CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
58

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and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. universities and other institutions of higher education. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. PROF. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. Lahore. It also aimed to give a basic.ALTAF ALI G. respective accreditation councils and stake holders.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. dated December 4th 1976. It is. 63. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions.). SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. DR. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. D773/76-JEA (cur. R&D organizations.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. the Federal Government vide notification No. therefore. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. The world has turned into a global village. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. degree awarding institutions. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. and 36.

FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. Preparation 5 . IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. EXP. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. OF NCRC. OF CURRI. PREP. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. R&D. UNI. REC. COL. OF FINAL CURRI.

Member 3. Member 6 . Dr. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Following attended the meeting:1. Dr. Dr. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Member 5. Karachi from 28-30. Rawalpindi Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Member 4. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Lahore Member 6. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. 7. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean.

Prof. 13. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Member 15. Member 14. Dr. Member 16.8. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Dr. Dr. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. 7 . Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Dr. Dr. Member 10. Member 11. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Karachi Member 12. Dr. Prof.

Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Mr. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. Director of HEC Regional Center. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. Chairman. Member 20.17. Dr. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. The meeting was opened by Mr. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Secretary Dr. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. At first. Member 19. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. 1. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. 2. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Dr. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Faisalabad Member 18. Karachi. Mr. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. 8 .

In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. 3. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. 6. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. 4. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. The committee thanked Mr. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . In last few centuries. 2. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment.3. 5. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. 1. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society.

the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. in its preliminary meeting. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. Apply theoretical understanding. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. ii. skills and behaviour patterns. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. 5. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. This committee. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . regional and global contexts.

Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. The 11 .. eight semesters in the semester system. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. 6. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. 4. 3. 2. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. Integrating natural sciences. A. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. The medium of instruction. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment.e. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. Sc. that: 1. 5. with consensus. 1.

Psychology* . Fundamentals of Ecology 20. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. English-II 12. Biology –I* 3. English-III 18. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Basic Chemistry* 4. English-I 6. Environmental Microbiology 21. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Environmental Chemistry 15. Introductory Economics* 17. Biology –II* 9. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Environmental Physics 16. Environmental Pollution 22. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Climatology* 23. Introduction to Computer 14. Introduction to Earth Science 8. Introduction to Environmental Science 2.

Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. Opt. 45. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. Climate Change 38. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. Environmental Monitoring 36. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. ELECTIVE-III 42. Environmental Economics 29. Environmental Biotechnology 32.24. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. 44. Environmental Management Systems 34. Natural Resource Management 40. English-IV/ Univ. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. Environmental toxicology 27. 46. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Applied Ecology 26. Environmental Impact Assessment 39.

• Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical.

history. D. Botkin. current global. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. M. poverty and resource depletion. lipids. regional. philosophical. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. 4.T. and their relationships with various environmental factors.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. 10th Ed. national.L. ecological. Miller. its importance in human life. urbanization. environmental pollution. Human environment and its problems: global. 2007. & Nebel. Wright. & Yonavjak. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . L. 2007 3. R. Different aspects of environment: physical.. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. R. 2. B. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. Pearson Educational. biological and social. 2007. McKinney. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet.A.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. socio-economic.B & Keller. 2002.M. ethical. John Wiley & Sons. development in industry and agriculture. E.. 6th Ed. proteins and nucleic acids. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. Recommended Books: 1. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. 15 . Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. Thomson Learning.J. Schoch. G. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. 4th Ed.

2003. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. 2.. Canada. USA. R. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Self Assessment and Revie. origin of metabolism. G. 2008. Plopper. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. Shier. coordinate covalent bond. polypeptides in protein diversity. USA. Cassimeris. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. Cell division. Lingappa. protobionts. covalent.Hill International Edition. A. E. McGraw. Nucleic acids. D.. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. carbonyls. Ionic. Introduction to cell biology. 3. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Starr. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. Australia . V. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. Aromatic compounds. Cells. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. and Whitelaw. Ltd. Structure and the basis of function. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. 1.. Wadsworth Group. M. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. lipids. esters. N. J..Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. L. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. Lewis. chemical diversity. chemical basis of life. 8th Ed. 2007. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. 2007. USA. Origin of life: chemical evolution. R. 5. proteins. amines). carboxylic acids. Molecular Biology through Questions. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. 5th Edetion. C. phospholipids in membrane systems. Bulter. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. B. Crossley. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. 4. the molecule of genetic information and replication. 1996. and Lewis. New York. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. carbohydrates. 16 .. Biology: a Human Emphasis. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. lipids. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins.

D.. 2. 8th Edition. Brimblecombe. Blackwell Science..Special Products (Binomial Expression). W. P. USA.J. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry.K. 1st Ed. J. J.. molal. F. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. simultaneous equations and their solutions.. 3. normal solutions/buffers.H. UK. Harris.J. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. Lab Work Preparation of molar. values of trigonometric functions.S.M. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. Freeman and Company. minor and cofactor of a matrix. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. Photochemical reactions. Algebra of matrices.. UK. 4.. 6th Edition.E. 2003. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. T. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles.D.C. M. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. real line. 2nd Edition. EC and TDS in waste water. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). Thomson and Brooks. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. Surface chemistry. angle-sum formula. graphs. 5. B. Jickells. double angle formulas. P. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. geometric and harmonic sequence. and Holler.A. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. Solution chemistry. USA.. Understanding Environmental Pollution. expansion of determinants. law of Cosines. series and means. Cambridge University Press. Hill. determinants. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. D. Thin layer chromatography. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. equations of lines (linear equations)... Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Jones and Barlett. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. and Reid. 2005. 2004. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics.ions. West. 2004. Andrews. straight line and related concepts. Osmosis and Dialysis. Measurement of pH. Colloids chemistry. Column chromatography. Skoog. Canada. Liss. 2004.E. D. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). Recommended Books: 1. Girard. radicals. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). 17 . 2nd Edition.

B. L. weathering and erosion. Introduction to rocks and minerals. plate tectonics. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. Abraham. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. Analytical Geometry.. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. 1999. different earth processes like mountain buildings. Recommended Books: 1.. igneous and metamorphic rocks. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. Narosa Publishing House. Integration: Formulas of integration. J. faults. nonrepeated linear factors. earthquakes. Introduction to sedimentary. Addission. theorems on differentiation (sum. Scott Foresman and Company. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. Weathering. Thomas. erosion and related landforms. cleavages. difference. R. 4th Ed. by parts integration (simple applications). mountain building. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Trignometry for College students. Chain rule. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. 4.Wesley. the processes of their formation. irreducible quadratic factors. D. Pacific Grove. Fossils and their significance. and Finney. 3. Smith. product and quotient rules without derivations). 10th Ed.Cramer’s Rule. earthquakes and volcanoes. joints. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure .B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. 18 . Introduction to folds. composition and its internal structure. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. age. Earth as a member of solar system. G. California. lineation and unconformities. Jr. Chatterjee. 2.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. its origin. theorem of integration. New Delhi. foliation. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. S. K.

measuring biodiversity. Darwinism. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity.. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. and Monroe. Earth Science. 2007 3.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. J. G. E. population loss and decline. F. Prentice Hall: 2006. How Does Earth Work. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. Prentice Hall. 2004. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY .. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology.. animals). taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. Field Study tour.. biodiversity crises.Identification of rocks and minerals. 9th Edition. Wicander. 19 . F. Geological time chart with biodiversity. D. K. Life in sea. Tarbuck. Brooks/Cole. K. Biodiversity of canal. Lamarckism. and Pun. D. Biodiversity of hilly areas.. and Tasa. 5th Edition. E. J. 11th Edition. Prentice Hall. Lutgens. J. causes of extinction. examples of adjustments in varied environment. Recommended Books: 1. R. 2005.. Smith. protocell formation. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. Geographical aspects of biodiversity.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. Routledge. molecular basis of biodiversity. Physical Geology and Process of Science. and Tasa... R. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. Tarbuck. A. Park. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. Use of brunton compass and GPS. Lutgens. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. unicellularity. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. multicellularity. 2007 2. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation.. interactions among diversified life. invasion of life on land. modern concepts. 3rd Edition. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. Foundations of Structural Biology. 4. G. 5. different classification systems. consequences of losing biodiversity. Biodiversity of deserts.

Recommended Books: 1. UK.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. 4. Contemporary environmental status. Inc. Goals and expectations. 2001.. 2006. Inc. 5th Edition. UK. J. USA. Adam.. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. Use of environment for vested interest. Culture. 3. 2009. C. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. CA: AltaMira Press. K. J. UK. Scope and application. R. IL:WavelandPress. Hannen. Understanding the environment-human relationship. P. 2000. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. Biodiversity (An Introduction). Gaston. Townsend. New York: New York University Press. Contemporary environment issues and debate. Wadsworth Group. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. power & hegemony. I. The Biosphere. Biology. Perspective of human-environment evolution. Prospect Heights. Bradbury. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. 2. Nora and Wilk. globalization and environmental issues. 20 . Chronological. Environmental Risks and the Media. Routledge.K. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. Allan & Carter. Crumley. 2005. culture and society. Tripartite nature of environment. and concerns. Consumption. Conceptualizing environment. 2nd Edition. (editors). 2. C. Starr.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. Walnut Creek. I. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . The Ecology of global consumer culture. L. John Wiley and Sons. 2009. 2003. a Human Emphasis. Blackwell Science Ltd. K. 3. and Spicer. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. (editor). and Sustainable Living.

London 1996. Kluwer Academic Publishers.1999. Long l. 6. G. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. Configurations. Introduction to MS-Word. Software: Application software.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure .6th Ed. Marquis A.5.H. 2. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. Recommended Books: 1. output hardware. Courter. Ed. Local Area Network. Ms-Power Point. Course Outlines Definition. Long N. Ms-Excel. Types and classification of computers. processing hardware. K. system software. e-mail. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . Hardware: Input Hardware. Selin. Milton. Ms-Access. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse.Microsoft office 2000. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. as are their effects on the biosphere. 21 .. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. internet. Operating system (Windows).C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. Rutledge. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere..BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. Fundamentals of computer. Storage hardware. software packages. 2003. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. computer programs and basic applications.

Banerji Prentice Hall of India. UK. Jones and Barlett. Nuclear energy. Samir. Miller.. DoriaSerrano. Gaussian plumes in the air. Hernandez-Esparza. atmospheric and soil chemistry. J. Transport of pollutants. Energy conversion.J.S. Environmental impact of various industries.T. Sound and Noise. and Reid. M.. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Andrews. Thomson-Brooks. 4. 3. Brimblecombe. Energy. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. 2. 1st Edition. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. Global climate and climatic change. Solids. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. 1999. Particle physics. Liss.D. and Singh. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. Ozone chemistry.E. Germany. Girard. Fundamentals of aquatic..G. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry... P. Turbulent diffusion. 2005. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . Environmental Chemistry.M... 2004. 2004. photosynthesis. J. Ozone and UV light.. P. M. Environmental Science. A. Environmental Chemistry. Springer. Isotopes and radioactive decay. Reducing the transmission of sound. Conversion of mass. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. Turbulence. Recommended Books: 1. Basic acoustics. Blackwell Science. 2008.. Chemical reactions.E. India. Fregoso-Infante. trophic level. their sources and toxic actions. J. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. B. Active control of sound.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. Jickells. USA. Canada. C.. Solar spectrum. Human perceptions and noise criteria. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. T. its causes and adverse effects on environment. Diffusion. interaction of light with matter. Electromagnetic radiation. 2nd Edition. Ibanez. Heat radiation and heat transfer. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. Turbulent jets and plumes. 5. K. G.. Entropy. Fate of pollutants in environment. Equations of fluid dynamics. Liquids and Gasses.

2001. 2. Growth and development. concepts and measurement. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Impact of economic activity on environment. Recommended Books: 1. Growth and Environment. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. and Van Grondelle. Praxis publishing. economic growth and its measurement. economic progress. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor.Economic development. USA. 2. Introductory Environmental Physics. 23 . R. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. Seinfeld. Guyot. 4. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. USA. Economic functions of environment. World Bank Publications.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. S. 2006. economic growth. Man environmental relationship. Sustainable development. and Resource allocation. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. Environmental economics. Measures for sustainable development. 2008. John Wiley and Sons Inc. economic welfare and difference among all. Natural resources and the economy. Smith. S. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. 3. G. Todaro. Routledge. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. 2008. USA. 7th Ed. Yusuf. New York. UK. J. poverty. producer and community point of view. USA. and Pandis. Pakistan economic context: National income. Kentucky USA. P. E. Producer behavior.1998. N. population and environmental quality. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. 2001. M. interaction between ecology and economic management. Recommended Books: 1.. H. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. Environmental Physics. Economic Development. Boeker. Field visit. C. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. Physics of the Environment and Climate. Economic management and environmental quality. Wesely Publishers.

ethics and ecology. description of population. Recommended Books: 1. London. A History of Western Philosophy. role of light. 3. 2008. Portland 1967. Ecosystem and its types. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. branches of ecology. WCIV7AA. World Bank Publications. Hanley.. M. 2002. DeVeer. D. Environmental Critics of agriculture.. Economics. Kessinger Publishing. and White. 4. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . Frodeman. Natural philosophy. Callicott. temperature. J.. the ethics of soil. LLC. Swift. levels of ecological organization. Russell. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale.V. Course Outlines Introduction.. C. Palgrave Macmillan. USA. Farmington Hills. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. soil. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. 24 . Ecology. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. Touchstone Books. 2008. Shogren. biogeography. R.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. J. Environmental philosophy and ethics. Introduction to ethical theory. B.3. concepts and approaches. 4. 2009. N. B. its fundamental concepts. & Pierce. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. water. and systems ecology. England. community and ecosystem. 2007. USA. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. B. International Thomson Publishing. 2. population.A. community. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. species.

Chapman.Cox. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. 1992. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. Ecology (concepts and applications.) Moles. P. 2. Recommended Books 1. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. C. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. population dynamics. J. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. G. 5th Ed. New Delhi. Dash. N. After completion of this course. biotic factors. Systems ecology. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. J. and S. Microbial metabolism. M C J 1st ed. community dynamics. and More. Concepts of Limiting factors. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. Thomson Brooks/Cole. WCB/McGraw-Hill. and Barett. Odum. aquatic microbiology. ecological modeling. 6th Ed. characteristics of urban. UK. Fundamentals of Ecology. E P. M. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. 2000. 2004. 2001 5. bacteria and eukarya. Fundamentals of Ecology. B. Population distribution and abundance.topography and air as ecological factors. New York. Tata McGraw-Hill. Ecology (principles and applications). productivity of different ecosystems. plant geography and animal distribution. Cambridge University Press. M J. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. Biomes of the world. Ecosystem: structure and function. King’s College London. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems.L and Reiss. landscape changes and their importance. UK. various concepts of community. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. Lab Work 25 . Biogeochemical cycles of C. landscape ecology. 1999 4. habitat and niche. 1st Ed. 3.W. Populations. distribution limits. students will be able to understand the significance. C.

L.P. Pollution Control Strategies. C. Hartel.W. (Elsevier) USA.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. G. Hurrst. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. Prentice Hall. 26 . and Gerba. and Klein. Solid Waste generation.M. 3. I. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water.. Environmental Pollution and Control. 2. Pepper. UK.. R. J. Cambridge UK.D. transportation & treatments.. Collection. 2005. New Jersey. and Zuberer. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. Water. 4.J.. Fuhrmann. 2009.V.and Vesilaind. Environmental Microbiology.F. Washington DC. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. 2005. Academic Press.R. USA. 2005. Fate of Environmental Pollutants.G. F.A. Harley. Knudsen. Case Studies. R.L. Crawford. isolation.. D.L.. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. Academic Press.J.. 2007. Soil. Mean plate count. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. 5. Marine & Industrial pollution. Dilution plate technique. P. M. Sylvia. L. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. McInernery. Cambridge University Press. Recommended Books 1. 4th Edition. peppor. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. Recommended Books: 1. Prescott. Human & other living organisms. 3.B..L.A.1998. Noise. 2 Edition.P. its sources and their effects. J. 2..M.. Butterworth-Heinemann.. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. 2002. P.. J.Gerba. Academic Press. Maier. W. Microbiology. and Jeffery.J. McGraw Hill Inc. C. D. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. 1995. Understanding Environmental Pollution.C. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. Peiece. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). and Stetzenbach. 2nd Edition. USA. D. Hill. London.P.A. USA.K. USA. A. Effects of Pollutants.and Brendecke. purification and preservation.I..J. USA. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. M.J. Weiner.M. American Society for Microbiology.

. Karachi. K. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. Spyros. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. . Four Spheres of the Earth. Environmental psychology. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). The Hydrologic cycle.J. Austin Miller.K.. Solar radiations. 2. N.. 4. Methods of psychology. Houghton J. Sadder. condensation and cloud Formation.F. 2003. Royal book company. Tarbuck. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. The Atmosphere. Marcel Dekkar. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. Lawrance K. 5. 6th Edition. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. Cambridge University Press. The climate of Pakistan. 2006 5. John H. A. Shamshad. Radiation and climate. Surface winds. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications.M. 1992. global circulation. climatic zones of Pakistan. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. Weather and Climate.. Cloud Classification. 1988. Recommended Books: 1. John Wiley and Sons. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. The Physics of Atmospheres. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. 27 . 3. Mechanism of heat transfer. Lutgens. local winds.4. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences.W. Climatology. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . air pressure.2nd Editions.E.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. American Public Health Association (APHA). 2002. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. Pandis. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. Factors affecting air Pressure.

conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. Sustainable agricultural practices. 5th Edition. sustainable agriculture. Sustainable livestock management practices. energy and carbon balance.characteristics and research methods. limitation of irrigated agriculture. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. Environmental Psychology. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship.D. carbon dioxide and global climate change. 2. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. T.A. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. soil salinity and water logging. and Baum A. London. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. Greene. solar radiation and primary production. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental perception and cognition. P. rivers. Ecological restoration. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. Pollution control through Ecology. Background and scope. Restoration of derelict lands. Fundamental of Psychology. threats and mitigation. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. Bell. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. species response to pollutants.W. soil erosion and conservation. CRC Press. M. their management and ecological restoration.. Eysenck. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher.. techniques and methods of restoration. High population density and psychological impacts. soil resources of Pakistan.C. Future water scenario of Pakistan. London. 1992. Water and distribution of species. Routledge. Soil as a natural resource. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. Ecology of food production. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. Fisher J. Course Outline Introduction. 28 . Water as an ecological resource. concepts. Routledge. 2001. CRC Press. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher.

Applied Ecology and Environmental Management.. E.Recommended Books: 1. dose response relationship in living organisms.A. toxins vs toxicants. B. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants.1998. Lahore. Fundamentals of Ecology. Potentiation and Addition. toxicology of chemicals. Islamabad. 1989. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. 2004. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. 2006. Oxford. Island Press. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. biological effects. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. Determination of chemicals in biological samples.. D. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. USA. R. Chemical interactions and their types.W. Israr-ud-Din. Organs. Synergism. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. 1996. Margaret A. Soil Science. water and soil. Shirkat Gah. and Barett. soil and air samples. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Odum E. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. 5. Mumtaz. 3. terminologies: Poisons. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. on human and other living organisms. their containment and control strategies. A. K. Peshawar. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. A. K and Habib. 29 . Zedler. Newman. toxicity screening using microbial systems.. P. 2000 2.I.S. J. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. 5th Edition. University of Peshawar. 2nd ed. Studies in Pakistan Geography. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. Pakistan’s Environment. Rashid. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. and Hobbs.P. Immunological considerations in toxicology. from natural and anthropogenic sources. in vivo & in vitro assays. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. and Memon. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. J. toxins & toxicants. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. Falk. G. Blackwell Scientific Publications.National Book Foundation.. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. 4.

First and Second law of Thermodynamics. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. Hughes. T and Turner. State of the Environment-Pakistan . P. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. people. education.M. 3. Recommended Books 1. 1992. major ecosystems. 1st Edition. land. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. culture.D. international trade and the environment. (ed. McGrawhill. Economic: agriculture. the economy and the environment. Recommended Books: 30 .). valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. USA. General and Applied Toxicology. 1996. USA. 1993. Course Outlines Introduction to history. CRC Press Llc. pollution control-a general model. topographic zones. Vol.1 & 2.. measuring environmental benefits. Ballantyne.Science of Poisons . Klassen. urbanization and pollution. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. 5th Edition. health.2005 2. economic aspects of different environmental problems. 2005 2. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. Macmillan Press Ltd. W. Williams. Government of Pakistan. industry. W. Ecological: ecological zones. 3. Course Outlines Introduction. M.Recommended Books 1. water resources. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. economic development and the environment. clean development mechanism. 1st Edition. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. USA. B. geography.

precision and accuracy. NO3–N & NH4-N).K. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. K. COD.R. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. D. Conductivitymetry. and derived S. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. Thomson and Brooks. Data interpretation for quality control. Johns Hopkins University Press. preparation and storage.. Gravimetery. 8th Edition. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. handling. Conductivitymetry.. Analytical techniques for soil.W. Environmental Economics. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. Kolstad. 2003. 3. Titrimetery.K. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. Standard solutions and standard curves. USA. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. and F. C. 1999. D. Lab Work S.J. Qualitative Chemical Analysis.. Australia. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. West. 4. Freeman & Co. Peverill. B. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. Titrimetery. Turner. 31 . Skoog. Holler. units. 3. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. 2000. Use of Potentiometery. Sparrow and D. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). D. and Batemen. A. BOD. Oxford.2002. J.L. M. Sample preservation methods.I. 2. Oxford University Press.A. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. C.I. D. Collingwood. 6th Edition. I.. L. New York.C. water and plant analysis. CSIRO Publ..1. Sample collection. Reuter. Pearce. salinity & sodicity). Field.. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. 2. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. 2005.2004. Harris. Fluoride. Gravimetery. All Solids.and Field.UK. M.D. 1993. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

PCR. and Russel. 2nd Ed. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. 5th Ed. W. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. USA.. and Josef. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . Derbre. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. Smith. D.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. Biotechnology. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. Biomarkers. Germany. 4. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. J. National Biotechnology Commission. J. Introduction to microbial kinetics. Environmental Biotechnology. Course Outlines Introduction. Scragg. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. 2001. J. Wiley-VCH Verlag. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. Sambrook. USA. Chichoster. (ed. A. Cambridge University Press. Oxford University Press. Tools in environmental biotechnology..P. Government of Pakistan. USA. New York. 2007. students will be able to understand the significance. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. Recombinant DNA technology. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. and application of biotechnology in the environment. 2009. purification and preservation of DNA. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. England. 2005. National Biosafety Guidelines. Hans- Joachim.E. 2005. 3. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. Recommended Books 1.W.D. 2. New York. After completion of this course.1999.). Isolation. Bioreactors. Biosensor.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution.

Preparation of thematic maps. analysis and output. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. Inc. V. 5. Different types of maps. integration of information from many sources. Inc. Dessinov. John Wiley and Sons. 2000. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . 2008. Introduction to GIS. Mc Graw Hill Education. 2. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Active and Passive remote sensing. Campbell. 3. A. history and platforms. advantages and limitations of process. Guilfoud press New York. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Fishery and wildlife. Forestry. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. Cartography. Agriculture. 4. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. F. Rancez.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. John Wiley and Sons. K and L. 1999. Introduction to Photogrammetry. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. 2000. Jensen. Types of data used in GIS. Lulla. eradication of the duplicated data. Energy Sources. History and data collection. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. R. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Data acquisition. Harvey. Inc. Satellite Imageries. Interpretation. Image Processing. Z. Data entry and output. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. Using and reading GPS in field. Aerial photography. Pearsons Education. 2009. map projection and coordinate systems.

and Qasim.2nd Ed. eco-design.). 34 . F. Conservation of biodiversity. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. threats to biodiversity. International Organization for Standardization. M. 1998. Khan. types of biodiversity. Environmental Management tools. social and ethical values of biodiversity. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production.. philosophical. and Yoxon. 2. alpha and beta diversity. Michigan. Related Environmental legislation. Sheldon. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor.C. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). Certification of EMS. etc. Environment and sustainable development. Systems and Support Techniques. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. M. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. American Society for Quality. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. Methods of environmental protection. principles of Cleaner production. need and approach. plant. 2005. 3.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. 2001. standards and guidelines. Course Outlines Introduction. Environmental aspects and impacts. cleaner technologies. WWF Pakistan. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. A.3rd Edition . EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. American Society for Quality. 2006. economic. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Environmental Management Systems Principles. ecological. B. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. Environmental Economy.. hot spots of biodiversity. 4..

national and international laws and regulations. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. Publ. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. Biogeography. forests. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. management. EIA requirement. community and ecosystem level. chemical addition. NOC for plant operation. Kings College. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. 35 . conservation and livelihood. quality control sampling. London. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. their categories. P. P. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. croplands. Considerations. Conservation of wildlife. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. conservation in man-made ecosystems. protected areas.B. presampling requirements/information. Lahore). field custody.e. Cox. habitats.conservation at species. Recommended Books: 1. ecotourism. Mirza. A Primer for Conservation Biology. Sinauer. soil and living organisms. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. international agreements. 2000. 2. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. 2000. C. refrigeration and freezing methods. population. conservation strategies. laboratory custody. sampling and design purposes. 1998. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. Course Outlines Introduction.R. Sunderland. Z. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. Quality assurance and quality control. design and types of samples.B. Legal protection of species. Saad Printers. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. water. Rawalpindi. and Morre. 2ndEd.. cities. plants. role of traditional knowledge in conservation..D.B. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques.. air. quality assessment. Preservation methods including pH control. Associates Inc. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. 3. in-situ and ex-situ conservation.

S. 2002. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. chemical. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. 2008. regional. 2. Precipitation. Human responses to potential climate change.Recommended Books: 1. USA. altered community structure. Environmental Chemistry.) McGraw-Hill. Ozone depletion. 2000. 5.1999. Chuviero. L. Moisture in the Atmosphere. 2008. agriculture. extinctions. E. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. UK. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. Korte. N. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. E. Energy and Temperature. Keith. 3. Chapman and Hall. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. Physical. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. USA. USA. I. Burden. The Measurement of Climate Change. Earth Observation of Global Change.1996. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. biological. McKlivie.USA. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. Regional droughts and 36 . S. 2nd Edition. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. human health.. 2002. 6. (eds. D. Tokyo. 7. F. and Guethner. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. (ed) Springer. D. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. New York. R. 8. Remote Sensing Note. phenological changes. Forstner U. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. Peakall. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change.. Lewis Publisher London. Recent Climate Change Indicators. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. its causes and effects. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. H. Manahan. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. Murai. 1992. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. .

National Book Foundation. J. reporting. and noise. 2005. and Solutions. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. solids. Climate Change . (ed. 1st Edition. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. 1999. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. Types & Resources to produce Energy. John Wiley & Sons. Blackwell. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. social impact assessment (SIA). Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels.Causes. 1986. 2. A. John Wiley & Sons. 37 . public involvement. Petts. J. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. Islamabad. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). EIA project management. Glasson. impact analysis. Earthscan Publication Ltd. 1994. R. Hardy. liquid. Sringer. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. screening. 2004.Causes. Climate Change . 2005. 2. & Nixon. 5. London. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. 2003.(ed)..O. Cost and benefits of EIA. law. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. 4. decision-making to implement the project.. Oxford. 6. J. Islamabad. Recommended Books: 1. review of EIA quality. A. Ministry of Housing and Works. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. 2003.. Hardy. 2000. Therivel. T. Routledge. scoping. Main stages in EIA process.. 3.). Houghton.cataclysmic climate change. Effects. Keith. 3.A. Recommended Books: 1. project implementation and follow up. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. and Chadwick... overview. Effects. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. mitigation and impact management. J. D. 4.T. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. Global Warming and Climate Change. J. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. Harrop. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. Global Change and the earth system. 2005. London. and Solutions..

and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. S. requirement. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. problem in agriculture. process and contents of the management plan. & McCabe. limitation in the future. John Willey & Sons. and Tu. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. A. wildlife census. management options. best available option for future. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. forest types and its existing management. Development of Management Plan: needs. Rangeland Management: existing status. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. Sadler. their pros and cons. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations.5.). Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. threats. New York. Evans. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. F. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. Ludwig. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. J. 1993. 6.. USA. 38 . threat and its causes. 2002. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. national example. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. methodologies.B and Warren. national agriculture policy. Lohani. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. 2nd Edition. Asian Development Bank. Goldsmith. Types. agriculture products and their share in GDP. wind power and nuclear power. Carpenter. management options. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. (ed. national and provincial legislation.. B.. 1997.. Everitt. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level.. Conservation in Progress. their current status and threats. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. causes and methods for its improvement.. solar power. R. M. existing management approaches. effective management. agriculture chemicals. United Nations Environment Programme.. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. Recommended Books: 1. H. B. importance. R.

Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. Environmental Conservation. to introduce students to research design. New York. Hansen. Bibliography.2. Creswell. Scientific Research: Science. V. research methods. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf.L. Interviews.E. GOP and IUCN. Questionnaire. 1984. Material Methods.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. John Wiley & Sons. W. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Objectives. types of sampling design/.E. 2007. R. Research Design & Research Methods. 1992.. Experimental Research. concepts and terminologies. & Plano Clark.F. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. 1990. Case Studies. 39 . Selecting the Research Method. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. 4. P. Elsevier. Islamabad. population and sampling frames. 3. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. J.A pre-requisite for Research. Review of Literature. USA. Sampling: the logic of sampling. Research Proposal: its importance . How to put things together? Introduction. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). Search Engines. S. Sage CA. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. Dasmann. Inference based on findings. Methodology. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. and Jorqensen. 5. Surveys. Literature Search: Database. London. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. Thousand Oaks. Scientific Methods. Review of Literature.Amsterdam. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research.

1997. John and sons Ltd. Qadar. regulations made there under. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. USA. 2. Belmont California. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers.Batty. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. 2000. and Arhonditsis. Moriarty. 5..USA. M.S. Wadsworth Publishing Company. Sage Publishers. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. 4.h. Recommended Books: 1. S.Harrad. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. 1997. 1989. Booth. 6.. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. G. 2003. Marilyn F. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. National Conservation Strategy 5. 3. Law Books House. Chichester. 2001. Robert Yin. 2003. England. Students project in Environmental Science. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. Diamon. USA..2. Survey Research Methods. Babbie. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. 3rd Edition. E. 2008. of Chicago Press. R. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. National Environmental Policy 4.. Univ. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . Government of Pakistan 3. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. 2nd Edition.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

K. The Politics of Managing Water.1993.. P. 4. 2006. C. watershed/catchment.. flood and droughts. (eds. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. virtual water. U. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant..K. flood and drought management. pollution aspects. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. Briscoe. Lahore. and Malik. A. 3. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector.). N. O. Islamabad. tubewells. 2. Ahmed. Cheema. Pakistan . Ahmed. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. Biswas. fisheries management. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. Indus Water Accord 1991. J. (ed.Lahore. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. 1993. Bengali. Islamabad. integrated water resources management (IWRM). and Tortajada. groundwater exploitation. 6. R. and Qamar. R. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. wetlands resources management. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. Oxford University Press Karachi. Mirajuddin Publication . A. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. SDPI Oxford University Press. Mirajuddin Publication .). like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. Oxford University Press New Delhi. Recommended Books: 1. 2005. water supply and demand management measures.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan.Varis. Khan. Asia Printer. 5. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. 2003. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. Revised & enlarged edition. 44 .. recycling and re-use of wastewater... N. with drinking water facilities like springs. A. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). Pakistan. hydrological cycle. I.. 2006. water quality and quantity aspects.

future of urban centers. San Diego. USA. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. NJ. D. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. the salient features of urban environments.R. Miller. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. urban landscapes characteristics. Physical and chemical properties of soil. Factors and processes of soil formation. After completion of this course. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. Definition.T... students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. Types and properties of parent materials. 45 . Forms of urbanization. N. soils. Brady. 2007. humans as components of urban ecosystems. PrenticeHall. hydrological processes. R.W. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. and Weil. Urban ecosystem. R. 11th Edition. Soil Science. E. 2008. USA. Academic Press. Gardiner. urban political ecology. D. Islamabad. Soil forming minerals. 1996. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. Process and outcome. National Book Foundation. NJ. 2007.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. 1. and Bantel. Pakistan. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. urban settlements. urban flora and fauna. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. CA. Course Outlines Introduction. Bashir. Soil degradation. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. Upper Saddle River. Hillel. Causes of urbanization. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. USA. Prentice Hall. Course Outlines Introduction. Upper Saddle River. Urbanization. Cation and anion exchange.C. management and green productivity. Soils in Our Environment. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. R. urbanization in Pakistan. transport.

Hague.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. USA. Chapman and Hall. CRC Press LLC. 5. 2007. UK. Springer. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. Routledge. V. 3. nature and purpose of urban planning. London. Gilbert. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. Silberstein. 1989.. 2000. Kate. D. M. O.. UK. 1. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. Planning and Urban Change.1990. C. City Design for Sustainable Development. Land use planning theories. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. 2. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. 2. UR. Sukopp. Aims and Objectives of planning. SAGE Publications Ltd. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment.. Hough. M. Routledge. The planning process. S.. nd 2 Edition. New York. Planning and its relationship with other professions. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. J. Elements of urban planning. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. I. Types of Urban Plans. Penguin Group.S. UK. London. Levels of planning.. 2004. USA. Principles of planning.L. Hejny. 2004. S. Smith. 2009. SBS academic publishing. Planning theories and concepts. 2006. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. Alberti.and Maser. H. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city.and Kowaril. Justification for planning for city management. 46 . Scope. Recommended Books: 1. New trends in planning and city management. Ward. A. 4.

Kates. and Woodrow.. The Guilford Press. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures.. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Techniques and methods to assess hazard. 4. 1993. Islamabad.e. Natural Disasters Alexander. Disaster Management: Components of management. Prediction. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. 1989. 1991. Paris. 2nd Edition. International phenomenon.. 1993.J. Landslide. i. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Westview Press. UK. and White G. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. 1986. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. Longman Group. H.. Flood Management: Organizational Role.W. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. Earthquake. P.F. 3. Different approaches and Indicators. Government of Pakistan. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. Clara. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors.3.. Cultural factors. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. 2. Ministry of Housing and Works. Chapman & Hall. Boulder .. Political factors.B. Earthquake Management. Disaster as an opportunity for development. 47 . National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. ADB. D. Physical factors. Natural cycles and their role. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies.W. G. It discusses a wide range of aspects. Role of Media in Disaster Management. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. R.. 4. E&UA Div.UNESCO. M. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters.. Flooding. New York. Socio-economic factors. Manila. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. 1993. Hazards. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. Introducing Town Planning. Recommended Books: 1. New York.

H. Schoch. L. 3. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. F. 1. sustainable energy management. hydropower. Westport.. 2. Botkin. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. energy resources of Pakistan.M. decomposers. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. Perry R.L. biomass resources. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. 2007. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. Agroecology. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. 48 . John Wiley and Sons.C. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. M. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. Disasters and Development Cuny. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers.5. Sustainable livestock management. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. 2001. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. McKinney. merits and demerits of wind. 2007. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. R.B and Keller. Biotic structure. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. A.A. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. 6th Edition.. E. uses. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Quorum Books. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. Paris. 1984. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. alternate energy resources. solar. 6. 1983. types.. and Mushkatel. Consumer and producer relationship. USA. Ecological concept in crop and food production. 4th Edition. New York.W. consumers. local. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. and Yonavjak. primary producers. D. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. energy resources. OECD/IEA.

P. 2. and Rossel. Boulder. New Delhi. C. Study of index of diversity. Altreri. M. R. 2000. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. P. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. Yandermeer J. CBS Publishers and Distributors. USA. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram.G. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. India. Corol. Study of stratification and profile diagram. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. 3.. Westview Press. E-11 Seminar 49 . Recommended Books: 1. Agrocology. and Sudha. 1995.A.H. USA. Kapur. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. New York.R. Experimental Plant Ecology. 1990.M.

that: 1. 5.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. the Committee agreed on the following principles. 50 . The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. 2. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. availability of the faculty and other facilities. 3. 4. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization.

25. 17. 9. 19. 15. 3. 21. 12. 18. 10. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 11. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 16.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 22. 20. 4. 14. 6. 12. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 11. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 4. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 7. 8. 23. 8. 5. 10. 3. 9. 2. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 24. 26. 6. 2. 7. 5. 13.

D. Ball. Khan K.. Regional and International Environmental Issues. Environment People and Economy. Hansen.DETAILS OF M. Instruments and methods. WCS.F. 1987. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. 52 . 1991. P. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. Oxford University Press. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. and Jorqensen. 3. status of Terrestrial. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management.1991. Oxford University Press.1995. Provincial and Local Strategies. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. Amsterdam. Mackenzie J. Draft National Environmental Policy. 2. Hodder and Stoughton. 2nd Edition. FURTHER READINGS 1.S.. Conservation Strategies. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. London. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. NCS. technology and resource use. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. Elsevier. Environmental control Policies.E. 4.A. Geography of Pakistan. London Black Stone Press Ltd. development of concepts. Relationship of culture. Conventions and Protocols in Global.. 1992. S. and Bell. Money. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. Islamabad.T. 3. S. S. F. Karachi..1994. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). GOP and IUCN.E. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. Treaties. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space.1994. 2.. Recommended Books: 1. Mackenzie.

Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition).Vanclay. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. John Wiley & Sons. A. World Bank. sampling rules. 2. 1995. K. Assessment of environmental impacts.. Longman Scientific and Technical. 53 . role and importance. Cost benefit analysis of projects. economic impact assessment.A. Demographic impact assessment. Washington. History. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. Gas Chromatography etc. A one Publishers Lahore. Environmental Chemical Analysis. Longman House. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. ecological impact assessment. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). 2. Recommended Books: 1. UK. FURTHER READINGS 1. Air and Solid Waste. Ministry of Environment. Wastewater. 3. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. 1995. procedures and methods of EIA. WB. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. ed. Harlow Essex. social impact assessment. process. Chichester. Ahmed. D. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. F & Bronstein. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Environment Department. opportunities and issues. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. Government of Pakistan. Principles of physical. C. England. Ed. Environmental auditing. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. DC. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). Recommended Books: 1. 1993. sample collection and preservation. Burnt Hill. Case Studies and review. Wood. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water.

Wiley Interscience. 5. activities. S. UK. 54 .. Project Planning. 1993. prevention and control. 1st Ed. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. air borne. assumptions. development objectives. R.. A. 1st Ed. Kjelllström. T.. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. Project Life Cycle. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. B. Environmental Health Engineering. Oxford University Press New York. Project Planning and Approval Processes. de Kok. Public health concept. London. Inc. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). M. J. feasibility study. R. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. Basic Environmental Health. inputs. Meredith J. Defining Project objectives. USA.. Government Policies and Programs. Reasons for Project success or failure. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. L. work breakdown structure.2000. M/S Banarsid. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. A Guide to Project Management. economic evaluation. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide.. T. 2. and Wright. New York. Ergonomic and Safety. Accident prevention and safety plans. 2001. 3.. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. 1998. 1992. J. T. safety techniques. K. Planning Commission Performas. Park. means of verification. Nebel. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. Occupational Health: problems and issues.. Primary health care services. T. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Caeneross. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. indicators. Project Initiation. 2. specific objectives..COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. Recommended Books: 1. USA.. 2nd Ed. Prentice Hall International Inc. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. 1997. 1st ed. Project Management Institute. 4. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. principles and practices. John Wiley and Sons. and Guidotti. Yassi. Writing Project Proposal. Resource Mobilization. Need identification. Lippmann. outputs. Mantel s. 2002.

Sayre. OECD/IEA. 6th Edition. E. St Luise Press. solar. 3. Paris. John Wiley and Sons. principles and elements of the process of EMS. 3. D. and Yonavjak. L. hydropower.. Environmental Auditing. Botkin. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. uses. bio-energy resources. 4. McKinney. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. industry and domestic sectors. 1990b. non-renewable and renewable. Switzerland. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. 2. Recommended Books: 1. Michigan-January 2001. sustainable energy management for agriculture. merits and demerits of wind. Related Environmental regulations. Environmental auditing.B and Keller. Paris. petroleum. 2007. energy resources. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Principles of cleaner production. USA. ISO Central Secretariat.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. 2. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. Recommended Books: 1. energy resources of Pakistan. types. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan.L. M. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management.M. Schoch. 2007. alternate energy resources. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). 2001. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. nuclear) local. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. Sources of data. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). 55 . ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. 1998. 4th Edition. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. transport. data collection and interpretation. R. gas.A. D.

2003. Oxford UK. 2. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. Maarel. Beck. Modeling of climate change. and Solutions. Oxford. 2005. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. 2005. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. plant invasions. D. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. ECOPE 29. Effects. ED. Earthscan Publication Ltd. The Green House Effect. D. Recommended Books: 1. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Climate change and food production. geographical and temporal patterns. Plant population dynamics. T. 1st Edition. John Wiley & Sons. 2005. survival and extinction. Effects. Hardy. Warrick. water resources. Shulze. 5. Climate Change . Hardy. 2004. John Wiley & Sons. 2003. 3. 56 . competition and coexistence.Causes. management and restoration. resources and plants. and Solutions. K. J. Recommended Books: 1.T. 1. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. J. global aspects of plant ecology. Chichester. UK 1991. etc.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. 2. human activities and vegetation dynamics. Climate Change . Berlin. Vegetation Ecology Ed. Silvertown. Blackwell Publishing. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. types of climate change models. 3. London. Life history strategies of plants. Springer. Houghton. John Wiley & Sons. 2005. Plant Ecology. Green House Gases. Blackwell Publishing. types and their climatic effects.). & Charlesworth. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach.D. Species richness. vegetation dynamics.. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. B & Jager. forests.. Climate Change and Ecosystems. (Ed. 4. plant conservation. E. J. E & Muller-Hohenstein. UK.Causes.

laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. London. Extinction of species. 3. problems and solutions.J. 2004. 1973 2. Cambridge. Sustainable forest management. Publishers Sunderland. Inc. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. types. Essentials of Conservation Biology. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan.) Gaston. S. 1992. Establishment and management of protected areas. 57 . distribution. Weddell. Oxford University Press. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. Loss of biodiversity. Oxford. 3. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. Participatory forest management. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation.A. T. Threatened animals and plants. 1984. Bailey. threats and conservation. Forests. Wetlands. Mcmillan. 1986. Wildlife of Pakistan. distribution and management. Recommended Books: 1. Global and national biodiversity. types. Cambridge University Press. W. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. E. UK.B. Conserving Living Natural Resources. Recommended Books: 1. 1998. Roberts.G. 2002. 2002. 2. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. Protection and restoration of species.J. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol.(2nd Ed. Oxford University Press. Cambridge. their types and role in conservation. Status of forests in Pakistan.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. 5. I). habitats and ecosystems. Wildlife Ecology and Management. UK. kinds. Biodiversity: An introduction. Protected areas. & Ripley. their ecological and economic importance.J. J. Roberts. status. Rangeland management. biological diversity. Forest plantations. Principles of Wildlife Management. S. Primack. Robinson. John Wiley And Sons. K.L. Sinauer Assocaites. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. & Spicer.D. And Bolen. R. T. its causes. distribution. their importance. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. Consumptive. management. USA. Protected areas in Pakistan. 4.J. J. Blackwell Publsihing. Oxford. B. Oxford University Press. Oxford. deforestation and its control. II).

. management of transport. urban political ecology. CRC Press LLC. sanitation. urban landscape characteristics. 4. J. Urban land use planning and management. 1986. UK.. London. 2000. E&UA Div. urban systems and their characteristics. Silberstein. V. 3. 2. Environmental problems of urban life. Penguin Group.and Maser. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. Forms of urbanization. 2004.. Ministry of Housing and Works. G.. Introducing Town Planning. Sustainable cities. USA. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. A. SAGE Publications Ltd. Longman Group. Ward. C. Islamabad. H. Recommended Books: 1. S. 1993. UK. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. Government of Pakistan. drinking water and solid waste in cities. Clara. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. future of urban centers. Planning and Urban Change. 2007. New York. urbanization in Pakistan.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. 58 . The Works: Anatomy of a City. USA. Kate.

clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. Oxford University Press. 1997. ISBN 0194313492 59 .A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking.V. Thomson and A. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. Practical English Grammar by A.Annexure .J. Martinet. Exercises 1. Third edition. a) Functional English Grammar 1.

Reading. Third Impression 1992. minutes of meetings. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Oxford University Press. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. Third edition.J. Upper Intermediate. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. 1997. Martinet. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. Writing. intensive and extensive.2. and speed reading. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Exercises 2. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. Reading/Comprehension 1.V. Fourth Impression 1993. b) Practical English Grammar by A. Thomson and A. ISBN 0 19 453402 2.

Reading. Exercises 2. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Third Impression 1992. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Writing.1.J. Advanced. discursive.V. narrative. 2. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Advanced by Ron White. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Writing. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. form. b) Writing 1. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. Martinet. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. content. Fourth Impression 1992. Reading 1. Fourth Impression 1993. Oxford University Press 1986. Third edition. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . 2. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Writing. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Oxford Supplementary Skills. introduction to presentations. clarity. descriptive and argumentative writing). language. Third Impression 1991. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Practical English Grammar by A. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. Oxford Supplementary Skills. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Thomson and A.

Kirszner and Stephen R. Kathleen Shine Cain. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. argumentative and report writing). 2004. A Custom Publication. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. 3. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. Compiled by norther Illinois University. Martin’s Press. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. St. College Writing Skills by John Langan. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. 2.(particularly suitable for discursive. without taxing the taste of engineering students). descriptive. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. 62 . Mandell.

State & Society in Pakistan. Zaidi.Annexure . Shahid Javed.M. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. 1947-58 b.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. Society and social structure c. Indus Civilization ii. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. 63 Books Recommended 1. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. Akbar. 1999 onward 3. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Ethnicity d. Safdar. Mehmood. People and Land i. 1994. 3. ideological background of Pakistan. 1988-99 f. Contemporary Pakistan a. Economic institutions and issues b. 2. Lahore. 1977-88 e. b. politics. 1958-71 c. S. government. Course Outline 1. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. . 1993. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. 2000. 1971-77 d. Karachi: Oxford University Press. 4. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. 2. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. Study the process of governance. national development. Location and geo-physical features. S. Historical Perspective a. Muslim advent iii. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. contemporary Pakistan.

History & Culture of Sindh. 13. Zahid.5. Ethno . 6. Sayeed. 10. Party. I. 1998. Club Road. Pakistan Under Martial Law. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Haq. II & III. 11. 64 . nd. 1967.National Movement in Pakistan. Noor ul. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Mehmood. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Ziring. Washington: American Enterprise. Wayne. Politics in Pakistan. Muhammad Waseem. 9. 14. 1980. 1980. Islamabad. Political Parties in Pakistan. 1993. Ansar. Afzal. Rafique. M.The Emergence of Banglades. Institute of Public Policy Research. 7. 1976. Lahore: Vanguard. Amin. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. 1972. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Vol.K. Lawrence. The Political System of Pakistan. Enigma of Political Development. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. 1987. K. 8. Wilcox. Safdar. Khalid Bin. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. 12. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. Aziz. Tahir. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd..

) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .21.56.A.Annexure .20) Related to thinking.A.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.58.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.Tadabar (Verse No1.A.57.6. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.19.40.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.A.

3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt. in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .

IRI. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Ahmad Hasan.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. Pakistan. “Emergence of Islam” . Bhatia. “Studies in Islamic Law. International Islamic University. Islamabad (2001) 67 .3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad.S. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute.

Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). functions. Boston 68 . introduction to sets.Annexure . cube roots of unity.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. PWS-Kent Company. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. system of linear equations. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. complex numbers. trigonometric identities. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. determinants. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. College Algebra and Trigonometry. set operations. types of functions. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Sharron S. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. Wooton W. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. Beckenback EF. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. 1986. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Houghton & Mifflin. not majoring in mathematics. types. matrix inverse. 1987. Boston Swokowski EW. geometric progression. PWS-Kent Company. equations reducible to quadratic equations. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. Cramer’s rule. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. 1978. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. harmonic progression. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. Matrices: Introduction to matrices.

angle between two lines. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Recommended Books: Anton H. various forms of equation of a line. continuity. Calculus (3rd edition). Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. parallel and perpendicular lines. equation of a line. 1995. Davis S. Bevens I. John Wiley. PWS-Kent Company. 1983. not majoring in mathematics. Ma. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. New York Stewart J. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. solution of equations involving absolute values. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. intersection of two lines. Addison-Wesley. Calculus (11th edition). inequalities. 69 . 2005. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. derivatives. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. differentiation of polynomial. 2005. integration by substitution. Reading. not majoring in mathematics. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. functions and their graphs. left-hand and right-hand limits. Finney AR. Boston Thomas GB. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. rational and transcendental functions. integration by parts. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. distance between a point and a line. continuous functions. change of variables in indefinite integrals. USA 3.2. slope of a line. distance between two points.

inverse of matrices. types of matrices. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). PWS-Kent Company. Freshman and Company. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. set operations. Analytic Geometry. • Contents 1. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. Scott. PWS-Kent Company. 70 . nature of roots of quadratic equations. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). Cramer’s rule. circles determined by various conditions. functions. types of functions. determinants. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. Conic Sections: Parabola. 1987. intersection of lines and circles. hyperbola. locus of a point in various conditions. equations reducible to quadratic equations. 1986. Boston Swokowski EW. 1969 Kaufmann JE. College Algebra and Trigonometry. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. Introduction to sets. ellipse. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. system of linear equations. Boston 4.Circle: Equation of a circle.

Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. individual.. moments. ungrouped and grouped data. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. tally sheet method. relationship of statistics with social science. deciles and percentiles. 2. Latest Edition. Swokowski.. Kaufmann. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations.. Walpole. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. 2. Graphs: Graph of straight line. circle and trigonometric functions. bar frequency diagram histogram. quartiles. Prentice Hall. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. R.geometric and harmonic progressions. Boston. Latest Edition. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. skewness and kurtosis. R. cumulative frequency curve. array. PWS-Kent Company. R. E. standard deviation. Measures of dispersion: Range. J. 5. Latest Edition. Books Recommended: 1. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. frequency polygon. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. Wilcox. W. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. discrete and continuous series. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. types of frequency series. variance. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. characteristics of statistics. 4. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. trigonometric identities.. E. E. 3. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. 71 .

Recommended Books: 1. sinusoidal function. Hughes-Hallett. logarithmic integration. Mathews. Swokowski. and Transcendental Functions. Rational and Transcendental Functions. Prentice-Hall. quotients. Inequalities. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. integration using partial fractions. Bevens. Calculus. 4th edition. McCallum. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. integration by inspection. reduction formulae. infinite and improper integrals. Inc. Rational Functions. Second Edition 1992. 4. Continuity. the chain rule. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. 2002. logarithmic differentiation. Trigonometric Functions. products. 8th edition. Calculus Single and Multivariable. theorems of differentiation. substitution method. Thomas. 3rd Edition. Leibnitz’ theorem. Jhon Willey & Sons. Gleason. Extreme Values of Functions. implicit differentiation. Contents 1. E. Davis. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. 1983. Inc. 6. Addison Wesley publishing company. Solution of equations involving absolute values. 11th Edition. Elliott Mendelson. special points of a function. 5. 2005. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . John H. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. Slope of a Line. John Wiley & Sons. S. et al. 2.Jr. plane polar coordinates. W. Frank A. integral inequalities. Anton. 3. Equation of a Line. H. Least-Squares Line. integration by parts. 2005. 1999. the inverse of differentiation. I. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. applications of integration. Schaum’s Outline Series. Calculus. Continuous Functions. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. 2. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. Calculus. Boston. Integration by Parts. • Integration Integration from first principles. 6.

the difference method. finding the nth roots of unity. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. approximation errors in Taylor series. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. geometric series. arithmetico-geometric series. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . identities of hyperbolic functions. complex conjugate. solving hyperbolic equations. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. inverses of hyperbolic functions. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. multiplication. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. modulus and argument.Additions and subtraction. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. series involving natural numbers. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities.

vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. line to line. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. centers of mass and centroids. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. masses. 6. Hermitian.5. the inner product. scalar triple product. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. moments of inertia. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. Pappus’ theorems. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . point to plane. of a unitary matrix. orthogonal. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. vector product. symmetric and antisymmetric.

curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. spherical polar coordinates 75 . combinations of grad.8. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. divergence of a vector field. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates.

Coefficient of variation. Histogram. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. sample design and sampling frame. Constructing of a frequency distribution. The Mean Deviation. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. probability and non-probability sampling. Difference of means and proportions. Rounding of a Number. definition of outliers and their detection. Exercises. Absolute and relative measures. Historigram. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. acceptance and rejection regions. Change of origin and scale. Presentation of Data Introduction. 76 . Data. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Exercises. Graphs and their Construction. The semi-Interquartile Range. Quantiles. Probability and Probability Distributions. Test statistics. The Variance and standard deviation. sampling and non sampling errors. Unit 7. Type-I and Type-II errors. Diagrams. Discrete and continuous variables. Errors of measurement. Bar charts. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Standardized variables. Unit 3. Measures of Dispersion Introduction.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Observations. Unit 5. Different types of Averages. Empirical Relation between Mean. general procedure for testing of hypothesis.Annexure . Exercises Unit 6. properties of Good Average. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Population. level of significance. Exercises. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Collection of primary and secondary data. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Editing of Data. The Mode. Range. Box and Whisker Plot. Statistical problem. Median and mode. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Unit 4. Exercises. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. null and alternative hypothesis. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Significant digits. Moments and Moments ratios. Sources. Stem and Leaf Display. Exercises. Pie chart. Unit 2. Types of frequency curves. sampling with and without replacement. Exercises. bias.

Correlation. R. its estimation and interpretation. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. 3rd Ed. Unit 11. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. Contingency Tables. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table.. simple linear regression. E. “Introduction to Statistics”. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. 77 . Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. Macmillan Publishing Co. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Coefficient of linear correlation. F. r and R2. Inc. Regression and Correlation Introduction. Kitab Markaz. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. Exercises Unit 10. 2 Muhammad. New York.Single Population Introduction. 1982. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples.Unit 8. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. estimation of parameters and their interpretation.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. cause and effect relationships. Exercises. Testing of Hypothesis.. 2005. Exercises Unit 9. examples.

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