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For BS MS
HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD
CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………
6 12 14 50 51
universities and other institutions of higher education.ALTAF ALI G.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation.). degree awarding institutions. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. therefore. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. PROF. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. dated December 4th 1976. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. 63.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. DR. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. the Federal Government vide notification No. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. and 36. It is. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. D773/76-JEA (cur. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. It also aimed to give a basic. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. R&D organizations. The world has turned into a global village. Lahore.
OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. Preparation 5 . OF CURRI. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. R&D. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. PREP. UNI. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. OF FINAL CURRI. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. EXP. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. OF NCRC. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. REC. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. COL. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI.
Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Member 5. Dr. Following attended the meeting:1. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Member 4. Karachi from 28-30. 7. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Dr.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Rawalpindi Dr. Member 3. Member 6 . Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Lahore Member 6. Rawalpindi Dr. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Dr.
Dr. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Member 11. Dr. 13. Member 15. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Dr. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Member 10. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. 7 . Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Dr. Karachi Member 12.8. Member 14. Dr. Member 16. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Prof. Prof. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Dr. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi.
Secretary Dr. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. At first. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Member 20. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Faisalabad Member 18. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. The meeting was opened by Mr. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. 2. Chairman. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Mr. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. Karachi. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Dr. 1. Member 19. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Dr. Director of HEC Regional Center. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. Mr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. 8 .17.
5. 1. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. In last few centuries. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. 3. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. 4. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. 6. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development.3. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. 2. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. The committee thanked Mr. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre.
• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. Apply theoretical understanding. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . skills and behaviour patterns. regional and global contexts. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. This committee. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. 5. in its preliminary meeting. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. ii. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us.
. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. The 11 . skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals.e. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. Integrating natural sciences. with consensus. that: 1. 2. Sc. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. The medium of instruction. 5. 3.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. A. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. 1. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. 4. 6. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. eight semesters in the semester system. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature.
Environmental Microbiology 21. Introduction to Computer 14. Biology –II* 9. English-III 18. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. English-I 6. Biology –I* 3. Introductory Economics* 17.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Environmental Pollution 22. Introduction to Earth Science 8. English-II 12. Environmental Chemistry 15. Basic Chemistry* 4. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Psychology* . Climatology* 23. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Environmental Physics 16.
ELECTIVE-III 42. Environmental Monitoring 36. Environmental Management Systems 34. Natural Resource Management 40. Opt. 44. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. Environmental Economics 29.24. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. Environmental Biotechnology 32. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. 46. 45. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. English-IV/ Univ. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . Climate Change 38. Applied Ecology 26. Environmental toxicology 27.
• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .
Different aspects of environment: physical.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. Thomson Learning. philosophical. & Yonavjak. 2002. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. 10th Ed. and their relationships with various environmental factors. E. R. Human environment and its problems: global. John Wiley & Sons. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment.A. its importance in human life. 2007. proteins and nucleic acids. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. 6th Ed. M. Recommended Books: 1. regional. 4. urbanization. Botkin. Wright. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. lipids.L. & Nebel. McKinney.. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. Pearson Educational. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society.. development in industry and agriculture. poverty and resource depletion. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. R. Miller. 2007 3. current global. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. 2007. ethical. L. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. G. D.J. 4th Ed. 15 .T.M. national. ecological. history. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. B. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Schoch. environmental pollution. socio-economic.B & Keller. 2. biological and social.
Starr. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. C. M. 1996. carboxylic acids. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. 2007. carbohydrates. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. R.. covalent. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells... carbonyls. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. G. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. 2003. 2. coordinate covalent bond. Canada. Nucleic acids. Bulter. Lingappa. Cassimeris. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. proteins. R. N. 3. origin of metabolism. Molecular Biology through Questions. Australia . 16 . Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. Introduction to cell biology. amines). 5. USA. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. Ltd. and Whitelaw. USA.. J.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. E. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. Biology: a Human Emphasis. lipids. 8th Ed.. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding.Hill International Edition. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. the molecule of genetic information and replication. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. D. chemical basis of life. 2008. Origin of life: chemical evolution. L. Self Assessment and Revie. V. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. polypeptides in protein diversity. Cells. Ionic. and Lewis. McGraw. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. 2007. Structure and the basis of function. esters. Wadsworth Group. 4. lipids. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. Cell division. Shier. Lewis. USA. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. protobionts. New York. chemical diversity. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 1. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. Aromatic compounds. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. 5th Edetion. B. phospholipids in membrane systems. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. A. Crossley. Plopper.
Liss.ions. double angle formulas. P.H. D. Skoog. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. 5.. law of Cosines. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. equations of lines (linear equations).. 4. Photochemical reactions.. Hill.M. UK. 3. Cambridge University Press. simultaneous equations and their solutions. Girard. Column chromatography. Solution chemistry. Blackwell Science. 2004. 2004. and Reid. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. 17 . EC and TDS in waste water. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Surface chemistry.D. Binomial theorem (Simple applications).J. 6th Edition. 2003. molal. determinants.. P. Osmosis and Dialysis. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. series and means. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional).J. J. values of trigonometric functions. Measurement of pH. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. 2nd Edition.. real line. D. Thomson and Brooks. radicals. Thin layer chromatography. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. Colloids chemistry. Jickells. Lab Work Preparation of molar. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. 8th Edition. USA. Algebra of matrices. Recommended Books: 1. straight line and related concepts. angle-sum formula. Andrews.C. and Holler. 2.. 2004. graphs. Principles of Environmental Chemistry.E.S. minor and cofactor of a matrix. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. 2005. West. D. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. F. J. normal solutions/buffers. expansion of determinants. USA. 2nd Edition.E.. M.. Canada. Harris. 1st Ed.. W. geometric and harmonic sequence. Brimblecombe.A. B. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. UK.K. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. T. Freeman and Company. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. Jones and Barlett.Special Products (Binomial Expression). Use of spectrophotometric techniques.
3. 10th Ed. K. G. nonrepeated linear factors. 18 . Jr. earthquakes. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. Thomas. age. Smith. cleavages. 4th Ed. lineation and unconformities. Introduction to folds. theorem of integration.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . S. igneous and metamorphic rocks. J. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. Narosa Publishing House. by parts integration (simple applications). Pacific Grove.Wesley. 4.B. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. 1999. Trignometry for College students. Weathering. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. Fossils and their significance. Integration: Formulas of integration. D.. Chain rule. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. R.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. different earth processes like mountain buildings. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. Scott Foresman and Company. foliation. difference. the processes of their formation. Addission. mountain building. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. joints. 2. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. plate tectonics. Introduction to rocks and minerals. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. erosion and related landforms. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. its origin. faults. Introduction to sedimentary.Cramer’s Rule. Abraham. product and quotient rules without derivations). earthquakes and volcanoes. and Finney. Recommended Books: 1. irreducible quadratic factors. theorems on differentiation (sum. Earth as a member of solar system. Chatterjee. Analytical Geometry. L. California. New Delhi. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. weathering and erosion. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure .. composition and its internal structure.
Tarbuck. Lamarckism. How Does Earth Work. R. Life in sea. J. 19 . consequences of losing biodiversity. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. interactions among diversified life. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY .Identification of rocks and minerals. D.. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life.. K. examples of adjustments in varied environment. 2007 3. Prentice Hall. protocell formation. invasion of life on land. A. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. 11th Edition. E. Biodiversity of canal. 9th Edition.. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. biodiversity crises. J. D. 5th Edition. Prentice Hall. Use of brunton compass and GPS. Biodiversity of hilly areas. Brooks/Cole. 5. unicellularity. multicellularity. causes of extinction. 2004. F.. Lutgens. Wicander. 4. different classification systems. and Monroe. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. 3rd Edition. animals).. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. R. modern concepts.. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. and Tasa. 2005.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. 2007 2. Earth Science. Geological time chart with biodiversity.. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. G.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time.. Park. Routledge. Darwinism. and Tasa. and Pun.. Tarbuck. population loss and decline. K. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. Biodiversity of deserts. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. J. molecular basis of biodiversity. measuring biodiversity. Physical Geology and Process of Science. Prentice Hall: 2006. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. Recommended Books: 1. Foundations of Structural Biology. Field Study tour. F. E. G. Smith. Lutgens.
I. C. 2009. Allan & Carter. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. 4.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. Bradbury.K. K. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. Adam. Perspective of human-environment evolution. 2006. a Human Emphasis. Biodiversity (An Introduction). globalization and environmental issues. 2000. Consumption. and Sustainable Living. Conceptualizing environment. Routledge. IL:WavelandPress. power & hegemony. Crumley. UK. Contemporary environment issues and debate. John Wiley and Sons. Environmental Risks and the Media. I. 2nd Edition. Hannen. P. J. 2. Goals and expectations. UK. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. 2001. and Spicer. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . Inc. Gaston. Contemporary environmental status. Walnut Creek. Understanding the environment-human relationship. Scope and application. 2003. 5th Edition. K. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies.. 20 . Blackwell Science Ltd. Starr. 3. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. USA. R. C. J. 2009. L. (editors). Biology. 3.. Prospect Heights. The Biosphere. The Ecology of global consumer culture. Wadsworth Group. 2. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. 2005. New York: New York University Press. culture and society. (editor). Use of environment for vested interest.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. UK. and concerns. Inc. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. Nora and Wilk. CA: AltaMira Press. Culture. Tripartite nature of environment. Chronological. Townsend.
After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. Software: Application software. Selin.. Ms-Power Point. Course Outlines Definition. Ms-Excel. Hardware: Input Hardware. computer programs and basic applications. 6. e-mail.London 1996. Long l. Operating system (Windows). Kluwer Academic Publishers. Marquis A. Introduction to MS-Word.6th Ed. 21 . Rutledge. Fundamentals of computer. Milton. 2003. 2. Recommended Books: 1. Long N. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. G. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. Local Area Network.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. system software. software packages. Types and classification of computers.H. as are their effects on the biosphere. Courter. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure .. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere.Microsoft office 2000. processing hardware. output hardware. Storage hardware. Ed. internet. Ms-Access.1999. Configurations. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. K.5.
Brimblecombe. Global climate and climatic change. 2004. Ozone and UV light. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. 4.. Transport of pollutants. trophic level.T. Environmental Science. Jones and Barlett. C.. 2004. J.. P. M. Gaussian plumes in the air. Jickells. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems.D. Equations of fluid dynamics. Fate of pollutants in environment. Heat radiation and heat transfer. Springer. Miller. Reducing the transmission of sound. their sources and toxic actions. and Reid. Human perceptions and noise criteria. Environmental Chemistry. Energy conversion. Turbulent diffusion. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. J. Nuclear energy. Samir. 1st Edition. Thomson-Brooks. K. 1999. UK. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Canada. Active control of sound.. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. P. photosynthesis.. Principles of Environmental Chemistry.. DoriaSerrano. G. Turbulence. Liss. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . Particle physics. Energy. India. 2005. Turbulent jets and plumes. Sound and Noise.. Girard. Fregoso-Infante. A. Conversion of mass. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. M. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Solar spectrum. Solids. Fundamentals of aquatic. its causes and adverse effects on environment. Liquids and Gasses. Diffusion. Ozone chemistry.M. Hernandez-Esparza.. 2nd Edition. Environmental impact of various industries. Recommended Books: 1. atmospheric and soil chemistry. interaction of light with matter. Basic acoustics. 2. Electromagnetic radiation. Andrews. Ibanez.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. Environmental Chemistry. Germany. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. T.. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. 3.S. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics..J. J.. 2008.E. Isotopes and radioactive decay. Chemical reactions. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. Entropy. B. Blackwell Science.E. 5. and Singh.G. USA.
USA. economic growth. H. G. Measures for sustainable development. N.. M. producer and community point of view. economic welfare and difference among all.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. poverty. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. P. and Van Grondelle. Recommended Books: 1.Economic development. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. Boeker. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. Environmental Physics. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. Field visit. 2008. Producer behavior. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Routledge. and Pandis. R. 2001. USA. 2001. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. Yusuf. Man environmental relationship. Growth and Environment. Smith. Impact of economic activity on environment. Growth and development. Praxis publishing. economic progress. 4. World Bank Publications. Economic functions of environment. 2008. Guyot. Environmental economics. 7th Ed. population and environmental quality. 3. 2006. Todaro. E. S. J. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. S. New York. concepts and measurement. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. USA. USA. Wesely Publishers. Recommended Books: 1. C. interaction between ecology and economic management. Seinfeld. Economic management and environmental quality. 23 . Pakistan economic context: National income. 2.1998. Physics of the Environment and Climate. economic growth and its measurement. 2. Economic Development. Natural resources and the economy. Introductory Environmental Physics. UK. and Resource allocation. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. Kentucky USA. Sustainable development.
C. temperature. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. community. WCIV7AA. M. USA. Shogren. England. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. Russell.3. Environmental philosophy and ethics. Frodeman. the ethics of soil. A History of Western Philosophy. Environmental Critics of agriculture. Economics. International Thomson Publishing. and White. Introduction to ethical theory. D. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice.A..V. 2. London. R. DeVeer. & Pierce. Hanley. B. Callicott.. 3. Touchstone Books. Palgrave Macmillan. J. biogeography. concepts and approaches. water. its fundamental concepts. levels of ecological organization. Natural philosophy. J. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . N. branches of ecology. Recommended Books: 1. 2007. species. Ecosystem and its types.. Farmington Hills. 24 . 4. 2008. and systems ecology. USA. Ecology. description of population. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. 2002. community and ecosystem. Portland 1967. Kessinger Publishing. 4. ethics and ecology. 2008.. World Bank Publications.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. soil. Course Outlines Introduction. B. Swift. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. LLC. role of light. population. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. 2009. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. B.
Biogeochemical cycles of C. Ecology (concepts and applications. M. and More. productivity of different ecosystems. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. Dash. Thomson Brooks/Cole. UK. aquatic microbiology. various concepts of community. Ecology (principles and applications). population dynamics. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. Population distribution and abundance. landscape ecology. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. ecological modeling. New Delhi. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. New York.Cox. 6th Ed. 2000. C. 1999 4. habitat and niche. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. Cambridge University Press. bacteria and eukarya. Chapman. characteristics of urban.) Moles. WCB/McGraw-Hill. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). 3. N. and Barett. plant geography and animal distribution. students will be able to understand the significance. After completion of this course. Recommended Books 1. 2001 5. Concepts of Limiting factors. Microbial metabolism. M C J 1st ed. Ecosystem: structure and function. UK. P. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. E P. King’s College London. landscape changes and their importance. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. Systems ecology. and S. agricultural and industrial ecosystems.topography and air as ecological factors. 2. Tata McGraw-Hill. distribution limits. G. Odum. Fundamentals of Ecology. Fundamentals of Ecology. M J. community dynamics. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. J. aero-microbiology and food microbiology.L and Reiss.W. Lab Work 25 . Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. 1992. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. J. Biomes of the world. C. Populations. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. biotic factors. B. 1st Ed. 2004. 5th Ed.
L.L. USA.Gerba.A. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. and Zuberer. Academic Press. Environmental Microbiology.A. American Society for Microbiology. A. F.J.K. 2. Peiece. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. Human & other living organisms.. transportation & treatments. W. R. Microbiology. USA. Cambridge UK. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. Dilution plate technique.and Vesilaind. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). (Elsevier) USA. 3.. J.. Cambridge University Press. R. McGraw Hill Inc. G. and Klein. 4th Edition. Solid Waste generation..and Brendecke. J. Effects of Pollutants.J. 2009. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. Academic Press. 2nd Edition. Pepper.L. Harley.B. Prentice Hall.P.M.W. J. Washington DC. Manual of Environmental Microbiology.R.. Maier.P.F. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. and Stetzenbach. Crawford.J. purification and preservation. Sylvia. Marine & Industrial pollution. 5. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. P.. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. 2. D. 2002. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. Prescott. Pollution Control Strategies. peppor. 2005. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. Knudsen.M. Weiner. Fuhrmann. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. Hill. Types of Environmental pollution: Air.A. Noise. 4. Hartel.I. UK...J. Collection.1998. USA. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. McInernery. Academic Press. D. L. Water. London. isolation. 2007.P. its sources and their effects. 2005. USA. Mean plate count.C.D.. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel.V.L. Soil. 2005. 2 Edition. C. P. M.M. I. and Jeffery. M.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection.. New Jersey. Recommended Books 1. 1995.J.. USA. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Case Studies.G. 3. C. Environmental Pollution and Control. Hurrst. Recommended Books: 1.. 26 . Butterworth-Heinemann.. D. and Gerba. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally.
Lawrance K. Spyros. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. 2. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. local winds. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater.. 2003.4.W.J. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. 4. N. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. John Wiley and Sons. climatic zones of Pakistan. The Atmosphere. global circulation. 5. Austin Miller. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. 27 . Surface winds. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. The climate of Pakistan. Climatology. 2006 5. Solar radiations. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. Shamshad.E. A. The Hydrologic cycle. Lutgens. Pandis. 1988. Royal book company. Cambridge University Press. Recommended Books: 1.. air pressure. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems.. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. Tarbuck. condensation and cloud Formation. John H. Radiation and climate. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History.F.2nd Editions. 6th Edition. Cloud Classification. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. K. Marcel Dekkar.. 3. Environmental psychology. American Public Health Association (APHA). The Physics of Atmospheres. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . Factors affecting air Pressure.M. 1992. .From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. Methods of psychology. Four Spheres of the Earth. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. Mechanism of heat transfer. 2002. Karachi. Sadder. Weather and Climate. Houghton J.K.
Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. CRC Press. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. 2001. CRC Press. solar radiation and primary production. High population density and psychological impacts. energy and carbon balance. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. Future water scenario of Pakistan. London. Ecological restoration. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. Course Outline Introduction. Restoration of derelict lands. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues.. Eysenck. Water resources of the world and Pakistan.W. T. 28 . soil erosion and conservation.A. Sustainable livestock management practices. London. 5th Edition. Bell. Recommended Books: 1. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. Routledge. carbon dioxide and global climate change. Ecology of food production. Routledge. limitation of irrigated agriculture. 1992. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. Greene. Background and scope. techniques and methods of restoration. Water and distribution of species.characteristics and research methods. Water as an ecological resource.D. 2. P. Soil as a natural resource. threats and mitigation.C. rivers. Fisher J. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. and Baum A. their management and ecological restoration. concepts. Pollution control through Ecology. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. Environmental perception and cognition. M. Environmental Psychology. sustainable agriculture. Sustainable agricultural practices. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. soil resources of Pakistan. species response to pollutants. Fundamental of Psychology. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. soil salinity and water logging..
1996. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. 4. B. Soil Science. and Barett.Recommended Books: 1. G. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. R.I. terminologies: Poisons. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water.W. Immunological considerations in toxicology.. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants.. from natural and anthropogenic sources. their containment and control strategies. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. 5. J. 1989.1998. toxicology of chemicals. P.National Book Foundation. USA. Fundamentals of Ecology. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. and Memon. Israr-ud-Din. Rashid. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. Pakistan’s Environment. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. University of Peshawar. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. Chemical interactions and their types. biological effects. Lahore. 29 . 5th Edition. Shirkat Gah. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. 2000 2. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. E. Falk. in vivo & in vitro assays. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects.A. Zedler. K and Habib. 2nd ed. Newman. soil and air samples. Potentiation and Addition.S. toxins & toxicants. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. Synergism. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. Peshawar. A. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. D. 2006. 2004. Odum E.P. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Mumtaz. dose response relationship in living organisms. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. 3. Island Press. and Hobbs. Organs. J. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. water and soil. A. Studies in Pakistan Geography. toxins vs toxicants. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals... toxicity screening using microbial systems. Oxford. Margaret A. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. K. Islamabad. on human and other living organisms.
COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. USA.M. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. Recommended Books 1. 2005 2. pollution control-a general model. measuring environmental benefits. Economic: agriculture. clean development mechanism. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. 1992. McGrawhill.1 & 2. 1993. W. Williams. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. B.Science of Poisons . 1st Edition. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. 3.2005 2. international trade and the environment. 1996. land. State of the Environment-Pakistan . economic development and the environment. Environmental Profile of Pakistan.. education. USA. Recommended Books: 30 . General and Applied Toxicology. P. health. water resources. people. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. First and Second law of Thermodynamics.Recommended Books 1. Ballantyne. economic aspects of different environmental problems. CRC Press Llc. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. major ecosystems. Course Outlines Introduction to history. M.D. Course Outlines Introduction. Hughes. industry. Macmillan Press Ltd. Vol. Ecological: ecological zones. 5th Edition. W. USA. the economy and the environment. culture. topographic zones. urbanization and pollution.). Klassen. 1st Edition. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. 3. Government of Pakistan. (ed. geography. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. T and Turner.
Field. Fluoride. Lab Work S.. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. Conductivitymetry. and Batemen.1.. Sample preservation methods. Recommended Books: 1.and Field. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. Thomson and Brooks. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples.R. NO3–N & NH4-N). Pearce. COD. 8th Edition. Titrimetery.A. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Gravimetery. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. I. Data interpretation for quality control. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. D. West. 6th Edition. Johns Hopkins University Press. Titrimetery. 2. New York. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. 2003. and F. C. Holler. USA. Turner. Kolstad. precision and accuracy.. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. Oxford University Press.2002. Conductivitymetry..C.K.W.L. Analytical techniques for soil. BOD. Skoog. K. D. Freeman & Co. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin.I. 4. J. salinity & sodicity). 2. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve.. B. D. Collingwood. Environmental Economics. Sparrow and D.2004.J. Peverill.UK. 3. All Solids. A. C. 1993. 1999. preparation and storage.D. units. M. Standard solutions and standard curves. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. L. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive.I. 2005. handling. Use of Potentiometery. Reuter. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. water and plant analysis. D. 2000.K. Harris. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Australia. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Oxford. 3. Gravimetery.. Sample collection. M. CSIRO Publ. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. and derived S. 31 .
Tools in environmental biotechnology. USA.). National Biosafety Guidelines. and Russel. Oxford University Press.1999. and application of biotechnology in the environment. Chichoster.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. 2001. Recombinant DNA technology. Wiley-VCH Verlag. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . 2005. Bioreactors. W.P. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. J. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. Biotechnology. Scragg. and Josef. Smith. 2. Biosensor. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. 2009. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. 4. After completion of this course. National Biotechnology Commission. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.W. Derbre. USA. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. PCR. 2005. USA. Germany. Government of Pakistan.D.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. A. Isolation.. D.E. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. (ed. England. 5th Ed. Course Outlines Introduction. J. Sambrook. Introduction to microbial kinetics. 2007. Cambridge University Press. 3. Recommended Books 1. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. 2nd Ed. purification and preservation of DNA. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. Environmental Biotechnology. students will be able to understand the significance. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. Biomarkers. Hans- Joachim.. J. New York. New York.
Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. R. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). analysis and output. V. K and L. Active and Passive remote sensing. F. 4. history and platforms. Introduction to Photogrammetry. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. Forestry. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Using and reading GPS in field. 2000. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Fishery and wildlife. Guilfoud press New York. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). John Wiley and Sons. advantages and limitations of process. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. A. Agriculture. 2009. 2000. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. Image Processing. 3. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. Mc Graw Hill Education. Energy Sources. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. Dessinov. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Pearsons Education. 2008. eradication of the duplicated data. Inc. Data acquisition. Rancez. John Wiley and Sons. Inc. map projection and coordinate systems. Interpretation. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. History and data collection. Preparation of thematic maps. Satellite Imageries. Types of data used in GIS. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . integration of information from many sources. Introduction to GIS. Campbell. Inc. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Lulla. Cartography. 2. Z. 1999. Harvey. Aerial photography. Data entry and output. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. 5. Jensen. Different types of maps.
This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits.3rd Edition . F. and Qasim. M. threats to biodiversity.. need and approach. 4. Course Outlines Introduction. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. Environmental Economy. Environmental Management Systems Principles. 34 . Methods of environmental protection. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. A. economic.. cleaner technologies. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. Khan. WWF Pakistan. etc. philosophical. International Organization for Standardization. American Society for Quality. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance..C. 2001.). Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. M. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. Systems and Support Techniques. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Sheldon. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. and Yoxon. Related Environmental legislation. 1998. types of biodiversity. Michigan. Certification of EMS. Conservation of biodiversity. plant. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS).2nd Ed. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. Environmental aspects and impacts. eco-design. 2005. American Society for Quality. principles of Cleaner production. ecological. 3. 2006. 2. Environmental Management tools. hot spots of biodiversity. Environment and sustainable development. alpha and beta diversity. social and ethical values of biodiversity. standards and guidelines. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. B.
Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. Conservation of wildlife. conservation in man-made ecosystems. P. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. EIA requirement. Considerations. national and international laws and regulations. presampling requirements/information. 1998. community and ecosystem level. population. soil and living organisms. 35 . Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. international agreements. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. Kings College. NOC for plant operation. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. and Morre. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. Z. cities. Mirza. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. Associates Inc. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. their categories. Publ. Recommended Books: 1. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. Sinauer. quality control sampling. Legal protection of species. London. Biogeography. P. sampling and design purposes.R.. forests. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. 2000.B. A Primer for Conservation Biology. chemical addition. air. in-situ and ex-situ conservation.. field custody. design and types of samples. water. ecotourism. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. conservation and livelihood. 2000. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. 3. Preservation methods including pH control. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. C. croplands. Cox. management. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. Lahore). Sunderland. plants.. laboratory custody.D. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment.e. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. Saad Printers.conservation at species. 2ndEd.B. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. habitats. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. refrigeration and freezing methods. quality assessment. 2. Quality assurance and quality control. conservation strategies.B. protected areas. Course Outlines Introduction. Rawalpindi.
. USA. chemical. Ozone depletion.1999. Burden. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. 2000.Recommended Books: 1. Chapman and Hall. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. Precipitation.. 6. H. 2002. S. D. biological. Environmental Chemistry. its causes and effects. UK. USA. 2008. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. Energy and Temperature. 2nd Edition. The Measurement of Climate Change.. extinctions. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. Chuviero. Lewis Publisher London. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. New York. 7. Earth Observation of Global Change.) McGraw-Hill. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. phenological changes. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data.USA. E. altered community structure. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. USA. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. D. Peakall. 5. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. (eds. Regional droughts and 36 . Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. agriculture. F. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. 2008. and Guethner. Keith. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. I. Murai. Human responses to potential climate change. 8. 3. Forstner U. L. N. Manahan. Tokyo. regional. Korte. R. human health. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. Physical. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. 2002. E. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. S. McKlivie. Remote Sensing Note. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change.1996. 1992. (ed) Springer. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. Recent Climate Change Indicators. 2. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. Moisture in the Atmosphere.
T. Houghton. Oxford.(ed). Types & Resources to produce Energy. Main stages in EIA process. 2005. Petts. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. 2003. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. project implementation and follow up. Recommended Books: 1.. social impact assessment (SIA). and Chadwick. Ministry of Housing and Works.Causes. 1986.T. J. Climate Change . reporting. overview.O. 2000. Recommended Books: 1. liquid. impact analysis.. mitigation and impact management. Harrop.Causes. Global Warming and Climate Change. D. A. Islamabad.. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. Sringer. 6. law. solids. 4. John Wiley & Sons. scoping. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. & Nixon. Effects. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. National Book Foundation. J. 2. 2005. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. 1999. EIA project management.A. screening. public involvement. Earthscan Publication Ltd. review of EIA quality. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. London.. 2005. 4. 2004. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). decision-making to implement the project. 3. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. (ed.). John Wiley & Sons. R. London. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. 2. Therivel. 37 .. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems.cataclysmic climate change. and Solutions. Hardy. J. Islamabad. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Keith.. Glasson. Effects. Cost and benefits of EIA. A.. Hardy. 2003. and noise. 1994. J. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. Climate Change . 3. Global Change and the earth system. and Solutions. Blackwell. 5. 1st Edition. Routledge. J. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan.
(ed. A. New York.B and Warren. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual.. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. & McCabe.. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. causes and methods for its improvement. Everitt. M. agriculture products and their share in GDP. Goldsmith.). effective management. Rangeland Management: existing status. management options. Lohani.. Sadler. their current status and threats. problem in agriculture. forest types and its existing management. USA. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. methodologies. Conservation in Progress. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. their pros and cons. F. Carpenter. 6. wind power and nuclear power. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. management options. United Nations Environment Programme. S.. and Tu. solar power. 2002. H. Types. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. agriculture chemicals.5. importance. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level.. threats. B. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. existing management approaches. 1993. national and provincial legislation. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. 1997. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification.. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. R. 38 . review of land use plans developed by the various organizations.. Evans. limitation in the future. Asian Development Bank. national agriculture policy. Development of Management Plan: needs. threat and its causes. R. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. requirement. national example. 2nd Edition. B. best available option for future. Ludwig. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. Recommended Books: 1. process and contents of the management plan. John Willey & Sons. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. wildlife census. J.
1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. Sampling: the logic of sampling. research methods. to introduce students to research design. 4. Sage CA. concepts and terminologies. Thousand Oaks.. London.F.E. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research.2. Environmental Conservation. V. Selecting the Research Method. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. R. Case Studies. Bibliography. S. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. 1984. Questionnaire. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Research Proposal: its importance . Interviews. Scientific Research: Science. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. John Wiley & Sons. J. 3. Experimental Research. New York. Research Design & Research Methods. 39 . W. P. How to put things together? Introduction.Amsterdam. Literature Search: Database.A pre-requisite for Research. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. Hansen.E. Review of Literature. and Jorqensen. Creswell. population and sampling frames. GOP and IUCN. 5. Elsevier. Scientific Methods. types of sampling design/. & Plano Clark. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. Objectives. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. 1992. USA. Methodology.L. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. Surveys. 1990. Islamabad. 2007. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. Material Methods. Review of Literature. Inference based on findings. Dasmann. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Search Engines.
Booth. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance.USA.h. Belmont California. Robert Yin. G. 2008. R. 2001. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. National Environmental Policy 4. 2nd Edition. Wadsworth Publishing Company. Qadar. S. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. National Conservation Strategy 5. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. 2. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. Students project in Environmental Science. Moriarty. Chichester. 5. England. Babbie. Univ. 1997.S. 2000. 1997. Diamon. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. USA. Recommended Books: 1. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . 2003.. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans.Harrad. of Chicago Press. SNBP Local Government Ordinance.2.. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. 3. E. USA. 4. Government of Pakistan 3. Survey Research Methods.. Law Books House. Sage Publishers. regulations made there under. 6. 2003. M. Marilyn F.Batty. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. 3rd Edition. and Arhonditsis.. 1989. John and sons Ltd. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation.
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45
POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.
Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46
RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,
5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.
groundwater exploitation. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. K. 2006. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan.. Recommended Books: 1. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. Pakistan . 4. J. 5. Lahore. 6. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. Oxford University Press New Delhi. Asia Printer. pollution aspects. I. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. 1993. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. The Politics of Managing Water. Ahmed. flood and droughts. Khan.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. Ahmed. virtual water.Lahore. A. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc... precipitation distribution in Pakistan. 2006. Islamabad. and Qamar. integrated water resources management (IWRM). 2005. flood and drought management. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. water quality and quantity aspects. (ed. U. C. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant.K. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. Islamabad.). water supply and demand management measures. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. Pakistan. R.. Cheema. A. Biswas.1993. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). Mirajuddin Publication . O. recycling and re-use of wastewater.Varis. and Tortajada. wetlands resources management. hydrological cycle. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. 2003.). (eds. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. Revised & enlarged edition. P. SDPI Oxford University Press. with drinking water facilities like springs. fisheries management. Indus Water Accord 1991. R. tubewells.. N. 2. N. 3. 44 . A. Oxford University Press Karachi. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. and Malik. Briscoe. watershed/catchment. Bengali.. Mirajuddin Publication ..
management and green productivity. N.T. Academic Press. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. R. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. hydrological processes. future of urban centers. Upper Saddle River. humans as components of urban ecosystems. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. Islamabad. R.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. 2008. urban flora and fauna. 2007. R. Bashir. Urban ecosystem. Definition. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. Soil degradation.W. 45 . Soil Science. transport. National Book Foundation. USA. Cation and anion exchange. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. D. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. After completion of this course. soils. and Weil. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. Urbanization. urban political ecology. CA. Physical and chemical properties of soil. 1996. and Bantel. 1. USA. D. Forms of urbanization. Gardiner. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. the salient features of urban environments. Pakistan.. NJ. urban settlements. Causes of urbanization. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. Hillel. Types and properties of parent materials.C.. San Diego. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals.R. Soil forming minerals. E. PrenticeHall. Course Outlines Introduction. 2007. USA. Course Outlines Introduction. Upper Saddle River. 11th Edition. urbanization in Pakistan. Process and outcome. urban landscapes characteristics. Miller. Factors and processes of soil formation. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. Soils in Our Environment. Brady. Prentice Hall. NJ.
E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels.. Hough.S. New trends in planning and city management. UR. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. Chapman and Hall. UK. D. Levels of planning. Gilbert. nature and purpose of urban planning. 46 . C. 2004. 3. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Routledge. SAGE Publications Ltd. USA. M.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. Silberstein. Principles of planning. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. USA. I. Planning theories and concepts. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. Recommended Books: 1.. Kate. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. 2006. A. 2.1990. 2009... Scope. Smith. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. 1989. New York. 1. 2007. 2. O. M. UK. Springer. 4. London.and Maser. The planning process. H. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. CRC Press LLC. Penguin Group. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. Elements of urban planning. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. Land use planning theories. Types of Urban Plans. Routledge. Aims and Objectives of planning.and Kowaril. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. Planning and Urban Change. London. City Design for Sustainable Development. nd 2 Edition. 2004.L. S. 2000. Alberti.. Hague. Justification for planning for city management. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. Sukopp. J. V. UK. 5. SBS academic publishing. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. Planning and its relationship with other professions. S. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. Ward. Hejny.
. Hazards. R. Westview Press.e.. It discusses a wide range of aspects. The Guilford Press. Flood Management: Organizational Role.B. D. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson.J. Physical factors.. G. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. Recommended Books: 1... H. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. International phenomenon. Disaster as an opportunity for development. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. Landslide.3. Cultural factors. Chapman & Hall. 1993. Prediction. Different approaches and Indicators. Natural cycles and their role. 4. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N.W. New York. Paris.W. and Woodrow. Role of Media in Disaster Management.. 47 .. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. E&UA Div. Earthquake Management. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. Government of Pakistan. UK..UNESCO. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. i. Socio-economic factors. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. Earthquake. Natural Disasters Alexander. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Islamabad. 1991. 1986. Disaster Management: Components of management. Kates. Flooding. 1993. 2. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. M. and White G. Manila. 3. New York. Political factors.F. Ministry of Housing and Works. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. ADB. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. 4. 1993. Longman Group. Clara. P. 2nd Edition. 1989. Boulder . vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. Introducing Town Planning.
Deforestation for agricultural purposes.C. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. M. New York.. uses. energy resources. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. D. Paris. alternate energy resources. and Yonavjak. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. Quorum Books. merits and demerits of wind. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. types. 1983. local. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems.W. L. Sustainable livestock management. Agroecology.. 2. 2007. Biotic structure. John Wiley and Sons. 4th Edition. USA. F. McKinney. E.M. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. OECD/IEA. R. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. 2001. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. A. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources.A. Disasters and Development Cuny. 1. Botkin. hydropower. consumers. Schoch. 1984.5. and Mushkatel. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. decomposers. primary producers. sustainable energy management. 48 . E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. 3. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. energy resources of Pakistan. 6th Edition. solar. biomass resources.L. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. Perry R. 2007. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. Westport.B and Keller.. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. 6. Farming practices for pests and weeds control.H. Consumer and producer relationship. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. Ecological concept in crop and food production. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation.
M. P. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. CBS Publishers and Distributors. USA.. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. Experimental Plant Ecology. R. 3. M. New York. 1995. 2000.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. USA. Study of index of diversity. 1990. Yandermeer J. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. Boulder.P.R. Altreri. Corol. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. C. Kapur. E-11 Seminar 49 .Determination of density and abundance of plant species. New Delhi. 2.G. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. and Sudha. Study of stratification and profile diagram. India. Agrocology.A. Recommended Books: 1.H. and Rossel. Westview Press.
The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. the Committee agreed on the following principles.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. 3. 50 . 2. 4. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. 5. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. availability of the faculty and other facilities. that: 1. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor.
7. 8. 10. 15. 12. 6. 17. 13. 9. 19. 14. 4. 4. 16. 20. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 3. 7. 22. 24. 25. 11. 12.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 26. 5. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 6. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 21. 5. 23. 3. 2. 18. 11. 10. 8. 9. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 2.
GOP and IUCN. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Geography of Pakistan. WCS. NCS. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. Hansen.E. Amsterdam. Recommended Books: 1. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan.DETAILS OF M.F. F.E. status of Terrestrial. Conventions and Protocols in Global. Elsevier. Regional and International Environmental Issues.1995. S. Treaties. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment.. Environmental control Policies. S. 2. 1992. technology and resource use.. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences.. Ball..S. London. 3. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. 2. Hodder and Stoughton. and Jorqensen. 4.1994.T. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. Environment People and Economy. FURTHER READINGS 1. 2nd Edition.. Mackenzie. Mackenzie J. D. Oxford University Press. Khan K. and Bell.A. development of concepts. 1987. Karachi.1991. Relationship of culture. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. London Black Stone Press Ltd. S. Oxford University Press.1994. Conservation Strategies. Islamabad. P. Provincial and Local Strategies. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. Money. 3. Instruments and methods. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. Draft National Environmental Policy. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. 52 . 1991.
Assessment of environmental impacts.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. F & Bronstein. 1995. 1993. Burnt Hill. economic impact assessment. World Bank. Environmental auditing. Wastewater. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. process. England. ed. Environmental Chemical Analysis. FURTHER READINGS 1. Environment Department. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. Principles of physical. opportunities and issues. 2. Harlow Essex.A. 1995. C. Ahmed. Washington. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). 2. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition).. Longman Scientific and Technical. Wood. History. sample collection and preservation. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. social impact assessment. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. D. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. DC. Chichester. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. Longman House. sampling rules. Recommended Books: 1. UK. Ministry of Environment. Recommended Books: 1. Cost benefit analysis of projects. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. A. Case Studies and review. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. WB. 3. 53 . Government of Pakistan. procedures and methods of EIA. Air and Solid Waste. Gas Chromatography etc. role and importance. John Wiley & Sons. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. A one Publishers Lahore. ecological impact assessment. Ed. K. Demographic impact assessment.Vanclay.
activities. principles and practices. Lippmann. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. Recommended Books: 1. 1993. 1st ed. J. Park. Ergonomic and Safety. Planning Commission Performas. 2. 3. 1998. Project Planning. and Guidotti.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. Project Life Cycle. 4. Mantel s. T. Accident prevention and safety plans. 1st Ed. Wiley Interscience. London.. T. 1st Ed... Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. development objectives. indicators. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. M/S Banarsid. Project Initiation.. 2001. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. Writing Project Proposal. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). Yassi. 5. assumptions. air borne. New York. 1992. 2. safety techniques.. and Wright. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. S. Project Management Institute. R. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. Explanation of Horizontal Logic.. J. 2002. Environmental Health Engineering. Basic Environmental Health. Defining Project objectives. Caeneross. A Guide to Project Management. B. inputs. Need identification. T.. Kjelllström. Project Planning and Approval Processes. UK. Resource Mobilization.2000. L. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. R. Primary health care services. Occupational Health: problems and issues. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). 1997. T. specific objectives. Government Policies and Programs.. work breakdown structure. Oxford University Press New York. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures.. prevention and control. Nebel. 54 . Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. Reasons for Project success or failure. Prentice Hall International Inc. Public health concept. outputs. de Kok. Inc. Meredith J. A. feasibility study. USA. USA. John Wiley and Sons. economic evaluation. K. means of verification. M. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. 2nd Ed.
55 . hydropower. 6th Edition. 1998. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. Recommended Books: 1. 2. Related Environmental regulations. Botkin. M. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. and Yonavjak. industry and domestic sectors. ISO Central Secretariat. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. transport. energy resources of Pakistan. bio-energy resources. D. Michigan-January 2001. 3. merits and demerits of wind. Sources of data.A. alternate energy resources. OECD/IEA. nuclear) local. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). USA. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Schoch. Environmental auditing.M. petroleum. data collection and interpretation. St Luise Press. solar. Switzerland. Paris. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. Sayre. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. Recommended Books: 1. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. types.. L. E. 4th Edition. Paris. sustainable energy management for agriculture. principles and elements of the process of EMS.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. energy resources. uses.B and Keller. 3.L. 2001. John Wiley and Sons. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Principles of cleaner production. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. D. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). 2. 2007. gas. non-renewable and renewable. 1990b. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. Environmental Auditing. 2007. McKinney. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. 4. R.
resources and plants. 2. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. (Ed. K. Hardy. plant invasions. Species richness. Springer. Blackwell Publishing. Recommended Books: 1. Silvertown. 2005. E & Muller-Hohenstein. competition and coexistence. forests. Earthscan Publication Ltd. 2005. Recommended Books: 1. Climate Change . D. vegetation dynamics. geographical and temporal patterns. 2. Shulze. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. 1st Edition. Plant population dynamics. John Wiley & Sons. 2005. Modeling of climate change.). Climate Change and Ecosystems. J. 2003. types of climate change models. Berlin. global aspects of plant ecology. London. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. E. Hardy. B & Jager. UK 1991. survival and extinction. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. 3. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. Oxford UK. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. and Solutions. human activities and vegetation dynamics. The Green House Effect. Houghton.D. J. plant conservation. D. J. 4. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. 2003.. Climate change and food production. Effects. Beck. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. Plant Ecology.Causes. management and restoration. 5. etc. Oxford. John Wiley & Sons. 56 . UK. T. and Solutions. ED. ECOPE 29. Warrick.. water resources.T. 2004. 1. John Wiley & Sons. Effects.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. Climate Change . 2005. Maarel. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. 3. & Charlesworth. types and their climatic effects.Causes. Green House Gases. Blackwell Publishing. Vegetation Ecology Ed. Chichester. Life history strategies of plants.
Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. distribution. their types and role in conservation. Oxford University Press. distribution and management. Blackwell Publsihing. Essentials of Conservation Biology. Mcmillan. Status of forests in Pakistan. Sinauer Assocaites. Publishers Sunderland. B. II).J. Forests. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity.G. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. S. 1998. management.J. 2004. kinds. I). biological diversity.D. Wetlands. Principles of Wildlife Management. 57 . And Bolen. Loss of biodiversity. Bailey. J. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. distribution. 2002.L.B. Establishment and management of protected areas. Sustainable forest management. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. deforestation and its control. Recommended Books: 1. Oxford University Press. 4. their importance. 2. John Wiley And Sons. Recommended Books: 1.(2nd Ed. 1986. Protection and restoration of species. Inc.J. Protected areas. UK. UK. Participatory forest management. Weddell. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. Cambridge. Roberts. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. Extinction of species. London. Cambridge. Oxford. habitats and ecosystems. Oxford. T. status. 1984. K. Oxford University Press. Rangeland management. problems and solutions. Robinson.A.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. Protected areas in Pakistan. Threatened animals and plants. Roberts. USA. types. S. 5. Primack. T. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. Wildlife Ecology and Management. types. 2002. Conserving Living Natural Resources. E. & Spicer. Oxford.) Gaston. & Ripley. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. 1992.J. 3. Global and national biodiversity. R. threats and conservation. Consumptive. Wildlife of Pakistan. J. its causes. 3. their ecological and economic importance. 1973 2. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. Cambridge University Press. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. W. Forest plantations. Biodiversity: An introduction.
4. 3. Planning and Urban Change. Ministry of Housing and Works. urbanization in Pakistan. urban landscape characteristics. 2000. UK.and Maser. UK. SAGE Publications Ltd. H. J. A. S. 2007. New York. Penguin Group. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. 1993. G.. London. CRC Press LLC. USA. Environmental problems of urban life. Kate. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Sustainable cities. sanitation. drinking water and solid waste in cities. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. Silberstein. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages.. Longman Group. 2004. Urban land use planning and management... Islamabad. urban political ecology. urban systems and their characteristics. C. Clara. Recommended Books: 1. Ward. 1986. Forms of urbanization. 2. E&UA Div. V. future of urban centers. management of transport.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. USA. 58 . Introducing Town Planning. Government of Pakistan.
Exercises 1. Third edition. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. 1997.J. Oxford University Press. Martinet. ISBN 0194313492 59 . Practical English Grammar by A.Annexure . Thomson and A. a) Functional English Grammar 1. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase.V.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking.
ISBN 0 19 453402 2. Fourth Impression 1993. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. Exercises 2. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. and speed reading. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41.J. Oxford Supplementary Skills. intensive and extensive. Reading/Comprehension 1. b) Practical English Grammar by A. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Oxford University Press. Writing. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . Third edition. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs.2.V. minutes of meetings. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Reading. Thomson and A. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. 1997. Upper Intermediate. Third Impression 1992. Martinet. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content.
Martinet. Reading 1. 2. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky.1. b) Writing 1. form. content. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Writing. Fourth Impression 1992. discursive. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking).V. Oxford University Press 1986. introduction to presentations. Third Impression 1991. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. clarity. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. Fourth Impression 1993. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Writing. 2. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Advanced. descriptive and argumentative writing). language. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. Reading. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Exercises 2. narrative. Thomson and A. Third Impression 1992. Advanced by Ron White. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 .J. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Practical English Grammar by A. Third edition. Writing.
62 . argumentative and report writing). A Custom Publication. 2004. Kirszner and Stephen R. College Writing Skills by John Langan. St. Compiled by norther Illinois University. Mandell. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. 2. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. descriptive. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. 3. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader.(particularly suitable for discursive. Kathleen Shine Cain. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. Martin’s Press. without taxing the taste of engineering students).
2. politics. 4. b. 1993. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. 1958-71 c. Akbar. Muslim advent iii. Shahid Javed. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Society and social structure c. 1977-88 e. State & Society in Pakistan. Lahore. government.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. 1971-77 d. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. 2000. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. Mehmood.Annexure . Economic institutions and issues b. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. 3. contemporary Pakistan. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. 2. Safdar. 1947-58 b. ideological background of Pakistan. Ethnicity d. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. Location and geo-physical features. Indus Civilization ii. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. 1994. S. 1999 onward 3. S. Karachi: Oxford University Press. 63 Books Recommended 1. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. national development. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. . People and Land i. Historical Perspective a. Zaidi. 1988-99 f.M. Contemporary Pakistan a. Study the process of governance. Course Outline 1.
Lahore: Vanguard. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Afzal. M. The Political System of Pakistan. Khalid Bin. Politics in Pakistan. 1980. Amin. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. 1987. 6. Political Parties in Pakistan. 64 . 12.K. 1980. Zahid. 1972. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. Ziring. Wayne. Vol. 1967. Washington: American Enterprise. Sayeed. Wilcox. Ethno . Lawrence. 9. Party. 1993. Enigma of Political Development. II & III. nd. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Rafique. 1976.National Movement in Pakistan. History & Culture of Sindh. 14. 8. Mehmood. Tahir.5. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. Muhammad Waseem. Institute of Public Policy Research. 7. Club Road. 13. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Aziz. 10. Safdar. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Haq. Ansar. Pakistan Under Martial Law. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. K.. Islamabad. 1998. 11. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research.The Emergence of Banglades. I. Noor ul.
Annexure .A.21.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.A.Tadabar (Verse No1.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.6.A.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.58.19. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.56.40.20) Related to thinking.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.A.57.
in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.
Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. Bhatia. Pakistan. “Studies in Islamic Law. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Emergence of Islam” . International Islamic University. IRI. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. Ahmad Hasan. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq.S. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. Islamabad (2001) 67 .” Hussain Hamid Hassan. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi.
determinants. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. system of linear equations. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. not majoring in mathematics. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. types of functions. Boston Swokowski EW. trigonometric identities. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. PWS-Kent Company. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. 1987. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. matrix inverse. introduction to sets. Wooton W. functions. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. Houghton & Mifflin. Beckenback EF. College Algebra and Trigonometry. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. Sharron S. set operations. Boston 68 . complex numbers. PWS-Kent Company. harmonic progression. 1986. geometric progression. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. Matrices: Introduction to matrices.Annexure . cube roots of unity. 1978. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. equations reducible to quadratic equations. Cramer’s rule. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. types.
Calculus and Analytic Geometry. not majoring in mathematics. intersection of two lines. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. Reading. continuity. integration by substitution. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. functions and their graphs. Addison-Wesley. 2005. John Wiley. inequalities. USA 3. Calculus (3rd edition). 1995. rational and transcendental functions.2. PWS-Kent Company. continuous functions. solution of equations involving absolute values. integration by parts. various forms of equation of a line. Ma. equation of a line. 2005. left-hand and right-hand limits. Davis S. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. Finney AR. parallel and perpendicular lines. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). distance between two points. not majoring in mathematics. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. 69 . New York Stewart J. differentiation of polynomial. change of variables in indefinite integrals. Bevens I. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. angle between two lines. distance between a point and a line. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. Boston Thomas GB. Calculus (11th edition). Recommended Books: Anton H. slope of a line. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. 1983. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. derivatives.
ellipse. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Cramer’s rule. nature of roots of quadratic equations. set operations. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. 70 . PWS-Kent Company. types of matrices. 1987. • Contents 1. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. Scott. hyperbola. circles determined by various conditions. intersection of lines and circles. Conic Sections: Parabola. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. 1969 Kaufmann JE. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. locus of a point in various conditions. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. equations reducible to quadratic equations. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). types of functions. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. functions.Circle: Equation of a circle. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. inverse of matrices. 1986. Analytic Geometry. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. Boston Swokowski EW. system of linear equations. Boston 4. Freshman and Company. determinants. Introduction to sets. PWS-Kent Company.
characteristics of statistics.. E. 4. frequency polygon. individual. Wilcox. Latest Edition. Graphs: Graph of straight line. quartiles. moments. relationship of statistics with social science. array. deciles and percentiles. PWS-Kent Company. discrete and continuous series. R. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. Latest Edition. standard deviation. Kaufmann. types of frequency series. E. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. 5. R. 2. cumulative frequency curve. J.. variance. trigonometric identities. ‘Introduction of Statistics’.. R. skewness and kurtosis. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. bar frequency diagram histogram. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. Prentice Hall. 3. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. 71 . Latest Edition. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. ungrouped and grouped data. W.. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’.geometric and harmonic progressions. circle and trigonometric functions. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. Measures of dispersion: Range. Swokowski. 2. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. E. tally sheet method. Walpole. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. Boston. Books Recommended: 1.
2005. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. infinite and improper integrals. Second Edition 1992. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. Contents 1.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. integration by parts. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution.Jr. I. integration by inspection. Recommended Books: 1. 5. 2. sinusoidal function. • Integration Integration from first principles. Extreme Values of Functions. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. Solution of equations involving absolute values. 6. Inc. logarithmic integration. Hughes-Hallett. theorems of differentiation. Anton. implicit differentiation. plane polar coordinates. quotients. 1999. Inequalities. Slope of a Line. Trigonometric Functions. Inc. Schaum’s Outline Series. applications of integration. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. Gleason. Frank A. et al. 11th Edition. 4th edition. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. the inverse of differentiation. 2005. reduction formulae. John Wiley & Sons. 1983. Least-Squares Line. 2002. logarithmic differentiation. Addison Wesley publishing company. special points of a function. Bevens. Jhon Willey & Sons. 8th edition. Equation of a Line. Davis. Rational and Transcendental Functions. products. integration using partial fractions. Calculus. and Transcendental Functions. Mathews. H. Continuous Functions. integral inequalities. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . 3. the chain rule. E. 6. Swokowski. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. Calculus Single and Multivariable. Leibnitz’ theorem. 3rd Edition. John H. Continuity. Calculus. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. Boston. substitution method. W. 4. Prentice-Hall. Integration by Parts. Rational Functions. McCallum. Calculus. Elliott Mendelson. Thomas. 2. S. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering.
inverses of hyperbolic functions. approximation errors in Taylor series. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. series involving natural numbers. solving hyperbolic equations. arithmetico-geometric series. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. complex conjugate. modulus and argument. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. the difference method. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. multiplication.Additions and subtraction. identities of hyperbolic functions. geometric series. finding the nth roots of unity. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4.
unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. centers of mass and centroids.5. vector product. of a unitary matrix. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. masses. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. Hermitian. line to line. the inner product. point to plane. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. orthogonal. moments of inertia. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . symmetric and antisymmetric. scalar triple product. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. Pappus’ theorems. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. 6.
div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. divergence of a vector field. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. combinations of grad.8. spherical polar coordinates 75 .
null and alternative hypothesis. Errors of measurement. The Mean Deviation. Discrete and continuous variables. acceptance and rejection regions. Historigram. The semi-Interquartile Range. Histogram. Change of origin and scale. Significant digits. Box and Whisker Plot. sample design and sampling frame. Editing of Data. Different types of Averages. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. sampling with and without replacement. definition of outliers and their detection. Graphs and their Construction. Type-I and Type-II errors. Coefficient of variation. Test statistics. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. level of significance. Median and mode. Range. Unit 4. Standardized variables. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Exercises. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Collection of primary and secondary data. Diagrams. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Ogive for Discrete Variable. The Mode. bias. Types of frequency curves.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Sources. Unit 5. Presentation of Data Introduction. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. 76 . Rounding of a Number. Absolute and relative measures. Exercises. sampling and non sampling errors. probability and non-probability sampling. properties of Good Average. Pie chart. The Variance and standard deviation. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Unit 3. Moments and Moments ratios.Annexure . Statistical problem. Bar charts. Exercises. Observations. Exercises. Quantiles. Constructing of a frequency distribution. Stem and Leaf Display. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Difference of means and proportions. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Exercises. Empirical Relation between Mean. Unit 2. Exercises. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Unit 7. Exercises Unit 6. Data. Population. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Probability and Probability Distributions.
Exercises Unit 10. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. E.Single Population Introduction. 2 Muhammad.Unit 8. 3rd Ed. Exercises. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. 2005. cause and effect relationships. Kitab Markaz.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. 77 . Unit 11. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. Coefficient of linear correlation.. Contingency Tables. Testing of Hypothesis. Inc. Correlation.. R. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. 1982. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. examples. r and R2. simple linear regression. its estimation and interpretation. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. “Introduction to Statistics”. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. Macmillan Publishing Co. Exercises Unit 9. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. F. Regression and Correlation Introduction. New York. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters.
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