CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
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According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation.). In pursuance of the above decisions and directives.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. DR. It is. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees.ALTAF ALI G. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. The world has turned into a global village. dated December 4th 1976. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . D773/76-JEA (cur.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. therefore. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. and 36. Lahore. PROF. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. 63. degree awarding institutions. the Federal Government vide notification No. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. universities and other institutions of higher education. R&D organizations. It also aimed to give a basic. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation.

LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. OF FINAL CURRI. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. Preparation 5 . REC. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. COL. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. EXP. UNI.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. PREP. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. OF CURRI. R&D. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. OF NCRC.

Member 3. Member 6 . Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. 7. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Dr. Lahore Member 6. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Member 5. Member 4. Following attended the meeting:1. Dr. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Dr.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Karachi from 28-30. Rawalpindi Dr. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Rawalpindi Dr.

Dr. Dr. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Prof. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Member 11. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Dr. Karachi Member 12. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Member 14. Prof. Dr. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Member 10. Dr. Dr. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. 13. Member 15. Member 16. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi.8. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. 7 .

The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. Faisalabad Member 18. The meeting was opened by Mr. Karachi. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. Member 19. Secretary Dr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. Director of HEC Regional Center. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. At first. Dr. Chairman. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Dr. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. 8 . Islamabad coordinated the meeting. 2. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. 1. Mr.17. Mr. Member 20.

In last few centuries. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. 3. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses.3. 6. 5. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. 2. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. 4. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. The committee thanked Mr. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. 1. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities.

regional and global contexts. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. ii. Apply theoretical understanding. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. in its preliminary meeting. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. 5. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. This committee. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. skills and behaviour patterns. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 .

Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. eight semesters in the semester system. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. Integrating natural sciences. The medium of instruction.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. 2. Sc. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. 5. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. 6. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i.. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. 1. 4. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. with consensus. A. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. 3. The 11 . that: 1.e.

The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. English-II 12. Environmental Microbiology 21. Environmental Physics 16. Biology –I* 3. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Biology –II* 9. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Environmental Pollution 22.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Introductory Economics* 17. English-III 18. Introduction to Computer 14. Psychology* . Environmental Chemistry 15. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Basic Chemistry* 4. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Climatology* 23. Introduction to Earth Science 8. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. English-I 6.

Natural Resource Management 40. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. Environmental Economics 29. Opt. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Applied Ecology 26. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. English-IV/ Univ. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Environmental Monitoring 36. 44. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. ELECTIVE-III 42. Environmental toxicology 27. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. Climate Change 38. 46. Environmental Biotechnology 32. 45.24. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. Environmental Management Systems 34.

• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .

2007 3. regional. its importance in human life. development in industry and agriculture. ecological. national.. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. 4th Ed. 2007. M. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. L. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . Botkin. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. and their relationships with various environmental factors. biological and social.J.. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. philosophical. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. & Nebel.T. Wright. Thomson Learning. 4. urbanization. 2. Human environment and its problems: global. Pearson Educational. John Wiley & Sons. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. history. D. 2002. ethical. poverty and resource depletion.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. R. Miller. 15 .L.M. 6th Ed. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet.B & Keller. Recommended Books: 1. Different aspects of environment: physical. environmental pollution. R. G. 2007.A. B. lipids. Schoch. proteins and nucleic acids. socio-economic. current global. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. E. McKinney. & Yonavjak. 10th Ed.

the molecule of genetic information and replication. USA. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. Ionic. Aromatic compounds. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. and Lewis. A. 2007.. Cells. Lewis. Cassimeris. Self Assessment and Revie. origin of metabolism. G. Origin of life: chemical evolution. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt.. Crossley. Ltd. carboxylic acids. 8th Ed. R. 2003. chemical diversity. lipids. N. USA. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. Biology: a Human Emphasis. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. E.Hill International Edition. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. 4. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. amines). phospholipids in membrane systems. Australia .. coordinate covalent bond. 2. carbonyls. Plopper. J. 5. Structure and the basis of function. Lingappa. Wadsworth Group. Bulter. V. and Whitelaw. R. 3. L. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. covalent. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. chemical basis of life. Nucleic acids. 1. D. Shier. Starr. USA. Canada. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. 1996. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. Cell division. protobionts. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. 2008. 16 . Molecular Biology through Questions. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. New York. carbohydrates. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. lipids. B. 5th Edetion. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization.. 2007. Introduction to cell biology.. McGraw. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. M. polypeptides in protein diversity. proteins. esters.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. C.

2004. law of Cosines. graphs.J.. 2... Harris. Understanding Environmental Pollution. UK. Thin layer chromatography. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. equations of lines (linear equations). Brimblecombe. 2003. Lab Work Preparation of molar.A. Surface chemistry. USA. 2nd Edition.J. determinants. molal. 2004. Skoog. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. expansion of determinants. Girard. Photochemical reactions. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry.E. Hill. 2005. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. USA. Solution chemistry. M. Thomson and Brooks. Osmosis and Dialysis. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane..M. 8th Edition. D..S. Liss. Jones and Barlett.C. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. double angle formulas. D.Special Products (Binomial Expression). geometric and harmonic sequence. Canada. Column chromatography. normal solutions/buffers.. Blackwell Science. 2nd Edition. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. P. West. 4. real line. Algebra of matrices. Qualitative Chemical Analysis.. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). B. 2004.. and Reid. 17 . simultaneous equations and their solutions. 6th Edition. Cambridge University Press. angle-sum formula. J.D. UK. Principles of Environmental Chemistry..ions. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. 3. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. W. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis.H. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). straight line and related concepts. J. Measurement of pH.K. EC and TDS in waste water. Andrews. D. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. 1st Ed. T. Recommended Books: 1. Freeman and Company. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. P. and Holler. radicals. Jickells. Colloids chemistry. minor and cofactor of a matrix. series and means. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). F. values of trigonometric functions. 5.E. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions.

J. by parts integration (simple applications). cleavages.Cramer’s Rule. Analytical Geometry. age. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. nonrepeated linear factors. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. G. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . Trignometry for College students. Recommended Books: 1. faults. Chain rule. S. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. 3. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. California. New Delhi. erosion and related landforms. and Finney.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. 4th Ed. 2. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. 4. earthquakes. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. D.. Abraham. its origin. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. foliation. R.. joints. Fossils and their significance. 10th Ed. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. irreducible quadratic factors. mountain building. Smith. Scott Foresman and Company. product and quotient rules without derivations).Wesley. Narosa Publishing House. different earth processes like mountain buildings. weathering and erosion. lineation and unconformities. Earth as a member of solar system. the processes of their formation. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. 1999. 18 . Jr. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. Pacific Grove. theorems on differentiation (sum. earthquakes and volcanoes.B. plate tectonics. Thomas. Introduction to folds. K. composition and its internal structure. difference. theorem of integration. Weathering. Introduction to rocks and minerals. Introduction to sedimentary. Chatterjee. igneous and metamorphic rocks. L. Addission. Integration: Formulas of integration.

Park. D. Lamarckism. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. Life in sea. 3rd Edition... Lutgens. J. population loss and decline. 5th Edition.. How Does Earth Work. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. invasion of life on land. 11th Edition. Lutgens. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. consequences of losing biodiversity. Geological time chart with biodiversity. 2007 2. molecular basis of biodiversity. and Tasa. measuring biodiversity.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . Recommended Books: 1. F.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. 19 . 9th Edition. Prentice Hall. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. J. 2007 3. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. Physical Geology and Process of Science. R. E. interactions among diversified life. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. 4. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. protocell formation. Wicander... and Pun. Biodiversity of hilly areas. D. A. 2004. R. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. G. 5. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. Biodiversity of canal. Routledge. animals). causes of extinction. Prentice Hall: 2006. E.. Tarbuck. Biodiversity of deserts. Brooks/Cole. J. different classification systems. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. F. K.. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. Field Study tour. modern concepts. Foundations of Structural Biology. examples of adjustments in varied environment. multicellularity. 2005.. and Monroe. Smith. Use of brunton compass and GPS. Prentice Hall. Tarbuck. Earth Science. K. and Tasa.Identification of rocks and minerals. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. biodiversity crises.. Darwinism. G. unicellularity. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation.

Contemporary environment issues and debate. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. I. and Sustainable Living. R. UK..K. Use of environment for vested interest. UK. 2009. a Human Emphasis. Blackwell Science Ltd. Bradbury. Wadsworth Group. CA: AltaMira Press. 2003. 2005. culture and society. J. 3. Gaston. 2nd Edition. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. P.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. John Wiley and Sons. Chronological. 2001. I. 2000. Townsend. Goals and expectations. Biology. 2. USA. Culture. (editors). 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. 4. Consumption. The Biosphere. 5th Edition. Routledge. Recommended Books: 1. The Ecology of global consumer culture. Starr. globalization and environmental issues. Hannen. Tripartite nature of environment. Contemporary environmental status. Conceptualizing environment. Environmental Risks and the Media. Understanding the environment-human relationship. Prospect Heights. K. Crumley. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . Adam. C. 3. New York: New York University Press. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. IL:WavelandPress. 20 . Perspective of human-environment evolution. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. 2. 2009. Scope and application. L. Nora and Wilk. (editor). Inc. K. and concerns. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. Walnut Creek. J. Allan & Carter. C.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. and Spicer. UK. 2006. Biodiversity (An Introduction).. power & hegemony. Inc. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections.

lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered.5. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. computer programs and basic applications.Microsoft office 2000. G. internet. Local Area Network. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. Software: Application software.1999.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. Marquis A. processing hardware. Course Outlines Definition. Configurations. Operating system (Windows). COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . Courter. as are their effects on the biosphere.London 1996.6th Ed. Milton. Hardware: Input Hardware. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 2. Fundamentals of computer. 21 . Introduction to MS-Word. Ms-Access. Selin. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. Rutledge.. Types and classification of computers. software packages. K. Long N.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . system software. 2003. Storage hardware. Recommended Books: 1. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. Ms-Excel. Ms-Power Point.H. output hardware. 6. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry.. Ed. e-mail. Long l.

. Turbulent jets and plumes.. Reducing the transmission of sound.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. B. Ibanez. Fregoso-Infante. M. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics.E. Turbulent diffusion. interaction of light with matter. trophic level. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light.. Hernandez-Esparza. Environmental impact of various industries. India.G. Samir. 2004. Active control of sound. Recommended Books: 1. Liss. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Fate of pollutants in environment. Isotopes and radioactive decay. 2.D.J. Fundamentals of aquatic. Solids. Girard. 2nd Edition. Ozone and UV light.M. its causes and adverse effects on environment. Gaussian plumes in the air.. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. 2005. J. J. Environmental Science.E. Miller. G. Germany. atmospheric and soil chemistry.T. photosynthesis. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. USA. Heat radiation and heat transfer. Brimblecombe. 5. and Singh. 3. 2008. and Reid. 1999.S. A. Andrews. Human perceptions and noise criteria. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. Environmental Chemistry. Environmental Chemistry. Sound and Noise. UK. P. P. Equations of fluid dynamics.. Transport of pollutants. Solar spectrum. Springer. Jickells. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. Energy. 1st Edition. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. Nuclear energy... Thomson-Brooks. J.. Energy conversion. Canada. M. Particle physics. Blackwell Science. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants.. Electromagnetic radiation. Liquids and Gasses. 4. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. T. C. Jones and Barlett. Chemical reactions. DoriaSerrano.. Turbulence. their sources and toxic actions. Ozone chemistry.. Conversion of mass. 2004. Global climate and climatic change. Diffusion. Basic acoustics. K. Entropy.

USA. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. E. and Resource allocation. New York. Growth and Environment. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. USA. and Van Grondelle. Seinfeld. Natural resources and the economy. 2.1998. S. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. 2008. 2001. and Pandis. 23 . H. economic progress. Producer behavior. G. N. 7th Ed. Recommended Books: 1. Guyot.. Field visit. interaction between ecology and economic management. Economic functions of environment. 2006. P. Physics of the Environment and Climate. Routledge. Boeker. economic welfare and difference among all. Recommended Books: 1. poverty. S. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. USA. economic growth. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Man environmental relationship. Pakistan economic context: National income. Smith. C. Measures for sustainable development. World Bank Publications. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. 3. Economic management and environmental quality. economic growth and its measurement. 4. Environmental Physics. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. 2001. Kentucky USA. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. Yusuf. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. Environmental economics. R. concepts and measurement. Economic Development. UK. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. Introductory Environmental Physics. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Growth and development. Wesely Publishers. 2008. population and environmental quality. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. Impact of economic activity on environment. M.Economic development. Praxis publishing. J. Sustainable development. USA.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. Todaro. producer and community point of view. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. 2.

24 . species. role of light. B. and White.3. D. Economics. Swift. soil. USA. Frodeman. 2002. levels of ecological organization. 2008. 4. Kessinger Publishing. Portland 1967. London. & Pierce. its fundamental concepts. Farmington Hills. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. 3. 2008. Ecology.. R. 4. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. B. population. England.. Ecosystem and its types. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. Natural philosophy. DeVeer. Palgrave Macmillan. Recommended Books: 1. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. Course Outlines Introduction. concepts and approaches. description of population. water. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy.. 2. Environmental Critics of agriculture. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. ethics and ecology. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. USA. N. World Bank Publications. and systems ecology. Environmental philosophy and ethics. the ethics of soil. Introduction to ethical theory.V. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . Hanley. J. 2007.. M. International Thomson Publishing. biogeography. J. B.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. Touchstone Books. WCIV7AA. branches of ecology. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. community. Callicott. Russell. C. Shogren. temperature. 2009. community and ecosystem. A History of Western Philosophy. LLC.A.

UK. WCB/McGraw-Hill. 3. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. landscape ecology. Biomes of the world. characteristics of urban. distribution limits. New York. C. Ecology (concepts and applications. B. M. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. 2004. Microbial metabolism. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. J. M J. and More. and S. Dash. Ecology (principles and applications). Fundamentals of Ecology. Recommended Books 1. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. Ecosystem: structure and function. 2000.L and Reiss. C. Populations. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. landscape changes and their importance. E P. M C J 1st ed. G. ecological modeling. various concepts of community. 2. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. Systems ecology. Concepts of Limiting factors.W. population dynamics. Thomson Brooks/Cole. After completion of this course. productivity of different ecosystems. plant geography and animal distribution. students will be able to understand the significance. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). bacteria and eukarya. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. UK. Odum. community dynamics. 1992. 5th Ed. 2001 5. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea.) Moles. 1st Ed.Cox. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. Chapman. Fundamentals of Ecology. Biogeochemical cycles of C. and Barett. King’s College London. Cambridge University Press. Population distribution and abundance. aquatic microbiology.topography and air as ecological factors. biotic factors. Tata McGraw-Hill. Lab Work 25 . J. 1999 4. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. habitat and niche. P. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. 6th Ed. N. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. New Delhi.

G. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents.and Vesilaind. 2nd Edition.L. J. Human & other living organisms.J. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. and Gerba. Cambridge University Press. Hill. 2 Edition.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. Cambridge UK. R. Crawford. Mean plate count. 1995. G. Case Studies. Harley.1998. Sylvia. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally.L.J. 4. Dilution plate technique.. Academic Press. Microbiology. 2005. Understanding Environmental Pollution. 2005. D. Manual of Environmental Microbiology..W.L. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. Prescott. F. Prentice Hall.C. and Stetzenbach.. M. Water. 2009. 4th Edition. L.. USA. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution.J.. 3. and Zuberer.. Recommended Books: 1. 2.A. peppor.A. USA. and Jeffery. New Jersey..A.. its sources and their effects.. Fuhrmann. I. Hartel.J. Academic Press.. Knudsen. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. Marine & Industrial pollution. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water.and Brendecke. Pollution Control Strategies. 2. American Society for Microbiology. D.Gerba. Noise. M. 2007. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. Soil. Washington DC. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. Solid Waste generation.R. Collection. C. McGraw Hill Inc. R. Recommended Books 1. P.V.P. Academic Press.P. Peiece. 3.M.J. Hurrst. J.M. Pepper. USA.M.F. purification and preservation. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. McInernery. D. L. (Elsevier) USA. London. 2002.K. UK. 26 .P. Types of Environmental pollution: Air.. Environmental Microbiology. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution.I. transportation & treatments.. and Klein. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. W. C. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. Maier. Weiner. A. J. Butterworth-Heinemann. USA.B. Effects of Pollutants. USA.. Environmental Pollution and Control. isolation.D. 2005. P. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. 5.

Marcel Dekkar..2nd Editions. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. Methods of psychology. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. 2003. John Wiley and Sons. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. Pandis. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. 3.J. Tarbuck.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld.E. Sadder. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). local winds. condensation and cloud Formation. The Atmosphere. 27 ..4. climatic zones of Pakistan. American Public Health Association (APHA). 6th Edition.F. Mechanism of heat transfer. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. 1988. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. Royal book company. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment.. Austin Miller. Spyros. Solar radiations. Four Spheres of the Earth. Lutgens. Radiation and climate. The climate of Pakistan.K. 1992. The Physics of Atmospheres. Recommended Books: 1.M. John H. Cambridge University Press. K. air pressure. 2002. Factors affecting air Pressure. Environmental psychology.. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. global circulation. Karachi. 2.W. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. 5. N. Surface winds. Climatology. 2006 5. Cloud Classification. 4. Houghton J. A. Lawrance K. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. The Hydrologic cycle. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. Shamshad. . Weather and Climate.

Environmental Psychology. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. London. sustainable agriculture. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. Background and scope. Water as an ecological resource. 2. Environmental perception and cognition. solar radiation and primary production. Recommended Books: 1. threats and mitigation. energy and carbon balance. Fundamental of Psychology. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. their management and ecological restoration. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation.W. 5th Edition. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. Bell.A. 1992. CRC Press. Fisher J. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species.characteristics and research methods. Pollution control through Ecology. T. species response to pollutants. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. and Baum A.C. Ecological restoration. 28 . Sustainable livestock management practices. Water and distribution of species. rivers. soil erosion and conservation. Restoration of derelict lands. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. Sustainable agricultural practices. Soil as a natural resource. concepts.D. 2001. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change.. soil resources of Pakistan. carbon dioxide and global climate change. Future water scenario of Pakistan. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. Course Outline Introduction. CRC Press. Routledge. Routledge. soil salinity and water logging. Ecology of food production. M. P. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. techniques and methods of restoration. limitation of irrigated agriculture. London.. Eysenck. High population density and psychological impacts. Greene. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine.

Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system.I. Fundamentals of Ecology. 2nd ed. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. Synergism. Pakistan’s Environment.S. 29 . Soil Science. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. on human and other living organisms. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. Israr-ud-Din. Peshawar. J. their containment and control strategies. Odum E. Rashid. Newman. R. University of Peshawar. Lahore. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. toxins vs toxicants.Recommended Books: 1. toxicology of chemicals. Organs. D. Chemical interactions and their types. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. A. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. Islamabad. Margaret A. and Memon. Zedler. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. toxins & toxicants. and Hobbs.. Oxford. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. G. 5th Edition. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. K and Habib.1998.A. 1989. 4. and Barett. 1996. J. A. P. water and soil. from natural and anthropogenic sources. Shirkat Gah. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. toxicity screening using microbial systems.P. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications.. 5.. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Mumtaz. 2004. Falk. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. soil and air samples. 2000 2. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms.National Book Foundation. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Studies in Pakistan Geography. in vivo & in vitro assays. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. Immunological considerations in toxicology. K.W. USA. dose response relationship in living organisms. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. terminologies: Poisons. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. B. biological effects. Potentiation and Addition. 2006. 3.. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. E. Island Press. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air.

M. Course Outlines Introduction to history.1 & 2.Recommended Books 1. culture. W. 1st Edition. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. McGrawhill. Ballantyne. clean development mechanism. Economic: agriculture. Recommended Books: 30 . major ecosystems. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. health. M. urbanization and pollution. the economy and the environment. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. international trade and the environment. Macmillan Press Ltd. land. geography. Hughes. W. 3. Williams. measuring environmental benefits. USA. Vol. General and Applied Toxicology. CRC Press Llc. industry. USA. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. Ecological: ecological zones. Recommended Books 1.D. B.). State of the Environment-Pakistan . P. 3. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. Klassen.2005 2. 1992. people. 5th Edition.Science of Poisons . 1st Edition. economic development and the environment. Course Outlines Introduction.. 1993. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. USA. education. 1996. economic aspects of different environmental problems. T and Turner. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. 2005 2. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. pollution control-a general model. topographic zones. (ed. water resources. Government of Pakistan. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York.

Turner.I. Thomson and Brooks. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater.C. Holler. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. Reuter. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. COD. NO3–N & NH4-N).J. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. Spectroscopy and Chromatography.K. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Sample collection.W. Kolstad. Titrimetery. Australia.. 8th Edition. Oxford. D. Sparrow and D.L. J. Environmental Economics: An Introduction.. 2. Conductivitymetry. Pearce.K. Environmental Economics. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. D. D. C.R. 2003. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. A. Conductivitymetry. 1999. K. Harris. and Batemen. Recommended Books: 1. 3. Lab Work S. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). L. Freeman & Co. M. Analytical techniques for soil. salinity & sodicity). and derived S. Titrimetery. Skoog. and F. 2000. preparation and storage. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction... 2005. Gravimetery. Fluoride. water and plant analysis. Collingwood. C.. Sample preservation methods. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling.I. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. CSIRO Publ. Johns Hopkins University Press. Peverill. Oxford University Press. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. Standard solutions and standard curves. D.A. 2. units. 3.UK. USA. Use of Potentiometery.D. handling. BOD. Field. Gravimetery. New York. B.1.. 31 . Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve.and Field. West. 1993. I. 4. All Solids. M. 6th Edition.2004. Data interpretation for quality control.2002. precision and accuracy.

COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments.. Sambrook. England. J. USA. 4. Environmental Biotechnology. New York. Bioreactors. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. and Russel. students will be able to understand the significance. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. 5th Ed. 2009. Recommended Books 1. J. Biomarkers. J. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. 2. A. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . 2007. Smith. Germany. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. Chichoster. 3. Derbre.). 2005.E. Recombinant DNA technology. USA. and Josef.P. Wiley-VCH Verlag. Oxford University Press. USA. (ed. Biotechnology. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Course Outlines Introduction. 2005. Introduction to microbial kinetics. Government of Pakistan. 2nd Ed.1999. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns.D. Cambridge University Press.. D. and application of biotechnology in the environment. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. National Biotechnology Commission. Scragg. PCR. New York. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. purification and preservation of DNA. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. Tools in environmental biotechnology. Isolation. 2001. After completion of this course.W. National Biosafety Guidelines. Biosensor. Hans- Joachim. W.

Introduction to Photogrammetry. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. K and L. Campbell. 4. R. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. Inc. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Agriculture. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. Inc. Aerial photography. Dessinov. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. Interpretation. 2000. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Satellite Imageries. analysis and output. Rancez. 1999. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. John Wiley and Sons. Introduction to GIS. Guilfoud press New York. Image Processing. history and platforms. integration of information from many sources. map projection and coordinate systems. Data acquisition. 2009. Preparation of thematic maps. F. 2000. Active and Passive remote sensing. Using and reading GPS in field. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. Energy Sources. Types of data used in GIS. 2. Jensen. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. Forestry. Mc Graw Hill Education. advantages and limitations of process. Data entry and output. Inc. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Z. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. 3. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. eradication of the duplicated data. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Cartography. Different types of maps. Pearsons Education. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . Harvey. Fishery and wildlife. A. History and data collection. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. 5. Lulla.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. John Wiley and Sons. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). 2008. V.

Environment and sustainable development. Certification of EMS. economic. Khan. 1998. and Yoxon. A.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. need and approach. B. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. ecological.. and Qasim. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. plant. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). eco-design. Methods of environmental protection. philosophical. American Society for Quality. hot spots of biodiversity. 3. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. etc. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles.C. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. alpha and beta diversity.). Environmental Management Systems Principles. Conservation of biodiversity. Environmental Economy. cleaner technologies.2nd Ed. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. F. American Society for Quality. Related Environmental legislation. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). principles of Cleaner production.. 2001. 2006.. types of biodiversity. M. Sheldon.3rd Edition . threats to biodiversity and its conservation. 34 . 2005. 2. Systems and Support Techniques. Michigan. M. Environmental aspects and impacts. social and ethical values of biodiversity. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. 4. WWF Pakistan. International Organization for Standardization. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. threats to biodiversity. Course Outlines Introduction. Environmental Management tools. standards and guidelines.

national and international laws and regulations. plants. design and types of samples.R. croplands. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. management. Biogeography. Sinauer. quality control sampling. 2000. presampling requirements/information. 1998. Sunderland. Saad Printers. Recommended Books: 1. international agreements. A Primer for Conservation Biology. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. 3. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water.B. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. Associates Inc. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. soil and living organisms.. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. chemical addition. London. Rawalpindi.. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. and Morre. refrigeration and freezing methods. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. Conservation of wildlife. Course Outlines Introduction. community and ecosystem level. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. conservation strategies. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. population. Kings College. 35 . COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. EIA requirement. Preservation methods including pH control. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. their categories. forests. laboratory custody. P. habitats.D. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. C. Z. quality assessment. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. water. Publ.conservation at species. ecotourism. Lahore). Cox. 2ndEd. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. field custody.e. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. air. conservation and livelihood.B. NOC for plant operation. conservation in man-made ecosystems. role of traditional knowledge in conservation..B. Considerations. protected areas. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. 2000. Quality assurance and quality control. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. Mirza. 2. sampling and design purposes. cities. Legal protection of species. P.

Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. 6. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. R. chemical. Energy and Temperature. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. L. Environmental Chemistry. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. UK. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide.USA. Ozone depletion. H. New York.) McGraw-Hill. Earth Observation of Global Change. Human responses to potential climate change. F. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. S. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. (ed) Springer. Chapman and Hall. Manahan.Recommended Books: 1. Moisture in the Atmosphere. Tokyo. 3. Forstner U. 8. D. extinctions. McKlivie. USA..1999. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. agriculture. biological. Environmental Monitoring Handbook.1996.. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. 2008. 2nd Edition. 2008. altered community structure. Keith. phenological changes. 2002. Murai. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. Precipitation. 7. S. 2002. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. Regional droughts and 36 . 2. The Measurement of Climate Change. (eds. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. Recent Climate Change Indicators. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. 1992. USA. Physical. Korte. D. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. . 5. I. Lewis Publisher London. E. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. its causes and effects. 2000. Peakall. Remote Sensing Note. N. USA. regional. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. human health. Chuviero. Burden. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. E. and Guethner.

Recommended Books: 1. Harrop. J. A. Recommended Books: 1.cataclysmic climate change. Glasson.(ed). policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. Main stages in EIA process. 4. Earthscan Publication Ltd. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Routledge. J. J. 2000. law. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. Blackwell. 3. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. 2005. Global Change and the earth system. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T.. 1994. Islamabad.). 2005.. 4. 1999.. Effects. 2003. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. A. Cost and benefits of EIA. Global Warming and Climate Change. Oxford. Houghton. impact analysis. Therivel. liquid. decision-making to implement the project. R. and Solutions. 2004. J. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. and noise. 5. overview. London. Keith. Petts.T. Islamabad. project implementation and follow up.A. & Nixon. and Chadwick.. 1986. social impact assessment (SIA). 37 . possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. Sringer. and Solutions. solids. Climate Change . Hardy. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. 2. London.. reporting. EIA project management. J. 2005. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems.. 6. T. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. public involvement.Causes. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. Effects. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). Ministry of Housing and Works. (ed. Hardy. 3. Types & Resources to produce Energy.Causes. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis.O. National Book Foundation. D. 2. review of EIA quality. John Wiley & Sons. 2003.. mitigation and impact management. 1st Edition. screening. John Wiley & Sons. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. Climate Change . scoping. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice.

2nd Edition. R. agriculture chemicals. causes and methods for its improvement. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. methodologies. (ed.B and Warren. management options.. existing management approaches.. New York. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan.5. 6. their pros and cons. Goldsmith. national agriculture policy. Ludwig. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. effective management. threats. Carpenter. threat and its causes. M. Types. 1997. B.. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. H. F. management options. United Nations Environment Programme. process and contents of the management plan. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. Everitt. agriculture products and their share in GDP. John Willey & Sons. USA. Evans. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. Recommended Books: 1.. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. 1993. wildlife census. B. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. solar power. & McCabe. J. 38 .). and Tu. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. requirement. forest types and its existing management. problem in agriculture. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies.. Sadler. best available option for future. limitation in the future.. national example. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. 2002. Development of Management Plan: needs. Rangeland Management: existing status.. their current status and threats. national and provincial legislation. S. A. Lohani. wind power and nuclear power. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. R. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. Conservation in Progress. Asian Development Bank. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. importance.

3. concepts and terminologies. and Jorqensen. Sampling: the logic of sampling. to introduce students to research design.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. 5..2. Hansen. 1984.F. V. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. GOP and IUCN. Scientific Methods. How to put things together? Introduction.Amsterdam. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. Methodology. Objectives. 2007. 1990. J. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). Elsevier. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. Sage CA. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. R. Inference based on findings. Surveys. 4. USA. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. London. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Dasmann. research methods. John Wiley & Sons.L. population and sampling frames. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. Case Studies. Review of Literature. Interviews.A pre-requisite for Research.E. S. P. types of sampling design/. Review of Literature. 1992. Bibliography. New York. Questionnaire. Research Proposal: its importance . & Plano Clark. 39 . W. Literature Search: Database. Selecting the Research Method. Scientific Research: Science. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Experimental Research.E. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. Environmental Conservation. Thousand Oaks. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. Search Engines. Material Methods. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. Research Design & Research Methods. Islamabad. Creswell.

Marilyn F. M. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. National Environmental Policy 4.USA. 1989. Moriarty. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. Government of Pakistan 3. Sage Publishers. National Conservation Strategy 5. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. Law Books House. G. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . 2008. Univ. Babbie. 2. Booth. Wadsworth Publishing Company. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. Students project in Environmental Science. England. 2001. Qadar. and Arhonditsis. S. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. R. 3rd Edition.Harrad. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 2003. 4.. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. 1997.. Survey Research Methods. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. 2003.Batty. Recommended Books: 1. regulations made there under.. John and sons Ltd. Diamon.S. USA. USA.2. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. 2000. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. 3. Belmont California. 5.. 6.h. E. 2nd Edition. 1997. of Chicago Press. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Robert Yin. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. Chichester.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

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with drinking water facilities like springs. 6. groundwater exploitation. flood and droughts. pollution aspects. and Qamar. Khan. water supply and demand management measures. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). wetlands resources management. U. Islamabad. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. C. 2003. Ahmed. flood and drought management. (ed.. Islamabad.. 2006. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. SDPI Oxford University Press. A.. A.. water quality and quantity aspects. (eds. 1993. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. virtual water.). Recommended Books: 1. 5. Oxford University Press New Delhi. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. Mirajuddin Publication .Lahore. recycling and re-use of wastewater. Revised & enlarged edition. A. Pakistan. hydrological cycle. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. Ahmed. tubewells. Pakistan . 4. Oxford University Press Karachi.). Briscoe. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. The Politics of Managing Water. Indus Water Accord 1991. 2. P.K. 3.. fisheries management... N.1993. and Tortajada. integrated water resources management (IWRM). J. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. Asia Printer. and Malik. Mirajuddin Publication . I. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. O. K. Cheema. 2005.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. 2006. N. 44 . water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. Biswas. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. watershed/catchment.Varis. R. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. R. Bengali. Lahore. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia.

Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. Definition. USA. humans as components of urban ecosystems. the salient features of urban environments. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. D. urban political ecology. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. Hillel. 1.W. Pakistan. Forms of urbanization. Urbanization. Prentice Hall. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. management and green productivity. Soils in Our Environment. hydrological processes. N. urban settlements. 45 . Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. and Weil. and Bantel. 2007. 2008. Gardiner. Soil forming minerals. Brady. Course Outlines Introduction.R. Soil Science. NJ. E. NJ. R. National Book Foundation.. USA. 1996. San Diego. Cation and anion exchange. Academic Press. Types and properties of parent materials. Soil buffering capacity and its importance.C. CA. future of urban centers. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. Course Outlines Introduction. R. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. Upper Saddle River.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. Physical and chemical processes of weathering.. Miller. PrenticeHall. soils. After completion of this course. Upper Saddle River. D. Factors and processes of soil formation. Islamabad. Physical and chemical properties of soil. USA. Process and outcome. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. 2007. transport. Urban ecosystem. urban flora and fauna.T. Causes of urbanization. R. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. Bashir. Soil degradation. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. urbanization in Pakistan. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. urban landscapes characteristics. 11th Edition.

Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. Planning and its relationship with other professions.. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. 2009. Alberti. USA. nature and purpose of urban planning. Hough. C.. M. City Design for Sustainable Development. Planning and Urban Change. Hejny. Routledge. Elements of urban planning. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. Justification for planning for city management. New York. The planning process. Aims and Objectives of planning. O. J. 2. Scope. Sukopp.and Kowaril. D. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. 1989. SAGE Publications Ltd. S. 5. Ward..1990. 3. 46 . 2006. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. Smith. UK. Kate. USA. 2007. H. Levels of planning. Principles of planning.. SBS academic publishing. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Planning theories and concepts. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. Routledge. A.. 2004. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. CRC Press LLC. Chapman and Hall. London. I. 2.and Maser. 2000. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. UR. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. V. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. New trends in planning and city management. Gilbert. Recommended Books: 1. Land use planning theories.S. London. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. 1. UK. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. 2004.L. Silberstein.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. 4. nd 2 Edition. S. Types of Urban Plans. Springer. M. Hague. UK. Penguin Group.

.. ADB. Political factors. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. 2nd Edition. It discusses a wide range of aspects. UK.3. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. Cultural factors. Government of Pakistan. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. New York. 1991. 4. Hazards. The Guilford Press.B. 1993. i. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. Natural cycles and their role.e. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. 2. Manila. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. D. Flooding. International phenomenon. Ministry of Housing and Works.. 1993. Different approaches and Indicators. Boulder . this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Natural Disasters Alexander. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. Earthquake Management. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. G.. Disaster Management: Components of management. Earthquake. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. Landslide. 47 . Paris. New York. Westview Press. 1986. and Woodrow.. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development.J. P. H. Physical factors. 1993. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). 4. M. Longman Group.W. Chapman & Hall. E&UA Div. Flood Management: Organizational Role. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. 1989.UNESCO. Introducing Town Planning. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. Disaster as an opportunity for development. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. Role of Media in Disaster Management. Socio-economic factors. Islamabad.W. R.F. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. Prediction. Recommended Books: 1. Kates. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. Clara.. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. 3. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. and White G...

Westport. Sustainable livestock management. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. M. McKinney. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. USA. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. 4th Edition. sustainable energy management. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. 2007. solar. and Mushkatel. 2001. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. and Yonavjak. 1984. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. D. 2.M. John Wiley and Sons.. 48 . 1983. decomposers.A. Paris. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. 6. Perry R.5. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America.. Schoch. consumers. Disasters and Development Cuny. 1. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. F. types. A. merits and demerits of wind. hydropower. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. Botkin. 2007. OECD/IEA.. energy resources. R. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. local. alternate energy resources. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. New York. L. 6th Edition. primary producers. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. uses. Ecological concept in crop and food production.B and Keller. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources.W. energy resources of Pakistan.C. Agroecology. 3.H. Consumer and producer relationship. E. Quorum Books.L. Biotic structure. biomass resources.

Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram.R. E-11 Seminar 49 . USA. Kapur. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. C. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. Boulder.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. Experimental Plant Ecology.P. 2000.H. Study of stratification and profile diagram. and Rossel.A. New York. USA. New Delhi. Study of index of diversity. Westview Press. 1995. R. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. Corol. and Sudha. Agrocology.. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. 3. 2. P. M. Yandermeer J. Altreri. CBS Publishers and Distributors. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. India.G.M. 1990. Recommended Books: 1.

The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. availability of the faculty and other facilities. 50 . 4. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. 3. that: 1. 2. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. 5. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. the Committee agreed on the following principles. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science.

16. 2. 4. 14. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 24. 5. 9. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 10. 6. 11. 12. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 3. 11. 21. 22. 15. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 18. 19. 3. 7. 20. 4.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 8. 26. 17. 2. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 9. 7. 13. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 8. 5. 10. 23. 6. 12. 25.

. Conservation Strategies. Amsterdam. Money. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. 2nd Edition. Mackenzie. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. WCS. Oxford University Press. Treaties. Hodder and Stoughton.. S. GOP and IUCN. 3.E. 1991. Draft National Environmental Policy. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. Conventions and Protocols in Global. development of concepts. Ball. Relationship of culture.S. P... and Jorqensen. 52 . 1987. Islamabad. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. Environmental control Policies. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS).A. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. London. 1992. Mackenzie J. Recommended Books: 1. Regional and International Environmental Issues. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. Provincial and Local Strategies.F. status of Terrestrial. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan.E. Instruments and methods. and Bell. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. 3. Geography of Pakistan. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. D. S. NCS. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. 2.1991. technology and resource use. Khan K. FURTHER READINGS 1. Elsevier.T. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space.DETAILS OF M. Environment People and Economy. 4.1995.1994. F.. London Black Stone Press Ltd. Hansen. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall.1994. 2. S. Oxford University Press. Karachi.

Chichester. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. Environment Department. Case Studies and review. sample collection and preservation. Wood. Longman House. Ministry of Environment. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Burnt Hill. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. Longman Scientific and Technical. ed. Environmental Chemical Analysis. D. Recommended Books: 1. social impact assessment. A one Publishers Lahore. World Bank. ecological impact assessment. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. FURTHER READINGS 1. 1993. 1995. procedures and methods of EIA.A. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. 3. C. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. Ed. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Wastewater. economic impact assessment. England. A. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update.. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). DC. process. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. K. Government of Pakistan. Recommended Books: 1. Assessment of environmental impacts. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. Washington. F & Bronstein. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. UK. sampling rules. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). WB. Harlow Essex. 2. role and importance. Ahmed. Air and Solid Waste. Environmental auditing. 1995. Cost benefit analysis of projects. Principles of physical. John Wiley & Sons. History. opportunities and issues. Demographic impact assessment. Gas Chromatography etc. 53 .Vanclay. 2.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction.

2000. R. safety techniques.. Primary health care services.. economic evaluation. Planning Commission Performas. Nebel. work breakdown structure. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. 1st ed. T.. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. John Wiley and Sons. outputs. Wiley Interscience. Park.. means of verification. USA. Accident prevention and safety plans. 5. Meredith J. Project Planning. Ergonomic and Safety. Government Policies and Programs. T. 3. 1998. and Guidotti. J. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation... principles and practices. R. UK. Occupational Health: problems and issues. 1993. S. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects).. feasibility study. de Kok. Lippmann. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. Inc. specific objectives. 1st Ed. 2001. Defining Project objectives. Kjelllström. Mantel s. Writing Project Proposal. air borne.. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. Oxford University Press New York. activities. Need identification. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. Project Initiation. Reasons for Project success or failure. Prentice Hall International Inc. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. Project Management Institute. T. Yassi. B. Environmental Health Engineering. 1st Ed. L. assumptions. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. Project Life Cycle. M/S Banarsid. development objectives. J. A Guide to Project Management. 2002. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. M. USA. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. 1992. 1997. 4. inputs. T. 54 . prevention and control. Resource Mobilization. and Wright. New York. London. Project Planning and Approval Processes. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). K. Recommended Books: 1.. Caeneross. 2. 2.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. Public health concept. 2nd Ed. A. indicators. Basic Environmental Health.

2007. Recommended Books: 1. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. and Yonavjak. 1990b. 4. M. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.L. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Environmental auditing. 2001. Michigan-January 2001. R. Switzerland.M. L. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). 55 . alternate energy resources. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. Sources of data. ISO Central Secretariat.. nuclear) local. types. non-renewable and renewable. transport. bio-energy resources. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. Paris. hydropower. gas. 2007.B and Keller. industry and domestic sectors. Botkin. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. merits and demerits of wind. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. solar. 2. principles and elements of the process of EMS. Environmental Auditing. energy resources. Related Environmental regulations. D. OECD/IEA.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. energy resources of Pakistan. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). data collection and interpretation. E. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. sustainable energy management for agriculture. 2. Schoch.A. uses. petroleum. USA. 1998. 6th Edition. St Luise Press. Principles of cleaner production. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. Sayre. Recommended Books: 1. McKinney. 3. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. John Wiley and Sons. 4th Edition. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. D. Paris. 3.

John Wiley & Sons. plant conservation.T. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. types and their climatic effects. 2005. The Green House Effect. D.Causes. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. Modeling of climate change. J. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Houghton. Oxford UK. 1st Edition. human activities and vegetation dynamics. J. Springer. Green House Gases. Oxford. Vegetation Ecology Ed. D. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. 2005. Silvertown. Recommended Books: 1. competition and coexistence.). Beck. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. 3. 3. forests. Effects. John Wiley & Sons. and Solutions. UK. 4. 2. Blackwell Publishing. Maarel. Hardy. etc. global aspects of plant ecology. J. ECOPE 29. T. Species richness.Causes. 2003. Plant Ecology.D. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T.. London. 2005. Warrick.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. UK 1991. E. 1. 2. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. Climate Change . Climate Change and Ecosystems. (Ed. and Solutions. Chichester. 5. geographical and temporal patterns. Berlin. Effects. K. Shulze. Blackwell Publishing. & Charlesworth. Plant population dynamics. Life history strategies of plants. ED. survival and extinction. E & Muller-Hohenstein. 2003. resources and plants. types of climate change models. Climate change and food production. 56 . John Wiley & Sons. water resources. Earthscan Publication Ltd.. 2004. management and restoration. vegetation dynamics. Climate Change . Hardy. B & Jager. Recommended Books: 1. plant invasions. 2005.

COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. Roberts. J. distribution and management.J. 2002. Principles of Wildlife Management.L. biological diversity. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management.J. 3. I). Primack. types. Oxford University Press. Inc. their ecological and economic importance. Cambridge. Mcmillan. distribution. Status of forests in Pakistan. Recommended Books: 1. Oxford. Consumptive. T. types. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. Protected areas in Pakistan.D. Conserving Living Natural Resources. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. & Spicer. 2004. Rangeland management. Cambridge. kinds.(2nd Ed. Protection and restoration of species. Recommended Books: 1. Wetlands.B. 4. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. And Bolen.A. 1992. Blackwell Publsihing.) Gaston. Sinauer Assocaites. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. habitats and ecosystems. Extinction of species. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. USA. Protected areas. Global and national biodiversity. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan.J. S. Forests. E. K. Sustainable forest management. distribution. Essentials of Conservation Biology. Oxford. 1998. R. 2002. 3. 57 . W. II). Weddell. T. Robinson. their importance. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. Participatory forest management. 1986. Biodiversity: An introduction. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. UK. its causes. Forest plantations. 5. Roberts. threats and conservation. B. UK. Oxford University Press. Oxford University Press. John Wiley And Sons. Establishment and management of protected areas. Publishers Sunderland. S. Bailey.G. 2. 1984. Threatened animals and plants.J. London. Oxford. 1973 2. Loss of biodiversity. their types and role in conservation. Wildlife Ecology and Management. J. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. deforestation and its control. status. Cambridge University Press. management. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Wildlife of Pakistan. problems and solutions. & Ripley.

Forms of urbanization. Silberstein. A.. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. USA. USA. Introducing Town Planning. Ministry of Housing and Works.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. C. 2004. CRC Press LLC. urbanization in Pakistan. 4. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. drinking water and solid waste in cities. Sustainable cities. Islamabad. Environmental problems of urban life. Longman Group. management of transport. S. 2007.. Recommended Books: 1. 3. sanitation. 1986. E&UA Div. 2000. G. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. J. V. Planning and Urban Change.. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Kate. urban political ecology. H.. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Ward.and Maser. London. SAGE Publications Ltd. 2. New York. Penguin Group. urban landscape characteristics. UK. future of urban centers. Clara. Government of Pakistan. UK. 1993. urban systems and their characteristics. 58 . Urban land use planning and management.

a) Functional English Grammar 1. Oxford University Press. 1997. Thomson and A.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure.Annexure . ISBN 0194313492 59 .V. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. Practical English Grammar by A. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. Martinet.J. Exercises 1. Third edition.

Reading/Comprehension 1. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. b) Practical English Grammar by A. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. and speed reading. Oxford University Press. Upper Intermediate. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. Third edition. Fourth Impression 1993. Reading. Oxford Supplementary Skills. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. Third Impression 1992. minutes of meetings. Martinet. 1997. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Thomson and A. Writing. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good.V. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . ISBN 0 19 453402 2. intensive and extensive. Exercises 2.2.J.

Third Impression 1992.1. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. 2.V. narrative. form. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Third Impression 1991. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. language. descriptive and argumentative writing). ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . ISBN 0 19 453403 0. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Reading 1. b) Writing 1. Advanced. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Fourth Impression 1992. 2. content. Thomson and A. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Writing. Martinet. Writing. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Oxford Supplementary Skills. clarity. Advanced by Ron White. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. Reading. Oxford University Press 1986. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin.J. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Writing. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Fourth Impression 1993. Practical English Grammar by A. introduction to presentations. Exercises 2. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Third edition. discursive. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet.

A Custom Publication. 2. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. 2004. 3. argumentative and report writing). Kirszner and Stephen R. 62 . Martin’s Press. Mandell. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. St. without taxing the taste of engineering students). descriptive. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. Kathleen Shine Cain.(particularly suitable for discursive. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. Compiled by norther Illinois University. College Writing Skills by John Langan.

The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. government. 2. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Mehmood. 1971-77 d. b. politics. Akbar. contemporary Pakistan. 1993. Historical Perspective a. 63 Books Recommended 1. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. 1977-88 e. . ideological background of Pakistan. Location and geo-physical features. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. S. Society and social structure c. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. 1994. Zaidi. national development. State & Society in Pakistan. Course Outline 1. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. 2. 4. Shahid Javed. Ethnicity d. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. Lahore. Safdar.Annexure . Indus Civilization ii. 1999 onward 3. Contemporary Pakistan a. People and Land i. Muslim advent iii. 2000. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan.M. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Karachi: Oxford University Press. 1947-58 b. S. 1958-71 c. Study the process of governance. Economic institutions and issues b. 3. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. 1988-99 f.

Club Road. Islamabad. Khalid Bin. Ansar. 1987. Karachi: Royal Book Company. 13. The Political System of Pakistan.. 1972. Muhammad Waseem. Mehmood. K. 1967. Politics in Pakistan.K. 6. Noor ul. Amin. Safdar. Washington: American Enterprise. 64 . Rafique. Political Parties in Pakistan. Ethno . Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. Enigma of Political Development. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Pakistan Under Martial Law. Zahid. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. 9.National Movement in Pakistan. 1980.5. 1976. Wilcox. Tahir. Sayeed. II & III. Lawrence. 10. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. 1993. 12. Ziring. Haq. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1998. Aziz. nd. M. Wayne. Lahore: Vanguard. History & Culture of Sindh. Afzal. 1980.The Emergence of Banglades. Vol. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Party. I. Institute of Public Policy Research. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. 7. 8. 14. 11.

2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.6.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.A.19.A.Annexure .A.58.56.Tadabar (Verse No1.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.A.21.40.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.57.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.20) Related to thinking.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.

in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.

S. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. “Studies in Islamic Law. Ahmad Hasan.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. “Emergence of Islam” . IRI. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. Bhatia. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. Pakistan. International Islamic University. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. Islamabad (2001) 67 .

not majoring in mathematics. complex numbers. Boston Swokowski EW. College Algebra and Trigonometry. 1987. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. equations reducible to quadratic equations. introduction to sets. cube roots of unity. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). Houghton & Mifflin. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. trigonometric identities. PWS-Kent Company. types of functions. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. geometric progression. types. harmonic progression. Beckenback EF. 1978. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE.Annexure . determinants. Boston 68 . Cramer’s rule.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. set operations. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. 1986. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. Sharron S. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. functions. PWS-Kent Company. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. system of linear equations. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. matrix inverse. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. Wooton W.

integration by substitution. 69 . with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. continuity. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. 2005. Reading. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. angle between two lines. distance between two points. various forms of equation of a line. John Wiley. left-hand and right-hand limits. Recommended Books: Anton H. change of variables in indefinite integrals. Davis S. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line.2. not majoring in mathematics. differentiation of polynomial. Bevens I. Ma. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. solution of equations involving absolute values. rational and transcendental functions. New York Stewart J. integration by parts. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. derivatives. Finney AR. equation of a line. not majoring in mathematics. Boston Thomas GB. Calculus (11th edition). 1995. inequalities. functions and their graphs. USA 3. slope of a line. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. distance between a point and a line. parallel and perpendicular lines. continuous functions. Calculus (3rd edition). PWS-Kent Company. Addison-Wesley. 1983. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. 2005. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). intersection of two lines.

: After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. nature of roots of quadratic equations. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. types of functions. 1969 Kaufmann JE. functions. Cramer’s rule. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). Matrices: Introduction to matrices. set operations. Conic Sections: Parabola. intersection of lines and circles. equations reducible to quadratic equations. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. locus of a point in various conditions. determinants. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. College Algebra and Trigonometry. types of matrices. • Contents 1. Analytic Geometry. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. hyperbola. 1987. ellipse. inverse of matrices. system of linear equations. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. Boston Swokowski EW. circles determined by various conditions. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). Introduction to sets. 70 . PWS-Kent Company. Freshman and Company. Scott.Circle: Equation of a circle. PWS-Kent Company. 1986. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. Boston 4.

Measures of dispersion: Range. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’.. skewness and kurtosis. characteristics of statistics. J. Swokowski. tally sheet method. Graphs: Graph of straight line. R. Boston. PWS-Kent Company.. frequency polygon.geometric and harmonic progressions. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. trigonometric identities.. individual. 71 . Wilcox. discrete and continuous series. Prentice Hall. array. R. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. Latest Edition. 5. W. types of frequency series. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. deciles and percentiles. 2. Kaufmann. E. ungrouped and grouped data. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. E. Latest Edition. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. cumulative frequency curve. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. 2. variance. moments. circle and trigonometric functions. Walpole. E.. standard deviation. Latest Edition. quartiles. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. 3. bar frequency diagram histogram. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. R. relationship of statistics with social science. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. Books Recommended: 1. 4.

• Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. integration by inspection. 11th Edition. Inc. products. the chain rule. Calculus. Schaum’s Outline Series. integration using partial fractions. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. 2005. Gleason. Least-Squares Line. special points of a function. 3. Continuous Functions. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. integration by parts. applications of integration. 1983. Rational and Transcendental Functions. 6. 8th edition. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. the inverse of differentiation. integral inequalities. Addison Wesley publishing company. et al. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. S. Davis. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . 1999. logarithmic integration. W. Equation of a Line.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. McCallum. 4th edition. Recommended Books: 1. infinite and improper integrals. 2. 6. Swokowski. H. John Wiley & Sons. Integration by Parts. Jhon Willey & Sons. Slope of a Line. 2. Boston. plane polar coordinates. 2005. 5. Elliott Mendelson.Jr. 3rd Edition. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. • Integration Integration from first principles. Calculus Single and Multivariable. Second Edition 1992. logarithmic differentiation. Thomas. Inequalities. and Transcendental Functions. quotients. Calculus. 4. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. Rational Functions. sinusoidal function. Prentice-Hall. Bevens. Contents 1. I. Calculus. substitution method. Mathews. Inc. Hughes-Hallett. Anton. reduction formulae. Extreme Values of Functions. 2002. Frank A. E. Continuity. Trigonometric Functions. theorems of differentiation. Solution of equations involving absolute values. Leibnitz’ theorem. John H. implicit differentiation.

arithmetico-geometric series. solving hyperbolic equations. identities of hyperbolic functions. series involving natural numbers.Additions and subtraction. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . complex conjugate. finding the nth roots of unity. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. geometric series. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. approximation errors in Taylor series. inverses of hyperbolic functions. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. the difference method. multiplication. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. modulus and argument.

mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. centers of mass and centroids. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . scalar triple product. masses. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. line to line. Pappus’ theorems. Hermitian. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. orthogonal. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. symmetric and antisymmetric. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. vector product.5. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. point to plane. moments of inertia. 6. of a unitary matrix. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. the inner product.

8. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. divergence of a vector field. spherical polar coordinates 75 . curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. combinations of grad.

Bar charts. Range. Types of frequency curves. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. The semi-Interquartile Range. acceptance and rejection regions. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Empirical Relation between Mean. Pie chart. Unit 5. bias. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Historigram. 76 . level of significance. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Difference of means and proportions. Change of origin and scale. probability and non-probability sampling. Unit 3.Annexure . Significant digits. Quantiles. The Mode. Test statistics. properties of Good Average. Probability and Probability Distributions. Exercises. Poisson and Normal Distribution. The Mean Deviation. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Diagrams. Histogram. sampling with and without replacement. Exercises.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Unit 2. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Absolute and relative measures. Exercises. sample design and sampling frame. Graphs and their Construction. Presentation of Data Introduction. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Exercises. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Median and mode. Data. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Standardized variables. Collection of primary and secondary data. Moments and Moments ratios. Type-I and Type-II errors. Exercises. Errors of measurement. Exercises Unit 6. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Coefficient of variation. Constructing of a frequency distribution. Box and Whisker Plot. definition of outliers and their detection. Different types of Averages. The Variance and standard deviation. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Discrete and continuous variables. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Stem and Leaf Display. Sources. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Population. Unit 7. sampling and non sampling errors. Exercises. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Observations. Unit 4. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Editing of Data. Statistical problem. null and alternative hypothesis. Rounding of a Number.

examples. F. cause and effect relationships. Regression and Correlation Introduction. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. Testing of Hypothesis.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. E. Contingency Tables. r and R2.. Kitab Markaz. 2005. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. 1982. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. 77 . estimation of parameters and their interpretation. 3rd Ed.Unit 8. Exercises Unit 10. Exercises Unit 9. New York. 2 Muhammad. simple linear regression. Exercises.Single Population Introduction. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. R. “Introduction to Statistics”. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples.. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Unit 11. Correlation. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. Inc. Macmillan Publishing Co. its estimation and interpretation. Coefficient of linear correlation.

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