CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
58

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broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. therefore. It is.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. Lahore. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . 2009 at the HEC Regional Center.ALTAF ALI G. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. the Federal Government vide notification No. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. R&D organizations. and 36. D773/76-JEA (cur. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. It also aimed to give a basic. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. PROF.). the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. degree awarding institutions. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. dated December 4th 1976.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. 63. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. DR. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. The world has turned into a global village. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. universities and other institutions of higher education.

OF NCRC. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. R&D. Preparation 5 . HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. EXP. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. REC.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. OF CURRI. PREP. COL. OF FINAL CURRI. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. UNI.

Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Member 5. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Member 4. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Dr. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Following attended the meeting:1. Lahore Member 6. Karachi from 28-30. Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. 7. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Dr. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Member 6 .Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Member 3. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean.

Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Prof. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Dr. Prof. Dr. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Dr. 7 . Member 10. Member 15. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof.8. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Member 11. Karachi Member 12. Dr. Member 16. 13. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Member 14. Dr. Dr.

Chairman. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. 1. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Dr. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Dr.17. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. 8 . Faisalabad Member 18. Member 20. Mr. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. At first. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. Member 19. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. 2. Karachi. Director of HEC Regional Center. The meeting was opened by Mr. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Mr. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Secretary Dr.

4. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. 1.3. The committee thanked Mr. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. 6. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. 3. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. In last few centuries. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. 5. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. 2. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society.

regional and global contexts. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. in its preliminary meeting. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. This committee. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. skills and behaviour patterns. ii. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. Apply theoretical understanding. 5. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5.

4. 6. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. A. 2. with consensus. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. Sc. The medium of instruction. 3. eight semesters in the semester system. that: 1.. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. The 11 . In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. 1. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration.e. 5. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. Integrating natural sciences. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F.

Environmental Microbiology 21. Climatology* 23. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. English-III 18. Introduction to Earth Science 8. Environmental Pollution 22. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. English-II 12. Basic Chemistry* 4. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Environmental Physics 16. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Psychology* . Environmental Chemistry 15. Biology –II* 9. Introduction to Computer 14. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Introductory Economics* 17. Biology –I* 3. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. English-I 6.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities.

Research Methods in Environmental Science 41.24. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. ELECTIVE-III 42. Climate Change 38. Applied Ecology 26. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. 44. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . 46. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. Environmental Biotechnology 32. Environmental Monitoring 36. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Environmental Management Systems 34. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. English-IV/ Univ. Environmental toxicology 27. Opt. Natural Resource Management 40. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Environmental Economics 29. 45.

• Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical.

Jones & Bartlett Publishers. biological and social. Miller. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. ecological. environmental pollution. Different aspects of environment: physical. socio-economic. Recommended Books: 1. Wright. 2. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society.J. ethical. lipids. L. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. 4. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. & Nebel. 2007 3. and their relationships with various environmental factors. 2002.M. 10th Ed. 15 . 2007.B & Keller. philosophical. development in industry and agriculture. B. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. regional. Human environment and its problems: global. 2007. D. its importance in human life.T.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. McKinney. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. urbanization. Schoch. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. E. current global. M. R. Thomson Learning. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. national.A..L. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . proteins and nucleic acids. & Yonavjak. Pearson Educational. 6th Ed. Botkin.. poverty and resource depletion. R. John Wiley & Sons. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. 4th Ed. G. history.

2007. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. 2. protobionts. N. Lingappa. proteins. Bulter. Cells. carbonyls. McGraw. Crossley. lipids.. 2003. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. and Whitelaw. Plopper. chemical diversity. V. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. Origin of life: chemical evolution. Shier. 5th Edetion. Structure and the basis of function. Starr. B. C. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. USA. Cassimeris. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. J. Canada.. amines). 8th Ed. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. D. E. Wadsworth Group.. 5. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. 4. USA. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. G. the molecule of genetic information and replication. Ltd. 1. M. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. Australia . but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods.. 3. polypeptides in protein diversity. phospholipids in membrane systems. Lewis. 2008.Hill International Edition. coordinate covalent bond. R. L. lipids. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. A. Introduction to cell biology. New York. 2007. Nucleic acids. R. 1996. Biology: a Human Emphasis. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life.. chemical basis of life. Aromatic compounds. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. 16 . Ionic. carboxylic acids. Cell division. carbohydrates. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. USA. esters. Molecular Biology through Questions. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. covalent. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. origin of metabolism. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. and Lewis. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. Self Assessment and Revie.

Lab Work Preparation of molar.E.H. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. law of Cosines. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. expansion of determinants. Blackwell Science. 3. Recommended Books: 1. M.ions. J. 2nd Edition. West.J. angle-sum formula. Andrews. Jickells. Brimblecombe. D. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. Understanding Environmental Pollution. graphs. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. USA.J. simultaneous equations and their solutions. 6th Edition. Solution chemistry. 2005. W. radicals. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Jones and Barlett. T. Harris. Skoog. 4. values of trigonometric functions. UK. D. D. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations).. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. P... Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. 1st Ed.C. Algebra of matrices.. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. Thomson and Brooks. Surface chemistry. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers.D.A. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). 2nd Edition. real line. Liss. Freeman and Company. B. Thin layer chromatography. equations of lines (linear equations).. UK. determinants. 2003.S. normal solutions/buffers. Measurement of pH. Photochemical reactions. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. 17 . Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. straight line and related concepts. and Reid. J. 2004.K.Special Products (Binomial Expression).M.E. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. geometric and harmonic sequence. 2. Cambridge University Press. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. P. Canada. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. Colloids chemistry. Osmosis and Dialysis. 2004... Column chromatography. Hill. F. EC and TDS in waste water. USA. double angle formulas. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). molal. 5. 8th Edition. series and means. 2004. Girard. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. minor and cofactor of a matrix. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix.. and Holler..

Jr. nonrepeated linear factors. mountain building.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . Trignometry for College students. cleavages. earthquakes. 4. Introduction to rocks and minerals. 1999. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. foliation. New Delhi. difference. Chain rule. different earth processes like mountain buildings. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. Addission. G.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography.. 2. Scott Foresman and Company. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . lineation and unconformities. K. by parts integration (simple applications). Earth as a member of solar system. Abraham. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. theorems on differentiation (sum. 18 . Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. age. 10th Ed. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. the processes of their formation. theorem of integration. Thomas. J.. Introduction to sedimentary. D. Analytical Geometry. 3. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. composition and its internal structure. L. and Finney. Weathering. product and quotient rules without derivations). R. earthquakes and volcanoes. Smith. Fossils and their significance. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors.Cramer’s Rule. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. erosion and related landforms. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. Pacific Grove. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. California. 4th Ed. joints. plate tectonics. its origin. irreducible quadratic factors. Introduction to folds. Narosa Publishing House. faults. weathering and erosion. Chatterjee. S.Wesley. Integration: Formulas of integration.B. Recommended Books: 1. igneous and metamorphic rocks. Calculus and Analytical Geometry.

G.. G. Tarbuck. How Does Earth Work. Park. invasion of life on land. D.. protocell formation. Routledge. Field Study tour. population loss and decline. and Monroe. Foundations of Structural Biology. Lutgens. different classification systems. biodiversity crises. Use of brunton compass and GPS. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY .. 5. 3rd Edition.. Biodiversity of canal. 2005. Biodiversity of deserts. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. Lamarckism. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. K. K. unicellularity. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. J. F. E... Lutgens. J. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. J. 2007 3. Darwinism. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. R. Prentice Hall: 2006. D. and Tasa. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. Physical Geology and Process of Science. Wicander. 9th Edition. animals). measuring biodiversity. 2004..Identification of rocks and minerals. and Tasa. Tarbuck. examples of adjustments in varied environment. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. and Pun. Life in sea. 2007 2. Brooks/Cole.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. 5th Edition. interactions among diversified life. Smith. Biodiversity of hilly areas. Geological time chart with biodiversity. Prentice Hall. 4.. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. R. causes of extinction. consequences of losing biodiversity. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. multicellularity.. E. Recommended Books: 1. 19 . 11th Edition. modern concepts. Prentice Hall. Earth Science. molecular basis of biodiversity. F. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. A.

2003. Walnut Creek. USA. Blackwell Science Ltd. Culture. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. I. CA: AltaMira Press. Crumley. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. 2000. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. Conceptualizing environment. IL:WavelandPress. Inc.. 4. Bradbury. C. Biology. Environmental Risks and the Media.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. Wadsworth Group. Biodiversity (An Introduction). Hannen. 2009. 2. 3. C. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . Inc. Prospect Heights. Goals and expectations. Nora and Wilk. Consumption. I. Tripartite nature of environment. Townsend. Understanding the environment-human relationship. culture and society. R. UK. 2005. 5th Edition. P. Contemporary environment issues and debate. UK. J. Routledge. Allan & Carter. 2001. Chronological. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. L. and concerns.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. 2006. J. The Ecology of global consumer culture. Perspective of human-environment evolution. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. Gaston. (editors). The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. Starr. 2. (editor). K.. K. New York: New York University Press. and Sustainable Living. Use of environment for vested interest. 2nd Edition. John Wiley and Sons. Scope and application. power & hegemony. and Spicer. globalization and environmental issues. Contemporary environmental status. Adam. 20 . 3.K. Recommended Books: 1. The Biosphere. 2009. a Human Emphasis. UK.

2.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components.6th Ed. 6. Ms-Power Point. Course Outlines Definition. Milton. Selin. K.H. Local Area Network. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. Types and classification of computers. Hardware: Input Hardware.Microsoft office 2000.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Marquis A. Software: Application software.. internet.1999. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. Operating system (Windows). Long l. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. Ms-Excel. Rutledge. 2003. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. e-mail. G. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. processing hardware. output hardware. Fundamentals of computer.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . 21 . Ed. Courter.London 1996.5. Long N. system software. Ms-Access. software packages. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. computer programs and basic applications. Recommended Books: 1. Introduction to MS-Word.. as are their effects on the biosphere. Configurations. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . Storage hardware.

T. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. India. Turbulent diffusion. A. Global climate and climatic change.E. J. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. Canada. 2nd Edition. Turbulent jets and plumes. DoriaSerrano. K. Nuclear energy.G. M. Fundamentals of aquatic. Conversion of mass. atmospheric and soil chemistry. interaction of light with matter. Springer.. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. 4.. 5. Diffusion. Brimblecombe. Transport of pollutants. 2004. Isotopes and radioactive decay.. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. M. P. Solar spectrum. B. Liquids and Gasses. Chemical reactions. and Reid. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. C. G. Girard. Environmental Chemistry. Energy conversion. their sources and toxic actions.. Fate of pollutants in environment. its causes and adverse effects on environment. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. Environmental Chemistry. trophic level. Solids. 2004. 1st Edition. Active control of sound. Equations of fluid dynamics. Samir.. 1999.E.. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. Ozone and UV light.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. Entropy. Jones and Barlett. Environmental Science.. Germany.J. Jickells. Basic acoustics. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. Turbulence.T. Ibanez. Fregoso-Infante. Recommended Books: 1. photosynthesis.. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . Andrews. Gaussian plumes in the air. Sound and Noise. 3. Reducing the transmission of sound. 2. J. Liss. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. J. 2005. Blackwell Science. Thomson-Brooks. Energy.. and Singh. Hernandez-Esparza. USA. Environmental impact of various industries.. UK.D.S. Ozone chemistry. Human perceptions and noise criteria. Heat radiation and heat transfer.M. Miller. Electromagnetic radiation.. Particle physics. P. 2008. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts.

R. G. Natural resources and the economy. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. Economic Development. Introductory Environmental Physics. 23 . John Wiley and Sons Inc. economic growth. Measures for sustainable development. H. concepts and measurement. 7th Ed. Todaro. 2006. economic progress. Pakistan economic context: National income. New York. Economic functions of environment. 2. population and environmental quality. Wesely Publishers. UK. 2001. John Wiley and Sons Inc.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. Boeker. Sustainable development. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. economic welfare and difference among all. Physics of the Environment and Climate. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. Impact of economic activity on environment. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. Recommended Books: 1. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. USA. 2001. Producer behavior. USA. P. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. Growth and development. Guyot.Economic development. poverty. J. interaction between ecology and economic management. Environmental Physics. World Bank Publications. and Van Grondelle. M. and Pandis. Field visit. Seinfeld. Praxis publishing. S.1998. 2. USA. Smith. 2008. 3. USA. 4. N. Routledge. C. S. Growth and Environment. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. Yusuf. producer and community point of view. Economic management and environmental quality.. Recommended Books: 1. Man environmental relationship. Environmental economics. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. 2008. Kentucky USA. E. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. economic growth and its measurement. and Resource allocation.

USA. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. N. B. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. Natural philosophy. Frodeman. species. International Thomson Publishing. 2002. A History of Western Philosophy. Hanley.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. community. Callicott. Introduction to ethical theory.. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. Palgrave Macmillan. M. London. soil. 4. Course Outlines Introduction.A. DeVeer. Portland 1967. J. 2009. R. and systems ecology. Recommended Books: 1. description of population. and White. USA. 3. Ecology. the ethics of soil.V.. Economics. Swift. temperature. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. 2. B. its fundamental concepts. levels of ecological organization. World Bank Publications. water. Environmental philosophy and ethics. concepts and approaches. biogeography. Kessinger Publishing. 2008. ethics and ecology. Ecosystem and its types.. J. & Pierce. role of light. Environmental Critics of agriculture. population.. B. WCIV7AA. England.3. community and ecosystem. Touchstone Books. Farmington Hills. 2007. LLC. 4. branches of ecology. Russell. D. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. 24 . C. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. 2008. Shogren.

Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. distribution limits. M. UK. Chapman. P. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. and More. M C J 1st ed. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. Populations. community dynamics. ecological modeling.) Moles. J. King’s College London. aquatic microbiology. 5th Ed. Fundamentals of Ecology. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. students will be able to understand the significance. Ecology (principles and applications). C. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. 1992.topography and air as ecological factors. and S. E P.W. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. various concepts of community. Dash. productivity of different ecosystems. biotic factors. Fundamentals of Ecology. Systems ecology. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. landscape changes and their importance. Ecosystem: structure and function. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. New York. B. Biogeochemical cycles of C. G. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. 2004. J. After completion of this course.Cox. Odum. Tata McGraw-Hill. Cambridge University Press. 2001 5. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). C. 1999 4. 1st Ed. Population distribution and abundance. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. plant geography and animal distribution. habitat and niche. N. Ecology (concepts and applications. Microbial metabolism. WCB/McGraw-Hill. bacteria and eukarya. landscape ecology. New Delhi. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. 3. Thomson Brooks/Cole. UK. characteristics of urban. 6th Ed. M J. Biomes of the world. Concepts of Limiting factors. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. Lab Work 25 . population dynamics. 2. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. 2000.L and Reiss. Recommended Books 1. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. and Barett.

and Brendecke. Collection. Noise. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. I. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. Academic Press.and Vesilaind. L.A.A. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. Academic Press.M. Butterworth-Heinemann.C.L. Mean plate count. 2. Cambridge University Press. Academic Press.M.J. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. New Jersey. 3. Harley. Crawford. Prescott.J. Human & other living organisms. USA.G. F. Hurrst. Marine & Industrial pollution.B. 2 Edition. R. and Klein.J. and Zuberer. J. Weiner. A. 2nd Edition.F. 2009. and Stetzenbach. USA. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. Environmental Microbiology. Hartel. Maier.Gerba. 4.K. Manual of Environmental Microbiology... Water.I. London. D. 2005. G. Pollution Control Strategies.. 1995. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines.L. Understanding Environmental Pollution..P. Environmental Pollution and Control. W. 2005.V. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal... Microbiology. isolation. transportation & treatments. M. P. D. (Elsevier) USA.W. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). 4th Edition.D. Soil. peppor. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. 2005. USA. Sylvia... 3. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. L. USA. J. Washington DC. Cambridge UK.J. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. Solid Waste generation.. Dilution plate technique. 2. American Society for Microbiology. Recommended Books 1. C.L. McInernery. Knudsen. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. USA.. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. 5. Peiece.1998. McGraw Hill Inc. and Jeffery.A..J. Prentice Hall. Hill. its sources and their effects.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. and Gerba. purification and preservation. D.P. Case Studies... 2007. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. 26 .P. Fuhrmann. C. UK. M. J. R. Effects of Pollutants. 2002. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. P. Recommended Books: 1.M. Pepper.R.

5. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. Tarbuck.2nd Editions.. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History.4.M. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. Pandis. Surface winds. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. Environmental psychology.F. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. 2003.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. The climate of Pakistan. climatic zones of Pakistan. Methods of psychology. Sadder. Austin Miller. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. N.W. 6th Edition. Cloud Classification. The Hydrologic cycle. 2.. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. Karachi. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. Houghton J. Radiation and climate. Weather and Climate. 27 . concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. Cambridge University Press.. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems.. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. K. Shamshad. Spyros.K. The Atmosphere. Climatology. Lutgens. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). Royal book company. Recommended Books: 1. The Physics of Atmospheres.J. John H. Factors affecting air Pressure. American Public Health Association (APHA). global circulation. local winds. Marcel Dekkar. 2002. 1988. 4. 3. 2006 5. condensation and cloud Formation. Mechanism of heat transfer. 1992.E. John Wiley and Sons. air pressure. A. . Lawrance K. Four Spheres of the Earth. Solar radiations. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics .

techniques and methods of restoration. M. Recommended Books: 1. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. London. sustainable agriculture.D. Restoration of derelict lands. Future water scenario of Pakistan. Soil as a natural resource. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. Sustainable agricultural practices. London. Sustainable livestock management practices. Fundamental of Psychology. Water as an ecological resource. limitation of irrigated agriculture. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. P.C. Routledge. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship.. rivers.. soil salinity and water logging. and Baum A.W. 1992. CRC Press. carbon dioxide and global climate change. Greene. Eysenck. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. Background and scope. High population density and psychological impacts. Bell. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. Environmental Psychology. solar radiation and primary production. CRC Press. Routledge. 5th Edition. Course Outline Introduction. Fisher J. threats and mitigation. 2001.characteristics and research methods. Water and distribution of species. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. T. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. 28 . energy and carbon balance. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. concepts. species response to pollutants. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. soil erosion and conservation. 2. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. Environmental perception and cognition. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. Pollution control through Ecology. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. their management and ecological restoration. soil resources of Pakistan. Ecology of food production.A. Ecological restoration. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change.

and Memon. Shirkat Gah.. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. in vivo & in vitro assays. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. Chemical interactions and their types.. Studies in Pakistan Geography. 3. Israr-ud-Din. R. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. Margaret A. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Lahore. B. 2000 2. K and Habib.S. toxins vs toxicants. Potentiation and Addition. Determination of chemicals in biological samples.. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. on human and other living organisms. Odum E.I. Fundamentals of Ecology. soil and air samples. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. 5. J. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. Pakistan’s Environment.A. K. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. D. Peshawar. 2006. 2nd ed. Organs. J. terminologies: Poisons. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. Immunological considerations in toxicology. A. Soil Science. 1989. A. and Hobbs. 1996. their containment and control strategies. and Barett. 4. Islamabad. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. biological effects.W. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. Mumtaz. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic.P. from natural and anthropogenic sources. toxicity screening using microbial systems. E. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. 29 . COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. 5th Edition. 2004. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. Zedler. water and soil. G. Oxford. USA.National Book Foundation. University of Peshawar. Rashid.1998. Synergism. Falk.Recommended Books: 1. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. P. toxins & toxicants. Newman. dose response relationship in living organisms.. Island Press. toxicology of chemicals.

clean development mechanism. 1992. General and Applied Toxicology.). valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. topographic zones. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. economic development and the environment. Government of Pakistan. education. water resources. 1st Edition.1 & 2. USA. Hughes. CRC Press Llc. Vol. international trade and the environment. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. land. B. W. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. health. (ed. Williams. geography.M. 1st Edition. USA. 5th Edition. pollution control-a general model. 3. the economy and the environment. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. Economic: agriculture. people. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. urbanization and pollution.Recommended Books 1. State of the Environment-Pakistan . Ecological: ecological zones. 2005 2. Ballantyne. M. Klassen.Science of Poisons . T and Turner. McGrawhill.2005 2. P. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. Macmillan Press Ltd.D. USA. industry. Recommended Books 1. Course Outlines Introduction to history. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. 3. 1996. economic aspects of different environmental problems. Course Outlines Introduction. W. culture. 1993. measuring environmental benefits.. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. Recommended Books: 30 . 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. major ecosystems. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. First and Second law of Thermodynamics.

A. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. 31 . 8th Edition..D. 2.K. 3. Reuter.2002. D.A. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. C. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. D. COD. Analytical techniques for soil. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve.1. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. 3. handling. Titrimetery.. Peverill.. Australia. and derived S. Holler. Conductivitymetry. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. I. Field. Freeman & Co. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. Turner. precision and accuracy. salinity & sodicity). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Thomson and Brooks.UK. Gravimetery. 1999. Pearce. Fluoride. 1993. water and plant analysis. Titrimetery. Sparrow and D. Johns Hopkins University Press. Recommended Books: 1. and Batemen. Collingwood.2004. Use of Potentiometery.R. D. Kolstad.C. BOD. USA. and F. D. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. Sample preservation methods. 2.J.W. CSIRO Publ. Gravimetery. NO3–N & NH4-N). Spectroscopy and Chromatography.I. 6th Edition. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. C. B. Standard solutions and standard curves. 2005. M. Skoog..and Field. Oxford University Press.L.I. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. Oxford. Harris.. units. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. M. New York. Conductivitymetry. All Solids. K. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Sample collection. L. preparation and storage. 2003. Environmental Economics. 4.K.. 2000. West. J. Data interpretation for quality control. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. Lab Work S.

National Biosafety Guidelines.P. After completion of this course. 3. Scragg. USA. New York. National Biotechnology Commission.. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. students will be able to understand the significance. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. Biosensor.W. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. Environmental Biotechnology. Chichoster. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . W. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. J. 2005. Tools in environmental biotechnology. 2nd Ed. Isolation. Bioreactors. 2005. 2. (ed. Oxford University Press. and Josef.D. 5th Ed. Germany. and Russel. 4. Smith. J. PCR. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. A.1999. USA. 2001. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. New York. Biotechnology. USA. J. Cambridge University Press. Course Outlines Introduction. England. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Hans- Joachim. 2007. purification and preservation of DNA. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. Recommended Books 1.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. Introduction to microbial kinetics. D. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. Sambrook. and application of biotechnology in the environment. Recombinant DNA technology. 2009. Wiley-VCH Verlag. Biomarkers. Derbre.).. Government of Pakistan.E.

Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. 2009. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Different types of maps. V. Jensen. Data entry and output. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . Lulla. 2000. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). 2000. K and L. Aerial photography. Image Processing. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. Active and Passive remote sensing. R. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Inc. Harvey. 5. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Mc Graw Hill Education. Satellite Imageries. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. Cartography. Guilfoud press New York. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. Dessinov. Interpretation. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Introduction to GIS. advantages and limitations of process. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. integration of information from many sources. Inc. 1999. Z. History and data collection. John Wiley and Sons. Forestry. 2. Types of data used in GIS. Inc. Data acquisition. F. Rancez. Fishery and wildlife. A. Pearsons Education. Energy Sources. 3. history and platforms. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. 4. 2008. John Wiley and Sons. Campbell. Preparation of thematic maps. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. map projection and coordinate systems. analysis and output. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. Introduction to Photogrammetry. Agriculture. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Using and reading GPS in field. eradication of the duplicated data.

). alpha and beta diversity.. etc. Sheldon. 34 . Khan. International Organization for Standardization. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. Environmental aspects and impacts. Conservation of biodiversity. Certification of EMS. economic. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan.2nd Ed. Michigan. eco-design. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). plant. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. B. American Society for Quality. and Qasim. 2. types of biodiversity. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1.3rd Edition . social and ethical values of biodiversity. need and approach. Related Environmental legislation. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. Environment and sustainable development. 4. ecological. 2006. A. Course Outlines Introduction.. and Yoxon. Environmental Management Systems Principles. Environmental Economy. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. standards and guidelines.. M. principles of Cleaner production.C. Systems and Support Techniques.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. M. hot spots of biodiversity. 2001. F. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Methods of environmental protection. threats to biodiversity. 2005. philosophical. 1998. cleaner technologies. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. WWF Pakistan. American Society for Quality. 3. Environmental Management tools.

3. forests.e. Associates Inc.D. P. Preservation methods including pH control. Considerations. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. conservation and livelihood. Biogeography. and Morre.B. air. water. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. field custody. soil and living organisms. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. community and ecosystem level. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. EIA requirement. Z. Recommended Books: 1. their categories. design and types of samples. Kings College. protected areas.. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. habitats. international agreements. population. Saad Printers. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. croplands. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. P. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring.. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i.B.. Cox. Course Outlines Introduction. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. Quality assurance and quality control. Publ. cities. sampling and design purposes. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air.R. chemical addition. C. 1998. NOC for plant operation. management. refrigeration and freezing methods.conservation at species. ecotourism. Conservation of wildlife. quality assessment. Lahore). Mirza. 2. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. 2000. Legal protection of species. London. presampling requirements/information. laboratory custody. national and international laws and regulations. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. plants. quality control sampling. Sunderland. Sinauer. conservation strategies. 2000. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. 2ndEd. conservation in man-made ecosystems. 35 . Rawalpindi.B. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. A Primer for Conservation Biology.

Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. Peakall. Energy and Temperature. Keith. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. E. 5. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. (ed) Springer. 2008. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. Burden. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. Moisture in the Atmosphere. Human responses to potential climate change. Tokyo. UK. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. 1992. Precipitation. Chapman and Hall. D. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. USA. Korte. Manahan. McKlivie. 2000. Earth Observation of Global Change. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. USA.1996. altered community structure. E. phenological changes. Forstner U. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. 7. I. 6. USA. New York. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. N. 2008. 2nd Edition. Physical. agriculture. 2002. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. regional. biological. R.. 2002. (eds.. 2. Technomic Publishing Company Inc.) McGraw-Hill. L. human health. S. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. Chuviero.1999. . Lewis Publisher London. 8. S. 3.Recommended Books: 1. chemical. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change.USA. The Measurement of Climate Change. D. extinctions. its causes and effects. F. Regional droughts and 36 . Japan Association on Remote Sensing. and Guethner. Ozone depletion. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. H. Remote Sensing Note. Environmental Chemistry. Recent Climate Change Indicators. Murai.

(3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. R. Sringer. project implementation and follow up.O. 2. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. Hardy. T. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. public involvement. Therivel. Types & Resources to produce Energy.. 2005. Keith.A. and noise. (ed. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. screening. John Wiley & Sons. and Chadwick. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. John Wiley & Sons.Causes.. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. 5. Hardy. reporting. A. 2003. 4. 2004. J. Cost and benefits of EIA.. Routledge. and Solutions. Houghton. Harrop.. 2005. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. 2003. law. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. overview. J. London. social impact assessment (SIA). policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. J. EIA project management. 2. Blackwell. decision-making to implement the project.cataclysmic climate change. Climate Change . Recommended Books: 1. J. 1999. 1986. 3. Oxford. Main stages in EIA process. Islamabad. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. impact analysis. 37 . J. 3. Effects. Earthscan Publication Ltd. Ministry of Housing and Works.. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). Global Change and the earth system.). liquid. D. review of EIA quality. Petts.. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. Global Warming and Climate Change. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. scoping. and Solutions. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. & Nixon. 1st Edition.. 1994. solids. 2005. 6. National Book Foundation. mitigation and impact management. London.(ed). A. Recommended Books: 1. Islamabad.T. Climate Change .Causes. Glasson. 2000. Effects. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. 4.

Sadler. 2nd Edition. J. John Willey & Sons. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy.5. their pros and cons. A. solar power. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. causes and methods for its improvement. & McCabe. Asian Development Bank. B. USA. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. requirement..). national example. methodologies. threats. process and contents of the management plan. Development of Management Plan: needs... review of land use plans developed by the various organizations.B and Warren. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. national agriculture policy. United Nations Environment Programme. forest types and its existing management. national and provincial legislation. Carpenter. limitation in the future. 1997. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. Goldsmith. B. Rangeland Management: existing status. agriculture chemicals. 6... Recommended Books: 1. best available option for future. existing management approaches. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. R. Types. Evans. Conservation in Progress. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan.. management options. effective management. H. wind power and nuclear power. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. 1993. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. management options. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. and Tu. S. 2002.. F. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. Ludwig. Everitt. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. agriculture products and their share in GDP. Lohani. M. threat and its causes. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. 38 . their current status and threats. R. importance. New York. problem in agriculture. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. wildlife census. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. (ed.

2. John Wiley & Sons. Review of Literature. to introduce students to research design. Scientific Research: Science. New York. Case Studies. Scientific Methods. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research.F. Objectives. Methodology. GOP and IUCN. Research Proposal: its importance . 3. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. Dasmann. Creswell. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). research methods. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. USA. W. Literature Search: Database. P. Inference based on findings. Hansen. Experimental Research. Review of Literature. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. Bibliography. Environmental Conservation. & Plano Clark. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. Sage CA. Questionnaire. Thousand Oaks. Material Methods. Surveys. R. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. How to put things together? Introduction. and Jorqensen. 1984..Amsterdam. Islamabad.E. 39 . Research Design & Research Methods. Interviews. types of sampling design/. 1990. population and sampling frames. London. 1992. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). J. Selecting the Research Method. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. Search Engines.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. Elsevier. 5. concepts and terminologies. S.E. 4. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. Sampling: the logic of sampling. 2007.A pre-requisite for Research.L. V.

Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. Diamon.Harrad. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. of Chicago Press. Sage Publishers. 2003.. Booth. M. regulations made there under. 2008... Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Babbie. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking.2. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. USA. Law Books House. Belmont California. Wadsworth Publishing Company. 5. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. R. Recommended Books: 1. USA. 2. Chichester. 2003.S. Survey Research Methods. National Conservation Strategy 5. G. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. Moriarty. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. Government of Pakistan 3. National Environmental Policy 4. Students project in Environmental Science. 3. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. 6.USA. 2001. 1997. E. Marilyn F. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan.. 1989. Qadar.h. 1997. 2nd Edition. Univ. 2000. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. and Arhonditsis. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . Robert Yin. S. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. England. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. John and sons Ltd. 3rd Edition. 4.Batty.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

Islamabad.. (eds. Recommended Books: 1.1993. Cheema. integrated water resources management (IWRM). Bengali. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. 2006.). Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. C. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. and Tortajada. 2005. 6. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. Khan. Biswas.. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. groundwater exploitation. recycling and re-use of wastewater.). 3. Briscoe. A.Varis. Asia Printer. water quality and quantity aspects. A..Lahore. The Politics of Managing Water.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. watershed/catchment. hydrological cycle. fisheries management. 5. Oxford University Press Karachi. K.. with drinking water facilities like springs. and Qamar.. Pakistan. Lahore. (ed. Indus Water Accord 1991. Mirajuddin Publication . Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. 2. 44 . flood and droughts. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. N. flood and drought management. SDPI Oxford University Press. 4. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. and Malik.. P. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). tubewells. U. Revised & enlarged edition. Oxford University Press New Delhi. 2006. Islamabad. pollution aspects. Mirajuddin Publication . J. water supply and demand management measures. Pakistan . wetlands resources management. A. R. virtual water. O. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan.K. Ahmed. 1993. R. N. Ahmed. 2003.. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. I.

2007. Course Outlines Introduction. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. PrenticeHall. E. 1996. hydrological processes. Process and outcome. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. San Diego. Hillel. Forms of urbanization. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. National Book Foundation. Prentice Hall. R. 11th Edition. Gardiner. Causes of urbanization. Soil Science. CA. USA.. R. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. D.T. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. Factors and processes of soil formation. soils. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. After completion of this course. NJ. Bashir. NJ. Pakistan. Urbanization. Types and properties of parent materials. Miller. Cation and anion exchange. Course Outlines Introduction. N. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. USA. Soil forming minerals.. urban political ecology. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. Soils in Our Environment. D. Islamabad. future of urban centers. urban settlements. Academic Press. the salient features of urban environments. Urban ecosystem.R. and Bantel. 1. Brady.W. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. Upper Saddle River. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. urban flora and fauna. humans as components of urban ecosystems. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. transport. urban landscapes characteristics. urbanization in Pakistan. Definition. 2008. 2007. and Weil. Upper Saddle River.C. 45 . R. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. management and green productivity. USA. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. Soil degradation. Physical and chemical properties of soil.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment.

S. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. Levels of planning. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans.1990. D.. 2007. nd 2 Edition. 2. Justification for planning for city management. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. 2009. Principles of planning. A. Alberti. Chapman and Hall. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. 2. SAGE Publications Ltd. 2000. M. Silberstein. UK. City Design for Sustainable Development. S. 2004. CRC Press LLC. I. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. Sukopp. Planning and Urban Change. Scope.and Kowaril. nature and purpose of urban planning. Springer. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. Routledge. Elements of urban planning.. 4. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. 3.. New trends in planning and city management. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. 2004. UR. Types of Urban Plans. Kate.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. C. Planning theories and concepts. Aims and Objectives of planning. UK. London.and Maser. London. Gilbert. New York. USA. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. Planning and its relationship with other professions. The planning process. J. Recommended Books: 1.L. Ward. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. M. 2006.. Land use planning theories. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. Hejny. The Works: Anatomy of a City.S. V. UK.. H. 1. USA. 46 . 1989. O. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. SBS academic publishing. 5. Hague. Smith. Penguin Group. Routledge. Hough. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city.

Westview Press. and White G. Flooding. Different approaches and Indicators. Cultural factors. New York. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Ministry of Housing and Works. 1986. 2nd Edition. Clara. E&UA Div. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. 1991. Disaster Management: Components of management. Political factors. 4. R. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. G. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Introducing Town Planning. Flood Management: Organizational Role. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. Disaster as an opportunity for development. Paris. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. The Environment as Hazard Burton I.. Physical factors. 47 . International phenomenon. Natural Disasters Alexander. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors.3.. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Manila. Kates. It discusses a wide range of aspects. P. Boulder .F.J. i. Earthquake Management.B.UNESCO. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. Hazards. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson.e.. 1993. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. Socio-economic factors. 3. Natural cycles and their role. Islamabad. Prediction. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. 1989.. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. Recommended Books: 1. H. New York.. and Woodrow. The Guilford Press. D. 2. 4. Government of Pakistan.W. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. Chapman & Hall... Longman Group. Earthquake. 1993. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization.. M. Landslide. UK.W. 1993. ADB. Role of Media in Disaster Management.

Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. F. USA. alternate energy resources.. primary producers. Disasters and Development Cuny. E. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. 48 . and Yonavjak. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future.L. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. energy resources of Pakistan.. Paris. consumers. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources.C. Sustainable livestock management. Consumer and producer relationship. M. 4th Edition. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. 6th Edition. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources.. Schoch. Biotic structure. 2001.W. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources.5. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. biomass resources. L. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. 2007. decomposers.H. merits and demerits of wind. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. 2. uses. hydropower.A. 3. types. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. solar. A. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. 1983. Agroecology. 6. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. OECD/IEA. John Wiley and Sons.M. Westport. Quorum Books. local. R. D. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. and Mushkatel. Botkin.B and Keller. New York. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. 1. Ecological concept in crop and food production. sustainable energy management. Perry R. 2007. energy resources. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. McKinney. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. 1984.

2000.. 3. 1995. Westview Press. Agrocology. M. 1990. Corol. USA.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. and Rossel. Recommended Books: 1. 2. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. C.M. Experimental Plant Ecology. CBS Publishers and Distributors.R.H. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. Boulder. Study of index of diversity. Study of stratification and profile diagram. Yandermeer J. India. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity.P. USA.G. New Delhi. New York.A. E-11 Seminar 49 . and Sudha. R. Kapur. P. Altreri.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram.

The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. 3. that: 1. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. the Committee agreed on the following principles. availability of the faculty and other facilities. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. 4. 5. 2. 50 . The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor.

8. 16. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 14. 5. 25. 19. 11. 15. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 7. 2. 26. 10. 24. 4. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 12. 23. 13. 6. 12. 7. 5. 2. 18. 10. 22. 4.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 17. 21. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 8. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 9. 11. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 6. 20. 3. 3. 9.

S. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). S. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. 1987. 3. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences.S. S.1994. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. F.1995.1991.. Money. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. development of concepts. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. Recommended Books: 1. Geography of Pakistan. Oxford University Press. WCS. 3. Relationship of culture. technology and resource use. London Black Stone Press Ltd.A. NCS. Provincial and Local Strategies. 2. Regional and International Environmental Issues. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall.E.. 2. Elsevier. 1992. Oxford University Press. Mackenzie. Conservation Strategies. 4. Hansen. Draft National Environmental Policy.. 52 . FURTHER READINGS 1. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. and Jorqensen. Environmental control Policies. Environment People and Economy. and Bell. status of Terrestrial. Conventions and Protocols in Global. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. 1991. 2nd Edition. Mackenzie J.E. Amsterdam. Hodder and Stoughton. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan.. P. Ball. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. D. GOP and IUCN. Treaties.1994.DETAILS OF M.T. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. Karachi. Carrying capacity and sustainable development.F. Instruments and methods. Khan K. Islamabad. London..

Ed. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Environmental Chemical Analysis. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. procedures and methods of EIA. Government of Pakistan. Ahmed. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. 1993. Longman House. 3.. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. ed. UK. WB. 53 . Environmental and Social Impact assessment. 1995. sample collection and preservation. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. Wood.A. Ministry of Environment. Environmental auditing. economic impact assessment. Case Studies and review. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. Wastewater. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). 1995. A one Publishers Lahore. ecological impact assessment. process. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. opportunities and issues. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). D. Air and Solid Waste. Assessment of environmental impacts. DC. Demographic impact assessment. K. Burnt Hill. C. A. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. Recommended Books: 1. Cost benefit analysis of projects. 2. Harlow Essex. England. FURTHER READINGS 1. sampling rules. Chichester. World Bank. 2. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. John Wiley & Sons. History. Longman Scientific and Technical.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. Washington. social impact assessment. role and importance.Vanclay. Environment Department. Recommended Books: 1. F & Bronstein. Gas Chromatography etc. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Principles of physical.

Planning Commission Performas. M. K. Mantel s.. 5. Project Management Institute. de Kok. Park. Oxford University Press New York. 54 . T. 1st Ed. Primary health care services. Government Policies and Programs. Wiley Interscience. T. Kjelllström. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. activities. 1993.. development objectives. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. Resource Mobilization. and Guidotti. J. 2001. Project Planning. L. Meredith J.. Caeneross. work breakdown structure. 2. Project Planning and Approval Processes. outputs. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. 2002. Project Initiation. Lippmann. 1997... Public health concept.. R. air borne. 1992.2000. Defining Project objectives. Reasons for Project success or failure. M/S Banarsid. 3. 1st Ed. Inc. USA. specific objectives. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). R. A. Ergonomic and Safety. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. Need identification. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. Basic Environmental Health. 2nd Ed. Environmental Health Engineering. principles and practices. USA. Occupational Health: problems and issues. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. prevention and control. A Guide to Project Management.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project.. UK. Project Life Cycle. assumptions. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. inputs. London. 1st ed.. J. T. Accident prevention and safety plans. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. B. feasibility study. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). T. 4. Recommended Books: 1. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. safety techniques. S. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. economic evaluation.. New York. Nebel. indicators. 1998. John Wiley and Sons. Prentice Hall International Inc. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. means of verification. and Wright. Writing Project Proposal. Yassi. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems.

energy resources of Pakistan. hydropower.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. 4th Edition. industry and domestic sectors. Environmental Auditing. Recommended Books: 1. Recommended Books: 1. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. Principles of cleaner production. McKinney. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. Switzerland. data collection and interpretation. Schoch. uses. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. energy resources. R. 1990b. Botkin. 55 . D. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. 3. non-renewable and renewable. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. Sayre. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. 3. ISO Central Secretariat. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). Michigan-January 2001. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. D. OECD/IEA.A. 6th Edition. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. L. alternate energy resources. principles and elements of the process of EMS.. 4. Paris. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Related Environmental regulations. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). 2. Sources of data. 1998. nuclear) local. solar. 2007. St Luise Press. 2. Paris. Environmental auditing. gas. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. types. E.L. merits and demerits of wind. John Wiley and Sons. transport. bio-energy resources.M. USA. 2001. and Yonavjak. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. M. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. 2007. petroleum.B and Keller. sustainable energy management for agriculture.

Warrick. Effects. etc. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. J..COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. The Green House Effect. Effects. ED. & Charlesworth. 2003. Houghton.Causes. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Hardy. Blackwell Publishing. B & Jager. Chichester. 2005. ECOPE 29. Springer. 3. resources and plants. Maarel. 2003. Life history strategies of plants. E. 2004. Climate Change and Ecosystems. London.Causes. types of climate change models. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Blackwell Publishing. Climate Change . competition and coexistence. Modeling of climate change. J. Recommended Books: 1. 2005. survival and extinction. 2. Species richness. 1st Edition. (Ed. Climate Change . 3. Shulze. Berlin. Green House Gases.D. UK. D. 4. 56 . John Wiley & Sons. Oxford UK. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Oxford. human activities and vegetation dynamics. 5. Climate change and food production. and Solutions. Recommended Books: 1. John Wiley & Sons. 2005. Silvertown. geographical and temporal patterns. 2005. and Solutions. plant invasions. Plant population dynamics. plant conservation. 2. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. 1. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. Hardy. Beck. D. global aspects of plant ecology.T. Introduction to Plant Population Biology.). climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. J. vegetation dynamics. Vegetation Ecology Ed. water resources. E & Muller-Hohenstein. K. T. management and restoration. Earthscan Publication Ltd. forests. UK 1991.. Plant Ecology. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. types and their climatic effects. John Wiley & Sons.

L. Oxford. Oxford University Press. K. Threatened animals and plants. And Bolen. Principles of Wildlife Management. 4. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation.J. UK. types. T. 2. Loss of biodiversity. Wetlands.) Gaston. 1998. Cambridge University Press. 3. J. Bailey. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. Oxford University Press. II). Essentials of Conservation Biology. E. 2002. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Blackwell Publsihing. its causes. J. R. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. distribution and management. Participatory forest management. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. management.A.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. Publishers Sunderland.D. their types and role in conservation. distribution. Global and national biodiversity. Extinction of species. their importance. deforestation and its control. 2004. Roberts. Forests. 3. Sustainable forest management. Protection and restoration of species. types. problems and solutions. Rangeland management. threats and conservation.J. S. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. 2002.J. Cambridge. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Establishment and management of protected areas. Conserving Living Natural Resources. Recommended Books: 1. 1986. 57 . I). Roberts. Weddell. Mcmillan. Robinson. status. & Spicer. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. USA. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. S. Wildlife Ecology and Management. Sinauer Assocaites. Status of forests in Pakistan. Oxford University Press.B. Forest plantations. Recommended Books: 1. John Wiley And Sons. Wildlife of Pakistan. 1984. Oxford. UK. 1992. Inc. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation.(2nd Ed. biological diversity. Consumptive.J. 1973 2. Biodiversity: An introduction. Protected areas. 5. London. & Ripley. kinds. Cambridge. Oxford. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. distribution.G. W. habitats and ecosystems. B. their ecological and economic importance. T. Primack. Protected areas in Pakistan.

Government of Pakistan. New York. H. urban landscape characteristics. G. SAGE Publications Ltd. 2004. 3. Introducing Town Planning. Longman Group.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. 2. future of urban centers. 58 . The Works: Anatomy of a City. urban political ecology. urbanization in Pakistan. 1986.. Silberstein. CRC Press LLC. USA. A. Sustainable cities. 4. 2007. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. Recommended Books: 1. E&UA Div. Urban land use planning and management. Islamabad. Ministry of Housing and Works. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. London. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. USA. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. drinking water and solid waste in cities. Clara. Penguin Group.and Maser. Kate. V. 2000. Forms of urbanization. Planning and Urban Change... UK. J. UK. Ward. management of transport. sanitation. Environmental problems of urban life. C. 1993. urban systems and their characteristics. S..

J. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. ISBN 0194313492 59 . Thomson and A. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. Third edition.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. 1997.V. Oxford University Press. a) Functional English Grammar 1.Annexure . Martinet. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. Exercises 1. Practical English Grammar by A.

J. b) Practical English Grammar by A. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Thomson and A. Oxford Supplementary Skills. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs.2. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. Reading/Comprehension 1. Exercises 2. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Writing. Reading. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. intensive and extensive. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Oxford University Press. Upper Intermediate.V. Third edition. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . and speed reading. 1997. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. minutes of meetings. Third Impression 1992. Martinet. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Fourth Impression 1993.

V. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. descriptive and argumentative writing). Oxford Supplementary Skills.J. Writing. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Oxford University Press 1986. introduction to presentations. Reading. clarity. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Third edition.1. Advanced by Ron White. content. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Third Impression 1992. Reading 1. language. 2. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Advanced. Practical English Grammar by A. Exercises 2. narrative. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . discursive. Writing. b) Writing 1. Third Impression 1991. Fourth Impression 1992. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Oxford Supplementary Skills. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Writing. form. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. 2. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. Martinet. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Thomson and A. Fourth Impression 1993.

Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. 2004. College Writing Skills by John Langan. 3. without taxing the taste of engineering students). (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. St. A Custom Publication. Martin’s Press. descriptive. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. Kirszner and Stephen R.(particularly suitable for discursive. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. Kathleen Shine Cain. argumentative and report writing). 62 . Compiled by norther Illinois University. 2. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. Mandell. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader.

1958-71 c.M. b. Safdar. 1947-58 b. 3. 1988-99 f. 1994. 1993. ideological background of Pakistan. Indus Civilization ii. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. People and Land i. 1977-88 e. contemporary Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Course Outline 1. Economic institutions and issues b. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. 2. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. 1999 onward 3. government. . Karachi: Oxford University Press.Annexure . Study the process of governance. Zaidi. Ethnicity d. Akbar. State & Society in Pakistan. S. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. 2. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. S. Location and geo-physical features. Muslim advent iii. Shahid Javed. Historical Perspective a. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. 1971-77 d. 2000. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. 63 Books Recommended 1. Lahore. Mehmood. 4. politics. Society and social structure c. Contemporary Pakistan a. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. national development.

Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. 12. Washington: American Enterprise. Club Road. Pakistan Under Martial Law. II & III.National Movement in Pakistan. Enigma of Political Development. 1980. Aziz. The Political System of Pakistan. Party. Institute of Public Policy Research. 8. 1987. 1980. Noor ul. Khalid Bin. Muhammad Waseem.The Emergence of Banglades. K. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. History & Culture of Sindh. 13. 11. 64 . 9. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. 10. 1998. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. nd. Amin. Mehmood. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. 1967. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. 7. Ziring. Wayne.. I. Haq. 1976. Ethno . Lahore: Vanguard. M. Sayeed. 6. Vol. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Tahir. Rafique. Political Parties in Pakistan. Islamabad. Safdar. Afzal. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Ansar.K. 1993. Zahid. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Lawrence. 14.5. 1972. Wilcox. Politics in Pakistan.

21.A. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.56.Annexure .57. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.40.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.6.58.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.Tadabar (Verse No1.A.A.19.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .20) Related to thinking.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.

in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.

Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. IRI. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. International Islamic University.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. “Studies in Islamic Law. Bhatia. Pakistan. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. Islamabad (2001) 67 . “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. Ahmad Hasan. “Emergence of Islam” . Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq.” Hussain Hamid Hassan.S.

matrix inverse. complex numbers. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. PWS-Kent Company. not majoring in mathematics.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. Wooton W. system of linear equations. Sharron S. set operations. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. equations reducible to quadratic equations. 1986. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. introduction to sets. Cramer’s rule. 1987. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. PWS-Kent Company. Boston Swokowski EW. functions. cube roots of unity. Beckenback EF. geometric progression. determinants. Houghton & Mifflin. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. types of functions. types. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. Boston 68 . Algebra 2 and Trigonometry.Annexure . trigonometric identities. 1978. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. College Algebra and Trigonometry. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. harmonic progression.

distance between two points. Calculus (3rd edition). Ma. Boston Thomas GB. continuity. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. parallel and perpendicular lines. 2005. angle between two lines. derivatives. rational and transcendental functions. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. 1983. 69 . Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. Reading. Calculus (11th edition). integration by parts. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. Bevens I. integration by substitution. intersection of two lines. slope of a line. distance between a point and a line. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. inequalities. change of variables in indefinite integrals. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). differentiation of polynomial. 1995. Addison-Wesley. 2005. not majoring in mathematics. various forms of equation of a line. PWS-Kent Company. John Wiley. Finney AR. Davis S. solution of equations involving absolute values. Recommended Books: Anton H. equation of a line. New York Stewart J. continuous functions. not majoring in mathematics. functions and their graphs. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. USA 3. left-hand and right-hand limits.2.

hyperbola. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. intersection of lines and circles. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Freshman and Company. circles determined by various conditions. Conic Sections: Parabola. Analytic Geometry. 1986. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Scott. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). • Contents 1.Circle: Equation of a circle. 1969 Kaufmann JE. determinants. ellipse. 1987. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. PWS-Kent Company. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. inverse of matrices. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. types of functions. nature of roots of quadratic equations. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. equations reducible to quadratic equations. set operations. Boston Swokowski EW. Boston 4. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. system of linear equations. functions. 70 . PWS-Kent Company. Cramer’s rule. Introduction to sets. locus of a point in various conditions. types of matrices. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. Matrices: Introduction to matrices.

Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. 2. array. circle and trigonometric functions. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. deciles and percentiles. 3. variance. 5. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. 4. E. 2.. Measures of dispersion: Range. discrete and continuous series. cumulative frequency curve.. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. E. R. frequency polygon. Latest Edition. characteristics of statistics. Boston. 71 . relationship of statistics with social science. bar frequency diagram histogram. W. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics.. skewness and kurtosis. E. Swokowski. types of frequency series. Walpole. Wilcox. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Prentice Hall. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. R. J. standard deviation. individual. quartiles. Latest Edition. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. Graphs: Graph of straight line.. moments. Latest Edition. PWS-Kent Company. Books Recommended: 1. R.geometric and harmonic progressions. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. ungrouped and grouped data. tally sheet method. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. trigonometric identities. Kaufmann.

Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. sinusoidal function. Mathews. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. Inc. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. 3rd Edition. John H. 2002. 8th edition. 6. products. integration by inspection. Anton. Integration by Parts. Trigonometric Functions. Second Edition 1992. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. W. 3. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. Extreme Values of Functions. E. 4th edition. Elliott Mendelson. Continuity. Jhon Willey & Sons. 5. infinite and improper integrals. 2005. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. Prentice-Hall. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. H. Slope of a Line. 4. Thomas. special points of a function. plane polar coordinates. Leibnitz’ theorem. 2. the chain rule. 11th Edition. Boston. Solution of equations involving absolute values. 1999. integral inequalities. et al. integration by parts. Rational and Transcendental Functions. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. 1983. 6.Jr. Bevens. logarithmic integration. Gleason. logarithmic differentiation. Contents 1. S. reduction formulae. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . Swokowski. Continuous Functions. substitution method. Rational Functions. implicit differentiation. 2005. Inequalities. theorems of differentiation. the inverse of differentiation. Calculus. 2. quotients.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. Inc. John Wiley & Sons. I. • Integration Integration from first principles. Calculus Single and Multivariable. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. Equation of a Line. and Transcendental Functions. Schaum’s Outline Series. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. Least-Squares Line. Hughes-Hallett. Recommended Books: 1. Frank A. McCallum. applications of integration. integration using partial fractions. Calculus. Davis. Addison Wesley publishing company. Calculus.

the difference method. approximation errors in Taylor series. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. multiplication. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . arithmetico-geometric series.Additions and subtraction. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. complex conjugate. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. finding the nth roots of unity. series involving natural numbers. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. solving hyperbolic equations. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. identities of hyperbolic functions. geometric series. modulus and argument. inverses of hyperbolic functions. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies.

symmetric and antisymmetric. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. centers of mass and centroids. the inner product. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. point to plane. orthogonal. vector product. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. 6. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . masses. line to line. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. moments of inertia. scalar triple product. of a unitary matrix.5. Hermitian. Pappus’ theorems. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line.

div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates.8. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. divergence of a vector field. combinations of grad. spherical polar coordinates 75 . Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions.

bias. The Mean Deviation. Editing of Data. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Exercises Unit 6. Constructing of a frequency distribution. The Mode. Median and mode. Exercises. Exercises. Statistical problem. Rounding of a Number. Unit 3. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Discrete and continuous variables. Exercises. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Exercises. Graphs and their Construction. Different types of Averages. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. probability and non-probability sampling. definition of outliers and their detection. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Absolute and relative measures. Standardized variables. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. The semi-Interquartile Range. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Types of frequency curves. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Empirical Relation between Mean. Quantiles. Difference of means and proportions. Collection of primary and secondary data. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Change of origin and scale. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Stem and Leaf Display. Observations. Type-I and Type-II errors. properties of Good Average. Errors of measurement. Data. Box and Whisker Plot. Unit 7. Histogram. Test statistics. Population. Significant digits. Exercises. Range. 76 . Moments and Moments ratios. null and alternative hypothesis. Unit 4. sample design and sampling frame. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Exercises. Probability and Probability Distributions. Historigram. Bar charts. sampling with and without replacement. Unit 2. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Coefficient of variation.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. The Variance and standard deviation. Unit 5. acceptance and rejection regions. Diagrams. sampling and non sampling errors. Ogive for Discrete Variable.Annexure . Sources. Presentation of Data Introduction. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Pie chart. level of significance.

Coefficient of linear correlation. Correlation. cause and effect relationships. Inc. simple linear regression. New York. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. Exercises Unit 10. Testing of Hypothesis. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. Regression and Correlation Introduction. Kitab Markaz.Single Population Introduction. Exercises. 2005. “Introduction to Statistics”.. examples. 3rd Ed. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. r and R2. 1982. Exercises Unit 9. 77 . Unit 11. 2 Muhammad. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. Macmillan Publishing Co. its estimation and interpretation.Unit 8. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. R. E.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. F. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad.. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. Contingency Tables. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples.

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