CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
For BS MS
HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD
CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………
6 12 14 50 51
). For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30.PREFACE
Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. DR. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. universities and other institutions of higher education.
PROF. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template.ALTAF ALI G. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. D773/76-JEA (cur. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. It also aimed to give a basic. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. 63. and 36. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. It is. the Federal Government vide notification No. Lahore. degree awarding institutions. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. R&D organizations. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. dated December 4th 1976. SHAIKH
Member Academics August 2009
. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. The world has turned into a global village.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. therefore. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees.
FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC
COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. UNDER CONSIDERATION
CURRI. IN DRAFT STAGE
COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. Preparation
. OF FINAL CURRI. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. OF DRAFT BY NCRC
STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV
CURRI. COL. UNI. HEC
BACK TO STAGE-I
PREP. R&D. OF NCRC.
CONS. OF CURRI. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS
APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP
PREP. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission
ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI.
Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr.
5. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr.Introduction
The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Dr.
7. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof.
. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Lahore Member
6. Following attended the meeting:1. Rawalpindi Dr. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener
4. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Karachi from 28-30. Rawalpindi Dr. Dr.
15. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor.
16. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore
9. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof.
Dr. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof.
Prof. Dr. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi.8.
11. Dr. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Dr.
13. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Karachi Member
17. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum.
19. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Mr. Mr. Director of HEC Regional Center.
. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. Dr. Karachi. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. The meeting was opened by Mr. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science.
Dr. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses.
Dr. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Faisalabad
18. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Chairman. 2. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. At first. 1.
The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues
. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development.
The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants.
These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. 4. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. The committee thanked Mr. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. 5. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population.
The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world.
Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated.3. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities.
3. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment.
1. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. In last few centuries.
Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. Apply theoretical understanding. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. This committee.
ii. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable
development. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. skills and behaviour patterns. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the
. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative
structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management
5. regional and global contexts. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. in its preliminary meeting. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today.
Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge
iv.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. professional judgment and skills in
mitigation of environmental problems
The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i.
1. with consensus. 6. The
. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in
the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be
comprehensive in their coverage of the contents
2. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. The medium of instruction. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. assessment and evaluation will be English
for degree programmes in Environmental Science. eight semesters in the semester system.
A. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. Integrating natural sciences.. 2.
UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME
BS Environmental Science
Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles.
Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. Sc. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F.e. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental
3. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. 4. that:
Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17
SECOND YEAR Semester – 3
13. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Introductory Economics* 17. Environmental Physics 16.
SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR
Course Titles Semester – 1
1.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0)
Semester – 4
19. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Biology –II* 9. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours
3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17
Semester – 2
7. English-II 12. Climatology* 23. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. English-I 6. English-III 18. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Basic Chemistry* 4. Environmental Chemistry 15. Environmental Pollution 22. Psychology*
. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Biology –I* 3. Introduction to Computer 14. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Environmental Microbiology 21. Introduction to Earth Science 8.
ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours
FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7
37. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. 44. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19
Semester – 6
31. Total Credit Hours
3 (3-0) 18
THIRD YEAR Semester – 5
25. Natural Resource Management 40. Environmental toxicology 27. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136
Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours
. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18
Semester – 8
43. Environmental Monitoring 36. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. English-IV/ Univ. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Opt. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Environmental Economics 29.24. 45. Environmental Biotechnology 32. Applied Ecology 26. 46. ELECTIVE-III 42. Environmental Management Systems 34. Climate Change 38.
• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category
urbanization. lipids.A. 2007 3.I
The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates.. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. poverty and resource depletion. G. R. philosophical. current global. & Yonavjak. E. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms.T. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. & Nebel. its importance in human life.M. 10th Ed. 2. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. Schoch.DETAILS OF COURSES
FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0)
To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. 4th Ed. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. ethical. COURSE 2
BIOLOGY . B.
Introduction: basic concepts. history. development in industry and agriculture. national. 2007. proteins and nucleic acids. environmental pollution. Botkin. 4. Wright. John Wiley & Sons. and their relationships with various environmental factors. McKinney. 6th Ed. D. Miller. Human environment and its problems: global. R.
. Pearson Educational.B & Keller.. socio-economic. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. L.J. biological and social. Different aspects of environment: physical. 2002. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future.
1. regional. M. Thomson Learning.L. 2007. ecological.
lipids. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. Nucleic acids. amines). protobionts. Australia . Starr. R. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. New York. B. Cell division. covalent. 5. 1996. Lingappa. 8th Ed. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. and Lewis. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. Biology: a Human Emphasis. Crossley. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Hill International Edition. J. and Whitelaw. polypeptides in protein diversity. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. the molecule of genetic information and replication. 4. Introduction to cell biology. USA.
Chemical Bonding. origin of metabolism..
. V. L. Ionic. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. McGraw. 2007. lipids..Course Outlines
Introduction: Definition and concept of life. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. Self Assessment and Revie. G. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. Canada. Cassimeris. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols.
Biology’ Campbell. Shier. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. Wadsworth Group. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. carbohydrates. C. chemical diversity. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. R. chemical basis of life. Bulter. coordinate covalent bond. Structure and the basis of function.. proteins. Aromatic compounds.. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. 2003.
1. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. D. carboxylic acids. Lewis. 5th Edetion. 2007. 2. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. USA. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. esters. phospholipids in membrane systems. N.. Ltd. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. USA. carbonyls. Molecular Biology through Questions.
The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. Cells. A. 3. 2008. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. M. Plopper. Origin of life: chemical evolution. E. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin.
. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics.. molal.M.. and Holler.A. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. J. angle-sum formula.E.D.. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations)..
. Understanding Environmental Pollution.. Thin layer chromatography. simultaneous equations and their solutions. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra.ions. 1st Ed. Brimblecombe. real line. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). 3. Photochemical reactions. West. W. UK. Skoog. 2nd Edition. D. J. 2003. equations of lines (linear equations). 2005.J. Harris. Jickells. P. Solution chemistry. series and means. 2.C.S. 6th Edition. Surface chemistry. COURSE 4
The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. double angle formulas. 2nd Edition. Osmosis and Dialysis. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. Jones and
Barlett. Cambridge University Press. Algebra of matrices. Lab Work Preparation of molar. expansion of determinants. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. F. law of Cosines. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. D. Arithmetic and Trigonometry
Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. graphs.. determinants. geometric and harmonic sequence. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. straight line and related concepts.H. T. Blackwell Science. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. EC and TDS in waste water. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Girard.K. B. UK. D. radicals. 5.. Colloids chemistry.
1. 2004. Measurement of pH. 2004. 8th Edition. minor and cofactor of a matrix.Special Products (Binomial Expression). 4. values of trigonometric functions. Column chromatography. M. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. Hill. Canada. normal solutions/buffers. Freeman and Company. P. Liss. Andrews. and Reid.E. USA. USA. Thomson and Brooks. 2004.. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane.J.
Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations.A
Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure .
R. mountain building. Earth as a member of solar system. Chatterjee. and Finney. Addission. joints. 1999. by parts integration (simple applications). derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. its origin. erosion and related landforms. Integration: Formulas of integration. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. product and quotient rules without derivations). L. Introduction to sedimentary. the processes of their formation. nonrepeated linear factors. New Delhi. foliation. earthquakes. 10th Ed. Introduction to rocks and minerals. Trignometry for College students.. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. theorems on differentiation (sum. igneous and metamorphic rocks. Introduction to folds. Abraham. Narosa Publishing House. Chain rule. S. difference. D. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. weathering and erosion.Wesley. K.
. G. COURSE 5
English-I (Functional English) Annexure . 2. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. Analytical Geometry.
Introduction and scope of geology and geography.Cramer’s Rule.B. cleavages. lineation and unconformities. Pacific Grove. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. Weathering. Fossils and their significance. 3.. Jr. Smith. irreducible quadratic factors. Thomas. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation.B SEMESTER 2
INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives
This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. different earth processes like mountain buildings. composition and its internal structure. 4. earthquakes and volcanoes. theorem of integration. J. 4th Ed. faults. age. Scott Foresman and Company. plate tectonics. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. California.
Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. COURSE 8
BIOLOGY . Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. biodiversity crises.. 5. Tarbuck. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. interactions among diversified life. Biodiversity of canal. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. Physical Geology and Process of Science. Field Study tour.. and Tasa. Park.
1. Brooks/Cole. Smith. Routledge. Lutgens. E. Tarbuck. J. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. consequences of losing biodiversity. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. J. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. and Pun.. 9th Edition. Prentice Hall. 2004. 2007 3. population loss and decline. K. 2007 2. Biodiversity of hilly areas. Geological time chart with biodiversity. invasion of life on land. F. different classification systems. D. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity.Identification of rocks and minerals. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. multicellularity. examples of adjustments in varied environment. J..
K. Darwinism. animals). F. Use of brunton compass and GPS.. E. How Does Earth Work. 2005. Prentice Hall: 2006. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time.
Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. and Tasa. Wicander. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. Prentice Hall. and Monroe. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. modern concepts. 11th Edition. R.II
This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. A. Earth Science. G.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. Biodiversity of deserts. Geographical aspects of biodiversity.. 4. measuring biodiversity... R. 3rd Edition. protocell formation. causes of extinction. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. G. Lutgens. unicellularity. Foundations of Structural Biology. Life in sea. molecular basis of biodiversity. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. D. Lamarckism. 5th Edition..
2005. IL:WavelandPress. 2009. 2000. Contemporary environmental status. I. 2003. power & hegemony. globalization and environmental issues.
The Biosphere. Culture. and Spicer. C. and Sustainable Living. Townsend. Walnut Creek. Chronological. Prospect Heights. K. CA: AltaMira Press.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY
Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. a Human Emphasis. Biodiversity (An Introduction). Blackwell Science Ltd. Consumption.. P. Routledge. UK. 2006. John Wiley and Sons. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. 4. (editor).
2009. R. 2. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. culture and society.
. Adam. USA. Starr. 2001. Bradbury.
Annexure . I. Crumley. Wadsworth Group. L. Use of environment for vested interest. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse.K. Inc. K. Perspective of human-environment evolution. Allan & Carter. Environmental Risks and the Media. The Ecology of global consumer culture. UK. C. Scope and application. Tripartite nature of environment. 2nd Edition. New York: New York University Press. and concerns. 3 (3-0)
Relationship between environment. UK. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. Nora and Wilk. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. J. Goals and expectations. Biology. Conceptualizing environment. 5th Edition. 3. Contemporary environment issues and debate. Hannen. (editors). Gaston.
1.. 3. Understanding the environment-human relationship. J. Inc. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies)
English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . Configurations. output hardware. e-mail.5. Milton.
ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. Software: Application software. K. Courter. processing hardware. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. Rutledge.
1.London 1996. Selin. Kluwer Academic Publishers.1999. Operating system (Windows). Fundamentals of computer..C SEMESTER 3
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER
This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. Ms-Power Point. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. Long l. 6. Storage hardware.Microsoft office 2000. Ed..
Definition. system software. as are their effects on the biosphere. 2003.BPB publication
This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. internet. Long N.H. G. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. software packages. Ms-Access. computer programs and basic applications. Introduction to MS-Word. Marquis A.6th Ed. Ms-Excel. 2. Local Area Network. Types and classification of computers. Hardware: Input Hardware. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures.
Conversion of mass. Measurement and comparison of the
. Solar spectrum.G. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Jones and Barlett.. Isotopes and radioactive decay.Course Outlines
Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. Environmental impact of various industries. UK. Diffusion.. Transport of pollutants. P. their sources and toxic actions. Solids. Brimblecombe. Particle physics. M. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. Environmental Chemistry. Ozone and UV light.
1. A. DoriaSerrano. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Environmental Chemistry. 2005. Ozone chemistry. Global climate and climatic change.E. Reducing the transmission of sound.. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. 2008.T. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer.. 1999. Thomson-Brooks. Human perceptions and noise criteria. 3. Ibanez. C. 2004. COURSE 15
The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. USA. Hernandez-Esparza. trophic level. Samir.. Turbulent diffusion. 2nd Edition. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. Jickells. 1st Edition. its causes and adverse effects on environment. Turbulence. and Reid. Electromagnetic radiation. interaction of light with matter. Heat radiation and heat transfer. atmospheric and soil chemistry.
Introduction to environmental physics.M.. Girard. Environmental Science. J. Springer. Equations of fluid dynamics. M.. India. and Singh. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. Gaussian plumes in the air. Entropy. Banerji Prentice Hall of India.J.. 2004. B. Fregoso-Infante. photosynthesis. 2. Basic acoustics. Liss. Active control of sound. P. T.. Canada. J.. Nuclear energy. 5. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. Andrews. Chemical reactions. G. K. Liquids and Gasses. Fundamentals of aquatic. 4. Turbulent jets and plumes. Germany. Energy conversion. Blackwell Science. J.D. Miller. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Energy. Sound and Noise.S.E.. Fate of pollutants in environment.
Environmental economics. population and environmental quality. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. 2008.
. C. Environmental Physics. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30
Years of the World Development Repor. Economic Development. R. Pakistan economic context: National income. 2001. Yusuf.
1. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. G. and Van Grondelle. Man environmental relationship. N. economic growth and its measurement. New York. and Pandis. H. Impact of economic activity on environment. J. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. producer and community point of view. Physics of the Environment and Climate. Seinfeld.
Introduction to economics.Economic development. USA. P. Economic functions of environment. 2. UK.
1. Field visit. Wesely Publishers. E. and Resource allocation. Praxis publishing. Boeker. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. John Wiley and Sons Inc.. Sustainable development. Measures for sustainable development. 2001.
2. USA. Growth and development. World Bank Publications. M. interaction between ecology and economic management. 4.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. economic progress. 7th Ed. Smith. Natural resources and the economy. poverty. Introductory Environmental Physics. USA. S. Growth and Environment. S. Todaro. Economic management and environmental quality. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. 2006. economic growth. USA. Routledge. COURSE 16
The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. economic welfare and difference among all. concepts and measurement. Guyot. Kentucky USA. Producer behavior.1998. 3.
J. COURSE 17
English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills)
Annexure . soil. Environmental Critics of agriculture. D. & Pierce. WCIV7AA.
World Bank Publications.. Frodeman. water. B. the ethics of soil. 2008. branches of ecology. species. Shogren. Natural philosophy. Russell. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. role of light. Touchstone Books. community and ecosystem. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. 3. community. England. levels of ecological organization.
FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY
To develop an understanding in the about ecology. B. LLC. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. R. ethics and ecology. Introduction to ethical theory. its fundamental concepts. 2008. USA.
To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. temperature. Environmental philosophy and ethics. B. Economics. 2.
Definition of philosophy. Ecology. Farmington Hills. International Thomson Publishing. M. population.
4. Swift.A. and systems ecology. C. 2007. Palgrave Macmillan. Portland 1967.. Callicott. J. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. description of population. A History of Western Philosophy. Ecosystem and its types. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources.V.3. DeVeer. Hanley. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. 2002. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. N. biogeography. concepts and approaches.. 4.
1. Kessinger Publishing. London.. USA.
Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. 5th Ed. agricultural and industrial ecosystems.
Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. J. N. various concepts of community. aquatic microbiology. Microbial metabolism. COURSE 20
This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. M. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. aero-microbiology and food microbiology.topography and air as ecological factors. Ecology (concepts and applications. Tata McGraw-Hill. C. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. students will be able to understand the significance. J. habitat and niche. 1st
Ed. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. distribution limits. landscape ecology. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. 3. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). Ecosystem: structure and function. Systems ecology. plant geography and animal distribution. biotic factors. G. Ecology (principles and applications).
1. UK. Dash. M J. and Barett. 2004. 1992. E P. Chapman.W. Thomson Brooks/Cole. landscape changes and their importance. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. After completion of this course. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. Population distribution and abundance. New Delhi. and S. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. B. community dynamics. Biomes of the world. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea.Cox. 1999 4. 2001 5. Fundamentals of Ecology. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. population dynamics. WCB/McGraw-Hill. 2. Odum. productivity of different ecosystems. Biogeochemical cycles of C. Concepts of Limiting factors. characteristics of urban. UK. King’s College London.) Moles. New York. M C J 1st ed. ecological modeling.
. P. C.L and Reiss. Populations. 2000. Cambridge University Press. 6th Ed. Fundamentals of Ecology. and More. bacteria and eukarya.
The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution.
Introduction to Environmental pollution. International Protocols (BASAL Convention).L. L.. Peiece. Hartel.B. Water. D. and Jeffery..W. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution.A. F. USA. and Klein. London. Mean plate count.F. Crawford. C. (Elsevier) USA.M. 2005.D.Gerba.1998. McGraw Hill Inc. J.C. Pollution Control Strategies. 2009. W. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. 4th Edition.. 2002. USA. Human & other living organisms.and Vesilaind. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines.. USA. isolation. Hill. G.. Washington DC. R.A. 2..P.V. Harley. Solid Waste generation.. I.L. Maier. Microbiology. Pepper. D.and Brendecke. USA. Butterworth-Heinemann. M. Dilution plate technique. 2.P. R. D..J. and Zuberer. Knudsen.
. Environmental Pollution and Control. P. Cambridge University Press. P. American Society for Microbiology. Sylvia.A. Weiner. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. Cambridge UK. McInernery. 2005. its sources and their effects. Case Studies. 3.
1. Academic Press..J. USA. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. Academic Press. J. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic.L. and Stetzenbach.. New Jersey. Noise. Marine & Industrial pollution. peppor. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. Fuhrmann.
3.J. L. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. purification and preservation.R.M. and Gerba..J..
Environmental Microbiology. J. Hurrst. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. Academic Press.
5. 2nd Edition.I. A.J. Collection. Effects of Pollutants. Soil. 1995. 4. 2007. Prentice Hall.G. Prescott.M. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents.P. Fate of Environmental Pollutants.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. C. M. UK. transportation & treatments..K. 2 Edition. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal.
John H.W. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. Weather and Climate.F. 6th Edition. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. Radiation and climate. Pandis.E. 5. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Austin Miller.. COURSE 22
The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. 1992.2nd Editions. air pressure. K. The Physics of Atmospheres.. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. Cloud Classification. . 2.
Introduction to Climatology and a brief History.
Introduction to psychology. 2003.. 3. 1988. A brief historical background and schools of psychology.J. Tarbuck. local winds. Surface winds. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). N. Karachi. Royal book company. Environmental psychology. American Public Health Association (APHA). Solar radiations. 2006 5. condensation and cloud Formation. Lawrance K. Climatology. The Atmosphere. Cambridge University
Press. The climate of Pakistan. Shamshad. Lutgens. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate.
. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. Four Spheres of the Earth. 4. Mechanism of heat transfer.4. Methods of psychology. Sadder. Houghton J.. Factors affecting air Pressure. global circulation. John Wiley and Sons. A. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . Spyros. COURSE 23
This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. climatic zones of Pakistan. 2002. Marcel Dekkar. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. The Hydrologic cycle.K.
1.M.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld.
CRC Press.C. 2001. Water and distribution of species. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. limitation of irrigated agriculture. Pollution control through Ecology. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. carbon dioxide and global climate change. species response to pollutants. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. Restoration of derelict lands. CRC Press. threats and mitigation. soil erosion and conservation. COURSE 24
ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional )
This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. Greene. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. soil resources of Pakistan. Routledge. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. Environmental Psychology. High population density and psychological impacts. Bell. Background and scope. their management and ecological restoration.. P.characteristics and research methods. Fisher
J. sustainable agriculture.D. Sustainable livestock management practices. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. concepts. Water as an ecological resource. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. Fundamental of Psychology. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. 2. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. techniques and methods of restoration. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. Soil as a natural resource. Environmental perception and cognition. T.
. and Baum A. rivers. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. Ecology of food production. Eysenck.
1. London. M. Future water scenario of Pakistan. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. soil salinity and water logging. London. 1992. Routledge.W. 5th Edition.. Sustainable agricultural practices. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan.A. energy and carbon balance. Ecological restoration. solar radiation and primary production.
water and soil. COURSE 26
The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. toxicity screening using microbial systems. Chemical interactions and their types.W. 2000 2. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications.. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. on human and other living organisms. E. 3. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. Soil Science. Lahore.
. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management
Determination of chemicals in water. Organs. Blackwell Scientific Publications. 2nd
ed. Potentiation and Addition. Determination of Interaction of chemicals.1998. terminologies: Poisons. Fundamentals of Ecology. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. Odum E. K. Rashid. and Memon. Synergism. Shirkat Gah. biological effects. Peshawar. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. University of Peshawar.I. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. and Hobbs. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. 4.Recommended Books:
1.National Book Foundation. Studies in Pakistan Geography. K and Habib. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. A. toxicology of chemicals. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic.. and Barett. D.S. Israr-ud-Din. 5th Edition. Islamabad. soil and air samples. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. B. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Pakistan’s Environment. Newman.A. Mumtaz. their containment and control strategies. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. Margaret A. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. A. 5. P. Island Press. toxins & toxicants.. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures.P. dose response relationship in living organisms. Immunological considerations in toxicology. 1989. Oxford. toxins vs toxicants. 1996. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. G. J. Falk. 2004. 2006. from natural and anthropogenic sources. J.. Zedler.
Introduction to Toxicology: History. USA. in vivo & in vitro assays. R.
M. economic development and the environment. First and Second law of Thermodynamics.D. the economy and the environment. 3. geography. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis.
Introduction to history. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. W.). USA. 5th Edition. pollution control-a general model. international trade and the environment. 3. measuring environmental benefits. CRC Press Llc. clean development mechanism. 1996.
1. M. education. P. topographic zones. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. Economic: agriculture. State of the Environment-Pakistan . 1989 COURSE 28
This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. Hughes. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. Macmillan Press Ltd.Science of Poisons . Ballantyne. General and Applied Toxicology.. 1993. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. (ed. health.Recommended Books
1. land. B. USA. water resources. McGrawhill. W. economic aspects of different environmental problems. 1st Edition. 2005 2. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. 1992. urbanization and pollution. people. USA. Ecological: ecological zones. major ecosystems. Vol.
Introduction. COURSE 27
ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN
To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. Government of Pakistan. 1st Edition.
. Williams.1 & 2. Klassen. industry. T and Turner. culture. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology.2005 2.
salinity & sodicity). preparation and storage. CSIRO Publ. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. J. Holler. Analytical techniques for soil. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. All Solids. B. Field. and F. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. 2.1. Titrimetery. Australia. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. 4. Environmental Economics. Conductivitymetry. D. 2. and Batemen.. 2003. Fluoride.D. USA.R. D. Sample preservation methods. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. Conductivitymetry. Oxford.
1.I.. L. Peverill. Skoog. 3.UK. K. BOD. D. D. water and plant analysis. I. Gravimetery.
S. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. West. New York. 2000. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. Harris. COD.2002. C.I. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. and derived S. Oxford University Press. Collingwood.J. 3. M. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater.and Field. Standard solutions and standard curves. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. NO3–N & NH4-N). Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. units.
. handling. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). C.
Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. Thomson and Brooks. COURSE 29
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2)
The course will educate the students about different types of solutions.A. Kolstad. Pearce..K. A. 2005. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. precision and accuracy.W. 1993. 1999.. Data interpretation for quality control. M. 8th Edition.K. Use of Potentiometery. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. Titrimetery.. Freeman & Co. Turner. soil (NPK and organic matter contents..2004. Johns Hopkins University Press.L. Sparrow and D. Gravimetery. 6th Edition. Sample collection. Reuter.C. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples.
J. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. USA.E.
Introduction to basic molecular techniques. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms.P. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. 2001. Biomarkers. Scragg. New York. Cambridge University Press. Biosensor.
1. students will be able to understand the significance. (ed. Hans-
Joachim. Environmental Biotechnology. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. Introduction to microbial kinetics. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. Derbre.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. National Biotechnology Commission. D.. Biotechnology. and application of biotechnology in the environment. 2.1999. and Josef. J. Government of Pakistan. Tools in environmental biotechnology. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. 2005. New York. 2nd Ed. Wiley-VCH Verlag.D. Bioreactors. A. COURSE 32
GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1)
. 3. 2007. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Germany. USA. purification and preservation of DNA. England. W. Chichoster.
Introduction. 4. Sambrook. 2005. USA..COURSE 30
ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6
ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY
This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. Oxford University Press.). Smith.W. Recombinant DNA technology. and Russel. National Biosafety Guidelines. PCR. Isolation. J. 2009. 5th Ed. After completion of this course. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Rancez. Interpretation. Preparation of thematic maps. 4. 2000. Energy Sources. 2008. Using and reading GPS in field. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. Campbell. 1999. 5. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). Aerial photography. Different types of maps. Introduction to GIS. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Satellite Imageries. Pearsons Education. Inc.
Introduction to ArcView. History and data collection. integration of information from many sources. history and platforms. John Wiley and Sons. Image Processing. A. 2. Introduction to Photogrammetry. Z. COURSE 33
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
. Cartography. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. K and L. R. 2000. F. 2009. Forestry. John Wiley and Sons. Harvey. Active and Passive remote sensing. 3. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. Dessinov. Inc. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. Inc. analysis and output. map projection and coordinate systems. Data entry and output. Data acquisition. Agriculture. Jensen. Mc Graw Hill Education. Lulla.
Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. Guilfoud press New York. eradication of the duplicated data. Reading maps (Maps characteristics)
1. Types of data used in GIS.Objectives
The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. V. advantages and limitations of process. Fishery and wildlife. A
Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks.
BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION
The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. and Qasim. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label.
Introduction. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Sheldon. M. Methods of environmental protection.
Industrial Field Trip
1. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. Environment and sustainable development. Michigan. A. International Organization for Standardization. Related Environmental legislation. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. Conservation of biodiversity. types of biodiversity. B. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production.C. economic. 2..). Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. principles of Cleaner production.
Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. and Yoxon. 2005. American Society for Quality.. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. ecological. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. 2006. Environmental Management tools.. Systems and Support Techniques. plant. etc.2nd Ed. Environmental aspects and impacts. alpha and beta diversity. 3.
. social and ethical values of biodiversity. 1998. F. Khan.3rd Edition . Environmental Economy. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. philosophical.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. standards and guidelines. hot spots of biodiversity. cleaner technologies. M. threats to biodiversity. WWF Pakistan. 4. Certification of EMS. need and approach. American Society for Quality. 2001. eco-design. Environmental Management Systems Principles.
croplands.e. management. conservation strategies. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring.B. air. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. population. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. Preservation methods including pH control. presampling requirements/information. EIA requirement. 2000. A Primer for Conservation Biology. national and international laws and regulations. Considerations. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. water. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. P. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. cities. quality assessment. Z. NOC for plant operation. habitats. 3. forests. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. Legal protection of species. 2. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing.
Introduction. laboratory custody. Publ. Biogeography.
1. Mirza. C.
. Saad Printers. Kings College. Sinauer. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. design and types of samples. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance.D. plants.B. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. sampling and design purposes. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes.
Sampling techniques (air. refrigeration and freezing methods. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. COURSE 35
This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. Associates Inc. Conservation of wildlife.conservation at species. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. protected areas. ecotourism. their categories. Lahore). Rawalpindi. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. international agreements. 2000. Quality assurance and quality control... Cox. and Morre. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. soil and living organisms. London. Sunderland. 1998.. quality control sampling.B. P. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan.R. community and ecosystem level. field custody. chemical addition. 2ndEd. conservation and livelihood. conservation in man-made ecosystems.
The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. its causes and effects. R. UK. Moisture in the Atmosphere. I. 7.1996. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. 1992. USA. L. Manahan. COURSE 36
ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7
The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. Chapman and Hall. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. . S. 2002. Human responses to potential climate change. chemical. Earth Observation of Global Change. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. 6. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. 2008. F. biological. N. altered community structure.1999. Chuviero. agriculture. Physical. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. 2.USA. New York. Energy and Temperature.. human health.Recommended Books:
1. Lewis Publisher London. (eds. 2002. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. Regional droughts and
. 2008. Burden. Murai. 2000. Environmental Chemistry. D. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. E. extinctions. Tokyo. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. (ed) Springer. Recent Climate Change Indicators. 3. Korte. 5. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. Remote Sensing Note. phenological changes.) McGraw-Hill. Keith. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. McKlivie. Forstner U. 8. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. USA. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention.
Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. H. Peakall. and Guethner. The Measurement of Climate Change. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. Ozone depletion. 2nd Edition. D. USA.. regional. Precipitation. E. S.
Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. Climate Change . liquid.O.. 2005. Houghton. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of
Pakistan. Islamabad. decision-making to implement the project.)..(ed). screening. 1999. 3. law. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T.. J. Therivel. & Nixon. 3. overview. Sringer. Climate Change . Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Cost and benefits of EIA. 2.. Effects. 2003.A. public involvement. Earthscan Publication Ltd. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. social impact assessment (SIA).
1.Causes. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. reporting. A. and Solutions.T. and Chadwick. and noise. Hardy. National Book Foundation. Blackwell. Global Change and the earth system. impact analysis. T. review of EIA quality. D. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized.
1. and the public is informed about the project proposal
Introduction.. John Wiley & Sons. Islamabad. project implementation and follow up. John Wiley & Sons. J. 1986. Types & Resources to produce Energy. solids. R. 2003.cataclysmic climate change. 1994. 2005. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. scoping. 1st Edition. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. Oxford. J. Global Warming and Climate Change. 2000. J. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. Main stages in EIA process. Hardy. Ministry of Housing and Works. Petts. 4. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. 2004. COURSE 38
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. 4.Causes. 6. A.. Keith. London. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. (ed. Routledge. EIA project management. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. 2. mitigation and impact management.
. J. and Solutions. 2005. London. Effects. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. 5.. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. Glasson. Harrop.
Ludwig. 1997. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. importance. Development of Management Plan: needs. Sadler. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. wildlife census. 2nd Edition. H. & McCabe. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual.
(ed..). J. Asian Development Bank. B. process and contents of the management plan. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. forest types and its existing management. wind power and nuclear power. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. S. Evans. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. R.
6. their pros and cons. problem in agriculture.5. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. USA. John Willey
& Sons. 2002. national agriculture policy. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. Lohani.. agriculture products and their share in GDP. and Tu. effective management. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. Rangeland Management: existing status. 1993. New York. management options.. national and provincial legislation. solar power.
. methodologies. limitation in the future. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. agriculture chemicals.. Goldsmith. threat and its causes. B. M. their current status and threats..
1. existing management approaches.
NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
To train students on the identification. best available option for future. Conservation in Progress. causes and methods for its improvement. United Nations Environment Programme. R. national example.. Everitt. A. Carpenter. requirement. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning.
Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly.B and Warren. threats. management options. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. F.. Types.
V. types of sampling design/. 4. Bibliography. concepts and terminologies. J. 2007. research methods. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. Methodology. Hansen. and Jorqensen. 5.
. Surveys. London. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). Interviews. USA. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). P. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. 3. John Wiley & Sons. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation
1. Literature Search: Database.2.E. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. Islamabad. W. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods.1991
RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE
The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem.A pre-requisite for Research. Material Methods. Questionnaire. Experimental Research. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. Review of Literature. Thousand Oaks. and the process of doing research and reporting the results
Introduction to Research. S. Creswell. 1990.L. R. Objectives.F. 1992. Sampling: the logic of sampling. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. Sage CA. Dasmann.. GOP and IUCN. Pearce &
Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. New York. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment.E. Scientific Methods. population and sampling frames. Search Engines. Selecting the Research Method.
& Plano Clark. 1984. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. Elsevier. Review of Literature. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. Case Studies. Inference based on findings. Research Design & Research Methods. Environmental Conservation. to introduce students to research design.Amsterdam. Scientific Research: Science. Research Proposal: its importance . How to put things together? Introduction.
R.Batty. 6. Chichester. Wadsworth Publishing Company. and Arhonditsis. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. 5. 2008. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. USA. G. Univ. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. John and sons Ltd. 3rd Edition. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. Government of Pakistan 3. 2001 and the rules of business made there under..
1. E. England. National Conservation Strategy 5.h. Survey Research Methods. 1997. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 1997.
ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8
ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives
To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development... Booth. USA. 2nd
Edition.2. regulations made there under. 2000. of
Chicago Press. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. 2.
National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation.Harrad. Law Books House. Robert Yin. Students project in Environmental Science. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules.S. Qadar. 2003. 3. 2003. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. Moriarty. Diamon. National Environmental Policy 4. S. Sage Publishers. Belmont California. Babbie. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. 2001. COURSE 44
HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT
. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking.. Marilyn F. 4. M. 1989.USA.
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45
POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.
Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46
RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,
5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.
flood and droughts. Asia Printer.Lahore. watershed/catchment. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency.. wetlands resources management. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources.
. Indus Water Accord 1991. with drinking water facilities like springs. flood and drought management. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. Islamabad..). N. P. Pakistan . Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). 1993.Varis.
Water resource and its management. 2003. water quality and quantity aspects. (eds.). pollution aspects. and Tortajada. integrated water resources management (IWRM). Oxford University Press Karachi. fisheries management. Ahmed. Pakistan. U. Bengali. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. Biswas. Oxford University Press New Delhi. A. R. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. tubewells. A. A.. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. 2005. groundwater exploitation. Islamabad.1993. Cheema.
Mirajuddin Publication . I. and Qamar. R. Briscoe.. and Malik. Mirajuddin Publication . 2. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. 5. C. Revised & enlarged edition.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. hydrological cycle. J. SDPI Oxford University Press. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc..
1. 2006. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. N. recycling and re-use of wastewater.. 2006. virtual water. Ahmed. The Politics of Managing Water.. (ed.
One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. Khan. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. Lahore. 3. water supply and demand management measures. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. K. O. 4. 6.K.
Process and outcome. Soil degradation. Soil forming minerals. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. Urban ecosystem. After completion of this course. Soils in Our Environment. USA. Islamabad. Physical and chemical properties of soil. USA. 2007. future of urban centers. Types and properties of parent materials.
The Nature and Properties of Soils.T.
. Soil Science. N. Upper Saddle River. urban flora and fauna.
Introduction. PrenticeHall. CA. urban settlements. humans as components of urban ecosystems. Definition. San Diego.R. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. urbanization in Pakistan. urban landscapes characteristics. the salient features of urban environments. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. Brady. Forms of urbanization. 2007. Hillel. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. management and green productivity. and Bantel. E-4
This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. 11th Edition.
Introduction. Upper Saddle River. USA. and Weil. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations.C. E. Academic Press. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. hydrological processes. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. NJ.. Bashir. D.E-3
SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT
This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. Causes of urbanization. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. Cation and anion exchange. 1. urban political ecology. Pakistan. NJ. Miller. Urbanization. R. Gardiner. Prentice Hall.. soils. Soil buffering capacity and its importance.W. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. transport. Factors and processes of soil formation. National Book Foundation. R. D. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. R. 1996. 2008.
L. Hague.and Maser. Alberti.
1. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. Planning and Urban Change.
URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT
The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. 2009. O.. nature and purpose of urban planning. 2004. Chapman and Hall. Silberstein. 2006. J.
. Hough. Hejny. Planning theories and concepts. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. USA. CRC Press LLC. London. The Works: Anatomy of a City. SAGE Publications Ltd. Sukopp. SBS academic publishing. I. Kate. 2007. nd 2 Edition. City Design for Sustainable Development. Gilbert. Planning and its relationship with other professions. A. Scope. 4. Smith. Justification for planning for city management. Routledge. Elements of urban planning. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. UK. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. S.1990. Land use planning theories. New trends in planning and city management. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. V.and Kowaril. Penguin Group.. Principles of planning. C. 2004.
Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. New York. The planning process. 2. 5. UK.Recommended Books:
Urban Ecology..S. 3. UK. Springer.
Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. Types of Urban Plans. Routledge. 2. 2000. 1989. USA. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. Ward. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area.. M.
1. M. Levels of planning. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. H.. S. Aims and Objectives of planning. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. D. UR.
UNESCO. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. Chapman & Hall.W. Islamabad. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. Kates. Socio-economic factors. Ministry of Housing and Works.. Landslide.. Longman Group. UK. 1993.e. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. D. E&UA Div. The Guilford Press. Natural Disasters Alexander.. New York. 1993. Hazards. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. 1991. Earthquake Management. 4. 3. International phenomenon. It discusses a wide range of aspects. 1993. G.
Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. i. E-7
This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. Introducing Town Planning. Physical factors. Manila..
. R. New York. ADB. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation.
1. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. Disaster as an opportunity for development.3. Different approaches and Indicators. P. H.
Government of Pakistan. Paris. 1989. Flooding. and White G. and Woodrow. Westview Press.. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. M. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made.J. 2. Prediction.F.. Earthquake. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. Clara. Political factors. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson.W. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards.. Cultural factors. 2nd Edition. 1986.. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors.B. Flood Management: Organizational Role. 4. Boulder . Natural cycles and their role. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Role of Media in Disaster Management. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. Disaster Management: Components of management.
2. solar.. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions.
1. Agroecology. Quorum Books. Ecological concept in crop and food production..
Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. New York. sustainable energy management. D. energy resources. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. uses. E-9
Energy and Environment
This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life.M. 6. Westport. Consumer and producer relationship. Sustainable livestock management. 4th Edition. local. Disasters and Development Cuny.
.5. Botkin. types. 6th Edition. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. energy resources of Pakistan. E. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. 2007. and Yonavjak. merits and demerits of wind. Perry R.C. Schoch. decomposers. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. McKinney.W. alternate energy resources. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. and Mushkatel. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. A. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. R.
The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment.
Energy-development and environment. 1984. L. Biotic structure. John Wiley and Sons.L.A. 3. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. OECD/IEA. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. Paris. hydropower. USA.
Introduction to agro-ecosystem. primary producers. 2001.. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. 1983. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. biomass resources.B and Keller. F. M. Farming practices for pests and weeds control.H. 2007. consumers. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet.
Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. 1990. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity.A. 2. India. USA. Kapur. Study of stratification and profile diagram.
1. and Rossel. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. USA. 2000. New York. R. CBS Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. Altreri.M. Experimental Plant Ecology. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. 1995. M. 3. Agrocology.. and Sudha. Yandermeer J.G. Boulder. Study of index of diversity. Westview Press.
. Corol.H.R. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. P.P. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. C. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species.
The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. availability of the faculty and other facilities. 4. 5. 3.
. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after
four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science.
2. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. the Committee agreed on the following principles. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME
MS in Environmental Science
Regarding MS Degree Programme. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. that: 1. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions.
11. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development
23. 4. 12. 11. 14. 7. 4. 9. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3
Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 10. 6.
25. 7. 13. 9.
2. 2.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
CORE COURSES Course Titles
1. 5. 19. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 12. 8. 6. 17. 26. 18.
The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 10. 22. 16. 15. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 8.
1991. Environment People and Economy. Khan K.. Treaties. Provincial and Local Strategies. GOP and IUCN. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management.. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall.1995. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of
the Environment. S. Oxford University Press.
1. technology and resource use.1994. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems.1991. Money. and Jorqensen. Karachi. Mackenzie.A. NCS. Mackenzie J.E. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan.. London. Conventions and Protocols in Global. Regional and International Environmental Issues. and Bell. London Black Stone Press Ltd.. Hodder and Stoughton. Ball. 1992. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space.
1. Environmental control Policies. F. Hansen. 2.S. D. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. Geography of Pakistan. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. Draft National Environmental Policy. Conservation Strategies. S. 1987. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. Relationship of culture. 4. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our
Common Future.E.DETAILS OF M. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling.
. Islamabad.1994. development of concepts. S. 2nd Edition. Elsevier. Amsterdam. P. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. 2. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. Oxford University Press. status of Terrestrial.F. 3. WCS. 3.. Instruments and methods.T.
John Wiley & Sons. Environmental Chemical Analysis. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). 1995. Case Studies and review. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. 2. 3. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. Longman Scientific and Technical. A. Government of Pakistan. Wood. Greenberg (American Public Health Association).
ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES
Introduction. Cost benefit analysis of projects. COURSE 3
ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. sampling rules. Demographic impact assessment. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis.
. Ed. opportunities and issues. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. 1995. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. History. Washington.
1. Environment Department. A
one Publishers Lahore.A. World Bank. K. C. WB. Assessment of environmental impacts. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants.Vanclay. Wastewater. role and importance.
1. Principles of physical. Harlow Essex.. Environmental auditing. Ministry of Environment. Gas Chromatography etc. social impact assessment. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. 2. Air and Solid Waste. process. economic impact assessment. procedures and methods of EIA. Burnt Hill. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. D. Ahmed. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. England. ecological impact assessment. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). Sectoral guidelines for EIA. Longman House. sample collection and preservation. ed. 1993. UK. Chichester. DC. F & Bronstein. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution.
Public health concept. 2001. Project Planning and Approval Processes. inputs.. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. Prentice Hall International Inc. de Kok. Primary health care services. 1st Ed. safety techniques. M/S Banarsid. A Guide to Project Management. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. Need identification. S. Wiley Interscience. Writing Project Proposal. 2.. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. USA. 4. T. R. Project Initiation.. activities. 5. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Reasons for Project success or failure. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. indicators. K. T. T. prevention and control. Resource Mobilization. 1st ed. means of verification. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. Nebel. Defining Project objectives. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). 2002. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. principles and practices. Oxford University Press New York. Meredith J. Caeneross. Inc. J. Park. economic evaluation. MS Project
1. and Wright. John Wiley and Sons.COURSE 4
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Introduction: What is a Project. Project Management Institute. air borne. B. L. assumptions.
1. Project Life Cycle. Ergonomic and Safety. 3. 1st Ed.. feasibility study. 1998. Lippmann. Planning Commission Performas. UK.. M.. R. Occupational Health: problems and issues. J. development objectives. A. New York. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. specific objectives.
1993. London. Environmental Health Engineering. 1992. 1997. Accident prevention and safety plans. work breakdown structure.. Kjelllström. Yassi. outputs. Government Policies and Programs. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. 2nd Ed. USA.2000.. T. Project Planning. COURSE 5
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT
Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. Basic Environmental Health. and Guidotti. Mantel s. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide.
2007. ISO Central Secretariat. 2001. John Wiley and Sons. 3. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. OECD/IEA. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. R. USA. 4th Edition. industry and domestic sectors.B and Keller. and Yonavjak.
1. types. energy resources. non-renewable and renewable. Sayre. petroleum.
1. Paris. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management.
2. sustainable energy management for agriculture. Environmental Auditing. St Luise Press. 1998. 2. data collection and interpretation. Environmental auditing. D.A.
Paris. Schoch. 1990b. energy resources of Pakistan. McKinney. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized
Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. E. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. 6th Edition. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. gas. Principles of cleaner production. Botkin. uses. Switzerland. nuclear) local. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. solar. M. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan.M. merits and demerits of wind. D.. 2007. L.L. 4. Related Environmental regulations. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. 3.
. principles and elements of the process of EMS. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions.
Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. hydropower. bio-energy resources. Sources of data. alternate energy resources. transport. Michigan-January 2001.COURSE 6
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
Introduction to Environmental Management System. 1997 COURSE 7
ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT
Energy and its forms.
Species richness. Climate Change . E & Muller-Hohenstein. Effects. J. UK 1991. 2. John Wiley & Sons. Climate Change and Ecosystems. Warrick. competition and coexistence. 3. 2005.
2005. Vegetation Ecology Ed. Plant population dynamics. Hardy.COURSE 8
Introduction. 1st Edition. Shulze. geographical and temporal patterns. The Green House Effect. 2005. Berlin. ECOPE 29. human activities and vegetation dynamics. Oxford UK. vegetation dynamics. E. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. types of climate change models. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. and Solutions. types and their climatic effects. K. J. Beck.
1. Blackwell Publishing. D. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture.Causes. 2005. 4. forests.). London. 2003. global aspects of plant ecology. ED.
. 5. plant invasions. UK. plant conservation. Hardy.T. and Solutions. 2003. Effects. Earthscan Publication Ltd. John Wiley & Sons. Maarel. Oxford. Life history strategies of plants. Plant Ecology. D. (Ed. 2. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. Chichester. COURSE 9
ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY
Environmental conditions. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. 3. 1. & Charlesworth. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. John Wiley & Sons. Climate Change . Springer. 2004. resources and plants. Blackwell Publishing. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. survival and extinction.. B & Jager. water resources.D.Causes. Green House Gases. Climate change and food production.. management and restoration. Silvertown. T. Houghton. Modeling of climate change. J. etc.
Bailey. Protected areas in Pakistan. Establishment and management of protected areas. Extinction of species. J. Oxford University Press.G. Oxford. Rangeland management. threats and conservation. Global and national biodiversity. 1998.
1. their importance.
. Sustainable forest management. UK. Oxford. Principles of Wildlife Management.J. 1986.
1. Status of forests in Pakistan.L. Forest plantations.(2nd Ed. London. Blackwell Publsihing. 2.) Gaston. Wildlife Ecology and Management. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. COURSE 11
WILDLIFE. Threatened animals and plants. distribution and management. 1984. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. Protection and restoration of species. UK.COURSE 10
Introduction. Roberts. Cambridge. W. Wetlands. Protected areas. habitats and ecosystems. their types and role in conservation. Mcmillan. USA. status. its causes. & Ripley. Sinauer Assocaites. And Bolen. biological diversity. Wildlife of Pakistan. I). 3. Forests. Biodiversity: An introduction. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan.
Inc. 4. J. Consumptive. kinds. Cambridge University Press. E. distribution. 2004. B. Roberts. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Oxford University Press. Oxford. Publishers Sunderland. distribution.B. deforestation and its control. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT
Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. Oxford
University Press. Robinson. Essentials of Conservation Biology. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. II). National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. 2002. management. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. their ecological and economic importance. 5. Loss of biodiversity. & Spicer. Participatory forest management. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. 2002. Weddell. types. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. S. K.J. 3. types. S.A.J. 1992. 1973 2. Primack. Cambridge. T. R.J. problems and solutions. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. John Wiley And Sons. Conserving Living Natural Resources. T.D.
Islamabad. Planning and Urban Change. Penguin Group. Introducing Town Planning. C. J. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. 4. USA. Forms of urbanization. 2004. urban systems and their characteristics. Environmental problems of urban life. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. Kate.and Maser. future of urban centers. 2000. UK. USA. Government of Pakistan. 2007. Clara. E&UA Div.
ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
Introduction. urban landscape characteristics. 2. Ward. G. V. 1993. Longman Group. 1986. SAGE Publications Ltd.. CRC Press LLC.. Sustainable cities. urbanization in Pakistan. sanitation. drinking water and solid waste in cities. 3.. Urban land use planning and management. management of transport.
1. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. urban political ecology. A. UK. The Works: Anatomy of a City. S. H.. New York.
. Silberstein. Ministry of Housing and Works. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development.
Oxford University Press. ISBN 0194313492
.J. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase.Annexure .V. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English
Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher
Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building
1. a) Functional English Grammar 1. Practical English Grammar by A.A
COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES
English I (Functional English) Objectives:
Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. 1997. Exercises 1. Thomson and A.
Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. Third edition. Martinet.
ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Third edition. b)
Practical English Grammar by A. Reading. intensive and extensive. Fourth Impression 1993. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing.
Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. Reading/Comprehension 1. Oxford University Press. minutes of meetings. Exercises 2. 1997.J. Martinet.V. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. Writing. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Oxford Supplementary Skills. and speed reading. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis.2. Speaking
English II (Communication Skills)
Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. Third Impression 1992. Upper Intermediate. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. Thomson and A. style and pronunciation)
Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review
a) Communication Skills Grammar
. ISBN 0 19 453402 2.
consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing
Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building
Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Third Impression 1991. Reading. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. Oxford Supplementary Skills. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Writing. introduction to presentations. Advanced.
English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills)
Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking
Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. discursive. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet.V. form. 2. content.
Writing 1. Thomson and A. Martinet. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. clarity. Third edition. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky.J. Advanced by Ron White. Reading 1. narrative. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Oxford University Press 1986. Oxford Supplementary Skills. ISBN 0 19 435407 3
. Third Impression 1992. language. 2. Exercises 2.1. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Fourth Impression 1992. ISBN 0 19 431350 6.
Practical English Grammar by A. Fourth Impression 1993. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Writing. Writing. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. descriptive and argumentative writing).
Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. Kathleen Shine Cain. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. Martin’s Press.
3. argumentative and report writing).
. St. Mandell. 2. Compiled by norther Illinois University.
descriptive. Kirszner and Stephen R.(particularly suitable for discursive. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education.
College Writing Skills by John Langan. A Custom Publication. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature.
Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. without taxing the taste of engineering students). 2004.
2000. S. 1977-88 e. Karachi: Oxford University Press. government.B
Pakistan Studies (Compulsory)
• • Develop vision of historical perspective.
Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. Study the process of governance. Shahid Javed. ideological background of Pakistan. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. S. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan.
1. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. contemporary Pakistan. Indus Civilization ii. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. 1971-77 d. Zaidi.
1. national development. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. State & Society in Pakistan.
3. 1994. 1999 onward
3. 1958-71 c.Annexure . Historical Perspective a. Economic institutions and issues b. People and Land i. politics. 1993. Society and social structure c. b. Pakistan Political Roots & Development.
. 1947-58 b. Mehmood.M. 1988-99 f. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Lahore. Location and geo-physical features.
Contemporary Pakistan a.
2. Akbar. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. Ethnicity d. 2. Muslim advent iii. Safdar.
Enigma of Political Development. Islamabad. 1972. nd. 10.
14. Ethno . Amin.. Safdar. 12. 1976. The Political System of Pakistan. Political Parties in Pakistan. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Aziz. Noor ul. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. Ziring.The Emergence of Banglades. 9. Tahir. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research.5. M. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. Party. Karachi: Royal Book Company. 8. Muhammad Waseem. I. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Khalid Bin. Washington: American Enterprise. 1980.
13. Rafique. Zahid. Sayeed. K. Institute of Public Policy Research.
Wilcox. Afzal. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. Pakistan Under Martial Law. 1980. Politics in Pakistan. 1987. 1993. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Lawrence. History & Culture of Sindh.National Movement in Pakistan.K. Ansar. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. 7. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Club Road. Haq. Wayne. Lahore: Vanguard. 1967.
. Mehmood. II & III. 1998.
57.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.Annexure .A.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.6. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina
.21.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S. 2 (2-0)
Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran
Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.58.A.Tadabar (Verse No1.A.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.40.19.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory)
This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.20) Related to thinking.56.A.
in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family
.3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.
“Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. IRI. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. Pakistan. Islamabad (2001)
. International Islamic University. Bhatia.” Hussain Hamid Hassan.3)
Ethical Values of Islam
2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)
Hameed ullah Muhammad. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. “Emergence of Islam” . “Studies in Islamic Law.S. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. Ahmad Hasan. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah.
complex numbers. PWS-Kent Company. types. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. Wooton W.D
Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Boston Swokowski EW. Cramer’s rule. PWS-Kent Company. trigonometric identities. 1986. set operations. system of linear equations. 1978.
Dolciani MP. not majoring in mathematics. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. Beckenback EF.
Preliminaries: Real-number system. Houghton & Mifflin. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. harmonic progression.
COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS)
MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA)
Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0
Specific Objectives of the Course:
To prepare the students. cube roots of unity. Boston
. introduction to sets. matrix inverse. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. Sharron S. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. equations reducible to quadratic equations. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. geometric progression. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. 1987. functions.Annexure . types of functions. determinants.
Preliminaries: Real-number line. 1995. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). 1983. differentiation of polynomial. integration by substitution. slope of a line. distance between two points. inequalities. USA 3. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines.2. continuous functions. Addison-Wesley. integration by parts. derivatives.
MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY)
Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours:
Specific Objectives of the Course:
To prepare the students. change of variables in indefinite integrals. parallel and perpendicular lines. not majoring in mathematics. Boston Thomas GB. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. John Wiley. various forms of equation of a line. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. equation of a line. 2005. left-hand and right-hand limits. solution of equations involving absolute values. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. PWS-Kent Company. Calculus (3rd edition). angle between two lines. Bevens I. 2005. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. distance between a point and a line. Finney AR.
Anton H. not majoring in mathematics. continuity. New York Stewart J. Davis S.
Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh.
MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS)
Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0
Specific Objectives of the Course:
To prepare the students. Ma. intersection of two lines. Calculus (11th edition). Reading. rational and transcendental functions.
. functions and their graphs. Calculus and Analytic Geometry.
Introduction to sets. 1987.
Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. types of matrices. equations reducible to quadratic equations. Cramer’s rule. types of functions. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. nature of roots of quadratic equations. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. Conic Sections: Parabola. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. locus of a point in various conditions. functions. set operations. inverse of matrices. intersection of lines and circles. 1986. PWS-Kent Company. determinants. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Freshman and Company. PWS-Kent Company. system of linear equations. ellipse. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. Boston 4. 1969 Kaufmann JE. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition).Circle: Equation of a circle. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. Boston Swokowski EW. circles determined by various conditions.
1. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). the general-second-degree equation
Abraham S. Scott. hyperbola.
. 2008 and onward
Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives
To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. Analytic Geometry. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics.
. Boston.. tally sheet method. individual. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. Latest Edition.
Latest Edition. E. W. skewness and kurtosis.. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. bar frequency diagram histogram.
MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY
3 Mathematics at Secondary level
Credit Hours: Prerequisites:
Specific Objectives of Course:
To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Kaufmann. Measures of dispersion: Range. 4. circle and trigonometric functions. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. ungrouped and grouped data.
Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. E. types of frequency series. trigonometric identities. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. discrete and continuous series. Graphs: Graph of straight line. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. R. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics..
1. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. deciles and percentiles. PWS-Kent Company. R. relationship of statistics with social science.geometric and harmonic progressions. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. R. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. 3. 5.
2. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. 2. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. variance. Walpole. characteristics of statistics. moments. standard deviation. Prentice Hall. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. J. array. quartiles. Swokowski. cumulative frequency curve. E.
. Latest Edition. frequency polygon. Wilcox.
et al. 6. 11th Edition. logarithmic differentiation. 3. Gleason. Continuity. • Integration Integration from first principles. the chain rule. reduction formulae. Calculus. Extreme Values of Functions. Bevens. implicit differentiation. Slope of a Line. integral inequalities. Integration by Parts. 4. Thomas.Jr. Anton.
1. Inc. logarithmic integration.
1. plane polar coordinates.
Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers
. substitution method. Calculus. John Wiley & Sons. 4th edition. 6. 2005.
2. Hughes-Hallett. and Transcendental Functions. sinusoidal function. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. Addison Wesley publishing company. products. theorems of differentiation. Swokowski. 1983. McCallum. Solution of equations involving absolute values. 5. Prentice-Hall. Calculus. Elliott Mendelson. infinite and improper integrals. Inequalities. the inverse of differentiation. Rational Functions. integration by inspection. Jhon Willey & Sons. W. Leibnitz’ theorem. 8th edition. Trigonometric Functions. 2002. applications of integration.
2005. 1999. Inc. Equation of a Line. 2. quotients. integration by parts. Second Edition 1992. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions.Course Outline:
Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. Schaum’s Outline Series.
MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS
Preliminary calculus. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. John H. Least-Squares Line. 3rd Edition. special points of a function. Boston. integration using partial fractions. Frank A. E. Rational and Transcendental Functions. H. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. Davis. Mathews. Continuous Functions. Calculus Single and Multivariable. S. I.
standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. approximation errors in Taylor series. geometric series. identities of hyperbolic functions. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. the difference method. series involving natural numbers. arithmetico-geometric series. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. modulus and argument. multiplication. finding the nth roots of unity. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. complex conjugate.Additions and subtraction. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. inverses of hyperbolic functions. solving hyperbolic equations. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints
scalar triple product. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. moments of inertia.
Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors.
Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. line to line. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix.
6. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. orthogonal. Hermitian. masses.
Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors
7. the inner product. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values
. centers of mass and centroids. symmetric and antisymmetric. Pappus’ theorems. of a unitary matrix. point to plane. vector product.5. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal.
divergence of a vector field. spherical polar coordinates
. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates.
Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. combinations of grad.8. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products.
. Exercises Unit 6. Unit 4. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. null and alternative hypothesis. Stem and Leaf Display. Types of frequency curves. Exercises. definition of outliers and their detection. Exercises. acceptance and rejection regions. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Discrete and continuous variables. Unit 3. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Box and Whisker Plot. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Different types of Averages. Exercises. Type-I and Type-II errors. The Mode. Graphs and their Construction. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Observations. Pie chart. sample design and sampling frame. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Rounding of a Number. Unit 2. Constructing of a frequency distribution. Change of origin and scale. Empirical Relation between Mean. Difference of means and proportions. properties of Good Average. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Histogram. Diagrams. sampling and non sampling errors. Test statistics. Absolute and relative measures. Unit 5. Unit 7. Standardized variables.Annexure . Data.E
INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS
Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. The semi-Interquartile Range. Moments and Moments ratios. The Variance and standard deviation. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Population. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Exercises. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Significant digits. The Mean Deviation. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Presentation of Data Introduction. Median and mode. Historigram. probability and non-probability sampling. Statistical problem. Quantiles. Collection of primary and secondary data. Range. level of significance. Sources. bias. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Exercises. sampling with and without replacement. Editing of Data. Probability and Probability Distributions. Bar charts. Coefficient of variation. Errors of measurement. Exercises.
Regression and Correlation Introduction. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. Testing of Hypothesis.Unit 8. New York. R.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”.. Unit 11. Exercises Unit 9. “Introduction to Statistics”. Inc. Contingency Tables. E.
. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. 2 Muhammad. Kitab Markaz. Exercises Unit 10. Examples
1 Walpole. Exercises. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Correlation. 1982. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. F. cause and effect relationships. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes.Single Population Introduction. r and R2. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. its estimation and interpretation. simple linear regression. 3rd Ed. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters.. Macmillan Publishing Co. 2005. Coefficient of linear correlation. examples. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table.