CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
58

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the Federal Government vide notification No. Lahore. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. dated December 4th 1976. D773/76-JEA (cur. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. R&D organizations. The world has turned into a global village. It is. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. It also aimed to give a basic. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. therefore. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities.). and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. PROF. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. degree awarding institutions. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. 63.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. universities and other institutions of higher education.ALTAF ALI G. and 36. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. DR. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic.

PREP. OF CURRI. R&D. OF FINAL CURRI. OF NCRC. REC. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. UNI. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. Abbreviations Used: NCRC.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. EXP. COL. Preparation 5 . INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI.

Following attended the meeting:1. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Dr. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Dr.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Member 4. Rawalpindi Dr. Member 5. Dr. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Rawalpindi Dr. 7. Lahore Member 6. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Karachi from 28-30. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Member 6 . Member 3.

Prof. Dr. Dr. Member 16. 13.8. Member 11. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Dr. Dr. Member 10. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. 7 . Member 14. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Karachi Member 12. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Dr. Dr. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Member 15. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Prof.

Member 20. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Faisalabad Member 18. Member 19. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Chairman. At first. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Karachi. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. 2. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Mr. Secretary Dr. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. 1. Dr. The meeting was opened by Mr. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them.17. Director of HEC Regional Center. Mr. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. 8 . Shafiq-ur-Rehman. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. Dr. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission.

The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. 6. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. 5. 2. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated.3. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. 1. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. In last few centuries. The committee thanked Mr. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. 4. 3. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 .

and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. skills and behaviour patterns. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. 5. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. ii. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. This committee. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. regional and global contexts. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . in its preliminary meeting. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. Apply theoretical understanding. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values.

The medium of instruction. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. that: 1. A.. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. 4. Integrating natural sciences. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. 3. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. 5. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee.e. Sc. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. 1. with consensus. eight semesters in the semester system. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. 6. 2.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. The 11 .

Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. English-III 18. Climatology* 23. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Environmental Chemistry 15. Introduction to Computer 14.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Biology –II* 9. Introduction to Earth Science 8. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Environmental Microbiology 21. Biology –I* 3. Psychology* . English-II 12. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Basic Chemistry* 4. Environmental Physics 16. Environmental Pollution 22. English-I 6. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Introductory Economics* 17. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10.

ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. Environmental Management Systems 34. Opt. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. 44.24. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. Climate Change 38. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. ELECTIVE-III 42. 45. English-IV/ Univ. Environmental toxicology 27. Environmental Monitoring 36. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . Environmental Economics 29. 46. Applied Ecology 26. Environmental Biotechnology 32. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. Natural Resource Management 40. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31.

• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .

Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. and their relationships with various environmental factors. 2. L. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. John Wiley & Sons. B. 4th Ed. E. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. current global. regional. Wright. 10th Ed. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. 2007 3. Different aspects of environment: physical. environmental pollution. G. proteins and nucleic acids..A. Environmental Science: systems and solutions.T. ethical. 2002..DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. Thomson Learning.B & Keller. urbanization. lipids.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. & Nebel. ecological. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. 2007. socio-economic. biological and social. development in industry and agriculture.M. Schoch. history. philosophical.J. Miller. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. 15 . and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. Recommended Books: 1. McKinney. R. national. Human environment and its problems: global. Botkin.L. 4. Pearson Educational. poverty and resource depletion. M. R. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. its importance in human life. 6th Ed. 2007. & Yonavjak. D. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY .

2007. Crossley. Canada. proteins. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. Aromatic compounds. 5. carbonyls. L.. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. Origin of life: chemical evolution. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. and Whitelaw. 1996. V.Hill International Edition. Lewis.. USA. M. McGraw. C. USA. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. lipids. 1. B. 2007.. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. Biology: a Human Emphasis. Cells. 2. Cassimeris. 3. Nucleic acids. origin of metabolism. chemical basis of life. J. Ionic. E. R. Molecular Biology through Questions. Wadsworth Group. 8th Ed. 4.. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. Bulter. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. the molecule of genetic information and replication. and Lewis. Shier. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. A. protobionts. phospholipids in membrane systems. Cell division. Ltd. covalent. USA. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. New York. lipids. polypeptides in protein diversity. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials.. Plopper. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. Lingappa. N. G. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. carboxylic acids. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. coordinate covalent bond. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. Australia . McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. 16 . Introduction to cell biology. carbohydrates. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. Structure and the basis of function. Starr. amines). General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. esters. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. D. R. 2003. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Self Assessment and Revie. 5th Edetion. 2008. chemical diversity.

C. law of Cosines. 2004. Skoog. radicals.J. J. 2nd Edition. Understanding Environmental Pollution. P. Thomson and Brooks. Lab Work Preparation of molar. Liss. equations of lines (linear equations). and Reid. 4. 8th Edition. 2nd Edition. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. Surface chemistry. determinants.. 2004.. J.. Column chromatography. molal. Thin layer chromatography. 2. UK. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. P. 17 .S.E. D. Harris. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Photochemical reactions. USA. normal solutions/buffers.. graphs. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). angle-sum formula. real line.K. Cambridge University Press. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. Hill.Special Products (Binomial Expression). W. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). geometric and harmonic sequence. Blackwell Science.. Brimblecombe.A. Girard. simultaneous equations and their solutions. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences.J. 2005. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. D. Jones and Barlett. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. and Holler.. Solution chemistry. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. T. series and means. minor and cofactor of a matrix. D.M. Measurement of pH. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles..ions. West. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. 3. Algebra of matrices. Jickells. 2004. UK. 6th Edition. Colloids chemistry. Freeman and Company. expansion of determinants. Osmosis and Dialysis. Recommended Books: 1. EC and TDS in waste water. straight line and related concepts. Andrews..E. M. Canada. USA.D. 2003. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. B.H. 5. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. F. 1st Ed.. double angle formulas. values of trigonometric functions. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers.

faults. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . R. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. Scott Foresman and Company. composition and its internal structure.. Fossils and their significance. 10th Ed. Thomas. joints. theorems on differentiation (sum.B. 4th Ed. the processes of their formation. irreducible quadratic factors. Chatterjee. Earth as a member of solar system. Weathering. Abraham. California. L.Cramer’s Rule. G. cleavages. Recommended Books: 1. Narosa Publishing House. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. igneous and metamorphic rocks. Trignometry for College students. 1999. 3. Jr. and Finney. D. Analytical Geometry. J. Chain rule. mountain building. New Delhi. its origin. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. difference. erosion and related landforms. plate tectonics. lineation and unconformities. different earth processes like mountain buildings.Wesley. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. K. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. age. Addission. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. by parts integration (simple applications). Smith. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. Integration: Formulas of integration. 18 .B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. 2. 4. Introduction to folds. Calculus and Analytical Geometry.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . earthquakes. theorem of integration. S. nonrepeated linear factors. Introduction to rocks and minerals. foliation. Introduction to sedimentary. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. product and quotient rules without derivations). earthquakes and volcanoes.. weathering and erosion. Pacific Grove.

Physical Geology and Process of Science. F. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. and Tasa. and Tasa. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. K.. interactions among diversified life.. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. 2007 2. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. Lamarckism. Tarbuck. 5. Biodiversity of hilly areas. Darwinism. animals). molecular basis of biodiversity. 5th Edition. How Does Earth Work.. F. 2007 3. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water.. Use of brunton compass and GPS. population loss and decline..Identification of rocks and minerals. G. invasion of life on land. unicellularity. and Pun. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. examples of adjustments in varied environment. different classification systems. Prentice Hall: 2006. K. measuring biodiversity. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. biodiversity crises. Biodiversity of canal. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. causes of extinction. J. Geological time chart with biodiversity. Lutgens. E. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. 4. G.. Recommended Books: 1. 11th Edition. D. consequences of losing biodiversity. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. and Monroe. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . Routledge. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. Smith. Life in sea. A... Foundations of Structural Biology. J. Tarbuck. Field Study tour.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. Prentice Hall. protocell formation. J. Wicander. Earth Science. E. Lutgens. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. Park. multicellularity. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. 3rd Edition. 9th Edition.. Biodiversity of deserts. R. D. Brooks/Cole. modern concepts. Prentice Hall.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. 2004. 2005. R. 19 . Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time.

and concerns. culture and society. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. Nora and Wilk. Inc. Conceptualizing environment. Perspective of human-environment evolution. 2005. 2009. power & hegemony. Starr. Walnut Creek. C. 2. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . 2003. Biology. Goals and expectations. C. Gaston. 2006. (editor). P. R. Contemporary environment issues and debate. 20 . USA. a Human Emphasis. L. J. 2nd Edition. Bradbury. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. 4. Hannen. Chronological. Prospect Heights.K. Routledge. Environmental Risks and the Media. UK. K. Blackwell Science Ltd. CA: AltaMira Press. (editors). Recommended Books: 1. 2. 2000.. 3. and Sustainable Living. J. Biodiversity (An Introduction). The Biosphere. Inc. Adam. Culture. 2009. K. The Ecology of global consumer culture. Understanding the environment-human relationship. I.. Use of environment for vested interest. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. Tripartite nature of environment. Contemporary environmental status. UK. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. I. Scope and application. New York: New York University Press. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. UK. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. 3. Wadsworth Group. John Wiley and Sons. Consumption. 2001. and Spicer. 5th Edition. Allan & Carter. Townsend.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. Crumley. IL:WavelandPress. globalization and environmental issues.

Marquis A. Types and classification of computers.5. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. 2003. Operating system (Windows). Introduction to MS-Word. Software: Application software. software packages. 21 . Ed.Microsoft office 2000.. Hardware: Input Hardware.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. output hardware. Storage hardware. Rutledge. Configurations. Ms-Access. Ms-Power Point. Course Outlines Definition. Courter. 2. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. e-mail. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . as are their effects on the biosphere. Recommended Books: 1. 6. K.London 1996. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered.. Ms-Excel. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Local Area Network. processing hardware. Milton. Long l.6th Ed. internet. Fundamentals of computer. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. system software.H. Selin. computer programs and basic applications. G.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure .1999. Long N. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere.

E. Nuclear energy. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Human perceptions and noise criteria. Miller. 2nd Edition. P. C. 2008. Andrews. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts.. Solids. Transport of pollutants. Isotopes and radioactive decay. interaction of light with matter. P. photosynthesis. 2004. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. Principles of Environmental Chemistry.. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. Turbulent jets and plumes. Girard. India. Jones and Barlett. 2005. Diffusion. Hernandez-Esparza. Reducing the transmission of sound. Sound and Noise.. UK. Energy conversion. and Reid. Fregoso-Infante. Chemical reactions.. Jickells. Fundamentals of aquatic. Solar spectrum. Equations of fluid dynamics. Fate of pollutants in environment. 1st Edition. trophic level. Liss. J. 2004. Canada. atmospheric and soil chemistry. Turbulent diffusion. A. Springer. 5. Ozone chemistry.G. Liquids and Gasses. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. B. Blackwell Science. Active control of sound.. Environmental Chemistry. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. its causes and adverse effects on environment. USA. 2. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . Conversion of mass. Thomson-Brooks.T. T. Ozone and UV light. and Singh. G. Turbulence. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. Recommended Books: 1. their sources and toxic actions. 4. M.. 3..D.S.M. Basic acoustics. J. Gaussian plumes in the air. Electromagnetic radiation. DoriaSerrano. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants.E. K.. Environmental impact of various industries.. Heat radiation and heat transfer. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. M. Ibanez. Particle physics. J.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter.. Samir. Entropy. Environmental Science.. Germany. Global climate and climatic change. Energy. 1999.J. Brimblecombe. Environmental Chemistry.

2008. interaction between ecology and economic management. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. economic growth and its measurement. Economic functions of environment. Boeker. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. Environmental Physics.1998.Economic development. concepts and measurement. poverty. S. economic welfare and difference among all. Recommended Books: 1. Smith. H. Pakistan economic context: National income. John Wiley and Sons Inc. economic growth. World Bank Publications. Impact of economic activity on environment. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. USA. Seinfeld. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. Sustainable development. UK. 2008. G. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. Wesely Publishers. and Van Grondelle. 23 . New York. Measures for sustainable development. Routledge. 2. and Resource allocation. Guyot. Introductory Environmental Physics. C. population and environmental quality. 2001. and Pandis. Kentucky USA. Todaro. John Wiley and Sons Inc.. 2006. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. N. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. producer and community point of view. USA. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. P. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. Man environmental relationship. M. Physics of the Environment and Climate. USA. Environmental economics. Producer behavior. Economic management and environmental quality. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. E. S. 2. Yusuf. 7th Ed. Growth and Environment. economic progress. Growth and development. 4. Praxis publishing. 2001. J. USA. Economic Development. Natural resources and the economy. 3. R. Field visit. Recommended Books: 1.

its fundamental concepts. 24 . B. J. Farmington Hills. 2009. 3. role of light. Environmental philosophy and ethics. community and ecosystem. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy.. USA. Course Outlines Introduction. Touchstone Books.. DeVeer.3. Natural philosophy. population. concepts and approaches. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure .A. & Pierce. International Thomson Publishing. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. water. 2. J.. Introduction to ethical theory. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. London. WCIV7AA. LLC. 4. C. ethics and ecology. B. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. Kessinger Publishing. levels of ecological organization. branches of ecology.V. Palgrave Macmillan. 2008. description of population. 4. soil. N. Ecosystem and its types. 2002. Hanley. Frodeman. and White. community. and systems ecology. USA. Environmental Critics of agriculture. A History of Western Philosophy. Shogren. Callicott. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. 2007. Russell. England. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. Ecology. Economics. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. R. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. 2008. Swift. D. B. biogeography. M. World Bank Publications. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. the ethics of soil. temperature. species.. Portland 1967.

Population distribution and abundance. J. biotic factors. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. community dynamics. Odum. 6th Ed. Ecosystem: structure and function. students will be able to understand the significance. New Delhi. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. landscape changes and their importance. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. 1992. 5th Ed. and Barett. Biogeochemical cycles of C. New York. G. and S. distribution limits. Biomes of the world. C. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. and More. WCB/McGraw-Hill. 3. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. Fundamentals of Ecology. Systems ecology. Ecology (concepts and applications. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). various concepts of community. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. 2001 5. Cambridge University Press. 1st Ed. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. E P. N. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. 2. B. characteristics of urban. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. C. J.L and Reiss. M. 1999 4. aquatic microbiology. Fundamentals of Ecology. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Ecology (principles and applications). Microbiology of terrestrial environments. M J.W. Dash. ecological modeling.) Moles. Chapman. Microbial metabolism. UK. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. Tata McGraw-Hill. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. M C J 1st ed. After completion of this course. King’s College London. P. bacteria and eukarya. 2000. Concepts of Limiting factors. landscape ecology. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. Lab Work 25 .topography and air as ecological factors. productivity of different ecosystems. Recommended Books 1. population dynamics. 2004. habitat and niche. Populations. plant geography and animal distribution.Cox. UK.

Knudsen. Noise. 2.. and Zuberer. Washington DC. Fuhrmann. Academic Press. 2002.J. Hartel. 2005. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. USA. C. Academic Press. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. 4. 3. Pollution Control Strategies.B. 2 Edition. Butterworth-Heinemann.P. Effects of Pollutants. Human & other living organisms. Academic Press.D. Solid Waste generation. and Klein. 1995.. peppor. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally..R. Types of Environmental pollution: Air.L.and Brendecke.C. Recommended Books 1. Marine & Industrial pollution. USA. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal.I. L. UK. J. transportation & treatments. F. McInernery.L. purification and preservation. M. D. and Gerba. M.V. A. Prentice Hall.K. P.. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). and Stetzenbach.. Crawford. Cambridge UK. Cambridge University Press.. Case Studies. W. American Society for Microbiology. Hill. Sylvia.A.P.. 2.A.1998. Manual of Environmental Microbiology.and Vesilaind. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Weiner. D. Maier. London. Prescott.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection.M. 2005. Environmental Microbiology. R... 2009.. I. 2nd Edition. its sources and their effects. Collection. Peiece. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. Environmental Pollution and Control. Recommended Books: 1.F. R. USA. USA. New Jersey. L. P. G.A. J. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic.J. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents.Gerba. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual.M. 26 .J.. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. and Jeffery. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines.L. (Elsevier) USA. Water. Dilution plate technique. 2007. D.. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. McGraw Hill Inc. 5. 3. 4th Edition. Microbiology.J. J. USA. 2005. Hurrst.G.M.W.J. Soil. Harley. C. Mean plate count. isolation.. Pepper.P.

9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. 5. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). John Wiley and Sons. 2002. local winds. Cloud Classification. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . Mechanism of heat transfer. N. Spyros. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental psychology. Cambridge University Press. American Public Health Association (APHA). concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology.. Climatology.. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. Sadder.. air pressure.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. 2.2nd Editions. Lutgens. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. global circulation. 1988. Factors affecting air Pressure. climatic zones of Pakistan. John H.E. Houghton J. 1992. 2003. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. Tarbuck. Royal book company.K.M.W. K. Marcel Dekkar. Four Spheres of the Earth. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. 4. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. . 27 . Surface winds. Weather and Climate. Methods of psychology. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Shamshad.J. Radiation and climate. condensation and cloud Formation. Austin Miller. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. 3. The Atmosphere. The Physics of Atmospheres.. A. Karachi. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. 6th Edition. Lawrance K. 2006 5. The Hydrologic cycle. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. Pandis.F.4. Solar radiations. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. The climate of Pakistan.

rivers. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. 1992.characteristics and research methods. Water as an ecological resource. soil salinity and water logging. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Routledge. M. London. concepts. sustainable agriculture. High population density and psychological impacts. Environmental perception and cognition. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. 2. species response to pollutants. energy and carbon balance. Bell. Routledge.W.A.C. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. 28 . Eysenck.D. CRC Press. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. Course Outline Introduction. limitation of irrigated agriculture. soil erosion and conservation. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. Ecological restoration.. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. Pollution control through Ecology. London. Fundamental of Psychology. 2001. Future water scenario of Pakistan. 5th Edition. T. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. Greene. and Baum A. Sustainable agricultural practices. P. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher.. their management and ecological restoration. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. Water and distribution of species. carbon dioxide and global climate change. Background and scope. solar radiation and primary production. Sustainable livestock management practices. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. Fisher J. Ecology of food production. threats and mitigation. CRC Press. Soil as a natural resource. techniques and methods of restoration. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. Environmental Psychology. soil resources of Pakistan. Restoration of derelict lands.

Margaret A. Odum E. Determination of Interaction of chemicals.1998. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. toxicology of chemicals. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. toxicity screening using microbial systems. D. 2000 2. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. J. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. on human and other living organisms. University of Peshawar. 5th Edition. and Memon.Recommended Books: 1. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. Oxford. Soil Science. Island Press. Peshawar. Fundamentals of Ecology. Zedler. terminologies: Poisons. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. Pakistan’s Environment. in vivo & in vitro assays. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. Rashid. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing.P. Falk. Israr-ud-Din. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water.I. toxins & toxicants. G. and Barett. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. A. 2006. 2nd ed. Potentiation and Addition. dose response relationship in living organisms. Immunological considerations in toxicology.. Newman. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. 1989. toxins vs toxicants.S. R.W. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. and Hobbs. E. Synergism. 4. 2004. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. 1996.. their containment and control strategies. Studies in Pakistan Geography. Islamabad. J. Shirkat Gah.A. Chemical interactions and their types. water and soil. B. K. Organs. USA. A. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. 3.. Mumtaz. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. Thomson Brooks/Cole. soil and air samples. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques.. Lahore. Blackwell Scientific Publications.National Book Foundation. from natural and anthropogenic sources. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. K and Habib. P. 29 . biological effects. 5.

Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. 1992. international trade and the environment. Williams. Macmillan Press Ltd. 1st Edition.).M. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. W. the economic benefits of different environmental resources.2005 2.Science of Poisons . culture. CRC Press Llc. Government of Pakistan. 5th Edition. the economy and the environment. health. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. State of the Environment-Pakistan . industry. 3. 1993. Recommended Books 1. T and Turner. people. measuring environmental benefits. USA. 1st Edition.1 & 2. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. economic development and the environment. urbanization and pollution. Ballantyne. education. geography. Course Outlines Introduction. Vol. Ecological: ecological zones. Recommended Books: 30 . Hughes.D. W. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. land. Economic: agriculture. (ed. M. McGrawhill.. clean development mechanism. B. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. topographic zones. economic aspects of different environmental problems. General and Applied Toxicology. Course Outlines Introduction to history. 1996. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. Klassen. USA. 2005 2. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. USA. P. major ecosystems. water resources. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis.Recommended Books 1. pollution control-a general model. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. 3.

Biomarkers in environmental assessment. Reuter. Lab Work S. and Batemen. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. Johns Hopkins University Press. Kolstad.K. Environmental Economics: An Introduction.C. Standard solutions and standard curves.K.. 4. L. West. Thomson and Brooks. Turner. 2000. Recommended Books: 1. 2. Pearce. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. M. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. and derived S. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. 2005. 3. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. Field.W. 1999. precision and accuracy. Use of Potentiometery. Titrimetery.R.. A. Conductivitymetry. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. D. K.J. I.I. BOD. Oxford University Press. CSIRO Publ.I. Analytical techniques for soil. Qualitative Chemical Analysis.UK. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. and F. COD. C. salinity & sodicity). water and plant analysis. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry.and Field. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. Environmental Economics. 2. Gravimetery. Peverill.. 31 . Oxford. Titrimetery.2002. Sample collection. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). D. Conductivitymetry. Data interpretation for quality control. 3. B. Sample preservation methods.D.. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. preparation and storage. Gravimetery. 6th Edition. D. C. M. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin.1. Australia. NO3–N & NH4-N). units. Collingwood. 2003. New York. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. All Solids. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery.. USA. Skoog. D. handling.. Freeman & Co.2004. Holler. 8th Edition. Sparrow and D.L. Fluoride. Harris.A. J. 1993.

and application of biotechnology in the environment. A. New York. After completion of this course. J. Isolation. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. Cambridge University Press. Oxford University Press. 2001. W. (ed. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. and Josef. 2005. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. 2009. Hans- Joachim. 4. Introduction to microbial kinetics. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. Wiley-VCH Verlag. 2. National Biotechnology Commission.. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . USA. purification and preservation of DNA. 2007. 3. students will be able to understand the significance. Government of Pakistan. Biosensor. Sambrook. 5th Ed. Germany. Recommended Books 1. Course Outlines Introduction. J. USA. Chichoster.1999. England. Recombinant DNA technology.). Derbre. New York. PCR. Smith.W. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. Biomarkers.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. 2005. 2nd Ed. Bioreactors.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. Scragg. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. National Biosafety Guidelines. Tools in environmental biotechnology. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. and Russel.P. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications.. USA. J. Biotechnology. Environmental Biotechnology. D.E.D.

R. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. Interpretation. Introduction to Photogrammetry. John Wiley and Sons. Lulla. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. 1999. analysis and output. Cartography. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Harvey. Guilfoud press New York. A. Types of data used in GIS. Data acquisition. Dessinov. Z. 2000. Inc. John Wiley and Sons. V. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. Using and reading GPS in field. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. Image Processing. 4. K and L. Forestry. 3. F. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. Inc. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . Agriculture. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. Different types of maps. advantages and limitations of process. integration of information from many sources. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Fishery and wildlife. Mc Graw Hill Education. 2000. 2008. 5. Data entry and output. Active and Passive remote sensing. Satellite Imageries. 2009. Campbell. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. Aerial photography. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. History and data collection.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. Energy Sources. Rancez. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). Introduction to GIS. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. 2. history and platforms. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Preparation of thematic maps. Inc. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. Pearsons Education. Jensen. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. eradication of the duplicated data. map projection and coordinate systems. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission.

Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. standards and guidelines. Conservation of biodiversity.C. Methods of environmental protection. Environmental Management Systems Principles. ecological.). philosophical. F. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. Environmental aspects and impacts. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. eco-design. hot spots of biodiversity. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management.. WWF Pakistan. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. American Society for Quality. cleaner technologies. Michigan. 4. 2005. etc. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. B. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. 2001.2nd Ed. Environment and sustainable development. American Society for Quality.3rd Edition . Systems and Support Techniques. alpha and beta diversity. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). threats to biodiversity. types of biodiversity. Related Environmental legislation. economic. need and approach. A. and Qasim.. plant. Environmental Economy. Certification of EMS. Environmental Management tools. 1998. M. International Organization for Standardization. Course Outlines Introduction. 2. 2006. Sheldon. and Yoxon. principles of Cleaner production.. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. 3. M. 34 .This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. Khan. social and ethical values of biodiversity. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1.

P. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city.. Conservation of wildlife. international agreements.. presampling requirements/information. cities. Sunderland. Cox. conservation and livelihood. Sinauer. population.. Kings College. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. chemical addition. sampling and design purposes. 2000. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. 2. croplands. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. P. laboratory custody. their categories. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes.conservation at species. EIA requirement. air. quality assessment. Rawalpindi. protected areas. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. 3. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. C. Legal protection of species. design and types of samples. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. A Primer for Conservation Biology. management. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. Quality assurance and quality control.B.e. conservation strategies. forests. Publ. Associates Inc. refrigeration and freezing methods.D. quality control sampling. 35 . Mirza. and Morre. field custody. ecotourism. soil and living organisms. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. plants. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. Considerations. water. Course Outlines Introduction. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. NOC for plant operation. Z. Lahore).B. community and ecosystem level. Preservation methods including pH control. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. 2ndEd. Biogeography. national and international laws and regulations. habitats. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures.B. 2000. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. Recommended Books: 1. Saad Printers.R. conservation in man-made ecosystems. 1998. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. London.

COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. 2000. H. (ed) Springer. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. Lewis Publisher London. biological. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. Peakall. Murai. 2002.. Energy and Temperature. New York.Recommended Books: 1. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. . Air Pollution and Acid Rain. Manahan. Burden. I. Environmental Chemistry.) McGraw-Hill. Physical. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. 1992. F. 2002. Forstner U. Chuviero. D. 5. S. Tokyo. S. USA. 7. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. 2nd Edition. Human responses to potential climate change. E. extinctions. 2. UK. phenological changes. and Guethner.1996. Remote Sensing Note. (eds. its causes and effects. agriculture. 2008. regional. 3.. E. Moisture in the Atmosphere. 2008. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. Recent Climate Change Indicators. Earth Observation of Global Change. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. The Measurement of Climate Change. Keith. Korte. D. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. N. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. 8. Precipitation.1999. Regional droughts and 36 . L. chemical. Ozone depletion. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local.USA. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. altered community structure. 6. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. Chapman and Hall. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. USA. R. USA. human health. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. McKlivie.

A. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. EIA project management. R. solids.. project implementation and follow up. J. Ministry of Housing and Works. reporting. 4. and noise. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment.. Islamabad. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. (ed. scoping. J.. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). A. impact analysis. 1994. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. 2. 37 . London. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. Hardy. Blackwell. decision-making to implement the project.. T. 1st Edition. overview. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. Hardy. Keith. and Solutions. J. 4.. review of EIA quality. 2003. Therivel. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. John Wiley & Sons. Petts. liquid. Glasson. 6. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. Effects.. National Book Foundation.Causes. 2004. 2. Main stages in EIA process. 1999. Oxford.cataclysmic climate change. Harrop. Global Warming and Climate Change. Climate Change . 3. public involvement. J. 2000. Recommended Books: 1. Routledge. D. John Wiley & Sons. Sringer. 2003. 2005. screening. social impact assessment (SIA). Types & Resources to produce Energy. Cost and benefits of EIA. Effects.).A. Recommended Books: 1. 5. and Solutions. mitigation and impact management. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts.. law.(ed). Islamabad. 1986.O. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach.Causes. 2005. 2005. Climate Change . Earthscan Publication Ltd. & Nixon. London. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. Global Change and the earth system. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice.T. Houghton. and Chadwick. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. 3. J.

causes and methods for its improvement.. methodologies. (ed. John Willey & Sons. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. Rangeland Management: existing status. forest types and its existing management. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. threats. USA. S. & McCabe. Recommended Books: 1. problem in agriculture.. limitation in the future. United Nations Environment Programme. Types. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. wind power and nuclear power. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. occurrence and distribution of natural resources.. Sadler. management options. R. wildlife census. agriculture products and their share in GDP.). threat and its causes. Conservation in Progress. H. national agriculture policy. 1993. process and contents of the management plan. agriculture chemicals. J. R. their current status and threats. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. requirement. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. Carpenter. 6. New York. national and provincial legislation. and Tu. Ludwig. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. 2nd Edition. Asian Development Bank. effective management. A. M. importance. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. their pros and cons.5. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. F.B and Warren. Lohani. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. 38 . Development of Management Plan: needs. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. 1997.... Goldsmith. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. Evans. 2002.. best available option for future. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. Everitt. management options. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. B. existing management approaches. B. national example. solar power.

Bibliography. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Search Engines. Hansen. Thousand Oaks. 39 .E. types of sampling design/. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. Elsevier. Material Methods. to introduce students to research design. Research Proposal: its importance .E. Scientific Research: Science. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. 5. 3.L. and Jorqensen. J. Dasmann. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1.F. 1992. V. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. W. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. USA. 1984. Review of Literature. Creswell. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Review of Literature. Surveys.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. population and sampling frames. Environmental Conservation. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design.A pre-requisite for Research. Interviews. Sage CA. How to put things together? Introduction. Selecting the Research Method. Case Studies. research methods. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. Inference based on findings. 4. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. 2007. Literature Search: Database. P.Amsterdam. & Plano Clark. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). Experimental Research. New York. Sampling: the logic of sampling. S. Questionnaire. Scientific Methods.2.. John Wiley & Sons. 1990. concepts and terminologies. Islamabad. GOP and IUCN. Objectives. Methodology. R. London. Research Design & Research Methods. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf.

2. Marilyn F. of Chicago Press. USA.Harrad. Students project in Environmental Science. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. 2008. Univ. G. Robert Yin. 2003. 1997. Chichester. Booth.USA. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . 1989..Batty. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. and Arhonditsis. 6. National Environmental Policy 4.. Qadar. 3. Law Books House. 3rd Edition. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. M.h. John and sons Ltd. Moriarty. R. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. 4. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. 2nd Edition. Recommended Books: 1. Sage Publishers. S. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. Government of Pakistan 3. 2001. Wadsworth Publishing Company. Belmont California.S. 2. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Survey Research Methods. Babbie. regulations made there under.. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. E. USA. 2000. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. England. National Conservation Strategy 5. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan.. 5. Diamon. 2003. 1997.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

tubewells. Briscoe.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. Ahmed. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. Khan.. flood and droughts. Asia Printer. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. Oxford University Press New Delhi.. Islamabad. The Politics of Managing Water. R. Revised & enlarged edition. C. R. water supply and demand management measures. fisheries management. K. Pakistan . hydrological cycle. Biswas.).).K. 2006. Ahmed. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. and Malik. 5. Cheema. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency.. N. 3.. Indus Water Accord 1991. with drinking water facilities like springs. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. U. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. watershed/catchment. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. 44 . pollution aspects. P.Varis.. water quality and quantity aspects. Pakistan.. 2003. virtual water. Mirajuddin Publication . climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. and Qamar. recycling and re-use of wastewater. SDPI Oxford University Press. Mirajuddin Publication .1993. Recommended Books: 1. O. groundwater exploitation. wetlands resources management. N. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. and Tortajada. A. 2.. A. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector.Lahore. (eds. Lahore. 6. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. Oxford University Press Karachi. Bengali. flood and drought management. Islamabad. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. 4. (ed. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. integrated water resources management (IWRM). Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). 2005. I. J. 1993. A. 2006. precipitation distribution in Pakistan.

Pakistan. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. NJ. Soil Science. Hillel.. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. Academic Press. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. Definition.T. Causes of urbanization. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. Course Outlines Introduction.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment.R. Islamabad. humans as components of urban ecosystems. Soil forming minerals. E. Bashir. Urbanization. Process and outcome. transport. hydrological processes. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. Forms of urbanization. USA. Factors and processes of soil formation. N. Prentice Hall. NJ. D. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. Soil degradation. USA. 1996.. and Bantel. the salient features of urban environments. Soils in Our Environment. Physical and chemical properties of soil. 1. management and green productivity. Gardiner. San Diego. 11th Edition. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. Urban ecosystem. urban settlements. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. Types and properties of parent materials. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. Cation and anion exchange. future of urban centers. USA. Upper Saddle River. 2007. urban flora and fauna. 2007. After completion of this course. R. and Weil. D. 2008. 45 . Upper Saddle River. Brady. R. CA. PrenticeHall. urban landscapes characteristics. urban political ecology. R. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. National Book Foundation.W. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life.C. urbanization in Pakistan. Course Outlines Introduction. soils. Miller.

Chapman and Hall. Springer. UK. Planning and its relationship with other professions.. S. Planning theories and concepts. Routledge. Routledge. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. 2009. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. The Works: Anatomy of a City. nature and purpose of urban planning. 3. 4. Types of Urban Plans. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. UK. Scope. USA. 2. M. 2006. USA. C. Hough. The Ecology of Urban Habitats.and Maser. 2004. Sukopp. J. Justification for planning for city management. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. New trends in planning and city management. M. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. D. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. Hague. I. A. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. Aims and Objectives of planning. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. Kate. Penguin Group.. H. 1989. Ward.. The planning process. 2004. 5. SAGE Publications Ltd. 2. S. Gilbert. New York. Hejny. London. CRC Press LLC. V.1990..Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. 1. Levels of planning.. City Design for Sustainable Development. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans.L. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. UR.and Kowaril. nd 2 Edition. 46 . Planning and Urban Change. 2000. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. Recommended Books: 1. 2007. Smith. Principles of planning.S. London. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. O. Silberstein. Alberti. SBS academic publishing. UK. Land use planning theories. Elements of urban planning.

1989. UK. Paris. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. Natural Disasters Alexander. 1986.. Manila. Physical factors.F. and Woodrow. The Guilford Press. The Environment as Hazard Burton I.3. 1991.. Disaster Management: Components of management. Ministry of Housing and Works. It discusses a wide range of aspects. D. 3. Kates. Cultural factors. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. E&UA Div.e. Disaster as an opportunity for development. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. Earthquake. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. Prediction. G. R. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made.UNESCO. Hazards. 4. New York.. 1993. Flooding. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Westview Press.J. P. Socio-economic factors. Recommended Books: 1.. 1993. 2nd Edition. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Flood Management: Organizational Role. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies.. New York. H. Role of Media in Disaster Management. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. Natural cycles and their role. i. Boulder . assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. Longman Group. Government of Pakistan. 1993. and White G.B. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. Islamabad.. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters.W. Techniques and methods to assess hazard.. 47 . M. Landslide. Earthquake Management. Introducing Town Planning. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. Clara. Political factors. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. 4. International phenomenon. Different approaches and Indicators. 2. ADB.W. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies.. Chapman & Hall.

decomposers. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. OECD/IEA. 2001. 1984. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. 2007. consumers. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. New York. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. Ecological concept in crop and food production. USA. sustainable energy management. McKinney.B and Keller. Agroecology. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future.H. uses. 4th Edition. 48 . L. 6. Disasters and Development Cuny.. Schoch. F. hydropower. Quorum Books. 2. E.. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. M. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity.L. A. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. John Wiley and Sons. 1983. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. and Yonavjak. energy resources. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. Biotic structure. primary producers. alternate energy resources. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. 3.C. types.W..A. Botkin.5. R. 1. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. Sustainable livestock management. 2007.M. 6th Edition. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. Westport. solar. local. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. merits and demerits of wind. and Mushkatel. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. Consumer and producer relationship. biomass resources. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. Paris. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. D. Perry R. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. energy resources of Pakistan.

Yandermeer J.R.H.. New Delhi. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. Westview Press. Experimental Plant Ecology. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. USA. M. 1990. Recommended Books: 1.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram.P. Altreri. 2000. Study of index of diversity. Corol. USA. and Rossel. and Sudha. Study of stratification and profile diagram. C. Agrocology. 3. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. India. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. New York. R. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. Kapur.G. 1995.A. P. CBS Publishers and Distributors.M. 2. E-11 Seminar 49 . McGraw Hill Publishing Company. Boulder.

The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. 3. 2. 4. 5. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. that: 1. the Committee agreed on the following principles. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. availability of the faculty and other facilities. 50 .

2. 19.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 6. 10. 12. 15. 3. 11. 24. 10. 18. 7. 8. 8. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 4. 25. 7. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 13. 12. 11. 17. 2. 9. 22. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 5. 9. 26. 3. 4. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 5. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 23. 14. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 21. 6. 20. 16.

Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. 4. 2nd Edition. Amsterdam. Hansen. Conservation Strategies.. 3. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. P. Mackenzie. Provincial and Local Strategies. S. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS).F. and Jorqensen. Environmental control Policies. Recommended Books: 1. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. Relationship of culture. 1987.1994. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. FURTHER READINGS 1.1995. development of concepts. Money.T. Environment People and Economy.. Draft National Environmental Policy.E.1991. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Islamabad.. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. Oxford University Press. F. 1991.S. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. and Bell. status of Terrestrial. D. Geography of Pakistan. technology and resource use. London.E.. GOP and IUCN. Regional and International Environmental Issues. 1992. WCS. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. Treaties. Instruments and methods. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. Ball. London Black Stone Press Ltd. 52 . Elsevier. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. Oxford University Press.DETAILS OF M.. 3.1994.A. Mackenzie J. S. Karachi. 2. Khan K. S. 2. Hodder and Stoughton. NCS. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. Conventions and Protocols in Global.

DC. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. role and importance. Gas Chromatography etc. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. Principles of physical.A. Wastewater. C. Ministry of Environment. Environmental auditing. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. Air and Solid Waste. Case Studies and review. Sectoral guidelines for EIA.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. Government of Pakistan. opportunities and issues. England.. Assessment of environmental impacts. Longman House. 2. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review).Vanclay. ed. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. Ed. process. Wood. John Wiley & Sons. sample collection and preservation. Washington. D. UK. 53 . Environmental Chemical Analysis. procedures and methods of EIA. History. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. A. Recommended Books: 1. 1995. World Bank. Longman Scientific and Technical. ecological impact assessment. Cost benefit analysis of projects. social impact assessment. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. Demographic impact assessment. Chichester. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. 1993. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. FURTHER READINGS 1. F & Bronstein. WB. Burnt Hill. K. sampling rules. Recommended Books: 1. 3. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. economic impact assessment. 2. Ahmed. Environment Department. A one Publishers Lahore. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. 1995. Harlow Essex. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). Greenberg (American Public Health Association).

2002. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. safety techniques. 54 . J. T. Park. 4. Inc. 2. R. 1st Ed. 3. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. indicators. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. prevention and control.. principles and practices. K. economic evaluation. Government Policies and Programs. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. T. Prentice Hall International Inc. Public health concept.. Basic Environmental Health. and Guidotti. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. T. 2001. work breakdown structure.. London. R. Accident prevention and safety plans. development objectives. Project Planning and Approval Processes. means of verification. Project Life Cycle. Environmental Health Engineering.. assumptions. 1997. 5. 2nd Ed. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). air borne. Resource Mobilization. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. Wiley Interscience. Reasons for Project success or failure. de Kok. Recommended Books: 1. Caeneross. Project Planning. Primary health care services. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). and Wright.2000. M/S Banarsid... activities. Ergonomic and Safety. UK. Kjelllström. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. feasibility study. A.. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. Meredith J.. B. Writing Project Proposal. A Guide to Project Management. M. L. 1st ed. Planning Commission Performas. specific objectives. J. Nebel. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. 2. Project Initiation. Occupational Health: problems and issues. John Wiley and Sons. USA. Defining Project objectives. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. 1998. Oxford University Press New York. USA.. 1992. outputs. New York. S. Project Management Institute. Mantel s. 1st Ed. inputs. Lippmann.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. Need identification. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. T. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. 1993. Yassi.

Environmental Auditing. 3. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. Recommended Books: 1. industry and domestic sectors.B and Keller.M. Related Environmental regulations. 2001. energy resources of Pakistan. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. 4th Edition. Sayre. types. 4. ISO Central Secretariat. Michigan-January 2001.A. gas. Recommended Books: 1. alternate energy resources. transport. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. Principles of cleaner production. bio-energy resources. Botkin. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. USA. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. McKinney. 3. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). 2007. and Yonavjak. petroleum. energy resources. hydropower. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. 55 . data collection and interpretation. 2007. sustainable energy management for agriculture. uses. 6th Edition. John Wiley and Sons.L. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms.. 2. non-renewable and renewable. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Paris. M. E. merits and demerits of wind. D. St Luise Press. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. Sources of data. 1990b.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Schoch. Paris. D. Environmental auditing. Switzerland. L. R. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. principles and elements of the process of EMS. 1998. solar. OECD/IEA. nuclear) local. 2.

(Ed. Green House Gases. Life history strategies of plants. 4. types and their climatic effects. K. Plant population dynamics. John Wiley & Sons. Shulze. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. & Charlesworth. ED. geographical and temporal patterns. Earthscan Publication Ltd. Warrick. 3. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. 2005. D. Recommended Books: 1. D. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture.). Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. Modeling of climate change. Climate Change . plant invasions. Climate Change . J. 2. Hardy. plant conservation. 2004. Blackwell Publishing. and Solutions. Effects. Effects.. Maarel. resources and plants. Plant Ecology. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. 2. 1st Edition. global aspects of plant ecology. types of climate change models. Species richness. J.T. UK 1991. E & Muller-Hohenstein. 2005. management and restoration. John Wiley & Sons.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. The Green House Effect. competition and coexistence. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. survival and extinction. 2005. and Solutions.Causes. UK. vegetation dynamics.D. London. Recommended Books: 1. Vegetation Ecology Ed. Oxford UK. water resources. 5. B & Jager. E. T. 56 . Springer. Climate change and food production. 1. Hardy. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. J. Beck. etc. forests. Houghton. John Wiley & Sons. Climate Change and Ecosystems. Oxford. 2005. 3. human activities and vegetation dynamics. Berlin.Causes. ECOPE 29. Blackwell Publishing. Silvertown. 2003. Chichester.. 2003.

J. types. Forest plantations. Oxford University Press. Forests. & Ripley. 2004. 2002. types. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. their importance.B. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali.J. B. its causes. 57 . status. Oxford. threats and conservation. Cambridge. John Wiley And Sons. 1998. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. T. R. Publishers Sunderland. Status of forests in Pakistan. Wildlife of Pakistan. their types and role in conservation. Participatory forest management. management. 4. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. K. Protected areas. 5. Wildlife Ecology and Management.G. Rangeland management. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. E.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. distribution. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. UK. biological diversity. Blackwell Publsihing. Extinction of species. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. Bailey. Essentials of Conservation Biology. distribution and management. II). I). Cambridge University Press. Global and national biodiversity. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. Recommended Books: 1. Threatened animals and plants. And Bolen. Mcmillan. 2. Oxford. Inc. J. Biodiversity: An introduction. USA. Oxford University Press. Robinson. kinds. Sustainable forest management. Loss of biodiversity. S. deforestation and its control. Conserving Living Natural Resources. S. their ecological and economic importance. Protected areas in Pakistan. problems and solutions. Cambridge. J. Sinauer Assocaites. & Spicer. 2002. Protection and restoration of species. 1986. Wetlands. T. 1992. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol.(2nd Ed. habitats and ecosystems. Establishment and management of protected areas. Roberts.L. Consumptive. UK. Recommended Books: 1. 3. London. 1984.J. Roberts. Weddell. Principles of Wildlife Management.J. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. Primack. Oxford.D.A. distribution.) Gaston. Oxford University Press. W. 3. 1973 2.

Islamabad. Environmental problems of urban life. UK. 1993. London. urban systems and their characteristics. C. drinking water and solid waste in cities. J. 2. G. Ministry of Housing and Works. Urban land use planning and management. urbanization in Pakistan. Forms of urbanization. 58 . various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. Government of Pakistan. Introducing Town Planning.. New York. Sustainable cities. H. Longman Group. The Works: Anatomy of a City.and Maser. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development.. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. CRC Press LLC. future of urban centers. Silberstein. SAGE Publications Ltd.. urban landscape characteristics. S. E&UA Div. 3. Ward. Planning and Urban Change. 2007. urban political ecology. UK. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. USA. sanitation.. Penguin Group. management of transport. 1986. Clara. V. Kate. A. 2000. 2004. USA. Recommended Books: 1. 4.

Thomson and A. Third edition. ISBN 0194313492 59 .J.Annexure . clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. Exercises 1. Practical English Grammar by A.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. a) Functional English Grammar 1.V. Oxford University Press. Martinet. 1997. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase.

ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. Writing. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Reading. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. Upper Intermediate. Exercises 2. 1997. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. intensive and extensive. and speed reading. Oxford Supplementary Skills.2. Oxford Supplementary Skills. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . Reading/Comprehension 1. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin.V. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Thomson and A. Third edition. b) Practical English Grammar by A. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Martinet. minutes of meetings. Third Impression 1992. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs.J. Fourth Impression 1993. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Oxford University Press.

ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. content. Advanced. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin.1. Third Impression 1992. discursive. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. Oxford University Press 1986. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. narrative. Oxford Supplementary Skills. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . Martinet. 2. Writing. Practical English Grammar by A. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Writing. Oxford Supplementary Skills. introduction to presentations. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Thomson and A. Exercises 2. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Fourth Impression 1993. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Fourth Impression 1992. language. clarity. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. 2. b) Writing 1. Advanced by Ron White. descriptive and argumentative writing). Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Third edition. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. Third Impression 1991. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco.J.V. Reading 1. Writing. Reading. form. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style.

62 . General Editiors: Janice Neulib. argumentative and report writing). 3. Kathleen Shine Cain. Martin’s Press. without taxing the taste of engineering students). Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. descriptive. Mandell. 2. Kirszner and Stephen R. College Writing Skills by John Langan. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. A Custom Publication. St. Compiled by norther Illinois University. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. 2004.(particularly suitable for discursive.

1999 onward 3. Course Outline 1. Safdar. 2. S. 2000. politics. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Study the process of governance. Muslim advent iii. Indus Civilization ii. 63 Books Recommended 1. State & Society in Pakistan. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. contemporary Pakistan. S. Mehmood. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. Akbar. . Karachi: Oxford University Press. 1958-71 c. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. 3. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. Zaidi. Location and geo-physical features. 1993. 1988-99 f. Contemporary Pakistan a. government. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a.Annexure . b. 1977-88 e. 1994. ideological background of Pakistan. Shahid Javed. Society and social structure c. national development. 2. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Ethnicity d.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. 4. 1971-77 d. Lahore. People and Land i.M. 1947-58 b. Historical Perspective a. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Economic institutions and issues b. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis.

History & Culture of Sindh. Enigma of Political Development. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. Haq. II & III. 1967. Wayne. Political Parties in Pakistan. K. 9. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective.National Movement in Pakistan. Lahore: Vanguard. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. 1980. Aziz. Lawrence. 6. Pakistan Under Martial Law. Sayeed. 11. Club Road. 64 . Afzal. 1972. Zahid. 1980. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. I. 12.K. 14. 8. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research.The Emergence of Banglades. Ziring. nd. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Ethno . Vol. Wilcox. Karachi: Royal Book Company. M. Muhammad Waseem. Washington: American Enterprise. 1993. Tahir. Politics in Pakistan. Party.. 7. Noor ul. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. 1998. 10.5. Islamabad. Institute of Public Policy Research. Mehmood. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. Rafique. The Political System of Pakistan. 1976. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. Ansar. 13. Khalid Bin. Safdar. 1987. Amin.

Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.58.56.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.6.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.A.Tadabar (Verse No1.57.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.19.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.20) Related to thinking.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.21.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.40.A.A.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.A. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.Annexure .

in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.

Bhatia. Islamabad (2001) 67 . ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. Ahmad Hasan. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University.S. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. IRI. “Emergence of Islam” . Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. “Studies in Islamic Law. International Islamic University. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. Pakistan.

functions. harmonic progression. types. 1986. equations reducible to quadratic equations. Wooton W. matrix inverse. determinants. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. Sharron S. Houghton & Mifflin. Boston Swokowski EW. set operations. 1978. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. trigonometric identities. cube roots of unity. complex numbers. introduction to sets. PWS-Kent Company. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. system of linear equations.Annexure . Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. Beckenback EF. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition).D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. Boston 68 . geometric progression. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. 1987. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. not majoring in mathematics. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. PWS-Kent Company. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. types of functions. Cramer’s rule. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations.

Calculus (11th edition). 69 . continuous functions. Recommended Books: Anton H. left-hand and right-hand limits. 1983. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. equation of a line. not majoring in mathematics. not majoring in mathematics. functions and their graphs. differentiation of polynomial. solution of equations involving absolute values. integration by substitution. Finney AR. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. USA 3. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. inequalities. Addison-Wesley. 2005. distance between two points. slope of a line. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). angle between two lines. Ma. Calculus (3rd edition). various forms of equation of a line. Reading. rational and transcendental functions. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students.2. derivatives. parallel and perpendicular lines. integration by parts. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. John Wiley. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. Davis S. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. continuity. change of variables in indefinite integrals. New York Stewart J. 2005. distance between a point and a line. Boston Thomas GB. 1995. Bevens I. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. intersection of two lines. PWS-Kent Company.

types of matrices. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. ellipse. Analytic Geometry. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. functions. PWS-Kent Company. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). equations reducible to quadratic equations. Boston Swokowski EW.Circle: Equation of a circle. hyperbola. inverse of matrices. PWS-Kent Company. Conic Sections: Parabola. Cramer’s rule. Freshman and Company. 1986. • Contents 1. 1987. nature of roots of quadratic equations. determinants. set operations. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. intersection of lines and circles. types of functions. system of linear equations. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. 70 . locus of a point in various conditions. College Algebra and Trigonometry. 1969 Kaufmann JE. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. Scott. Introduction to sets. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. Boston 4. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. circles determined by various conditions.

Latest Edition. types of frequency series. PWS-Kent Company.. Graphs: Graph of straight line. R.geometric and harmonic progressions. moments. Latest Edition. bar frequency diagram histogram. E. 3. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution.. 2. 4. Books Recommended: 1. 71 . characteristics of statistics. individual. relationship of statistics with social science. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations.. frequency polygon. discrete and continuous series. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. cumulative frequency curve. quartiles. W. ungrouped and grouped data. Walpole. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. deciles and percentiles. circle and trigonometric functions. Kaufmann. 5. array. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. J. skewness and kurtosis. trigonometric identities. tally sheet method. Measures of dispersion: Range. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. standard deviation. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. Boston. E. R. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics.. variance. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Swokowski. R. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. Latest Edition. Wilcox. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. Prentice Hall. 2. E.

the chain rule. Inc. 3. Contents 1. Least-Squares Line. 2. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. 5. Davis. Hughes-Hallett. sinusoidal function. 8th edition. 6. integration using partial fractions. 1999. substitution method. Frank A. Slope of a Line. 2005. Prentice-Hall. Swokowski. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. Addison Wesley publishing company.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. • Integration Integration from first principles. Calculus Single and Multivariable. Bevens. Second Edition 1992. the inverse of differentiation. McCallum. Jhon Willey & Sons. Rational Functions. H. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. Rational and Transcendental Functions.Jr. Extreme Values of Functions. logarithmic integration. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. Solution of equations involving absolute values. 4. 11th Edition. Recommended Books: 1. Equation of a Line. W. Mathews. quotients. 1983. 2002. implicit differentiation. applications of integration. Elliott Mendelson. products. Calculus. theorems of differentiation. Inc. 6. E. Thomas. Continuous Functions. 4th edition. and Transcendental Functions. special points of a function. integral inequalities. 3rd Edition. Continuity. integration by inspection. reduction formulae. Calculus. logarithmic differentiation. I. Calculus. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. Boston. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. plane polar coordinates. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . Leibnitz’ theorem. integration by parts. 2005. S. et al. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. John Wiley & Sons. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. Schaum’s Outline Series. Inequalities. 2. infinite and improper integrals. Integration by Parts. John H. Anton. Trigonometric Functions. Gleason. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering.

transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. inverses of hyperbolic functions.Additions and subtraction. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . approximation errors in Taylor series. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. identities of hyperbolic functions. finding the nth roots of unity. geometric series. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. complex conjugate. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. modulus and argument. multiplication. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. series involving natural numbers. the difference method. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. arithmetico-geometric series. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. solving hyperbolic equations.

Pappus’ theorems. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. the inner product. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . moments of inertia. symmetric and antisymmetric. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. 6. point to plane. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. Hermitian. of a unitary matrix. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. orthogonal. centers of mass and centroids. line to line.5. masses. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. vector product. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. scalar triple product. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors.

divergence of a vector field. combinations of grad. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions.8. spherical polar coordinates 75 .

Unit 5. Exercises Unit 6. Change of origin and scale. Graphs and their Construction. Bar charts. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Observations. Rounding of a Number. Different types of Averages. definition of outliers and their detection. 76 . Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Hypothesis Testing Introduction.Annexure . Editing of Data. Quantiles. probability and non-probability sampling. Exercises. Absolute and relative measures. Errors of measurement. Unit 2. Unit 7. Historigram. Empirical Relation between Mean. acceptance and rejection regions. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Exercises. Population.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Exercises. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Unit 3. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Histogram. Box and Whisker Plot. Median and mode. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. sampling with and without replacement. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. bias. sampling and non sampling errors. properties of Good Average. Exercises. Statistical problem. Test statistics. Collection of primary and secondary data. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Range. Stem and Leaf Display. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Moments and Moments ratios. Presentation of Data Introduction. null and alternative hypothesis. sample design and sampling frame. Type-I and Type-II errors. Coefficient of variation. Ogive for Discrete Variable. The semi-Interquartile Range. Significant digits. Diagrams. Standardized variables. Pie chart. The Variance and standard deviation. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Probability and Probability Distributions. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. The Mean Deviation. Types of frequency curves. Constructing of a frequency distribution. Unit 4. Discrete and continuous variables. Sources. Exercises. The Mode. Exercises. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Data. Difference of means and proportions. level of significance.

examples. “Introduction to Statistics”. its estimation and interpretation. Regression and Correlation Introduction. r and R2. Kitab Markaz. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. Macmillan Publishing Co. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. Exercises Unit 9.. Testing of Hypothesis. Unit 11. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. R. 2 Muhammad. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. cause and effect relationships. 1982.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters.. Inc. F. Contingency Tables. Correlation. New York. E. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. Exercises Unit 10. 77 . simple linear regression. Exercises.Single Population Introduction. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. 3rd Ed.Unit 8. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. Coefficient of linear correlation. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. 2005.

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