CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
58

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2007 at HEC Regional Center. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. universities and other institutions of higher education. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. D773/76-JEA (cur. The world has turned into a global village. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. the Federal Government vide notification No. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. and 36. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. degree awarding institutions. R&D organizations. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. It is.ALTAF ALI G. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. therefore. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. PROF. dated December 4th 1976. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17.). DR. Lahore.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. 63. It also aimed to give a basic. respective accreditation councils and stake holders.

CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. R&D. OF NCRC. Preparation 5 . UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. PREP. REC. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. OF FINAL CURRI. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. UNI. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. OF CURRI. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. COL. EXP.

Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Dr. 7. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Lahore Member 6. Rawalpindi Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Karachi from 28-30. Member 6 . Dr. Member 3. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Following attended the meeting:1. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Member 5. Member 4. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Dr. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University.

Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Dr. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Karachi Member 12. Member 10. Member 16. Dr. 13. Member 15. Member 14. Dr.8. Dr. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Member 11. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Prof. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. 7 . Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Dr. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Dr. Prof.

Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. Mr. Dr. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. At first. Member 19. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. 8 . compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society.17. Mr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. Dr. Secretary Dr. 1. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Member 20. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Chairman. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Faisalabad Member 18. The meeting was opened by Mr. Karachi. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. 2. Director of HEC Regional Center.

In last few centuries. 6. The committee thanked Mr. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. 4.3. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. 5. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. 1. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. 2. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. 3. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity.

our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. skills and behaviour patterns. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. 5. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. This committee. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. Apply theoretical understanding. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. in its preliminary meeting. ii. regional and global contexts. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life.

social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. 4. eight semesters in the semester system. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. with consensus. 1. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. The medium of instruction. 2. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration.e. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. 6. that: 1. Integrating natural sciences. The 11 .graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. Sc. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature.. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. A. 5. 3. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment.

Introduction to Earth Science 8. Environmental Chemistry 15. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Basic Chemistry* 4. Biology –I* 3. English-I 6. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. English-II 12.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Biology –II* 9. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. English-III 18. Psychology* . Introduction to Computer 14. Environmental Physics 16. Climatology* 23. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Environmental Pollution 22. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Introductory Economics* 17. Environmental Microbiology 21.

ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. ELECTIVE-III 42.24. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Climate Change 38. Opt. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. Environmental Economics 29. Natural Resource Management 40. Environmental toxicology 27. 46. Applied Ecology 26. 44. Environmental Biotechnology 32. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. English-IV/ Univ. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . Environmental Monitoring 36. Environmental Management Systems 34. 45. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. GIS & Remote Sensing 33.

• Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical.

Thomson Learning. 2007 3. Pearson Educational.. Different aspects of environment: physical. national. regional. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. 2007. 4th Ed. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. B. & Nebel.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. E. lipids. biological and social. 2002. current global. McKinney. poverty and resource depletion. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. environmental pollution. Schoch. socio-economic. R. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. urbanization.B & Keller. Recommended Books: 1. history. G. L. Human environment and its problems: global. proteins and nucleic acids.A. development in industry and agriculture. philosophical. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates.M. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. ecological.L. Miller. M.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. 6th Ed. & Yonavjak. and their relationships with various environmental factors. 10th Ed. D. John Wiley & Sons. its importance in human life. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. R. 4.. ethical. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. Botkin. 15 . 2007. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY .T. 2. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. Wright.J.

lipids. polypeptides in protein diversity. Crossley. 1996. 5. McGraw. 2. C. carboxylic acids. Australia . Structure and the basis of function. B. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. A. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. Lingappa. Shier. Self Assessment and Revie. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. USA.. J. Wadsworth Group. carbonyls. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. esters. carbohydrates. USA. Cassimeris. N. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. 1. amines). chemical diversity. 2003.. R. 3. overview of structure and function of cell organelles.. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. M.. 2008. Canada. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Ltd. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. Cells. origin of metabolism. phospholipids in membrane systems. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. Aromatic compounds. 5th Edetion. proteins. lipids. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. L. coordinate covalent bond. Bulter. USA. D.. Molecular Biology through Questions. the molecule of genetic information and replication. R. protobionts. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. V. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. and Lewis. E. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa.Hill International Edition. G. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. Biology: a Human Emphasis. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. covalent. Cell division. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. 4. and Whitelaw. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. 2007. Origin of life: chemical evolution. Lewis. 16 . New York. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. 8th Ed. Plopper. Starr. chemical basis of life. Nucleic acids.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. Introduction to cell biology. 2007. Ionic.

Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics.J.S. geometric and harmonic sequence. law of Cosines. 3. UK.. J. 5. Photochemical reactions. angle-sum formula. Measurement of pH. 17 . Skoog. Brimblecombe. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. normal solutions/buffers. UK. Thomson and Brooks. West. D. minor and cofactor of a matrix. Osmosis and Dialysis. Hill. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). W. equations of lines (linear equations). Harris. P.C. 2004. Solution chemistry. Recommended Books: 1. 6th Edition. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). Sequence and series: Arithmetic. 2.. J.H.K. Freeman and Company. 2005. radicals. series and means. Colloids chemistry.J. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. 1st Ed. graphs. simultaneous equations and their solutions. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. T. 2003. molal. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. Blackwell Science. 2nd Edition. Canada.. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. F. Andrews. USA.D. determinants. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. double angle formulas. and Reid. USA.E. Thin layer chromatography.M.. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry.. 8th Edition. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences.A. P. D. Surface chemistry.. Cambridge University Press. D. values of trigonometric functions. B. real line. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Column chromatography. Liss. 2nd Edition. straight line and related concepts.ions. expansion of determinants.. Understanding Environmental Pollution. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. M. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. Jones and Barlett..Special Products (Binomial Expression).. 2004. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. Girard. Jickells. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. and Holler. Lab Work Preparation of molar. EC and TDS in waste water. Algebra of matrices. 4.E. 2004.

Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. New Delhi. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. 2. Addission.Cramer’s Rule. Smith. Introduction to sedimentary. 3. Recommended Books: 1. Jr. G. foliation. nonrepeated linear factors. Introduction to folds. faults. 1999. theorem of integration. plate tectonics. L. Fossils and their significance.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. 4. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. Weathering. joints. different earth processes like mountain buildings. lineation and unconformities. California. Pacific Grove. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. Abraham. Earth as a member of solar system. J. R. igneous and metamorphic rocks. theorems on differentiation (sum. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . Trignometry for College students. Chatterjee. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. weathering and erosion. D. Narosa Publishing House. its origin. composition and its internal structure. K. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. irreducible quadratic factors. and Finney. age. mountain building. by parts integration (simple applications). Integration: Formulas of integration. earthquakes and volcanoes.. product and quotient rules without derivations). Scott Foresman and Company. erosion and related landforms. Calculus and Analytical Geometry.Wesley.B. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. Introduction to rocks and minerals.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. 10th Ed. earthquakes. 4th Ed.. the processes of their formation. Chain rule. Thomas. 18 . difference. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. S. cleavages. Analytical Geometry.

Recommended Books: 1. Smith. Geological time chart with biodiversity. E. 2005. D. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources.. J. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. 11th Edition. F. different classification systems. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. F. Lutgens.. 19 . Physical Geology and Process of Science.. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. E.Identification of rocks and minerals. Routledge. Prentice Hall.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. measuring biodiversity. D. 5. biodiversity crises. animals)... 4. and Tasa. Foundations of Structural Biology. J. K. 2004. Biodiversity of hilly areas. Lamarckism. Brooks/Cole. examples of adjustments in varied environment.. modern concepts.. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. G. interactions among diversified life. K. 9th Edition. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. 3rd Edition. Biodiversity of canal. Tarbuck. Wicander. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. population loss and decline. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. R. 5th Edition. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. Life in sea. Biodiversity of deserts. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. invasion of life on land. and Monroe. Prentice Hall: 2006. Prentice Hall. Field Study tour. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. G. Darwinism. 2007 3. Lutgens. unicellularity. and Pun. J.. Park. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. 2007 2. Tarbuck. R. and Tasa. consequences of losing biodiversity. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. multicellularity. protocell formation. causes of extinction. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. molecular basis of biodiversity. Use of brunton compass and GPS. A.. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. Earth Science. How Does Earth Work.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution.

and Spicer. 2005. 2nd Edition. 20 . Inc. Townsend. Routledge. R.K. Conceptualizing environment. The Ecology of global consumer culture. 2009. a Human Emphasis. Tripartite nature of environment. 4. K. The Biosphere. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. L. Bradbury. C. CA: AltaMira Press.. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. I. P. Crumley. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. Hannen. J. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. Wadsworth Group. Gaston. Perspective of human-environment evolution. Prospect Heights. globalization and environmental issues. Walnut Creek. 5th Edition. Recommended Books: 1. New York: New York University Press.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. USA. Starr. UK. 2000. (editor). New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. Goals and expectations. Culture. power & hegemony. C. 2001. Allan & Carter. culture and society. Adam. Contemporary environmental status. Chronological. (editors). 2. IL:WavelandPress. Use of environment for vested interest. Consumption. Scope and application. UK. Contemporary environment issues and debate. 2006. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. John Wiley and Sons. UK. Biology. 2003. 3. and Sustainable Living. and concerns. Environmental Risks and the Media..E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. 2009. I. Biodiversity (An Introduction). K. J. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . Nora and Wilk. Inc. Blackwell Science Ltd. 3. Understanding the environment-human relationship. 2. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment.

Course Outlines Definition. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. Long N..6th Ed. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. Storage hardware. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. system software. Rutledge. G. Courter. output hardware. processing hardware. Hardware: Input Hardware.. Ed.Microsoft office 2000. software packages. Introduction to MS-Word.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . Configurations.5. Recommended Books: 1. 2.H. as are their effects on the biosphere. Fundamentals of computer. Marquis A. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. Ms-Excel. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Operating system (Windows). physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. Long l. Local Area Network. 21 . Ms-Power Point. Ms-Access. computer programs and basic applications.London 1996. Types and classification of computers. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure .1999. K. e-mail. Software: Application software.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. 2003.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. Milton. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. 6. internet. Selin.

their sources and toxic actions. Equations of fluid dynamics. T. 2.J. interaction of light with matter. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. G. Sound and Noise.E. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer.S. A. Turbulent jets and plumes. Particle physics. Thomson-Brooks. Fundamentals of aquatic. Environmental Science. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. Human perceptions and noise criteria. Ozone and UV light. Ozone chemistry. photosynthesis. M. Conversion of mass. Girard.T.D. 2nd Edition. 5. Springer.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. Ibanez. Measurement and comparison of the 22 .. Diffusion. 2004. Environmental Chemistry. and Reid. J. Brimblecombe. Andrews. 4. Solar spectrum. 2004. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. P. 2005. Germany. Turbulence.. Isotopes and radioactive decay. Gaussian plumes in the air. Nuclear energy. Heat radiation and heat transfer. 2008. Canada. B. 1999. and Singh. Jones and Barlett. its causes and adverse effects on environment. K. J.M. P. atmospheric and soil chemistry. Reducing the transmission of sound. Entropy. Environmental Chemistry. DoriaSerrano.. Environmental impact of various industries. Recommended Books: 1.. Miller. India.. Turbulent diffusion.. Energy conversion. Fate of pollutants in environment. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. Active control of sound. Jickells. Energy. USA. Liss.G. Transport of pollutants. Hernandez-Esparza. 3. Basic acoustics.E. Fregoso-Infante.. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. Solids. M. Chemical reactions.. Samir. UK. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. Global climate and climatic change. Blackwell Science. Electromagnetic radiation. J. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts.. trophic level. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. 1st Edition.. Liquids and Gasses. C..

The World Bank's annual World Development Report. economic welfare and difference among all. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. World Bank Publications. S. Producer behavior. G. Todaro. population and environmental quality. Sustainable development. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. John Wiley and Sons Inc. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. and Van Grondelle.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. 2. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. Growth and Environment. Recommended Books: 1. 4. 2001. Environmental economics. 23 . Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. Routledge. E.Economic development. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. Pakistan economic context: National income. 2008. UK. P. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. Man environmental relationship. 2. John Wiley and Sons Inc. 2008.. New York. Growth and development. producer and community point of view. 3. Boeker. Smith. J. 2006. economic growth and its measurement. Economic functions of environment. Kentucky USA. M. USA. economic progress. Wesely Publishers. H. R. interaction between ecology and economic management. Impact of economic activity on environment. S. USA. Praxis publishing. Physics of the Environment and Climate. poverty.1998. 7th Ed. Measures for sustainable development. 2001. USA. Field visit. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. Natural resources and the economy. Economic management and environmental quality. Environmental Physics. Economic Development. economic growth. N. concepts and measurement. Recommended Books: 1. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. and Resource allocation. C. Seinfeld. Guyot. and Pandis. Yusuf. Introductory Environmental Physics. USA.

24 . Economics. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. community. J.A. 2009. population. B. Touchstone Books.V. Hanley.. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. the ethics of soil. B. B. ethics and ecology. J. A History of Western Philosophy. Ecology. and White. & Pierce. Introduction to ethical theory. Russell. D. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. Environmental Critics of agriculture. 2007. M. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. Shogren. Callicott. branches of ecology. Ecosystem and its types. Course Outlines Introduction. USA. temperature. N. description of population. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. 2008. USA. biogeography. Environmental philosophy and ethics. Recommended Books: 1. 2008. London. C. and systems ecology. Palgrave Macmillan. 4. LLC. role of light. International Thomson Publishing... Kessinger Publishing. 2. 2002. soil. Frodeman. 3. DeVeer. community and ecosystem. Portland 1967. Farmington Hills. Swift. R. species. World Bank Publications. Natural philosophy. England. its fundamental concepts. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. 4.3.. water. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. concepts and approaches. levels of ecological organization.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. WCIV7AA. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology.

population dynamics.Cox. Systems ecology. King’s College London. and S. Dash. C. P. J. Recommended Books 1. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. characteristics of urban. community dynamics. Ecosystem: structure and function. 2000. WCB/McGraw-Hill. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. Fundamentals of Ecology. Biomes of the world.L and Reiss. students will be able to understand the significance. J. New York. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. Ecology (principles and applications). Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan.) Moles. 6th Ed. biotic factors. various concepts of community. landscape changes and their importance. 2004. M J. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. Population distribution and abundance. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. 3. Lab Work 25 . plant geography and animal distribution. UK. Odum. 1992. After completion of this course. Microbial metabolism. habitat and niche. Tata McGraw-Hill. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. Populations. 1st Ed. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. M C J 1st ed. UK. C. and More. and Barett. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. G. productivity of different ecosystems. E P. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. B. landscape ecology. distribution limits.topography and air as ecological factors. 2001 5. Ecology (concepts and applications. ecological modeling. Concepts of Limiting factors. 1999 4. 2. aquatic microbiology. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). Biogeochemical cycles of C. M. Cambridge University Press. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment.W. Fundamentals of Ecology. 5th Ed. Thomson Brooks/Cole. New Delhi. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. Chapman. bacteria and eukarya. N.

nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. USA. Crawford. 3. L. and Stetzenbach. peppor.J. 2nd Edition.and Vesilaind. L.V. Environmental Pollution and Control. and Jeffery.D. Water. D. Hartel.A.M.Gerba. New Jersey. G. Solid Waste generation. Recommended Books 1. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. Fuhrmann. Noise.M.and Brendecke. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology.. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. Case Studies. Types of Environmental pollution: Air.P.K.L. (Elsevier) USA. 2.. 5.A. Human & other living organisms. 1995. Sylvia. 2 Edition. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. and Gerba. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. M. and Zuberer. 26 . Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. Collection.. 2002. J.F. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. 2. D. Soil. International Protocols (BASAL Convention).. Mean plate count.J. 4th Edition. Prentice Hall. I. purification and preservation..I. J. Hurrst. W. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution.P. and Klein. D. Weiner. Washington DC. M. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. J. USA.. London. C. Knudsen.B. P. Pepper.P. isolation.L. 4. 2005.C. R. Peiece. Prescott. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. F. McInernery.J. Maier.1998. its sources and their effects.. Harley.J. Cambridge UK. transportation & treatments.W. R.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. 2005. Recommended Books: 1. USA... 2009..G. A.M. Marine & Industrial pollution. P. Academic Press. Pollution Control Strategies. Academic Press. 2007.. 3.L. C. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. Microbiology. American Society for Microbiology. Hill. UK. Dilution plate technique. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. Academic Press. USA.J. 2005. USA. Effects of Pollutants. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. McGraw Hill Inc. Environmental Microbiology. Cambridge University Press..R. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Butterworth-Heinemann.. Manual of Environmental Microbiology.A.

Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. climatic zones of Pakistan. 6th Edition. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). Environmental psychology.4. The Atmosphere. The climate of Pakistan. Shamshad. 3.W. Houghton J. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . Cambridge University Press. Sadder.. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater.F. John H. 2003.K. Climatology. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. Recommended Books: 1. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. Factors affecting air Pressure. 27 ..From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere.. air pressure. A. Royal book company. The Hydrologic cycle. Methods of psychology. Karachi. Surface winds. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. Solar radiations. 5. . Radiation and climate. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. American Public Health Association (APHA). K. Pandis. 2002. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. 1992. Tarbuck. Austin Miller.. local winds. N. Cloud Classification. condensation and cloud Formation. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. Mechanism of heat transfer.2nd Editions. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. John Wiley and Sons. Weather and Climate. The Physics of Atmospheres. Four Spheres of the Earth.E.J. 2. 1988. global circulation. Lutgens.M. Lawrance K. 2006 5. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. Spyros. 4. Marcel Dekkar.

Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change.A. soil salinity and water logging. London. Fisher J. carbon dioxide and global climate change. 5th Edition. techniques and methods of restoration.W. Course Outline Introduction. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Routledge. High population density and psychological impacts. sustainable agriculture.C. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. 28 . Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. P. M. Sustainable agricultural practices. Fundamental of Psychology. energy and carbon balance. London. 1992. soil erosion and conservation. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. Background and scope. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. T.. Water as an ecological resource. their management and ecological restoration. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. Environmental Psychology. Environmental perception and cognition. Pollution control through Ecology. limitation of irrigated agriculture. Routledge. Water and distribution of species. rivers. 2. Soil as a natural resource. solar radiation and primary production. CRC Press. Bell. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. Ecological restoration. Restoration of derelict lands. concepts.. CRC Press. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. soil resources of Pakistan. 2001. Eysenck. Sustainable livestock management practices. Greene. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. species response to pollutants.characteristics and research methods. Future water scenario of Pakistan. Recommended Books: 1. Ecology of food production. threats and mitigation.D. and Baum A.

5th Edition. Peshawar. terminologies: Poisons. K.S. 4. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. USA. J. Potentiation and Addition. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. on human and other living organisms. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. J. R. A. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. and Hobbs. Lahore. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals.. B. D. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. 5. Fundamentals of Ecology. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. Soil Science. Odum E. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. biological effects.. Zedler. 1989. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air.National Book Foundation.P. 1996. 2006. and Barett. Pakistan’s Environment. their containment and control strategies. Immunological considerations in toxicology. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. 2004. in vivo & in vitro assays. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. Studies in Pakistan Geography. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. K and Habib.I. toxicity screening using microbial systems. Blackwell Scientific Publications.1998. 29 . toxins & toxicants. Organs. Falk. 2nd ed. E. water and soil. Chemical interactions and their types. Island Press. Islamabad. G. Margaret A. A.. 3. Rashid.A. soil and air samples. University of Peshawar. Synergism.W. toxins vs toxicants. Mumtaz. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. dose response relationship in living organisms. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. from natural and anthropogenic sources. and Memon. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals.. Israr-ud-Din. 2000 2. Shirkat Gah. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. Newman. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques.Recommended Books: 1. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. P. Oxford. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. toxicology of chemicals.

major ecosystems. (ed. USA. industry. international trade and the environment. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. clean development mechanism. T and Turner.2005 2. health. CRC Press Llc. 1996. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. 1st Edition. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. Klassen. economic development and the environment. State of the Environment-Pakistan . the economic benefits of different environmental resources. Government of Pakistan. General and Applied Toxicology.). 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. land. urbanization and pollution. McGrawhill. 5th Edition. P. B. measuring environmental benefits.M. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development.1 & 2. 1st Edition. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. pollution control-a general model. geography. 1992. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. Course Outlines Introduction. 2005 2. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. 1993. culture. Recommended Books: 30 . water resources. 3. Economic: agriculture. USA. 3.. education. Macmillan Press Ltd. Recommended Books 1. Course Outlines Introduction to history.Science of Poisons . people. economic aspects of different environmental problems. the economy and the environment. Ballantyne. Vol. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. M. USA. Ecological: ecological zones. Williams.Recommended Books 1.D. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. Hughes. topographic zones. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. W. W.

Kolstad. Sample collection. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. D. Recommended Books: 1. Lab Work S. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. 1999. D. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Freeman & Co. Conductivitymetry. Peverill. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. Sparrow and D. handling.I. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. Data interpretation for quality control.and Field. M. USA. COD. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. 2003.A. preparation and storage. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. Reuter. Holler. D.I.2002. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive.UK. Spectroscopy and Chromatography.J. Environmental Economics. Thomson and Brooks. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Titrimetery. Turner. New York. 2. 2. D. Pearce. Oxford University Press. C. Harris. Standard solutions and standard curves. A. M. L. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. Sample preservation methods. Australia. 4. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. 3. precision and accuracy. Gravimetery.R. 31 . B. 2000. salinity & sodicity).K. Oxford. 2005. 3. water and plant analysis.. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. 8th Edition.K. K. Analytical techniques for soil. and Batemen.W. soil (NPK and organic matter contents.2004. Qualitative Chemical Analysis.C. Field.D. Fluoride.1. West. NO3–N & NH4-N). and F. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. All Solids. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve.. 1993.L.. and derived S.. I. 6th Edition. BOD. Conductivitymetry.. Use of Potentiometery. C. Gravimetery. Biomarkers in environmental assessment.. units. Collingwood. Titrimetery. J. CSIRO Publ. Skoog. Johns Hopkins University Press.

1999. J. Bioreactors. 2005. Chichoster. 2009. Biomarkers. D. New York. Hans- Joachim. Isolation. Germany. Tools in environmental biotechnology. Course Outlines Introduction. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. 3. Oxford University Press. PCR. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. Biotechnology. 2007. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Biosensor. purification and preservation of DNA. England. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. Cambridge University Press. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. 2005. A. (ed. Sambrook.E. USA. 2. students will be able to understand the significance.. After completion of this course. Smith. New York. J.D. J. Government of Pakistan. and Josef.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. Environmental Biotechnology.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. 5th Ed. W. Introduction to microbial kinetics. 2nd Ed. National Biotechnology Commission. Scragg. USA. Recombinant DNA technology. and application of biotechnology in the environment. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. National Biosafety Guidelines. Wiley-VCH Verlag. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. and Russel. 4.P. 2001. Derbre.). bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. Recommended Books 1.W.. USA. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures.

Using and reading GPS in field. Guilfoud press New York. Inc. 3. V. 4. Data entry and output. John Wiley and Sons. Introduction to Photogrammetry. Inc. advantages and limitations of process. Inc. F. R. eradication of the duplicated data. Campbell. Pearsons Education. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. analysis and output. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. 2000. Agriculture. Data acquisition. Cartography. Satellite Imageries. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). 2009. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Introduction to GIS. Types of data used in GIS. 2000. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Image Processing. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. 5. Interpretation. History and data collection. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. Active and Passive remote sensing. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. Forestry. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. John Wiley and Sons. Lulla. Different types of maps. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. Dessinov. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . A.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. map projection and coordinate systems. integration of information from many sources. history and platforms. Fishery and wildlife. Mc Graw Hill Education. Energy Sources. 1999. K and L. Rancez. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. Jensen. Aerial photography. 2. Z. 2008. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Preparation of thematic maps. Harvey.

F. cleaner technologies. hot spots of biodiversity. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor.2nd Ed. threats to biodiversity. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. American Society for Quality. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes.. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. economic. Environment and sustainable development. Related Environmental legislation.). Khan. International Organization for Standardization. alpha and beta diversity. Environmental Economy. 2001. eco-design. and Yoxon. Conservation of biodiversity. 2005. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity.C. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance.. 3. M. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. WWF Pakistan. M. 1998. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. social and ethical values of biodiversity. Systems and Support Techniques.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. Environmental Management Systems Principles.. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). 2006. Environmental Management tools. philosophical. A.3rd Edition . American Society for Quality. 34 . types of biodiversity. Methods of environmental protection. Course Outlines Introduction. need and approach. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. standards and guidelines. Michigan. B. etc. Sheldon. 2. principles of Cleaner production. and Qasim. ecological. Certification of EMS. plant. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. Environmental aspects and impacts. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. 4. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

quality assessment. design and types of samples. conservation in man-made ecosystems. air. and Morre. Saad Printers. ecotourism. plants. London. Quality assurance and quality control. community and ecosystem level. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. forests. soil and living organisms. Biogeography. Lahore). role of traditional knowledge in conservation. Kings College. P. Mirza. Sinauer. field custody. Associates Inc. sampling and design purposes. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. 2000. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. C. laboratory custody. international agreements. EIA requirement.. Rawalpindi. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. quality control sampling. refrigeration and freezing methods. presampling requirements/information.. 2.B. P. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. national and international laws and regulations.conservation at species. habitats. Legal protection of species. Cox. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. 35 . Z. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance.B. 2ndEd. croplands. Recommended Books: 1. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. Conservation of wildlife. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. NOC for plant operation. chemical addition. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. management. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. protected areas.. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. conservation and livelihood. Preservation methods including pH control. population. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. cities. 2000. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. Sunderland. conservation strategies. water. Considerations.e. 3. Publ. Course Outlines Introduction. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. their categories.R.D. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. A Primer for Conservation Biology. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. 1998.B.

2000. its causes and effects. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change.1996. Regional droughts and 36 . I.Recommended Books: 1. Manahan. S. Physical. Burden. 7. Chapman and Hall. chemical. The Measurement of Climate Change. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. 2nd Edition. phenological changes. altered community structure. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. Korte. (ed) Springer. 5.1999. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. . Lewis Publisher London. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. USA. USA. Remote Sensing Note. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. extinctions. 2002. Environmental Chemistry. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. 2008. 2002. F. Moisture in the Atmosphere. D. and Guethner. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. Human responses to potential climate change. Peakall. agriculture. H. Ozone depletion. E. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. D. 2. E. Earth Observation of Global Change. 2008. N. (eds. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. L. S. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. USA.) McGraw-Hill. regional. biological. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. R. Energy and Temperature. 3. Murai. Precipitation. McKlivie. 1992. Recent Climate Change Indicators.USA.. New York. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. 8.. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. UK. Chuviero. 6. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. Forstner U. human health. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. Tokyo. Keith.

Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. 2005. Climate Change . Petts. mitigation and impact management.. 3. 4. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. impact analysis. 1994. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). Main stages in EIA process. EIA project management. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. Blackwell. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. Harrop. 4. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. 1999. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. Houghton. and Solutions. Ministry of Housing and Works. J. 1986. Climate Change . 5.Causes. J.A. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. Recommended Books: 1. John Wiley & Sons. Islamabad. liquid. 2005. Hardy. 6. J. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. Islamabad. R.. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Recommended Books: 1. solids. Keith. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. Global Warming and Climate Change. 37 . Earthscan Publication Ltd. Effects. reporting. D..T. decision-making to implement the project. T.. Oxford. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. project implementation and follow up.. review of EIA quality. 3. A.. J. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. 1st Edition.O. Hardy. London. 2003. law. 2. 2000.cataclysmic climate change. Effects. Routledge. 2003. scoping. overview. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. (ed. social impact assessment (SIA). and noise.(ed). Cost and benefits of EIA. 2005. Glasson. 2. A.Causes. 2004. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Sringer..). John Wiley & Sons. screening. and Chadwick. National Book Foundation. and Solutions. London. Therivel. Global Change and the earth system. public involvement. J. & Nixon. Types & Resources to produce Energy.

national example. agriculture products and their share in GDP. Development of Management Plan: needs. Lohani. agriculture chemicals. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. Ludwig. F. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources.. their pros and cons.. 6. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. (ed. importance. R.B and Warren. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. Carpenter. Evans. B. best available option for future. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. Types. 2002. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan.5. H. problem in agriculture. national and provincial legislation. Goldsmith.. M. 1997. Conservation in Progress. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. 2nd Edition. management options. solar power. their current status and threats. Sadler. 1993. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. R.. threat and its causes. S. United Nations Environment Programme. effective management. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations.. limitation in the future. existing management approaches. process and contents of the management plan. and Tu.. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. wind power and nuclear power. & McCabe. USA. John Willey & Sons. requirement. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. Recommended Books: 1. B. 38 . and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. management options.). forest types and its existing management. threats.. national agriculture policy. wildlife census. causes and methods for its improvement. Asian Development Bank. methodologies. New York. Rangeland Management: existing status. Everitt. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. A. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. J.

research methods.2. to introduce students to research design. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. 2007. Search Engines. Elsevier. Questionnaire. Hansen. Objectives. and Jorqensen. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). 1992. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. types of sampling design/.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. John Wiley & Sons. R. Thousand Oaks. Environmental Conservation. W. Case Studies. population and sampling frames. Selecting the Research Method. Surveys. 5. S. Creswell. Research Design & Research Methods. & Plano Clark. Literature Search: Database. Review of Literature. Interviews.Amsterdam. Sage CA. 1984. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. 3.. P. London. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Material Methods. Methodology. J. GOP and IUCN.A pre-requisite for Research. Scientific Methods. Review of Literature. USA. Scientific Research: Science. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. Islamabad. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. 4. Bibliography. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. New York.E.L. Inference based on findings. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. concepts and terminologies. Experimental Research. How to put things together? Introduction. Research Proposal: its importance . 1990. Sampling: the logic of sampling. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. 39 . and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research.E. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically.F. V. Dasmann.

Wadsworth Publishing Company. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. USA. of Chicago Press. G. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. 4. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. E. 5.2. Case Study Research: Design and Methods.. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. Government of Pakistan 3. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. Univ. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. Babbie. National Conservation Strategy 5. England. 2003. Booth. 2000. 1997. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. 2001. 2. regulations made there under. M. 3.USA.h.. John and sons Ltd.. Robert Yin.S. 3rd Edition. 2003. Recommended Books: 1. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Marilyn F. 6. Law Books House. 1997. Chichester. R. Sage Publishers. USA. 2008. Diamon. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act.. Survey Research Methods. Students project in Environmental Science. 1989.Harrad. Moriarty. Belmont California. 2nd Edition. S. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. National Environmental Policy 4. and Arhonditsis. Qadar.Batty.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. A. 5. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. flood and drought management. Mirajuddin Publication . flood and droughts. water supply and demand management measures. 2. virtual water. K. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. watershed/catchment. and Tortajada. The Politics of Managing Water. A. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. Pakistan . N. tubewells.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. (ed. U.Varis. and Malik. Cheema. water quality and quantity aspects. Asia Printer. Lahore. recycling and re-use of wastewater. Recommended Books: 1. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan.Lahore. Islamabad. 6. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. A. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. Pakistan. 3. Bengali. 2003. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan.). hydrological cycle.. O. 4. with drinking water facilities like springs. Islamabad. 1993. groundwater exploitation. integrated water resources management (IWRM). it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry... and Qamar.K. Indus Water Accord 1991. wetlands resources management. Oxford University Press Karachi. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. 2006. SDPI Oxford University Press. 2005. I. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. R.. Mirajuddin Publication . Oxford University Press New Delhi.. fisheries management.). J. Ahmed. Ahmed. pollution aspects. Khan. R. 2006. Briscoe. 44 . N.1993. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT).. Revised & enlarged edition. C. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. (eds. P.. Biswas.

USA. Bashir. USA. urban settlements. Physical and chemical properties of soil. Islamabad.. humans as components of urban ecosystems. San Diego. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. Course Outlines Introduction. urban flora and fauna.R. USA. R. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. Cation and anion exchange. N. Types and properties of parent materials.W. Process and outcome. future of urban centers. Gardiner. 2007. R.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. soils. 1. 45 . Pakistan. Urbanization. and Bantel.. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. 2007. R. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. transport. Upper Saddle River. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. Urban ecosystem. Causes of urbanization.C.T. Soil forming minerals. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. National Book Foundation. Academic Press. NJ. urbanization in Pakistan. Prentice Hall. 11th Edition. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. Upper Saddle River. Soil degradation. urban landscapes characteristics. 1996. NJ. Hillel. management and green productivity. urban political ecology. Forms of urbanization. Factors and processes of soil formation. 2008. the salient features of urban environments. D. Course Outlines Introduction. E. PrenticeHall. hydrological processes. Soils in Our Environment. D. Definition. Soil Science. Miller. and Weil. Brady. After completion of this course. CA. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals.

3. New York. 4. 1. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. Smith. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. The planning process.. London.. USA. Silberstein. M. Ward. London. nd 2 Edition. S. Kate. Sukopp. Routledge. H.and Kowaril. 2006. SAGE Publications Ltd. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans.. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. Planning and Urban Change. Routledge. Planning and its relationship with other professions. Hejny. Chapman and Hall. Land use planning theories. 2004. Hague. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. I.1990. Penguin Group. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Gilbert. The Works: Anatomy of a City. 2000. S. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. 5. Levels of planning. SBS academic publishing. C. Aims and Objectives of planning. A. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments.. UK. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. 2. 2004. Recommended Books: 1.and Maser. J. D. 46 . 1989. nature and purpose of urban planning. Planning theories and concepts. City Design for Sustainable Development. Springer. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. Alberti. 2007. O. 2. New trends in planning and city management. Types of Urban Plans. M.. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. UK. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. UR.S.L. 2009. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. Scope. Principles of planning. Justification for planning for city management. V. Hough. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. Elements of urban planning. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. UK. CRC Press LLC. USA.

Role of Media in Disaster Management. Natural cycles and their role. ADB. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. New York. It discusses a wide range of aspects. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. Different approaches and Indicators. E&UA Div. M. Earthquake Management. and White G. R. Physical factors. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. D. Paris. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. Government of Pakistan. Disaster as an opportunity for development. H.. Clara. 1993.W. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. Natural Disasters Alexander. 3.3. 47 . 1989.. 1991. Boulder .. 1993. Ministry of Housing and Works.J. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. Flood Management: Organizational Role. 2. Westview Press. and Woodrow. 1993. 4. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. The Environment as Hazard Burton I.UNESCO. Longman Group. Chapman & Hall. Disaster Management: Components of management. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. Islamabad. Recommended Books: 1. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. Introducing Town Planning. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. Kates. Prediction. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. Socio-economic factors. The Guilford Press. Cultural factors. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies.e. 4. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation.B. 2nd Edition. Manila. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies... Landslide. i.W.F. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. 1986. G. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Earthquake. Flooding. Hazards. Political factors. P. New York... UK. International phenomenon..

Schoch. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. 1983. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem.. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. types. 6. and Mushkatel. hydropower. solar. alternate energy resources.B and Keller. Botkin. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. M. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. 48 .H.M. biomass resources. OECD/IEA. F. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. local. Consumer and producer relationship. New York. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. 3. decomposers. merits and demerits of wind. L. 2.. 6th Edition. Biotic structure. Perry R. E. 2007. Westport. 2007.5. uses. energy resources of Pakistan. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. 1984. primary producers. Quorum Books. D.A. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. John Wiley and Sons. R. Ecological concept in crop and food production. 1. Agroecology. Paris. and Yonavjak. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. USA.. Sustainable livestock management. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. sustainable energy management. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. 4th Edition. McKinney. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. A.C. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America.L. Disasters and Development Cuny. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. energy resources. consumers. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. 2001.W. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future.

Yandermeer J. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. C. Altreri. E-11 Seminar 49 .A. and Rossel. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. Corol.R. Study of index of diversity.M. 1990. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. Westview Press. Recommended Books: 1.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. 3. 2000.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. New Delhi. USA. M. 2. Kapur.G. Experimental Plant Ecology. India. McGraw Hill Publishing Company.H. USA.. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. Study of stratification and profile diagram. CBS Publishers and Distributors. 1995.P. Boulder. P. and Sudha. New York. Agrocology. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. R.

the Committee agreed on the following principles. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. availability of the faculty and other facilities. that: 1. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. 2. 3. 50 . The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. 5. 4. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor.

transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 22. 20. 7. 9. 8.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 11. 19. 6. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 23. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 26. 11. 12. 16. 2. 2. 8. 4. 24. 5. 10. 3. 5. 25. 4. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 12. 15. 21. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 9. 3. 18. 6. 13. 7. 10. 17. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 14.

and Jorqensen. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. Hodder and Stoughton. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. Conservation Strategies. 2. Geography of Pakistan.A.. status of Terrestrial. London. 1992. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. WCS.S. development of concepts. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). London Black Stone Press Ltd. Hansen. Environment People and Economy. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. 52 .F.DETAILS OF M. P.. Environmental control Policies. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. 4. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Oxford University Press. 1987. technology and resource use.1994. Money. GOP and IUCN. S. NCS.1994.1995. Mackenzie. F. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. Regional and International Environmental Issues. D. Treaties. S. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. and Bell. Amsterdam. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. FURTHER READINGS 1. 2nd Edition. 3. Conventions and Protocols in Global. Ball. Islamabad. 3.. S.E.T. Oxford University Press. Elsevier. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. Recommended Books: 1. Instruments and methods. 1991. Provincial and Local Strategies. Draft National Environmental Policy. Mackenzie J. 2. Khan K. Karachi.. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. Relationship of culture.1991.E..

Wood. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. John Wiley & Sons. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. Environmental auditing. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. Environment Department. C.Vanclay.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. 1995. Air and Solid Waste. 1993. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. Ed. D. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. England. sample collection and preservation. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. sampling rules. 2. social impact assessment. UK.. process. Chichester. opportunities and issues. Gas Chromatography etc. Ahmed. 1995. Burnt Hill. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. Washington. 53 . A. Longman House. Harlow Essex. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. 2. Case Studies and review. ed. procedures and methods of EIA. Recommended Books: 1. A one Publishers Lahore. WB. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. FURTHER READINGS 1. Recommended Books: 1. Cost benefit analysis of projects. F & Bronstein. Ministry of Environment.A. economic impact assessment. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). ecological impact assessment. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. K. Environmental Chemical Analysis. DC. 3. Government of Pakistan. World Bank. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. Demographic impact assessment. Assessment of environmental impacts. role and importance. Principles of physical. Longman Scientific and Technical. History. Wastewater. Environmental and Social Impact assessment.

J. Reasons for Project success or failure. work breakdown structure. M/S Banarsid. New York. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. 5. Defining Project objectives. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. 2001. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. Environmental Health Engineering. 2.. Kjelllström. T. USA. A. UK. Oxford University Press New York.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. means of verification. Nebel. Occupational Health: problems and issues. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. and Wright. Meredith J. inputs. Public health concept. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. 4. 1993. Project Planning and Approval Processes. 1998. principles and practices. R. prevention and control. 1997. 2002. specific objectives. Project Planning. Prentice Hall International Inc. de Kok. B. J. 1st Ed. Primary health care services. safety techniques. Yassi. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. economic evaluation. 3. Project Management Institute. T. indicators. Resource Mobilization. outputs. Recommended Books: 1. Government Policies and Programs. development objectives. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). Mantel s. Inc. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. Park. R. John Wiley and Sons. 1st Ed. Planning Commission Performas.. 2nd Ed. Basic Environmental Health. feasibility study. Writing Project Proposal. Caeneross. air borne. A Guide to Project Management. activities. 1st ed. assumptions. L. USA.. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. and Guidotti. Lippmann....2000. Accident prevention and safety plans. Need identification.. 2. K. London. Ergonomic and Safety. Project Management: A Managerial Approach.. 1992. 54 . Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. MS Project Recommended Books: 1.. T. Project Initiation. S. M. Project Life Cycle. Wiley Interscience. T.

D. industry and domestic sectors. 2007. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. principles and elements of the process of EMS.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. USA. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. 4th Edition. Recommended Books: 1. 2001.. R. Switzerland. L. nuclear) local. ISO Central Secretariat. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). St Luise Press. bio-energy resources. 3. 2. transport. 1990b.L. Environmental Auditing. 55 . types. Sources of data. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. John Wiley and Sons. E. 2. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. solar. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. uses. alternate energy resources. 4. merits and demerits of wind. and Yonavjak. 1998. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Schoch. data collection and interpretation.A. Paris. Environmental auditing. D. OECD/IEA.B and Keller. M. energy resources of Pakistan. 3. Michigan-January 2001. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. hydropower. 6th Edition. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. sustainable energy management for agriculture. gas. non-renewable and renewable. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. McKinney. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Principles of cleaner production. Recommended Books: 1. 2007. Paris. Botkin. energy resources. petroleum.M. Related Environmental regulations. Sayre.

Houghton. 2005. Effects. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. management and restoration.T. K. T. ECOPE 29. 2. types and their climatic effects. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. 2005. 2. Oxford UK. London. Maarel. Modeling of climate change. Blackwell Publishing. UK. Oxford. 1st Edition. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. J. Climate Change . Blackwell Publishing. 2003. Beck. J. water resources. 5. John Wiley & Sons. and Solutions. survival and extinction. Silvertown. D. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. Berlin. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. ED. plant invasions. 2004. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. Chichester. 3. 56 . Hardy. Climate change and food production. 2005. Recommended Books: 1. 2003. plant conservation. Vegetation Ecology Ed. J. D. (Ed. Springer. Earthscan Publication Ltd. types of climate change models. B & Jager. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Green House Gases. Shulze. 2005. E & Muller-Hohenstein. Plant Ecology. UK 1991. 1. E. competition and coexistence. John Wiley & Sons. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.Causes. Hardy..). Climate Change . global aspects of plant ecology. 4. vegetation dynamics. Warrick. The Green House Effect. & Charlesworth. human activities and vegetation dynamics. Plant population dynamics.Causes. Species richness. Recommended Books: 1. and Solutions.D. etc. forests. John Wiley & Sons.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. 3. resources and plants. Climate Change and Ecosystems. Effects.. Life history strategies of plants. geographical and temporal patterns.

J. 5. Protected areas. Wildlife Ecology and Management.B. Roberts. Mcmillan. Forests. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. Oxford University Press. K. Primack. status. Establishment and management of protected areas. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. Forest plantations. types. R. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. management. 3. Robinson. Cambridge. distribution.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. 1998.(2nd Ed. II).D. threats and conservation. J. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Inc. 1992. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. 1984. their importance. Biodiversity: An introduction. 4. S. S. UK. I). Weddell.J. their types and role in conservation. Oxford. Oxford University Press.A. Essentials of Conservation Biology. B. John Wiley And Sons.J. 2. Consumptive. types. USA. Oxford University Press.) Gaston. Threatened animals and plants. & Ripley. deforestation and its control. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. Global and national biodiversity. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. biological diversity. Recommended Books: 1. Blackwell Publsihing. Protection and restoration of species. Participatory forest management. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. 2002. Oxford. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. Protected areas in Pakistan. T. its causes. 3. Extinction of species. their ecological and economic importance. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. Cambridge. 2004. W. 2002.J. 1973 2. 57 . E. habitats and ecosystems. Roberts.L. distribution. UK. Oxford. Wildlife of Pakistan. Conserving Living Natural Resources. Publishers Sunderland. And Bolen. Principles of Wildlife Management.G. J. Status of forests in Pakistan. Cambridge University Press. London. kinds. & Spicer. distribution and management. Bailey. Wetlands. Sinauer Assocaites. Loss of biodiversity. 1986. Sustainable forest management. T. Recommended Books: 1. problems and solutions. Rangeland management. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali.

Kate. J. 4. CRC Press LLC. C. Longman Group. future of urban centers. New York. Islamabad. urban landscape characteristics. Forms of urbanization..COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. UK. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. Clara.. 2000. Penguin Group. management of transport. Environmental problems of urban life. sanitation. 2007. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Silberstein. 1986. Recommended Books: 1. 2004. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. USA. E&UA Div. Urban land use planning and management. UK.. urbanization in Pakistan. Government of Pakistan. V. London. 2. H. USA. Introducing Town Planning.and Maser. Ministry of Housing and Works. Sustainable cities.. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. drinking water and solid waste in cities. urban systems and their characteristics. 1993. S. urban political ecology. The Works: Anatomy of a City. A. Ward. 3. G. Planning and Urban Change. SAGE Publications Ltd. 58 .

V. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. ISBN 0194313492 59 . a) Functional English Grammar 1. Martinet. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. Exercises 1. Thomson and A. Oxford University Press.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking.J. 1997. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure.Annexure . Third edition. Practical English Grammar by A.

1997. b) Practical English Grammar by A. Third edition. and speed reading. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Martinet. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Fourth Impression 1993. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Oxford University Press. Reading/Comprehension 1. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. Upper Intermediate. Reading. Third Impression 1992. Thomson and A.V. minutes of meetings. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. intensive and extensive.J. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Exercises 2. Writing. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Oxford Supplementary Skills.2. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41.

discursive. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . introduction to presentations. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Exercises 2. Martinet. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Writing. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. content. Oxford Supplementary Skills. descriptive and argumentative writing). clarity. Third edition. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Reading 1. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Writing. Advanced by Ron White. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive.1. Fourth Impression 1992. Third Impression 1991. Advanced. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). form. 2. Thomson and A. Oxford University Press 1986. 2. Reading. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. narrative. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. Writing. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. b) Writing 1.J. Practical English Grammar by A. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Fourth Impression 1993.V. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Third Impression 1992. language.

Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. without taxing the taste of engineering students). Compiled by norther Illinois University. Kathleen Shine Cain. A Custom Publication. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. 2. Kirszner and Stephen R.(particularly suitable for discursive. descriptive. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. argumentative and report writing). College Writing Skills by John Langan. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. Mandell. 2004. 62 . Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. St. Martin’s Press. 3.

Akbar.Annexure . b. 2000. ideological background of Pakistan. Ethnicity d. 3. government.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. 1947-58 b. Karachi: Oxford University Press. national development. 1971-77 d. S. Economic institutions and issues b. 2.M. Indus Civilization ii. . Course Outline 1. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. Safdar. 1958-71 c. contemporary Pakistan. Location and geo-physical features. 1999 onward 3. 4. 1977-88 e. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. 1988-99 f. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. 2. Muslim advent iii. 63 Books Recommended 1. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Shahid Javed. Karachi: Oxford University Press. State & Society in Pakistan. Lahore. People and Land i. Society and social structure c. Contemporary Pakistan a. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Historical Perspective a. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. 1993. 1994. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. Zaidi. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. S. Mehmood. politics. Study the process of governance. Pakistan Political Roots & Development.

I. 6.National Movement in Pakistan. Ethno . 10. History & Culture of Sindh. Club Road. M. nd. Enigma of Political Development. 9. 1967. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. 11. Lawrence. Party. K. 14. Lahore: Vanguard. 7. Politics in Pakistan. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Amin. Muhammad Waseem. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Pakistan Under Martial Law. Tahir. 1998. Sayeed. II & III. 64 . The Political System of Pakistan. Vol. Rafique. Afzal.5. Safdar. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. 1976. 13. Mehmood. 1980. 12. Ziring.The Emergence of Banglades. Haq. Political Parties in Pakistan. Washington: American Enterprise. Zahid. Ansar.K. Khalid Bin. Institute of Public Policy Research. 8. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Aziz. Wilcox. Noor ul.. Wayne. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. 1987. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. 1993. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. 1972. Islamabad. 1980. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research.

57.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.40.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.20) Related to thinking.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.A.58.6.A.A.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.Tadabar (Verse No1.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.19.56.A.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 . Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.Annexure . 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.21.

in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.

“Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. Ahmad Hasan. Bhatia. Pakistan.S. Islamabad (2001) 67 . “Studies in Islamic Law. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. International Islamic University. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. “Emergence of Islam” . IRI.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad.

Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. 1986. complex numbers. determinants. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. matrix inverse. Boston Swokowski EW. Wooton W. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. not majoring in mathematics. PWS-Kent Company. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. equations reducible to quadratic equations. harmonic progression. 1987.Annexure . 1978. Boston 68 . Houghton & Mifflin. Sharron S. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. Beckenback EF. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. set operations. cube roots of unity. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. types of functions. geometric progression. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). introduction to sets. system of linear equations. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. College Algebra and Trigonometry. PWS-Kent Company. Cramer’s rule. functions. trigonometric identities. types. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system.

Calculus (3rd edition). functions and their graphs. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. Ma. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. not majoring in mathematics. Finney AR. distance between two points. distance between a point and a line. Reading. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. rational and transcendental functions. integration by parts. Addison-Wesley. New York Stewart J. John Wiley. derivatives. 1983. angle between two lines. 69 . Boston Thomas GB. differentiation of polynomial. 2005. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. parallel and perpendicular lines. solution of equations involving absolute values. intersection of two lines. change of variables in indefinite integrals. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. PWS-Kent Company. inequalities. Bevens I. continuous functions. equation of a line. 1995. USA 3. various forms of equation of a line. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. integration by substitution. 2005. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. Calculus (11th edition). Davis S. not majoring in mathematics. Recommended Books: Anton H. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. continuity. slope of a line. left-hand and right-hand limits.2.

Analytic Geometry. set operations. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). College Algebra and Trigonometry. Boston Swokowski EW. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. PWS-Kent Company. determinants. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. ellipse.Circle: Equation of a circle. Freshman and Company. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. 70 . Boston 4. hyperbola. types of matrices. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. equations reducible to quadratic equations. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. circles determined by various conditions. Conic Sections: Parabola. 1986. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). inverse of matrices. nature of roots of quadratic equations. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. system of linear equations. intersection of lines and circles. Scott. 1987. PWS-Kent Company. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. types of functions. functions. Introduction to sets. locus of a point in various conditions. 1969 Kaufmann JE. Cramer’s rule. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. • Contents 1.

frequency polygon. PWS-Kent Company. 3. relationship of statistics with social science. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. moments. 71 . J. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. Walpole. quartiles. types of frequency series. Swokowski. Books Recommended: 1. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. Latest Edition.. R. W. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. 2.. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. standard deviation.geometric and harmonic progressions. 2. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. E. Wilcox. cumulative frequency curve. skewness and kurtosis. Graphs: Graph of straight line. E. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. bar frequency diagram histogram. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes.. Prentice Hall. tally sheet method. Latest Edition. Boston. Measures of dispersion: Range. individual. Latest Edition. characteristics of statistics. 5.. deciles and percentiles. array. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. circle and trigonometric functions. trigonometric identities. R. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. R. ungrouped and grouped data. discrete and continuous series. Kaufmann. 4. E. variance.

integration using partial fractions. Leibnitz’ theorem. substitution method. 2005. Integration by Parts. Second Edition 1992. Swokowski. John Wiley & Sons. the inverse of differentiation. Bevens.Jr. Equation of a Line. H. implicit differentiation. 3rd Edition. Jhon Willey & Sons. Continuous Functions. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. integral inequalities. infinite and improper integrals. Addison Wesley publishing company. Frank A. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. special points of a function. products. 8th edition. integration by parts. John H. Contents 1. quotients. Boston. 1983. E. and Transcendental Functions. • Integration Integration from first principles. Davis. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. Thomas. Continuity. Calculus Single and Multivariable. Rational Functions. 3. reduction formulae. applications of integration. 2002. Solution of equations involving absolute values. Calculus. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. 2. Trigonometric Functions. W. the chain rule. et al. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . integration by inspection. plane polar coordinates. Recommended Books: 1. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. Extreme Values of Functions. McCallum. Schaum’s Outline Series. Inc. 2. logarithmic integration. 11th Edition. Gleason. Calculus. sinusoidal function. 6. Inc. 5. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. 1999. S. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. 2005. Hughes-Hallett. Mathews. 4th edition. Inequalities. logarithmic differentiation. Elliott Mendelson. Prentice-Hall. 4. 6. Least-Squares Line. Calculus. I. Rational and Transcendental Functions. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. Anton. theorems of differentiation. Slope of a Line.

solving hyperbolic equations. inverses of hyperbolic functions. arithmetico-geometric series. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. series involving natural numbers. the difference method. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. multiplication. geometric series. approximation errors in Taylor series. finding the nth roots of unity. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. modulus and argument.Additions and subtraction. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. complex conjugate. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . identities of hyperbolic functions.

of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . Pappus’ theorems. vector product. masses. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. line to line. the inner product. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. point to plane. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. of a unitary matrix. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. Hermitian. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. symmetric and antisymmetric. centers of mass and centroids. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. moments of inertia. orthogonal. 6.5. scalar triple product.

Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. divergence of a vector field. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. combinations of grad.8. spherical polar coordinates 75 . differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products.

Sources. Diagrams. Exercises. bias. The Mean Deviation. Unit 7. Unit 3. level of significance. Median and mode. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Quantiles. null and alternative hypothesis. Exercises. Unit 5. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Significant digits.Annexure . Ogive for Discrete Variable. Standardized variables. Observations. Different types of Averages. acceptance and rejection regions. Errors of measurement. Test statistics. probability and non-probability sampling. Stem and Leaf Display. Exercises. The Variance and standard deviation. Exercises. Box and Whisker Plot. Range. Historigram. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Statistical problem. Moments and Moments ratios. properties of Good Average. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Editing of Data. Absolute and relative measures. sampling and non sampling errors. Change of origin and scale. Discrete and continuous variables. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Pie chart. Exercises. Difference of means and proportions. Unit 4. Bar charts. Constructing of a frequency distribution. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. sample design and sampling frame. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Population. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. The Mode. definition of outliers and their detection. Types of frequency curves. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Graphs and their Construction. Empirical Relation between Mean. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Unit 2. Histogram. Coefficient of variation. Collection of primary and secondary data. Data. 76 . Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Exercises. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Probability and Probability Distributions. Presentation of Data Introduction. Type-I and Type-II errors. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Rounding of a Number. Exercises Unit 6. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. The semi-Interquartile Range. sampling with and without replacement. Measures of Dispersion Introduction.

. cause and effect relationships. Exercises. E. 2 Muhammad. Regression and Correlation Introduction. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Correlation. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. r and R2. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples.Single Population Introduction. “Introduction to Statistics”. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. 77 . Exercises Unit 9. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. Kitab Markaz. Testing of Hypothesis. Contingency Tables. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. R.. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole.Unit 8. New York. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. Macmillan Publishing Co. examples. Exercises Unit 10. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. 2005. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. Unit 11. simple linear regression. Coefficient of linear correlation. its estimation and interpretation. 1982. Inc. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. F. 3rd Ed.

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