CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
58

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PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation.ALTAF ALI G. universities and other institutions of higher education. D773/76-JEA (cur.). The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. PROF. R&D organizations. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. therefore. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. the Federal Government vide notification No.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. DR. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . It is. dated December 4th 1976. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. The world has turned into a global village. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. It also aimed to give a basic. and 36. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. 63. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. Lahore. degree awarding institutions. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic.

HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. OF FINAL CURRI. COL. OF NCRC. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. PREP. R&D. OF CURRI. EXP. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. Preparation 5 . UNI. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. REC.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI.

Member 4. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Rawalpindi Dr. Lahore Member 6. Dr.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Karachi from 28-30. Dr. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Dr. Member 3. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Following attended the meeting:1. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. 7. Member 5. Member 6 . Rawalpindi Dr.

Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Prof. Member 15. Dr.8. Dr. 13. Dr. 7 . Member 14. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Dr. Prof. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Dr. Member 10. Dr. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Member 11. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Karachi Member 12. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Member 16.

Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. Faisalabad Member 18. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. At first. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Mr. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Dr. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Mr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. Shafiq-ur-Rehman.17. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. 8 . Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. Karachi. Dr. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. 2. Secretary Dr. Member 19. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. 1. Member 20. Chairman. Director of HEC Regional Center. The meeting was opened by Mr. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society.

In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. 1. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. 2. 6. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. 5. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment.3. 3. The committee thanked Mr. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. In last few centuries. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. 4. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society.

Apply theoretical understanding. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. regional and global contexts. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. ii. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. in its preliminary meeting. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. This committee. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. skills and behaviour patterns. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. 5. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development.

The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. 2. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. Sc. 4. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. eight semesters in the semester system. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science.e. that: 1. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes.. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. The medium of instruction. 5. Integrating natural sciences. 1. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. 3. with consensus. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. 6. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. A. The 11 .

The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Environmental Pollution 22. Introduction to Computer 14. Climatology* 23. Psychology* . English-I 6. Biology –I* 3. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Introductory Economics* 17. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Environmental Microbiology 21. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. English-II 12.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Environmental Physics 16. Basic Chemistry* 4. Environmental Chemistry 15. English-III 18. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Introduction to Earth Science 8. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Biology –II* 9.

Opt. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. Natural Resource Management 40. Environmental Biotechnology 32. Environmental Management Systems 34. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. English-IV/ Univ.24. ELECTIVE-III 42. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . 46. Climate Change 38. Environmental toxicology 27. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. Environmental Economics 29. 44. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. Environmental Monitoring 36. 45. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. Applied Ecology 26. Environmental Impact Assessment 39.

• Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical.

Thomson Learning. & Nebel. E. national. urbanization. Major components of environment: physico-chemical.M. B. Miller. Recommended Books: 1.L. Human environment and its problems: global. 4. McKinney. 2. 2007.T. 2002. current global. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. its importance in human life. G.J. 2007 3. history. philosophical. biological and social. 10th Ed. L.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. R. and their relationships with various environmental factors. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. John Wiley & Sons. 6th Ed.. ethical. & Yonavjak. Wright. poverty and resource depletion.B & Keller. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY .DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. Different aspects of environment: physical. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates.A.. environmental pollution. Botkin. regional. Schoch. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. socio-economic. lipids. 2007. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. M. D. development in industry and agriculture. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. R. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. proteins and nucleic acids. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. 4th Ed. 15 . ecological. Pearson Educational. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth.

A. polypeptides in protein diversity. Lingappa. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. 2007. USA. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. J. carbonyls. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. USA. Plopper. C. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. phospholipids in membrane systems. Crossley. D. lipids. coordinate covalent bond. USA. Cassimeris. McGraw.. Molecular Biology through Questions. Self Assessment and Revie. Lewis. esters. M. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. 1996. and Lewis. N. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. lipids. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. 2. Bulter. 5. 8th Ed. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. amines). proteins.Hill International Edition. Cell division. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. protobionts. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.. 16 . V. 3. Cells. Australia . R. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. Nucleic acids. 2003. covalent. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life.. 2007. carboxylic acids. Canada. G. E. Ltd. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. Origin of life: chemical evolution. R. Starr. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards.. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. New York. and Whitelaw. Ionic. 5th Edetion. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. the molecule of genetic information and replication. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. chemical diversity. Structure and the basis of function. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. L. B. chemical basis of life. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 1.. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. Introduction to cell biology. Wadsworth Group. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. 2008. origin of metabolism. Aromatic compounds. 4. carbohydrates. Shier. Biology: a Human Emphasis.

.J.ions.J. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. West. series and means.C. Liss. P. angle-sum formula. Cambridge University Press. 2004. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. Measurement of pH. 3. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. T.D. and Holler. D.K. geometric and harmonic sequence. Harris.M. 4. 2nd Edition. expansion of determinants. 8th Edition. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. D. USA. J. 2. double angle formulas.H. Blackwell Science. Lab Work Preparation of molar. real line. 2003. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. Photochemical reactions. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Girard. straight line and related concepts.. Freeman and Company. Thin layer chromatography. 2nd Edition. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. Colloids chemistry. M. Andrews. Canada. Recommended Books: 1. Brimblecombe. UK.E. normal solutions/buffers. Osmosis and Dialysis. determinants. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. 5.... W. Column chromatography. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. EC and TDS in waste water.. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. 2004. graphs. Hill..E. Algebra of matrices. 2004. simultaneous equations and their solutions.. molal. UK. and Reid. Jones and Barlett. 6th Edition. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. 2005. radicals. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. equations of lines (linear equations).. Skoog. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). Qualitative Chemical Analysis. F. USA. D. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). Surface chemistry. Thomson and Brooks. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). Jickells.A. Solution chemistry. 1st Ed. values of trigonometric functions. B. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. P. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula.Special Products (Binomial Expression).S. law of Cosines. J. 17 . minor and cofactor of a matrix.

composition and its internal structure. Narosa Publishing House. difference. theorem of integration. foliation.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . age. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. plate tectonics.Wesley. Weathering. Trignometry for College students.Cramer’s Rule. Thomas. irreducible quadratic factors. Recommended Books: 1. joints. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions.B. J. Pacific Grove. Scott Foresman and Company. Introduction to folds.. 2. Integration: Formulas of integration. 4. theorems on differentiation (sum. Addission. and Finney. cleavages. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . faults. California. different earth processes like mountain buildings. S. by parts integration (simple applications). R. erosion and related landforms. lineation and unconformities. its origin. mountain building. Introduction to rocks and minerals. Abraham. Jr. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. earthquakes and volcanoes. weathering and erosion. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. Smith. the processes of their formation. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. product and quotient rules without derivations). 18 . 3. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. 4th Ed. earthquakes. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system.. 10th Ed. Chain rule. D. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. L. Earth as a member of solar system. K. Analytical Geometry. G. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. igneous and metamorphic rocks. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. New Delhi. nonrepeated linear factors. 1999. Chatterjee.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. Introduction to sedimentary. Fossils and their significance.

5th Edition. consequences of losing biodiversity. unicellularity. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. How Does Earth Work. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources.. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. protocell formation. Routledge. 5. Park. and Tasa. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. Brooks/Cole. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. 2007 3. 9th Edition. A. Field Study tour. Lutgens. R. D. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology.. measuring biodiversity. Tarbuck. F. and Monroe. Prentice Hall: 2006. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. 2005. J. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. biodiversity crises. population loss and decline. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. examples of adjustments in varied environment. Earth Science. Lutgens.. Recommended Books: 1. 11th Edition.. Darwinism. G. molecular basis of biodiversity. modern concepts. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. 3rd Edition. K.. Use of brunton compass and GPS. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . Life in sea. interactions among diversified life. Prentice Hall. E. K. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity.. 2007 2.. Smith. J. Biodiversity of deserts. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. F. multicellularity. G. Prentice Hall. different classification systems. causes of extinction. Foundations of Structural Biology. 19 . E.Identification of rocks and minerals. 2004. Wicander. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water.. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. and Tasa. Biodiversity of hilly areas. invasion of life on land. Biodiversity of canal. and Pun. D. Tarbuck.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. 4.. Physical Geology and Process of Science. animals). R. J. Lamarckism. Geological time chart with biodiversity.

Use of environment for vested interest. Hannen. (editors). Starr.K. 20 . Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. power & hegemony. and Sustainable Living. Conceptualizing environment. Wadsworth Group. The Biosphere. The Ecology of global consumer culture. 2003. Understanding the environment-human relationship. John Wiley and Sons. 2005. Bradbury. K. Routledge. Goals and expectations. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . CA: AltaMira Press. 5th Edition. Inc. Tripartite nature of environment. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. Contemporary environmental status. 2006. Environmental Risks and the Media. Perspective of human-environment evolution. Biology. J. Recommended Books: 1. C. 3. UK. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. 2nd Edition. 2. Biodiversity (An Introduction). a Human Emphasis. 2009. Allan & Carter. Contemporary environment issues and debate. Townsend. UK. Culture. globalization and environmental issues. Adam. C. New York: New York University Press. I. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. Gaston. IL:WavelandPress. Inc. K. Crumley. 3. Consumption. Prospect Heights. 2001. 2009. culture and society. R. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse.. I. Chronological.. L. 2000. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. and concerns. and Spicer. Walnut Creek. Blackwell Science Ltd.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. USA. (editor). P. UK. Nora and Wilk. 2. Scope and application.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. 4. J.

Long l. Ms-Power Point. Selin.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. internet. Software: Application software.6th Ed. computer programs and basic applications. software packages. Introduction to MS-Word. Hardware: Input Hardware. G. K. system software. Marquis A. Long N. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. processing hardware. e-mail. Course Outlines Definition. as are their effects on the biosphere.. Storage hardware. Configurations.London 1996. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. Operating system (Windows). Ms-Excel. Local Area Network. Milton.1999. 2. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse.5. output hardware. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure .. Recommended Books: 1. Ms-Access.Microsoft office 2000. 6. 21 . Types and classification of computers. Ed.H. Fundamentals of computer. Courter. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. 2003. Rutledge.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment.

2008. Isotopes and radioactive decay. Jickells. Turbulent jets and plumes. Turbulence. Solar spectrum. 1999. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. Girard.S.. Recommended Books: 1. B. Gaussian plumes in the air. Blackwell Science. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Ozone chemistry. G. Environmental Chemistry. Ozone and UV light. interaction of light with matter. Particle physics. 2004.J. Andrews. J. their sources and toxic actions.. its causes and adverse effects on environment.M. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Heat radiation and heat transfer. P.. India. and Singh.. J. Electromagnetic radiation. A. Brimblecombe. 2nd Edition. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. DoriaSerrano. Environmental impact of various industries... Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. Environmental Chemistry. Nuclear energy. and Reid. Equations of fluid dynamics. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Liquids and Gasses. Human perceptions and noise criteria. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. Turbulent diffusion. Energy. Ibanez. Jones and Barlett. Miller. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems.G. Samir.. Springer. 1st Edition. 5. 2004.. Fate of pollutants in environment. T.T.E. Canada. UK. M. Fregoso-Infante.. Chemical reactions.. atmospheric and soil chemistry. Global climate and climatic change. Sound and Noise. 4. Hernandez-Esparza. trophic level. Entropy. 2005. Conversion of mass. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . Diffusion.E. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. Banerji Prentice Hall of India.. Transport of pollutants. Reducing the transmission of sound. P. Environmental Science. Basic acoustics. Liss. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. Germany. J. Active control of sound. K. Thomson-Brooks. Solids. M. 3. Energy conversion.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. 2. USA. C. Fundamentals of aquatic. photosynthesis.D.

economic growth and its measurement. 2008. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. Introductory Environmental Physics. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. and Van Grondelle. E. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. Measures for sustainable development. Boeker. 23 . and Resource allocation. USA. 2001. Economic Development. New York. Routledge. Impact of economic activity on environment. Smith.Economic development. Economic functions of environment. J. USA. 2006. 2. S. R.. interaction between ecology and economic management. World Bank Publications. Sustainable development. USA.1998. N. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. Yusuf. Recommended Books: 1. and Pandis. 7th Ed. economic welfare and difference among all. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. 4. Man environmental relationship.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. Environmental economics. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. Natural resources and the economy. 2008. 2. Economic management and environmental quality. H. Seinfeld. Pakistan economic context: National income. Wesely Publishers. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. Recommended Books: 1. G. 2001. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. UK. poverty. Growth and development. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Growth and Environment. USA. producer and community point of view. S. Physics of the Environment and Climate. economic progress. population and environmental quality. 3. Environmental Physics. concepts and measurement. M. Todaro. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. John Wiley and Sons Inc. C. Field visit. Guyot. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. Praxis publishing. P. Kentucky USA. economic growth. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. Producer behavior.

Swift. London. World Bank Publications. Touchstone Books. Ecology. 4. 3. Natural philosophy. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. description of population. community. England. Kessinger Publishing. 4. ethics and ecology. J. Callicott. and systems ecology. branches of ecology. 2009. 2. N. temperature. D. water. biogeography. Frodeman. 2008. Environmental philosophy and ethics.. Farmington Hills. soil. 2008. Economics. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure .. levels of ecological organization. DeVeer. role of light. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. Environmental Critics of agriculture. 24 . Russell. WCIV7AA. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. Palgrave Macmillan. 2007. 2002. A History of Western Philosophy. population. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. C. R. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. M. Hanley. Introduction to ethical theory.V. USA. the ethics of soil. and White. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. J. B.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. Recommended Books: 1.. LLC. species. International Thomson Publishing. USA.. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. Course Outlines Introduction. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview.3. B. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. Ecosystem and its types. Portland 1967.A. concepts and approaches. community and ecosystem. its fundamental concepts. Shogren. B. & Pierce.

population dynamics. Concepts of Limiting factors. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. C. King’s College London. and S. 1992. 1st Ed. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. Population distribution and abundance. 3. 6th Ed.topography and air as ecological factors. landscape ecology. plant geography and animal distribution. 2001 5. M C J 1st ed. M. P. Ecology (principles and applications). 2000. M J. Odum. Lab Work 25 . Thomson Brooks/Cole. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. 5th Ed. students will be able to understand the significance. J. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. bacteria and eukarya.W. B. 2004.Cox. distribution limits. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. J. N. 2. G. New York. biotic factors. aquatic microbiology.) Moles. UK. Cambridge University Press. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. ecological modeling. various concepts of community. Biogeochemical cycles of C. E P. Recommended Books 1. Fundamentals of Ecology. Ecology (concepts and applications. Ecosystem: structure and function. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. New Delhi. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan.L and Reiss. Systems ecology. C. landscape changes and their importance. Dash. characteristics of urban. Tata McGraw-Hill. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). Chapman. Fundamentals of Ecology. Populations. WCB/McGraw-Hill. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. and More. habitat and niche. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. Biomes of the world. community dynamics. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. productivity of different ecosystems. Microbial metabolism. 1999 4. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. and Barett. UK. After completion of this course.

Understanding Environmental Pollution. R... M.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. D. 5. Hill.P. L.Gerba.W. Noise.. A.M. C.1998.P. McGraw Hill Inc.B. P. Knudsen. Effects of Pollutants. 2005. Harley. Mean plate count. F. G. Soil. 3. Fuhrmann. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally... Case Studies.A.A. and Jeffery. L. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal.V.. Butterworth-Heinemann. USA. 2nd Edition.A. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual.and Brendecke. D. Maier. 3.R. Weiner. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. 26 .M. Pepper. Collection. J. McInernery.and Vesilaind. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. Prescott. 2 Edition. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. USA. 2. and Gerba. Microbiology. Environmental Microbiology. Sylvia. C. Academic Press. transportation & treatments. P. peppor. I. D. 2002. USA. 2007. Hartel. Solid Waste generation. 2005.. Academic Press. 4.J.. and Stetzenbach. (Elsevier) USA. UK. Human & other living organisms. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. J.J.C. 1995. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. 4th Edition.L. Cambridge University Press. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. R. 2. Dilution plate technique. Academic Press.. USA.. J..L. Recommended Books 1. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. M..K. and Klein. Peiece. purification and preservation.. W. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. its sources and their effects. London. Crawford. New Jersey. Washington DC.J. Cambridge UK.D. Marine & Industrial pollution. American Society for Microbiology. isolation.F. 2009. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). Pollution Control Strategies. Water. Prentice Hall.J. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. Recommended Books: 1. and Zuberer.G. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution.P. Hurrst. USA. Environmental Pollution and Control.J.M.L. 2005.I. Manual of Environmental Microbiology.

2nd Editions.F. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics .. Factors affecting air Pressure. The Hydrologic cycle. global circulation. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. 1988. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. Four Spheres of the Earth. 4. Austin Miller. Lawrance K. . Sadder. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Royal book company.. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. Karachi. condensation and cloud Formation.. Weather and Climate. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. Climatology. 2003. A.W. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. The Atmosphere.J. 2006 5. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. The Physics of Atmospheres. 3. John Wiley and Sons.4. Marcel Dekkar. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. 1992. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). Pandis. Radiation and climate. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. 5.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. local winds. Mechanism of heat transfer. Solar radiations. air pressure.K. Tarbuck. Recommended Books: 1. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. John H. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. 27 . American Public Health Association (APHA). climatic zones of Pakistan. N. Spyros. Methods of psychology.. Cambridge University Press. Environmental psychology. Lutgens. 2. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. Houghton J. 2002. The climate of Pakistan. Surface winds. K. Shamshad.E.M. 6th Edition. Cloud Classification.

Greene. CRC Press. Ecological restoration. Water and distribution of species. Recommended Books: 1. Eysenck. threats and mitigation. Bell. Water as an ecological resource.. rivers. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. Restoration of derelict lands. species response to pollutants. London. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. Course Outline Introduction. soil resources of Pakistan.D. 28 . Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. Ecology of food production. Environmental Psychology. limitation of irrigated agriculture. P. sustainable agriculture. High population density and psychological impacts. energy and carbon balance.characteristics and research methods. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. M. Fisher J.. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. Routledge. Routledge. Environmental perception and cognition. London.A.W. 2. Sustainable agricultural practices. Future water scenario of Pakistan. carbon dioxide and global climate change. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. Soil as a natural resource. concepts. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. techniques and methods of restoration. T. 2001. and Baum A. Background and scope. solar radiation and primary production. soil salinity and water logging. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. 1992. Sustainable livestock management practices. CRC Press. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. soil erosion and conservation.C. Pollution control through Ecology. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. Fundamental of Psychology. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. 5th Edition. their management and ecological restoration.

Lahore. 2004.A. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. and Barett. toxins vs toxicants. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. Margaret A. J.Recommended Books: 1. 1996. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. J. toxins & toxicants. Oxford. Pakistan’s Environment. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. 2000 2. Rashid. Blackwell Scientific Publications. 4. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. Potentiation and Addition. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. Studies in Pakistan Geography. A. Newman. K. 3.1998. Chemical interactions and their types. from natural and anthropogenic sources. Shirkat Gah. USA.S. dose response relationship in living organisms. Odum E. and Memon. Fundamentals of Ecology. water and soil. A. 2006. B. P. 1989.. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. Israr-ud-Din. Islamabad. R. Peshawar. toxicology of chemicals. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. Mumtaz. Immunological considerations in toxicology. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. and Hobbs. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. Soil Science. in vivo & in vitro assays. terminologies: Poisons. on human and other living organisms.. Synergism. University of Peshawar. 2nd ed. Organs. biological effects. their containment and control strategies. 5. toxicity screening using microbial systems. Island Press.W. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. D. K and Habib..I. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. soil and air samples.P. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. 5th Edition. Zedler. Falk. G.National Book Foundation.. 29 . E.

). 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. USA. industry. urbanization and pollution. USA. W.M. topographic zones. Course Outlines Introduction to history. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York.Recommended Books 1. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. 1st Edition. USA. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. measuring environmental benefits. McGrawhill. Course Outlines Introduction. water resources. 3. 2005 2. 3. Economic: agriculture. geography. 1st Edition.1 & 2. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. economic aspects of different environmental problems. health. Ballantyne. major ecosystems. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. international trade and the environment. clean development mechanism. land. P. 1993. pollution control-a general model. Hughes. Recommended Books 1. M. education. State of the Environment-Pakistan . Ecological: ecological zones.Science of Poisons .2005 2. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. Recommended Books: 30 . Klassen. CRC Press Llc. 5th Edition. people. T and Turner. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. Environmental Profile of Pakistan.D. culture. Williams. 1992. Macmillan Press Ltd. the economy and the environment. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. General and Applied Toxicology. (ed. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. economic development and the environment.. Government of Pakistan. B. Vol. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. 1996. W.

8th Edition. New York.L. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. 3. Sample preservation methods. 4. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions.R. Field. BOD.I. Turner.C. 2.. 1993. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. All Solids. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Johns Hopkins University Press. Conductivitymetry. Thomson and Brooks. D. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual.2004. and derived S. Data interpretation for quality control. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. Lab Work S.W. and F. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. COD. Reuter.. NO3–N & NH4-N). 31 . 2003. West. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. Harris. Pearce. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. Standard solutions and standard curves. 3. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. 1999. Oxford.D. Fluoride. Gravimetery. Sparrow and D. 2.K. units.J. CSIRO Publ. Sample collection. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. Analytical techniques for soil.K. Oxford University Press. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. Titrimetery. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. Qualitative Chemical Analysis.UK.2002. J. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Environmental Economics. Australia. D. precision and accuracy. Titrimetery.. preparation and storage. C. salinity & sodicity). Recommended Books: 1. Collingwood. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). D.. B.I. M.and Field. USA. Kolstad. M. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. Gravimetery. C. Peverill. A.A. Biomarkers in environmental assessment.. Holler. L. 2005. K. 6th Edition. Skoog. D.. Use of Potentiometery. 2000. water and plant analysis. Freeman & Co. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. handling. I. and Batemen.1. Conductivitymetry.

COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. 5th Ed. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. PCR. Scragg.). Recombinant DNA technology. USA. 2005. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. England. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. USA. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. National Biotechnology Commission.P. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants.W. 4. Wiley-VCH Verlag. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment.1999. (ed. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. Biotechnology.. J. W. D.. After completion of this course. Bioreactors. students will be able to understand the significance. Biomarkers. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. National Biosafety Guidelines. New York. Sambrook. Hans- Joachim. Derbre. 2.E.D. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. 2nd Ed. Germany. 2007. Introduction to microbial kinetics. Government of Pakistan. Biosensor. Oxford University Press. purification and preservation of DNA. Chichoster. Smith. 2009. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. Cambridge University Press. J. A. and Russel. 3. USA.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. Recommended Books 1. Environmental Biotechnology. 2001. J. Isolation. and Josef. Tools in environmental biotechnology. New York. Course Outlines Introduction. 2005. and application of biotechnology in the environment. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 .

Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. Fishery and wildlife. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. 5. Aerial photography. Data entry and output. Satellite Imageries. Z. John Wiley and Sons. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). 3. K and L. Inc. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. Using and reading GPS in field. eradication of the duplicated data. Active and Passive remote sensing. Introduction to Photogrammetry. analysis and output. 1999. 4. Lulla. Cartography. Agriculture. V. 2000. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Image Processing. history and platforms. Interpretation. Energy Sources. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . Inc. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. A. Introduction to GIS. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. 2009. Campbell. Mc Graw Hill Education. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. R. Harvey. Types of data used in GIS. Dessinov. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Data acquisition. Rancez. integration of information from many sources. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. Different types of maps. F. Forestry. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. Guilfoud press New York. Inc. advantages and limitations of process. Pearsons Education. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. History and data collection. Preparation of thematic maps. map projection and coordinate systems. 2008. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. John Wiley and Sons. 2000. Jensen. 2. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation.

3rd Edition . etc. M. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. and Yoxon. 34 . standards and guidelines. Related Environmental legislation. 2005.. Michigan. A. 4. principles of Cleaner production.. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. hot spots of biodiversity. Environmental Management tools. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. Environmental Economy. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. American Society for Quality. and Qasim.2nd Ed. WWF Pakistan. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. plant. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Sheldon. ecological.). 3. 2. threats to biodiversity. Conservation of biodiversity. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. B. Khan. International Organization for Standardization. types of biodiversity. Environment and sustainable development. Environmental aspects and impacts. Environmental Management Systems Principles. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. 1998. alpha and beta diversity. 2006. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. M. need and approach.C. social and ethical values of biodiversity. eco-design. economic. 2001. Course Outlines Introduction. Certification of EMS. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. F. cleaner technologies.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. American Society for Quality. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. Systems and Support Techniques. philosophical.. Methods of environmental protection.

B. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. 2.. 2ndEd. plants. C. Preservation methods including pH control. chemical addition. EIA requirement. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. 1998. quality control sampling. Z. international agreements. P. A Primer for Conservation Biology. soil and living organisms. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. croplands. habitats. design and types of samples. Lahore). water. Rawalpindi.conservation at species.R.. 3. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring.D. Course Outlines Introduction. 2000. population. NOC for plant operation.B. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. Kings College. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. conservation and livelihood.e. Quality assurance and quality control. national and international laws and regulations. Recommended Books: 1. sampling and design purposes. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. presampling requirements/information. air. 35 . Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. 2000. Legal protection of species. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. ecotourism. laboratory custody. Biogeography. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. Cox.. Sinauer. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. Publ. London. Conservation of wildlife. protected areas. P. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. Associates Inc. management. their categories. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. cities. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city.B. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. Saad Printers. Considerations. quality assessment. community and ecosystem level. and Morre. conservation strategies. Mirza. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. conservation in man-made ecosystems. Sunderland. refrigeration and freezing methods. field custody. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. forests.

and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. Keith. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. (eds. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. Ozone depletion. Human responses to potential climate change. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. New York. 2. Burden. human health. E. 2nd Edition. 2008. L. Environmental Chemistry. I. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. E. 5. R. Lewis Publisher London. (ed) Springer. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. S. The Measurement of Climate Change. Remote Sensing Note. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. D. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide.1999. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. Earth Observation of Global Change. Murai. USA. Forstner U. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. USA. S. 2002.. its causes and effects. 6. UK. Chapman and Hall.1996. 3. USA. phenological changes. Korte. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. extinctions. Moisture in the Atmosphere. altered community structure. Recent Climate Change Indicators. agriculture. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. D. Peakall. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. Chuviero. 2000. Regional droughts and 36 . Physical. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. 8. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. biological.) McGraw-Hill. H. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. 2002. 1992. F. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. 7. and Guethner.. Energy and Temperature. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. 2008. . McKlivie. Manahan. regional. N.Recommended Books: 1. Tokyo.USA. chemical. Precipitation.

Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. screening. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. 3. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. Islamabad. public involvement..O. review of EIA quality. National Book Foundation. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. J. J. Main stages in EIA process. Effects. Recommended Books: 1. Harrop. Earthscan Publication Ltd. 2. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. A. London. reporting. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. London. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Therivel. and noise. and Solutions. 2005.. 6. 37 . Islamabad. Global Warming and Climate Change. (ed. 2. Hardy. John Wiley & Sons. J. & Nixon. and Chadwick. 2005. scoping. A. law. Oxford. Recommended Books: 1. 2003. Effects. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. liquid. EIA project management.T. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. 4.). 1994. 2004. solids.cataclysmic climate change. J. J. 2005. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. overview. 1999. 5. Petts. Cost and benefits of EIA. and Solutions.. Keith. project implementation and follow up. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society.. Hardy.(ed). Types & Resources to produce Energy. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. 4. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized.Causes. decision-making to implement the project. Blackwell. Global Change and the earth system. 3. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2).Causes. 2003. D. 1986. Sringer. T. social impact assessment (SIA). mitigation and impact management. impact analysis. Climate Change . Ministry of Housing and Works. 1st Edition. R. Houghton.. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts.A. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. 2000.. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. John Wiley & Sons. Glasson. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. Climate Change . Routledge..

Rangeland Management: existing status. threats. R.. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. United Nations Environment Programme. R. best available option for future. 2002. management options. solar power. their current status and threats. F. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan.. Evans. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. 1997. A.. Ludwig. Recommended Books: 1. causes and methods for its improvement. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. Everitt. management options.. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. effective management.). methodologies. Lohani. B. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. Asian Development Bank. forest types and its existing management. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. national and provincial legislation.. existing management approaches. (ed. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. wildlife census. problem in agriculture. Carpenter. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. importance. occurrence and distribution of natural resources.. limitation in the future. national agriculture policy. threat and its causes. J. 2nd Edition. 38 . Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. wind power and nuclear power.. agriculture products and their share in GDP. & McCabe. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. USA. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies.B and Warren. national example. 1993. S. their pros and cons. New York. M. Types. Development of Management Plan: needs. Conservation in Progress. agriculture chemicals. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. B. Sadler. John Willey & Sons. and Tu. Goldsmith. process and contents of the management plan. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. H. requirement. 6.5.

Hansen. Questionnaire.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. How to put things together? Introduction. Thousand Oaks. S.F. Review of Literature. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. John Wiley & Sons.E. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. concepts and terminologies. Environmental Conservation. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). Methodology. London. research methods. Literature Search: Database. GOP and IUCN. Interviews. Objectives. 4. types of sampling design/.A pre-requisite for Research. USA. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. Elsevier. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. Dasmann. V. 3. 1984. 39 . Scientific Research: Science. W. Sage CA. Research Proposal: its importance .2. & Plano Clark. Case Studies. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Surveys. Inference based on findings. P. Experimental Research. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically.L. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). to introduce students to research design. population and sampling frames. Islamabad. 2007. Selecting the Research Method.E. Sampling: the logic of sampling. New York.Amsterdam. 1990. Material Methods. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. Research Design & Research Methods. Scientific Methods. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. Creswell.. 5. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. Search Engines. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. Bibliography. R. and Jorqensen. 1992. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. Review of Literature. J.

and Arhonditsis. Sage Publishers. E. Babbie. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. 2. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 .Batty. 3rd Edition.USA. Wadsworth Publishing Company. of Chicago Press. Survey Research Methods. England. Booth. Law Books House. Chichester.Harrad. 4.h. Robert Yin. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. National Conservation Strategy 5. Diamon.. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. Univ. Belmont California. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. Qadar. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan.S. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. 1989. S. M. 2000. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act.. USA. R. 2008. Government of Pakistan 3. 2nd Edition. 2001. regulations made there under. Recommended Books: 1.. 1997. 5. Moriarty.2. Students project in Environmental Science. 1997. 6. 3. National Environmental Policy 4.. 2003. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. John and sons Ltd. Marilyn F. USA. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. 2003. G.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

2. A. Pakistan . with drinking water facilities like springs. Recommended Books: 1. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. hydrological cycle. (ed. Ahmed. flood and droughts. 2006. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. tubewells. Briscoe. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. K.. wetlands resources management. groundwater exploitation. Mirajuddin Publication .Lahore. 1993. watershed/catchment. 5. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. and Qamar.).. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. Islamabad. 2005.Varis. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. O. R.. C.. water quality and quantity aspects. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. 3. 2006. J. Biswas. Asia Printer. and Malik. Mirajuddin Publication . Bengali. The Politics of Managing Water. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan.. Lahore. virtual water. 6. SDPI Oxford University Press. and Tortajada. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. A. (eds. P. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. Oxford University Press Karachi.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan.K. integrated water resources management (IWRM). N. 4. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. Cheema. 2003. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. Islamabad. Revised & enlarged edition.). R. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). pollution aspects. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. flood and drought management. recycling and re-use of wastewater.1993. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. I. fisheries management. U. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. Pakistan.. Oxford University Press New Delhi. water supply and demand management measures. N. Ahmed. A. Indus Water Accord 1991. 44 .. Khan.

Urban ecosystem. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. soils. Soil degradation. humans as components of urban ecosystems. Academic Press. Upper Saddle River. urban settlements. Brady. Course Outlines Introduction. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. Pakistan. R. hydrological processes. National Book Foundation. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. the salient features of urban environments. USA. CA.. Soil forming minerals.C. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. Physical and chemical properties of soil. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. future of urban centers. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. Soil Science. 2007.. Cation and anion exchange. 2008. management and green productivity. Hillel. D. D. transport. Causes of urbanization. 2007. and Bantel. NJ. E. Factors and processes of soil formation. R. Urbanization. urban flora and fauna. NJ.T. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. Course Outlines Introduction. urban political ecology. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. USA. Definition. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. PrenticeHall. Types and properties of parent materials. San Diego. Gardiner.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. Soils in Our Environment. Miller. Bashir. 11th Edition. After completion of this course. 45 . Physical and chemical processes of weathering. Process and outcome. Forms of urbanization. N. USA. Prentice Hall. urbanization in Pakistan. R. 1. urban landscapes characteristics. 1996. Islamabad.R.W. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. and Weil. Upper Saddle River.

Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. Justification for planning for city management.and Kowaril. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. C. V. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. J. 4. Scope. City Design for Sustainable Development. Principles of planning. 1. Silberstein. Routledge. 2. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. Hague.. Types of Urban Plans. Gilbert. UK. Smith. New trends in planning and city management. Planning and Urban Change. nature and purpose of urban planning. M. The planning process.L. Ward.. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. 3. UR. H. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. Planning and its relationship with other professions. O.. Recommended Books: 1. S. SBS academic publishing. Kate.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. UK. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. Alberti. 2. Aims and Objectives of planning. Springer. 2004. M. D. Sukopp. SAGE Publications Ltd. Routledge. S.and Maser. 2009. Hough. nd 2 Edition. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. London. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management.. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. The Works: Anatomy of a City.. 2006.1990. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. UK. 2000. 46 . A. Levels of planning. New York. USA. 5. Hejny. USA. Land use planning theories. Penguin Group. Planning theories and concepts. CRC Press LLC. Elements of urban planning. Chapman and Hall. 2004.S. 1989. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. 2007. I. London.

B. 4. Boulder . Techniques and methods to assess hazard. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. Clara. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. Earthquake. Disaster as an opportunity for development. 3. Longman Group.F.. Natural Disasters Alexander.W. UK.. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. R. H. 1993. Physical factors. 1993. Flooding. Hazards. Introducing Town Planning. New York. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies.e. Islamabad. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. Disaster Management: Components of management. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. Natural cycles and their role. Cultural factors. Political factors..3. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. Flood Management: Organizational Role. i. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. The Guilford Press. 47 .J.. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. E&UA Div. 1986. Landslide. Kates.UNESCO. 2. International phenomenon. 1993.. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. Recommended Books: 1. Chapman & Hall. P. 1989. and Woodrow. New York.. Westview Press. Paris. Role of Media in Disaster Management. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. M. 1991. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. Government of Pakistan. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. It discusses a wide range of aspects..W. Ministry of Housing and Works. Socio-economic factors. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. and White G.. 2nd Edition. Earthquake Management. G. Different approaches and Indicators. D. ADB. Manila. 4. Prediction.

E. energy resources. D.L. and Yonavjak. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. 2. Schoch. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. primary producers. Botkin. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Consumer and producer relationship. 3. 1. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions.B and Keller. 6th Edition.W. 2007.H. 48 .. 4th Edition. OECD/IEA. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. local. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. 2007. John Wiley and Sons. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. New York. alternate energy resources.5. Ecological concept in crop and food production. types.. Biotic structure.M. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. energy resources of Pakistan. sustainable energy management. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. Paris. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. merits and demerits of wind. decomposers. Agroecology. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet.. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. and Mushkatel. hydropower. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. Westport. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. Sustainable livestock management. Perry R. consumers. M. A. uses. Disasters and Development Cuny. biomass resources. L. Quorum Books. 2001. 1983. F. solar. R. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. 1984. 6. USA.C. McKinney.A.

Determination of density and abundance of plant species.G. Study of stratification and profile diagram. USA. and Rossel. Experimental Plant Ecology. 3. Agrocology. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. CBS Publishers and Distributors. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. M. E-11 Seminar 49 . Boulder.A.M. P. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. Westview Press. 2000. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture.. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. C. India. Altreri. New York.P. New Delhi.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. R.H. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. Yandermeer J. Kapur. 1990. USA. 1995. Study of index of diversity. Recommended Books: 1. 2.R. Corol. and Sudha.

The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. 50 . The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. that: 1. availability of the faculty and other facilities. the Committee agreed on the following principles. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. 3. 2. 4. 5. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme.

23. 10. 6. 14. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 22. 26. 6. 16. 8. 18. 9. 17. 7. 8. 7. 11. 25. 24. 15. 9. 13.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 21. 4. 2. 20. 4. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 2. 3. 11. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 5. 5. 12. 10. 3. 12. 19. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme.

S. 1991. Oxford University Press. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. Hansen. London Black Stone Press Ltd. technology and resource use. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. F. Mackenzie J. Draft National Environmental Policy..1994.A.S. 3. 52 . London. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. Recommended Books: 1. FURTHER READINGS 1. 1992. Islamabad. Environmental control Policies. Khan K. 2.T. Geography of Pakistan. S. GOP and IUCN.. D. Conventions and Protocols in Global. Hodder and Stoughton.1995. Environment People and Economy. 1987. NCS. Mackenzie. Regional and International Environmental Issues. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan.E. Money. Elsevier. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future.E. WCS. and Bell. S. Instruments and methods. 2. Conservation Strategies. Relationship of culture. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. Provincial and Local Strategies.1994. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. 4. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. development of concepts. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. Ball. P. Amsterdam.DETAILS OF M.1991.. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. 3. Treaties. 2nd Edition..F.. Karachi. and Jorqensen. Oxford University Press. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. status of Terrestrial.

Environmental auditing.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. 1995. Recommended Books: 1. Government of Pakistan. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). 1995. Ministry of Environment. Ahmed. 53 . World Bank. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. 2. Harlow Essex. DC. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. Wood. Demographic impact assessment. Recommended Books: 1. A. sampling rules. process. 2.A. C. 3. John Wiley & Sons. Burnt Hill. ed. Environmental Chemical Analysis. F & Bronstein. A one Publishers Lahore. procedures and methods of EIA. economic impact assessment. 1993. ecological impact assessment. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. FURTHER READINGS 1. Chichester. Assessment of environmental impacts. UK. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. sample collection and preservation. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. Ed. Cost benefit analysis of projects. K. Washington. Environment Department. D. Air and Solid Waste. Longman House. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). social impact assessment. Principles of physical. Case Studies and review.. WB. England. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. opportunities and issues. role and importance. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants.Vanclay. Longman Scientific and Technical. History. Gas Chromatography etc. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. Wastewater.

T. Project Initiation. means of verification. Kjelllström. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. de Kok. J.. Oxford University Press New York. 2. 3. T.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). inputs. Lippmann. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne.. assumptions. and Wright. Public health concept. development objectives. 5. B. J. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. Resource Mobilization. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. 1st Ed. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. 54 . A. Project Planning and Approval Processes. L.. 2002. specific objectives. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. 1998. T. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. Project Life Cycle. S. John Wiley and Sons.. indicators. Reasons for Project success or failure. 2001. UK.. Prentice Hall International Inc. Occupational Health: problems and issues. prevention and control. 4. Primary health care services. Planning Commission Performas.. Caeneross. activities. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. Meredith J. M/S Banarsid. Mantel s. USA. 2nd Ed. work breakdown structure. R. New York. T. Inc. safety techniques. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. 1997. outputs. Recommended Books: 1. 1992. M. London. 2. Basic Environmental Health. Park. 1993. Ergonomic and Safety. 1st ed.. Writing Project Proposal. Project Management Institute. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. Project Planning. K. air borne. 1st Ed.. Accident prevention and safety plans. and Guidotti.. feasibility study. Need identification. economic evaluation. USA. Government Policies and Programs. R. Yassi. Wiley Interscience.2000. Nebel. Environmental Health Engineering. A Guide to Project Management. principles and practices. Defining Project objectives. Van Nostrand and Reinhold.

Sayre. industry and domestic sectors.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. petroleum. 2. types. 6th Edition. R. gas. Botkin.A. 1990b. energy resources. Sources of data. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. data collection and interpretation. 4. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. John Wiley and Sons. E. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. uses. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. 2007. hydropower. bio-energy resources.. D. 2007. 3. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. L. Paris. OECD/IEA. 1998. Michigan-January 2001. 55 . and Yonavjak. 3. 2. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. 2001. Paris.L.B and Keller. Recommended Books: 1. Recommended Books: 1. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. non-renewable and renewable. energy resources of Pakistan.M. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. nuclear) local. transport. principles and elements of the process of EMS. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. Environmental auditing. sustainable energy management for agriculture. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. D. Schoch. Related Environmental regulations. St Luise Press. merits and demerits of wind. ISO Central Secretariat. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Environmental Auditing. 4th Edition. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. Principles of cleaner production. McKinney. M. alternate energy resources. USA. Switzerland. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. solar.

2. (Ed. competition and coexistence.D. 2005. and Solutions. water resources. J. Shulze. Earthscan Publication Ltd.. and Solutions. Hardy. 3. Effects. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. human activities and vegetation dynamics. B & Jager. Green House Gases. vegetation dynamics. 2005. Vegetation Ecology Ed. Species richness.. 4. D. 1. E. Effects. Blackwell Publishing. etc. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. E & Muller-Hohenstein. D. 1st Edition. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Climate Change . The Green House Effect. UK. London. Oxford. Plant population dynamics.). John Wiley & Sons. 56 . 5. Recommended Books: 1. Modeling of climate change. Springer. resources and plants. Climate change and food production. Houghton. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. J. management and restoration. Blackwell Publishing. Silvertown. Maarel. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. John Wiley & Sons. 2005. geographical and temporal patterns. Hardy. Climate Change and Ecosystems. types and their climatic effects. plant invasions. ED. forests. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. T. Life history strategies of plants. John Wiley & Sons. Chichester. 2004. global aspects of plant ecology. Plant Ecology. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. types of climate change models. & Charlesworth. 3. Climate Change . Oxford UK. Berlin.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. 2. 2005. ECOPE 29. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. K. 2003. UK 1991.Causes. 2003. Beck.T.Causes. survival and extinction. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. J. Recommended Books: 1. Warrick. plant conservation.

Forest plantations. Protected areas in Pakistan. distribution and management. Extinction of species. T. Conserving Living Natural Resources. Biodiversity: An introduction.) Gaston. Roberts. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. UK. biological diversity. Threatened animals and plants. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. Wetlands. 4. 2002. 1984. distribution. And Bolen. Oxford University Press. S. Wildlife of Pakistan.J. Mcmillan. Loss of biodiversity. USA. 57 . habitats and ecosystems.(2nd Ed. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. status. 3. 2004. Protection and restoration of species. Sustainable forest management. 1998. threats and conservation. Oxford University Press. problems and solutions.L. Roberts. Recommended Books: 1. 1973 2. Cambridge. Wildlife Ecology and Management.D. Oxford University Press. 1992. K. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. Recommended Books: 1. & Spicer.J. Participatory forest management. distribution. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. S.J.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. UK. Establishment and management of protected areas. Blackwell Publsihing. Cambridge University Press. Oxford. Weddell. J. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. T. & Ripley. II). COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. their importance. deforestation and its control. Bailey. its causes. Rangeland management. 2. Oxford. Robinson. Essentials of Conservation Biology. Forests. types. I). 1986. Primack. 3. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation.A. their ecological and economic importance. W. J. Sinauer Assocaites.G. Protected areas. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. Principles of Wildlife Management. types. Publishers Sunderland. B. R.J. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. their types and role in conservation. London. John Wiley And Sons. kinds. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. Cambridge. Inc. Status of forests in Pakistan. Global and national biodiversity. Oxford. 2002. Consumptive. management.B. E. 5.

. Introducing Town Planning. Sustainable cities. Silberstein. H. Longman Group. The Works: Anatomy of a City. USA. urban political ecology. A. management of transport.. 2. Forms of urbanization. Kate. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. New York. Government of Pakistan. Penguin Group. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. CRC Press LLC. 1993. V. urban landscape characteristics. Clara. sanitation. Environmental problems of urban life. urbanization in Pakistan. USA. 58 . G. drinking water and solid waste in cities. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. 1986. 2004.. 4. future of urban centers.and Maser. Planning and Urban Change.. 2000. S.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. 2007. J. SAGE Publications Ltd. C. Recommended Books: 1. Ministry of Housing and Works. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Islamabad. 3. UK. London. urban systems and their characteristics. UK. E&UA Div. Ward. Urban land use planning and management.

Annexure .J. Thomson and A. 1997. Martinet. Practical English Grammar by A.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. Oxford University Press. a) Functional English Grammar 1. ISBN 0194313492 59 . Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. Third edition. Exercises 1. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase.V.

unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. intensive and extensive. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. Exercises 2.2. b) Practical English Grammar by A.V. Third Impression 1992. minutes of meetings. Thomson and A. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. Writing.J. 1997. Oxford Supplementary Skills. and speed reading. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Reading/Comprehension 1. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Upper Intermediate. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Reading. Martinet. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Fourth Impression 1993. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. Third edition. Oxford University Press. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content.

argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Writing. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Third edition. Writing. Third Impression 1991. Reading. Reading 1. Advanced. discursive. descriptive and argumentative writing). c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Third Impression 1992. Exercises 2. 2.1. Fourth Impression 1992. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Oxford Supplementary Skills. clarity. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . language. 2.V. content. introduction to presentations. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. Fourth Impression 1993. Oxford University Press 1986. Writing.J. Martinet. Thomson and A. form. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Practical English Grammar by A. b) Writing 1. Oxford Supplementary Skills. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). narrative. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Advanced by Ron White. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Oxford Supplementary Skills.

Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. descriptive. 62 . 3.(particularly suitable for discursive. argumentative and report writing). 2004. A Custom Publication. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. Kirszner and Stephen R. 2. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. Compiled by norther Illinois University. College Writing Skills by John Langan. Martin’s Press. Mandell. Kathleen Shine Cain. without taxing the taste of engineering students). St. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G.

Study the process of governance. Historical Perspective a. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. Indus Civilization ii. Mehmood. 1993. Muslim advent iii. 3. politics.Annexure . Ethnicity d. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. Contemporary Pakistan a. 1971-77 d. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. Lahore. Course Outline 1. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. 2. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. Location and geo-physical features. Safdar. b. contemporary Pakistan. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. Economic institutions and issues b.M. S. 2. 1947-58 b. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. 63 Books Recommended 1. Society and social structure c. 4. government. national development. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. S. People and Land i.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. State & Society in Pakistan. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. ideological background of Pakistan. 1977-88 e. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Karachi: Oxford University Press. . Zaidi. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Akbar. Shahid Javed. 1988-99 f. 2000. 1994. 1999 onward 3. 1958-71 c.

Pakistan Kayyun Toota. Lawrence. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. Vol. Zahid. M. 64 . 11. 12. 1980. Washington: American Enterprise. II & III. nd. Aziz. Sayeed. Ansar. 10. 1976. History & Culture of Sindh. Wayne. 1972. Ziring. Club Road. Enigma of Political Development. Pakistan Under Martial Law. 14. Afzal. Wilcox. Haq.K. Political Parties in Pakistan. 1993. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Institute of Public Policy Research. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Mehmood. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. 1980. I. 1967.5. Amin. 7. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1998.National Movement in Pakistan. 8. Lahore: Vanguard. 13. Khalid Bin. The Political System of Pakistan. Tahir. 9. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Islamabad.The Emergence of Banglades. K.. 6. 1987. Politics in Pakistan. Ethno . Karachi: Royal Book Company. Party. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. Noor ul. Muhammad Waseem. Safdar. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. Rafique.

W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .56.A. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.A.20) Related to thinking.A.Annexure .) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.57.19.58.21.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.40.Tadabar (Verse No1.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.A.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.6. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.

in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.

Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Studies in Islamic Law. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. International Islamic University. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. Bhatia.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad.S. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. IRI. Pakistan. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. “Emergence of Islam” .” Hussain Hamid Hassan. Islamabad (2001) 67 . Ahmad Hasan.

cube roots of unity. Wooton W. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Boston Swokowski EW. 1986. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. introduction to sets. matrix inverse. system of linear equations. 1978. types of functions. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. equations reducible to quadratic equations. types. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1.Annexure .D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. determinants. harmonic progression. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. College Algebra and Trigonometry. set operations. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Houghton & Mifflin. Cramer’s rule. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. not majoring in mathematics. Sharron S. functions. PWS-Kent Company. PWS-Kent Company. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. Boston 68 . Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. Beckenback EF. complex numbers. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. geometric progression. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. trigonometric identities. 1987.

inequalities. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. Ma. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Reading. Calculus (3rd edition). 69 . solution of equations involving absolute values. slope of a line. Addison-Wesley. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. Finney AR. 2005.2. PWS-Kent Company. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. continuous functions. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. equation of a line. not majoring in mathematics. intersection of two lines. Calculus (11th edition). change of variables in indefinite integrals. integration by parts. Davis S. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. 1995. John Wiley. left-hand and right-hand limits. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. integration by substitution. 2005. parallel and perpendicular lines. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. derivatives. not majoring in mathematics. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). differentiation of polynomial. continuity. angle between two lines. distance between two points. 1983. distance between a point and a line. New York Stewart J. various forms of equation of a line. Bevens I. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. functions and their graphs. USA 3. rational and transcendental functions. Recommended Books: Anton H. Boston Thomas GB.

the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. PWS-Kent Company. ellipse. locus of a point in various conditions. types of matrices. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. 1969 Kaufmann JE. Conic Sections: Parabola. PWS-Kent Company. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. nature of roots of quadratic equations. 1986. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. set operations. Analytic Geometry. determinants. types of functions. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. functions. 1987. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Introduction to sets. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. circles determined by various conditions. 70 . equations reducible to quadratic equations. inverse of matrices. Boston Swokowski EW. Cramer’s rule.Circle: Equation of a circle. system of linear equations. hyperbola. Boston 4. intersection of lines and circles. Freshman and Company. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. Scott. • Contents 1. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). College Algebra and Trigonometry.

‘Introduction of Statistics’. Latest Edition. Walpole. relationship of statistics with social science. 3. array. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. Measures of dispersion: Range. Kaufmann. variance. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. PWS-Kent Company. types of frequency series. quartiles. frequency polygon. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’.geometric and harmonic progressions. 2. Swokowski. R. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. R. E. E. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. moments. Wilcox. trigonometric identities. Boston. skewness and kurtosis.. 4. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. Books Recommended: 1. Latest Edition. characteristics of statistics. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. deciles and percentiles. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. discrete and continuous series. 71 . standard deviation.. tally sheet method. ungrouped and grouped data. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. E. bar frequency diagram histogram. W. cumulative frequency curve. circle and trigonometric functions. Latest Edition. individual.. Prentice Hall. 2. J.. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. Graphs: Graph of straight line. R. 5.

2005.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. Second Edition 1992. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. applications of integration. integration by inspection. 2002. theorems of differentiation. the inverse of differentiation. Inc. 11th Edition. Recommended Books: 1. 1983. Calculus. Davis. Solution of equations involving absolute values. Frank A. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. Contents 1. Rational Functions. Prentice-Hall. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. Inc. 6. H. John H. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. Gleason. 4th edition. I. • Integration Integration from first principles. Rational and Transcendental Functions. 6. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. Mathews. plane polar coordinates. 2. Schaum’s Outline Series. 1999. E. Continuity. Least-Squares Line. 8th edition. Hughes-Hallett. logarithmic differentiation. integration using partial fractions. and Transcendental Functions. logarithmic integration. W. Bevens. Anton. products. 2005. implicit differentiation. integration by parts. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. Leibnitz’ theorem. Inequalities. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. reduction formulae. integral inequalities. Jhon Willey & Sons. 3rd Edition. Trigonometric Functions. quotients. Continuous Functions. Swokowski. sinusoidal function. 2. substitution method. et al. Extreme Values of Functions. Calculus Single and Multivariable.Jr. Integration by Parts. S. special points of a function. Calculus. 3. McCallum. Elliott Mendelson. 5. Slope of a Line. Calculus. Equation of a Line. 4. Addison Wesley publishing company. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . Boston. Thomas. the chain rule. John Wiley & Sons. infinite and improper integrals.

hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. identities of hyperbolic functions. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. complex conjugate. modulus and argument. solving hyperbolic equations. multiplication. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities.Additions and subtraction. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. approximation errors in Taylor series. the difference method. arithmetico-geometric series. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. inverses of hyperbolic functions. geometric series. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. finding the nth roots of unity. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. series involving natural numbers. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms.

line to line. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. point to plane. orthogonal. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. vector product.5. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. moments of inertia. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. centers of mass and centroids. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. of a unitary matrix. Pappus’ theorems. Hermitian. the inner product. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. masses. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. 6. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. symmetric and antisymmetric. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. scalar triple product.

spherical polar coordinates 75 . divergence of a vector field.8. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. combinations of grad.

Poisson and Normal Distribution. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Change of origin and scale. Probability and Probability Distributions. Exercises. Unit 7. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Historigram. bias. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Moments and Moments ratios. Coefficient of variation. Collection of primary and secondary data. Stem and Leaf Display. properties of Good Average. sample design and sampling frame. Population. The Mode. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Unit 3. probability and non-probability sampling. Statistical problem. Bar charts. sampling with and without replacement. The semi-Interquartile Range. Constructing of a frequency distribution. The Mean Deviation. Exercises Unit 6. Absolute and relative measures. null and alternative hypothesis. Exercises. Unit 5. Unit 4.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Exercises.Annexure . Sources. Range. level of significance. Editing of Data. Discrete and continuous variables. Difference of means and proportions. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Presentation of Data Introduction. Standardized variables. Significant digits. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Unit 2. The Variance and standard deviation. Data. sampling and non sampling errors. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Test statistics. Empirical Relation between Mean. definition of outliers and their detection. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Box and Whisker Plot. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Graphs and their Construction. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Type-I and Type-II errors. Exercises. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Different types of Averages. 76 . Types of frequency curves. Exercises. Quantiles. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Histogram. Pie chart. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Diagrams. acceptance and rejection regions. Observations. Median and mode. Exercises. Rounding of a Number. Errors of measurement.

cause and effect relationships. Contingency Tables. Testing of Hypothesis. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. 1982. New York. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. 2005. Coefficient of linear correlation. r and R2. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. Exercises. Exercises Unit 9. F. examples.Single Population Introduction. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. Exercises Unit 10. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. simple linear regression. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. Kitab Markaz. Unit 11. Macmillan Publishing Co. 3rd Ed. its estimation and interpretation. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. Regression and Correlation Introduction. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. 2 Muhammad. Inc. “Introduction to Statistics”. 77 . R. Correlation. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction...Unit 8. E.

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