CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

2

CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
58

3

comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. dated December 4th 1976. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. 63. The world has turned into a global village. universities and other institutions of higher education. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. DR. R&D organizations. D773/76-JEA (cur. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions.). 2007 at HEC Regional Center. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. PROF. It is. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. degree awarding institutions. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. It also aimed to give a basic. therefore.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. Lahore. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation.ALTAF ALI G. the Federal Government vide notification No. and 36. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries.

National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. Preparation 5 . COL. R&D. OF CURRI. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. REC. PREP. OF NCRC. UNI. EXP. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. OF FINAL CURRI. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI.

Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Karachi from 28-30. Dr. Member 4. 7. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. Following attended the meeting:1. Dr. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Member 3. Lahore Member 6. Member 6 . Rawalpindi Dr. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Member 5. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline.

Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. 13. Member 15. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Dr. Member 14. Member 10. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Prof. Member 11. Member 16.8. Dr. Dr. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Dr. Karachi Member 12. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Prof. Dr. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. 7 . Dr.

Shafiq-ur-Rehman. Member 19. 1. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. Chairman. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses.17. Karachi. Secretary Dr. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Faisalabad Member 18. Dr. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. The meeting was opened by Mr. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. 8 . 2. Mr. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. Mr. Member 20. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. Director of HEC Regional Center. Dr. At first.

4. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. 1. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. 3. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. 5. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. The committee thanked Mr. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses.3. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . In last few centuries. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. 2. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. 6. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop.

professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. This committee. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. skills and behaviour patterns. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. ii. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. 5. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. in its preliminary meeting. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. Apply theoretical understanding. regional and global contexts. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues.

5. 4. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. The 11 .e. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. that: 1. The medium of instruction. 3. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. eight semesters in the semester system. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. A. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. 1. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. with consensus. Integrating natural sciences. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. 6. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F.. Sc. 2. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles.

Biology –I* 3. Psychology* . Introductory Economics* 17.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Biology –II* 9. Environmental Pollution 22. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Basic Chemistry* 4. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Environmental Microbiology 21. Environmental Physics 16. Introduction to Computer 14. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Introduction to Earth Science 8. Environmental Chemistry 15. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. English-II 12. English-I 6. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. English-III 18. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Climatology* 23.

Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25.24. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Climate Change 38. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. 44. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. ELECTIVE-III 42. Opt. Environmental Biotechnology 32. Applied Ecology 26. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. Natural Resource Management 40. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. 46. Environmental Management Systems 34. English-IV/ Univ. Environmental toxicology 27. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. 45. Environmental Economics 29. Environmental Monitoring 36. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31.

• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .

Botkin. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates.M. poverty and resource depletion. McKinney. R. Recommended Books: 1. 2. Miller.. ethical. Major components of environment: physico-chemical.L. & Yonavjak. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. its importance in human life.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. urbanization. biological and social. 2007. R. B. and their relationships with various environmental factors. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. 10th Ed.A.T. 2002. 2007. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . Different aspects of environment: physical. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. ecological. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. 2007 3.. 4th Ed. 6th Ed.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. E. 15 . Wright. current global. socio-economic. D. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. national. development in industry and agriculture. Human environment and its problems: global. 4. & Nebel. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. regional. Pearson Educational. philosophical. John Wiley & Sons.B & Keller. history.J. L. Schoch. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. proteins and nucleic acids. lipids. M. G. environmental pollution. Thomson Learning.

C. 3. Lingappa. L. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. Aromatic compounds. amines). Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. lipids. Self Assessment and Revie. Starr. R. Structure and the basis of function. Crossley.. Nucleic acids. Origin of life: chemical evolution. lipids. J. and Whitelaw. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. Bulter. Molecular Biology through Questions. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 4. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. covalent. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Ionic. USA. Australia . Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. 5th Edetion. Biology: a Human Emphasis. 2008. esters. Cell division. Shier. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. 1. Cassimeris. 5. proteins. USA. carbohydrates. Plopper. phospholipids in membrane systems. New York. Wadsworth Group. 2003.. G. and Lewis. protobionts. Introduction to cell biology. coordinate covalent bond. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. the molecule of genetic information and replication. 1996. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. Ltd. N. 16 . 2007. V. Cells. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. D. McGraw. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. A. USA. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. polypeptides in protein diversity. 2. E. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. M. 8th Ed. chemical basis of life. Canada. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. 2007. carbonyls.. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. R. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. origin of metabolism. Lewis. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. chemical diversity. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. B.. carboxylic acids.. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards.Hill International Edition.

and Reid. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. P. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. 2004.E. 3. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Skoog. law of Cosines. Photochemical reactions.. Thomson and Brooks. 2004. EC and TDS in waste water. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. Thin layer chromatography. Colloids chemistry. M. Surface chemistry. Recommended Books: 1. D. USA.H.D.. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). Use of spectrophotometric techniques.. Qualitative Chemical Analysis..Special Products (Binomial Expression). graphs. Understanding Environmental Pollution. UK. Jickells. 2004. 2. 6th Edition. double angle formulas. 2nd Edition. Measurement of pH. 4. Blackwell Science.C. 17 . Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis.. 2003. D.J. Harris. Algebra of matrices. normal solutions/buffers. UK. real line. expansion of determinants. series and means.. straight line and related concepts. molal. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. Lab Work Preparation of molar. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Column chromatography.. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. 2nd Edition. values of trigonometric functions. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. USA. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. 2005. Liss. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles.. and Holler. Brimblecombe. Andrews. B. Jones and Barlett.ions. 1st Ed. Hill.E. T.S. Girard. 8th Edition. Solution chemistry. J. W. simultaneous equations and their solutions. Freeman and Company.K. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. P. equations of lines (linear equations). Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). F. angle-sum formula. D. West. radicals. determinants. J.M. Canada. 5. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations).J.A. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. Cambridge University Press. geometric and harmonic sequence.. minor and cofactor of a matrix. Osmosis and Dialysis.

Fossils and their significance. earthquakes. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. L. Weathering. R. Introduction to rocks and minerals. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. igneous and metamorphic rocks. 18 . Chain rule. Abraham.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. plate tectonics. California. earthquakes and volcanoes. foliation. mountain building. Introduction to folds. the processes of their formation. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. 4. Addission. composition and its internal structure. nonrepeated linear factors. Scott Foresman and Company. irreducible quadratic factors. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. 4th Ed. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. theorem of integration. Smith. Jr. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. weathering and erosion. age. product and quotient rules without derivations). faults. lineation and unconformities. 2. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. Narosa Publishing House. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations.B. D. K. Recommended Books: 1. Trignometry for College students. Integration: Formulas of integration. 10th Ed. 3. Earth as a member of solar system. joints.Cramer’s Rule. Chatterjee. erosion and related landforms. difference. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. theorems on differentiation (sum.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . by parts integration (simple applications). J. Analytical Geometry. G. New Delhi. its origin. and Finney. Pacific Grove. 1999. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension.Wesley. cleavages. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . Introduction to sedimentary. different earth processes like mountain buildings. S.. Thomas..

modern concepts. J. R. 2007 2. Tarbuck. 2004. and Tasa. Biodiversity of hilly areas. F. D.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. R. Use of brunton compass and GPS.. Prentice Hall: 2006. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. protocell formation. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis.. and Pun. Recommended Books: 1. 2005. Biodiversity of canal.. Tarbuck. Park. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. Lutgens. A. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. invasion of life on land. Lutgens. G. molecular basis of biodiversity. J. and Monroe. multicellularity. 3rd Edition. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. biodiversity crises. 11th Edition. animals). F. Lamarckism. measuring biodiversity. Geological time chart with biodiversity. 4. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. G. Brooks/Cole. different classification systems. 2007 3. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. and Tasa. unicellularity. 5th Edition. K. Wicander. Smith. 19 . interactions among diversified life.. Routledge. K.Identification of rocks and minerals. Foundations of Structural Biology. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . causes of extinction. E. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. Prentice Hall. population loss and decline. Prentice Hall. How Does Earth Work. D. J.. Earth Science. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. E.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. Field Study tour. Geographical aspects of biodiversity.. Life in sea. 5. 9th Edition. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. Darwinism. examples of adjustments in varied environment... Biodiversity of deserts. Physical Geology and Process of Science. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. consequences of losing biodiversity. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology..

The Biosphere. Understanding the environment-human relationship. Contemporary environment issues and debate. Goals and expectations. J. L. Routledge.K. Use of environment for vested interest. C. Biodiversity (An Introduction). Walnut Creek.. P. and Spicer. Inc. Crumley. Allan & Carter. New York: New York University Press. Townsend. 2001. Scope and application. globalization and environmental issues. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology.. Culture. 2009. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. Adam. Perspective of human-environment evolution. 5th Edition. (editor). 2000. K. Conceptualizing environment. Wadsworth Group. and concerns. UK. I. The Ecology of global consumer culture. 2nd Edition. 3. UK. John Wiley and Sons. Prospect Heights. culture and society. (editors). R. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. CA: AltaMira Press. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . I. Gaston. Blackwell Science Ltd. power & hegemony. Inc. IL:WavelandPress. 2009. Consumption. 2. USA. J. Recommended Books: 1. Hannen. 2.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. Bradbury. 20 . Chronological. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. 2005. and Sustainable Living. 2003. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. 3. K. UK. 4. Contemporary environmental status. Starr. a Human Emphasis. 2006. Nora and Wilk. C. Biology. Tripartite nature of environment. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. Environmental Risks and the Media. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse.

lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. 6. Courter. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion.1999. Introduction to MS-Word. software packages.London 1996.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. Ms-Power Point. internet. Storage hardware. Recommended Books: 1. Course Outlines Definition. e-mail. Selin.. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. Ed.5. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. as are their effects on the biosphere. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. Local Area Network. 2. Long l. computer programs and basic applications. 2003. G. Marquis A. system software.H. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures.Microsoft office 2000. 21 . Rutledge. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Operating system (Windows).A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . output hardware. Software: Application software. Types and classification of computers. Hardware: Input Hardware. Configurations. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere.. Long N. Ms-Excel. processing hardware.6th Ed. K. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . Ms-Access. Fundamentals of computer. Milton.

.. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Transport of pollutants. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry.. 4.D.. P. Isotopes and radioactive decay. 2004. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. Energy conversion. J. Turbulence.J.. Human perceptions and noise criteria. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. DoriaSerrano. Active control of sound. Liquids and Gasses. Solids. photosynthesis.M. 2nd Edition. its causes and adverse effects on environment. Ozone chemistry. Heat radiation and heat transfer. Turbulent jets and plumes. 2008. Fundamentals of aquatic. J. trophic level. UK. M.S. Brimblecombe.T. Girard.. 5. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. Andrews.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. P. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Electromagnetic radiation. Turbulent diffusion. Blackwell Science. and Singh. Ozone and UV light. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental impact of various industries. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. Miller. Environmental Science. 3.. Global climate and climatic change. Fregoso-Infante. Diffusion. Conversion of mass. B. J. G. Environmental Chemistry. Thomson-Brooks. USA. Energy. Basic acoustics.E.. 2005. K. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. Canada. M. A.. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. Sound and Noise. Measurement and comparison of the 22 .G. Fate of pollutants in environment. 1st Edition. 2. Entropy. India. Ibanez. T. Samir. Jickells. Liss. their sources and toxic actions.E. 2004.. 1999. Springer. Particle physics. Chemical reactions. atmospheric and soil chemistry. Germany. Reducing the transmission of sound. Solar spectrum. Equations of fluid dynamics. Environmental Chemistry. Hernandez-Esparza. Jones and Barlett.. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. interaction of light with matter. C. Gaussian plumes in the air. and Reid. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. Nuclear energy.

Field visit. Economic management and environmental quality. S. World Bank Publications. 2. Boeker. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. Man environmental relationship. Economic functions of environment. poverty. G. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. Smith. UK. producer and community point of view. Guyot.1998. 3. 2001. USA. concepts and measurement. Environmental Physics. 2001. Yusuf. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental economics. 23 . Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. economic progress. Routledge. N. 2. and Pandis. Natural resources and the economy. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Seinfeld. S. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. Growth and Environment. USA. economic growth. E.Economic development. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. Introductory Environmental Physics. Sustainable development. Kentucky USA. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. Impact of economic activity on environment.. population and environmental quality. 2006. economic welfare and difference among all. C. Praxis publishing. R. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. Recommended Books: 1. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. 2008. USA.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. and Van Grondelle. Physics of the Environment and Climate. and Resource allocation. USA. 4. economic growth and its measurement. J. New York. P. M. H. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. 2008. 7th Ed. Pakistan economic context: National income. Producer behavior. interaction between ecology and economic management. Todaro. Measures for sustainable development. Economic Development. Wesely Publishers. Growth and development.

Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. and White. Portland 1967.. Callicott. the ethics of soil. levels of ecological organization. Swift. concepts and approaches. England. 2009. Introduction to ethical theory. R. 2008. 4. Palgrave Macmillan. London. M. J. Environmental philosophy and ethics. 2002. LLC. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. B. Ecology. its fundamental concepts. description of population. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. role of light. & Pierce. World Bank Publications. and systems ecology. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. biogeography. 3. Natural philosophy. ethics and ecology. population.. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . WCIV7AA. N. Environmental Critics of agriculture. temperature. 2008. Hanley. soil.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems.. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy.3. 4. Kessinger Publishing. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology.V. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. DeVeer. USA. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. B. Russell. 24 .. J. Shogren. C. 2. USA. B. A History of Western Philosophy. Frodeman. Farmington Hills. Touchstone Books. D. water. Economics. 2007. Recommended Books: 1. Ecosystem and its types. branches of ecology. International Thomson Publishing. community. species. Course Outlines Introduction. community and ecosystem.A.

Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. landscape changes and their importance. B. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. After completion of this course.L and Reiss. Ecosystem: structure and function. M. Thomson Brooks/Cole. and Barett. Microbial metabolism. 5th Ed. landscape ecology. Biomes of the world. M J. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. N. E P. community dynamics. M C J 1st ed.W. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. New Delhi. distribution limits. J. characteristics of urban. ecological modeling. New York. 1992. UK. Dash. Ecology (concepts and applications. productivity of different ecosystems. 2004. J. Cambridge University Press. Fundamentals of Ecology. C. plant geography and animal distribution. Tata McGraw-Hill. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). 1st Ed. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. UK. Biogeochemical cycles of C. Recommended Books 1.topography and air as ecological factors. 6th Ed. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. population dynamics. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. and S. Systems ecology. Populations. Ecology (principles and applications). and More. C. G. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. 3. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. bacteria and eukarya. Odum. Chapman. P. WCB/McGraw-Hill. King’s College London. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. Concepts of Limiting factors. 1999 4. Lab Work 25 . various concepts of community.) Moles. aquatic microbiology. Fundamentals of Ecology. biotic factors. 2000. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. Population distribution and abundance. students will be able to understand the significance. habitat and niche. 2001 5.Cox. 2.

J.M. and Stetzenbach.. (Elsevier) USA.V. J.1998.P. transportation & treatments. Sylvia.Gerba. 2007. Prescott. Noise.F. 2005. Solid Waste generation.L. Prentice Hall. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. Hill. USA. Human & other living organisms. Pollution Control Strategies.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. Academic Press. Dilution plate technique.. Microbiology. C. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. R. Cambridge University Press. USA. USA. Recommended Books 1. L. P..C. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines.K. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. Butterworth-Heinemann. R. Pepper.A. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal.D. McGraw Hill Inc.J. Marine & Industrial pollution. Weiner. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. and Gerba. Crawford.M. Academic Press. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution.. F. C.. 1995. D. isolation. UK.I. purification and preservation. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). Academic Press.J. Maier. Case Studies. A. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. M. Soil. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual.M. Harley. 2. Environmental Microbiology. Knudsen.. 2002. D. J. Understanding Environmental Pollution. USA. Fate of Environmental Pollutants.L.. Effects of Pollutants. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. Water. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. 26 . M. Peiece. Fuhrmann.and Vesilaind. 3. 4. Washington DC. D. P. 5. and Zuberer. American Society for Microbiology. Cambridge UK.and Brendecke.. Collection.G. 2nd Edition.J.P. Mean plate count. London.. Hartel. its sources and their effects. 2 Edition. G.R. 3. 2005. McInernery. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. USA. and Klein. and Jeffery. I. Environmental Pollution and Control. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution..A. Recommended Books: 1. 2005.J. 2.P. L. 4th Edition. Hurrst.W..B.A.L... W. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. peppor.J. New Jersey. 2009.

Royal book company.M. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. Four Spheres of the Earth. climatic zones of Pakistan. John Wiley and Sons. 4. 2003. Recommended Books: 1. A brief historical background and schools of psychology.J.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. Karachi.. The climate of Pakistan.. condensation and cloud Formation. Houghton J. Cloud Classification. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. John H. American Public Health Association (APHA). Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. The Hydrologic cycle.. Tarbuck. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. 5.W. 27 . Spyros. . K. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. Lawrance K. Methods of psychology. 2006 5. 1988.. air pressure. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. Sadder. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. A. 3. 6th Edition. Austin Miller.4. local winds. Cambridge University Press. Weather and Climate. global circulation. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. 2. Lutgens. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. Pandis. The Physics of Atmospheres. Surface winds. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). Climatology. Solar radiations. N. Radiation and climate. Shamshad.E. 2002. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. Environmental psychology. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment.2nd Editions. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. The Atmosphere.K. Factors affecting air Pressure. 1992. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater.F. Mechanism of heat transfer. Marcel Dekkar.

energy and carbon balance.. soil erosion and conservation. M. Water and distribution of species.W. their management and ecological restoration. 1992. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. Fisher J. Sustainable agricultural practices. Bell. P. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change.D. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. Environmental Psychology. soil resources of Pakistan. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Soil as a natural resource. Pollution control through Ecology. carbon dioxide and global climate change. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. Water as an ecological resource. 2. Ecological restoration. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. Recommended Books: 1. CRC Press. Sustainable livestock management practices. Eysenck. Environmental perception and cognition. sustainable agriculture. 5th Edition. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. Restoration of derelict lands. concepts. and Baum A. threats and mitigation. Routledge. Background and scope. solar radiation and primary production. limitation of irrigated agriculture. High population density and psychological impacts. techniques and methods of restoration. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. Future water scenario of Pakistan.characteristics and research methods. 28 . Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. 2001. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. CRC Press. London. Course Outline Introduction. Fundamental of Psychology. London. Greene. T. soil salinity and water logging. Ecology of food production. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation.C. rivers. species response to pollutants. Routledge..A.

Thomson Brooks/Cole.A. dose response relationship in living organisms. 2000 2. Peshawar. 5th Edition. Fundamentals of Ecology. Israr-ud-Din. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. Studies in Pakistan Geography. toxicity screening using microbial systems. J. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. G. 4. Soil Science. toxins vs toxicants.. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. 2006. 1989. Island Press. their containment and control strategies. K. E. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. Pakistan’s Environment. D.I. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents.National Book Foundation. toxicology of chemicals. on human and other living organisms. soil and air samples. Immunological considerations in toxicology. Newman. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Odum E. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. and Hobbs. Shirkat Gah. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. Rashid. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. Organs. Lahore. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. 2004. and Barett. P. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. from natural and anthropogenic sources. Oxford. water and soil. Falk. A. Zedler. Chemical interactions and their types.1998. J.S. Toxicity: Types and its measurement.P. in vivo & in vitro assays. terminologies: Poisons. University of Peshawar. Potentiation and Addition. biological effects. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. Synergism.. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. 29 . R.W. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals.. 2nd ed. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. B. Islamabad. 5. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. K and Habib. Margaret A.Recommended Books: 1. A. USA. 1996. and Memon. toxins & toxicants.. 3. Mumtaz. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications.

land. USA. Klassen. 5th Edition. P. economic aspects of different environmental problems. economic development and the environment. water resources. 1996.2005 2. pollution control-a general model. 1992. 1993. geography. 3. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. B. Course Outlines Introduction. Ballantyne.). Williams. Hughes. W. General and Applied Toxicology.Science of Poisons . valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. (ed. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. Recommended Books 1. USA. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. State of the Environment-Pakistan . 1st Edition. culture. Vol. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. Recommended Books: 30 . Economic: agriculture. Course Outlines Introduction to history. CRC Press Llc. measuring environmental benefits. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements.M. M. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. 1st Edition.Recommended Books 1. education. people. clean development mechanism.D. the economy and the environment. W. industry.1 & 2. urbanization and pollution. Government of Pakistan. topographic zones. Ecological: ecological zones. T and Turner. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. 3. Macmillan Press Ltd. international trade and the environment. health. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. major ecosystems. USA. McGrawhill.. 2005 2. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development.

3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. 2003. Harris.R.K.. Pearce. Sparrow and D. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. Freeman & Co. 2005.and Field. Recommended Books: 1. preparation and storage. Reuter. 1999.W. precision and accuracy. Gravimetery. Holler. 2. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. C. 6th Edition. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. 3.. D.I. Titrimetery. A. and F. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. Oxford. and Batemen.. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Lab Work S.. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). 3. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. Skoog. 4. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions.C. M.I. Turner. water and plant analysis. 1993. Standard solutions and standard curves. Use of Potentiometery. salinity & sodicity). Peverill.2004. Data interpretation for quality control.1. J. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. M. 2. West. Conductivitymetry.J. All Solids. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. New York. C. USA.UK. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. NO3–N & NH4-N). I. 8th Edition. and derived S. Gravimetery. handling. D.2002. units.. BOD. Collingwood. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction.K.D. Thomson and Brooks. Kolstad. B. Environmental Economics. Field. K. Australia. Johns Hopkins University Press. D. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. D. L.L. COD. Fluoride. Conductivitymetry. CSIRO Publ. Titrimetery. Sample preservation methods..A. Sample collection. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. 31 . Oxford University Press. Analytical techniques for soil. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. 2000.

bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. 2nd Ed. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. New York. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. Smith.).COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. purification and preservation of DNA. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual.. Isolation. Bioreactors. National Biotechnology Commission. 2005. and application of biotechnology in the environment. Tools in environmental biotechnology. National Biosafety Guidelines. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. USA. A. Oxford University Press.E. 2005. Course Outlines Introduction. Environmental Biotechnology. Germany. 4. Introduction to microbial kinetics. New York. J. J. and Josef. Biosensor.D.W. J. England. 3. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. Biomarkers. Chichoster. students will be able to understand the significance. 2009. Sambrook. Wiley-VCH Verlag. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. 2007. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. Recommended Books 1.1999. Scragg. Recombinant DNA technology. Biotechnology. D. W. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. and Russel. PCR. After completion of this course. 2. Hans- Joachim. (ed. 5th Ed. 2001.. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . USA. Cambridge University Press. Government of Pakistan. Derbre. USA. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns.P. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants.

5. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. 4. Rancez. eradication of the duplicated data. Harvey. Data acquisition. Interpretation. Cartography. R. Introduction to GIS. Preparation of thematic maps. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. K and L. Types of data used in GIS. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . Campbell. Active and Passive remote sensing. Energy Sources. Agriculture. Fishery and wildlife. Jensen. Guilfoud press New York. Aerial photography.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Forestry. A. Introduction to Photogrammetry. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. History and data collection. 2000. analysis and output. 2000. Inc. advantages and limitations of process. Inc. Image Processing. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Lulla. 2. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. Dessinov. Z. integration of information from many sources. Inc. Data entry and output. John Wiley and Sons. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. history and platforms. Using and reading GPS in field. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. 2008. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. 2009. F. 3. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). Pearsons Education. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Mc Graw Hill Education. John Wiley and Sons. Different types of maps. 1999. Satellite Imageries. V. map projection and coordinate systems. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation.

tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. threats to biodiversity. principles of Cleaner production. Michigan..3rd Edition . WWF Pakistan. 2005. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles.2nd Ed. M. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. need and approach. 3. and Yoxon. B. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). 1998. 4. 34 . Course Outlines Introduction. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. alpha and beta diversity. Systems and Support Techniques. plant. International Organization for Standardization. Certification of EMS. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. Methods of environmental protection. M.). hot spots of biodiversity. cleaner technologies. American Society for Quality. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. A.. F. American Society for Quality. and Qasim. Khan. 2. Environmental Economy. ecological. social and ethical values of biodiversity. economic. Related Environmental legislation. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. Conservation of biodiversity. 2006. eco-design.. Environmental Management tools.C. Environment and sustainable development. Sheldon. 2001. etc. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. Environmental Management Systems Principles. standards and guidelines. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. Environmental aspects and impacts. philosophical. types of biodiversity. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor.

R. A Primer for Conservation Biology. community and ecosystem level. management. Conservation of wildlife. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. Rawalpindi. Considerations. NOC for plant operation. soil and living organisms. Mirza. plants. Kings College. Recommended Books: 1. C. Sunderland. 2ndEd. London. 2. Publ.B. Sinauer. presampling requirements/information. air. refrigeration and freezing methods. Z. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. 35 . ecotourism. design and types of samples. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. P. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. 2000. conservation and livelihood. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. national and international laws and regulations. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. sampling and design purposes. P. international agreements. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. population. water. 1998.e. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes.D. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i.conservation at species. conservation in man-made ecosystems. 2000. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air.. Lahore). their categories. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. forests. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance.. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. laboratory custody. Course Outlines Introduction.B. Associates Inc. habitats.B. chemical addition. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. cities. protected areas. Cox. EIA requirement. quality control sampling. and Morre. quality assessment. croplands. 3. conservation strategies. Legal protection of species. Biogeography.. Preservation methods including pH control. field custody. Quality assurance and quality control. Saad Printers.

Energy and Temperature. (ed) Springer. Recent Climate Change Indicators. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. 7. altered community structure. Ozone depletion. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate.) McGraw-Hill. 2000. . 2nd Edition. S. Chapman and Hall. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. biological.1996. Murai. human health. Environmental Chemistry. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. agriculture. regional. Regional droughts and 36 . D. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. Physical. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. L. USA. UK. 6. H.. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. I.USA. (eds. 2008. Manahan. Precipitation. F. Lewis Publisher London. D. Chuviero. New York.1999. Forstner U. E. 3. McKlivie. Patterns in Winds and Pressure.. Human responses to potential climate change. USA. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. its causes and effects. Earth Observation of Global Change. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. N. Peakall. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. 2008. Burden. R. 2. Moisture in the Atmosphere. The Measurement of Climate Change. Remote Sensing Note. Tokyo. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. extinctions. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. and Guethner. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. chemical. 2002.Recommended Books: 1. 5. Keith. phenological changes. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. 8. E. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. 1992. 2002. S. Korte. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. USA.

Recommended Books: 1. Keith. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems.. J. 4. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. Routledge. and Chadwick. law.). mitigation and impact management. Harrop. Blackwell. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Effects. 37 . R. National Book Foundation. 2003. 6. 2003. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. 2005. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. J. Recommended Books: 1. review of EIA quality. Climate Change . and noise. solids. J. Islamabad. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. 2000. Hardy. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. project implementation and follow up. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. & Nixon. 4. 2004. T. John Wiley & Sons. Ministry of Housing and Works. A. Houghton. Main stages in EIA process. J. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. Islamabad. 1st Edition.Causes. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. Cost and benefits of EIA. liquid. 5. reporting.O. London. Petts. and Solutions. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. 3. Glasson. Types & Resources to produce Energy. 2005. Effects. public involvement.. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. 2. D.. EIA project management. Earthscan Publication Ltd. Global Change and the earth system.(ed). 3..cataclysmic climate change. London. 2005. Oxford. John Wiley & Sons. impact analysis.. Hardy. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. 2. Sringer. A.. 1986. 1999. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. scoping. social impact assessment (SIA). Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). decision-making to implement the project. Climate Change .Causes. Global Warming and Climate Change. and Solutions. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment.T. National Environmental Quality Standards for air.A. screening. 1994. (ed. overview.. Therivel. J.

. F. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. USA. existing management approaches. Development of Management Plan: needs. national example. threat and its causes. 2nd Edition.. B. management options. agriculture chemicals. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. Asian Development Bank. Types. Lohani. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. problem in agriculture. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. Everitt. R. Ludwig. methodologies. and Tu. R. their pros and cons.. A. 2002. H. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. management options. best available option for future. forest types and its existing management. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. their current status and threats.. national and provincial legislation. Recommended Books: 1. 1997. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. requirement. Carpenter. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. 38 . Goldsmith.. limitation in the future. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. M.5. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. Rangeland Management: existing status. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. B. solar power. Conservation in Progress. S. wind power and nuclear power. wildlife census. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development.. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. importance. & McCabe.. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. threats. John Willey & Sons. United Nations Environment Programme. national agriculture policy.B and Warren. Evans. effective management.). J. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. agriculture products and their share in GDP. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. Sadler. process and contents of the management plan. 1993. 6. (ed. causes and methods for its improvement. New York.

Sage CA. Islamabad. How to put things together? Introduction. New York. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Scientific Research: Science.F. 1990. Review of Literature. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research.2. & Plano Clark.E. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Thousand Oaks. GOP and IUCN. 39 . and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. Material Methods. 3. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. W. V.E. types of sampling design/. Literature Search: Database. Search Engines.. P. population and sampling frames. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. Dasmann. J. 2007. research methods. Questionnaire. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. Scientific Methods. Review of Literature. 5. Hansen. London. 1984. R. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. Sampling: the logic of sampling. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. Case Studies. 1992. 4. Interviews. Objectives.Amsterdam. Environmental Conservation. Bibliography. Surveys. Methodology.A pre-requisite for Research. Creswell. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice.L. concepts and terminologies. USA. to introduce students to research design. Research Design & Research Methods. S. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. Experimental Research. John Wiley & Sons. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). Research Proposal: its importance . Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. and Jorqensen. Inference based on findings. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. Elsevier. Selecting the Research Method.

1989. Law Books House. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 .. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. 1997. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan.2. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. and Arhonditsis. USA. Chichester. Babbie. National Conservation Strategy 5.S. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. S.Harrad. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. 2001. John and sons Ltd. Booth. Survey Research Methods. Sage Publishers. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. 2nd Edition. Students project in Environmental Science.h. 2003. 5. Marilyn F. 4.. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. of Chicago Press. Robert Yin.Batty. 6. Qadar. 2000. Wadsworth Publishing Company. 2. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. Belmont California. regulations made there under. 3rd Edition. USA.. 3. Government of Pakistan 3. 2008. 2003. Diamon. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. Recommended Books: 1. G. E. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. M. R. 1997. Moriarty. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. National Environmental Policy 4.. England. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules.USA. Univ.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. K.)..Varis. 44 . precipitation distribution in Pakistan.Lahore. watershed/catchment. and Qamar. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. water supply and demand management measures. N.. P. groundwater exploitation. water quality and quantity aspects. I. Mirajuddin Publication . 3. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. 2005.1993. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. Bengali. Islamabad.). Pakistan. R. Cheema. and Tortajada. 1993. C. Oxford University Press Karachi. Pakistan .. Mirajuddin Publication . Biswas. recycling and re-use of wastewater. and Malik. N. Islamabad.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan.. 4. tubewells. Revised & enlarged edition. (ed. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan.. A. 2006. The Politics of Managing Water. A. Asia Printer.. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. 2. fisheries management. O. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. U. A. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. pollution aspects. virtual water. 6. 2003. J. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources.K.. Briscoe. integrated water resources management (IWRM). SDPI Oxford University Press. 2006. Indus Water Accord 1991. 5. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. Oxford University Press New Delhi. with drinking water facilities like springs. flood and droughts. R. Ahmed. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. Khan. Recommended Books: 1. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. hydrological cycle. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. wetlands resources management. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). Lahore. Ahmed. (eds. flood and drought management.

Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. 11th Edition. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. USA. Urban ecosystem. Gardiner. Types and properties of parent materials. Soil degradation. urban settlements. 2007. Cation and anion exchange. Physical and chemical properties of soil. management and green productivity. Definition. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. N. 45 . Course Outlines Introduction. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. and Weil. Pakistan. R. urban flora and fauna. D.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. Soil forming minerals.C. Urbanization. Process and outcome. Forms of urbanization. Soils in Our Environment. the salient features of urban environments. San Diego. urban political ecology. PrenticeHall. soils.. Miller. transport. Academic Press. Brady. Soil Science. Islamabad. Prentice Hall. 1996. Causes of urbanization. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. National Book Foundation. hydrological processes. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. Factors and processes of soil formation. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. E. USA.R. Hillel. Course Outlines Introduction. CA.T. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. R. 1. urban patterns and ecosystem functions.W. Upper Saddle River. 2008. and Bantel. NJ. humans as components of urban ecosystems. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. urbanization in Pakistan. D. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. 2007.. urban landscapes characteristics. R. future of urban centers. Bashir. Upper Saddle River. NJ. After completion of this course. USA.

USA. The planning process. SBS academic publishing. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. 3.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. 2007. 1989.and Maser. 2004. 46 . UR. H. Justification for planning for city management. Sukopp.and Kowaril. Chapman and Hall. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. Smith. Alberti. 2. Planning and Urban Change. Ward. Planning theories and concepts. Hough. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. Penguin Group. Routledge. 1. 2009. S. 2004. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. V. Hejny. I. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. Gilbert. Planning and its relationship with other professions. Aims and Objectives of planning. SAGE Publications Ltd. USA. C. 2000. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. Springer. Levels of planning. M. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. J. London. Elements of urban planning... 4. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. New trends in planning and city management. O. CRC Press LLC. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. London. Principles of planning. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. Routledge.. 2006. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation.1990.. UK. Scope. A. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. New York. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development.L. Silberstein. Hague.. nd 2 Edition. 5. Recommended Books: 1. Types of Urban Plans. Land use planning theories. nature and purpose of urban planning. S. M. UK. UK. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Kate. 2. City Design for Sustainable Development. D.S.

. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. Recommended Books: 1. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. Political factors. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures.J. New York.. Hazards. UK. 1993..W. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). P. Westview Press. Earthquake. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. 4. 1993. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Cultural factors. 1986. It discusses a wide range of aspects.. Longman Group. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. Boulder . Role of Media in Disaster Management.. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. Landslide. Disaster Management: Components of management. Government of Pakistan. 3.. Flood Management: Organizational Role. 1989.UNESCO. 1993. 4. Flooding. G. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. and White G. Disaster as an opportunity for development. Natural Disasters Alexander. Clara. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. 47 . Different approaches and Indicators. Manila.e.. E&UA Div. D. Islamabad. International phenomenon. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. Natural cycles and their role. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson.3. Prediction. 2nd Edition. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. i. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. and Woodrow.B. M. The Guilford Press. Earthquake Management. Ministry of Housing and Works. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies.F. Socio-economic factors. Paris. Chapman & Hall. R.. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. Kates. 1991. H. 2. New York. ADB.W. Physical factors. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. Introducing Town Planning. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation.

Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation.L. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Consumer and producer relationship. 1. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. local. L. E. energy resources of Pakistan. A. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Schoch.B and Keller. Disasters and Development Cuny. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. uses. 48 . efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. Ecological concept in crop and food production. Agroecology. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. solar. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. energy resources.5. R. decomposers. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. primary producers. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. hydropower. New York. 2. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. 6th Edition. Botkin.. sustainable energy management. types.. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. 1984. Sustainable livestock management. 2007. Quorum Books.M. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. 3. consumers. F. John Wiley and Sons. M. Perry R.C. 2001.A.W. Westport. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. 1983.H. USA. McKinney. biomass resources. and Yonavjak. and Mushkatel. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. 4th Edition.. D. alternate energy resources. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. Paris. 6. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Biotic structure. OECD/IEA. 2007. merits and demerits of wind.

and Sudha. Study of index of diversity.Determination of density and abundance of plant species.P. Boulder. USA. R. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species.M.H. P. New Delhi. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. 2000. 2. Experimental Plant Ecology. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity.R. E-11 Seminar 49 . 1995. and Rossel. Study of stratification and profile diagram. USA. C. Recommended Books: 1.A. CBS Publishers and Distributors. Corol. New York. Agrocology.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram.G. Westview Press. M. Altreri. Yandermeer J. Kapur. 3. 1990. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species.. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. India.

it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. 50 . 4. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. availability of the faculty and other facilities. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. 3. 2. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. the Committee agreed on the following principles. that: 1. 5. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme.

5. 8. 9. 14. 20. 24. 4. 7. 11. 13. 19. 22. 3. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 17. 16. 4. 10. 5. 23. 2.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 3. 12. 18. 12. 6. 6. 2. 8. 25. 21. 10. 9. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 11. 26. 7. 15. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 .

D. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. 3.DETAILS OF M. Ball. Conventions and Protocols in Global. GOP and IUCN. 52 .. development of concepts. Geography of Pakistan. Amsterdam. technology and resource use. London. Hodder and Stoughton.T. status of Terrestrial.1994. Treaties. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. Environmental control Policies. Mackenzie. Hansen. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Money..F. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. and Jorqensen. 2nd Edition.1991..1994.1995. P. 1991.A. Instruments and methods. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. WCS. Khan K. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. Karachi. S. 2. Elsevier. F. S. 4. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Islamabad.S. Recommended Books: 1. FURTHER READINGS 1. 1987. 3. Provincial and Local Strategies.E. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. Draft National Environmental Policy. 1992. London Black Stone Press Ltd. Regional and International Environmental Issues.. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. NCS. Mackenzie J. Conservation Strategies. Oxford University Press. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. 2. Relationship of culture. Oxford University Press.. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. S. Environment People and Economy.E. and Bell.

Ed. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). Government of Pakistan. Air and Solid Waste. 1995. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. ecological impact assessment. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. 53 . John Wiley & Sons. Assessment of environmental impacts. D. Demographic impact assessment. Environmental Chemical Analysis. Burnt Hill. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis.A. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. Gas Chromatography etc. Recommended Books: 1. World Bank. opportunities and issues. sample collection and preservation. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. England. Wood. UK. 2.Vanclay. Recommended Books: 1. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. A one Publishers Lahore.. Washington. Wastewater. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. economic impact assessment. WB. A. K. Ahmed. Longman House. F & Bronstein. Case Studies and review. DC. 1995. Harlow Essex. social impact assessment. ed. Principles of physical. C. Cost benefit analysis of projects. 1993. procedures and methods of EIA. 3. Environmental auditing. sampling rules. Chichester. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. FURTHER READINGS 1. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. Ministry of Environment. role and importance. 2. process.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. Environment Department. Longman Scientific and Technical. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). History.

activities. Prentice Hall International Inc. safety techniques. L. J. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). development objectives. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. John Wiley and Sons. 1st ed. 3. London. Wiley Interscience. 54 . Caeneross. S. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. M. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. Yassi... Project Planning and Approval Processes. work breakdown structure. and Guidotti. Mantel s. Resource Mobilization. Project Management Institute. Project Life Cycle. economic evaluation. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. R. UK.. Writing Project Proposal. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works).. Reasons for Project success or failure. 2001. Nebel. 2. Primary health care services. Park. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. Lippmann.. R. 1997. Inc. 4. Planning Commission Performas. 1st Ed. de Kok. outputs. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. T. principles and practices. Basic Environmental Health. prevention and control. Recommended Books: 1. MS Project Recommended Books: 1.. 1993. and Wright. B. 2002. Government Policies and Programs. New York. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. Accident prevention and safety plans. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. Meredith J. Occupational Health: problems and issues.. Environmental Health Engineering. 2. Ergonomic and Safety. 1st Ed. specific objectives. means of verification. T. Defining Project objectives.. A Guide to Project Management. Need identification.2000. T. indicators. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. Kjelllström. K. feasibility study.. Oxford University Press New York. M/S Banarsid. inputs. J. Project Initiation. USA. 1998. USA. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. 5. Project Planning. T. 1992. A. 2nd Ed. Public health concept. air borne. assumptions.

L. 1998. and Yonavjak. Michigan-January 2001. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. 4. hydropower.M. alternate energy resources. John Wiley and Sons. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. 2007. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. D. Switzerland. 2. 6th Edition. M. merits and demerits of wind. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental auditing. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). data collection and interpretation. Recommended Books: 1.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System.A. uses. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. USA. 3. OECD/IEA. bio-energy resources. E. D. 2007.. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. non-renewable and renewable. 2. gas. solar.B and Keller. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. energy resources. 1990b. transport. St Luise Press. nuclear) local. Principles of cleaner production. 4th Edition. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. 55 . Related Environmental regulations. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. ISO Central Secretariat. 3. types. petroleum. Sources of data. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. McKinney. Paris. 2001. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Schoch. energy resources of Pakistan.L. sustainable energy management for agriculture. principles and elements of the process of EMS. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Environmental Auditing. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. industry and domestic sectors. Paris. Botkin. R. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. Sayre.

COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. (Ed. 2003. Earthscan Publication Ltd. & Charlesworth. Plant population dynamics. Modeling of climate change. Climate Change and Ecosystems. 1. Berlin. and Solutions. competition and coexistence. 2. resources and plants. E. geographical and temporal patterns. Oxford. 5. UK 1991. E & Muller-Hohenstein. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Green House Gases. J.. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. vegetation dynamics. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. T. J. Effects. B & Jager. Shulze. Hardy. 2003. Springer. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. 56 . K. Warrick. etc. Blackwell Publishing. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. Vegetation Ecology Ed. 1st Edition. ECOPE 29. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. D. Climate Change .D. Chichester. Recommended Books: 1. UK. London. Plant Ecology. human activities and vegetation dynamics. Life history strategies of plants.Causes. J. John Wiley & Sons. 2004. Silvertown. John Wiley & Sons. Species richness.. Beck. John Wiley & Sons. Climate change and food production. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. plant conservation. 2005. Houghton. Maarel. types of climate change models. 2005. water resources. global aspects of plant ecology. The Green House Effect. Recommended Books: 1. Oxford UK.). Climate Change . D. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. management and restoration. 2005. 3. Hardy.T. Effects. plant invasions. forests. 4. 2005. and Solutions. Blackwell Publishing. ED. 2.Causes. survival and extinction. 3. types and their climatic effects.

Oxford University Press. Roberts.J. types. Protected areas in Pakistan. Wetlands. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. deforestation and its control.B. Essentials of Conservation Biology. Forest plantations. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. Sinauer Assocaites. R.J. Robinson. distribution. Sustainable forest management. Protected areas. S. J. Establishment and management of protected areas. distribution and management. habitats and ecosystems. status. Loss of biodiversity.L. E. & Ripley. Mcmillan. 3. their types and role in conservation. Primack. Wildlife of Pakistan. threats and conservation. Cambridge. And Bolen. Publishers Sunderland. Recommended Books: 1. Forests. 1986. J. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Oxford. K. T. Status of forests in Pakistan. B.A. Global and national biodiversity. & Spicer. Cambridge. Protection and restoration of species. Cambridge University Press. 1998. Roberts. 2002. Extinction of species. Rangeland management. 2004. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. Weddell. London. USA. Consumptive.D. Oxford. their ecological and economic importance. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. 2. John Wiley And Sons.J. Participatory forest management. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management.) Gaston. UK. problems and solutions. their importance. Blackwell Publsihing. Oxford University Press. Recommended Books: 1. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. 57 . laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. types. Inc. its causes. 1984. 5. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. management. 3. Principles of Wildlife Management. 1992. S. W. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. T. Oxford University Press.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. biological diversity.G. 1973 2. Oxford. 4. Threatened animals and plants.(2nd Ed. 2002.J. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. Biodiversity: An introduction. UK. Wildlife Ecology and Management. Conserving Living Natural Resources. distribution. kinds. I). II). Bailey.

The Works: Anatomy of a City. Sustainable cities. urban political ecology. Kate. Planning and Urban Change. 2. CRC Press LLC. UK.. Clara.and Maser. 2000. USA. drinking water and solid waste in cities. Penguin Group. Ministry of Housing and Works. sanitation.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. Silberstein. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Recommended Books: 1. J.. H. SAGE Publications Ltd. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. 2004. V.. Environmental problems of urban life. urban landscape characteristics. London. urbanization in Pakistan. Introducing Town Planning. C. 1986. 4. 1993. 3. 58 . various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. A. UK. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. future of urban centers. USA.. Longman Group. management of transport. Government of Pakistan. New York. Islamabad. G. Forms of urbanization. urban systems and their characteristics. Urban land use planning and management. 2007. Ward. E&UA Div. S.

Exercises 1. 1997.Annexure . Third edition.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. Thomson and A. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. a) Functional English Grammar 1. ISBN 0194313492 59 . Practical English Grammar by A.V.J. Oxford University Press. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. Martinet. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase.

Upper Intermediate. and speed reading. Fourth Impression 1993. Writing. Third edition. intensive and extensive. Third Impression 1992. minutes of meetings. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Oxford Supplementary Skills. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. 1997.V. Oxford University Press. Exercises 2. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Thomson and A.J. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. Martinet. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing.2. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. b) Practical English Grammar by A. Reading. Reading/Comprehension 1. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin.

ISBN 0 19 453403 0. Fourth Impression 1992. Advanced. Reading 1. 2. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Oxford University Press 1986. Fourth Impression 1993. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Reading. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Third Impression 1992. clarity. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Practical English Grammar by A. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. discursive. form. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Oxford Supplementary Skills. 2. Advanced by Ron White. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Martinet. b) Writing 1. descriptive and argumentative writing). ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . Exercises 2. Writing. content.V. language. introduction to presentations. Writing.J. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). ISBN 0 19 431350 6. Third edition. Third Impression 1991. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3.1. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Thomson and A. Writing. narrative.

62 . Kathleen Shine Cain. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. College Writing Skills by John Langan. argumentative and report writing). Martin’s Press. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. Kirszner and Stephen R. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. 2. St. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. 2004. without taxing the taste of engineering students). (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature.(particularly suitable for discursive. Compiled by norther Illinois University. Mandell. A Custom Publication. 3. descriptive.

4. Society and social structure c. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. 1994. 1958-71 c. 1977-88 e. Shahid Javed. Karachi: Oxford University Press. 63 Books Recommended 1. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Indus Civilization ii. contemporary Pakistan. ideological background of Pakistan. State & Society in Pakistan. Lahore.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. Historical Perspective a. Mehmood. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. 2. Course Outline 1. 1999 onward 3. national development. S. Muslim advent iii. 2000.Annexure . Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. . 1971-77 d. Akbar. Safdar. Contemporary Pakistan a.M. Study the process of governance. 1988-99 f. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. Zaidi. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. politics. S. 1993. Economic institutions and issues b. 1947-58 b. 3. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. People and Land i. Location and geo-physical features. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. b. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. government. 2. Ethnicity d.

Pakistan Kayyun Toota. 1998. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research.K. Pakistan Under Martial Law. 14. Washington: American Enterprise. II & III. Wilcox. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. 1972. The Political System of Pakistan. Muhammad Waseem. 6. Club Road. Sayeed. 9. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. K. Amin. 1987. Institute of Public Policy Research. I. nd. 13. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. 10. Noor ul. Karachi: Royal Book Company.. 1980. Aziz. Political Parties in Pakistan. Enigma of Political Development. M. 1980. Islamabad. 1967. Khalid Bin. 11. Ansar. 64 .The Emergence of Banglades. Wayne.National Movement in Pakistan. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Safdar. 1993. Ethno . Zahid. Rafique. Tahir. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. 7. Mehmood. 1976. Lawrence. Vol. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. 12. Party. Ziring. Lahore: Vanguard. 8.5. Afzal. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. Politics in Pakistan. History & Culture of Sindh. Haq.

A.40.Annexure .A.Tadabar (Verse No1.21.6.A.56.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.58. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.57.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.19.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.A. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.20) Related to thinking.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .

in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.

“An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. Bhatia. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. Islamabad (2001) 67 . “Studies in Islamic Law. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. Ahmad Hasan. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. Pakistan. International Islamic University. “Emergence of Islam” . IRI.S.

PWS-Kent Company. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. Sharron S. not majoring in mathematics. PWS-Kent Company.Annexure . College Algebra and Trigonometry. introduction to sets. trigonometric identities. Houghton & Mifflin. system of linear equations. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. types. 1987. cube roots of unity. types of functions. geometric progression. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. Wooton W. harmonic progression. functions. set operations. Boston 68 .D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. Boston Swokowski EW. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. equations reducible to quadratic equations. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. complex numbers. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. 1978. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. Beckenback EF. matrix inverse. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. 1986. Cramer’s rule. determinants. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations.

not majoring in mathematics. distance between a point and a line. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. various forms of equation of a line. Recommended Books: Anton H. Boston Thomas GB. parallel and perpendicular lines. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. angle between two lines. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions.2. USA 3. distance between two points. Davis S. functions and their graphs. differentiation of polynomial. Calculus (11th edition). solution of equations involving absolute values. PWS-Kent Company. slope of a line. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. John Wiley. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. change of variables in indefinite integrals. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. 1983. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. derivatives. continuity. Bevens I. integration by substitution. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. continuous functions. 69 . not majoring in mathematics. New York Stewart J. intersection of two lines. left-hand and right-hand limits. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). Finney AR. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Reading. rational and transcendental functions. Addison-Wesley. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. equation of a line. 1995. inequalities. integration by parts. Calculus (3rd edition). Ma. 2005. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. 2005.

nature of roots of quadratic equations. Conic Sections: Parabola. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. determinants. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. circles determined by various conditions. 1987. equations reducible to quadratic equations. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). Boston Swokowski EW. Boston 4. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. 1986. 1969 Kaufmann JE. intersection of lines and circles. locus of a point in various conditions. Freshman and Company. PWS-Kent Company. types of matrices.Circle: Equation of a circle. • Contents 1. set operations. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. functions. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. Cramer’s rule. system of linear equations. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. PWS-Kent Company. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. inverse of matrices. Scott. Introduction to sets. 70 . • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. types of functions. hyperbola. ellipse. Analytic Geometry.

Walpole. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. PWS-Kent Company. 3. trigonometric identities. Prentice Hall. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. relationship of statistics with social science. E. Measures of dispersion: Range. circle and trigonometric functions. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. standard deviation. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. E. ‘Introduction of Statistics’.geometric and harmonic progressions. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes.. deciles and percentiles. Kaufmann. individual. J.. Wilcox. Books Recommended: 1. characteristics of statistics. moments. Latest Edition. ungrouped and grouped data. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. 2. W. R. R. quartiles. E.. tally sheet method. Graphs: Graph of straight line. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Boston. Latest Edition. Swokowski. discrete and continuous series. 2. frequency polygon. bar frequency diagram histogram. 5. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics.. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. variance. cumulative frequency curve. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. Latest Edition. array. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. R. skewness and kurtosis. 4. 71 . types of frequency series.

implicit differentiation. Anton. E. Rational and Transcendental Functions. Integration by Parts. • Integration Integration from first principles. and Transcendental Functions. Elliott Mendelson. et al. Frank A. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. John Wiley & Sons. 1999. 2. integral inequalities. Calculus. theorems of differentiation. integration by inspection. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. 8th edition. McCallum. H. Prentice-Hall. Thomas. Continuous Functions. Davis. 5. Least-Squares Line. 3. Trigonometric Functions. infinite and improper integrals. the inverse of differentiation. products. Boston. 2005. Calculus Single and Multivariable. Inc. 6. substitution method. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. integration by parts. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. Bevens. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. Solution of equations involving absolute values. Schaum’s Outline Series. 3rd Edition. Swokowski. Rational Functions. logarithmic integration. Inequalities. Jhon Willey & Sons. Addison Wesley publishing company. Hughes-Hallett. 2002. I. Leibnitz’ theorem. John H. Slope of a Line. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. 2. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. Calculus.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. 1983. Continuity. the chain rule. W. 11th Edition. special points of a function. Inc. plane polar coordinates. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. quotients. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. S. integration using partial fractions. Mathews. 2005. Gleason. 6. Second Edition 1992. reduction formulae. Equation of a Line.Jr. Contents 1. 4th edition. Calculus. applications of integration. Extreme Values of Functions. sinusoidal function. logarithmic differentiation. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. Recommended Books: 1. 4.

calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. multiplication. identities of hyperbolic functions. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. arithmetico-geometric series. modulus and argument. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. series involving natural numbers. the difference method. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. finding the nth roots of unity. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. complex conjugate. approximation errors in Taylor series. inverses of hyperbolic functions.Additions and subtraction. solving hyperbolic equations. geometric series.

centers of mass and centroids. point to plane. of a unitary matrix. Hermitian. line to line. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. vector product. symmetric and antisymmetric. scalar triple product. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. orthogonal. moments of inertia. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. the inner product. Pappus’ theorems. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal.5. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. masses. 6. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 .

div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. divergence of a vector field. combinations of grad. spherical polar coordinates 75 .8. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions.

Box and Whisker Plot. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Exercises. Ogive for Discrete Variable. The semi-Interquartile Range. Diagrams. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Types of frequency curves. properties of Good Average. Unit 7. Test statistics. Statistical problem. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Historigram. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Difference of means and proportions. Quantiles. Editing of Data. Type-I and Type-II errors. Rounding of a Number. Moments and Moments ratios. Data. Unit 3. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Exercises. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Exercises. Bar charts. Standardized variables. Absolute and relative measures. Median and mode. Stem and Leaf Display. probability and non-probability sampling. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. null and alternative hypothesis. Graphs and their Construction. Histogram. Exercises. Exercises. The Variance and standard deviation. Significant digits. Unit 4. Observations. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. bias. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Errors of measurement. Discrete and continuous variables. sample design and sampling frame. 76 . Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Pie chart. Collection of primary and secondary data. definition of outliers and their detection. Coefficient of variation. Population. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. sampling with and without replacement. Measures of Dispersion Introduction.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Probability and Probability Distributions. Unit 5. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. sampling and non sampling errors. Unit 2. Change of origin and scale. The Mean Deviation. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion.Annexure . Presentation of Data Introduction. Range. Exercises Unit 6. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Different types of Averages. acceptance and rejection regions. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Sources. Exercises. Empirical Relation between Mean. level of significance. Constructing of a frequency distribution. The Mode.

simple linear regression. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. Contingency Tables. F. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. Correlation.Unit 8. r and R2. E. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. Inc. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. 77 .Single Population Introduction. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. “Introduction to Statistics”. 2 Muhammad. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. its estimation and interpretation. Testing of Hypothesis. R. New York. Exercises Unit 10.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. examples. 1982.. Macmillan Publishing Co. Coefficient of linear correlation. Exercises Unit 9. 3rd Ed. cause and effect relationships. Regression and Correlation Introduction. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. Exercises.. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. Unit 11. Kitab Markaz. 2005. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful