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For BS MS
HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD
CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………
6 12 14 50 51
In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. therefore.). revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. 63. PROF. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. R&D organizations. D773/76-JEA (cur.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. Lahore. The world has turned into a global village. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. the Federal Government vide notification No. and 36. It also aimed to give a basic. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. It is. DR. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. universities and other institutions of higher education.ALTAF ALI G. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. dated December 4th 1976. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. degree awarding institutions.
OF CURRI. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. COL. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. OF FINAL CURRI. Preparation 5 . R&D. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. UNI. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. EXP. PREP. OF NCRC. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. REC. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI.
Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Member 3. Lahore Member 6. Rawalpindi Dr. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Karachi from 28-30. Dr. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Member 6 . Dr. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Member 5. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Dr.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Following attended the meeting:1. Rawalpindi Dr. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Member 4. 7.
Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Dr. Dr. 7 . Dr. Member 14. Member 10. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Prof. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Dr. Prof. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Member 11. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Karachi Member 12. 13.8. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Dr. Dr. Member 16. Member 15.
The meeting was opened by Mr. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Dr. 1. Karachi. Member 19. 8 . Chairman. Dr. 2. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Member 20. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Mr.17. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. At first. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. Mr. Director of HEC Regional Center. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Secretary Dr. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. Faisalabad Member 18. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science.
In last few centuries. 1. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. 6. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. 2. The committee thanked Mr. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. 3. 5. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. 4. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses.3. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment.
economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. skills and behaviour patterns. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. Apply theoretical understanding. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. regional and global contexts. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. This committee. in its preliminary meeting. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. ii. 5. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii.
social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. eight semesters in the semester system. Integrating natural sciences. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment.. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. 1. A. Sc. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. that: 1. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. The medium of instruction. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. 2. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. The 11 . with consensus. 5. 6. 4. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English.e. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. 3.
Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Introductory Economics* 17. English-II 12. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Introduction to Computer 14. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Biology –I* 3. Environmental Chemistry 15. Environmental Physics 16. Introduction to Earth Science 8. Biology –II* 9. English-III 18. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Psychology* . Introduction to Environmental Science 2.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Environmental Pollution 22. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Basic Chemistry* 4. Climatology* 23. Environmental Microbiology 21. English-I 6.
Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Environmental toxicology 27. Applied Ecology 26. Environmental Economics 29. English-IV/ Univ. 45. Environmental Monitoring 36. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. ELECTIVE-III 42. Climate Change 38.24. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. Opt. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . 46. Natural Resource Management 40. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. Environmental Biotechnology 32. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. Environmental Management Systems 34. 44.
• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .
Botkin. McKinney. 15 . national. 2. lipids. its importance in human life. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. Miller. ecological. M. philosophical. current global.A. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. regional. Human environment and its problems: global.J.M. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. 4th Ed. & Yonavjak. Recommended Books: 1. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . 2007 3. environmental pollution. & Nebel. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. R. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. R. ethical. 4. Pearson Educational. urbanization. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.B & Keller. and their relationships with various environmental factors. proteins and nucleic acids. D. 10th Ed.. L.T. poverty and resource depletion.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. 2007. 6th Ed. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. B. John Wiley & Sons. Different aspects of environment: physical. 2002. 2007. biological and social. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment.L.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. socio-economic.. E. G. development in industry and agriculture. history. Wright. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. Schoch. Thomson Learning.
Origin of life: chemical evolution.. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. covalent. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. Australia . carbonyls. Ltd. Crossley. and Lewis. N. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. A. origin of metabolism. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. 2007. 1996. R. 2003. E. Structure and the basis of function. 2007. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. Self Assessment and Revie. Wadsworth Group. 2008. Cassimeris. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. USA.. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. 4. chemical basis of life. coordinate covalent bond. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. 8th Ed. Biology: a Human Emphasis. 5th Edetion. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. the molecule of genetic information and replication. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis..Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. C. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. USA. Plopper. New York. Cell division. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Ionic. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. D.. 2. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. Lingappa. Bulter. Cells. Molecular Biology through Questions. J. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. Nucleic acids. Aromatic compounds. esters. lipids. B. USA.. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. L. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. 1. Canada. R. proteins. 5. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. amines). polypeptides in protein diversity. and Whitelaw. carboxylic acids. phospholipids in membrane systems. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa.Hill International Edition. lipids. Introduction to cell biology. carbohydrates. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. protobionts. McGraw. G. Starr. Lewis. Shier. V. M. 3. 16 . chemical diversity.
D. 5. and Holler. Thomson and Brooks.A.M.. series and means.. Girard. West. Liss. USA. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. 2004. Solution chemistry. simultaneous equations and their solutions. 2003. minor and cofactor of a matrix. normal solutions/buffers. B. 3. Surface chemistry.E. 8th Edition. UK. real line.ions. Thin layer chromatography. UK. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. radicals.. Osmosis and Dialysis.H. Column chromatography.. Brimblecombe. 4. Canada. graphs.. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis.K. determinants. 6th Edition. J. J.. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. double angle formulas. geometric and harmonic sequence.E. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). 2nd Edition.Special Products (Binomial Expression). The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. EC and TDS in waste water. 2nd Edition.J. D. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. law of Cosines. angle-sum formula. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional).J.C. Photochemical reactions.. 1st Ed. P. molal. 2004. and Reid. Cambridge University Press. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. 17 . They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Skoog. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations)..S. Recommended Books: 1. 2004. Colloids chemistry. F. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. Harris. P. straight line and related concepts. D. Measurement of pH. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. Hill. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. Algebra of matrices. Lab Work Preparation of molar. 2005. Jickells. values of trigonometric functions. Jones and Barlett. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Andrews. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry.D. equations of lines (linear equations). T. M. W. 2.. USA. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Blackwell Science. expansion of determinants. Freeman and Company.
by parts integration (simple applications). New Delhi. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. Scott Foresman and Company. its origin. irreducible quadratic factors. Trignometry for College students. Recommended Books: 1. Thomas. Addission. age. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. faults. 4.Cramer’s Rule. mountain building. 10th Ed. K.Wesley. Integration: Formulas of integration. Smith. 2.. foliation. igneous and metamorphic rocks. 18 . Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. the processes of their formation. joints. composition and its internal structure. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system.B. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. lineation and unconformities. Fossils and their significance.. Pacific Grove. plate tectonics. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. earthquakes and volcanoes. theorems on differentiation (sum. G. weathering and erosion. theorem of integration. cleavages. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. Weathering. L. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. J. erosion and related landforms. 1999. Introduction to folds.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . D.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . Introduction to rocks and minerals. earthquakes. different earth processes like mountain buildings. S. Analytical Geometry. Earth as a member of solar system. California. Abraham. 4th Ed. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. Introduction to sedimentary. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. Narosa Publishing House. Chain rule. 3. and Finney. nonrepeated linear factors. difference. Jr. product and quotient rules without derivations). Chatterjee. R.
and Monroe. 19 . Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. population loss and decline. Wicander. Field Study tour.. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. Brooks/Cole. measuring biodiversity. Biodiversity of deserts. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. D. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. and Pun.. Earth Science. 11th Edition. Prentice Hall. J. J. E. R. Recommended Books: 1. and Tasa. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. biodiversity crises. How Does Earth Work. J. 4. 9th Edition. 2004. Foundations of Structural Biology. 2007 3.. G.. Smith. 2007 2. modern concepts. Geological time chart with biodiversity. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. 5. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. F. Park.. 5th Edition. interactions among diversified life. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. A.Identification of rocks and minerals. and Tasa. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY .Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. D. Use of brunton compass and GPS. Lutgens. animals). invasion of life on land. Prentice Hall. 2005. Biodiversity of canal. Tarbuck. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. E. Darwinism.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. consequences of losing biodiversity. K. Life in sea. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. examples of adjustments in varied environment. Biodiversity of hilly areas. Tarbuck. molecular basis of biodiversity. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. Lutgens. 3rd Edition. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. unicellularity. Physical Geology and Process of Science. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification... causes of extinction. Routledge.. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. R. G. multicellularity. Lamarckism. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. F. Prentice Hall: 2006. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. different classification systems. K.. protocell formation.
2nd Edition. Hannen. 2. (editors). 3. Contemporary environmental status. 2.K. Consumption. 20 .. UK. L. Culture. Bradbury.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. Starr. New York: New York University Press. J. USA. 2003. CA: AltaMira Press. Perspective of human-environment evolution. The Ecology of global consumer culture. Gaston. John Wiley and Sons. Blackwell Science Ltd. 2009. 3. Townsend. Walnut Creek. The Biosphere. and concerns. R. UK. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. Contemporary environment issues and debate. Inc. C. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. 2001. a Human Emphasis. Chronological. Goals and expectations. power & hegemony. 2006. I. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. K. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. Conceptualizing environment. Allan & Carter. Prospect Heights. IL:WavelandPress. K. culture and society.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. Nora and Wilk. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . Crumley. Adam. 4. Wadsworth Group. 2000. 2009. Environmental Risks and the Media. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. 2005. UK. Biology. C. Understanding the environment-human relationship. Routledge. Biodiversity (An Introduction). 5th Edition. Scope and application. and Sustainable Living. Inc. and Spicer. (editor). Use of environment for vested interest. Recommended Books: 1. globalization and environmental issues. Tripartite nature of environment.. J. I. P.
output hardware. Operating system (Windows). Selin. Ed. processing hardware. Fundamentals of computer. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. Course Outlines Definition. 2.. Courter. Configurations.London 1996. system software. K. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. 6. e-mail. Kluwer Academic Publishers. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. Storage hardware. G.5. Software: Application software.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . computer programs and basic applications. Ms-Power Point.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. 21 . Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. Long l.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. 2003. Recommended Books: 1.6th Ed.H. Hardware: Input Hardware.. Ms-Excel. Marquis A. Rutledge. as are their effects on the biosphere.1999. software packages. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . Long N. Local Area Network. Types and classification of computers. Introduction to MS-Word. Ms-Access. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. Milton.Microsoft office 2000. internet. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures.
Principles of Environmental Chemistry. India. Measurement and comparison of the 22 .. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts.M. P..G. J. and Reid. Turbulence. Recommended Books: 1. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Turbulent jets and plumes. 2008. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. J. Global climate and climatic change.S. 2. its causes and adverse effects on environment. Gaussian plumes in the air.D. Nuclear energy. T. Energy. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. 2nd Edition. Andrews. Environmental Chemistry.. and Singh. Girard. Fate of pollutants in environment. Solids. trophic level. Active control of sound. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. 1999. Thomson-Brooks. Hernandez-Esparza. Fregoso-Infante.. Springer. Jickells. Fundamentals of aquatic. Diffusion. Ozone and UV light. Conversion of mass. C. Equations of fluid dynamics. their sources and toxic actions.. Environmental Science. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. Electromagnetic radiation.T. B. Reducing the transmission of sound.E. Samir. P. Turbulent diffusion. 2004. DoriaSerrano. 5. Germany. interaction of light with matter. Heat radiation and heat transfer. Chemical reactions.E. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. Liquids and Gasses. Environmental impact of various industries. A. Ozone chemistry. Particle physics. M. G. Jones and Barlett. Liss.. J. Human perceptions and noise criteria. photosynthesis. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. Blackwell Science.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. 2004.. Canada. 3. Transport of pollutants. Isotopes and radioactive decay. Environmental Chemistry.. M. 4. Energy conversion. Ibanez.. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. Sound and Noise. Entropy. Basic acoustics.. 2005. UK. Brimblecombe. USA. Solar spectrum. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. 1st Edition. Miller.J.. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. K. atmospheric and soil chemistry.
economic growth. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. World Bank Publications. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. Natural resources and the economy. Field visit. Routledge. 2008. M. 7th Ed. USA. 3. and Van Grondelle. Kentucky USA. H. 23 . USA.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. G. Sustainable development. Economic functions of environment. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Praxis publishing. Environmental Physics.Economic development. Recommended Books: 1.1998. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. S. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. Todaro. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. Impact of economic activity on environment. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. Economic Development. Pakistan economic context: National income. R. 2001. 4. concepts and measurement.. economic growth and its measurement. New York. and Resource allocation. J. C. E. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. economic welfare and difference among all. UK. 2008. USA. and Pandis. 2. P. interaction between ecology and economic management. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. poverty. 2006. Environmental economics. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Recommended Books: 1. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. Physics of the Environment and Climate. Yusuf. Seinfeld. Guyot. Boeker. 2. Growth and development. Man environmental relationship. producer and community point of view. Growth and Environment. 2001. Wesely Publishers. Introductory Environmental Physics. S. Producer behavior. Measures for sustainable development. population and environmental quality. N. Smith. USA. Economic management and environmental quality. economic progress.
Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. B. Economics. water. England. species. community. population. B. Swift. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. Ecosystem and its types. levels of ecological organization.. R. N. J. Farmington Hills. the ethics of soil. Russell. D. Environmental philosophy and ethics. 2009. Callicott. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. 2007. Palgrave Macmillan. Shogren. concepts and approaches. Portland 1967. community and ecosystem. C. 2008. & Pierce. Kessinger Publishing. WCIV7AA. biogeography.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. 2008. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale.3. 4. and White. Introduction to ethical theory. Touchstone Books. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy..V. Natural philosophy. World Bank Publications. USA. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . M. B. soil. Environmental Critics of agriculture. its fundamental concepts. 24 . LLC. Course Outlines Introduction. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. 2002.A. and systems ecology. DeVeer. Frodeman. J. A History of Western Philosophy. description of population. Ecology. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography.. temperature. role of light. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. 4. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. Recommended Books: 1. 2. 3. International Thomson Publishing. ethics and ecology. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. Hanley.. branches of ecology. London. USA.
L and Reiss.topography and air as ecological factors. 5th Ed. Biogeochemical cycles of C. Ecology (concepts and applications. M J. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). and More. New York. Ecosystem: structure and function. 1992. 2. P. bacteria and eukarya. Microbial metabolism. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. Population distribution and abundance. B. M C J 1st ed. community dynamics. 6th Ed. 2004. Biomes of the world. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. C. aquatic microbiology. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. landscape changes and their importance. UK. Recommended Books 1. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. E P. C. ecological modeling. 1999 4. N. Odum. and S. biotic factors. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. 1st Ed. 2000. Cambridge University Press. Lab Work 25 . 3. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. distribution limits. students will be able to understand the significance. population dynamics. J. M.W. 2001 5. WCB/McGraw-Hill. Chapman. After completion of this course. various concepts of community. Tata McGraw-Hill. habitat and niche. Dash.Cox. plant geography and animal distribution. New Delhi. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Ecology (principles and applications). UK. Fundamentals of Ecology. King’s College London. Fundamentals of Ecology. characteristics of urban. and Barett. G. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. J. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. Populations. Concepts of Limiting factors.) Moles. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. landscape ecology. Systems ecology. productivity of different ecosystems.
USA. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. L. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. Academic Press. Soil. C. peppor. 2009. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. USA.F. R. 3. Solid Waste generation. Washington DC. Knudsen.D. transportation & treatments. and Stetzenbach.P.L. W. Fuhrmann. London. I.. G. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology.Gerba. and Gerba. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. Butterworth-Heinemann.. Environmental Pollution and Control. 3. and Jeffery. Crawford.J. D. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. Pepper..K.R.. D. J. P. Noise. its sources and their effects. American Society for Microbiology..V. 2002.J. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. 2nd Edition. J. Hartel. McInernery.A. M... Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents.. Maier. Recommended Books 1.W. 2 Edition. Sylvia. 2005. Cambridge UK. Dilution plate technique. and Zuberer. Marine & Industrial pollution. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. Cambridge University Press.. Hurrst. Hill. 2005.. USA. McGraw Hill Inc. Understanding Environmental Pollution.M. Academic Press. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal.. Prentice Hall. 2.and Vesilaind.B. M. Harley. purification and preservation. Case Studies. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). Microbiology.G. Effects of Pollutants. Prescott. Collection. USA.C. 4. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. Water. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. isolation. 2007. L. R.M. Mean plate count. A. (Elsevier) USA. Pollution Control Strategies. P.P. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution..1998. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. D.M.I.P. New Jersey. 4th Edition. Recommended Books: 1. J. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. 2. 1995.and Brendecke. F.J. and Klein. Academic Press. 26 .J.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. C.L. USA. Human & other living organisms.L.J. Weiner.. 2005. 5. Environmental Microbiology. Peiece.A. UK.A.
Environmental psychology.K. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. . Cambridge University Press. John H. Factors affecting air Pressure. Royal book company. air pressure. 1988. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. Surface winds.F. Climatology. Solar radiations.. John Wiley and Sons. Sadder. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. Marcel Dekkar.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. climatic zones of Pakistan. The Hydrologic cycle. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. The climate of Pakistan. 3. Shamshad.. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. local winds. N. 2. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. The Physics of Atmospheres. Mechanism of heat transfer.M.W. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. 2006 5. A. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. Karachi. Cloud Classification. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere.J. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . 4.4. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Weather and Climate. Lawrance K.. Radiation and climate. The Atmosphere. Methods of psychology. 1992. 6th Edition. K. Tarbuck. global circulation. Austin Miller. condensation and cloud Formation.E. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. 2003. Recommended Books: 1. Spyros. Houghton J. Pandis. American Public Health Association (APHA). 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. 27 .2nd Editions. Lutgens. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. Four Spheres of the Earth. 2002. 5..
Greene. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. Routledge. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. London. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. Sustainable livestock management practices. Eysenck. sustainable agriculture. Pollution control through Ecology. Environmental perception and cognition. energy and carbon balance. CRC Press. CRC Press. species response to pollutants. London. Restoration of derelict lands.A. Water and distribution of species. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture.. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. 2001. soil resources of Pakistan. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. Soil as a natural resource. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species.W.C. 5th Edition. 1992. M. threats and mitigation.. solar radiation and primary production. carbon dioxide and global climate change. Course Outline Introduction. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. Bell. Fundamental of Psychology. Water resources of the world and Pakistan.D. concepts. and Baum A. Water as an ecological resource. 28 . soil erosion and conservation. Future water scenario of Pakistan. 2. High population density and psychological impacts. limitation of irrigated agriculture. techniques and methods of restoration. T. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. Routledge. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. rivers.characteristics and research methods. Ecology of food production. their management and ecological restoration. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Background and scope. P. Environmental Psychology. soil salinity and water logging. Recommended Books: 1. Ecological restoration. Sustainable agricultural practices. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. Fisher J.
J. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. toxins & toxicants. G. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. Rashid. Oxford. Israr-ud-Din. Synergism. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. 29 . 2nd ed. J. and Barett. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. toxicology of chemicals. Margaret A. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic.1998. Blackwell Scientific Publications. biological effects. Shirkat Gah. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. 4. B. 2006. 3. Odum E. dose response relationship in living organisms. A. their containment and control strategies. 1996. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. Newman. Potentiation and Addition. water and soil.A. Islamabad. Chemical interactions and their types. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. and Memon. K. Zedler.S. Peshawar. 5. 5th Edition. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Lahore. 2004.I.National Book Foundation. Soil Science. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. R. A..W.P. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. Immunological considerations in toxicology. D... University of Peshawar. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. Fundamentals of Ecology. Island Press. 2000 2. K and Habib. E. from natural and anthropogenic sources. Studies in Pakistan Geography. Organs. 1989. soil and air samples. and Hobbs. toxicity screening using microbial systems. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. P. Pakistan’s Environment. Mumtaz. on human and other living organisms. terminologies: Poisons.. USA. toxins vs toxicants. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. in vivo & in vitro assays. Toxicity: Types and its measurement.Recommended Books: 1. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. Falk.
valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. clean development mechanism. Williams. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. General and Applied Toxicology.Recommended Books 1. Recommended Books 1.M. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York.2005 2. pollution control-a general model. USA. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. 2005 2. Economic: agriculture. Vol.. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. 5th Edition. Course Outlines Introduction to history. P.Science of Poisons . health. USA. 3. Ecological: ecological zones. Ballantyne. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. 3. industry. M. (ed. 1st Edition. Klassen. international trade and the environment. McGrawhill. State of the Environment-Pakistan . 1992. 1993.1 & 2. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. Recommended Books: 30 . major ecosystems. culture. the economy and the environment. education. urbanization and pollution. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. 1996. measuring environmental benefits. economic aspects of different environmental problems. B. land. W. 1st Edition. geography. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. people. water resources. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. Macmillan Press Ltd. CRC Press Llc. economic development and the environment. topographic zones. Course Outlines Introduction.D.). Hughes. USA. Government of Pakistan. T and Turner. W.
Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. Field.. Data interpretation for quality control.. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. and derived S. and F. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive.UK..1.J. D. M. COD. Titrimetery. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions.K. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. USA. salinity & sodicity). Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. 8th Edition. 2000. B. 3.K. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. D. All Solids. 31 . 1993.I. Recommended Books: 1. M. I. Harris. Sample collection. 6th Edition. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Oxford. Freeman & Co. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. 2.and Field. L. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. C. 2. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). A. 3. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. handling. Reuter. Titrimetery. Gravimetery. Analytical techniques for soil. units.2004. precision and accuracy.. West. 2005. Australia.A. Turner. Use of Potentiometery. Standard solutions and standard curves.2002. Sample preservation methods.D.. Lab Work S. J. K. Conductivitymetry. Oxford University Press. 4. Conductivitymetry. Johns Hopkins University Press. preparation and storage. NO3–N & NH4-N). 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. CSIRO Publ. Thomson and Brooks. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. D. 1999. Environmental Economics. C. Gravimetery. D. Kolstad. Holler. water and plant analysis.I. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. Pearce. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery.W.C. Sparrow and D.R. Skoog. 2003. New York. and Batemen.L. BOD. Fluoride. Peverill. Collingwood. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory..
Scragg. USA. J. Biosensor. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. Chichoster. 2009. Tools in environmental biotechnology.. National Biotechnology Commission. Sambrook. Recommended Books 1. National Biosafety Guidelines. Germany.E. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. Derbre. 3. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. PCR. 2007. and Russel. 2. 2005. New York. and application of biotechnology in the environment. 5th Ed. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. Oxford University Press. Biomarkers. purification and preservation of DNA. J. 2005. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. D. New York. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns.D. 2nd Ed.). Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. Cambridge University Press. USA. Environmental Biotechnology. USA. Wiley-VCH Verlag.. Hans- Joachim.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. (ed. 4. Government of Pakistan. W. Isolation. A. J.1999. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. Course Outlines Introduction. Bioreactors. After completion of this course. Introduction to microbial kinetics. Biotechnology. students will be able to understand the significance. 2001. and Josef.P. Recombinant DNA technology. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 .living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. Smith.W. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. England.
Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. Dessinov. 2. Satellite Imageries. Introduction to GIS. A. Interpretation. Jensen. 3. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. Lulla. analysis and output. Cartography. History and data collection. V. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Types of data used in GIS. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. Fishery and wildlife. Aerial photography. 2000. map projection and coordinate systems. 1999. Data acquisition. eradication of the duplicated data. 2008. Agriculture. Introduction to Photogrammetry. Image Processing. Campbell. Data entry and output. Energy Sources. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. 2000. Inc. Guilfoud press New York. Preparation of thematic maps. Inc. John Wiley and Sons. Rancez. Inc. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. K and L. 4. 5. Active and Passive remote sensing. F. Z. Forestry. Harvey. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Different types of maps. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. R. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. 2009. history and platforms. advantages and limitations of process. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). John Wiley and Sons. Mc Graw Hill Education. Using and reading GPS in field. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Pearsons Education. integration of information from many sources.
Course Outlines Introduction. plant. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity.. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. A.). WWF Pakistan. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management.. Environmental Economy. alpha and beta diversity. eco-design. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). 2006. hot spots of biodiversity. Environmental Management tools. economic. Certification of EMS. types of biodiversity. and Qasim. Conservation of biodiversity. 1998. International Organization for Standardization. need and approach. etc. Related Environmental legislation. 3. F. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. cleaner technologies. standards and guidelines. Michigan. philosophical. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. principles of Cleaner production. M. Environmental Management Systems Principles. social and ethical values of biodiversity. Systems and Support Techniques. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. Methods of environmental protection. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. threats to biodiversity. Khan. Sheldon. American Society for Quality. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. and Yoxon. Environment and sustainable development. M..C. 2001. 34 . Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS).2nd Ed. 2005. American Society for Quality.3rd Edition . 4.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. 2. ecological. B. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. Environmental aspects and impacts.
Mirza. field custody. laboratory custody. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring.e. Associates Inc. presampling requirements/information. forests. protected areas. P. Sunderland. refrigeration and freezing methods. national and international laws and regulations.. management. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. ecotourism. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. 2. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora.B. population. Sinauer. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. conservation strategies. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. soil and living organisms. quality assessment. 1998. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. Considerations. Legal protection of species.D.B. plants. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. design and types of samples. croplands. chemical addition. Kings College. cities. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. NOC for plant operation. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. sampling and design purposes. C. Recommended Books: 1. Preservation methods including pH control. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures.R. Rawalpindi. Z. and Morre. Quality assurance and quality control. Publ.. London. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. Cox. Saad Printers. 35 . 2000. habitats. Conservation of wildlife. conservation and livelihood. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. Biogeography. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. 2ndEd. 3. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air.conservation at species. international agreements. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. quality control sampling. A Primer for Conservation Biology. air. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. water. 2000. conservation in man-made ecosystems. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples.. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. P.B. EIA requirement. community and ecosystem level. Lahore). their categories. Course Outlines Introduction.
2nd Edition. 3.) McGraw-Hill. phenological changes. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. USA. Forstner U. biological.1996. Chuviero. Burden. Chapman and Hall. 2000. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention.. Ozone depletion. Manahan. regional. Remote Sensing Note. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. Tokyo. N. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. chemical.Recommended Books: 1. 6. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. 2. R. 5.1999. extinctions. Environmental Chemistry. 2008. Lewis Publisher London. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. 2008. S. human health.. 2002. I. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. S. McKlivie. agriculture. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. its causes and effects. USA. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. F. UK. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. Murai. D. Korte. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. (eds. USA. 8. . Peakall. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. Human responses to potential climate change. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. altered community structure. 7. Energy and Temperature. and Guethner. Regional droughts and 36 . L.USA. 2002. New York. E. D. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. E. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. Earth Observation of Global Change. Precipitation. Moisture in the Atmosphere. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. H. 1992. Keith. Recent Climate Change Indicators. The Measurement of Climate Change. Physical. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. (ed) Springer.
National Environmental Quality Standards for air. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University.Causes. 2005. overview. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. 2003. Therivel. Hardy. Sringer. Main stages in EIA process.). review of EIA quality. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. Oxford. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. impact analysis.. Cost and benefits of EIA.. Islamabad. reporting. Hardy. 2. London.. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2).A. J.(ed).. liquid. Global Change and the earth system. decision-making to implement the project. Effects. 2004.O. J. 2005. Islamabad. A. T. and noise. D.Causes. law. 37 . 2. (ed. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Ministry of Housing and Works. and Solutions. Types & Resources to produce Energy. Recommended Books: 1. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. London. Harrop. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. and Solutions.. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. John Wiley & Sons. 2003. A.T. R. National Book Foundation. Global Warming and Climate Change. 6. 4. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. Effects. EIA project management. J. Glasson. Routledge. 2000. Earthscan Publication Ltd. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. screening. and Chadwick. 5. Recommended Books: 1. 1999. 1994. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. Petts. social impact assessment (SIA).cataclysmic climate change.. 4. John Wiley & Sons. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. J. Keith. Climate Change . 1st Edition. project implementation and follow up. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. & Nixon. 3.. mitigation and impact management. solids. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. Climate Change . public involvement. 3. Houghton. 1986. Blackwell. 2005. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. J. scoping.
. management options. and Tu. national agriculture policy. John Willey & Sons. threat and its causes. 6. Types. F. agriculture products and their share in GDP. B.. M. 2nd Edition. S. threats. wind power and nuclear power. United Nations Environment Programme. USA.). J. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. national and provincial legislation. best available option for future. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. Rangeland Management: existing status. causes and methods for its improvement. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. R. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. forest types and its existing management. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. Asian Development Bank. Sadler. Conservation in Progress. Development of Management Plan: needs.5. agriculture chemicals. Evans. national example. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. problem in agriculture. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. B. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. limitation in the future. existing management approaches.. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies... process and contents of the management plan. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. H. Carpenter. solar power. 1997. Ludwig. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. 1993. 38 . wildlife census. & McCabe. methodologies. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. 2002. their current status and threats. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. Lohani. A.B and Warren. Recommended Books: 1. effective management. Goldsmith. requirement. their pros and cons.. management options. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. importance. (ed. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. R. New York. Everitt.. occurrence and distribution of natural resources.
Research Design & Research Methods. Dasmann. 2007. New York.L. Sampling: the logic of sampling. Questionnaire.A pre-requisite for Research. V. Hansen. 1990. Interviews. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. USA. How to put things together? Introduction. and Jorqensen. Thousand Oaks.E.2. Elsevier. 5. Surveys. John Wiley & Sons. concepts and terminologies. Material Methods. Experimental Research. research methods.Amsterdam. R. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. S. Sage CA. Creswell. 3. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. Environmental Conservation. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Review of Literature. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. P. Literature Search: Database. Inference based on findings. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. Scientific Methods. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). London. 4. Search Engines. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. Scientific Research: Science. Case Studies. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. Methodology. Bibliography. J. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. Review of Literature.. population and sampling frames. & Plano Clark. Objectives. Islamabad. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). types of sampling design/. GOP and IUCN.E. 39 . to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. to introduce students to research design.F. Selecting the Research Method. W. 1984. Research Proposal: its importance . 1992. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods.
. National Conservation Strategy 5. S. Wadsworth Publishing Company. USA.. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. Robert Yin. Chichester. and Arhonditsis. Marilyn F. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . 2008. National Environmental Policy 4. regulations made there under. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. England. Belmont California.. 4. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. 2nd Edition.Batty. 1989. USA. G. R. 3rd Edition. of Chicago Press. Univ. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans.Harrad. Students project in Environmental Science. 2003. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. Babbie. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. Booth. E. Diamon. Moriarty. 3. M. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. Qadar.. SNBP Local Government Ordinance.h. 5. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. John and sons Ltd. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. 2. 2003. Government of Pakistan 3. Survey Research Methods. 2001. Sage Publishers.2. The Craft of Research by Wayne C.S. 6. 2000. 1997. Law Books House. Recommended Books: 1.USA. 1997.
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45
POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.
Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46
RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,
5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.
Mirajuddin Publication . A. recycling and re-use of wastewater. Islamabad. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT).). water quality and quantity aspects. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. Oxford University Press New Delhi. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. and Tortajada. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan.. Biswas.). watershed/catchment. 2006.. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. 5. with drinking water facilities like springs. U. flood and droughts. The Politics of Managing Water. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. pollution aspects.. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. C. 1993. K.. A. Pakistan. Pakistan . Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. Lahore.Varis. N. Asia Printer.1993. fisheries management. R. Ahmed.. Mirajuddin Publication . Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. 2003. Recommended Books: 1. Briscoe. 6. 3. SDPI Oxford University Press. tubewells. and Malik. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. water supply and demand management measures. 44 . Bengali. Revised & enlarged edition. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. I. (eds. Oxford University Press Karachi. N. virtual water. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. and Qamar. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. A. R. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. integrated water resources management (IWRM). 2. J. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. 2005. P. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. wetlands resources management. O..Lahore.K. hydrological cycle. Cheema. (ed. Indus Water Accord 1991. 2006. 4. Khan. groundwater exploitation. Islamabad. Ahmed. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. flood and drought management..
Factors and processes of soil formation. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. urbanization in Pakistan. Prentice Hall. USA. Types and properties of parent materials. Urban ecosystem. transport. Soil forming minerals. Process and outcome. National Book Foundation. D.C. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. Course Outlines Introduction. Soil Science. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. Pakistan. NJ. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. R. Urbanization. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. hydrological processes. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. Upper Saddle River.T. urban political ecology. N. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. Upper Saddle River. Cation and anion exchange. After completion of this course. urban landscapes characteristics. D. USA. R. R. San Diego. CA. Gardiner. 2007. and Weil. E. Islamabad. urban flora and fauna. Definition. 2008. Soils in Our Environment. Miller. Academic Press. Bashir. 1. Forms of urbanization. 11th Edition. Causes of urbanization. USA. Soil degradation. PrenticeHall. future of urban centers.W. urban settlements. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. humans as components of urban ecosystems. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. 1996. soils.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization.. 45 . the salient features of urban environments. Brady. Hillel. and Bantel. NJ. 2007..R. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. management and green productivity. Physical and chemical properties of soil. Course Outlines Introduction.
5. SBS academic publishing. 1. Planning and Urban Change. Silberstein. Routledge. A. The planning process. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. Routledge. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. J. M. 2004. nature and purpose of urban planning.. Scope. 46 .. V. 2009. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. 2. 2000. Justification for planning for city management. 2004. Gilbert. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments.and Maser. nd 2 Edition. 2006. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. London. M. USA. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. I. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. Planning and its relationship with other professions. London. 3. UR. Chapman and Hall. Elements of urban planning. City Design for Sustainable Development.S. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels.. USA.. 4. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. SAGE Publications Ltd.and Kowaril. Hague.1990. C. 2. S. Alberti. CRC Press LLC. New trends in planning and city management. 1989. Springer. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. Kate. 2007. Aims and Objectives of planning. O. UK. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Types of Urban Plans. Hejny. Land use planning theories. H. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. UK. Sukopp. D. Penguin Group. Ward. Hough. New York. Recommended Books: 1. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation.L. Levels of planning. UK. S. Smith. Principles of planning. Planning theories and concepts. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan..
Manila. Westview Press.W. R. The Guilford Press. Boulder . H. UK. Islamabad. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. Different approaches and Indicators. Ministry of Housing and Works. D. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. Chapman & Hall. Disaster as an opportunity for development. E&UA Div. Prediction. 1989.3. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. Flood Management: Organizational Role. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. 1986. Natural cycles and their role. and White G. Clara. G. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. International phenomenon.F. Disaster Management: Components of management. Longman Group. i.. New York. 3. P. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. Recommended Books: 1. Paris. 4.. Introducing Town Planning. It discusses a wide range of aspects. Political factors.. Socio-economic factors. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. 2nd Edition. 1991. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). M.B. Earthquake. 2. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made.. ADB. Cultural factors. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization.UNESCO.W. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors.J. Flooding.. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. Kates.. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development.. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. 47 . 1993. Physical factors. Natural Disasters Alexander. Hazards. Earthquake Management. New York. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N.e. 1993. 1993. and Woodrow.. Landslide. Government of Pakistan. 4. Role of Media in Disaster Management. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies.
biomass resources. Paris.. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Perry R. OECD/IEA. types. John Wiley and Sons. Botkin.5. E. Agroecology. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. 4th Edition. Biotic structure. decomposers. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. uses. and Mushkatel. D. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. Disasters and Development Cuny. Quorum Books. 6. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. Westport. A. 1984. 2007. hydropower. New York. 1983. 1. primary producers.W. 48 .C. 3. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. alternate energy resources.. McKinney.H. Schoch. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. 2. L. Sustainable livestock management. M. sustainable energy management. energy resources of Pakistan.M. energy resources. merits and demerits of wind. 2001. Farming practices for pests and weeds control.L. Consumer and producer relationship. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. and Yonavjak. 2007. 6th Edition. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. USA.A. F. Ecological concept in crop and food production. local. R. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life.. solar. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. consumers. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals.B and Keller. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future.
CBS Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi. Experimental Plant Ecology. C. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. Yandermeer J. Kapur.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. Recommended Books: 1.M. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. P. Corol. USA. and Sudha. McGraw Hill Publishing Company.. 3. M. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. Study of stratification and profile diagram.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram.R. USA. 1990. India. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. 2000. Altreri. Boulder. Study of index of diversity. E-11 Seminar 49 .A. Westview Press. Agrocology.P. R. 1995. 2.H. New York.G. and Rossel. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species.
that: 1. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. 4. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. 50 . The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. 2. 3. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. 5. availability of the faculty and other facilities. the Committee agreed on the following principles.
transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 2. 7. 20. 6. 10. 24. 26. 6. 11. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 22. 12. 14. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 5. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 9. 21. 8. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 4. 17. 18. 9.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 2. 23. 16. 7. 11. 10. 3. 12. 3. 15. 13. 25. 8. 5. 19. 4.
London. Conservation Strategies. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. Mackenzie. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. 1992... 4. S. Instruments and methods. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. S. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. Elsevier. Karachi. 3. Money. Relationship of culture. F. Mackenzie J. 3. Khan K. Recommended Books: 1.E. Ball. 1991.DETAILS OF M.F. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. development of concepts.. Oxford University Press. Hansen.1991. NCS. Environmental control Policies. D.E.. London Black Stone Press Ltd. Amsterdam. GOP and IUCN. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. 2. technology and resource use. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). FURTHER READINGS 1.A. Regional and International Environmental Issues.S. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. Treaties. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. S. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. 2nd Edition. WCS. and Jorqensen. Islamabad. 2. Oxford University Press. Hodder and Stoughton.1994.1995. status of Terrestrial. Provincial and Local Strategies.1994.. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. and Bell. Geography of Pakistan. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. P. Draft National Environmental Policy. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. 52 . Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. Environment People and Economy. 1987. Conventions and Protocols in Global.T.
Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Government of Pakistan. F & Bronstein. World Bank. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. FURTHER READINGS 1. opportunities and issues.. 2. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Ed. C. Chichester. Recommended Books: 1. UK. History. Harlow Essex. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. Environment Department. Assessment of environmental impacts. K. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. social impact assessment. role and importance. Ministry of Environment. ed. Principles of physical. 1993. Recommended Books: 1. Burnt Hill. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. 1995. ecological impact assessment. DC. 1995.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. Wood. Wastewater. economic impact assessment. Demographic impact assessment. Air and Solid Waste. sample collection and preservation. England.A. Longman Scientific and Technical. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. A. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. process. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). procedures and methods of EIA. WB. A one Publishers Lahore. Washington. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. 3.Vanclay. John Wiley & Sons. Gas Chromatography etc. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. D. Ahmed. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. 2. Environmental Chemical Analysis. 53 . Longman House. Case Studies and review. sampling rules. Cost benefit analysis of projects. Environmental auditing.
J. Reasons for Project success or failure. Project Planning and Approval Processes.. 1st ed. 2001. Kjelllström.. M/S Banarsid. John Wiley and Sons. 2nd Ed. London. S.. B. air borne. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. Project Planning. and Wright. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine.2000. 1998. Oxford University Press New York. A Guide to Project Management. 1993. T. Mantel s. Lippmann. outputs. and Guidotti. Project Initiation. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide.. Caeneross. Occupational Health: problems and issues.. development objectives. work breakdown structure. T. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation.. 1st Ed. Primary health care services. A. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. 4. economic evaluation. Basic Environmental Health. Government Policies and Programs. 1997. Wiley Interscience. indicators. Meredith J. R. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. Yassi. J. activities. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. 2002. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). 2. UK. Project Management Institute. K. Inc. New York. 54 . Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. USA. M. Park. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. Planning Commission Performas. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. 2. 5. Need identification. Environmental Health Engineering. 1st Ed. principles and practices.. Writing Project Proposal. de Kok. safety techniques. 1992. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. Project Life Cycle. T.. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Accident prevention and safety plans. means of verification. Public health concept. USA. L. feasibility study. Resource Mobilization. R. specific objectives. Defining Project objectives.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. T.. prevention and control. Ergonomic and Safety. Recommended Books: 1. 3. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. inputs. assumptions. Prentice Hall International Inc. Nebel.
D. ISO Central Secretariat. 2007. 3. sustainable energy management for agriculture. John Wiley and Sons. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. bio-energy resources. hydropower.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. gas. Schoch. E. merits and demerits of wind. 2007. 1998. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental auditing. Paris. OECD/IEA. 55 . R. alternate energy resources.A. energy resources. 2. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. transport. St Luise Press. Principles of cleaner production. types. Botkin. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. L. Environmental Auditing. M. industry and domestic sectors. non-renewable and renewable. 6th Edition. Recommended Books: 1. McKinney. 1990b. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. D.L. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. petroleum. 4th Edition. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. solar. and Yonavjak. nuclear) local. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. Switzerland. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. uses. principles and elements of the process of EMS. 3. 4. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).M. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. energy resources of Pakistan. 2. Paris. data collection and interpretation. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan.B and Keller.. 2001. Sayre. Related Environmental regulations. Michigan-January 2001. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. Sources of data. USA.
D. 2005. Climate Change . Species richness. etc. human activities and vegetation dynamics. 2. Hardy.T. 5. John Wiley & Sons. Vegetation Ecology Ed. forests. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. 1. Effects. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. 2005. Blackwell Publishing. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. 2004. Chichester. John Wiley & Sons. 2003. plant invasions. Berlin. global aspects of plant ecology. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Climate change and food production. Shulze. types and their climatic effects. Beck.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. UK 1991. Plant population dynamics. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. Oxford. John Wiley & Sons. J. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. E.). Effects.Causes. Green House Gases. J. types of climate change models. London. Recommended Books: 1. J. ECOPE 29. T. 3. resources and plants. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. Silvertown. 56 . and Solutions. Warrick. 2005. 2. K.D. vegetation dynamics. plant conservation. 4. ED. Plant Ecology.Causes. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. Houghton. 1st Edition. The Green House Effect. Earthscan Publication Ltd. 3. B & Jager. survival and extinction. Recommended Books: 1. Hardy. Modeling of climate change. Maarel. Springer. and Solutions. Blackwell Publishing. UK. 2005. Climate Change and Ecosystems. Climate Change . water resources. competition and coexistence. Life history strategies of plants. geographical and temporal patterns. E & Muller-Hohenstein. 2003. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. D.. (Ed. Oxford UK. & Charlesworth. management and restoration..
their types and role in conservation. 1973 2. 3. Forest plantations.A. Protected areas. II). Oxford University Press.J. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. Cambridge. 1998.J. USA. Wetlands.J. K. problems and solutions. 2002. B. Robinson. Cambridge. 2002.D. Oxford University Press.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. Weddell. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. Recommended Books: 1. Essentials of Conservation Biology. Wildlife of Pakistan. John Wiley And Sons. Extinction of species. And Bolen. Primack. Participatory forest management. 1986. 1992. UK. distribution. Protection and restoration of species. S. kinds. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. 2. 57 . S. status. Cambridge University Press. Rangeland management. distribution and management. management. T. Consumptive. Forests. Biodiversity: An introduction. London. Conserving Living Natural Resources. Mcmillan. R. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Oxford. distribution. T. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. Inc. 3. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. Roberts. threats and conservation.J. their ecological and economic importance. their importance. Protected areas in Pakistan. deforestation and its control. Oxford. 4. types. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. Roberts.) Gaston. Threatened animals and plants. Global and national biodiversity. habitats and ecosystems. Wildlife Ecology and Management.(2nd Ed.B. J. 5. Sinauer Assocaites. Oxford University Press. UK. E. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. J. 1984. Blackwell Publsihing. & Spicer. Principles of Wildlife Management. Status of forests in Pakistan. Sustainable forest management. Bailey. biological diversity. Oxford.G. & Ripley. Recommended Books: 1. W. Loss of biodiversity. its causes. 2004.L. types. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. Establishment and management of protected areas. I). Publishers Sunderland.
management of transport. UK. Environmental problems of urban life. Planning and Urban Change. Islamabad. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. New York. Government of Pakistan. A. Clara. G. Kate. Introducing Town Planning. V. UK. Longman Group. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. urban systems and their characteristics.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. H. 58 . Sustainable cities. Penguin Group. drinking water and solid waste in cities.and Maser. S. 4. Recommended Books: 1. SAGE Publications Ltd. Urban land use planning and management. USA. CRC Press LLC. London.. 2004.. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Forms of urbanization.. urbanization in Pakistan. J. 2007. future of urban centers. 1986. Silberstein. Ward. urban political ecology. 3. Ministry of Housing and Works. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. E&UA Div. C. 2000. 2.. urban landscape characteristics. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. USA. 1993. sanitation.
Exercises 1.J. Third edition. a) Functional English Grammar 1.Annexure . active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. Practical English Grammar by A.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking.V. 1997. Martinet. Thomson and A. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. ISBN 0194313492 59 . Oxford University Press.
1997. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. b) Practical English Grammar by A. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . Writing. Reading/Comprehension 1. Fourth Impression 1993. Third Impression 1992. Oxford University Press. Thomson and A. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin.V. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. intensive and extensive. Exercises 2. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. ISBN 0 19 453402 2.J. and speed reading. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Reading. Upper Intermediate. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. minutes of meetings. Third edition.2. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Martinet.
Third edition. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet.J. Exercises 2. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Writing. Reading 1. descriptive and argumentative writing). 2. Advanced. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. Reading. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Thomson and A. b) Writing 1. Writing. language. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Oxford Supplementary Skills. clarity. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. discursive. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Martinet. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Advanced by Ron White. Oxford Supplementary Skills.V. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. 2. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. Third Impression 1991. content. Oxford University Press 1986. Fourth Impression 1992. narrative. form. Fourth Impression 1993. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Third Impression 1992.1. introduction to presentations. Writing. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Practical English Grammar by A.
(particularly suitable for discursive. argumentative and report writing). Kathleen Shine Cain. Compiled by norther Illinois University. 2004. 62 . 3. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. A Custom Publication. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. Kirszner and Stephen R. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. without taxing the taste of engineering students). College Writing Skills by John Langan. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. Martin’s Press. Mandell. 2. descriptive. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. St.
S. 3. . Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Shahid Javed. 2000. 2. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. Karachi: Oxford University Press. People and Land i. Safdar. Zaidi. b. 1977-88 e. 1994. Mehmood. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Location and geo-physical features. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. State & Society in Pakistan. 1971-77 d. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. government. Economic institutions and issues b. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Study the process of governance. Ethnicity d. 1958-71 c. 2. Society and social structure c. 4. Indus Civilization ii. S.Annexure . Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. ideological background of Pakistan. 1947-58 b. Lahore. 1993. 1999 onward 3. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. contemporary Pakistan.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective.M. Historical Perspective a. Course Outline 1. 1988-99 f. politics. 63 Books Recommended 1. Akbar. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. Muslim advent iii. Contemporary Pakistan a. national development.
6.The Emergence of Banglades. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Ansar. 14.National Movement in Pakistan. Rafique. 1987. 7. 1972. Amin. Zahid. Enigma of Political Development. Mehmood. Haq. Wayne. Lawrence. 9. Politics in Pakistan. Muhammad Waseem. 1967. Sayeed. Institute of Public Policy Research. K. 1980. Political Parties in Pakistan. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. I. Washington: American Enterprise.K. 10. II & III. nd. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. Afzal.5. 13. Tahir. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. 64 . Safdar. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Club Road. Wilcox. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. History & Culture of Sindh. Ziring. 11. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. M. Islamabad. Aziz.. 1998. Noor ul. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. Vol. The Political System of Pakistan. Party. Khalid Bin. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. 1980. Pakistan Under Martial Law. 12. Lahore: Vanguard. 8. Ethno . Karachi: Royal Book Company. 1993. 1976.
) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.40.A.21.20) Related to thinking.A.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.A.6.A.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.56.58.Annexure .Tadabar (Verse No1.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.57.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 . 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.19. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.
3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt. in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .
Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. Islamabad (2001) 67 .S. “Emergence of Islam” . IRI.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Pakistan.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. International Islamic University. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. Bhatia. “Studies in Islamic Law. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. Ahmad Hasan.
College Algebra and Trigonometry. geometric progression. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. determinants. Wooton W. Houghton & Mifflin. functions. matrix inverse. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. equations reducible to quadratic equations. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. Cramer’s rule. cube roots of unity.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. set operations. Boston 68 . Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. 1986. complex numbers. PWS-Kent Company. PWS-Kent Company. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. trigonometric identities.Annexure . Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. not majoring in mathematics. harmonic progression. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. introduction to sets. Beckenback EF. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. types of functions. 1978. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. system of linear equations. types. Sharron S. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. 1987. Boston Swokowski EW.
not majoring in mathematics. Davis S. parallel and perpendicular lines. derivatives. intersection of two lines. USA 3. Calculus (11th edition). New York Stewart J. inequalities. various forms of equation of a line. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Ma. not majoring in mathematics. 1995. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. rational and transcendental functions. differentiation of polynomial. functions and their graphs. Reading. integration by parts. solution of equations involving absolute values. 2005. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. distance between a point and a line. Finney AR. John Wiley. Bevens I. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. angle between two lines. PWS-Kent Company. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. continuous functions. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. 1983. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. distance between two points. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). 2005. slope of a line. Recommended Books: Anton H. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. equation of a line.2. change of variables in indefinite integrals. continuity. Calculus (3rd edition). left-hand and right-hand limits. 69 . Addison-Wesley. integration by substitution. Boston Thomas GB.
functions.Circle: Equation of a circle. College Algebra and Trigonometry. ellipse. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). PWS-Kent Company. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. 1987. circles determined by various conditions. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. determinants. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. hyperbola. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. PWS-Kent Company. set operations. intersection of lines and circles. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. • Contents 1. 1969 Kaufmann JE. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. system of linear equations. equations reducible to quadratic equations. Freshman and Company. Cramer’s rule. types of matrices. inverse of matrices. Introduction to sets. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. types of functions. nature of roots of quadratic equations. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. Scott. Conic Sections: Parabola. Boston Swokowski EW. Boston 4. 70 . 1986. locus of a point in various conditions. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. Analytic Geometry.
Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. circle and trigonometric functions. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Kaufmann. Graphs: Graph of straight line. Latest Edition. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. R. quartiles. PWS-Kent Company. Measures of dispersion: Range. R. individual. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. ungrouped and grouped data. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. variance. Boston. cumulative frequency curve. characteristics of statistics. 3. 2.geometric and harmonic progressions. deciles and percentiles.. 5. Prentice Hall. 4. moments. R. Latest Edition. E. 71 . relationship of statistics with social science.. standard deviation. skewness and kurtosis. Wilcox. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. bar frequency diagram histogram. Walpole. frequency polygon. 2. trigonometric identities. J. array. Swokowski. E. discrete and continuous series. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. types of frequency series. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. W. Latest Edition.. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. Books Recommended: 1. tally sheet method.. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. E.
1983. applications of integration. H. W. 11th Edition. et al. Contents 1. plane polar coordinates. Continuity. reduction formulae. Equation of a Line. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. Calculus. 8th edition. 5. John Wiley & Sons. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. Calculus Single and Multivariable.Jr. Recommended Books: 1. Hughes-Hallett. Gleason. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. Elliott Mendelson. 6. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. integral inequalities. 2005. Mathews. Frank A. Bevens. Jhon Willey & Sons. Inc. 2. McCallum. Trigonometric Functions. 2002. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. 4. the inverse of differentiation. special points of a function. Calculus. Boston. and Transcendental Functions. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. substitution method. products. E. Least-Squares Line. Thomas. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. Prentice-Hall. I. Addison Wesley publishing company. 3rd Edition. integration using partial fractions. Davis. Swokowski. Integration by Parts. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . Extreme Values of Functions. Rational Functions. 2005. S. Schaum’s Outline Series. John H. logarithmic integration. theorems of differentiation. Inequalities. Second Edition 1992.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. Leibnitz’ theorem. 3. implicit differentiation. 1999. logarithmic differentiation. Inc. infinite and improper integrals. Solution of equations involving absolute values. the chain rule. 2. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. Calculus. 4th edition. Anton. 6. Continuous Functions. integration by parts. integration by inspection. quotients. Slope of a Line. • Integration Integration from first principles. sinusoidal function. Rational and Transcendental Functions. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution.
Additions and subtraction. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. modulus and argument. the difference method. arithmetico-geometric series. multiplication. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. approximation errors in Taylor series. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. identities of hyperbolic functions. inverses of hyperbolic functions. complex conjugate. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. geometric series. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. finding the nth roots of unity. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . series involving natural numbers. solving hyperbolic equations. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series.
vector product. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. orthogonal. scalar triple product. of a unitary matrix. centers of mass and centroids. line to line. moments of inertia. masses. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. the inner product. Hermitian. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. symmetric and antisymmetric. 6. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. point to plane. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors.5. Pappus’ theorems. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 .
Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions.8. combinations of grad. divergence of a vector field. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. spherical polar coordinates 75 . differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates.
Unit 4. Range. The Mode. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Standardized variables. Difference of means and proportions. Rounding of a Number. Histogram. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Empirical Relation between Mean. basic principles of classification and Tabulation.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Pie chart. sampling with and without replacement. 76 . Observations. Bar charts. Data. bias. Presentation of Data Introduction. Exercises Unit 6. Population. Unit 3. The Variance and standard deviation. Constructing of a frequency distribution. Change of origin and scale. Sources. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. properties of Good Average. Editing of Data. Exercises. Exercises. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. sample design and sampling frame. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Types of frequency curves. Unit 7. Coefficient of variation. Stem and Leaf Display. null and alternative hypothesis. Unit 2. Box and Whisker Plot. Exercises. Exercises. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. The Mean Deviation. probability and non-probability sampling. Moments and Moments ratios. Discrete and continuous variables. definition of outliers and their detection. Median and mode. Diagrams. sampling and non sampling errors. Absolute and relative measures. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Test statistics. Exercises.Annexure . acceptance and rejection regions. Different types of Averages. Quantiles. Significant digits. The semi-Interquartile Range. Exercises. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Historigram. level of significance. Collection of primary and secondary data. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Type-I and Type-II errors. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Errors of measurement. Graphs and their Construction. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Statistical problem. Unit 5. Probability and Probability Distributions.
estimation of parameters and their interpretation. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Testing of Hypothesis.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. 1982. Kitab Markaz. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. simple linear regression. 2 Muhammad. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. Macmillan Publishing Co. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. F. Exercises. Regression and Correlation Introduction. Correlation. cause and effect relationships. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. E. R. Exercises Unit 9. Exercises Unit 10. Inc. examples.. Unit 11. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. Contingency Tables.Unit 8. 3rd Ed.Single Population Introduction. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. Coefficient of linear correlation. its estimation and interpretation. New York.. “Introduction to Statistics”. 77 . 2005. r and R2.
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