CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
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For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. DR. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. D773/76-JEA (cur. The world has turned into a global village. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. 63. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. PROF.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees.). Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . Lahore. universities and other institutions of higher education. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. It is. and 36. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. therefore. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. R&D organizations. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. degree awarding institutions. It also aimed to give a basic. dated December 4th 1976. the Federal Government vide notification No.ALTAF ALI G.

UNI.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. Preparation 5 . LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. OF FINAL CURRI. REC. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. PREP. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. COL. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. EXP. R&D. OF CURRI. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. OF NCRC. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP.

Member 4. 7. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Dr. Lahore Member 6. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Member 5. Karachi from 28-30. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Member 6 . Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. Following attended the meeting:1. Member 3.

Member 14. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Member 16. Member 15. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Dr. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Dr. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. 13. Prof. 7 .8. Dr. Member 11. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Member 10. Karachi Member 12. Prof. Dr. Dr. Dr. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9.

Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. Member 20. Mr. 8 . Mr. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. 2. Dr. Faisalabad Member 18. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. Dr. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. At first. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. The meeting was opened by Mr.17. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. Chairman. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Member 19. Director of HEC Regional Center. Karachi. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. Secretary Dr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. 1. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting.

The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. 6. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. In last few centuries. 5. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. 3. 4. 2. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses.3. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. 1. The committee thanked Mr.

Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. in its preliminary meeting. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. 5. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. This committee. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. skills and behaviour patterns. ii. regional and global contexts. Apply theoretical understanding.

skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. A. Integrating natural sciences. 4. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. 2. The medium of instruction. eight semesters in the semester system.. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science.e. that: 1. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. 5. 3. The 11 . Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. Sc. 1. 6. with consensus. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee.

Environmental Microbiology 21. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Introduction to Computer 14. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Biology –I* 3. English-I 6. Biology –II* 9. Introductory Economics* 17. Environmental Physics 16. English-III 18. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Environmental Chemistry 15. English-II 12. Introduction to Earth Science 8. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Climatology* 23. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Environmental Pollution 22. Basic Chemistry* 4. Psychology* .proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities.

Natural Resource Management 40. Applied Ecology 26. Environmental toxicology 27. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. 44. 45. English-IV/ Univ. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. 46. Environmental Monitoring 36. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Opt.24. Environmental Biotechnology 32. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . Environmental Economics 29. Climate Change 38. ELECTIVE-III 42. Environmental Management Systems 34.

• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .

history.T. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. ecological. philosophical. proteins and nucleic acids. 2007.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Miller.B & Keller. Botkin. socio-economic. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet.J. 2002. R. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. 2007. regional. E. national. and their relationships with various environmental factors. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. 4th Ed. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. its importance in human life. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. John Wiley & Sons. Pearson Educational. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. B. & Nebel. Thomson Learning. current global. Human environment and its problems: global. McKinney.A. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment.. biological and social. lipids. Schoch. environmental pollution. Different aspects of environment: physical. & Yonavjak. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. M. R. D. ethical. 2007 3. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts.L. Recommended Books: 1. L. 6th Ed. G. 10th Ed. Wright.. development in industry and agriculture. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. poverty and resource depletion. 4. urbanization. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . 2.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. 15 .M.

and Whitelaw.. L. Wadsworth Group. V. 4. USA. A. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. New York. Cell division. D. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. Crossley. Nucleic acids.. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials.. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. 2008. amines). 1. 16 . lipids.Hill International Edition. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. Jones and Bartlett Publishers.. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. origin of metabolism. Bulter. Molecular Biology through Questions. Aromatic compounds. carbonyls.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. Biology: a Human Emphasis. Canada. J. polypeptides in protein diversity. covalent. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. Self Assessment and Revie. N. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. 5.. Lewis. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. phospholipids in membrane systems. 5th Edetion. Origin of life: chemical evolution. E. esters. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. Starr. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. carboxylic acids. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. 8th Ed. Shier. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. USA. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. proteins. 2003. Structure and the basis of function. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. B. chemical basis of life. USA. G. the molecule of genetic information and replication. 2007. McGraw. lipids. Plopper. chemical diversity. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. C. M. Ionic. Australia . and Lewis. Cassimeris. R. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. 2. Ltd. Introduction to cell biology. coordinate covalent bond. R. protobionts. Lingappa. 2007. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. carbohydrates. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. Cells. 1996. 3.

Algebra of matrices. series and means. Jickells. 2003. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. determinants. USA. 17 . Osmosis and Dialysis. P.E.K. radicals. normal solutions/buffers.E. minor and cofactor of a matrix. B. P. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. straight line and related concepts. D. Brimblecombe. double angle formulas. graphs. Photochemical reactions. T.A. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). Blackwell Science.ions. 2004. West. M. simultaneous equations and their solutions. 2nd Edition. 6th Edition. Lab Work Preparation of molar. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. real line. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. F. molal. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. Thomson and Brooks. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles.. Measurement of pH. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra.S. UK. J. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. USA.. Andrews.J. angle-sum formula. values of trigonometric functions. D. Hill. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. Thin layer chromatography.H. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. W.. 2004. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. 2004.M. Understanding Environmental Pollution. UK.. J. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). Colloids chemistry. Skoog.. EC and TDS in waste water.. 8th Edition. equations of lines (linear equations). An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). Liss. geometric and harmonic sequence. 2nd Edition.. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. Freeman and Company.J.D. 5. Canada. 2005. 2. and Reid. Solution chemistry. Jones and Barlett. 1st Ed.Special Products (Binomial Expression). expansion of determinants. Recommended Books: 1. Cambridge University Press. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane.C. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Column chromatography. Surface chemistry. law of Cosines. Harris. and Holler. Girard. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. 3... 4. D.

18 .. 2. L. plate tectonics. Narosa Publishing House. foliation.Wesley.. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. J. theorems on differentiation (sum. 3. Earth as a member of solar system. Introduction to folds. irreducible quadratic factors. Jr. nonrepeated linear factors. Recommended Books: 1. age. Smith. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. lineation and unconformities.B. 4th Ed. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. New Delhi. faults. different earth processes like mountain buildings. Chatterjee. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. Trignometry for College students. Chain rule. 10th Ed. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . theorem of integration. Scott Foresman and Company. igneous and metamorphic rocks. G. S. Weathering. Analytical Geometry. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.Cramer’s Rule. composition and its internal structure. and Finney. Fossils and their significance. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. K. erosion and related landforms. its origin. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. earthquakes. the processes of their formation.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. product and quotient rules without derivations). Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. joints. D. earthquakes and volcanoes. difference. Thomas. Pacific Grove. weathering and erosion. California. 1999. Integration: Formulas of integration. cleavages. Introduction to sedimentary. R. by parts integration (simple applications). The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. Introduction to rocks and minerals. 4. mountain building. Abraham. Addission.

Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. Lamarckism. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . unicellularity. population loss and decline. examples of adjustments in varied environment. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. 19 . Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. and Tasa. 5th Edition. different classification systems. molecular basis of biodiversity. A.. 2007 2. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. Use of brunton compass and GPS. R. Prentice Hall. D. Physical Geology and Process of Science. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. Darwinism. Tarbuck. Lutgens. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. biodiversity crises. 3rd Edition. Biodiversity of deserts... Foundations of Structural Biology. and Monroe. animals). 5.. 9th Edition. J. K. modern concepts. E. K. measuring biodiversity. and Tasa. 4. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. Brooks/Cole. Geological time chart with biodiversity. R. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. Biodiversity of canal.. Biodiversity of hilly areas. interactions among diversified life. F. Earth Science. protocell formation. G. Prentice Hall.. J. Park. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. Life in sea. crucial for organisms’ sustainability.Identification of rocks and minerals. 2004. invasion of life on land. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. 11th Edition. J. F. Routledge. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. 2005.. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. How Does Earth Work.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps.. E.. Field Study tour. multicellularity. G. Tarbuck. Wicander. causes of extinction. D. 2007 3. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. Recommended Books: 1. and Pun. Prentice Hall: 2006. Lutgens. Smith. consequences of losing biodiversity.

(editor). 3. The Biosphere. 20 . Chronological. Use of environment for vested interest. and Spicer. Biodiversity (An Introduction). COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure .E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. K. culture and society. 2009. Starr. J. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. Wadsworth Group. Contemporary environmental status. power & hegemony. 2003. Inc. Goals and expectations. and concerns. Conceptualizing environment. Inc. 4. 2.. UK. Consumption. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. Biology. Recommended Books: 1. Townsend.K. 2001. The Ecology of global consumer culture. Hannen. Environmental Risks and the Media. I. IL:WavelandPress. (editors). 2006. Routledge. John Wiley and Sons. C. R. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. C. Nora and Wilk. 2009. Perspective of human-environment evolution. a Human Emphasis. Bradbury. 2nd Edition. 2005. 3. Allan & Carter. UK. 5th Edition. UK. L. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. New York: New York University Press. globalization and environmental issues. USA. J. P. and Sustainable Living. Prospect Heights. Walnut Creek. Scope and application. Culture. 2000.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. Blackwell Science Ltd. Tripartite nature of environment. Adam. Understanding the environment-human relationship. Gaston.. CA: AltaMira Press. I. Crumley. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. K. 2. Contemporary environment issues and debate.

as are their effects on the biosphere. computer programs and basic applications. Course Outlines Definition. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. Kluwer Academic Publishers. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . 2003. Fundamentals of computer.H. output hardware. Ms-Excel. Ms-Access. e-mail. Recommended Books: 1. processing hardware.Microsoft office 2000. Courter.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment.. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion.6th Ed. Ms-Power Point. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. internet. G. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. 2. software packages. 21 . Local Area Network. Configurations. Hardware: Input Hardware.. Types and classification of computers. Long N. Milton. Introduction to MS-Word. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. K.London 1996. Marquis A. Long l. Rutledge. Selin.5.1999. Operating system (Windows).A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . Ed. Software: Application software. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. system software. 6.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. Storage hardware.

. J.T. Hernandez-Esparza. Active control of sound. P. B. C. T. M. Solids. 4. Energy. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. K. Girard. 2nd Edition. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. Brimblecombe. J. 1st Edition. Global climate and climatic change.E. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. their sources and toxic actions. UK. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. Turbulent jets and plumes. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . Electromagnetic radiation. Jickells. Ozone chemistry. Diffusion. J.. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. Conversion of mass.. Environmental Chemistry. Human perceptions and noise criteria. Environmental Science. Turbulence. Andrews. DoriaSerrano. and Singh. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. Miller. India.. Ibanez. Gaussian plumes in the air. Germany. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. and Reid. Liquids and Gasses. Jones and Barlett. trophic level..J.E. 2008. 3. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. G. Energy conversion. 5. its causes and adverse effects on environment.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. Thomson-Brooks. Ozone and UV light. P. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. Fate of pollutants in environment... Equations of fluid dynamics. Nuclear energy. A. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. atmospheric and soil chemistry. Sound and Noise. Heat radiation and heat transfer. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. Liss. Particle physics..G. Chemical reactions.S. interaction of light with matter. Recommended Books: 1. 2004. Transport of pollutants.M.. Canada. M. Fundamentals of aquatic. Fregoso-Infante. 2. 2005. Entropy. Turbulent diffusion. Isotopes and radioactive decay.D. Reducing the transmission of sound. Samir. Basic acoustics. photosynthesis. Blackwell Science. 2004. USA. 1999. Environmental impact of various industries. Solar spectrum... Environmental Chemistry. Springer.

Guyot. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. C. population and environmental quality. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. Physics of the Environment and Climate. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. Boeker. S. Recommended Books: 1. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. Praxis publishing. UK. 2001. 2. Environmental economics.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. 2008. Economic management and environmental quality. Measures for sustainable development. 4. economic welfare and difference among all. Growth and Environment. M. Seinfeld. economic progress. Kentucky USA. J. 2008. Wesely Publishers. Economic functions of environment. N. interaction between ecology and economic management. and Pandis. S. Pakistan economic context: National income. H. G. Recommended Books: 1. Introductory Environmental Physics. Producer behavior. P. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. Impact of economic activity on environment. John Wiley and Sons Inc. New York. and Van Grondelle. USA. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. USA. 3. producer and community point of view. Field visit. Economic Development.Economic development. USA. Man environmental relationship.. USA. economic growth. economic growth and its measurement. Todaro. Environmental Physics. Smith. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. Growth and development. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. World Bank Publications. poverty.1998. 2001. 2. and Resource allocation. 7th Ed. Routledge. E. R. Natural resources and the economy. Sustainable development. 2006. concepts and measurement. 23 . Yusuf.

. M. water.. Environmental philosophy and ethics. 3. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. ethics and ecology. LLC. levels of ecological organization. B. Shogren. Callicott. N.V. 4. Ecosystem and its types. Touchstone Books. 2009. Palgrave Macmillan. Ecology. International Thomson Publishing. and White. 2008. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. & Pierce. Frodeman. WCIV7AA. Farmington Hills. description of population. temperature. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. branches of ecology. Introduction to ethical theory. the ethics of soil. 2002. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. biogeography. 4. species. R. J. Environmental Critics of agriculture. and systems ecology. B. A History of Western Philosophy. J. USA. its fundamental concepts. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. 2. Natural philosophy. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . Swift. World Bank Publications. England.3.A. 2007. population. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. USA. role of light. London.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. C. Russell. community and ecosystem. Course Outlines Introduction. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. Kessinger Publishing. concepts and approaches. B. Economics. Portland 1967. 2008. DeVeer. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. community. soil.. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. Hanley. D. 24 .. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice.

Thomson Brooks/Cole. students will be able to understand the significance. various concepts of community. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. Fundamentals of Ecology. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. habitat and niche.Cox. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. WCB/McGraw-Hill. P. After completion of this course. B. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. community dynamics. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. 2001 5. UK. Populations. Systems ecology. M J. population dynamics. Lab Work 25 . 5th Ed. landscape ecology. Biomes of the world. J. C. landscape changes and their importance. plant geography and animal distribution. New Delhi. M. New York. and More. and Barett. Fundamentals of Ecology. 2004. 2. C. biotic factors. G. M C J 1st ed. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. 2000.topography and air as ecological factors. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. J.) Moles. Tata McGraw-Hill. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. Odum. 1st Ed. Recommended Books 1. Microbial metabolism.W. and S. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. Ecology (principles and applications). productivity of different ecosystems. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. Ecosystem: structure and function. ecological modeling. aquatic microbiology. Chapman. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea.L and Reiss. N. Ecology (concepts and applications. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. Concepts of Limiting factors. bacteria and eukarya. distribution limits. Population distribution and abundance. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. 1992. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. 3. characteristics of urban. King’s College London. 6th Ed. UK. 1999 4. Biogeochemical cycles of C. E P. Cambridge University Press. Dash.

American Society for Microbiology. and Jeffery.. Marine & Industrial pollution. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. London. Maier. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. Weiner. L. Cambridge UK.J. USA. New Jersey.D. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. Hill.G. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel.J. 2005. I. P. Effects of Pollutants. Fuhrmann. D.V. USA. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents.R. Water. Environmental Pollution and Control. C.. 1995. 5.P. J. Environmental Microbiology. USA. Pollution Control Strategies.L. Recommended Books: 1. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. 26 .. 2005. G. 2009. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. 2. peppor.. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. Recommended Books 1. Harley.M. Soil.J. L. transportation & treatments. Collection.P..J. 3. 2 Edition. and Klein. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution.and Brendecke. its sources and their effects.M. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. D. Hartel. R.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. J.. Pepper.. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. M. Hurrst. Cambridge University Press.I.B.A.J. W. and Gerba. Butterworth-Heinemann. USA. Academic Press. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. 2007. Academic Press.P.W. Microbiology. Noise. and Zuberer. R. D. McGraw Hill Inc.L.C.. P. 4th Edition. Knudsen.and Vesilaind. Academic Press. M. purification and preservation.Gerba. UK. McInernery. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). C. Prescott.. Solid Waste generation. A. isolation. Peiece.. Understanding Environmental Pollution. 2. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines.L. (Elsevier) USA. 2005. Washington DC..F.A. Case Studies.. 2002. 4.1998. Prentice Hall. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. Sylvia. F. and Stetzenbach. 3. 2nd Edition. Mean plate count.K. USA. Human & other living organisms.A. J.. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal.M. Crawford. Dilution plate technique.

Tarbuck. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Solar radiations. The Physics of Atmospheres. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. Sadder.K. Four Spheres of the Earth. global circulation. Recommended Books: 1.4. Climatology. Austin Miller. 2. American Public Health Association (APHA). processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. 5. Cloud Classification. 1992. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. Karachi. climatic zones of Pakistan. Mechanism of heat transfer. 3. Environmental psychology. 6th Edition. condensation and cloud Formation.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. John Wiley and Sons.. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. Pandis. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. Lawrance K.J. Royal book company. The climate of Pakistan. air pressure. Methods of psychology. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). John H. Houghton J. Surface winds.M. N. 2003. Marcel Dekkar. A. Shamshad. Cambridge University Press. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. 27 . Weather and Climate.. 4. .F.2nd Editions. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications.. Spyros. local winds. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. 2006 5. 2002. Factors affecting air Pressure. Lutgens. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . The Hydrologic cycle. Radiation and climate. The Atmosphere. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. 1988.W. K.E..

Environmental perception and cognition. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher.. Routledge. Eysenck. soil salinity and water logging. CRC Press. their management and ecological restoration. Course Outline Introduction. P. soil erosion and conservation. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. solar radiation and primary production. Future water scenario of Pakistan. carbon dioxide and global climate change. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Background and scope. Environmental Psychology. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. Routledge. Recommended Books: 1. Water and distribution of species. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan.D. soil resources of Pakistan. CRC Press. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. species response to pollutants. London. energy and carbon balance. Fundamental of Psychology. threats and mitigation.W. rivers.characteristics and research methods. High population density and psychological impacts. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. 28 . limitation of irrigated agriculture.A. Fisher J.C. Pollution control through Ecology. 2. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. Ecological restoration. 5th Edition. Water as an ecological resource. London.. Soil as a natural resource. Sustainable livestock management practices. 2001. T. Ecology of food production. 1992. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. and Baum A. Sustainable agricultural practices. concepts. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. sustainable agriculture. techniques and methods of restoration. Bell. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. Restoration of derelict lands. M. Greene.

B. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. Pakistan’s Environment. Island Press. 1996.. Oxford. and Memon. Toxicity: Types and its measurement.P. 5th Edition. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. and Barett. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications.Recommended Books: 1. G. toxins & toxicants. Blackwell Scientific Publications.. Peshawar. Synergism. 2nd ed. P. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. 4. Odum E. 2004. soil and air samples. University of Peshawar. toxicity screening using microbial systems. Thomson Brooks/Cole. their containment and control strategies.. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. toxins vs toxicants. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. Falk. Shirkat Gah. D. dose response relationship in living organisms. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. 3. Mumtaz. Fundamentals of Ecology. Chemical interactions and their types. terminologies: Poisons. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. K. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. K and Habib. from natural and anthropogenic sources. Islamabad. on human and other living organisms.National Book Foundation. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. Soil Science.S. Immunological considerations in toxicology. in vivo & in vitro assays. and Hobbs. E. Organs. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. biological effects. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. Rashid. Potentiation and Addition. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. 2000 2. R. 1989. Margaret A. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. 2006.. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. A. J. 5. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. Lahore.I. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms.A. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. Studies in Pakistan Geography.W. Newman. 29 . toxicology of chemicals. water and soil. J. Israr-ud-Din. Zedler. A.1998. USA.

Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. Course Outlines Introduction to history. Recommended Books: 30 . land. health. economic aspects of different environmental problems. General and Applied Toxicology. CRC Press Llc. P. McGrawhill. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. people. water resources. Ecological: ecological zones. State of the Environment-Pakistan . international trade and the environment. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. Williams. urbanization and pollution. 1996. 2005 2. USA.1 & 2. Ballantyne. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. 3. major ecosystems. 5th Edition. USA. W. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. Klassen. M. (ed.. 1st Edition. Recommended Books 1. geography. measuring environmental benefits. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. Hughes. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis.M. Vol. Economic: agriculture.D. topographic zones. 1992. Macmillan Press Ltd. pollution control-a general model. 1993. USA.Science of Poisons . economic development and the environment. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. B. W.Recommended Books 1.2005 2. T and Turner. Government of Pakistan. industry. clean development mechanism. 1st Edition.). culture. Course Outlines Introduction. the economy and the environment. education. 3.

preparation and storage. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve.D. Sample preservation methods. 8th Edition. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. 4. Australia. 31 . 2. Skoog. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. Johns Hopkins University Press. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. 6th Edition.. precision and accuracy.W. Environmental Economics. 2000. M. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. salinity & sodicity). Standard solutions and standard curves. Oxford. Oxford University Press. Peverill. Holler. Analytical techniques for soil. J.2004. Data interpretation for quality control.. A. handling. Thomson and Brooks. and derived S.I. Conductivitymetry. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. Field.2002. B. Titrimetery.K. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. D.L. Sample collection.R. Reuter. West. and F. M. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. D. and Batemen. Conductivitymetry. BOD. 2005. 3. 2003. D.1..J.A. COD. Titrimetery.and Field. Sparrow and D.C. Harris.. New York.K. USA.UK. Lab Work S. L. Collingwood. Turner. units. C. 1999. water and plant analysis.. Gravimetery. 3. Recommended Books: 1. Kolstad.. Gravimetery. K. Fluoride. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. Use of Potentiometery. CSIRO Publ. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Pearce. Freeman & Co. C. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Qualitative Chemical Analysis. 1993. 2. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. All Solids.I. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. NO3–N & NH4-N). D. I.

P.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. New York. Hans- Joachim. Course Outlines Introduction. National Biosafety Guidelines. and Russel. After completion of this course.E. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms.. Environmental Biotechnology. and application of biotechnology in the environment.1999. Biosensor.D. Cambridge University Press. Sambrook. 2. D. England. 2001.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. Tools in environmental biotechnology. J. and Josef. Derbre. National Biotechnology Commission. J. PCR. USA. Smith. Scragg.). (ed. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. purification and preservation of DNA. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. Government of Pakistan. USA. 2005. Isolation. J. Recommended Books 1. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. Biotechnology. Introduction to microbial kinetics. W. A. Chichoster. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . Biomarkers. Germany. 3. USA. 2005. Recombinant DNA technology.. 2007. Oxford University Press. Wiley-VCH Verlag. 5th Ed. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. New York. 4.W. students will be able to understand the significance. Bioreactors. 2009. 2nd Ed. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems.

2009. John Wiley and Sons. Rancez. Data acquisition. 2008. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. Aerial photography. eradication of the duplicated data. 3. Active and Passive remote sensing. Inc. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. Lulla. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Satellite Imageries. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . Dessinov. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. K and L. 4. Preparation of thematic maps. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. Introduction to Photogrammetry. Energy Sources. 2000. analysis and output. John Wiley and Sons. Mc Graw Hill Education.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. A. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Inc. Data entry and output. R. Jensen. advantages and limitations of process. V. Harvey. 2000. history and platforms. 1999. Cartography. map projection and coordinate systems. 5. Pearsons Education. integration of information from many sources. Introduction to GIS. Campbell. Inc. Image Processing. Different types of maps. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. Z. Guilfoud press New York. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Agriculture. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. F. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). Interpretation. 2. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. Using and reading GPS in field. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. History and data collection. Types of data used in GIS. Fishery and wildlife. Forestry. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks.

34 . principles of Cleaner production. Certification of EMS. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. alpha and beta diversity.C. Environmental Management tools. 1998.. M. Environmental aspects and impacts. American Society for Quality. 2006. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. Conservation of biodiversity. eco-design. A. types of biodiversity.. 2001. Khan. standards and guidelines. social and ethical values of biodiversity. philosophical. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. Environment and sustainable development. 2. ecological. WWF Pakistan.. hot spots of biodiversity. Related Environmental legislation. 4. Course Outlines Introduction. plant. and Qasim. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. Environmental Management Systems Principles. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Methods of environmental protection. cleaner technologies. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. Michigan. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. 3. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. Environmental Economy. Systems and Support Techniques. F. and Yoxon.). Sheldon.2nd Ed.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. International Organization for Standardization. threats to biodiversity. B. M.3rd Edition . Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. economic. 2005. need and approach. etc. American Society for Quality. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System.

ecotourism. 2. Lahore). conservation in man-made ecosystems. sampling and design purposes. Publ. soil and living organisms. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. A Primer for Conservation Biology.D. Sinauer. chemical addition. habitats. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. refrigeration and freezing methods. 2000. cities. design and types of samples. management. P. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. quality assessment. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. Associates Inc. conservation strategies. Cox.. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. Legal protection of species. 2000. Course Outlines Introduction. and Morre. Conservation of wildlife. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. London. protected areas. 35 . 2ndEd. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan.R. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. EIA requirement. Rawalpindi. Considerations..B. NOC for plant operation.B. international agreements. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. air. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. national and international laws and regulations. Preservation methods including pH control. presampling requirements/information. laboratory custody.B. their categories.conservation at species. Sunderland. croplands. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. community and ecosystem level. 3. Kings College. plants. Mirza. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. Recommended Books: 1.e. 1998. field custody. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures.. population. water. Quality assurance and quality control. forests. Z. Saad Printers. conservation and livelihood. Biogeography. quality control sampling. C. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. P.

Precipitation. Human responses to potential climate change. Ozone depletion. USA. Japan Association on Remote Sensing.) McGraw-Hill. New York. regional. (ed) Springer. and Guethner. F. chemical. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. (eds. I. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1.USA. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. 1992. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. Korte.Recommended Books: 1. USA. E. 2. Environmental Chemistry. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. Regional droughts and 36 . Physical. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. 2002. Chapman and Hall. Manahan. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. 2nd Edition. biological. S. 2000.. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. Moisture in the Atmosphere. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. 2008.1996. altered community structure. Tokyo. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. phenological changes. UK. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. Lewis Publisher London. human health. 7. 5. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. The Measurement of Climate Change. 3. Murai. extinctions. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. its causes and effects. S. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. Energy and Temperature.1999. Burden. Peakall. . H. 6. Remote Sensing Note. D. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. L. 2002. agriculture. Forstner U. Chuviero. Recent Climate Change Indicators. Keith. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. E. McKlivie. 2008.. 8. N. D. R. USA. Earth Observation of Global Change.

John Wiley & Sons. J.Causes. Effects. 2005. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press.(ed). Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. screening. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. Cost and benefits of EIA. J. Blackwell. 1st Edition. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. 37 . Recommended Books: 1.. 2003. 2005. Sringer. and Chadwick. J. Global Change and the earth system. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. John Wiley & Sons. Types & Resources to produce Energy. scoping. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. 2003. R. Islamabad. 3.. 1986. Glasson. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. EIA project management.A. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. D. and Solutions.. 4. liquid.). A. London. overview. Keith. review of EIA quality. Houghton. & Nixon. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). social impact assessment (SIA). National Book Foundation. law.T. Hardy. project implementation and follow up. J. Climate Change . 3. A. decision-making to implement the project. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. Harrop. public involvement. impact analysis.O. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. 1994. Petts. 4. Effects. Routledge. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. Therivel. 2004. Earthscan Publication Ltd. Oxford. 2000. J.cataclysmic climate change. 6. Recommended Books: 1.. (ed...Causes. Ministry of Housing and Works. 2. Global Warming and Climate Change. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. 2. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University.. T. Hardy. solids. and noise. reporting. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. 1999. Climate Change . mitigation and impact management. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. 2005. and Solutions. Islamabad. London. 5. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. Main stages in EIA process.

review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. S. management options. agriculture products and their share in GDP. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. Ludwig. 2002. Types. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. 6. their current status and threats. methodologies. J. existing management approaches. B. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. M. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia.. wildlife census. (ed. their pros and cons. effective management. R. John Willey & Sons.. 38 . field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. A. Development of Management Plan: needs. New York. Conservation in Progress. and Tu. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. importance.B and Warren. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. F. Sadler. problem in agriculture. threat and its causes. Asian Development Bank. Evans. threats.. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. B.. wind power and nuclear power. United Nations Environment Programme. Everitt. R. agriculture chemicals. 1993. USA. & McCabe.5. forest types and its existing management. limitation in the future. solar power. process and contents of the management plan. H. management options. national example. Lohani..). 1997. Recommended Books: 1. Carpenter. national agriculture policy. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources.. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level.. causes and methods for its improvement. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. 2nd Edition. requirement. best available option for future. national and provincial legislation. Rangeland Management: existing status. Goldsmith.

. 1992. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Selecting the Research Method. to introduce students to research design. Sampling: the logic of sampling. Material Methods. Sage CA.L. Dasmann. Surveys. Elsevier. R. & Plano Clark. 3. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. Review of Literature.2. Scientific Research: Science. S. Bibliography. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. Research Design & Research Methods. Interviews. Search Engines.E. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. USA. P. concepts and terminologies. Creswell. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). population and sampling frames.A pre-requisite for Research. 39 . Objectives. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. Methodology.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. London. Case Studies. Scientific Methods. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). types of sampling design/. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. Environmental Conservation. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically.E. GOP and IUCN. research methods. Inference based on findings. 2007. 5. Literature Search: Database. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. V. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. 4. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Experimental Research. New York. 1990.F. Thousand Oaks. How to put things together? Introduction. J. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. Hansen. W.Amsterdam. Review of Literature. Islamabad. Research Proposal: its importance . and Jorqensen. Questionnaire. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. John Wiley & Sons. 1984. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem.

1997. of Chicago Press. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. R. Chichester. Law Books House. 2nd Edition. 6.2. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance.S. 4. National Environmental Policy 4. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. Recommended Books: 1. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. National Conservation Strategy 5. Robert Yin. USA. Diamon. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. Babbie. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. 3rd Edition. Students project in Environmental Science. USA. regulations made there under. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. 2000.. 1997.Harrad. Qadar..USA. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Government of Pakistan 3.Batty. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. Belmont California. Booth.. Univ. Wadsworth Publishing Company. 2008. Marilyn F. 5. 2001. 1989. Moriarty. S.. England. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. 3. John and sons Ltd. 2. Survey Research Methods. 2003. M. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 .h. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. E. and Arhonditsis. Sage Publishers. G. 2003.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

K.1993. flood and droughts. and Malik. 4. O. Revised & enlarged edition. 1993. R. Lahore. Mirajuddin Publication . The Politics of Managing Water. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. (eds. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan.. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. 5. virtual water. Pakistan . Islamabad. fisheries management. Ahmed. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. 44 . Course Outlines Water resource and its management. N. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. hydrological cycle. SDPI Oxford University Press. Oxford University Press Karachi. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. Khan.). C. and Qamar. I. Ahmed. 2006. and Tortajada. 6. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. A.Lahore. Cheema. with drinking water facilities like springs. Recommended Books: 1... precipitation distribution in Pakistan.Varis. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. 2. Pakistan. A. integrated water resources management (IWRM). Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. groundwater exploitation.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. A. Biswas. Bengali. Asia Printer. U. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. (ed. Mirajuddin Publication .. 2006. Indus Water Accord 1991. water supply and demand management measures. tubewells.K. Briscoe. water quality and quantity aspects.). Islamabad. watershed/catchment. N. P. wetlands resources management. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan.. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan... Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). 2003. R. flood and drought management. 3. J. 2005. Oxford University Press New Delhi. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. recycling and re-use of wastewater. pollution aspects.

D. Upper Saddle River. 1. and Weil. hydrological processes. USA. R. NJ. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. Pakistan. Forms of urbanization. the salient features of urban environments. Causes of urbanization. future of urban centers. PrenticeHall. USA.C. Course Outlines Introduction. Upper Saddle River.R. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. urbanization in Pakistan. 11th Edition. Prentice Hall. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. Types and properties of parent materials. urban landscapes characteristics.. Soil Science. R. After completion of this course. 1996. N. urban flora and fauna. urban settlements. 2008. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. Urban ecosystem. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. Urbanization. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. Academic Press. Physical and chemical processes of weathering.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. Gardiner. urban political ecology. 2007. soils. and Bantel. Process and outcome. Islamabad.W. E. Brady. Miller. Soil forming minerals. humans as components of urban ecosystems.T. Course Outlines Introduction.. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. NJ. D. Factors and processes of soil formation. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. transport. USA. Soil degradation. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. San Diego. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. 2007. 45 . Soils in Our Environment. management and green productivity. Physical and chemical properties of soil. Definition. Hillel. CA. R. Bashir. Cation and anion exchange. National Book Foundation. Soil buffering capacity and its importance.

C. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. S. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. UR. Planning theories and concepts. O.S. SAGE Publications Ltd. New York. Aims and Objectives of planning. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. Penguin Group. UK. Elements of urban planning. 1. 2004. H. A. Kate. nd 2 Edition. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. Alberti. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. J. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. 5. Chapman and Hall. Land use planning theories. The planning process. Routledge.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. UK. SBS academic publishing.. 1989. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. The Works: Anatomy of a City. nature and purpose of urban planning. Sukopp. London. Scope. Planning and Urban Change. New trends in planning and city management. Hejny.1990. Smith. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city.and Maser. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. CRC Press LLC. 2009. Principles of planning.. Springer. V. Hough. Routledge. Ward. City Design for Sustainable Development. 3. London. M. Levels of planning. 2. 2006. M. 2000. USA. Hague. Gilbert. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. Justification for planning for city management. Recommended Books: 1. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. 2. Planning and its relationship with other professions. 2004.. 4. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Types of Urban Plans.. USA. Silberstein. UK.L. I. 46 . S. D.. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment.and Kowaril. 2007.

The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. 1989. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Prediction. 1993. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. H. The Guilford Press.W. Flooding. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. Role of Media in Disaster Management. Paris. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. Longman Group. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. Different approaches and Indicators. Hazards.J.B. R. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. Chapman & Hall. 2nd Edition.. It discusses a wide range of aspects.. Landslide. Disaster as an opportunity for development. 4. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). 1991.. and White G. Introducing Town Planning. D. Ministry of Housing and Works. Islamabad. Disaster Management: Components of management. 1993. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. ADB.W.UNESCO. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies.. New York. Westview Press. 47 . Techniques and methods to assess hazard. Cultural factors. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. Government of Pakistan. 3. M. Natural Disasters Alexander. Boulder .e. Political factors. 1986. E&UA Div. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. Earthquake Management. i.. UK. and Woodrow. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. P. 4.. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. Natural cycles and their role. Physical factors. 2. Flood Management: Organizational Role. Earthquake.. Manila. New York. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. Clara. 1993. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors.3. Recommended Books: 1. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made.. International phenomenon. Kates. G.F. Socio-economic factors. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures.

uses. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. New York. 3. Sustainable livestock management. 4th Edition. Botkin. OECD/IEA. D.H. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals.M. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America.C. sustainable energy management. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers.5. R. consumers. E. energy resources. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems.B and Keller. Farming practices for pests and weeds control.. alternate energy resources. L. Westport. Agroecology. Paris. A.. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. primary producers. merits and demerits of wind. 2007. 48 . and Yonavjak. local. M. biomass resources. McKinney.W. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. Consumer and producer relationship.. 6. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. Ecological concept in crop and food production. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. USA. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. 2001. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. 1984. hydropower.A. Biotic structure. decomposers. types. 1. Perry R. Disasters and Development Cuny. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. Quorum Books. 1983. solar. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. F. John Wiley and Sons. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. and Mushkatel.L. 2007. Schoch. 6th Edition. 2. energy resources of Pakistan.

New York. New Delhi. E-11 Seminar 49 . USA. 2000.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. Altreri.R. P. 2. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. 1990. CBS Publishers and Distributors. R. and Sudha. C. India. Corol. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. 1995.A. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. Boulder. Study of index of diversity.M.. and Rossel. Study of stratification and profile diagram. Agrocology. 3. Kapur.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. Experimental Plant Ecology. M. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. Recommended Books: 1.G.P. USA.H. Yandermeer J. Westview Press.

The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. 5. 3. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. 50 . To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. 4. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. 2. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. the Committee agreed on the following principles. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. availability of the faculty and other facilities. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. that: 1.

13. 11. 6. 24. 22. 15. 8. 19. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 2. 16. 10. 4. 26. 6. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 20. 25. 9. 5. 7. 7. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 12. 2. 5. 4. 17. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 8. 12. 3. 23. 14. 11. 9. 21. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 18. 3. 10.

52 . Regional and International Environmental Issues. Environmental control Policies. FURTHER READINGS 1. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. 3. and Bell. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. Mackenzie. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Recommended Books: 1.. Provincial and Local Strategies. status of Terrestrial.S. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. development of concepts. GOP and IUCN. London Black Stone Press Ltd. 1992. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences.1994. Environment People and Economy.DETAILS OF M. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. Hodder and Stoughton. P. Amsterdam. 1991. technology and resource use. Geography of Pakistan. Money.. Islamabad. Karachi. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. WCS. Oxford University Press. S. NCS. 4.1994. Elsevier. Mackenzie J. 2nd Edition. 2.F.. 3. Ball. S. London. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan.. and Jorqensen. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management.T. Draft National Environmental Policy. Khan K.E. Oxford University Press. Instruments and methods. 2. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall.. Hansen. 1987. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan.1995.E. Relationship of culture. F. Conventions and Protocols in Global. Conservation Strategies.1991.A. S. Treaties. D. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling.

1993. Government of Pakistan. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. social impact assessment. Demographic impact assessment. opportunities and issues. C. A. K. 3. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements.A. Washington. Ministry of Environment. Environmental auditing. 2. John Wiley & Sons. Ahmed. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). 1995. Wastewater. Gas Chromatography etc. Principles of physical. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. Burnt Hill. 1995. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Environmental Chemical Analysis. 2. role and importance. WB. Harlow Essex. FURTHER READINGS 1. Ed. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. ed. procedures and methods of EIA.Vanclay. Longman Scientific and Technical. D. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. DC.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. A one Publishers Lahore. Air and Solid Waste. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. Recommended Books: 1. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. sample collection and preservation. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition).. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. economic impact assessment. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. Recommended Books: 1. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). England. History. F & Bronstein. sampling rules. Cost benefit analysis of projects. process. Assessment of environmental impacts. Longman House. UK. Chichester. Wood. 53 . Environment Department. World Bank. Case Studies and review. ecological impact assessment.

A. Meredith J. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). M. indicators. 5. A Guide to Project Management.. Public health concept.. 54 . Writing Project Proposal. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. Ergonomic and Safety. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). 3. Lippmann. Project Life Cycle. air borne. Need identification. L. Yassi. and Guidotti. Mantel s. UK. S. Planning Commission Performas. Occupational Health: problems and issues. 1st Ed. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. specific objectives. 1998.. Resource Mobilization. feasibility study. Environmental Health Engineering. Reasons for Project success or failure. means of verification. prevention and control. safety techniques. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures.. Nebel. de Kok. T. T. 1997. and Wright. Park. Government Policies and Programs.. economic evaluation. B.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. inputs. Basic Environmental Health. assumptions. 1992. 2001. Project Management Institute. R...2000. 2. Recommended Books: 1. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. Oxford University Press New York. activities. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. J. Project Planning. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. London. principles and practices. Wiley Interscience. 2. USA. USA. T. 2nd Ed. M/S Banarsid. Prentice Hall International Inc. K. outputs. John Wiley and Sons. Kjelllström. Project Initiation. R. development objectives. Defining Project objectives. Caeneross. New York. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. 1st ed. J. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. Inc. work breakdown structure.. 1993. Primary health care services. Accident prevention and safety plans. Project Planning and Approval Processes. 4. T. 1st Ed. 2002. MS Project Recommended Books: 1.. Explanation of Horizontal Logic.

Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Related Environmental regulations. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). energy resources of Pakistan. energy resources. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. 2001. petroleum. data collection and interpretation. OECD/IEA. Sayre. L.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. 2. 3. principles and elements of the process of EMS. 2007. Botkin.B and Keller. 4th Edition. Paris. and Yonavjak. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. Paris. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. transport. D. Recommended Books: 1. John Wiley and Sons. nuclear) local. 2. Environmental Auditing. Principles of cleaner production. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. E.A. M. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. R. Michigan-January 2001. Environmental auditing. 4.. Schoch. gas.M. hydropower. Recommended Books: 1. merits and demerits of wind. solar. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. 6th Edition. alternate energy resources. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. McKinney. 1998. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. 3. ISO Central Secretariat. industry and domestic sectors. 2007. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. non-renewable and renewable. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. Sources of data. St Luise Press. USA. types. 1990b. bio-energy resources. D.L. Switzerland. 55 . sustainable energy management for agriculture. uses.

& Charlesworth. geographical and temporal patterns. etc. and Solutions. J. Blackwell Publishing. 1.. Hardy.Causes. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Climate Change . Chichester. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Maarel. 3. 2. 2005. 2004. 2005. Berlin. Blackwell Publishing. Recommended Books: 1. John Wiley & Sons. Green House Gases. 1st Edition. 3. Vegetation Ecology Ed. water resources. Plant Ecology. D. survival and extinction. Oxford UK. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Climate change and food production. 2003. ED. J. Warrick.Causes. Hardy.). Introduction to Plant Population Biology. management and restoration. competition and coexistence. and Solutions. plant conservation. 2005. resources and plants. plant invasions. types of climate change models. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. ECOPE 29. J. (Ed. Climate Change . K. 5. John Wiley & Sons. John Wiley & Sons. Oxford. Plant population dynamics. global aspects of plant ecology. Shulze. The Green House Effect. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. Beck.. Effects.D. Springer. Houghton. 2. types and their climatic effects. Effects. B & Jager. UK. Recommended Books: 1. 2005. Life history strategies of plants. Silvertown. Species richness. Climate Change and Ecosystems. Earthscan Publication Ltd. vegetation dynamics.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. E. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. 2003. forests. 56 . E & Muller-Hohenstein. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T.T. Modeling of climate change. D. human activities and vegetation dynamics. London. 4. UK 1991. T.

In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. UK. Protected areas.A. 3. T. Inc. Essentials of Conservation Biology. types. Consumptive. Conserving Living Natural Resources.J. And Bolen. distribution. J. Recommended Books: 1. 4. Primack. E. Mcmillan. Weddell. Loss of biodiversity. 2002.D. Blackwell Publsihing. I). 5. Biodiversity: An introduction. status. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. Principles of Wildlife Management. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. 1992. 1973 2. Oxford. 2. their ecological and economic importance. Global and national biodiversity.J. their importance. T. habitats and ecosystems. Forests. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. Sustainable forest management. types. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. London. B. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. Rangeland management.J. Oxford. 1984. distribution and management. UK. its causes. Roberts.L. Participatory forest management. John Wiley And Sons. threats and conservation. Wildlife of Pakistan. Oxford University Press. Oxford University Press. 2004. 1986. Robinson. II). K. Publishers Sunderland. Oxford University Press.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. 57 . Forest plantations. biological diversity. management. & Spicer.) Gaston. S. 2002. Cambridge University Press. kinds. Cambridge. W. Establishment and management of protected areas. Sinauer Assocaites. their types and role in conservation. S. 3. Threatened animals and plants. 1998. Oxford.(2nd Ed. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Roberts. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol.J. distribution. Wetlands. Cambridge.G. Protected areas in Pakistan. Recommended Books: 1. problems and solutions. J. Extinction of species. deforestation and its control.B. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. Status of forests in Pakistan. Bailey. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. & Ripley. Wildlife Ecology and Management. R. USA. Protection and restoration of species.

Sustainable cities. The Works: Anatomy of a City. sanitation. urban political ecology. Clara. H. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. urban systems and their characteristics. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Urban planning and management in Pakistan.. 2. Introducing Town Planning. USA. Environmental problems of urban life. Ward. UK. London. USA. UK. V. future of urban centers. CRC Press LLC. New York. 1993. E&UA Div. Planning and Urban Change. S. Ministry of Housing and Works. management of transport. Longman Group. Urban land use planning and management.. Silberstein. 3. Recommended Books: 1. C. urban landscape characteristics. 2007..and Maser. Government of Pakistan. SAGE Publications Ltd.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction.. Islamabad. G. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. 2000. drinking water and solid waste in cities. 4. urbanization in Pakistan. J. 1986. 58 . Penguin Group. Forms of urbanization. Kate. 2004. A.

ISBN 0194313492 59 . Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure.V. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. a) Functional English Grammar 1. 1997.Annexure . Third edition. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. Exercises 1. Martinet.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. Thomson and A.J. Practical English Grammar by A. Oxford University Press.

ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. Martinet.J. Fourth Impression 1993. Oxford University Press. and speed reading. Oxford Supplementary Skills.V. Writing. 1997. Thomson and A. Third edition. Upper Intermediate. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. Exercises 2. intensive and extensive. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. Reading/Comprehension 1. Third Impression 1992.2. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. minutes of meetings. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. b) Practical English Grammar by A. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . Reading.

introduction to presentations. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Reading 1. Oxford Supplementary Skills. discursive.J. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. Third edition. Martinet. Exercises 2. 2. 2. form. b) Writing 1. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. Fourth Impression 1992. Oxford University Press 1986. Writing. Third Impression 1992. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Thomson and A. Fourth Impression 1993. descriptive and argumentative writing). Practical English Grammar by A. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Advanced by Ron White. Oxford Supplementary Skills. narrative. Writing. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. content. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . Writing. Third Impression 1991. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Reading. clarity. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. language. Advanced.1. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis.V. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco.

Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. Mandell. St. 2. descriptive. A Custom Publication.(particularly suitable for discursive. Martin’s Press. Compiled by norther Illinois University. 62 . 2004. Kirszner and Stephen R. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. College Writing Skills by John Langan. Kathleen Shine Cain. 3. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. without taxing the taste of engineering students). argumentative and report writing).

B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. People and Land i. Contemporary Pakistan a. Safdar. 1988-99 f. Muslim advent iii. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. contemporary Pakistan. Lahore. State & Society in Pakistan. b. Study the process of governance. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. Course Outline 1. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Economic institutions and issues b. 1971-77 d. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. 4. Indus Civilization ii. 63 Books Recommended 1. Mehmood.Annexure . Zaidi. S. 2. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. 1993. government. Karachi: Oxford University Press. 1947-58 b. Karachi: Oxford University Press. 3. 1977-88 e. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. national development. Shahid Javed. politics. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. Historical Perspective a. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. Location and geo-physical features. Ethnicity d. 1999 onward 3. ideological background of Pakistan. 2000. Society and social structure c. 1958-71 c. S. Akbar. . 2. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. 1994.M.

1980. Khalid Bin. Muhammad Waseem. Mehmood. Ansar. 14. 1972. Haq.5. 1987. 12. Wilcox. Institute of Public Policy Research. Pakistan Under Martial Law. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. Islamabad. Enigma of Political Development. Political Parties in Pakistan. 10. Ethno . 9. 1976. 1980. Aziz. 8. M. II & III. Ziring. Noor ul. Washington: American Enterprise. 13. K. Rafique. Politics in Pakistan. Sayeed. nd.. Tahir. Lawrence. 11. Afzal.National Movement in Pakistan. I. 1967. The Political System of Pakistan. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Amin. 6. Zahid. Safdar.K.The Emergence of Banglades. 1993. Wayne. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Lahore: Vanguard. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. 64 . Party. 1998. 7. Vol. Club Road. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. History & Culture of Sindh. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research.

A. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.6.20) Related to thinking.Annexure .) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.58.Tadabar (Verse No1.21.19.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.56.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.A.40.57.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.A.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.

in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.

Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute.S. “Emergence of Islam” . “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. Ahmad Hasan. IRI. “Studies in Islamic Law. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. Pakistan. International Islamic University. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. Islamabad (2001) 67 . Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. Bhatia.

COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. PWS-Kent Company. Beckenback EF. determinants. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations.Annexure . trigonometric identities. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. complex numbers. 1978. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. Boston 68 . introduction to sets. set operations. geometric progression. Cramer’s rule. harmonic progression. matrix inverse. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. Sharron S.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. functions. 1987. system of linear equations. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. types of functions. equations reducible to quadratic equations. College Algebra and Trigonometry. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. Houghton & Mifflin. Boston Swokowski EW. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. PWS-Kent Company. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. 1986. types. Wooton W. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. not majoring in mathematics. cube roots of unity.

2005. change of variables in indefinite integrals. John Wiley. continuity. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. functions and their graphs. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. Finney AR. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. distance between a point and a line. not majoring in mathematics. Reading. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. parallel and perpendicular lines. slope of a line. left-hand and right-hand limits. PWS-Kent Company. Calculus (3rd edition). 69 . Boston Thomas GB. differentiation of polynomial. 2005. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. 1995. USA 3. New York Stewart J. Davis S. continuous functions.2. derivatives. 1983. Calculus (11th edition). with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. various forms of equation of a line. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). integration by parts. inequalities. intersection of two lines. angle between two lines. solution of equations involving absolute values. equation of a line. not majoring in mathematics. distance between two points. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. integration by substitution. Ma. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. Addison-Wesley. Recommended Books: Anton H. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. rational and transcendental functions. Bevens I.

locus of a point in various conditions. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). ellipse. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. types of matrices. PWS-Kent Company. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Freshman and Company. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. Boston 4. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. equations reducible to quadratic equations. functions. set operations. intersection of lines and circles. Introduction to sets. Conic Sections: Parabola. Cramer’s rule. 1987. 1986. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. hyperbola.Circle: Equation of a circle. PWS-Kent Company. 70 . system of linear equations. circles determined by various conditions. types of functions. Scott. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Analytic Geometry. 1969 Kaufmann JE. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). determinants. nature of roots of quadratic equations. inverse of matrices. • Contents 1. Boston Swokowski EW.

Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. discrete and continuous series. Graphs: Graph of straight line. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. Books Recommended: 1. types of frequency series. 2.geometric and harmonic progressions. PWS-Kent Company. deciles and percentiles. skewness and kurtosis. circle and trigonometric functions. Latest Edition. Swokowski. relationship of statistics with social science. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. 4. variance. frequency polygon. Boston.. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. characteristics of statistics. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry.. 5. standard deviation. W. Latest Edition. ungrouped and grouped data. quartiles. J. E. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. E. Latest Edition. moments. Prentice Hall. individual. R. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Measures of dispersion: Range. Wilcox. E. R. trigonometric identities. Kaufmann. 2. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. Walpole. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. bar frequency diagram histogram. tally sheet method. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’.. 3.. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. R. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. array. 71 . cumulative frequency curve.

6. reduction formulae. theorems of differentiation. • Integration Integration from first principles. Second Edition 1992. Boston. quotients. 3. 1983. Continuous Functions. Rational and Transcendental Functions. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. Calculus. 11th Edition. and Transcendental Functions. Anton. 2005. plane polar coordinates. Hughes-Hallett. Inc.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. products. Continuity. Calculus. integration using partial fractions. 2005. Addison Wesley publishing company. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. infinite and improper integrals. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. Calculus Single and Multivariable. Gleason. S. I.Jr. applications of integration. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. 2. W. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. special points of a function. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. Prentice-Hall. Schaum’s Outline Series. 5. Solution of equations involving absolute values. Rational Functions. Elliott Mendelson. 4th edition. 2. logarithmic integration. Frank A. integration by inspection. 8th edition. E. Least-Squares Line. Inequalities. Swokowski. sinusoidal function. Equation of a Line. Extreme Values of Functions. Mathews. John Wiley & Sons. Inc. Trigonometric Functions. Calculus. Bevens. Jhon Willey & Sons. implicit differentiation. 4. 1999. Davis. Thomas. McCallum. Integration by Parts. 3rd Edition. integral inequalities. Contents 1. the chain rule. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. logarithmic differentiation. H. Recommended Books: 1. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. Slope of a Line. 6. John H. substitution method. integration by parts. et al. Leibnitz’ theorem. 2002. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . the inverse of differentiation.

identities of hyperbolic functions. complex conjugate. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. arithmetico-geometric series. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series.Additions and subtraction. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. solving hyperbolic equations. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. modulus and argument. inverses of hyperbolic functions. series involving natural numbers. the difference method. finding the nth roots of unity. approximation errors in Taylor series. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . multiplication. geometric series.

unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. 6. vector product. scalar triple product. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. of a unitary matrix. Hermitian.5. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. line to line. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. the inner product. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. orthogonal. moments of inertia. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. symmetric and antisymmetric. centers of mass and centroids. Pappus’ theorems. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. point to plane. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . masses.

div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. spherical polar coordinates 75 . divergence of a vector field. combinations of grad. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products.8. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions.

Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. definition of outliers and their detection. Exercises.Annexure . Diagrams. The semi-Interquartile Range. The Variance and standard deviation. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Types of frequency curves. Exercises Unit 6. Moments and Moments ratios. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. properties of Good Average. Test statistics. Rounding of a Number. The Mean Deviation. Type-I and Type-II errors. Histogram. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Range. Different types of Averages. Exercises. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Unit 7. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Standardized variables. Data. acceptance and rejection regions. Change of origin and scale. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Unit 3. Errors of measurement. Graphs and their Construction. Box and Whisker Plot. Median and mode. Pie chart. Unit 4. Coefficient of variation. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Quantiles. The Mode. Presentation of Data Introduction. Unit 2. sample design and sampling frame. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Discrete and continuous variables. null and alternative hypothesis. Editing of Data. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Statistical problem. Probability and Probability Distributions. bias. Bar charts. Significant digits. Sources. Exercises. 76 . Hypothesis Testing Introduction. sampling and non sampling errors. Population. Exercises. probability and non-probability sampling. sampling with and without replacement.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Observations. Stem and Leaf Display. level of significance. Unit 5. Exercises. Difference of means and proportions. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Historigram. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Empirical Relation between Mean. Exercises. Collection of primary and secondary data. Constructing of a frequency distribution. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Absolute and relative measures.

Regression and Correlation Introduction. F. Kitab Markaz. 1982. Coefficient of linear correlation. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. Contingency Tables. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. R. cause and effect relationships. examples. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad..Single Population Introduction. Correlation. Testing of Hypothesis. 2005. Unit 11. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. Macmillan Publishing Co. Exercises. its estimation and interpretation. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. 3rd Ed. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. “Introduction to Statistics”. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. E. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. r and R2. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. New York. Inc.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. simple linear regression.Unit 8. 2 Muhammad. 77 . Exercises Unit 9. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies.. Exercises Unit 10.

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