Group. Environmental problems of urban life. urban landscape characteristics. USA. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages.. UK. S. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. 2000. Introducing Town Planning. sanitation. 4. Silberstein. Forms of urbanization.. 3. Ministry of Housing and Works. C. Islamabad. management of transport. Clara. V. urbanization in Pakistan. Urban land use planning and management. future of urban centers. Penguin Group. E&UA Div. 2007. 1993.. H. Kate. 2. CRC Press LLC. J. Recommended Books: 1. USA. 2004. The Works: Anatomy of a City. SAGE Publications Ltd. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Sustainable cities.. drinking water and solid waste in cities. Ward. London. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. New York.and Maser. urban systems and their characteristics.

ISBN 0194313492 59 . Thomson and A. Martinet. a) Functional English Grammar 1. Exercises 1.Annexure . clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. Oxford University Press. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure.V. 1997. Third edition. Practical English Grammar by A.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking.J. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase.

unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning.V. Fourth Impression 1993. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . Thomson and A. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41.J. Oxford University Press. minutes of meetings. 1997. b) Practical English Grammar by A. Third edition. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Reading. Third Impression 1992.2. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Upper Intermediate. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. and speed reading. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Reading/Comprehension 1. Writing. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Exercises 2. intensive and extensive. Martinet.

narrative. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . Fourth Impression 1992. Third Impression 1991. b) Writing 1. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco.J. Exercises 2. clarity. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Advanced. Writing.V. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Reading 1. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Fourth Impression 1993. form. Oxford University Press 1986. 2. content. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. Writing. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. descriptive and argumentative writing). 2. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Third Impression 1992. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Practical English Grammar by A. Thomson and A. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Writing. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. discursive. language. Martinet. Oxford Supplementary Skills. introduction to presentations. Reading. Third edition. Advanced by Ron White.1. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Oxford Supplementary Skills.

descriptive. A Custom Publication. argumentative and report writing). (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. Kathleen Shine Cain. College Writing Skills by John Langan. 2004. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. 3. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. 62 . Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. St. 2. Martin’s Press. without taxing the taste of engineering students).(particularly suitable for discursive. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. Mandell. Kirszner and Stephen R. Compiled by norther Illinois University. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education.

Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. Muslim advent iii. Economic institutions and issues b. Safdar. Shahid Javed. Indus Civilization ii. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. b. 1971-77 d. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. 1993. Study the process of governance. People and Land i. 1977-88 e. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. State & Society in Pakistan. . politics. 3. Karachi: Oxford University Press. 1988-99 f. Lahore. 1999 onward 3. Mehmood. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. 4.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. Historical Perspective a.Annexure . Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. 63 Books Recommended 1. 1958-71 c. 1947-58 b. Karachi: Oxford University Press. contemporary Pakistan. Location and geo-physical features. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Akbar.M. Contemporary Pakistan a. national development. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. government. Course Outline 1. Society and social structure c. 1994. Ethnicity d. S. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. 2. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. ideological background of Pakistan. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. Zaidi. S. 2. 2000.

Noor ul. Lahore: Vanguard. 10. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rafique. 1980. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. Vol. Tahir. Pakistan Under Martial Law. Wilcox. The Political System of Pakistan. Afzal. 64 . Amin. 1967. Zahid. Khalid Bin. History & Culture of Sindh. Enigma of Political Development. Haq.The Emergence of Banglades.National Movement in Pakistan. Ziring. 7. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Safdar. 1972. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. II & III. 8. Ethno . Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. 12. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. K. I. Sayeed. Party.K. Politics in Pakistan. Club Road. 11. 9. Institute of Public Policy Research. M. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd.. Aziz. nd. 14. 1987. Mehmood. 1998. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. 1980. Ansar. 13. 1993. Lawrence. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Islamabad.5. Washington: American Enterprise. Political Parties in Pakistan. 1976. Wayne. Muhammad Waseem. 6.

W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.57.6.19.21.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.A. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.Tadabar (Verse No1.A.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.56.A.A.20) Related to thinking.Annexure .58.40.

3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt. in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .

“Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. International Islamic University. “Studies in Islamic Law. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. Ahmad Hasan. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. Islamabad (2001) 67 . “Emergence of Islam” . Pakistan. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. IRI. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. Bhatia. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq.S.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah.

functions. cube roots of unity. geometric progression. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. Houghton & Mifflin. Boston 68 . trigonometric identities. harmonic progression. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. set operations. Boston Swokowski EW. Beckenback EF. system of linear equations. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Wooton W. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. determinants. not majoring in mathematics. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. introduction to sets. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system.Annexure . Cramer’s rule. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. equations reducible to quadratic equations. types. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. 1986. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. PWS-Kent Company. 1978. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. types of functions.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. College Algebra and Trigonometry. PWS-Kent Company. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). Sharron S. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. 1987. complex numbers. matrix inverse.

Reading. distance between two points. John Wiley. Davis S. not majoring in mathematics. 2005. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. intersection of two lines. Finney AR. rational and transcendental functions. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. integration by substitution. Calculus (11th edition).2. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). change of variables in indefinite integrals. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. not majoring in mathematics. New York Stewart J. 2005. USA 3. functions and their graphs. Ma. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. left-hand and right-hand limits. angle between two lines. Boston Thomas GB. continuous functions. Addison-Wesley. slope of a line. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. 1983. integration by parts. PWS-Kent Company. 69 . inequalities. various forms of equation of a line. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. solution of equations involving absolute values. Recommended Books: Anton H. distance between a point and a line. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. parallel and perpendicular lines. derivatives. 1995. differentiation of polynomial. Bevens I. equation of a line. Calculus (3rd edition). continuity.

intersection of lines and circles. PWS-Kent Company.Circle: Equation of a circle. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. Analytic Geometry. nature of roots of quadratic equations. Conic Sections: Parabola. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. functions. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). system of linear equations. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. Scott. hyperbola. circles determined by various conditions. determinants. College Algebra and Trigonometry. locus of a point in various conditions. ellipse. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. equations reducible to quadratic equations. Introduction to sets. types of functions. 1986. inverse of matrices. types of matrices. 70 . 1987. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. Boston 4. Freshman and Company. • Contents 1. Cramer’s rule. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). set operations. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. PWS-Kent Company. Boston Swokowski EW. 1969 Kaufmann JE. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains.

variance. 2. tally sheet method. Walpole. frequency polygon. discrete and continuous series. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. 5. characteristics of statistics. Latest Edition. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. cumulative frequency curve. 3. ungrouped and grouped data. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. Boston. R. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. R. Kaufmann. J. Latest Edition. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. individual... W. Latest Edition. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. E. Graphs: Graph of straight line. 4. types of frequency series. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. Wilcox. E. circle and trigonometric functions. deciles and percentiles. Prentice Hall. skewness and kurtosis. standard deviation. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. 2. bar frequency diagram histogram. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. array.. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. E. quartiles. Swokowski. trigonometric identities. moments. 71 . ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. relationship of statistics with social science.geometric and harmonic progressions. PWS-Kent Company. Books Recommended: 1. Measures of dispersion: Range.. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. R. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines.

McCallum. Integration by Parts. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. sinusoidal function. Prentice-Hall. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. Inequalities. Second Edition 1992. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. Contents 1. Thomas. Continuous Functions. Continuity. 4. Calculus. implicit differentiation.Jr. theorems of differentiation. infinite and improper integrals. 2005. 2. Calculus. special points of a function. integration by inspection. Hughes-Hallett. Anton. W. 2002. and Transcendental Functions. integration by parts. substitution method. H. Inc. 6. logarithmic integration. reduction formulae. applications of integration. integral inequalities. Calculus. I. 3rd Edition. Rational Functions. the chain rule. John Wiley & Sons. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. logarithmic differentiation. John H. 5. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. Rational and Transcendental Functions. 4th edition. Jhon Willey & Sons. Swokowski. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. 3. 11th Edition. et al. Leibnitz’ theorem. Elliott Mendelson. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . integration using partial fractions. 6. Schaum’s Outline Series. products. 1983. S. Equation of a Line. 2. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. quotients. 1999. Slope of a Line. Frank A. Trigonometric Functions. Davis. Calculus Single and Multivariable. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. Addison Wesley publishing company. 2005. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. Least-Squares Line. plane polar coordinates. Mathews. Gleason. Recommended Books: 1. Boston. 8th edition.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. Extreme Values of Functions. Solution of equations involving absolute values. Bevens. • Integration Integration from first principles. E. the inverse of differentiation. Inc.

arithmetico-geometric series. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. finding the nth roots of unity. modulus and argument. complex conjugate. identities of hyperbolic functions. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. geometric series. series involving natural numbers. solving hyperbolic equations. approximation errors in Taylor series. the difference method. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3.Additions and subtraction. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. multiplication. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. inverses of hyperbolic functions. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions.

centers of mass and centroids. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. vector product. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. moments of inertia. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. line to line. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal.5. Hermitian. of a unitary matrix. Pappus’ theorems. the inner product. symmetric and antisymmetric. 6. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. orthogonal. point to plane. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. scalar triple product. masses.

differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. divergence of a vector field. spherical polar coordinates 75 . Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products.8. combinations of grad.

Standardized variables. level of significance. Test statistics.Annexure . Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Exercises. Exercises. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. acceptance and rejection regions. Exercises. Historigram. Absolute and relative measures. Constructing of a frequency distribution. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Type-I and Type-II errors. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Types of frequency curves. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Median and mode. Range. sample design and sampling frame. Unit 2. Rounding of a Number. Empirical Relation between Mean. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Unit 7. Stem and Leaf Display. Diagrams. Collection of primary and secondary data. bias. sampling and non sampling errors. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. 76 . Pie chart. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Unit 3. Different types of Averages. Graphs and their Construction. Observations. The Mode. Histogram. Exercises Unit 6. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Statistical problem. definition of outliers and their detection. The Mean Deviation. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Quantiles. Exercises. Editing of Data. Box and Whisker Plot. Population. sampling with and without replacement. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Probability and Probability Distributions. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Difference of means and proportions. Exercises. Presentation of Data Introduction. Unit 5. The semi-Interquartile Range. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. probability and non-probability sampling. null and alternative hypothesis. Moments and Moments ratios. Change of origin and scale. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Sources. properties of Good Average. Bar charts. Significant digits. Discrete and continuous variables. Exercises. Errors of measurement. The Variance and standard deviation. Data. Coefficient of variation. Unit 4.

Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. 1982. 3rd Ed. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. Testing of Hypothesis. Coefficient of linear correlation. Kitab Markaz.Unit 8. New York. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. “Introduction to Statistics”. simple linear regression. Exercises. Correlation. its estimation and interpretation. Contingency Tables. Exercises Unit 9. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. examples. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. Unit 11. E.. Regression and Correlation Introduction. 2 Muhammad.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. F. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Inc. 2005. r and R2. Exercises Unit 10. cause and effect relationships. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”.. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. R. Macmillan Publishing Co. 77 .Single Population Introduction.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful