CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
58

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new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. Lahore. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. DR. 63. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . 2007 at HEC Regional Center. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. R&D organizations. the Federal Government vide notification No. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. and 36. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards.). the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976.ALTAF ALI G.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. It also aimed to give a basic. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. D773/76-JEA (cur. universities and other institutions of higher education. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. degree awarding institutions. It is.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. dated December 4th 1976. The world has turned into a global village. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. therefore. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. PROF. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges.

OF NCRC. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. Preparation 5 . IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. OF FINAL CURRI. PREP. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. COL. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. REC. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. OF CURRI. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. EXP. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. UNI. R&D.

Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. Dr. Member 3. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Member 4. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Following attended the meeting:1. Member 6 . Dr. Lahore Member 6. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. 7. Member 5. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Karachi from 28-30. Rawalpindi Dr. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2.

Karachi Member 12. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Dr. Prof. Dr. Member 10. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Member 15. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Member 14. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. 7 . Member 11. Dr. Prof. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Dr. Dr.8. 13. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Dr. Member 16.

Mr. Karachi. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. 1. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Mr. Faisalabad Member 18. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. Member 20. Director of HEC Regional Center. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. 2. The meeting was opened by Mr. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Dr. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Dr. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. 8 . Chairman. At first. Secretary Dr. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. Member 19.17. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. Shafiq-ur-Rehman.

The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. 4.3. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. In last few centuries. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. 5. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. 1. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. 6. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. 3. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. 2. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. The committee thanked Mr.

as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. ii. Apply theoretical understanding. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. skills and behaviour patterns. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. This committee. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. regional and global contexts. in its preliminary meeting. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. 5. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 .

graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. 4. 6. The medium of instruction. that: 1. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. The 11 . Sc. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. 1. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. eight semesters in the semester system. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. 3. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English.. 5. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. with consensus.e. Integrating natural sciences. 2. A.

English-III 18. Environmental Physics 16. Introduction to Earth Science 8. Biology –I* 3. Environmental Microbiology 21. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Psychology* . Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Introductory Economics* 17. English-I 6. Environmental Pollution 22. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Climatology* 23. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Introduction to Environmental Science 2.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. English-II 12. Basic Chemistry* 4. Biology –II* 9. Environmental Chemistry 15. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Introduction to Computer 14. Fundamentals of Ecology 20.

ELECTIVE-III 42. Opt. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. 46. Environmental toxicology 27. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Climate Change 38.24. 45. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. English-IV/ Univ. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Environmental Economics 29. 44. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Natural Resource Management 40. Environmental Management Systems 34. Environmental Biotechnology 32. Environmental Monitoring 36. Applied Ecology 26.

• Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical.

ethical. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. poverty and resource depletion. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. Different aspects of environment: physical. McKinney. 2007. 10th Ed. regional. 6th Ed. 4. and their relationships with various environmental factors. M. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. history. 15 . proteins and nucleic acids. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.T.. biological and social. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. B. John Wiley & Sons. ecological. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. & Nebel. E. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY .L. Schoch. R. philosophical.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. Thomson Learning. G. national. Recommended Books: 1. 2. urbanization. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. Wright. lipids. environmental pollution. 2007. 2007 3. Botkin.M.J.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline.B & Keller. Pearson Educational. development in industry and agriculture. & Yonavjak. current global. socio-economic. 2002. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment.. 4th Ed. D. Miller. its importance in human life.A. Human environment and its problems: global. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. L. R.

Structure and the basis of function. esters. 8th Ed. Starr. D. 2008. Origin of life: chemical evolution. lipids. USA. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. Cells. carboxylic acids. C. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. amines). Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. Bulter. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. chemical basis of life. 5th Edetion. USA. protobionts. Ionic. New York.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. E. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. 1. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. Self Assessment and Revie. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. covalent. coordinate covalent bond. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. 2003. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. polypeptides in protein diversity. origin of metabolism.. B. and Whitelaw. Cassimeris.. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. the molecule of genetic information and replication. USA. Wadsworth Group. proteins. Cell division. carbohydrates. Ltd. N. chemical diversity. J. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. Crossley. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. 16 . and Lewis. phospholipids in membrane systems. M. 2.. Australia . R. Lingappa. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. carbonyls... Molecular Biology through Questions. G. A. Nucleic acids. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. Shier. 3. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. Canada. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. L. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. Aromatic compounds. McGraw. 2007. Biology: a Human Emphasis. Plopper. 5. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. 2007. 1996. lipids. Lewis. R. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. Introduction to cell biology. V. 4.Hill International Edition. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials.

Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. M. series and means. 17 ..E. 6th Edition. B. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. expansion of determinants.. angle-sum formula. 2nd Edition. Hill. Skoog. UK... Canada. Solution chemistry. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. 2.A. 2004. and Reid.E. Girard. 2004. T. 5. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). Lab Work Preparation of molar.. W. and Holler. law of Cosines. 2004. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. Measurement of pH. UK. Liss.. Understanding Environmental Pollution. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. P..J. normal solutions/buffers.D. straight line and related concepts. Cambridge University Press. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. 3. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). Surface chemistry. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions.H. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. Brimblecombe. Jickells. 1st Ed. 2003. molal. West. USA. 2nd Edition. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. F. double angle formulas. Principles of Environmental Chemistry.. equations of lines (linear equations). Jones and Barlett. minor and cofactor of a matrix. Photochemical reactions.M. EC and TDS in waste water. J. D. Algebra of matrices. 8th Edition. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. J. Thin layer chromatography. Recommended Books: 1. geometric and harmonic sequence. Andrews. P. 4. real line. Thomson and Brooks. 2005. simultaneous equations and their solutions. Freeman and Company. D. determinants. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. Osmosis and Dialysis. radicals. values of trigonometric functions. Harris.Special Products (Binomial Expression).C.ions.J. USA. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). Blackwell Science.K. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. graphs.. D. Colloids chemistry. Column chromatography.S.

theorems on differentiation (sum. 1999. Integration: Formulas of integration. weathering and erosion. its origin. igneous and metamorphic rocks. product and quotient rules without derivations). Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. the processes of their formation. faults. foliation.. difference. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. K. 3. Introduction to sedimentary.B. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. Pacific Grove. and Finney. joints. Narosa Publishing House. nonrepeated linear factors. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. D. 2. cleavages. age. irreducible quadratic factors. plate tectonics. S. Fossils and their significance. theorem of integration. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. Chain rule. composition and its internal structure. New Delhi. Earth as a member of solar system. Jr. L. J. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. Analytical Geometry. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. 4.Cramer’s Rule. Introduction to rocks and minerals. Smith. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . 18 . Trignometry for College students. lineation and unconformities. erosion and related landforms. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. by parts integration (simple applications). different earth processes like mountain buildings. Weathering. Addission. Introduction to folds. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. Thomas. earthquakes.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. Scott Foresman and Company. 10th Ed. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. G. Recommended Books: 1. earthquakes and volcanoes. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Abraham. Chatterjee. California. R.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure .. 4th Ed. mountain building.Wesley.

Geographical aspects of biodiversity. causes of extinction. Biodiversity of canal. different classification systems. Geological time chart with biodiversity.. protocell formation. Lutgens. R... K. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. Darwinism. R. K. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. Prentice Hall. E.. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. Prentice Hall: 2006. biodiversity crises. unicellularity.. 2007 2. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. Lamarckism. Field Study tour. Wicander. consequences of losing biodiversity. Tarbuck. measuring biodiversity. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species..Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. 2004. Lutgens. A. Foundations of Structural Biology. 4. Biodiversity of deserts. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. Biodiversity of hilly areas. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . Physical Geology and Process of Science. 19 . molecular basis of biodiversity. How Does Earth Work. Recommended Books: 1. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. Earth Science.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution.. 3rd Edition. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. and Pun. interactions among diversified life. J. examples of adjustments in varied environment. and Monroe. invasion of life on land. D. and Tasa. Use of brunton compass and GPS. 5. E. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. and Tasa. Brooks/Cole. J. Tarbuck. G. J. F. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. Routledge. Prentice Hall. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. G. 2005.Identification of rocks and minerals.. animals). crucial for organisms’ sustainability. Life in sea. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. 9th Edition. modern concepts. 2007 3. 11th Edition. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. Park. 5th Edition. F. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. D. population loss and decline.. Smith. multicellularity.

UK. Blackwell Science Ltd.K. Chronological. R. Adam. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. I. Use of environment for vested interest. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. 2005. P. Recommended Books: 1. Scope and application. 2009. (editor). Bradbury.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. 2003. (editors). power & hegemony. Walnut Creek. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. Routledge. Environmental Risks and the Media. Allan & Carter. a Human Emphasis. 2006. 2. Contemporary environmental status. C. Conceptualizing environment. Starr. 3. Prospect Heights. Culture. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. C. UK. 2009. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. USA. CA: AltaMira Press. Tripartite nature of environment. and Spicer. J. I. J. Townsend. Biodiversity (An Introduction). Gaston. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. New York: New York University Press. culture and society.. UK. Consumption. K. Crumley. 2001. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . Contemporary environment issues and debate. L. 3. 2. Biology. 2000. 5th Edition. Inc. 20 . IL:WavelandPress. The Biosphere. Goals and expectations.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1.. 4. Nora and Wilk. 2nd Edition. Inc. globalization and environmental issues. and Sustainable Living. Perspective of human-environment evolution. John Wiley and Sons. Hannen. Understanding the environment-human relationship. The Ecology of global consumer culture. and concerns. K. Wadsworth Group.

Types and classification of computers. Ms-Power Point. as are their effects on the biosphere. Selin.6th Ed. software packages.London 1996. 6. G.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. Kluwer Academic Publishers. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. 2003.Microsoft office 2000. processing hardware. Long N.. Local Area Network. 21 .5. system software. Introduction to MS-Word. Ms-Excel. computer programs and basic applications. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. Fundamentals of computer. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. Storage hardware.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. Recommended Books: 1. Configurations. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. Software: Application software. Courter. Ed. K. Marquis A. output hardware. internet. 2.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . Operating system (Windows). Course Outlines Definition. Milton. Ms-Access. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. Rutledge. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry.1999. Long l.H. Hardware: Input Hardware. e-mail..

Conversion of mass. Solids. M. USA. Nuclear energy. and Singh. 2. their sources and toxic actions. Samir...M. trophic level. Reducing the transmission of sound. 1999. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. Diffusion. 2005. 2008. 2004. Brimblecombe. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. Environmental Chemistry. Germany. Turbulent jets and plumes. Transport of pollutants. 3. Fate of pollutants in environment. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter... Ibanez. Thomson-Brooks. atmospheric and soil chemistry.. Turbulence.. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . Isotopes and radioactive decay.E. J. Entropy. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. its causes and adverse effects on environment. 4. Solar spectrum. K. 2004.E. Girard. Liss. Andrews. Springer. Particle physics. Environmental Chemistry. 2nd Edition. and Reid. P. Liquids and Gasses. Active control of sound. UK. Global climate and climatic change. Recommended Books: 1. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems.S. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants.D. Environmental impact of various industries. Energy. India. DoriaSerrano. 1st Edition. G. Heat radiation and heat transfer.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. Ozone and UV light. J. photosynthesis. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Environmental Science. J. 5. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Human perceptions and noise criteria.. interaction of light with matter. Ozone chemistry.. Turbulent diffusion. Fregoso-Infante. Fundamentals of aquatic. Electromagnetic radiation. A. Chemical reactions.J. B. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Basic acoustics. Jickells. C. Canada.G.. Energy conversion. Equations of fluid dynamics. Sound and Noise.. T. M. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. P. Blackwell Science.T. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. Gaussian plumes in the air. Miller. Hernandez-Esparza.. Jones and Barlett. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics.

Measures for sustainable development. and Pandis. Recommended Books: 1. interaction between ecology and economic management. Field visit. S. Economic management and environmental quality. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. 2. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. R. Growth and development.Economic development. 23 . Economic Development. and Van Grondelle. and Resource allocation. economic growth. Growth and Environment. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. Natural resources and the economy. economic growth and its measurement. 4. P. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. Pakistan economic context: National income. USA. USA. Recommended Books: 1. Kentucky USA. Smith.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. Praxis publishing. concepts and measurement. H. economic welfare and difference among all. Physics of the Environment and Climate. USA. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. Wesely Publishers. World Bank Publications. S. J. Routledge. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. 2006. G. UK. poverty. USA. E. 7th Ed. Boeker. New York. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. 3.. Seinfeld. N. population and environmental quality. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. Sustainable development. 2008. C. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. Environmental Physics. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. economic progress. Guyot. Todaro. Impact of economic activity on environment. Yusuf. 2001. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. Economic functions of environment.1998. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Man environmental relationship. Environmental economics. M. Producer behavior. Introductory Environmental Physics. 2008. 2001. 2. producer and community point of view. John Wiley and Sons Inc.

B. Environmental Critics of agriculture. 4.3. the ethics of soil. D. USA. 2009. Hanley. N. London. community. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. Ecosystem and its types. A History of Western Philosophy. 4. Callicott. and White. J. 2007. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . Shogren. Economics. Palgrave Macmillan. Ecology. R. England. Introduction to ethical theory. Course Outlines Introduction.. Touchstone Books. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. Frodeman. World Bank Publications. M. role of light. 2008. its fundamental concepts.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. LLC. concepts and approaches.. J. Environmental philosophy and ethics. Farmington Hills. WCIV7AA. water. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology.A. community and ecosystem. branches of ecology. International Thomson Publishing. B. temperature. ethics and ecology. population. Russell. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. 3. Recommended Books: 1. Kessinger Publishing. 2002. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography.. USA. Swift. Portland 1967. 2. 2008. levels of ecological organization. Natural philosophy. 24 . and systems ecology. biogeography. description of population. C. species. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. & Pierce. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. soil. B..V. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. DeVeer.

UK. Systems ecology.topography and air as ecological factors. Odum. Ecology (principles and applications). plant geography and animal distribution. Ecosystem: structure and function. and Barett. G. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. various concepts of community. Concepts of Limiting factors. 1992. Populations. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. J. and More. 3. 2. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. Microbial metabolism. M J. Fundamentals of Ecology. King’s College London.Cox. C. After completion of this course. Dash. 2001 5. students will be able to understand the significance. Cambridge University Press. Biomes of the world. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. 1st Ed. characteristics of urban. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. habitat and niche. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. WCB/McGraw-Hill. Tata McGraw-Hill. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. Recommended Books 1. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. landscape ecology. N.L and Reiss. Fundamentals of Ecology. Ecology (concepts and applications. 6th Ed. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. Lab Work 25 .W. community dynamics. population dynamics.) Moles. M C J 1st ed. 2004. B. P. ecological modeling. biotic factors. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). J. E P. Population distribution and abundance. and S. New York. bacteria and eukarya. landscape changes and their importance. M. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. 1999 4. distribution limits. Thomson Brooks/Cole. UK. New Delhi. C. 2000. 5th Ed. aquatic microbiology. Chapman. Biogeochemical cycles of C. productivity of different ecosystems.

A. L.A. Solid Waste generation. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). Microbiology.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. Academic Press.. American Society for Microbiology.F. Maier.P. 2 Edition.J. P. 3. J.P. Sylvia. and Jeffery. 2.V. D.M.J. P. 3. Recommended Books 1. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. 26 . Understanding Environmental Pollution.J. Mean plate count. R. Crawford.. Pollution Control Strategies..D.M..A. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines.Gerba.. London. D. purification and preservation. (Elsevier) USA. its sources and their effects..B. New Jersey.W.1998. J. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. Effects of Pollutants. Environmental Microbiology. J. 2005. 2005. and Klein. 2. USA. 2002. Case Studies. 1995.and Brendecke. L.. Dilution plate technique. Fate of Environmental Pollutants.K. and Stetzenbach. Water.. R. 4. Butterworth-Heinemann. Fuhrmann. 2009. F. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. Hill.I.. Marine & Industrial pollution. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. A. Academic Press. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. USA. Pepper.. Soil. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. 2005. Collection. Peiece. McInernery.C. and Gerba. M.and Vesilaind. Recommended Books: 1.P.. 2007. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. isolation. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. Academic Press. Weiner. D. Environmental Pollution and Control. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. W. McGraw Hill Inc. Hartel. C. Knudsen. UK. I. 5.. USA. USA. 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press.J. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. Cambridge UK. C. Harley. and Zuberer. Hurrst. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. Washington DC. Prescott. M.R.G. transportation & treatments. Human & other living organisms.L. G. peppor. Prentice Hall.M.J. Noise.L.L.. USA. 4th Edition.

4. Houghton J. Methods of psychology. Surface winds. John H. condensation and cloud Formation. Factors affecting air Pressure. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. 27 . global circulation. Marcel Dekkar. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. Cloud Classification. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. 2006 5. Shamshad. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. air pressure. 1988. Tarbuck.4. Royal book company. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. Solar radiations. Weather and Climate.W. Radiation and climate.. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. 1992. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. climatic zones of Pakistan. Austin Miller. Lawrance K. 2. . Recommended Books: 1. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere.. Sadder. John Wiley and Sons.2nd Editions. The Hydrologic cycle. 5. local winds. American Public Health Association (APHA). 3. Pandis. Lutgens. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. K.E.M. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History.. N. Spyros.K. Four Spheres of the Earth.. 2002. Environmental psychology.F. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). A brief historical background and schools of psychology. Cambridge University Press. A. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. Climatology. 2003. Karachi. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. The Physics of Atmospheres. 6th Edition. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. The Atmosphere.J. The climate of Pakistan. Mechanism of heat transfer.

soil salinity and water logging. rivers. Eysenck. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. Ecological restoration. Bell. Sustainable livestock management practices. CRC Press.D..W. Background and scope.. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. Ecology of food production. 1992. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. soil erosion and conservation. Routledge. Future water scenario of Pakistan. Recommended Books: 1. Sustainable agricultural practices. London. techniques and methods of restoration. Course Outline Introduction. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. species response to pollutants. threats and mitigation. 2. High population density and psychological impacts. 5th Edition. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. limitation of irrigated agriculture. P. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation.A. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. Fundamental of Psychology. solar radiation and primary production. Restoration of derelict lands. Environmental perception and cognition. energy and carbon balance. sustainable agriculture. Greene. concepts. Pollution control through Ecology. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. carbon dioxide and global climate change. CRC Press. Soil as a natural resource. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. Water and distribution of species. 2001. M. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. T. 28 . conservation of resources in ecological perspectives.characteristics and research methods.C. Water as an ecological resource. their management and ecological restoration. and Baum A. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. Environmental Psychology. Routledge. soil resources of Pakistan. London. Fisher J.

National Book Foundation.. R. Margaret A.. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. 29 . Chemical interactions and their types. G. 2000 2. B. 3. water and soil. J. Organs. Shirkat Gah. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. A. Peshawar. USA. Fundamentals of Ecology. Islamabad. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. Potentiation and Addition. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques.. 5th Edition. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. toxins vs toxicants. 2006.Recommended Books: 1. Synergism. K and Habib. and Memon. D. Lahore. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. Blackwell Scientific Publications. A. 4.S. Island Press. 5. and Hobbs. and Barett. from natural and anthropogenic sources. Falk. in vivo & in vitro assays. soil and air samples. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. E. 2004. Soil Science. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. toxicity screening using microbial systems. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. their containment and control strategies. on human and other living organisms. University of Peshawar. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. K. Pakistan’s Environment. Studies in Pakistan Geography. Mumtaz. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. Odum E.P. toxins & toxicants. 1996. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. 1989. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects.. Israr-ud-Din. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. toxicology of chemicals.W. P. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. Newman. J. Oxford. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. Rashid. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. 2nd ed.1998. biological effects. terminologies: Poisons. Zedler.I. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. Immunological considerations in toxicology.A. dose response relationship in living organisms.

Government of Pakistan. major ecosystems. 2005 2. the economy and the environment. 3.). Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. health. 1st Edition. the economic benefits of different environmental resources.. Recommended Books 1. 1993. geography. USA.Science of Poisons . (ed. 3. 1st Edition.M. clean development mechanism. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. people. Ballantyne. Williams. 1996. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. W. T and Turner. Vol. 5th Edition. Recommended Books: 30 . 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development.1 & 2. P. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. Ecological: ecological zones. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. USA. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. land. water resources. Klassen. measuring environmental benefits. international trade and the environment. economic development and the environment. General and Applied Toxicology. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements.D. CRC Press Llc. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. culture. B. education. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. M.2005 2. Economic: agriculture. pollution control-a general model. Course Outlines Introduction to history. McGrawhill. economic aspects of different environmental problems. urbanization and pollution. Course Outlines Introduction. 1992. Macmillan Press Ltd. industry. USA. W.Recommended Books 1. Hughes. topographic zones. State of the Environment-Pakistan .

Conductivitymetry. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. preparation and storage. L. 3. M. Turner. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). CSIRO Publ. Pearce. Lab Work S. All Solids. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. water and plant analysis.K. Field. Sample preservation methods. Reuter. Conductivitymetry.. 8th Edition. Oxford. Gravimetery. NO3–N & NH4-N). D. Data interpretation for quality control. 2. soil (NPK and organic matter contents... C.. USA. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. Skoog.I. D.L. 31 . Analytical techniques for soil. 2. Sparrow and D.1. and derived S. units. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. Fluoride. 1999. Sample collection. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. Kolstad. Australia.I. D.2004. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. K. salinity & sodicity).C. 1993.W. 2005. Johns Hopkins University Press.D.A. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. Gravimetery.J. 3. New York. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. Recommended Books: 1. Oxford University Press. Holler.. 2000. A. Thomson and Brooks. Titrimetery. handling. B. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. Titrimetery. Standard solutions and standard curves. Freeman & Co. C.K. precision and accuracy. and F.UK. West.R. BOD. Harris. Use of Potentiometery. Environmental Economics: An Introduction.2002.. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. Peverill. I. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. 2003. 6th Edition.and Field. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Environmental Economics. and Batemen. 4. J. Collingwood. M. COD. D.

Sambrook. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. Chichoster. Wiley-VCH Verlag. J. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. Scragg. Oxford University Press. J. PCR. 2nd Ed. 2. Introduction to microbial kinetics. Recombinant DNA technology. USA. and application of biotechnology in the environment. Hans- Joachim.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. Course Outlines Introduction. Biosensor. Biomarkers. England. 5th Ed.1999. D. Environmental Biotechnology. 3. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. New York. After completion of this course. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. National Biosafety Guidelines. Derbre.P. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants.).D. New York. (ed. Cambridge University Press. USA. Tools in environmental biotechnology.. and Russel. 2007. A. Recommended Books 1. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms.E. purification and preservation of DNA. and Josef. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. Smith. Germany.. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. 2001. Biotechnology.W. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. students will be able to understand the significance. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . 2005. W. National Biotechnology Commission. USA. Isolation.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. Bioreactors. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. Government of Pakistan. 4. 2005. J. 2009.

5. Cartography. John Wiley and Sons. Mc Graw Hill Education. Active and Passive remote sensing. integration of information from many sources. Rancez. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Fishery and wildlife. K and L. Different types of maps. 2008. F. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. V. Z. Introduction to Photogrammetry. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. Agriculture. Image Processing. Data entry and output. advantages and limitations of process. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. Data acquisition. analysis and output. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Dessinov. History and data collection. Inc. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . Introduction to GIS. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. Aerial photography. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Lulla. Harvey. 2000. Satellite Imageries. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. 1999. Guilfoud press New York. eradication of the duplicated data. Using and reading GPS in field. 2009. Inc. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Interpretation. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. history and platforms. John Wiley and Sons. 2. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. Forestry. Pearsons Education. Preparation of thematic maps. Types of data used in GIS. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. 4. Jensen. R. map projection and coordinate systems. Energy Sources. 3. Inc. Campbell. A. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. 2000.

This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. Environment and sustainable development. 2001. Environmental aspects and impacts.. Environmental Economy. WWF Pakistan. 34 . 2. plant. and Yoxon. etc. A. Related Environmental legislation. American Society for Quality. 2005. principles of Cleaner production.3rd Edition . B. M. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. philosophical. alpha and beta diversity. 1998. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. standards and guidelines. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. eco-design. American Society for Quality. Systems and Support Techniques. F.). threats to biodiversity and its conservation.. Sheldon. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. 3. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. 2006. Michigan. Environmental Management tools. Conservation of biodiversity. Certification of EMS. social and ethical values of biodiversity. hot spots of biodiversity. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. and Qasim. threats to biodiversity. Methods of environmental protection. economic. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. types of biodiversity. ecological. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Environmental Management Systems Principles. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. Course Outlines Introduction. need and approach.C. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. cleaner technologies. International Organization for Standardization. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). M.. Khan. 4.2nd Ed. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management.

35 . Associates Inc. quality assessment. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora.. habitats. C. 3.e.. community and ecosystem level. conservation strategies. design and types of samples. Sunderland. Recommended Books: 1. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. international agreements. Publ. forests.B. P. chemical addition. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. Kings College. field custody. Sinauer. conservation in man-made ecosystems. sampling and design purposes. laboratory custody. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. 2000. presampling requirements/information. 2. Course Outlines Introduction. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. 2ndEd. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. Saad Printers. Cox. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. 2000. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. Legal protection of species. Considerations. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. Z. management. 1998. population. cities. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. P. role of traditional knowledge in conservation.B. NOC for plant operation. Mirza. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. Lahore). their categories. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. air. A Primer for Conservation Biology. protected areas.conservation at species. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. Preservation methods including pH control. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. Rawalpindi. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. plants. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. EIA requirement. Quality assurance and quality control. croplands. Conservation of wildlife. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. and Morre. national and international laws and regulations. ecotourism.B. refrigeration and freezing methods.D. Biogeography. soil and living organisms. London.R. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. quality control sampling. conservation and livelihood. water..

Regional droughts and 36 . USA. Forstner U. Remote Sensing Note. altered community structure. Ozone depletion. 2002. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change.. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. regional. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate.1999. 5. Physical. L. Korte. New York. Murai. Human responses to potential climate change.USA.) McGraw-Hill.1996. Peakall. biological. extinctions. 8. chemical. R. Recent Climate Change Indicators.. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. (ed) Springer. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. Precipitation. human health. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. 1992. 2008. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1.Recommended Books: 1. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. its causes and effects. Burden. Keith. agriculture. McKlivie. 2000. Energy and Temperature. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. Moisture in the Atmosphere. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. D. Tokyo. Environmental Chemistry. 2008. 7. Lewis Publisher London. F. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. S. phenological changes. S. I. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. 2002. Manahan. USA. (eds. Chapman and Hall. 6. E. . 2. UK. H. and Guethner. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. 3. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. USA. Chuviero. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. 2nd Edition. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. Earth Observation of Global Change. E. The Measurement of Climate Change. N. D.

.cataclysmic climate change. overview. 1999. 37 . and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction.. A. Oxford. Global Change and the earth system. J. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. 2003. London. 1986. and Chadwick. EIA project management. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. liquid. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. law. J. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. Houghton. Recommended Books: 1. John Wiley & Sons. Harrop. 2000. 2005. Petts. 5. 1994. J. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. J. Hardy. London. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. and Solutions. project implementation and follow up.. 2. D. social impact assessment (SIA). National Book Foundation. A.Causes. Climate Change . Climate Change . Keith. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. impact analysis. (ed. 3. Hardy. Cost and benefits of EIA. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. Islamabad. J. decision-making to implement the project.Causes. 2003. Therivel. 1st Edition. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. R. reporting. scoping.O. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. 2005..(ed). public involvement. Recommended Books: 1. 2005. Main stages in EIA process. mitigation and impact management. and Solutions.A. & Nixon.T. Glasson.. John Wiley & Sons.. Global Warming and Climate Change.). Earthscan Publication Ltd. and noise. T. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. Blackwell. 4. 2. Ministry of Housing and Works. 2004. review of EIA quality. Effects. 4. solids. Islamabad. 3. 6. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). Effects. Types & Resources to produce Energy. screening. Routledge.. Sringer.

importance. B. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. Lohani. J. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. A.B and Warren. 2nd Edition. threats. threat and its causes. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development... 2002. R. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. existing management approaches. Ludwig. United Nations Environment Programme. causes and methods for its improvement. Carpenter. 38 . field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. Sadler. Rangeland Management: existing status. Types. 1997. national example. Evans. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. agriculture chemicals. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. management options. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. best available option for future.). New York. requirement.. wildlife census. limitation in the future. & McCabe. USA. Conservation in Progress. management options. effective management. process and contents of the management plan. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. national agriculture policy. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. wind power and nuclear power. John Willey & Sons. Recommended Books: 1. M. problem in agriculture. (ed. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. Goldsmith. national and provincial legislation. solar power. forest types and its existing management. F. Everitt. methodologies. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. their pros and cons.5. Development of Management Plan: needs.. their current status and threats.. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. R.. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. S. 6. 1993. agriculture products and their share in GDP. B. and Tu. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies.. H. Asian Development Bank.

39 . Scientific Research: Science. How to put things together? Introduction. Interviews. Inference based on findings. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research.. Review of Literature. Elsevier. R. Search Engines. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. S.Amsterdam. Environmental Conservation. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. Scientific Methods. Experimental Research. London. Sage CA. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. & Plano Clark. Material Methods. Questionnaire. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). Methodology. USA. 4.F. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. to introduce students to research design.2. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. GOP and IUCN. 1984. Research Proposal: its importance . 5. Selecting the Research Method. Objectives. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research.A pre-requisite for Research. V. Thousand Oaks. New York. 1992. research methods. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Surveys. 3. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. concepts and terminologies. 1990. 2007. John Wiley & Sons. W. and Jorqensen. Review of Literature. Hansen. Bibliography. population and sampling frames. P. Creswell.E. Dasmann. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. Research Design & Research Methods. Sampling: the logic of sampling. Case Studies. types of sampling design/. J. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Literature Search: Database.L.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. Islamabad. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data.E.

Belmont California. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. 2003. 2nd Edition.Batty. John and sons Ltd. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 .Harrad. 2001. 5. 2008. Qadar. Babbie. 4. Sage Publishers. M. Marilyn F. E. SNBP Local Government Ordinance.. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. 2003. 3rd Edition. England. Booth. Robert Yin. USA. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. 3. Law Books House. of Chicago Press. Chichester. 2000. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. Wadsworth Publishing Company.USA. R. National Conservation Strategy 5. Government of Pakistan 3. S. 1997. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance.S. regulations made there under. Recommended Books: 1. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. G. Survey Research Methods. USA. Univ. National Environmental Policy 4. Moriarty. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules.. Diamon. 1997. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. The Craft of Research by Wayne C.h. Students project in Environmental Science. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. and Arhonditsis. 6. 2. 1989. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation...2.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

Recommended Books: 1. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. (eds. Mirajuddin Publication . 2006. water quality and quantity aspects. 4. recycling and re-use of wastewater. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. pollution aspects. Ahmed. Bengali. Asia Printer. virtual water. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. 3.. flood and droughts.. fisheries management. Pakistan . tubewells. watershed/catchment. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. N. wetlands resources management. and Tortajada. groundwater exploitation. flood and drought management. Revised & enlarged edition. and Qamar.1993.Lahore. Oxford University Press Karachi.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. with drinking water facilities like springs. and Malik.K. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. integrated water resources management (IWRM). 2003. Indus Water Accord 1991. 2006. I. Khan. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. U. Islamabad. hydrological cycle. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. 2. Pakistan. 5. 2005. O. Islamabad. SDPI Oxford University Press. N. water supply and demand management measures. The Politics of Managing Water. 1993. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. K.). precipitation distribution in Pakistan. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. 44 . water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. Lahore. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment.). Mirajuddin Publication .. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). Oxford University Press New Delhi. C. R. 6. Cheema.Varis.. J. (ed. Biswas. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. A. P. R.. Ahmed. A. A... Course Outlines Water resource and its management. Briscoe.

Upper Saddle River. Physical and chemical properties of soil. USA. USA. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. Factors and processes of soil formation. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. Soil forming minerals. Hillel. humans as components of urban ecosystems. urban patterns and ecosystem functions.T. R. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. Types and properties of parent materials. urban flora and fauna. 2008. E. Forms of urbanization. Gardiner.R. R. Soil degradation. Bashir. Soils in Our Environment. urban political ecology. Upper Saddle River. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. management and green productivity. Urban ecosystem. After completion of this course. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. 45 . Definition. Brady. the salient features of urban environments. Course Outlines Introduction. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. Cation and anion exchange. Soil buffering capacity and its importance.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. USA. Soil Science. 11th Edition. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. urban settlements. 2007. 2007. 1996. Course Outlines Introduction. and Weil. hydrological processes. Process and outcome. National Book Foundation. NJ. Urbanization.C. R. Pakistan. future of urban centers. D. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. Islamabad. Prentice Hall. 1. soils. San Diego. transport. CA. urbanization in Pakistan. and Bantel. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. D.W. PrenticeHall. Miller. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes.. urban landscapes characteristics. NJ.. N. Academic Press. Causes of urbanization.

The Works: Anatomy of a City.. S.L. 2. 1. UR. Routledge. Ward.1990. M. Types of Urban Plans. A. H. Springer.. Planning and Urban Change. Alberti. UK. 2006. D. Sukopp. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels.and Kowaril. 2000. Hough. Principles of planning. London. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. Chapman and Hall. UK. CRC Press LLC. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment.. Scope. Smith. Elements of urban planning. Kate. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. M.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. C. New trends in planning and city management. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. UK. Justification for planning for city management. O. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. USA. 2004. Gilbert.. Recommended Books: 1. London. Routledge. 46 . 4. Hejny. New York. 2004. Planning theories and concepts. SAGE Publications Ltd. SBS academic publishing. Aims and Objectives of planning.and Maser. 2. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. Hague. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. 1989. S. Penguin Group. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. 2007. 3. Levels of planning. 5. I. J. Silberstein.. USA.S. nature and purpose of urban planning. City Design for Sustainable Development. 2009. Land use planning theories. The planning process. nd 2 Edition. V. Planning and its relationship with other professions.

.. i. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. and Woodrow. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. 1986. E&UA Div. Chapman & Hall. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). H. Recommended Books: 1. 1993. Natural cycles and their role. Government of Pakistan. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. Islamabad. Longman Group. 1993. P.UNESCO.J. 4. G. 1993. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters.W. Westview Press. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. New York. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. Flooding. R. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. M. 4. Different approaches and Indicators.. Earthquake. Socio-economic factors.B. 2. 47 . Disaster Management: Components of management. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. Earthquake Management. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. New York. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. 1989. 3.. Landslide. ADB.3. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches.e.W. It discusses a wide range of aspects. 1991. Kates. Physical factors. Cultural factors.. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. Disaster as an opportunity for development.. and White G. Boulder . Political factors. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. International phenomenon. 2nd Edition. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. D. Manila.. Paris. UK.F. Ministry of Housing and Works.. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Hazards. Introducing Town Planning. The Guilford Press. Flood Management: Organizational Role. Prediction. Natural Disasters Alexander. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. Clara. Role of Media in Disaster Management.

L. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. and Mushkatel.5. Sustainable livestock management. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. USA. 2007. and Yonavjak. consumers. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Botkin. 48 .B and Keller. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. alternate energy resources. F. New York. Farming practices for pests and weeds control.A. decomposers. Disasters and Development Cuny. 4th Edition. merits and demerits of wind. energy resources of Pakistan. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. R. local. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. primary producers. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. John Wiley and Sons. D. Perry R.C. Paris.H. uses. Consumer and producer relationship. OECD/IEA. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. solar. 6. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. M. L. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. 1983. 6th Edition. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future.. Biotic structure. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. 1. energy resources. Agroecology. biomass resources. Quorum Books.W. types. McKinney. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. 1984. sustainable energy management. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. A. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. Ecological concept in crop and food production. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Westport. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. 2001.. E..M. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. Schoch. 3. hydropower. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. 2007. 2.

Agrocology. R. Boulder. and Rossel.A. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. 1995. and Sudha.. Yandermeer J.G. Altreri. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. Study of stratification and profile diagram. E-11 Seminar 49 . CBS Publishers and Distributors. C.R. P. USA. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. 3. 2000. 2.H. Study of index of diversity. India.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. New York. Kapur. Recommended Books: 1.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. Westview Press. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity.M. M. Corol. New Delhi. USA. Experimental Plant Ecology. 1990.P.

it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. availability of the faculty and other facilities. 5. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. 3. 50 . The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. that: 1. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. 4. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. 2. the Committee agreed on the following principles. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science.

14. 15. 16. 25. 9. 4. 8. 21. 24. 8. 3.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 9. 12. 2. 26. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 10. 6. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 18. 22. 11. 5. 5. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 11. 17. 7. 7. 19. 23. 6. 20. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 10. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 2. 13. 12. 4. 3.

1995. Amsterdam.. S. 2nd Edition. 3.E. S. Mackenzie. 1992. 1991. 52 . 2. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall.. Recommended Books: 1.. GOP and IUCN. NCS. Khan K. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. 3..A.F. Geography of Pakistan.S. Money. Relationship of culture. London. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. and Jorqensen. Environmental control Policies. WCS. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. Hodder and Stoughton. 1987.1994. Ball.E. Provincial and Local Strategies. Oxford University Press. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Conservation Strategies. London Black Stone Press Ltd. technology and resource use. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. Regional and International Environmental Issues. D. and Bell. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. Carrying capacity and sustainable development.1994. Islamabad. Hansen..1991. S.T. Draft National Environmental Policy. FURTHER READINGS 1. Karachi. Elsevier. Mackenzie J. status of Terrestrial. Environment People and Economy. F.DETAILS OF M. Instruments and methods. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. P. 2. 4. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. Treaties. Oxford University Press. development of concepts. Conventions and Protocols in Global.

ecological impact assessment. John Wiley & Sons. Recommended Books: 1. Demographic impact assessment. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. Harlow Essex. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). F & Bronstein. Cost benefit analysis of projects. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. World Bank. social impact assessment. C. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. 1995.. Government of Pakistan. 53 . 3. Longman House. Environmental auditing. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. Burnt Hill. Gas Chromatography etc. Ahmed. Air and Solid Waste. FURTHER READINGS 1. sample collection and preservation. A. Recommended Books: 1. Wood. Chichester. ed. WB.Vanclay. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. economic impact assessment. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). UK. England. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. 1993. Environmental Chemical Analysis. process. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. Ed. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. 2. 1995. Case Studies and review. Principles of physical. A one Publishers Lahore. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update.A. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Wastewater. K. Longman Scientific and Technical. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. 2. Assessment of environmental impacts. opportunities and issues. History. sampling rules. Ministry of Environment. role and importance. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). procedures and methods of EIA. Washington. Environment Department. DC. D.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction.

54 .. 1st Ed. USA.. Planning Commission Performas. Nebel. Recommended Books: 1.. UK.. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. Project Planning. Meredith J. Public health concept. Kjelllström. Resource Mobilization. 2. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. Project Initiation. S. Government Policies and Programs. specific objectives. Prentice Hall International Inc. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. work breakdown structure. assumptions. 1st ed.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. Inc. T. Occupational Health: problems and issues. feasibility study. 1993. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. J. 1st Ed. inputs. T. M/S Banarsid. 1998. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. London. 1992. 1997. Project Life Cycle. T. principles and practices. Ergonomic and Safety. Environmental Health Engineering. Accident prevention and safety plans. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. prevention and control.. T. USA. Reasons for Project success or failure. L. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. R. Caeneross. means of verification. R. Writing Project Proposal. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). MS Project Recommended Books: 1. 3. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. Need identification. 4. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. Project Planning and Approval Processes. J. safety techniques. Yassi. Mantel s. Oxford University Press New York. and Guidotti. M.. air borne. Project Management Institute. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Wiley Interscience. A. Van Nostrand and Reinhold.2000. development objectives. John Wiley and Sons. A Guide to Project Management. B. de Kok. Primary health care services.. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. Lippmann. activities.. 5. 2002.. Defining Project objectives. Park. New York. indicators. and Wright. economic evaluation. 2. 2nd Ed. K. outputs. Basic Environmental Health. 2001.

solar. transport. 2001. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. nuclear) local. 3. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). John Wiley and Sons. E. Sayre. 6th Edition. Switzerland. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. petroleum. Schoch. 2. R. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. 1998. OECD/IEA. 4.A. ISO Central Secretariat. D. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. energy resources of Pakistan. 1990b. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor.B and Keller. Related Environmental regulations. Sources of data. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Michigan-January 2001. Environmental Auditing. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. data collection and interpretation. McKinney. 4th Edition. non-renewable and renewable. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). uses. Botkin. 2007. sustainable energy management for agriculture. D. bio-energy resources. energy resources. 55 .L. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. Paris. 2. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. Paris. Environmental auditing. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. Recommended Books: 1. L.. types. USA. 2007.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. and Yonavjak. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. M. hydropower. principles and elements of the process of EMS. alternate energy resources. Principles of cleaner production. 3. merits and demerits of wind. industry and domestic sectors. gas. St Luise Press.M.

2003. 5. 2005. Silvertown. Recommended Books: 1. 2. 2005. types of climate change models. Climate Change . Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Plant population dynamics. Blackwell Publishing. forests. ECOPE 29. Life history strategies of plants. D. D. Plant Ecology.T. J. J. Species richness. 2003. UK. T. E & Muller-Hohenstein. 2. London. J. management and restoration. plant conservation. 2005. Earthscan Publication Ltd. plant invasions. Climate Change and Ecosystems. Modeling of climate change. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Springer. Climate Change . 4. Shulze. The Green House Effect.. etc. Oxford. survival and extinction. Chichester. Hardy. geographical and temporal patterns. UK 1991. Blackwell Publishing. Oxford UK. John Wiley & Sons.. 2004. ED. 1st Edition. vegetation dynamics. 2005. E.D. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. human activities and vegetation dynamics. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. global aspects of plant ecology. Effects. & Charlesworth. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. B & Jager. 3. John Wiley & Sons. Effects. types and their climatic effects. K. resources and plants. Climate change and food production. Warrick. Maarel. competition and coexistence. 56 . climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. water resources. Recommended Books: 1. Green House Gases. Houghton. 1. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. and Solutions. Vegetation Ecology Ed.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. and Solutions. (Ed. Hardy. Beck. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press.).Causes. 3. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. Berlin. John Wiley & Sons.Causes.

I). Protected areas in Pakistan. Recommended Books: 1. Global and national biodiversity.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. Oxford. Oxford University Press. Protected areas. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. 1998.L. J. distribution. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. their ecological and economic importance. Cambridge University Press. Participatory forest management. problems and solutions. Roberts. habitats and ecosystems. Recommended Books: 1. Conserving Living Natural Resources. Protection and restoration of species. R. Blackwell Publsihing. 2002. J. 3. their types and role in conservation. Robinson. status. S. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. And Bolen. 1992. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. biological diversity. Forest plantations. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan.J. Wetlands. their importance. management. distribution and management. 2002. Bailey. Consumptive. Mcmillan. Sustainable forest management. K. John Wiley And Sons.J. Wildlife Ecology and Management. London. & Ripley. UK. Oxford University Press. Cambridge. Rangeland management. Principles of Wildlife Management. 1984. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. Extinction of species.D. B. 5.B. Oxford. Loss of biodiversity. Primack. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. types. 4. Sinauer Assocaites. Wildlife of Pakistan. Forests. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. deforestation and its control. 2. S. UK. 1973 2. types. 2004. USA. Oxford. Threatened animals and plants.J. 1986. 57 . Roberts.G.) Gaston. T. Status of forests in Pakistan. distribution.A. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity.J. kinds. 3.(2nd Ed. T. Weddell. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Oxford University Press. Biodiversity: An introduction. Cambridge. II). Establishment and management of protected areas. Essentials of Conservation Biology. & Spicer. its causes. threats and conservation. W. Publishers Sunderland. E. Inc.

1993. 2004. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Ministry of Housing and Works. V. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. 4. Forms of urbanization.. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development.and Maser. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. SAGE Publications Ltd. Kate. sanitation. Silberstein. USA.. Ward. Urban land use planning and management. UK. UK. 2. Recommended Books: 1. Government of Pakistan. S. J. C. 3.. urban political ecology. urbanization in Pakistan. Planning and Urban Change. USA. management of transport. Environmental problems of urban life. H. urban systems and their characteristics. 58 . Introducing Town Planning. CRC Press LLC. E&UA Div. Penguin Group. Longman Group. London. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. Sustainable cities. 1986.. G. New York. drinking water and solid waste in cities. future of urban centers.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. urban landscape characteristics. Islamabad. 2000. A. Clara. 2007.

Thomson and A. Martinet. Third edition. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. Practical English Grammar by A. Exercises 1. ISBN 0194313492 59 . 1997.V. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. Oxford University Press. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1.J.Annexure .A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. a) Functional English Grammar 1.

Reading. Writing. and speed reading. Oxford Supplementary Skills. intensive and extensive. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. Upper Intermediate. 1997. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Martinet. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning.2. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . Thomson and A. Reading/Comprehension 1.V. Oxford University Press. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Third edition. minutes of meetings. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. Exercises 2. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. Fourth Impression 1993. b) Practical English Grammar by A. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. Third Impression 1992.J.

b) Writing 1. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Oxford University Press 1986. Reading. descriptive and argumentative writing). c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Martinet. introduction to presentations. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . clarity. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. Fourth Impression 1992. Writing. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Advanced. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. 2. Oxford Supplementary Skills. content. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Fourth Impression 1993. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Oxford Supplementary Skills. discursive. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Third edition. Writing. narrative. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis.1. Practical English Grammar by A. Third Impression 1992. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. Thomson and A. language. Advanced by Ron White. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3.J.V. form. Third Impression 1991. 2. Exercises 2. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. Reading 1. Writing.

2004. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. 62 . 3. Kirszner and Stephen R. A Custom Publication. Martin’s Press. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. St. Compiled by norther Illinois University. without taxing the taste of engineering students). Mandell. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader.(particularly suitable for discursive. 2. College Writing Skills by John Langan. descriptive. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. Kathleen Shine Cain. argumentative and report writing). General Editiors: Janice Neulib.

Historical Perspective a. 1947-58 b. 1977-88 e. Safdar. Course Outline 1. 1988-99 f. Society and social structure c. Akbar. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. Economic institutions and issues b. ideological background of Pakistan. State & Society in Pakistan. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. Karachi: Oxford University Press. 1999 onward 3. Mehmood. Lahore. national development. Contemporary Pakistan a. 3. Karachi: Oxford University Press. . Muslim advent iii. 4. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Study the process of governance. Indus Civilization ii. contemporary Pakistan. b. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. 1958-71 c.M. 2. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. government.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Location and geo-physical features. 2. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. 1994. Shahid Javed. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. Ethnicity d. politics. 1971-77 d. 1993. 63 Books Recommended 1. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. S. 2000. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. S.Annexure . People and Land i. Zaidi.

Vol. I. Haq. 12. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Ansar. Political Parties in Pakistan. K. History & Culture of Sindh. Enigma of Political Development. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. Zahid. Islamabad. 7. Muhammad Waseem. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. M. 1998. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Washington: American Enterprise. Sayeed. 1987. 1967. 1980. Institute of Public Policy Research. Karachi: Royal Book Company. 1972. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. Ethno . 10. Lawrence. The Political System of Pakistan. 14. 13. Rafique. Mehmood. 64 . Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Wayne. 11. 1976. 6. 1980. Politics in Pakistan..K. Amin. Party. Pakistan Under Martial Law. Safdar. Aziz. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research.5. 1993. Afzal.National Movement in Pakistan. Wilcox. Khalid Bin. 8. Tahir. nd. II & III. Club Road. 9. Lahore: Vanguard. Ziring.The Emergence of Banglades. Noor ul.

C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.21. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.58.A.Annexure .56.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.40.A.6.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.Tadabar (Verse No1.A.A.20) Related to thinking.57.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.19.

3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt. in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .

“Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. Islamabad (2001) 67 . “Studies in Islamic Law.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. Bhatia. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah.S. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Pakistan. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. Ahmad Hasan. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. “Emergence of Islam” . Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. International Islamic University. IRI. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H.

College Algebra and Trigonometry. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. complex numbers. Wooton W. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. functions. Boston Swokowski EW. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. Beckenback EF. types. geometric progression. PWS-Kent Company. introduction to sets. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. system of linear equations. Cramer’s rule. harmonic progression. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. types of functions. 1987. PWS-Kent Company. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). set operations. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. cube roots of unity. Boston 68 . Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. not majoring in mathematics. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. trigonometric identities. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. matrix inverse. 1986. determinants. equations reducible to quadratic equations.Annexure .D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. Houghton & Mifflin. 1978. Sharron S. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction.

69 . parallel and perpendicular lines. 2005. Bevens I. John Wiley. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. equation of a line. integration by parts. Ma. distance between two points. Addison-Wesley. slope of a line. not majoring in mathematics. intersection of two lines. not majoring in mathematics. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). PWS-Kent Company. New York Stewart J. differentiation of polynomial. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. functions and their graphs.2. Finney AR. rational and transcendental functions. Recommended Books: Anton H. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. various forms of equation of a line. Boston Thomas GB. 1995. Calculus (3rd edition). MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. USA 3. integration by substitution. angle between two lines. inequalities. 1983. Davis S. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. Calculus (11th edition). with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. left-hand and right-hand limits. 2005. distance between a point and a line. continuity. solution of equations involving absolute values. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. Reading. change of variables in indefinite integrals. continuous functions. derivatives.

PWS-Kent Company. locus of a point in various conditions. PWS-Kent Company. circles determined by various conditions. Analytic Geometry. Cramer’s rule. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. types of functions.Circle: Equation of a circle. intersection of lines and circles. nature of roots of quadratic equations. College Algebra and Trigonometry. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). Scott. Boston Swokowski EW. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. Freshman and Company. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. hyperbola. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). 70 . determinants. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. 1987. system of linear equations. set operations. functions. Boston 4. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. types of matrices. inverse of matrices. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. Conic Sections: Parabola. 1986. ellipse. 1969 Kaufmann JE. Introduction to sets. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. equations reducible to quadratic equations. • Contents 1.

MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. characteristics of statistics. moments. 4. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. relationship of statistics with social science. Prentice Hall. 2.. ungrouped and grouped data. types of frequency series. Books Recommended: 1. E. array. skewness and kurtosis. individual. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. Walpole. variance. J. PWS-Kent Company. tally sheet method. R.. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem.. trigonometric identities.. Boston. 2. Measures of dispersion: Range. frequency polygon. R. Latest Edition. Latest Edition. R. Kaufmann. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. Graphs: Graph of straight line. standard deviation. W. cumulative frequency curve. circle and trigonometric functions. 5. 3. Swokowski. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. Latest Edition. bar frequency diagram histogram. quartiles. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. discrete and continuous series. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. E. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. E. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. 71 .geometric and harmonic progressions. Wilcox. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. deciles and percentiles.

Davis. 11th Edition. et al. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. Elliott Mendelson.Jr. Calculus. McCallum. Inc. Rational Functions. E. Frank A. Gleason. 2002. Inequalities. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . John Wiley & Sons. John H.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. H. Solution of equations involving absolute values. Addison Wesley publishing company. Contents 1. 2005. 8th edition. Trigonometric Functions. Mathews. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. plane polar coordinates. integration using partial fractions. Hughes-Hallett. and Transcendental Functions. 2. integration by inspection. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. substitution method. logarithmic differentiation. Continuity. 4. Schaum’s Outline Series. implicit differentiation. 2005. 3. Calculus. products. special points of a function. theorems of differentiation. Swokowski. the chain rule. 2. Thomas. Boston. S. Anton. Bevens. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. Integration by Parts. Inc. applications of integration. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. integral inequalities. Leibnitz’ theorem. Prentice-Hall. Recommended Books: 1. Continuous Functions. 1983. Slope of a Line. reduction formulae. integration by parts. Equation of a Line. 4th edition. 1999. Second Edition 1992. 6. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. the inverse of differentiation. • Integration Integration from first principles. Calculus. sinusoidal function. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. infinite and improper integrals. Least-Squares Line. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. W. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. 6. I. 5. quotients. Extreme Values of Functions. logarithmic integration. 3rd Edition. Rational and Transcendental Functions. Calculus Single and Multivariable. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. Jhon Willey & Sons.

Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. complex conjugate. solving hyperbolic equations. identities of hyperbolic functions. inverses of hyperbolic functions. approximation errors in Taylor series. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. arithmetico-geometric series. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. modulus and argument. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. finding the nth roots of unity. geometric series. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. multiplication. the difference method. series involving natural numbers.Additions and subtraction.

some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. line to line. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. orthogonal. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . of a unitary matrix. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. 6. point to plane. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. moments of inertia. centers of mass and centroids. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line.5. scalar triple product. masses. Hermitian. the inner product. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. Pappus’ theorems. vector product. symmetric and antisymmetric.

combinations of grad. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. spherical polar coordinates 75 .8. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. divergence of a vector field. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions.

Change of origin and scale. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Unit 2.Annexure . Type-I and Type-II errors. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. The Variance and standard deviation. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Range. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Standardized variables. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Historigram. Different types of Averages. Bar charts. properties of Good Average. Data. Test statistics. sample design and sampling frame. Rounding of a Number. probability and non-probability sampling. Sources. The Mean Deviation. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. level of significance. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Collection of primary and secondary data. Discrete and continuous variables. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. general procedure for testing of hypothesis.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Coefficient of variation. Diagrams. Statistical problem. Exercises. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Graphs and their Construction. sampling with and without replacement. Types of frequency curves. Difference of means and proportions. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Histogram. Population. Errors of measurement. Constructing of a frequency distribution. Exercises. Stem and Leaf Display. Median and mode. Significant digits. Exercises. sampling and non sampling errors. Exercises Unit 6. Probability and Probability Distributions. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Editing of Data. Box and Whisker Plot. Pie chart. Unit 4. Quantiles. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. bias. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Observations. acceptance and rejection regions. Unit 7. Empirical Relation between Mean. Exercises. definition of outliers and their detection. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Absolute and relative measures. Unit 3. The Mode. 76 . Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Unit 5. Presentation of Data Introduction. Exercises. Moments and Moments ratios. null and alternative hypothesis. Exercises. The semi-Interquartile Range.

Inc. 2005. Coefficient of linear correlation. 2 Muhammad. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. simple linear regression. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. Exercises. Regression and Correlation Introduction. Correlation. Exercises Unit 9. E. Exercises Unit 10.Unit 8. Contingency Tables. Unit 11. Testing of Hypothesis. r and R2.Single Population Introduction. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies.. “Introduction to Statistics”. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. examples. Macmillan Publishing Co. R. 77 . New York. Kitab Markaz. 3rd Ed. its estimation and interpretation. F. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. 1982. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. cause and effect relationships. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. estimation of parameters and their interpretation.. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction.

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