This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
For BS MS
HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD
CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………
6 12 14 50 51
dated December 4th 1976.ALTAF ALI G. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. DR. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. Lahore. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. 63. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. It is. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template.). the Federal Government vide notification No. D773/76-JEA (cur. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. universities and other institutions of higher education. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. The world has turned into a global village. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. and 36.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. PROF. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. R&D organizations. degree awarding institutions. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. It also aimed to give a basic. therefore. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation.
OF CURRI. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. COL. R&D. PREP. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. OF NCRC. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. EXP. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. OF FINAL CURRI. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. UNI. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. Preparation 5 . REC.
Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Dr. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Member 5. Member 4. Rawalpindi Dr. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Dr. Following attended the meeting:1. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Rawalpindi Dr.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. 7. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Lahore Member 6. Member 6 . Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Karachi from 28-30. Member 3. Dr.
Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. 13. Dr. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Member 14. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Prof. Karachi Member 12. Dr.8. Member 11. 7 . Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Member 10. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Member 16. Dr. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Dr. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Prof. Member 15. Dr. Dr. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms.
Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. Mr. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. 8 . Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. Faisalabad Member 18. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. 2. Member 20. Member 19.17. 1. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. At first. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. Chairman. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. Director of HEC Regional Center. Dr. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Dr. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Mr. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Secretary Dr. The meeting was opened by Mr. Karachi.
The committee thanked Mr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. 6. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses.3. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. 5. 2. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. 4. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. In last few centuries. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. 1. 3. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society.
Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. Apply theoretical understanding. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. regional and global contexts. skills and behaviour patterns. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . in its preliminary meeting. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. ii. 5. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. This committee. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv.
graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. 1. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. eight semesters in the semester system. The 11 . 3.e. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. 6. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. Integrating natural sciences. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. that: 1. Sc. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. 5. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. 2. A. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F.. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. with consensus. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. 4. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. The medium of instruction.
Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Introduction to Earth Science 8. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. English-I 6. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Environmental Chemistry 15. Environmental Pollution 22. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Basic Chemistry* 4. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. English-II 12. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Environmental Microbiology 21. Biology –II* 9. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Environmental Physics 16. Biology –I* 3.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Introduction to Computer 14. English-III 18. Introductory Economics* 17. Psychology* . Climatology* 23.
ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. 44. Biodiversity & Conservation 35.24. Climate Change 38. English-IV/ Univ. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . 45. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Environmental Biotechnology 32. Environmental Management Systems 34. ELECTIVE-III 42. 46. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. Environmental toxicology 27. Applied Ecology 26. Environmental Monitoring 36. Natural Resource Management 40. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. Opt. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. Environmental Economics 29. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28.
• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .
The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. 2007 3. Pearson Educational. D. & Nebel. 2007.. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. biological and social. Thomson Learning. philosophical. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. urbanization. McKinney. E. Different aspects of environment: physical. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. R. 15 .L. socio-economic. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. M. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. 2002. history. 2.A. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . Major components of environment: physico-chemical. proteins and nucleic acids. poverty and resource depletion. 6th Ed. environmental pollution. & Yonavjak. development in industry and agriculture. B. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. Environmental Science: working with the Earth.M. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. current global. ecological. ethical. 4. L. and their relationships with various environmental factors. Schoch. 10th Ed. lipids. R. 4th Ed.T. 2007. Botkin.B & Keller. John Wiley & Sons. G. Wright. Miller.. Recommended Books: 1.J. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. regional. national. its importance in human life.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. Human environment and its problems: global.
COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. esters. USA. J. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. 16 . 8th Ed. B. M. 2008.Hill International Edition. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. Cells. 2007. Structure and the basis of function.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. R. Introduction to cell biology. covalent. Ltd. Lewis. carbonyls. Cell division.. E.. R. origin of metabolism. USA. carboxylic acids. G. Crossley. coordinate covalent bond. 2003. Aromatic compounds. polypeptides in protein diversity. McGraw. Australia . Wadsworth Group. Cassimeris. Nucleic acids. 2. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. A. carbohydrates. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. 5th Edetion. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. Origin of life: chemical evolution. Bulter. C. 4. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. chemical basis of life. lipids. and Whitelaw. 5. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. and Lewis. V. protobionts. Biology: a Human Emphasis. Canada. 3. New York.. phospholipids in membrane systems. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. L. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding.. D. N. Lingappa. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. chemical diversity. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. 1996. proteins. Ionic. lipids. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. Molecular Biology through Questions. 2007. Self Assessment and Revie. amines). USA. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. 1. Starr. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals.. Plopper. the molecule of genetic information and replication. Shier.
double angle formulas.. expansion of determinants. 2. geometric and harmonic sequence. Girard. series and means. P. molal. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. equations of lines (linear equations). 2005.. 3. Liss. USA. Understanding Environmental Pollution. W.S. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Column chromatography. 8th Edition.E. and Reid. 4. Cambridge University Press... Colloids chemistry. Jickells.D. Hill. and Holler. P. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. 1st Ed. Blackwell Science. J. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions.. 2004. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. Solution chemistry. F. UK.M. D. straight line and related concepts.Special Products (Binomial Expression). Thin layer chromatography.H. graphs. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. EC and TDS in waste water. 17 . Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. simultaneous equations and their solutions. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. 2004.. Recommended Books: 1. J. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. Freeman and Company. Osmosis and Dialysis. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. Canada. minor and cofactor of a matrix. normal solutions/buffers. West. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. D. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). UK. Harris.J. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). 2nd Edition. Lab Work Preparation of molar. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. 2003. Surface chemistry. values of trigonometric functions. Brimblecombe.C. law of Cosines. real line. 2nd Edition.A. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. determinants. Thomson and Brooks.J. radicals.. D. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics.E.. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. 6th Edition. 2004. USA. Algebra of matrices.ions. Skoog.K. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). Andrews. B.. angle-sum formula. Jones and Barlett. Measurement of pH. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. M. Photochemical reactions. T. 5.
Calculus and Analytical Geometry. by parts integration (simple applications). Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . mountain building. theorem of integration. cleavages. Introduction to rocks and minerals. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. California. Scott Foresman and Company. 4. G. plate tectonics. 3. 4th Ed. Weathering. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. Introduction to sedimentary. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. 1999. Earth as a member of solar system. different earth processes like mountain buildings. nonrepeated linear factors. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. Abraham. J. Chatterjee. 18 . its origin. foliation. L. New Delhi. Thomas. Fossils and their significance. Addission. Pacific Grove. irreducible quadratic factors. and Finney. Smith. Chain rule. lineation and unconformities. composition and its internal structure. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment.B. Analytical Geometry. faults. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. weathering and erosion. erosion and related landforms. R. Jr. 2. Trignometry for College students. 10th Ed. Narosa Publishing House. the processes of their formation..Cramer’s Rule. igneous and metamorphic rocks. Integration: Formulas of integration. Recommended Books: 1. product and quotient rules without derivations). Introduction to folds. earthquakes and volcanoes. theorems on differentiation (sum.Wesley. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. difference. D. age. K. joints. S. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system.. earthquakes. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure .
. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. K.. Biodiversity of deserts. Biodiversity of hilly areas. Biodiversity of canal. examples of adjustments in varied environment. Routledge. Smith. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. 2004. Wicander. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. Lutgens. R. G. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. Geological time chart with biodiversity. E. molecular basis of biodiversity. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. 4. unicellularity. Tarbuck. D. Physical Geology and Process of Science. J. F... protocell formation. Life in sea. 5th Edition. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. Prentice Hall. biodiversity crises. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis.. Prentice Hall: 2006. animals). Lamarckism. R. E. Recommended Books: 1. population loss and decline. invasion of life on land. Foundations of Structural Biology. 9th Edition. and Tasa. different classification systems.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. causes of extinction. 2007 3. How Does Earth Work.. 11th Edition. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . 2007 2. multicellularity. and Pun. 2005. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology.. G. Darwinism.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. 19 . Tarbuck. Field Study tour. 5. interactions among diversified life.. Use of brunton compass and GPS. consequences of losing biodiversity. modern concepts. Earth Science. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. and Tasa. K. A. measuring biodiversity. Lutgens. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time.Identification of rocks and minerals. 3rd Edition. J. F. Brooks/Cole. J. and Monroe.. Park. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. D. Prentice Hall.
Goals and expectations. 2009. Contemporary environmental status. 20 . Inc. UK. Environmental Risks and the Media. UK.. New York: New York University Press. C. IL:WavelandPress. I. Gaston. P. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. Wadsworth Group. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. Perspective of human-environment evolution. Allan & Carter. J. Starr. Conceptualizing environment. John Wiley and Sons. Walnut Creek. power & hegemony. K. Townsend. 2005.. K. 2. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure .K. Biodiversity (An Introduction). Understanding the environment-human relationship. Recommended Books: 1. globalization and environmental issues. R. Bradbury. Use of environment for vested interest. Inc. 3. Tripartite nature of environment. J. The Ecology of global consumer culture. 5th Edition.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. Crumley. The Biosphere. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. 2nd Edition. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. CA: AltaMira Press. and Spicer. 2006. Blackwell Science Ltd. UK. Chronological. Nora and Wilk. 2009. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. Culture. 2000. 2001. (editors). 4. Biology. Consumption. a Human Emphasis. I. Scope and application. and Sustainable Living. (editor). 2003. culture and society. 3. and concerns. Routledge. 2.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. C. Adam. Prospect Heights. Hannen. L. Contemporary environment issues and debate. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. USA. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse.
Introduction to MS-Word. computer programs and basic applications. Configurations. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. G. Local Area Network. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. Ms-Excel. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. 6.6th Ed.. internet. processing hardware.H. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. Hardware: Input Hardware. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. 2. Ms-Power Point. Types and classification of computers.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . Long N. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse.5. software packages. as are their effects on the biosphere. Ed. Rutledge. Storage hardware. Kluwer Academic Publishers. system software.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. Fundamentals of computer. Marquis A. Ms-Access.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment.. 21 . e-mail. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. Long l. Operating system (Windows). Recommended Books: 1. output hardware. K. Courter.Microsoft office 2000. Selin. Software: Application software.1999. 2003.London 1996. Course Outlines Definition. Milton.
K. C. Jones and Barlett. Gaussian plumes in the air. P. Global climate and climatic change. 2008. Samir. Ozone and UV light. Turbulent jets and plumes. Conversion of mass.. trophic level. Nuclear energy. Thomson-Brooks. Environmental Chemistry. Environmental Science.. M. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Turbulent diffusion. USA. Transport of pollutants. A.... Measurement and comparison of the 22 . Solids. T. Ibanez. Solar spectrum. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Fate of pollutants in environment. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics.J. Sound and Noise..Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. Basic acoustics. Blackwell Science.S. Environmental Chemistry. Electromagnetic radiation. Recommended Books: 1. Canada. Fregoso-Infante.. Energy conversion. Ozone chemistry. P.T. Fundamentals of aquatic. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. 2nd Edition. Isotopes and radioactive decay.E. India. its causes and adverse effects on environment.. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. Equations of fluid dynamics. Human perceptions and noise criteria. 2004. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. Springer. 5. Brimblecombe. interaction of light with matter. Liquids and Gasses. DoriaSerrano. 2004. Hernandez-Esparza. and Reid. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. Girard. Miller. 4. their sources and toxic actions. 2. J. Germany. J. Diffusion. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Jickells. J. Energy. Particle physics. Heat radiation and heat transfer. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. Liss. Active control of sound.. photosynthesis.. M..E. G. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. Andrews. 1st Edition. 3.D. B. Chemical reactions. Environmental impact of various industries. UK. Entropy. Turbulence.M. atmospheric and soil chemistry. 2005. Reducing the transmission of sound. 1999. and Singh. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants.G. Banerji Prentice Hall of India.
Recommended Books: 1. USA. S. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change.Economic development. Introductory Environmental Physics. 2006. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. Economic management and environmental quality. Field visit. Sustainable development. USA. M. Environmental economics. N. UK. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. poverty. 2001. producer and community point of view. economic progress. Environmental Physics. World Bank Publications. P. Praxis publishing. 2. Pakistan economic context: National income.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. and Resource allocation. economic growth. Boeker. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. 4. E. Guyot. 3. interaction between ecology and economic management. 2008. Kentucky USA. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. R. S. G. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Seinfeld. and Pandis. 23 . population and environmental quality.1998. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. and Van Grondelle. New York. USA.. USA. concepts and measurement. Man environmental relationship. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. 2001. Producer behavior. 7th Ed. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. Economic functions of environment. Measures for sustainable development. H. Wesely Publishers. Recommended Books: 1. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Economic Development. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. Smith. J. Yusuf. Impact of economic activity on environment. Growth and Environment. Growth and development. Todaro. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. 2008. Routledge. economic welfare and difference among all. C. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. Physics of the Environment and Climate. 2. economic growth and its measurement. Natural resources and the economy.
Shogren. C.A. branches of ecology. temperature. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. 4. Ecosystem and its types. B. Frodeman. Callicott. USA. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . population. LLC. Kessinger Publishing.. community. Environmental philosophy and ethics. WCIV7AA. Russell. M. Introduction to ethical theory. Touchstone Books. description of population. Environmental Critics of agriculture. community and ecosystem. & Pierce. 2002. B. 2009. Palgrave Macmillan. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. Farmington Hills. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. the ethics of soil.. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. Hanley. International Thomson Publishing. 4. water. ethics and ecology.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. D. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. J. DeVeer. R.3.. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. Recommended Books: 1. 2008. species. Natural philosophy. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. and systems ecology. London. its fundamental concepts. 2008. Economics. N. 2. 3. role of light. soil. B. concepts and approaches. levels of ecological organization. A History of Western Philosophy. Portland 1967.. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. 24 . biogeography. Ecology. Swift. and White. England. USA. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. 2007.V. World Bank Publications. J. Course Outlines Introduction.
Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. various concepts of community. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). 2004. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. 1992. Ecology (concepts and applications. Recommended Books 1. community dynamics. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. J. characteristics of urban. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. 2001 5. Lab Work 25 . C. 1999 4. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. C. 2000. students will be able to understand the significance. Ecology (principles and applications). role and application of microorganisms in the environment. productivity of different ecosystems. Cambridge University Press. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. Thomson Brooks/Cole. and Barett.) Moles. B. Biogeochemical cycles of C. Systems ecology. and S. M J. aquatic microbiology. King’s College London.topography and air as ecological factors. UK. Fundamentals of Ecology. landscape changes and their importance. G. M. UK. New Delhi. Odum. biotic factors. Population distribution and abundance. Dash. habitat and niche. Chapman. 2. 5th Ed. Fundamentals of Ecology. landscape ecology. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. population dynamics.W. Microbial metabolism.Cox. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. P. Concepts of Limiting factors. and More. Tata McGraw-Hill. distribution limits. WCB/McGraw-Hill. After completion of this course. New York. 3. Ecosystem: structure and function. J. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. plant geography and animal distribution. Biomes of the world. ecological modeling. N. 6th Ed. Populations. M C J 1st ed. E P. 1st Ed. bacteria and eukarya.L and Reiss.
Dilution plate technique.and Brendecke.J.P. L. Hartel. Recommended Books 1. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel.. Washington DC. American Society for Microbiology.A.. Solid Waste generation. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water..I. 1995. 2005. M. Noise. Peiece.. Crawford. 26 . Pepper.R. Marine & Industrial pollution. Hurrst. 2.W.A.J. Maier. Understanding Environmental Pollution.Gerba. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally.. W. USA.L. Knudsen.K.. (Elsevier) USA. McInernery. F. London. New Jersey.D.V.P. L.P. M. Academic Press.M. Mean plate count. P. 4. C. Soil.L... Case Studies. Environmental Pollution and Control. 3. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. Manual of Environmental Microbiology.G. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution.F. Weiner. and Stetzenbach. Hill. 2nd Edition. Butterworth-Heinemann. Human & other living organisms. J. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents.and Vesilaind. 2 Edition.. Prescott. UK. Fuhrmann. R.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. 2009. D.M. transportation & treatments.B. Effects of Pollutants. Academic Press. Cambridge UK. D. 2005. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). C. 2005. Water. 2007. USA.1998. 2002. 4th Edition. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. Microbiology. USA. 5.A.J.. P.J. 3. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. D.. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic.. G. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. Academic Press.J. and Gerba. J.. and Jeffery. purification and preservation. and Klein. A. its sources and their effects.M. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. isolation. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. USA. peppor. Environmental Microbiology. I.C. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. and Zuberer. Prentice Hall. Harley. J. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. Cambridge University Press. 2.L. Sylvia. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. USA. McGraw Hill Inc. Recommended Books: 1. Collection. R. Pollution Control Strategies.
processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. global circulation. Four Spheres of the Earth.F.. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. Solar radiations. John Wiley and Sons. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. 3. 5.W. A. Shamshad. Sadder. Tarbuck. Surface winds.J. . Factors affecting air Pressure. 1992. 6th Edition. Recommended Books: 1. The Physics of Atmospheres. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere.M. Pandis. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. 2006 5. Environmental psychology. condensation and cloud Formation. Mechanism of heat transfer. The climate of Pakistan. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. 1988. Spyros. 2. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Weather and Climate. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. K. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. 4. air pressure. The Hydrologic cycle. Houghton J. 2003. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology.K. local winds. Austin Miller. Lawrance K.4. N. Cambridge University Press. Royal book company. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics .2nd Editions. climatic zones of Pakistan.. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). Lutgens. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere.E. 2002. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. 27 .. The Atmosphere. Radiation and climate. American Public Health Association (APHA). Karachi. Climatology. Cloud Classification. John H. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. Marcel Dekkar.. Methods of psychology.
Bell. High population density and psychological impacts. Sustainable livestock management practices. soil erosion and conservation.D. techniques and methods of restoration. and Baum A. Eysenck. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. Routledge. Course Outline Introduction.W. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. sustainable agriculture. 5th Edition. CRC Press. 28 . Fundamental of Psychology. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. London. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. soil resources of Pakistan. Water as an ecological resource. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. Water and distribution of species. Recommended Books: 1.characteristics and research methods. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. Fisher J. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. Greene. Sustainable agricultural practices. concepts. Routledge. P. threats and mitigation. species response to pollutants. their management and ecological restoration. M. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. 1992.C. Soil as a natural resource. CRC Press. London. limitation of irrigated agriculture. Background and scope. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change.. solar radiation and primary production. Future water scenario of Pakistan. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. Environmental perception and cognition. T. rivers. Ecology of food production. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. carbon dioxide and global climate change. Environmental Psychology. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher..A. soil salinity and water logging. 2001. Restoration of derelict lands. Ecological restoration. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. energy and carbon balance. Pollution control through Ecology. 2.
1989.A. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. Falk. E. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. Odum E. Zedler. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. Island Press. Blackwell Scientific Publications. water and soil. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. Newman. on human and other living organisms.W. B. USA. Islamabad. Potentiation and Addition.. D. 29 . toxins & toxicants. Margaret A. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. Organs. K. Peshawar. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. Mumtaz. R. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. dose response relationship in living organisms. Fundamentals of Ecology. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. and Hobbs. K and Habib. from natural and anthropogenic sources. Determination of Interaction of chemicals.. Studies in Pakistan Geography. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. 1996. P. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. A. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. Soil Science. and Memon. toxicity screening using microbial systems. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. 5th Edition. in vivo & in vitro assays. Shirkat Gah. Oxford. Rashid. 3. 2004. Lahore. Thomson Brooks/Cole.National Book Foundation. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. Chemical interactions and their types. A. 5. terminologies: Poisons.1998. 2nd ed. toxicology of chemicals. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic.P. 2006. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. Immunological considerations in toxicology.. Determination of chemicals in biological samples.S. 4. J. biological effects. Synergism. their containment and control strategies. G. University of Peshawar. 2000 2. toxins vs toxicants. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. soil and air samples. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. and Barett.. Israr-ud-Din. Pakistan’s Environment.I. J.Recommended Books: 1.
Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. 1993. 1996. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. W. USA. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. CRC Press Llc. (ed. health. education. Hughes. 5th Edition. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. economic aspects of different environmental problems. economic development and the environment. industry. McGrawhill. Macmillan Press Ltd. geography. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. 1st Edition. Course Outlines Introduction to history. Vol. Ecological: ecological zones.. measuring environmental benefits. USA. Course Outlines Introduction. M. Ballantyne. P. the economy and the environment. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. pollution control-a general model. Government of Pakistan. T and Turner.). culture. Williams. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. 3.Science of Poisons . W. B. urbanization and pollution. water resources. 1992. land.D. people.2005 2. 1st Edition. USA.Recommended Books 1. Economic: agriculture. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis.M. international trade and the environment. Klassen. topographic zones. clean development mechanism. State of the Environment-Pakistan . Recommended Books 1.1 & 2. General and Applied Toxicology. 3. 2005 2. major ecosystems. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. Recommended Books: 30 . the economic benefits of different environmental resources. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement.
Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples.K. 2003.C. 4. 2005. Analytical techniques for soil.1. Sample collection.. D.K. Holler. Harris. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. 3. Recommended Books: 1. BOD. Pearce. water and plant analysis. Freeman & Co. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. NO3–N & NH4-N). preparation and storage. 31 . 8th Edition. and F. Sample preservation methods. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. and Batemen. M. CSIRO Publ. Collingwood. 2000. Oxford.2002. Johns Hopkins University Press. Australia. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. West. B. handling. units. D. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater.. Reuter. Standard solutions and standard curves.UK. D. Skoog. K.2004. I. and derived S. Sparrow and D. M. salinity & sodicity). USA. Turner. All Solids. New York. C. 2.L. 1999. Lab Work S.and Field.R. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry.I. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual.A. COD. 3. Peverill. C. Fluoride. Gravimetery. Oxford University Press. Kolstad. Data interpretation for quality control. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. Thomson and Brooks. 6th Edition. A. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. Titrimetery. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. L.W. Titrimetery. 1993..D. Gravimetery.I..J. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory.. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. J. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. Environmental Economics.. D. Conductivitymetry. 2. precision and accuracy. Use of Potentiometery. Field. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Conductivitymetry.
living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. Scragg. Introduction to microbial kinetics. Recommended Books 1. USA.W.E. 5th Ed. Recombinant DNA technology. J. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. students will be able to understand the significance.D. and Josef.. Environmental Biotechnology. 2nd Ed. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques.P. National Biotechnology Commission. 2005. W. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . Bioreactors. Wiley-VCH Verlag. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Biomarkers. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. and application of biotechnology in the environment. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. Biosensor. Chichoster.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. Government of Pakistan. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. 2007. PCR. 3. Oxford University Press. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. 2009. Sambrook. USA. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. (ed. New York. 2005. Cambridge University Press.. and Russel. J. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. USA.). England. New York. A. 4. D.1999. Smith. Tools in environmental biotechnology. J. Isolation. Course Outlines Introduction. After completion of this course. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. Derbre. 2. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. National Biosafety Guidelines. Germany. 2001. Hans- Joachim. purification and preservation of DNA. Biotechnology.
Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). Satellite Imageries. F. Active and Passive remote sensing. Interpretation. 2008. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Jensen. Rancez. John Wiley and Sons. V. A. Z. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. 2000. K and L. John Wiley and Sons. Cartography. Guilfoud press New York. analysis and output. Types of data used in GIS. 5. Data entry and output. Dessinov. History and data collection. Introduction to GIS. Fishery and wildlife. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. Data acquisition. Inc.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. Different types of maps. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. R. Forestry. Image Processing. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. 4. 1999. 2009. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. Campbell. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. history and platforms. Agriculture. eradication of the duplicated data. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Mc Graw Hill Education. 2. Introduction to Photogrammetry. Inc. Lulla. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Pearsons Education. map projection and coordinate systems. Using and reading GPS in field. Harvey. Preparation of thematic maps. Energy Sources. 3. 2000. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. integration of information from many sources. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . Aerial photography. advantages and limitations of process. Inc.
International Organization for Standardization. Course Outlines Introduction. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. social and ethical values of biodiversity. hot spots of biodiversity. principles of Cleaner production.C. Related Environmental legislation. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. need and approach. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. WWF Pakistan. alpha and beta diversity. plant.. 2. Certification of EMS. Systems and Support Techniques. Environment and sustainable development. 34 . and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. ecological.. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. A. Conservation of biodiversity. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS)..3rd Edition . philosophical. American Society for Quality. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. etc. Michigan. Environmental Management Systems Principles. economic.). 2006. 3. M. eco-design. and Yoxon. B. American Society for Quality. 2001. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. types of biodiversity. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. standards and guidelines.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. 1998. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. Environmental Management tools. Sheldon.2nd Ed. cleaner technologies. Environmental Economy. and Qasim. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. Environmental aspects and impacts. Khan. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). F. M. 4. Methods of environmental protection. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. threats to biodiversity. 2005.
chemical addition. 2ndEd. Z. 3. design and types of samples. EIA requirement. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. 2. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. air. field custody. quality control sampling. Conservation of wildlife. Recommended Books: 1. Associates Inc. protected areas. P. P. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. Saad Printers. national and international laws and regulations.D. Quality assurance and quality control. soil and living organisms. 35 . habitats.B. forests. conservation and livelihood. ecotourism. Lahore). Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. Kings College. Mirza. presampling requirements/information. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. water. 2000. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. population. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. London. NOC for plant operation. Course Outlines Introduction. and Morre.B. Rawalpindi. laboratory custody. A Primer for Conservation Biology. Preservation methods including pH control. croplands. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. plants. Legal protection of species. sampling and design purposes. 2000.. Publ. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. Biogeography. C. management. Considerations. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. refrigeration and freezing methods.. international agreements. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment.. cities. community and ecosystem level.R. their categories. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i.conservation at species.B.e. Sinauer. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. quality assessment. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. 1998. Cox. conservation strategies. conservation in man-made ecosystems. Sunderland. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city.
USA. Korte. and Guethner. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change.. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. McKlivie. S. Moisture in the Atmosphere. 2nd Edition. extinctions. I. Keith. USA. 2002. Environmental Chemistry. Remote Sensing Note. regional. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. Lewis Publisher London. Murai. E. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. E. Peakall. Recent Climate Change Indicators. 2. 5. 3. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. chemical. 6. USA. 7. . Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. S. Chapman and Hall. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. R. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. N. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. agriculture. 2008. (ed) Springer. Energy and Temperature. L. 8. The Measurement of Climate Change. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. Human responses to potential climate change.) McGraw-Hill. biological.USA. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. Ozone depletion. D. Manahan. F. 1992. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. altered community structure.1999. UK. Physical. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate.1996.. its causes and effects. 2008. Tokyo. H. human health. Environmental Monitoring Handbook.Recommended Books: 1. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. (eds. Regional droughts and 36 . phenological changes. 2002. 2000. Burden. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. Forstner U. New York. Precipitation. Chuviero. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. Earth Observation of Global Change. D.
T. John Wiley & Sons. and Chadwick. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. Routledge... 37 . Cost and benefits of EIA. 1994. 2. overview. Ministry of Housing and Works. J. Climate Change . Glasson.Causes. J.(ed). policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. and Solutions.. Effects. scoping. 5. Houghton. Effects. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. solids. Blackwell. A. Earthscan Publication Ltd. London.. screening.). impact analysis. 3. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. social impact assessment (SIA). possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized.cataclysmic climate change. Harrop. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. Sringer. decision-making to implement the project. Therivel. Islamabad.A. Main stages in EIA process. review of EIA quality. 2005. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan.. Petts. mitigation and impact management. public involvement. Oxford.O. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. EIA project management. Types & Resources to produce Energy. Hardy. 2003. & Nixon. Islamabad. law. 1986. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. A. 3. J. 2000. National Book Foundation. liquid. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. and Solutions.. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. R. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Global Warming and Climate Change. D. 2. 4. John Wiley & Sons. 2005.. Global Change and the earth system. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment.Causes. Keith. 1999. J. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. London. project implementation and follow up. Recommended Books: 1. 4. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. 6. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. Climate Change . 2005. reporting. Recommended Books: 1. and noise. Hardy. 1st Edition. 2003. 2004.T. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. J. (ed.
B and Warren. national example. Types. USA. Ludwig. 1993. methodologies. R. forest types and its existing management. H. management options.. R. limitation in the future. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. threat and its causes. 6. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia.).5.. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. Sadler. 2002. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. J. threats.. Conservation in Progress. B. management options. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. United Nations Environment Programme. solar power. Evans. and Tu. New York. & McCabe. Goldsmith. 1997. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. 2nd Edition. A. national and provincial legislation. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. Development of Management Plan: needs. existing management approaches. process and contents of the management plan. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area.. their current status and threats.. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. wildlife census. causes and methods for its improvement. Lohani. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. Carpenter. John Willey & Sons. effective management. Asian Development Bank. wind power and nuclear power. their pros and cons. 38 . Rangeland Management: existing status. M. best available option for future. importance. national agriculture policy. F. agriculture chemicals. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. requirement... Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. S. B. (ed. Recommended Books: 1. problem in agriculture. agriculture products and their share in GDP. Everitt.
The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). research methods. Sage CA. USA. 1992. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. 2007. John Wiley & Sons. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. How to put things together? Introduction.E. Case Studies. Selecting the Research Method. Literature Search: Database. P. and Jorqensen. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. Surveys. 5.A pre-requisite for Research. Hansen.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Bibliography. 1990. V.Amsterdam. 1984. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. GOP and IUCN. Review of Literature. Thousand Oaks. J. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. Creswell. Sampling: the logic of sampling. concepts and terminologies. W.F. & Plano Clark. Research Design & Research Methods. Search Engines. Material Methods. Dasmann. 39 . S. population and sampling frames. Review of Literature. Scientific Methods. Methodology. Research Proposal: its importance .2. Environmental Conservation. to introduce students to research design. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. 3. Experimental Research. Scientific Research: Science. London. types of sampling design/. Inference based on findings. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. Questionnaire. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. R. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. 4.E. Elsevier. Interviews. Objectives.L. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison).. New York. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. Islamabad.
2001. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. 2nd Edition. 2. Diamon. Babbie.USA. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. Qadar. 4. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. Government of Pakistan 3. 1997. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. 6. E. USA. 2000. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan.Batty.. John and sons Ltd. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. Sage Publishers.h. 2008. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. R. Students project in Environmental Science. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. of Chicago Press. Survey Research Methods.. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. Chichester. England.2. Wadsworth Publishing Company. 2003. G. 2003. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. M. USA. 5. Moriarty. S. regulations made there under. 3rd Edition. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. Robert Yin. National Conservation Strategy 5. Belmont California. and Arhonditsis.Harrad..S. Law Books House. National Environmental Policy 4.. 3. Marilyn F. 1989. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. Recommended Books: 1. 1997. Booth. Univ.
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45
POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.
Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46
RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,
5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.
Recommended Books: 1. fisheries management. Ahmed. and Malik. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. 2006.Varis. (ed. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). Asia Printer. I. Mirajuddin Publication . Biswas. Khan. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry.. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. Briscoe. A. and Tortajada. N. N. Cheema. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. 2003. tubewells. recycling and re-use of wastewater. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc.). virtual water. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. flood and drought management. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. 4. R.. Mirajuddin Publication .1993.. and Qamar. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. 44 .K.. flood and droughts. P. 2. wetlands resources management. integrated water resources management (IWRM). how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. Ahmed.). R. water quality and quantity aspects. Islamabad. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. 2005.Lahore..E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. groundwater exploitation. with drinking water facilities like springs. Pakistan. Pakistan . climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. Indus Water Accord 1991. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. hydrological cycle. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. 3. Oxford University Press Karachi. Oxford University Press New Delhi. Lahore. Revised & enlarged edition. Bengali. U. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. C. 6. O. 1993. J. Islamabad. water supply and demand management measures. 5. pollution aspects. The Politics of Managing Water. K. A. A.. (eds. watershed/catchment. 2006. SDPI Oxford University Press..
Bashir. 1.W. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. Prentice Hall. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. 1996. NJ. Upper Saddle River. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. R. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. Cation and anion exchange. After completion of this course. and Weil. Miller. urban landscapes characteristics. Physical and chemical properties of soil. National Book Foundation. R. E. future of urban centers.R. 11th Edition. USA. D. urbanization in Pakistan. Soil forming minerals.. NJ. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. urban flora and fauna. 45 . Hillel. USA. hydrological processes. Process and outcome. humans as components of urban ecosystems. Definition. Soils in Our Environment. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. Causes of urbanization. 2007. soils. Course Outlines Introduction. and Bantel. Forms of urbanization. management and green productivity. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. Upper Saddle River. Pakistan. Soil Science. Gardiner. urban settlements.. the salient features of urban environments. transport. Types and properties of parent materials. 2008. Urban ecosystem. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization.C. Brady. R. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. CA. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. San Diego. Factors and processes of soil formation. Academic Press. 2007. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes.T. N. Islamabad. Urbanization. D. PrenticeHall. Course Outlines Introduction. USA. urban political ecology. Soil degradation.
S. Smith.L. Planning theories and concepts. Gilbert. Justification for planning for city management.. 46 . The Works: Anatomy of a City. S. Kate. Hejny.. SBS academic publishing. 2. 3. 2004. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. UK. London. 2007. 4. S. Ward. UR. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. Recommended Books: 1. USA. M. City Design for Sustainable Development. nature and purpose of urban planning. Routledge. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. D. 2009. New trends in planning and city management. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. 1. I. Scope. Chapman and Hall. Sukopp.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. C. CRC Press LLC. Aims and Objectives of planning. J. Principles of planning. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. Land use planning theories. nd 2 Edition.. V. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. UK. Alberti. New York. 2000. M... 1989. Penguin Group. Hough. The planning process. Silberstein. 5. Planning and its relationship with other professions. SAGE Publications Ltd. UK. USA. Types of Urban Plans. Routledge. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans.and Kowaril. Springer. H. Hague. A.and Maser.1990. O. Elements of urban planning. Levels of planning. 2004. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. 2. London. 2006. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. Planning and Urban Change. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels.
W. M. 1993. UK. E&UA Div. R. Earthquake.J. Political factors. 1991. D.F. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Socio-economic factors.. 1989. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. The Environment as Hazard Burton I.3. Earthquake Management. The Guilford Press. Chapman & Hall. Cultural factors. Role of Media in Disaster Management. 1993. Boulder . Recommended Books: 1. Longman Group. Paris. Prediction. and Woodrow. Government of Pakistan. Physical factors. Clara. H.e. New York.. Disaster Management: Components of management.. 4. G. International phenomenon. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs).. Ministry of Housing and Works. ADB. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. Islamabad... Flood Management: Organizational Role. 2. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. Manila. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. i. Kates.W. Hazards. 47 . Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. Landslide. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. 1986. P. Introducing Town Planning. 4. Natural Disasters Alexander. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies.UNESCO.B. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. Westview Press. It discusses a wide range of aspects. and White G. Flooding. 2nd Edition. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. 1993.. Disaster as an opportunity for development. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson.. Natural cycles and their role. 3. New York. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. Different approaches and Indicators. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies.
types. decomposers. Botkin. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. 6th Edition. 4th Edition. 2007. 6. Westport. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. 2001. 1984. hydropower.. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources.A.H. and Yonavjak. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. Agroecology. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. L. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. New York. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. local. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. energy resources of Pakistan. A. consumers. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. 2007. solar. uses. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. Consumer and producer relationship. USA. R. 1. merits and demerits of wind. Biotic structure.5.B and Keller. F. biomass resources. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. Perry R. 48 . primary producers. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. OECD/IEA.. alternate energy resources. energy resources. 3. McKinney. sustainable energy management. M. Quorum Books.M. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Sustainable livestock management. Paris. Disasters and Development Cuny. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. and Mushkatel.. Schoch. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. 1983. E. Ecological concept in crop and food production. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem.C.L. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. D. 2.W. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. John Wiley and Sons. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem.
India. 1990. McGraw Hill Publishing Company.Determination of density and abundance of plant species.A.P.. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity.R. C.H. Westview Press. Recommended Books: 1. and Rossel. R. USA. USA. Agrocology. Study of stratification and profile diagram.G. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. Boulder. 3. P. New Delhi. and Sudha. CBS Publishers and Distributors. 2.M. Study of index of diversity. Yandermeer J. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. E-11 Seminar 49 . Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. 2000. 1995. M. Corol. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. Experimental Plant Ecology. Altreri. New York. Kapur.
The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. 4.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. 50 . that: 1. 3. availability of the faculty and other facilities. 2. 5. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. the Committee agreed on the following principles.
7. 19. 9. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 10. 2. 21. 11. 12. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 20. 15. 8. 9. 25. 3. 14. 26. 10. 6. 18. 11. 22. 6. 8. 2. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 13. 3. 5. 23. 12. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 4. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 17. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 5. 4.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 7. 16. 24.
D. Mackenzie J. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Relationship of culture. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences.1995.T. London Black Stone Press Ltd. Karachi. Conventions and Protocols in Global. Hodder and Stoughton..1991. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change.1994. 2.A. and Jorqensen. Amsterdam. Environmental control Policies. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. Regional and International Environmental Issues. NCS. Ball. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. Money. 52 . Khan K. 1992.E. Carrying capacity and sustainable development.S. 3. FURTHER READINGS 1..DETAILS OF M. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan.. 1991. S.F. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. Provincial and Local Strategies. Conservation Strategies. Environment People and Economy. WCS. and Bell. 1987. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. Oxford University Press. P. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. technology and resource use. Hansen. development of concepts. 2nd Edition. Elsevier. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. London. S. Treaties. S. Draft National Environmental Policy. status of Terrestrial. Oxford University Press. Islamabad. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS).1994. Recommended Books: 1. GOP and IUCN. F. Instruments and methods.. Mackenzie. Geography of Pakistan. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. 2. 4.E.. 3.
1995. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). DC. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. procedures and methods of EIA. process.. Washington. Environment Department. economic impact assessment. opportunities and issues. Harlow Essex. Gas Chromatography etc. Government of Pakistan. Recommended Books: 1. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. D.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. C. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. 1993. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. Ministry of Environment. WB. Environmental Chemical Analysis. role and importance. World Bank. UK. sample collection and preservation. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. John Wiley & Sons. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update.A. 3. Assessment of environmental impacts. Environmental auditing. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. sampling rules. ed. Burnt Hill. 53 . Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). Longman Scientific and Technical. A one Publishers Lahore. England. Recommended Books: 1. Case Studies and review. FURTHER READINGS 1. Ahmed. social impact assessment. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. Cost benefit analysis of projects. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. 2. Demographic impact assessment. Ed. A. 1995. History. Air and Solid Waste. Wastewater. Principles of physical. Environmental and Social Impact assessment.Vanclay. K. 2. Longman House. ecological impact assessment. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Wood. F & Bronstein. Chichester.
3. T. T. activities. UK. M/S Banarsid. John Wiley and Sons. inputs. Reasons for Project success or failure. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). MS Project Recommended Books: 1. specific objectives.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. prevention and control. K. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. Need identification. A. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. and Guidotti. Nebel. Project Life Cycle. J. indicators.. M. Government Policies and Programs. USA.. Mantel s. Planning Commission Performas. 1st Ed. Accident prevention and safety plans. Project Initiation. New York. means of verification. Prentice Hall International Inc.. Occupational Health: problems and issues.. Public health concept. Project Planning. Oxford University Press New York. air borne. 2002. de Kok. T. 5. 1992. Environmental Health Engineering. 54 . Basic Environmental Health. R. and Wright. A Guide to Project Management. Caeneross. London. 2nd Ed. Writing Project Proposal. Kjelllström. USA. 2. Primary health care services. 4. 1993. Ergonomic and Safety. Resource Mobilization. L. safety techniques. Project Management Institute. principles and practices. feasibility study. economic evaluation. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). Project Planning and Approval Processes. assumptions. Recommended Books: 1. Wiley Interscience. development objectives. 1998. T. B. 1st Ed. 2. R. outputs... food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. Defining Project objectives. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. S. Meredith J. 2001.. work breakdown structure. Yassi. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. 1st ed. Park.. Lippmann. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic.2000. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. J. Project Management: A Managerial Approach.. 1997. Inc. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems.
gas. 2001. solar.M. Switzerland. R. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet.A.B and Keller. St Luise Press. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. principles and elements of the process of EMS. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. 3. 3. merits and demerits of wind. Related Environmental regulations. non-renewable and renewable. ISO Central Secretariat. 1998. 4. Principles of cleaner production. Environmental auditing. 4th Edition. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. McKinney. 2007. Michigan-January 2001. D. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. Paris. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. industry and domestic sectors. transport. 2. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment).. sustainable energy management for agriculture. D. E. alternate energy resources.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. 1990b. Sayre.L. Paris. M. data collection and interpretation. Environmental Auditing. Recommended Books: 1. Recommended Books: 1. L. and Yonavjak. Sources of data. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. hydropower. 55 . OECD/IEA. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. 2. petroleum. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. nuclear) local. types. energy resources of Pakistan. bio-energy resources. energy resources. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. USA. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Botkin. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. uses. 2007. Schoch. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. 6th Edition. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. John Wiley and Sons.
2004. types and their climatic effects. E & Muller-Hohenstein. Hardy. Green House Gases. etc. & Charlesworth. forests. global aspects of plant ecology. John Wiley & Sons.D. Springer. ED. survival and extinction. 5. Climate Change and Ecosystems. 2005. 2005. competition and coexistence. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. Climate Change . plant invasions. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Blackwell Publishing. 4. types of climate change models. J. John Wiley & Sons. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Earthscan Publication Ltd. human activities and vegetation dynamics. ECOPE 29.. geographical and temporal patterns. and Solutions. Oxford UK. UK 1991. K. Plant population dynamics. Climate Change . 2005. Effects. Climate change and food production. Oxford. Species richness. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. management and restoration. Beck. Warrick. Life history strategies of plants. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. 2005. Recommended Books: 1. Blackwell Publishing.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. Maarel. 3. Berlin.Causes. E. UK.T. Houghton. T. water resources. 3. Hardy. 2. 56 . John Wiley & Sons. Silvertown. Shulze. Chichester.Causes. 2003. Vegetation Ecology Ed. plant conservation. D. 1st Edition. 1.. (Ed. Plant Ecology. J.). Recommended Books: 1. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. and Solutions. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The Green House Effect. resources and plants. Modeling of climate change. Effects. vegetation dynamics. London. B & Jager. 2. 2003. J. D.
Robinson. Roberts. distribution and management. Principles of Wildlife Management. their types and role in conservation. problems and solutions. habitats and ecosystems. Threatened animals and plants. T.J. threats and conservation. London. 57 . Protected areas. Oxford. B. UK. I). types. & Ripley.G. 1986. kinds. management. Forest plantations. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. Primack. Recommended Books: 1. Conserving Living Natural Resources. status. Blackwell Publsihing. 1973 2. USA. deforestation and its control. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol.J. 1984. K.(2nd Ed. II). Oxford University Press. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. 1998. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. E. Consumptive. their ecological and economic importance. Protected areas in Pakistan. And Bolen.J. Loss of biodiversity. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. Establishment and management of protected areas. Cambridge University Press.J. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. types. UK. their importance. Rangeland management. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. Global and national biodiversity. R. distribution. its causes. 2002. Extinction of species. 5. Oxford. Weddell. Protection and restoration of species. Forests.D. W. Cambridge. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. Inc. Oxford University Press. Sinauer Assocaites. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. 2004. Mcmillan. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. J. Sustainable forest management. Participatory forest management.L. John Wiley And Sons.) Gaston. distribution. J. Wildlife of Pakistan. Publishers Sunderland. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. Recommended Books: 1. Bailey. Cambridge. T.B. Essentials of Conservation Biology. S. & Spicer. Biodiversity: An introduction. 4.A. 3. 3. 2. Status of forests in Pakistan. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. Oxford University Press. 2002. S. biological diversity. 1992. Wetlands. Oxford. Roberts. Wildlife Ecology and Management.
. G. Ward. SAGE Publications Ltd. Planning and Urban Change. Islamabad.and Maser.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction.. Clara. H. 2000. management of transport. urban systems and their characteristics. Recommended Books: 1. urban landscape characteristics. A. Kate. 3. 58 .. 2007. Longman Group. urbanization in Pakistan. 4. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. sanitation. Urban land use planning and management. J. 2. C. Penguin Group. drinking water and solid waste in cities. E&UA Div. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Ministry of Housing and Works. urban political ecology. USA. Sustainable cities. Forms of urbanization. 1986. Environmental problems of urban life. Silberstein. CRC Press LLC. 1993. V. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. USA. Introducing Town Planning. S. New York.. UK. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Government of Pakistan. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. UK. 2004. future of urban centers. London.
Annexure . active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. ISBN 0194313492 59 . Exercises 1. Martinet. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. Thomson and A. Practical English Grammar by A.V. a) Functional English Grammar 1. Third edition. Oxford University Press. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. 1997.J.
Oxford Supplementary Skills. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Reading. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis.J. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. intensive and extensive. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Third Impression 1992. Fourth Impression 1993. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. minutes of meetings. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Third edition. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Upper Intermediate.V. Thomson and A. Writing. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. 1997. Reading/Comprehension 1. b) Practical English Grammar by A. Martinet. Exercises 2.2. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. and speed reading.
Oxford Supplementary Skills. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. language. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Writing. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3.1. discursive. 2. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Advanced. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Third Impression 1992. introduction to presentations. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. Advanced by Ron White. Writing. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Martinet. Thomson and A. form. narrative. Practical English Grammar by A. descriptive and argumentative writing). Fourth Impression 1992. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Writing. Fourth Impression 1993. b) Writing 1.V. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. clarity. 2. Third Impression 1991. Oxford University Press 1986. Third edition. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Reading. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. content. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Exercises 2.J. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . Reading 1. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking).
College Writing Skills by John Langan. 2. St. Kathleen Shine Cain. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. Mandell. 62 . Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. without taxing the taste of engineering students). Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. Compiled by norther Illinois University. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature.(particularly suitable for discursive. Kirszner and Stephen R. argumentative and report writing). General Editiors: Janice Neulib. A Custom Publication. Martin’s Press. 2004. 3. descriptive. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton.
b. politics. People and Land i. 2. State & Society in Pakistan. 4. national development. Ethnicity d.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. 2000. Shahid Javed. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. 1971-77 d. 3. 1958-71 c. Historical Perspective a. Lahore. 63 Books Recommended 1. S. contemporary Pakistan.Annexure . Contemporary Pakistan a. Mehmood. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Akbar. . Burke and Lawrence Ziring. government. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. Indus Civilization ii. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. 1994. Economic institutions and issues b. Location and geo-physical features. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. Study the process of governance. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. 1993. 1977-88 e. 1988-99 f. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. Zaidi. S. Course Outline 1. Karachi: Oxford University Press.M. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. Muslim advent iii. 1999 onward 3. 1947-58 b. Karachi: Oxford University Press. ideological background of Pakistan. Safdar. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Society and social structure c. 2.
1987. 1972.. 6. Lahore: Vanguard. 1976. Zahid. Lawrence. 7. Institute of Public Policy Research. 8. 64 . The Political System of Pakistan. 1980.National Movement in Pakistan. Party. Islamabad. I. Sayeed. Club Road. Ethno . nd. M. 10. Ziring. 11. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Muhammad Waseem. 12. K. History & Culture of Sindh. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Rafique. Wilcox. Pakistan Kayyun Toota.K. 9. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. 1993. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. Politics in Pakistan. Aziz. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. Wayne. Enigma of Political Development. II & III. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. Political Parties in Pakistan. 1967. Safdar. 1998. Washington: American Enterprise. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. 1980.5.The Emergence of Banglades. 13. Pakistan Under Martial Law. Amin. Tahir. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. 14. Mehmood. Haq. Noor ul. Ansar. Khalid Bin. Afzal. Vol.
) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.40.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.20) Related to thinking.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.126.96.36.199.A. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .Tadabar (Verse No1.A.58.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.Annexure .A.A.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.57.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.
in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.
“Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University.S. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. Islamabad (2001) 67 . Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. Ahmad Hasan.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. IRI. International Islamic University. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. Bhatia. “Emergence of Islam” . “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. Pakistan. “Studies in Islamic Law.
Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. Boston Swokowski EW. types of functions. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. introduction to sets. functions. types. system of linear equations. Sharron S. Matrices: Introduction to matrices.Annexure . PWS-Kent Company. harmonic progression. Beckenback EF. Wooton W. College Algebra and Trigonometry.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. determinants. PWS-Kent Company. set operations. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. Cramer’s rule. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. cube roots of unity. Boston 68 . Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. trigonometric identities. geometric progression. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. not majoring in mathematics. matrix inverse. 1986. equations reducible to quadratic equations. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. 1978. Houghton & Mifflin. complex numbers. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). 1987. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations.
continuous functions. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. differentiation of polynomial. Calculus (3rd edition). Davis S. 69 . Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). not majoring in mathematics. inequalities. John Wiley. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. 1983. Calculus (11th edition). integration by substitution. left-hand and right-hand limits. functions and their graphs. 2005. rational and transcendental functions. 1995. distance between two points. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. Bevens I. 2005. distance between a point and a line. Boston Thomas GB. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. various forms of equation of a line. Addison-Wesley. Recommended Books: Anton H. Reading. New York Stewart J. slope of a line. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Ma.2. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. change of variables in indefinite integrals. intersection of two lines. derivatives. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. PWS-Kent Company. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. solution of equations involving absolute values. equation of a line. angle between two lines. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. integration by parts. not majoring in mathematics. Finney AR. USA 3. continuity. parallel and perpendicular lines.
1986. Scott. types of functions. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. functions. Analytic Geometry. Conic Sections: Parabola. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. 1987. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. types of matrices. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. PWS-Kent Company. Boston 4. 70 . hyperbola. ellipse. set operations. PWS-Kent Company. system of linear equations. equations reducible to quadratic equations. Introduction to sets. Boston Swokowski EW. intersection of lines and circles.Circle: Equation of a circle. Cramer’s rule. locus of a point in various conditions. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. determinants. • Contents 1. inverse of matrices. circles determined by various conditions. nature of roots of quadratic equations. 1969 Kaufmann JE. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). Freshman and Company. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination.
bar frequency diagram histogram. tally sheet method. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. moments. W. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. characteristics of statistics. Wilcox. 2. J. array. R. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. Prentice Hall. PWS-Kent Company. variance. relationship of statistics with social science. Walpole... ungrouped and grouped data. inter quartile deviation mean deviation.geometric and harmonic progressions. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. frequency polygon. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. 3.. Boston. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. 5. Latest Edition. circle and trigonometric functions. Measures of dispersion: Range. cumulative frequency curve. 4. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines.. Latest Edition. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. skewness and kurtosis. R. Swokowski. E. 71 . E. Kaufmann. Latest Edition. Graphs: Graph of straight line. standard deviation. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. types of frequency series. individual. deciles and percentiles. trigonometric identities. quartiles. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. Books Recommended: 1. discrete and continuous series. E. R. 2. ‘Introduction of Statistics’.
Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. Anton. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. Integration by Parts. logarithmic differentiation. I. John Wiley & Sons. Frank A. Thomas. Swokowski. Contents 1. • Integration Integration from first principles. integration by inspection. W. Gleason. Bevens. Calculus. integration by parts. Calculus Single and Multivariable. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. Hughes-Hallett. Least-Squares Line. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. 2002. Rational Functions. John H. 3rd Edition.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. integral inequalities. 1999. 4. Rational and Transcendental Functions. Inc. 6. 1983.Jr. reduction formulae. sinusoidal function. Prentice-Hall. Trigonometric Functions. Extreme Values of Functions. special points of a function. Mathews. 6. McCallum. 8th edition. 4th edition. the chain rule. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. S. infinite and improper integrals. and Transcendental Functions. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . Recommended Books: 1. et al. Continuous Functions. 5. 11th Edition. E. Continuity. Solution of equations involving absolute values. 2. substitution method. Inc. 2005. Jhon Willey & Sons. integration using partial fractions. 2005. 2. Addison Wesley publishing company. Calculus. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. quotients. the inverse of differentiation. plane polar coordinates. Second Edition 1992. Elliott Mendelson. theorems of differentiation. 3. H. Inequalities. applications of integration. Davis. Slope of a Line. Calculus. Leibnitz’ theorem. Boston. Schaum’s Outline Series. implicit differentiation. logarithmic integration. products. Equation of a Line.
solving hyperbolic equations. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. multiplication. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. inverses of hyperbolic functions. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. approximation errors in Taylor series. complex conjugate. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . series involving natural numbers. arithmetico-geometric series. identities of hyperbolic functions. finding the nth roots of unity. the difference method. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series.Additions and subtraction. geometric series. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. modulus and argument.
Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. of a unitary matrix. scalar triple product. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. moments of inertia.5. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. centers of mass and centroids. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. masses. the inner product. orthogonal. line to line. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. vector product. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. Pappus’ theorems. symmetric and antisymmetric. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . point to plane. 6. Hermitian.
combinations of grad. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. spherical polar coordinates 75 . div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates.8. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. divergence of a vector field.
Diagrams. Median and mode. Population. Editing of Data. Graphs and their Construction. Pie chart. Ogive for Discrete Variable.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. The semi-Interquartile Range. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Box and Whisker Plot. Moments and Moments ratios. Unit 7. probability and non-probability sampling. Statistical problem. Unit 5. Stem and Leaf Display. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Bar charts. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Unit 2. Exercises. Exercises. sampling with and without replacement. null and alternative hypothesis. Absolute and relative measures. bias. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. The Variance and standard deviation. Empirical Relation between Mean. Exercises. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. acceptance and rejection regions. Exercises. level of significance. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. The Mean Deviation.Annexure . Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Histogram. Observations. Discrete and continuous variables. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Coefficient of variation. Exercises. Unit 3. definition of outliers and their detection. Constructing of a frequency distribution. The Mode. Exercises. Collection of primary and secondary data. Data. properties of Good Average. Unit 4. Type-I and Type-II errors. Test statistics. Rounding of a Number. Presentation of Data Introduction. Different types of Averages. Exercises Unit 6. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Types of frequency curves. Range. Probability and Probability Distributions. Sources. Errors of measurement. Standardized variables. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. sampling and non sampling errors. Historigram. Change of origin and scale. Difference of means and proportions. sample design and sampling frame. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Significant digits. 76 . Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Quantiles.
3rd Ed. Macmillan Publishing Co. “Introduction to Statistics”.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. Contingency Tables. r and R2. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. Kitab Markaz. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. Exercises Unit 9. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. Testing of Hypothesis. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. E. Coefficient of linear correlation. Inc. R. F. Exercises. 2005. examples. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. cause and effect relationships. Exercises Unit 10. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. Unit 11.Single Population Introduction. 2 Muhammad. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. 77 .. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. 1982. New York. Regression and Correlation Introduction. Correlation. simple linear regression. its estimation and interpretation. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies..Unit 8.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.