CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
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By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. dated December 4th 1976. R&D organizations. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. therefore. 63. The world has turned into a global village. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. and 36. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. DR. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries.). universities and other institutions of higher education. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. the Federal Government vide notification No. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. It is. degree awarding institutions. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. Lahore. PROF. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level.ALTAF ALI G. D773/76-JEA (cur.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. It also aimed to give a basic. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 .

R&D. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. EXP. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. COL. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. Preparation 5 .CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. OF CURRI. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. PREP. OF NCRC. OF FINAL CURRI. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. UNI. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. REC.

7. Member 6 . Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Rawalpindi Dr. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Dr. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. Member 5. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Member 4. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Lahore Member 6. Dr.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Following attended the meeting:1. Karachi from 28-30. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Member 3. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean.

Dr. Karachi Member 12. 7 . Prof. Prof. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Member 15. Member 10. Dr. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Dr. Dr. 13. Member 11. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Dr. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Member 14. Member 16. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Dr. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9.8.

17. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. At first. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. Member 19. Director of HEC Regional Center. 1. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. The meeting was opened by Mr. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Karachi. Mr. 8 . compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Faisalabad Member 18. Dr. Member 20. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Chairman. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Secretary Dr. 2. Mr. Dr. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards.

These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. 2. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. 3. 4. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 .3. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. 6. The committee thanked Mr. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. 1. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. In last few centuries. 5. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development.

Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. Apply theoretical understanding. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. ii. skills and behaviour patterns. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. This committee. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. regional and global contexts. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. in its preliminary meeting.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. 5. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us.

5. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. with consensus. 4. The medium of instruction. 6. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. 1. that: 1. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. 2. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles.. Integrating natural sciences. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. 3. A. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. eight semesters in the semester system. The 11 . Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment.e. Sc. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft.

Climatology* 23. English-I 6. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Introductory Economics* 17. Basic Chemistry* 4. Environmental Microbiology 21. Introduction to Computer 14. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Environmental Physics 16. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. English-II 12. English-III 18.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Psychology* . Introduction to Earth Science 8. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Biology –I* 3. Biology –II* 9. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Environmental Pollution 22. Environmental Chemistry 15. Introduction to Environmental Science 2.

Environmental Economics 29. Climate Change 38. Natural Resource Management 40. Environmental Management Systems 34. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. ELECTIVE-III 42. Environmental toxicology 27. Environmental Biotechnology 32. Opt.24. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. Environmental Monitoring 36. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . Applied Ecology 26. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. 45. English-IV/ Univ. 46. 44. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41.

• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .

4. current global. biological and social.B & Keller. M. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. and their relationships with various environmental factors. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. lipids. Different aspects of environment: physical. national. Schoch. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. development in industry and agriculture. Thomson Learning. G.J. Miller.L. D. McKinney. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . John Wiley & Sons. R. & Yonavjak. E. ethical. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. Pearson Educational.M. 2002. poverty and resource depletion.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. its importance in human life. urbanization.A. history. 6th Ed. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. & Nebel. 2... Botkin. 4th Ed. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society.T. ecological. 2007. 2007 3. socio-economic. environmental pollution. Human environment and its problems: global. 15 . L. R. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. 10th Ed. philosophical. B. 2007. Recommended Books: 1. Wright. proteins and nucleic acids. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. regional. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet.

J. Ionic. esters. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. chemical basis of life. carbonyls. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. C. Lewis. and Lewis. 16 . Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. 2003. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. Origin of life: chemical evolution. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. phospholipids in membrane systems. coordinate covalent bond. carboxylic acids. Cassimeris. M. USA. New York. Structure and the basis of function.. G. R. Bulter. 2008. Cells. D. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. 2007. Aromatic compounds. protobionts. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. Self Assessment and Revie. 1. polypeptides in protein diversity. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. Crossley. Biology: a Human Emphasis. Australia . enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. 2007. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. 1996. Lingappa. 5th Edetion. origin of metabolism. lipids. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. proteins.. Shier.. R. amines). L. lipids. Wadsworth Group.Hill International Edition. carbohydrates. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. Ltd. 4. N. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Canada. 2.. Plopper. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. chemical diversity. 8th Ed. Starr. Nucleic acids. and Whitelaw. B. USA. 5. covalent. the molecule of genetic information and replication. Molecular Biology through Questions. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. McGraw. USA. A. Introduction to cell biology. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. V. Cell division. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells.. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. E. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. 3.

USA. 6th Edition. UK. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). 2004. Andrews.. 3. Jones and Barlett. W. geometric and harmonic sequence. and Holler. angle-sum formula. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane.E.. 2nd Edition. straight line and related concepts.H.S. Lab Work Preparation of molar. UK. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. Harris.J.M. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional).. expansion of determinants. double angle formulas. Photochemical reactions. J. Hill.K.. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. Algebra of matrices. West. USA. Skoog.ions. EC and TDS in waste water.. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Blackwell Science. J. D.D. Cambridge University Press. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. Solution chemistry. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. molal. 8th Edition. Freeman and Company. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. P. M. Qualitative Chemical Analysis.. Jickells. simultaneous equations and their solutions.Special Products (Binomial Expression). Measurement of pH. P. B. Recommended Books: 1. Osmosis and Dialysis. minor and cofactor of a matrix. Canada. 2004. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. and Reid.J. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. 2003. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. 17 . They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. F. graphs. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. values of trigonometric functions. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. Brimblecombe. 2nd Edition. T. determinants. 4. Column chromatography. series and means.E.. Liss. Girard. 5. 2005. 1st Ed. Thin layer chromatography. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula.A. real line. D. Thomson and Brooks. normal solutions/buffers. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. equations of lines (linear equations). 2004. Surface chemistry... D. radicals.C. law of Cosines. Colloids chemistry. 2. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations).

B. joints. faults. foliation. different earth processes like mountain buildings. composition and its internal structure. weathering and erosion. Narosa Publishing House. Abraham. 4. G. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. Chain rule.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. Earth as a member of solar system. difference. by parts integration (simple applications).Wesley. 4th Ed. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . theorems on differentiation (sum. Trignometry for College students. Fossils and their significance. irreducible quadratic factors. 3. Scott Foresman and Company. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. New Delhi. Integration: Formulas of integration. Introduction to sedimentary. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. Introduction to folds. Pacific Grove. earthquakes. product and quotient rules without derivations). S. Addission. Jr. age. its origin. 10th Ed. nonrepeated linear factors. Recommended Books: 1. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. D. earthquakes and volcanoes. California. cleavages. 1999. Introduction to rocks and minerals. 2. igneous and metamorphic rocks. Weathering.Cramer’s Rule. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. lineation and unconformities. the processes of their formation. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. and Finney. Chatterjee. L.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . J. theorem of integration. R. Thomas.. 18 . Analytical Geometry. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. mountain building. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. K. erosion and related landforms. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. plate tectonics. Smith..

taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. K. Brooks/Cole. G. protocell formation. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. Biodiversity of deserts.. K. J. 5th Edition. 9th Edition.. consequences of losing biodiversity. Foundations of Structural Biology. E. Earth Science. invasion of life on land. J. Prentice Hall: 2006... R. causes of extinction. 2007 2. molecular basis of biodiversity. Tarbuck. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. Darwinism. population loss and decline. Life in sea. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. Prentice Hall. Prentice Hall. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. E. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. Physical Geology and Process of Science. How Does Earth Work. examples of adjustments in varied environment. modern concepts. Lutgens. measuring biodiversity. Routledge. Field Study tour. D. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. Park. G. 11th Edition. 2004. Biodiversity of hilly areas. 5. animals). Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat.. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. and Tasa. Geological time chart with biodiversity. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. 19 . Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories.. J. Recommended Books: 1.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution.Identification of rocks and minerals. different classification systems. and Pun. Biodiversity of canal. R. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation.. Wicander. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. biodiversity crises. and Monroe. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. 2007 3.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. unicellularity. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. F. Use of brunton compass and GPS. and Tasa. 4. Lutgens. F. multicellularity. interactions among diversified life. Tarbuck. A. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. D. Lamarckism. 2005. Smith. 3rd Edition...

Hannen. Scope and application. C. and concerns. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. 2nd Edition. Townsend. J. globalization and environmental issues. Routledge. Perspective of human-environment evolution. Understanding the environment-human relationship. New York: New York University Press. 2001. Biodiversity (An Introduction). 2000. Starr. and Sustainable Living. UK. Nora and Wilk. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . Consumption. Blackwell Science Ltd. Contemporary environment issues and debate. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. Wadsworth Group. Recommended Books: 1. Allan & Carter. 3. The Biosphere. Inc. CA: AltaMira Press. UK. K. 2. Biology. J. 2009. Chronological. 4. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. Gaston. L. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. Bradbury. Culture. 2006. Use of environment for vested interest. 5th Edition. I. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. a Human Emphasis.. (editors).K. Walnut Creek. 2005. K. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. Tripartite nature of environment. 2009.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. Conceptualizing environment. Crumley. UK. C. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. 2003. Goals and expectations. Adam. power & hegemony. Inc. John Wiley and Sons. IL:WavelandPress. P. 3. Environmental Risks and the Media. culture and society. USA. Contemporary environmental status. 2. 20 . Prospect Heights. The Ecology of global consumer culture. and Spicer.. I. R. (editor).Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1.

Ms-Excel. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . Operating system (Windows). e-mail. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered.6th Ed. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. Ed. 2. Ms-Power Point. Course Outlines Definition.London 1996. Hardware: Input Hardware. Introduction to MS-Word. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. software packages. processing hardware. system software. Long N. Configurations. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion.H. computer programs and basic applications. Milton.. output hardware. Ms-Access. as are their effects on the biosphere.5. 21 . Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse.Microsoft office 2000. Kluwer Academic Publishers.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . 6.. Rutledge. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. 2003.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. Local Area Network. internet. Software: Application software. Types and classification of computers. Recommended Books: 1.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. Long l. Courter. Fundamentals of computer. Selin. K. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. G. Marquis A.1999. Storage hardware.

A. Germany. Reducing the transmission of sound. Thomson-Brooks.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. DoriaSerrano. 2004.E. 2008. Conversion of mass. Gaussian plumes in the air. UK.. J. Solar spectrum. Solids. 2nd Edition. Fate of pollutants in environment. Environmental impact of various industries. their sources and toxic actions. M. Energy conversion. Nuclear energy. Springer. Miller.. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. India. Electromagnetic radiation. Active control of sound.. Andrews. Environmental Chemistry. Canada. atmospheric and soil chemistry. and Reid. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. P. Turbulent diffusion.. Turbulence. 5. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Energy.E. 2. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. its causes and adverse effects on environment. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems.. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. trophic level. Turbulent jets and plumes.M. G. 4. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. J. Equations of fluid dynamics. 1st Edition. Ozone and UV light. photosynthesis. Chemical reactions. Hernandez-Esparza. Transport of pollutants. J. Heat radiation and heat transfer. Jickells. interaction of light with matter. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. P. Liquids and Gasses. Ibanez. 2004.. Fundamentals of aquatic.D.. 2005. Liss. Entropy. Global climate and climatic change. Environmental Science. and Singh.S. C. Blackwell Science. M. T. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light.G.J. 3. Isotopes and radioactive decay. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. B. K. Jones and Barlett.T. Diffusion... Fregoso-Infante. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter.. Brimblecombe.. Environmental Chemistry. Basic acoustics. Samir. Human perceptions and noise criteria. Recommended Books: 1. 1999. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . Sound and Noise. USA. Particle physics. Girard. Ozone chemistry.

John Wiley and Sons Inc. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. John Wiley and Sons Inc. 2001. interaction between ecology and economic management. Recommended Books: 1. and Van Grondelle.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. Economic functions of environment. S. poverty. 23 . Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. Introductory Environmental Physics.Economic development. 2. Environmental economics. G. N. Wesely Publishers. Natural resources and the economy. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. USA. Physics of the Environment and Climate. M. 2008. Kentucky USA. Man environmental relationship. 2. Recommended Books: 1.1998. Praxis publishing. R. 2008. population and environmental quality. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. Routledge. Smith. Pakistan economic context: National income. C.. economic welfare and difference among all. USA. Growth and Environment. Guyot. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. World Bank Publications. Measures for sustainable development. and Pandis. Yusuf. H. economic growth and its measurement. Boeker. 7th Ed. 3. 4. E. Sustainable development. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. Impact of economic activity on environment. USA. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. S. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. Producer behavior. New York. Field visit. economic progress. Todaro. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. Growth and development. UK. 2001. USA. 2006. Economic management and environmental quality. and Resource allocation. Economic Development. Environmental Physics. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. J. concepts and measurement. P. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. Seinfeld. economic growth. producer and community point of view.

community. temperature. B.. J. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. Ecosystem and its types. Course Outlines Introduction. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. Kessinger Publishing. England. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. Hanley. branches of ecology. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . 2008.. A History of Western Philosophy. Ecology. D. species. concepts and approaches. Frodeman. International Thomson Publishing.. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. B. 2002. role of light. Economics. London. water. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. WCIV7AA.A. 24 .V. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. & Pierce. ethics and ecology. description of population. Introduction to ethical theory. soil. biogeography. and systems ecology. Russell. DeVeer. R. and White. Environmental Critics of agriculture. 3.. 4. Portland 1967. Callicott. Touchstone Books. Swift. 2. Farmington Hills. the ethics of soil. population. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. community and ecosystem. 2008. N.3. its fundamental concepts. B. Environmental philosophy and ethics. Natural philosophy. USA. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. J. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. World Bank Publications. M. C. 2009. USA. LLC. 2007. Recommended Books: 1. levels of ecological organization. Palgrave Macmillan. 4. Shogren.

Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. G. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. and More. Dash. M.Cox. New York. landscape changes and their importance. 2.) Moles.topography and air as ecological factors. M J. 1999 4. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. Fundamentals of Ecology. Ecology (concepts and applications. and Barett. P. 6th Ed. N. 2004. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. E P. population dynamics. Ecology (principles and applications). their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. Populations. and S. characteristics of urban. 2000. productivity of different ecosystems. Biomes of the world. New Delhi. Biogeochemical cycles of C. Microbial metabolism. students will be able to understand the significance. 1992. Lab Work 25 . Fundamentals of Ecology. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). plant geography and animal distribution. C. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. Population distribution and abundance. Chapman. Ecosystem: structure and function. J. various concepts of community. bacteria and eukarya. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. distribution limits. UK. 3. aquatic microbiology.L and Reiss. 5th Ed. After completion of this course.W. Odum. habitat and niche. J. Cambridge University Press. King’s College London. WCB/McGraw-Hill. Tata McGraw-Hill. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Systems ecology. biotic factors. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. B. UK. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. community dynamics. Recommended Books 1. 1st Ed. ecological modeling. C. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. M C J 1st ed. landscape ecology. 2001 5. Concepts of Limiting factors.

Recommended Books 1. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. Fuhrmann. purification and preservation. Environmental Pollution and Control. 2009. J. Human & other living organisms.D.M. USA.K. UK. 2005. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. USA. D. 2005.V. Case Studies.W. 4th Edition. Microbiology... J. Collection. Sylvia. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). Academic Press..I. L.C.A. and Klein. Dilution plate technique.and Vesilaind. P. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. Harley. 2002.G. M. Solid Waste generation. Weiner. Noise. C. Types of Environmental pollution: Air.A.. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. American Society for Microbiology. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution.. F. Recommended Books: 1.A.F. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology.M. Maier.. London.1998. I. L.J. Hurrst.P. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. M. Butterworth-Heinemann.L. Knudsen.. 2 Edition..L. 5. Peiece. Mean plate count. 2. 4. R. Prescott. 2. Academic Press.M.. 1995. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. Hartel. Hill..P. and Stetzenbach. Marine & Industrial pollution.J. USA. 3. A. G. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. New Jersey. its sources and their effects. 26 . It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. and Zuberer. (Elsevier) USA. J. Pollution Control Strategies. 2007. 2nd Edition. USA. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. and Gerba. USA.J.R.Gerba. and Jeffery. transportation & treatments.L. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Water. D. Prentice Hall. Cambridge University Press. Pepper.and Brendecke. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. D.J. W. Crawford.P. Cambridge UK. Academic Press. 2005.J.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. P. Soil. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. C. Environmental Microbiology. Washington DC. isolation. Effects of Pollutants.B. 3. McInernery.. peppor. McGraw Hill Inc. R...

2006 5. climatic zones of Pakistan. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate.. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. Royal book company. Methods of psychology. Mechanism of heat transfer. Austin Miller. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. John H. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. Surface winds. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. Houghton J.W. Marcel Dekkar. 3. Environmental psychology.M. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. The climate of Pakistan. Lutgens. American Public Health Association (APHA). 1992. Spyros. 2003.2nd Editions.. 1988. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. . 2002. condensation and cloud Formation. Cambridge University Press. Four Spheres of the Earth. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications.. Lawrance K. Solar radiations. global circulation. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. A. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. Climatology. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere.K. 27 . 6th Edition. Pandis. Cloud Classification.E. Radiation and climate. John Wiley and Sons. K.J. Tarbuck. The Hydrologic cycle. 4. air pressure. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). Weather and Climate. The Physics of Atmospheres.4. Shamshad. The Atmosphere.. N. local winds. Sadder. Factors affecting air Pressure. 5. 2. Karachi.F. Recommended Books: 1.

T. species response to pollutants. Pollution control through Ecology. Course Outline Introduction. Sustainable livestock management practices. Routledge. Background and scope. Greene. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. and Baum A.A. Eysenck. P.W. Water as an ecological resource. threats and mitigation. Environmental Psychology. CRC Press. High population density and psychological impacts. 28 . Ecology of food production. London. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. sustainable agriculture. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. Fisher J. 1992. Routledge. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. Bell. Ecological restoration. Water resources of the world and Pakistan.. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. 2001. carbon dioxide and global climate change. Water and distribution of species. M.characteristics and research methods. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. soil resources of Pakistan.D. energy and carbon balance. Future water scenario of Pakistan. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. 5th Edition. Environmental perception and cognition. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. Fundamental of Psychology. soil erosion and conservation. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. techniques and methods of restoration. soil salinity and water logging. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts.C. their management and ecological restoration.. Recommended Books: 1. Sustainable agricultural practices. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. concepts. limitation of irrigated agriculture. London. 2. solar radiation and primary production. Soil as a natural resource. CRC Press. rivers. Restoration of derelict lands.

dose response relationship in living organisms. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. P. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. Oxford. A. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. Blackwell Scientific Publications. E. B. A. Margaret A. Odum E.. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. Organs.S. Rashid. toxins vs toxicants. Potentiation and Addition. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. Lahore. Thomson Brooks/Cole. 1989.Recommended Books: 1. Zedler. 5. 1996. Chemical interactions and their types. 5th Edition. R. Newman. G. toxins & toxicants. Pakistan’s Environment. J. Island Press. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. water and soil. and Memon. from natural and anthropogenic sources. Soil Science. biological effects. Fundamentals of Ecology. D. toxicology of chemicals.W. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. toxicity screening using microbial systems. Falk.. 29 . Studies in Pakistan Geography. Immunological considerations in toxicology. USA. 3. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. Mumtaz.. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. in vivo & in vitro assays. K and Habib. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. Islamabad. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. terminologies: Poisons. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. Peshawar. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. Shirkat Gah. University of Peshawar. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways.1998. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. J.P. 2000 2. soil and air samples. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications.I.National Book Foundation. 2006. and Hobbs. 2nd ed. 4.. their containment and control strategies. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. 2004. Synergism. and Barett. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. Israr-ud-Din.A. K. on human and other living organisms.

people. Economic: agriculture. McGrawhill. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. Course Outlines Introduction. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. 5th Edition.Recommended Books 1. geography. Ecological: ecological zones. economic aspects of different environmental problems. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. health. 2005 2. topographic zones.D. 3. Macmillan Press Ltd. Vol. pollution control-a general model. Ballantyne. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. the economy and the environment. Hughes. General and Applied Toxicology. 1992. USA. Recommended Books 1.. industry. clean development mechanism. CRC Press Llc. international trade and the environment. Recommended Books: 30 . B. T and Turner.). land. measuring environmental benefits. Course Outlines Introduction to history. economic development and the environment. 1st Edition. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. education. 1st Edition. USA. W. 1993. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. major ecosystems. 3. M. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. Williams. USA. P. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology.2005 2. Klassen. (ed. water resources. Government of Pakistan. W.1 & 2.Science of Poisons . culture. urbanization and pollution.M. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. State of the Environment-Pakistan . estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. 1996.

NO3–N & NH4-N). A. handling. B. Field. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. 31 .UK.R. and Batemen. Sample collection. I. D. and derived S. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. 2. water and plant analysis. All Solids. L.and Field.. Holler. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. D.. Conductivitymetry. COD. West. units. preparation and storage.2002. Analytical techniques for soil. 6th Edition. Johns Hopkins University Press. Use of Potentiometery. 2003. M.J.K. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. M.L. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. Titrimetery.1. 3. 2005. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. D. Sparrow and D. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. Reuter. 8th Edition.W. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Collingwood. Australia. Fluoride. Harris. salinity & sodicity). Peverill. J. Kolstad. Gravimetery.. D. and F. C. Titrimetery.I. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Thomson and Brooks. Sample preservation methods. USA. 2000.. Freeman & Co. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. Standard solutions and standard curves. BOD.. Oxford. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples.. Skoog. 3.A. 1993.C.K. New York. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. Pearce.I. CSIRO Publ. precision and accuracy.D. Data interpretation for quality control. Recommended Books: 1.2004. Environmental Economics. C. Oxford University Press. 4. 2. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. 1999. Lab Work S. Turner. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. Gravimetery. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. Conductivitymetry. K.

Environmental Biotechnology. purification and preservation of DNA. J. PCR. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments.. USA. USA.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution.W. Germany. Biotechnology. 3. 2005. Chichoster. Recombinant DNA technology. Smith. Hans- Joachim. Isolation. Scragg. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. students will be able to understand the significance. J. Introduction to microbial kinetics. New York. Sambrook. J.P. Course Outlines Introduction. and application of biotechnology in the environment. USA. 2001. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. 2007. England. Recommended Books 1. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. and Russel. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. A. New York.E. 2005. Government of Pakistan. Wiley-VCH Verlag. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. Tools in environmental biotechnology. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. National Biosafety Guidelines. W. Oxford University Press. 2. Bioreactors. and Josef..1999. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. Cambridge University Press. After completion of this course. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. Biomarkers. 2nd Ed.). D. (ed.D. Derbre. National Biotechnology Commission. 2009. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. 5th Ed. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Biosensor. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . 4.

John Wiley and Sons. 1999. Jensen. Satellite Imageries. Preparation of thematic maps. 2009. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Pearsons Education. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. V. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. F. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. Energy Sources. Types of data used in GIS. Inc. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). 2. analysis and output. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. John Wiley and Sons. Z. Image Processing. 4. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. Introduction to GIS. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Active and Passive remote sensing. Inc. 3. eradication of the duplicated data. R. 5. Data entry and output. Rancez. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. A. Data acquisition. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . Fishery and wildlife. Introduction to Photogrammetry. 2000. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. K and L. Interpretation. Agriculture.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. Cartography. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. Harvey. advantages and limitations of process. map projection and coordinate systems. Campbell. Guilfoud press New York. Lulla. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. 2000. Different types of maps. Inc. Aerial photography. Forestry. 2008. Mc Graw Hill Education. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. History and data collection. Dessinov. history and platforms. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). Using and reading GPS in field. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. integration of information from many sources. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission.

Khan. hot spots of biodiversity. M. principles of Cleaner production. Sheldon. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. Certification of EMS. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).. Conservation of biodiversity. American Society for Quality. Methods of environmental protection. Environment and sustainable development. standards and guidelines. 2001. etc. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. 2005. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). American Society for Quality. eco-design. B. 1998. 3. Michigan. plant. economic.. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. F. Course Outlines Introduction. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label.3rd Edition . Related Environmental legislation. philosophical. types of biodiversity. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. Systems and Support Techniques. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. need and approach. 4. A. 2006. social and ethical values of biodiversity. Environmental Economy. Environmental Management Systems Principles. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes.).. M. and Yoxon. WWF Pakistan. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. Environmental aspects and impacts.2nd Ed. threats to biodiversity. alpha and beta diversity. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. 34 . ecological. International Organization for Standardization. Environmental Management tools. and Qasim.C. 2. cleaner technologies. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles.

conservation strategies. Cox. their categories.e. conservation and livelihood. C. Lahore). field custody. Conservation of wildlife. ecotourism. Mirza. Sunderland. 35 . habitats. soil and living organisms. NOC for plant operation. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. and Morre. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. sampling and design purposes. plants. protected areas. forests. P. Biogeography. Sinauer. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring.R. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. quality assessment. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. conservation in man-made ecosystems. London. design and types of samples. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. A Primer for Conservation Biology. Saad Printers. Z..D. Considerations. Quality assurance and quality control. laboratory custody. refrigeration and freezing methods. presampling requirements/information. quality control sampling. 2000. P. 2ndEd. 1998. Associates Inc.conservation at species. air. in-situ and ex-situ conservation..B. chemical addition. Legal protection of species. international agreements. EIA requirement. 2000. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. 3. Publ. community and ecosystem level. Preservation methods including pH control. Recommended Books: 1. population.B. 2. national and international laws and regulations.B. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. water. croplands. management. Kings College. Rawalpindi. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. cities. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. Course Outlines Introduction. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan..

Chuviero. biological. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. Chapman and Hall. 2008. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. its causes and effects. H. McKlivie. Earth Observation of Global Change. UK. 2008.) McGraw-Hill. 5. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. N. Physical. Korte. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. 2002. 2002. Peakall. regional. altered community structure. Ozone depletion. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. Human responses to potential climate change. 1992. Recent Climate Change Indicators. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. 6. 2.Recommended Books: 1. 2nd Edition. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. (ed) Springer. phenological changes. (eds. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. Remote Sensing Note. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. Murai. and Guethner. S. human health. . Lewis Publisher London. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. USA.. USA. I. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources.. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide.1996. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. E. 3. New York. F. agriculture. Forstner U. Precipitation. Energy and Temperature. Tokyo. extinctions. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. Burden. USA. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. R. 2000. 8. S. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. E. L. D. 7. Manahan. Keith. Regional droughts and 36 .USA. The Measurement of Climate Change. D. Moisture in the Atmosphere. Environmental Chemistry. chemical.1999. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate.

J. impact analysis. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. Ministry of Housing and Works. Harrop. J. Keith. London. A. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. project implementation and follow up. Petts. 1st Edition. Climate Change . Therivel. J. review of EIA quality. Cost and benefits of EIA.. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. J.cataclysmic climate change. D. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. R. public involvement.). 5. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. overview. Climate Change . Effects. John Wiley & Sons... law. Types & Resources to produce Energy. and Solutions. 6. A. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. Main stages in EIA process. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. Glasson. screening. Islamabad. Global Change and the earth system. 4. liquid. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems.. Hardy. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. Houghton.O. Oxford. J. 2005.T. 2000. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems.Causes. Sringer. (ed. 1994. Earthscan Publication Ltd. reporting. social impact assessment (SIA).. 2. Blackwell. and Chadwick. 2005. mitigation and impact management.. 2003. 37 . scoping. 4. and noise. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. solids. & Nixon. London.. Recommended Books: 1. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Recommended Books: 1. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. EIA project management. Routledge. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. 2005. Islamabad. Global Warming and Climate Change. 2004. 1986.(ed). possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized.Causes. John Wiley & Sons. 1999. 2. 3. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach.A. Hardy. Effects. and Solutions. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). National Book Foundation. 2003. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. T. 3. decision-making to implement the project.

B and Warren. Types. H. causes and methods for its improvement. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. 1993. USA. and Tu. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual..5. problem in agriculture. Conservation in Progress. forest types and its existing management.. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. threats. J. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. effective management..). New York. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. B. R. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. process and contents of the management plan. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. United Nations Environment Programme. management options. A. 6. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources.. national agriculture policy. Asian Development Bank. existing management approaches.. Rangeland Management: existing status. wind power and nuclear power. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. their current status and threats. national example. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly.. (ed. methodologies. 38 . Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. Recommended Books: 1. Sadler. agriculture chemicals. requirement. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. S. F. Evans. wildlife census. M. John Willey & Sons. solar power. Lohani. best available option for future. agriculture products and their share in GDP. Everitt. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. their pros and cons. national and provincial legislation. limitation in the future. 2nd Edition. Development of Management Plan: needs. Ludwig. R. 2002. management options. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. importance. & McCabe. B. threat and its causes. 1997.. Goldsmith. Carpenter.

J. Research Proposal: its importance . The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS).1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. Islamabad. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment.Amsterdam. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. types of sampling design/. Research Design & Research Methods. Inference based on findings. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. Thousand Oaks. to introduce students to research design.A pre-requisite for Research. Interviews. Hansen. GOP and IUCN. Selecting the Research Method.. S. John Wiley & Sons. Scientific Research: Science. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. Review of Literature. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. Material Methods. Environmental Conservation. research methods. Objectives. Scientific Methods. Bibliography.E. Sampling: the logic of sampling. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. London. New York.E. How to put things together? Introduction. P. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. W. 5. 39 . 2007. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). 1990. concepts and terminologies. Methodology. and Jorqensen. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Review of Literature. 1992. USA.F. Surveys. population and sampling frames.2. Sage CA. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. Dasmann. V. 4. Questionnaire.L. Search Engines. Elsevier. 3. R. Literature Search: Database. Case Studies. & Plano Clark. 1984. Experimental Research. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. Creswell.

Sage Publishers. USA. 2001 and the rules of business made there under.h. 5. Qadar. England. of Chicago Press. Booth. Diamon. Univ. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 4. Babbie. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking.USA. Robert Yin. 2000. 2003. 3. and Arhonditsis. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance.Harrad. 1997. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. 2nd Edition. National Conservation Strategy 5. 2008. 2. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act.. Belmont California. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. E. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. regulations made there under. Moriarty. National Environmental Policy 4.S.2. S. 2001. Survey Research Methods. USA.. Law Books House. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . M. John and sons Ltd. Recommended Books: 1. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. R. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. 3rd Edition. Students project in Environmental Science.Batty.. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. Government of Pakistan 3. G. 6. Marilyn F.. Chichester. Wadsworth Publishing Company. 2003. 1989. 1997.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

Asia Printer. Pakistan . it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. Indus Water Accord 1991. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan.1993. Cheema. pollution aspects. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. R. fisheries management. 2005. hydrological cycle. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. water quality and quantity aspects. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). 1993.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. and Qamar. SDPI Oxford University Press. flood and drought management. C. (ed. water supply and demand management measures. Ahmed. Pakistan. 6. N. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. Mirajuddin Publication . I. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia.K. N. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. 44 . (eds. P. U. Briscoe.). watershed/catchment. Mirajuddin Publication .Lahore. 2003. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. A. O. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan.. 2006. K. Bengali.Varis. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. Oxford University Press Karachi.). A. Islamabad. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. Lahore. 2006. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan.. flood and droughts.. A. The Politics of Managing Water. Revised & enlarged edition. recycling and re-use of wastewater. J. 2. 4.. Recommended Books: 1. Oxford University Press New Delhi. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. Biswas. and Malik. Ahmed. integrated water resources management (IWRM). and Tortajada. wetlands resources management. groundwater exploitation. Islamabad. tubewells. R. 5. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. 3.. with drinking water facilities like springs. Khan... virtual water.

D. transport. the salient features of urban environments. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. NJ. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. Factors and processes of soil formation. Gardiner. D. 2007. N. humans as components of urban ecosystems. Urbanization. 2008. Bashir. USA.W. E. R. Definition.C. Soil degradation. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. urban flora and fauna. Forms of urbanization. 1996. Course Outlines Introduction. Brady. 11th Edition. Upper Saddle River. Soil Science. Cation and anion exchange. soils. urbanization in Pakistan. 2007. R. urban settlements. 1. Types and properties of parent materials. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. urban political ecology. urban landscapes characteristics. Miller. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. CA. After completion of this course. NJ. Islamabad. and Bantel. and Weil.. Pakistan. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. Urban ecosystem. San Diego.T.R.. PrenticeHall. management and green productivity. hydrological processes. 45 . Soils in Our Environment. R. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. National Book Foundation.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. future of urban centers. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. Process and outcome. Soil forming minerals. Causes of urbanization. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. USA. Physical and chemical properties of soil. Upper Saddle River. Hillel. USA. Prentice Hall. Course Outlines Introduction. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. Academic Press.

Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. Planning and Urban Change. Hejny. Chapman and Hall. O. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans.and Kowaril. New York. The Works: Anatomy of a City. S. The Ecology of Urban Habitats.. H. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. The planning process. SBS academic publishing.. Sukopp. UR. Levels of planning. Smith. UK. Silberstein. UK. Elements of urban planning. 2007.1990. M. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. USA. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. M. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. City Design for Sustainable Development. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. Planning theories and concepts. UK. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. New trends in planning and city management. 2. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. J. 2. Hough. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. I. 1989.. Routledge. V. Alberti. Kate.S. Ward. USA. Routledge. Scope. S. 2004. nature and purpose of urban planning. Gilbert. London. London. Justification for planning for city management. D. nd 2 Edition. Principles of planning. 46 . 2009. C. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. Aims and Objectives of planning.and Maser. Recommended Books: 1. Types of Urban Plans. Land use planning theories.. 5. 2000. Springer. SAGE Publications Ltd. 2006. A. Planning and its relationship with other professions.L. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. 4. Hague. Penguin Group. 2004. 1. CRC Press LLC.. 3.

Earthquake Management. Paris. 1991. Natural cycles and their role.W. New York. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. Longman Group. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. 4. Flooding. Natural Disasters Alexander. Ministry of Housing and Works. Physical factors. Earthquake. 1993. G.3. Different approaches and Indicators. Flood Management: Organizational Role. i. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters.. Clara. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. 2.J. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. Islamabad. 4. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. M. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. Landslide. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Introducing Town Planning. New York.F.. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. H. 3. UK. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. Disaster as an opportunity for development. Government of Pakistan. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. International phenomenon. P. ADB.. It discusses a wide range of aspects. D. 1993. 1993. Cultural factors. Hazards. Chapman & Hall. Role of Media in Disaster Management. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. and Woodrow. Manila. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. Disaster Management: Components of management.. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. Recommended Books: 1. 47 .e. and White G. Boulder . assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. The Guilford Press.. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors.B. 2nd Edition. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. Prediction. 1986. E&UA Div.W. Socio-economic factors. Political factors.. Techniques and methods to assess hazard.. Kates.. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms.UNESCO. 1989. Westview Press. R.

environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. F. solar. Sustainable livestock management. Botkin. local. New York.5. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. sustainable energy management. McKinney. E. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. decomposers. John Wiley and Sons. biomass resources. and Mushkatel. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. 2. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. 6th Edition. Quorum Books. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.. Ecological concept in crop and food production. L. Westport. consumers. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment.B and Keller.H.C. and Yonavjak. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America.A. Consumer and producer relationship. Farming practices for pests and weeds control..W.. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. Disasters and Development Cuny. M. alternate energy resources. A.L. 1984. R. 2001. hydropower. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. primary producers. energy resources. uses. Biotic structure. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. merits and demerits of wind. Perry R. D. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. USA.M. 3. 1983. energy resources of Pakistan. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. OECD/IEA. 2007. 1. types. Paris. 6. 4th Edition. Schoch. Agroecology. 2007. 48 .

Recommended Books: 1. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. Corol.M. CBS Publishers and Distributors.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. Agrocology. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. Kapur. 1990.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. 2.H. Yandermeer J. Westview Press.G. Experimental Plant Ecology. 3. P. Study of stratification and profile diagram. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. USA. India. 1995.P. Altreri. M. Boulder. C. and Sudha. New York. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity.R. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity.. R. E-11 Seminar 49 .A. USA. New Delhi. and Rossel. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. 2000. Study of index of diversity.

it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. 50 . 2. the Committee agreed on the following principles. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. availability of the faculty and other facilities. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. 4. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. 3. 5. that: 1. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines.

26. 16. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 7. 3. 19. 8. 2. 10. 23. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 21. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 11. 12. 10. 22. 24. 2. 18. 13. 17. 3. 8. 14. 6. 11. 5. 12. 5. 15.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 9. 20. 9. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 4. 25. 4. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 7. 6.

Treaties.. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan.. Conservation Strategies. 4. Elsevier. Regional and International Environmental Issues. Environmental control Policies.A. Oxford University Press. and Jorqensen. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. 1991.1995. 1987. Geography of Pakistan. status of Terrestrial. 3.E. development of concepts. and Bell. P.1994. Karachi. Mackenzie. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment.DETAILS OF M. S. GOP and IUCN. Mackenzie J.1994. WCS. Provincial and Local Strategies.. NCS. Environment People and Economy. Khan K. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). D. 52 . 2. 3. London Black Stone Press Ltd.S. Draft National Environmental Policy. Conventions and Protocols in Global. Islamabad. Money. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. 2nd Edition. S. 2. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. Relationship of culture.1991. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences.E. technology and resource use. F. Recommended Books: 1.T. Instruments and methods. S. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. Hansen. FURTHER READINGS 1. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. Amsterdam..F. 1992. Ball. London. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. Oxford University Press.. Hodder and Stoughton.

procedures and methods of EIA. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. Wastewater. K. 3. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). Principles of physical. Recommended Books: 1. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. Longman Scientific and Technical. England. social impact assessment. Air and Solid Waste. World Bank. 2. Burnt Hill. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. economic impact assessment. Government of Pakistan. A. Environmental Chemical Analysis. role and importance. Case Studies and review. opportunities and issues. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. F & Bronstein. Wood. Recommended Books: 1. FURTHER READINGS 1. 1995. Cost benefit analysis of projects. Chichester. 2. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. A one Publishers Lahore. Assessment of environmental impacts. process. History. UK. sampling rules. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery.A. ecological impact assessment. Ministry of Environment. Demographic impact assessment. Longman House. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. DC.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. Environment Department. Gas Chromatography etc. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. Harlow Essex. D. Ed. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. Washington. Ahmed. sample collection and preservation. ed. C. 1995. WB. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). John Wiley & Sons. 1993.. Environmental auditing. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). 53 .Vanclay.

Van Nostrand and Reinhold. J. 4.. development objectives. Planning Commission Performas.. Lippmann. Basic Environmental Health. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. Oxford University Press New York. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works).. Environmental Health Engineering. 1997. 2001. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. feasibility study. 2. S. New York.. safety techniques. Caeneross. Project Management Institute. Prentice Hall International Inc. R. John Wiley and Sons. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation.. 1st Ed. 2. T. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. 54 . USA. prevention and control.2000. A. Recommended Books: 1. means of verification. assumptions. Defining Project objectives. R. L. specific objectives. Project Planning. T. indicators. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). M/S Banarsid. Nebel. 5. 2nd Ed. T. 2002. Yassi. Inc. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. London. Project Planning and Approval Processes. de Kok... 3. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. Occupational Health: problems and issues. economic evaluation. J. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. Need identification. Wiley Interscience. Government Policies and Programs. 1992. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. and Guidotti. 1st Ed. Project Life Cycle. Park. principles and practices. B. UK. activities. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. Kjelllström. Ergonomic and Safety. USA. Mantel s. 1993.. outputs. and Wright. Reasons for Project success or failure. Meredith J. work breakdown structure. inputs. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. Writing Project Proposal. T. Primary health care services.. Project Initiation. 1st ed. M. Public health concept. Project Management: A Managerial Approach.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. 1998. Accident prevention and safety plans. A Guide to Project Management. K. Resource Mobilization. air borne.

E.A.M. Related Environmental regulations. principles and elements of the process of EMS. energy resources of Pakistan. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. OECD/IEA. data collection and interpretation. transport. Schoch. industry and domestic sectors.B and Keller. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment).L. 2007. Botkin. 4th Edition. 3. Principles of cleaner production. Paris. M. L. Sources of data. St Luise Press. 2. Switzerland. Paris. hydropower. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. Environmental auditing. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal.. nuclear) local. Recommended Books: 1. D. gas. 55 . 1998. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. R. Environmental Auditing. Sayre. 4. solar. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. merits and demerits of wind. McKinney. 1990b. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. alternate energy resources. 3. sustainable energy management for agriculture. and Yonavjak. types. Recommended Books: 1. non-renewable and renewable. uses. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. 2007. bio-energy resources. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. USA. 2001.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. D. energy resources. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. 2. petroleum. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Michigan-January 2001. 6th Edition. ISO Central Secretariat. John Wiley and Sons.

John Wiley & Sons. Berlin. 2005. resources and plants. D. Blackwell Publishing. types and their climatic effects. Plant Ecology. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. global aspects of plant ecology. Beck. plant conservation. Oxford. Vegetation Ecology Ed. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. 4. Oxford UK. J..T. 3. Modeling of climate change. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. 2. Green House Gases. London.. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. John Wiley & Sons. management and restoration. plant invasions. ECOPE 29. Springer. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. John Wiley & Sons. Houghton. UK. 3. UK 1991. Climate Change . E & Muller-Hohenstein. 2003. Blackwell Publishing. forests. B & Jager. Species richness. survival and extinction. J. D. Climate change and food production. 56 . Chichester. 2005.Causes.D. Shulze. Recommended Books: 1. etc. 2003. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. types of climate change models. human activities and vegetation dynamics. 1. (Ed. Climate Change and Ecosystems. T. Warrick. Effects. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. Silvertown. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.). E. Plant population dynamics. 2005.Causes. Life history strategies of plants. Hardy. and Solutions. Maarel. 1st Edition. vegetation dynamics. 2005. 5. & Charlesworth. Effects. water resources. Climate Change . Hardy. ED. The Green House Effect. and Solutions. 2. J. 2004. competition and coexistence. Earthscan Publication Ltd. K. geographical and temporal patterns. Recommended Books: 1.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction.

Wetlands. Bailey. J.J. biological diversity. Establishment and management of protected areas. Cambridge. Consumptive. Cambridge University Press. Blackwell Publsihing. 1986. kinds. J. Essentials of Conservation Biology. its causes. threats and conservation. UK. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. Participatory forest management.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. Forests. Wildlife Ecology and Management. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. Wildlife of Pakistan. Extinction of species. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. 1992. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. Sustainable forest management. S. & Ripley. 2002. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Status of forests in Pakistan. B. Roberts.A. Oxford University Press. Principles of Wildlife Management. E. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. Protected areas. Oxford University Press. 2004.(2nd Ed.B. John Wiley And Sons. Threatened animals and plants. Protected areas in Pakistan. 2. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. T. Rangeland management. & Spicer. UK.L.J. Mcmillan. Recommended Books: 1. Forest plantations. 1998. management. T. And Bolen. their ecological and economic importance.J. Protection and restoration of species. Primack. 1984. their importance. S. Global and national biodiversity. K.J. Cambridge. W. R. Recommended Books: 1. 57 . 4. London. 3. problems and solutions. distribution. distribution. Oxford. habitats and ecosystems. Loss of biodiversity. I). II). Conserving Living Natural Resources. 2002. USA. types. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali.G. 1973 2. Oxford University Press. Biodiversity: An introduction. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Inc. Weddell.) Gaston. Sinauer Assocaites. their types and role in conservation. Oxford. 5. Oxford. Publishers Sunderland. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. status. Roberts. distribution and management. deforestation and its control.D. 3. Robinson. types.

urban systems and their characteristics. E&UA Div. C. Recommended Books: 1. Penguin Group. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. The Works: Anatomy of a City.. 2007. Introducing Town Planning. Longman Group.. Sustainable cities. G. Clara. Ward. Planning and Urban Change. New York.. 2000. Environmental problems of urban life. Silberstein. Government of Pakistan. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. 3. 4. USA. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. drinking water and solid waste in cities. 2004. 1986. urban political ecology. future of urban centers. 2.and Maser. sanitation. CRC Press LLC. 58 . London.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. Kate. 1993. urban landscape characteristics. USA. A. V. UK. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. J. SAGE Publications Ltd. Forms of urbanization. Ministry of Housing and Works.. management of transport. S. Islamabad. UK. urbanization in Pakistan. Urban land use planning and management. H.

a) Functional English Grammar 1.Annexure .V. Martinet. Exercises 1. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. 1997. ISBN 0194313492 59 . Oxford University Press. Thomson and A. Third edition. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. Practical English Grammar by A.J.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase.

V. Martinet. intensive and extensive. Reading/Comprehension 1. and speed reading.2. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Oxford University Press. 1997. Fourth Impression 1993. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Third Impression 1992. minutes of meetings. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. Oxford Supplementary Skills. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. b) Practical English Grammar by A. Third edition. Upper Intermediate. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Reading. Thomson and A. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. Writing. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin.J. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. Exercises 2. Oxford Supplementary Skills. ISBN 0 19 453402 2.

Advanced. Fourth Impression 1993. Reading 1. form. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. ISBN 0 19 453403 0.V. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Third Impression 1991. Martinet. Advanced by Ron White. Practical English Grammar by A. descriptive and argumentative writing). 2. introduction to presentations. Writing. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Thomson and A. clarity. content. narrative. Fourth Impression 1992. b) Writing 1. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Writing.J. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Third Impression 1992. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis.1. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. 2. Third edition. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. language. discursive. Reading. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Oxford University Press 1986. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . Writing. Exercises 2.

3. 2. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. 2004. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. argumentative and report writing). Kirszner and Stephen R. descriptive.(particularly suitable for discursive. Kathleen Shine Cain. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. Mandell. Compiled by norther Illinois University. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. Martin’s Press. College Writing Skills by John Langan. 62 . without taxing the taste of engineering students). A Custom Publication. St.

3. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Shahid Javed. 1971-77 d. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.M. 4. State & Society in Pakistan. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. 1999 onward 3. 2000. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. 1947-58 b. 1977-88 e. Indus Civilization ii. Study the process of governance. 63 Books Recommended 1. national development. Ethnicity d. Historical Perspective a. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. 1988-99 f. Muslim advent iii. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Akbar.Annexure . Economic institutions and issues b. ideological background of Pakistan.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. Mehmood. 2. . Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. Location and geo-physical features. Course Outline 1. People and Land i. b. Safdar. 2. 1958-71 c. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. Contemporary Pakistan a. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. Zaidi. Society and social structure c. government. Karachi: Oxford University Press. contemporary Pakistan. Lahore. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. S. S. 1993. 1994. politics.

Enigma of Political Development.5. 10. History & Culture of Sindh. The Political System of Pakistan. 64 . Mehmood. Sayeed. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. M.K. Afzal. Political Parties in Pakistan. nd. Khalid Bin. Karachi: Royal Book Company. 1993. 1998. Wilcox. 7. Zahid. Tahir. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Rafique. 12. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. Lawrence. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. K. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. 1976.National Movement in Pakistan. Amin. Vol. Ethno . Party. 13. Wayne. 9. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 11. Haq. Safdar. Islamabad. 1967. Club Road. 8. II & III. Aziz. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. Ziring. 6. Washington: American Enterprise. Lahore: Vanguard. Institute of Public Policy Research. I. 1987.. Muhammad Waseem. 1980. 1980. Politics in Pakistan. Ansar. 14. Noor ul. Pakistan Under Martial Law.The Emergence of Banglades. 1972.

14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.21.40.A.A.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.20) Related to thinking.Tadabar (Verse No1.6.57.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.19.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.Annexure .A.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .A.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.58.56.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.

in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.

“Emergence of Islam” . Islamabad (2001) 67 . “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. Pakistan. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. IRI.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. Ahmad Hasan. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. “Studies in Islamic Law. Bhatia. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. International Islamic University.S. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad.

Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. Boston 68 . trigonometric identities. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. types of functions. cube roots of unity. determinants. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. 1978. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. introduction to sets. Sharron S. geometric progression. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression.Annexure . PWS-Kent Company. 1986. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. Cramer’s rule. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. 1987. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. Boston Swokowski EW. harmonic progression. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. College Algebra and Trigonometry. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. equations reducible to quadratic equations. types. complex numbers. PWS-Kent Company. matrix inverse. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition).D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. functions. Beckenback EF. system of linear equations. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Houghton & Mifflin. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. Wooton W. not majoring in mathematics. set operations.

Addison-Wesley. PWS-Kent Company. change of variables in indefinite integrals. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. rational and transcendental functions. Ma. slope of a line. New York Stewart J. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Boston Thomas GB. continuous functions. intersection of two lines. left-hand and right-hand limits. Recommended Books: Anton H. equation of a line. 1983. various forms of equation of a line. Finney AR. John Wiley. Davis S. 69 . MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Calculus (3rd edition). Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. parallel and perpendicular lines. USA 3.2. differentiation of polynomial. continuity. inequalities. derivatives. Bevens I. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. functions and their graphs. not majoring in mathematics. distance between a point and a line. integration by parts. Calculus (11th edition). Reading. 1995. 2005. integration by substitution. distance between two points. angle between two lines. solution of equations involving absolute values. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. not majoring in mathematics. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. 2005. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions.

circles determined by various conditions. • Contents 1. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. types of matrices. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. Boston Swokowski EW. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. PWS-Kent Company. 1969 Kaufmann JE. functions. PWS-Kent Company. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). locus of a point in various conditions. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. hyperbola. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Analytic Geometry. types of functions. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Freshman and Company. 1986. College Algebra and Trigonometry. 1987. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). system of linear equations. Scott. Cramer’s rule. nature of roots of quadratic equations. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. ellipse. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. intersection of lines and circles. set operations. determinants. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S.Circle: Equation of a circle. Conic Sections: Parabola. Boston 4. inverse of matrices. 70 . Introduction to sets. equations reducible to quadratic equations.

inter quartile deviation mean deviation. deciles and percentiles. relationship of statistics with social science. array. E. variance. 4.geometric and harmonic progressions. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. E. Latest Edition. Books Recommended: 1. R. trigonometric identities. 2.. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. Wilcox. cumulative frequency curve. E. quartiles. Swokowski. frequency polygon. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. J. Latest Edition. tally sheet method. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. 5. 2.. Latest Edition. Walpole. Boston. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. ungrouped and grouped data. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. types of frequency series. R. Measures of dispersion: Range. characteristics of statistics. individual. Graphs: Graph of straight line. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. 71 . Kaufmann. moments. R. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. PWS-Kent Company. W. standard deviation.. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. discrete and continuous series. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. circle and trigonometric functions. Prentice Hall. 3. bar frequency diagram histogram. ‘Introduction of Statistics’.. skewness and kurtosis.

special points of a function. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. Bevens. theorems of differentiation. sinusoidal function. plane polar coordinates. 1999. Davis. infinite and improper integrals. S. integral inequalities. Least-Squares Line. Calculus. the chain rule. substitution method. integration by parts. 8th edition. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. 2005. Inc. reduction formulae. Leibnitz’ theorem. 4. John Wiley & Sons. Elliott Mendelson. Second Edition 1992. Calculus Single and Multivariable. Continuity. Hughes-Hallett. applications of integration. 2002. 5. • Integration Integration from first principles. et al. 4th edition. 6. H. Prentice-Hall. Calculus. McCallum. Integration by Parts. products. 3. quotients. integration by inspection. Calculus. Jhon Willey & Sons. I. Anton. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. 1983. 2. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . Equation of a Line. Contents 1. Slope of a Line. Trigonometric Functions. logarithmic differentiation. Recommended Books: 1. logarithmic integration. Mathews. Boston. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. Inequalities. Addison Wesley publishing company. W. implicit differentiation. Extreme Values of Functions. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. 2005. 3rd Edition. Rational and Transcendental Functions. 2. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. E. Schaum’s Outline Series. Thomas. and Transcendental Functions. 6. integration using partial fractions.Jr. the inverse of differentiation. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. John H. Frank A. Swokowski.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. Solution of equations involving absolute values. Gleason. Inc. 11th Edition. Continuous Functions. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. Rational Functions.

approximation errors in Taylor series. series involving natural numbers. multiplication. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. complex conjugate. the difference method. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. arithmetico-geometric series. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. finding the nth roots of unity. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. solving hyperbolic equations. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. inverses of hyperbolic functions. geometric series. modulus and argument. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4.Additions and subtraction. identities of hyperbolic functions.

scalar triple product. line to line. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. Hermitian. masses. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. vector product. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. point to plane. orthogonal. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. the inner product. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. 6. moments of inertia. Pappus’ theorems. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. symmetric and antisymmetric.5. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. of a unitary matrix. centers of mass and centroids. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal.

Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. combinations of grad. divergence of a vector field.8. spherical polar coordinates 75 . curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products.

Different types of Averages. Editing of Data. Stem and Leaf Display. Absolute and relative measures. Test statistics. Graphs and their Construction. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Rounding of a Number. Change of origin and scale. Exercises. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Exercises. The Variance and standard deviation. Unit 4. Box and Whisker Plot. Difference of means and proportions. Errors of measurement. Statistical problem. Poisson and Normal Distribution. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. 76 . sample design and sampling frame. definition of outliers and their detection.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Historigram. Coefficient of variation. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Constructing of a frequency distribution. The semi-Interquartile Range. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Exercises. Pie chart. Diagrams. Sources. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Unit 5. sampling and non sampling errors. Exercises. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. acceptance and rejection regions. null and alternative hypothesis. Discrete and continuous variables. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Moments and Moments ratios. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Range. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Unit 3. bias. Unit 7. properties of Good Average. Median and mode. probability and non-probability sampling. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Population. Standardized variables. The Mean Deviation. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Empirical Relation between Mean. sampling with and without replacement. Quantiles. Types of frequency curves. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Data. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Type-I and Type-II errors. Exercises. Collection of primary and secondary data. Exercises Unit 6. The Mode. Bar charts. Observations.Annexure . Exercises. Unit 2. Probability and Probability Distributions. Presentation of Data Introduction. level of significance. Histogram. Significant digits.

“Introduction to Statistics”. examples. Contingency Tables.. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. R. 1982. simple linear regression. its estimation and interpretation. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”.Single Population Introduction. Exercises. Testing of Hypothesis. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. Exercises Unit 10. New York.Unit 8. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. 77 . Inc. 2 Muhammad. r and R2. Coefficient of linear correlation. Unit 11. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. cause and effect relationships. 3rd Ed. Macmillan Publishing Co. E. F. Kitab Markaz..Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. 2005. Correlation. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. Exercises Unit 9. Regression and Correlation Introduction.

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