CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
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2007 at HEC Regional Center. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. the Federal Government vide notification No.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. degree awarding institutions.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. Lahore. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. The world has turned into a global village. and 36. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees.). For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. R&D organizations. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities.ALTAF ALI G. PROF. therefore. D773/76-JEA (cur. universities and other institutions of higher education. 63. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. DR. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. dated December 4th 1976. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. It is. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. It also aimed to give a basic.

OF CURRI. R&D. OF FINAL CURRI. PREP. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. EXP.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. Preparation 5 . National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. COL. UNI. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. OF NCRC. REC. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP.

Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Rawalpindi Dr. Dr. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. 7. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Dr. Member 5. Member 6 . Dr. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Lahore Member 6. Following attended the meeting:1. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Member 4. Karachi from 28-30.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Member 3. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Rawalpindi Dr.

Karachi Member 12. Member 10. Dr. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi.8. Member 14. Dr. Dr. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Dr. Prof. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. 13. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Prof. Member 15. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Member 11. 7 . Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Dr. Member 16. Dr. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof.

Secretary Dr. Mr. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Director of HEC Regional Center. Karachi. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. Dr. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them.17. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. Faisalabad Member 18. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. 2. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. 8 . Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. Chairman. Member 19. The meeting was opened by Mr. 1. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Mr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. At first. Dr. Member 20. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively.

climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. 6. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. 3. 4. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. 1. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. In last few centuries. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. The committee thanked Mr. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . 5. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. 2. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development.3. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution.

5. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. Apply theoretical understanding. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. This committee. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. skills and behaviour patterns. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. ii. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. in its preliminary meeting. regional and global contexts.

The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. 4. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. that: 1. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. Integrating natural sciences. The medium of instruction. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. 6. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. 3. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. eight semesters in the semester system. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. 1. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature.e. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. 5. 2. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles.. with consensus. Sc. A. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. The 11 . as guiding principles for the development of the programmes.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft.

English-III 18. Introductory Economics* 17. Environmental Chemistry 15. Introduction to Earth Science 8.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Biology –I* 3. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Introduction to Computer 14. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Climatology* 23. Environmental Pollution 22. Biology –II* 9. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Environmental Physics 16. English-I 6. English-II 12. Environmental Microbiology 21. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Basic Chemistry* 4. Psychology* . The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19.

Climate Change 38. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. Opt. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . GIS & Remote Sensing 33.24. Natural Resource Management 40. 46. Environmental Monitoring 36. Applied Ecology 26. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. English-IV/ Univ. Environmental Biotechnology 32. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Environmental Management Systems 34. Environmental toxicology 27. ELECTIVE-III 42. 45. Environmental Economics 29. 44. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41.

• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .

Pearson Educational. ecological. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. E. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . 4. McKinney.B & Keller. urbanization. 6th Ed. national. 15 . biological and social. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts.M. L. R.. 2007 3. Recommended Books: 1. R. 4th Ed.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. proteins and nucleic acids. 2. development in industry and agriculture. socio-economic.A. Schoch. philosophical. Different aspects of environment: physical. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. G. 10th Ed. Thomson Learning. M. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. regional. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. Human environment and its problems: global. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. poverty and resource depletion. lipids. current global. John Wiley & Sons. Environmental Science: working with the Earth.T..L. ethical. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. B. D. Miller. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Botkin. its importance in human life. 2007. 2002. Wright. 2007.J. history. & Yonavjak. and their relationships with various environmental factors. & Nebel.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. environmental pollution.

McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. polypeptides in protein diversity. E. USA. A. 2007. esters. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. 5th Edetion.. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. 8th Ed.. 5. carbohydrates. Cassimeris. J. Aromatic compounds. Shier. covalent. Structure and the basis of function. lipids. Wadsworth Group. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. Ltd. proteins. chemical diversity. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. coordinate covalent bond. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. Molecular Biology through Questions.. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. phospholipids in membrane systems. Canada. 2007. V..Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. Bulter. 2008. Lingappa. D. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. Introduction to cell biology. Starr. N. Australia . Origin of life: chemical evolution. 3. 4. 2. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. B. R. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell.Hill International Edition. carbonyls. protobionts. 16 . 1. Plopper. the molecule of genetic information and replication. USA. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. 2003. and Whitelaw. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin.. L. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. lipids. carboxylic acids. Cell division. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. and Lewis. 1996. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. Nucleic acids. G. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. Cells. McGraw. C. amines). Biology: a Human Emphasis. M. USA. Self Assessment and Revie. origin of metabolism. Ionic. Crossley. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. R. chemical basis of life. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. Lewis. New York.

. 8th Edition. USA.S. Jones and Barlett. Measurement of pH. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). Colloids chemistry. graphs. W. Canada.. Photochemical reactions. Surface chemistry. D. Algebra of matrices.M. normal solutions/buffers.E. B. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. 1st Ed. Jickells. minor and cofactor of a matrix. law of Cosines. EC and TDS in waste water. 2004. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences.K.ions. M. Cambridge University Press. Osmosis and Dialysis. 2003. 6th Edition. geometric and harmonic sequence. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field.J. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. J. 2nd Edition. Solution chemistry. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. West. T. F. real line. 17 . They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. Freeman and Company. Andrews. 5..H. Girard. 2005.. USA. values of trigonometric functions. P.D. simultaneous equations and their solutions. Thomson and Brooks. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. and Holler. expansion of determinants. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. 4. P. Skoog. equations of lines (linear equations).. angle-sum formula. Liss. Lab Work Preparation of molar. Brimblecombe. 2004. determinants. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Thin layer chromatography. UK. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). Principles of Environmental Chemistry.J. and Reid. 3. 2004.. Hill.. molal. 2nd Edition. Blackwell Science. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions.A. Binomial theorem (Simple applications).C. D. Column chromatography.Special Products (Binomial Expression). 2.. D. radicals. J. double angle formulas. straight line and related concepts. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. series and means. Recommended Books: 1..E. Understanding Environmental Pollution. UK. Harris. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry.

foliation. faults. Introduction to sedimentary. its origin. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. J. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. igneous and metamorphic rocks. theorems on differentiation (sum. Integration: Formulas of integration. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. mountain building. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . 3. D. Chatterjee.Cramer’s Rule. Recommended Books: 1. Pacific Grove. earthquakes and volcanoes. composition and its internal structure. Analytical Geometry. 2. Smith. nonrepeated linear factors. age.Wesley. cleavages. Weathering. Addission. irreducible quadratic factors. S. Thomas. 10th Ed. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. California. lineation and unconformities. Introduction to rocks and minerals.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . joints. 4th Ed. different earth processes like mountain buildings. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. R. 4. New Delhi. product and quotient rules without derivations). theorem of integration. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions.B. difference. L. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. and Finney. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. Scott Foresman and Company. G. 18 . Narosa Publishing House. the processes of their formation. earthquakes. plate tectonics. K.. by parts integration (simple applications). 1999. erosion and related landforms. Chain rule. Abraham. Fossils and their significance..B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. Introduction to folds. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. Jr. Trignometry for College students. weathering and erosion. Earth as a member of solar system.

J. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water.. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. Prentice Hall. 11th Edition. Earth Science. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. F. measuring biodiversity. Physical Geology and Process of Science. and Tasa. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. F. Life in sea. Lutgens. consequences of losing biodiversity. Biodiversity of hilly areas. invasion of life on land. 2004.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. population loss and decline. Use of brunton compass and GPS. Geological time chart with biodiversity. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. examples of adjustments in varied environment. animals). interactions among diversified life. Smith. 4. Prentice Hall.. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. Lutgens. biodiversity crises. Recommended Books: 1. G. Routledge. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. Field Study tour. E. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. R. 19 . and Tasa. D. K. Darwinism.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. J. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . 2005. Wicander. J. protocell formation. Tarbuck. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. 5th Edition. 2007 3. Tarbuck. Park. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. R. Biodiversity of canal. multicellularity. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. Foundations of Structural Biology. and Pun. G. causes of extinction. Prentice Hall: 2006. and Monroe.. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. A. How Does Earth Work.. Brooks/Cole. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. different classification systems. K. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. Lamarckism.. 3rd Edition.. 2007 2. 9th Edition. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life... Biodiversity of deserts. D. molecular basis of biodiversity. E. unicellularity.Identification of rocks and minerals. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. 5. modern concepts.. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat.

Perspective of human-environment evolution. IL:WavelandPress. 2009. Bradbury. Hannen. R. 2. USA. Biology. 20 . K. Chronological. 2005.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. UK. K.. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. 5th Edition. Understanding the environment-human relationship. UK. Consumption. Goals and expectations. Culture. Gaston. The Ecology of global consumer culture. Inc. Blackwell Science Ltd. C. 3. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . I. (editor). Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. Scope and application. Routledge.. I. J. and Sustainable Living. L. Tripartite nature of environment. globalization and environmental issues. 4. 2nd Edition. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. power & hegemony. UK. (editors). Allan & Carter. Wadsworth Group. John Wiley and Sons. 2001. Adam. Contemporary environment issues and debate. 2006. Biodiversity (An Introduction). Walnut Creek. 2000. P. New York: New York University Press. and Spicer. Crumley.K. Nora and Wilk. Conceptualizing environment. 3. Townsend. C. a Human Emphasis. Recommended Books: 1. CA: AltaMira Press.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. Starr. J. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. Inc. 2003. culture and society. 2. The Biosphere. Contemporary environmental status. Use of environment for vested interest. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. Prospect Heights. and concerns. Environmental Risks and the Media. 2009.

Rutledge. Introduction to MS-Word.6th Ed. K. Local Area Network. Ms-Excel. Courter. G. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 2003. as are their effects on the biosphere. Fundamentals of computer. system software. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. Marquis A. internet. processing hardware.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. Recommended Books: 1. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse..A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. Course Outlines Definition. Operating system (Windows).Microsoft office 2000. Long l. Ms-Power Point. output hardware.. 6. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure .C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. Types and classification of computers. Software: Application software. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. 2. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. 21 .H. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. Hardware: Input Hardware. software packages. Ed. Long N. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. Configurations. Selin. computer programs and basic applications. Milton. e-mail.1999. Storage hardware.5.London 1996. Ms-Access.

Springer. 2nd Edition. USA. DoriaSerrano. 2005.J. Sound and Noise. Ibanez. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Reducing the transmission of sound. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . G.D. B. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light.. 1999. Girard. Environmental impact of various industries. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. Brimblecombe.T. Isotopes and radioactive decay. Solids. Transport of pollutants.. Environmental Science. Ozone chemistry. Energy conversion. 2004. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. Canada. K. 1st Edition.. Basic acoustics. Turbulence. Diffusion. Conversion of mass. Active control of sound. trophic level. Energy. A. Electromagnetic radiation. atmospheric and soil chemistry. 2008. UK. and Reid. J. Thomson-Brooks.. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. Fate of pollutants in environment. photosynthesis.E. 4. Environmental Chemistry.. Liquids and Gasses. Principles of Environmental Chemistry.M. Germany. 5. Jones and Barlett. Global climate and climatic change. Samir. 2004. Solar spectrum. 3.. Ozone and UV light. and Singh. J. India. Fundamentals of aquatic.. Liss. Human perceptions and noise criteria. Particle physics. C. Banerji Prentice Hall of India.S. Heat radiation and heat transfer. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. Fregoso-Infante.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. its causes and adverse effects on environment. Environmental Chemistry. T.. Miller. Blackwell Science. their sources and toxic actions. Gaussian plumes in the air. Nuclear energy. 2. Jickells. Chemical reactions. Turbulent diffusion..E. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics.. J. P. Andrews. Hernandez-Esparza. Equations of fluid dynamics. Turbulent jets and plumes. P. interaction of light with matter.. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. M. Entropy. Recommended Books: 1. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer.G. M.

Praxis publishing.. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. C. Guyot. S. Man environmental relationship. economic progress. S. Kentucky USA. Economic management and environmental quality. Impact of economic activity on environment. Todaro. Environmental Physics. USA. 4. 23 . Yusuf. Natural resources and the economy. economic growth. population and environmental quality. J. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. R. and Resource allocation. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. Smith. interaction between ecology and economic management. Economic Development. G. World Bank Publications. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. Growth and development. producer and community point of view. Boeker. USA. 2001. Environmental economics. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. Sustainable development. 2006. New York. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. 2008. and Pandis. John Wiley and Sons Inc. 2008. Measures for sustainable development. 3. Introductory Environmental Physics. Pakistan economic context: National income. E. Recommended Books: 1. poverty. concepts and measurement. Wesely Publishers. economic welfare and difference among all. 2. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. 2. Routledge. USA. Producer behavior. UK. and Van Grondelle. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. M. 2001. H.Economic development. Recommended Books: 1. Economic functions of environment. 7th Ed. USA.1998. economic growth and its measurement. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. Field visit. Seinfeld. N. John Wiley and Sons Inc. P.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. Physics of the Environment and Climate. Growth and Environment.

Farmington Hills. Introduction to ethical theory. and systems ecology. DeVeer. Environmental philosophy and ethics. concepts and approaches. J. Environmental Critics of agriculture. water. Callicott. the ethics of soil. LLC. International Thomson Publishing. biogeography. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. World Bank Publications. 24 . community. Frodeman. and White. 2008. ethics and ecology. R. Course Outlines Introduction. 4. Hanley. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. M. 2009. 4. WCIV7AA. 2007. B. B. Portland 1967. D. Natural philosophy. Kessinger Publishing. Recommended Books: 1. England.V. species.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems.. role of light. London. Shogren. USA. Ecosystem and its types. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. C. & Pierce. 2008. community and ecosystem. 3. branches of ecology. 2. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy.A. population. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . Ancient and modern philosophy an overview.. J. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice..3. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. Touchstone Books. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. Economics. Ecology. Swift. soil. temperature.. description of population. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. its fundamental concepts. 2002. A History of Western Philosophy. B. Russell. N. USA. levels of ecological organization. Palgrave Macmillan.

2000. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). UK. After completion of this course. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. E P. various concepts of community. Biomes of the world. ecological modeling.W. M C J 1st ed. Cambridge University Press. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. J. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. Ecology (principles and applications). Chapman. characteristics of urban. UK. King’s College London.Cox. Odum. New York.L and Reiss. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. Tata McGraw-Hill. distribution limits. J. 1999 4. Fundamentals of Ecology. Populations. N. 3. habitat and niche. M. plant geography and animal distribution. Recommended Books 1. Microbial metabolism. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. 6th Ed. and Barett. bacteria and eukarya.topography and air as ecological factors. productivity of different ecosystems. students will be able to understand the significance.) Moles. landscape changes and their importance. Concepts of Limiting factors. G. 2. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. C. B. aquatic microbiology. community dynamics. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Biogeochemical cycles of C. population dynamics. Fundamentals of Ecology. and S. P. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. C. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. 2004. landscape ecology. Ecology (concepts and applications. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. 1992. Lab Work 25 . WCB/McGraw-Hill. and More. biotic factors. M J. Dash. New Delhi. Systems ecology. 2001 5. 1st Ed. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. 5th Ed. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. Population distribution and abundance. Ecosystem: structure and function. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem.

Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. American Society for Microbiology. Effects of Pollutants. 2... 2009. Soil. L. peppor. 2nd Edition..A.J. P.W. 5.V. Mean plate count. Recommended Books: 1. Noise..A.1998. Hill.J. Crawford.and Vesilaind.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. C. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. J. J. C. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. Solid Waste generation. 4th Edition.G.J.P. 2005. McGraw Hill Inc. Environmental Microbiology.. and Stetzenbach. D.Gerba. Marine & Industrial pollution. Cambridge UK. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution.A. USA. transportation & treatments. Pepper.. A. 1995.. Harley. USA. Human & other living organisms. its sources and their effects. Prescott. J. USA.J.L. L. Water.. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. purification and preservation.B. M. Academic Press.. 2007. Academic Press. Hartel. 4. W. Knudsen. London. Dilution plate technique. (Elsevier) USA. 2005..F.. USA. R. Collection. M.P.C. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal.M.L. P. Sylvia. New Jersey. 2 Edition. Recommended Books 1. isolation.M. Understanding Environmental Pollution. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution.I.K. and Zuberer. Butterworth-Heinemann. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. Peiece. 3. Weiner. Environmental Pollution and Control. and Jeffery. Pollution Control Strategies. D.and Brendecke. and Gerba. Maier.L. D. R. Case Studies. USA. Hurrst. I. Academic Press. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. 3. International Protocols (BASAL Convention).R. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally.P. 2. Washington DC.M. UK. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. Cambridge University Press. Manual of Environmental Microbiology..J. and Klein. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology.D. Prentice Hall.. Fuhrmann. 2002. F. 26 . 2005. Microbiology. McInernery. G.

2003. climatic zones of Pakistan. 4. 2006 5. Recommended Books: 1. 2002. Factors affecting air Pressure. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. The Hydrologic cycle. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. Sadder. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. Marcel Dekkar. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. Environmental psychology. condensation and cloud Formation.K. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics .From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. Royal book company. Methods of psychology. Shamshad. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. Houghton J. Cambridge University Press. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. global circulation.J. John Wiley and Sons. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. Lawrance K. Tarbuck. local winds. The climate of Pakistan. Austin Miller. A. Pandis. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere.4.W.. The Physics of Atmospheres.M. Four Spheres of the Earth.F. N. American Public Health Association (APHA). Climatology. 1988. 2.. Surface winds. 5. 27 . The Atmosphere.. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. Radiation and climate. Lutgens. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. Mechanism of heat transfer. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. Spyros. Solar radiations. air pressure. Cloud Classification.. K. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. 1992. 3. Weather and Climate. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere.2nd Editions. Karachi.E. . 6th Edition. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. John H.

2001. Sustainable agricultural practices.A. Soil as a natural resource. 5th Edition. and Baum A. species response to pollutants. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. energy and carbon balance. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. Routledge. Fundamental of Psychology. Pollution control through Ecology. 2. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. Water as an ecological resource. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. their management and ecological restoration. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. Background and scope. rivers. T. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. Course Outline Introduction. Environmental perception and cognition. CRC Press.characteristics and research methods. M. soil salinity and water logging. soil erosion and conservation. CRC Press. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. London. Sustainable livestock management practices.W. Fisher J. techniques and methods of restoration. Eysenck. sustainable agriculture. Greene. threats and mitigation. Routledge. Water and distribution of species. Ecological restoration. soil resources of Pakistan. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan.C.. 1992. limitation of irrigated agriculture. carbon dioxide and global climate change. Environmental Psychology. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. Recommended Books: 1. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. solar radiation and primary production. London.D. 28 . Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. concepts. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. Future water scenario of Pakistan. High population density and psychological impacts.. P. Bell. Restoration of derelict lands. Ecology of food production.

Recommended Books: 1. A. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. in vivo & in vitro assays. 1996. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. E. toxicity screening using microbial systems. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic.A. their containment and control strategies. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. Organs.I. Synergism. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. A. University of Peshawar. 2004.. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. Island Press. USA. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. on human and other living organisms. J. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. dose response relationship in living organisms. Rashid.National Book Foundation. and Barett. Immunological considerations in toxicology. toxins vs toxicants. Mumtaz. Chemical interactions and their types. Peshawar. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. D. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. from natural and anthropogenic sources. P. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. K and Habib. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. Potentiation and Addition. 2nd ed. Thomson Brooks/Cole. 5.P. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. R. 4.S. B. Lahore.W.. 2006. K. Shirkat Gah. 5th Edition. Studies in Pakistan Geography. Islamabad.. 2000 2. and Memon..1998. G. Newman. toxins & toxicants. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. Soil Science. Falk. and Hobbs. 29 . Determination of chemicals in biological samples. terminologies: Poisons. Odum E. Oxford. Zedler. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. Pakistan’s Environment. Israr-ud-Din. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. toxicology of chemicals. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. soil and air samples. Blackwell Scientific Publications. water and soil. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. Fundamentals of Ecology. 3. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. biological effects. J. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. Margaret A. 1989.

Course Outlines Introduction. 1st Edition. CRC Press Llc. international trade and the environment. the economy and the environment. land. economic aspects of different environmental problems. water resources. Ecological: ecological zones. General and Applied Toxicology. USA. Hughes. 1996. 3. (ed. culture.Recommended Books 1. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. Recommended Books 1.. Williams. economic development and the environment.M. USA. 1993. 5th Edition. Klassen. State of the Environment-Pakistan . McGrawhill. education. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. 2005 2. 1st Edition.D. people. Ballantyne. P. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. urbanization and pollution. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. major ecosystems. Course Outlines Introduction to history. geography. Recommended Books: 30 . Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. measuring environmental benefits. health.). Economic: agriculture. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. Government of Pakistan. industry. topographic zones. M. pollution control-a general model. USA. W. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis.Science of Poisons . T and Turner. B.1 & 2. clean development mechanism.2005 2. W. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. 1992. 3. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. Macmillan Press Ltd. Vol.

A..K. Johns Hopkins University Press.. Fluoride. Field. CSIRO Publ. 31 . Freeman & Co. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. Sample preservation methods. Environmental Economics. D. COD. Standard solutions and standard curves. L.J. Lab Work S.2004. 2005.2002. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. 1993. A.W. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. B.K.I. and Batemen. All Solids. Turner. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. 1999. salinity & sodicity). USA. water and plant analysis. 2. D. Skoog. Pearce. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. 2003. NO3–N & NH4-N). preparation and storage. Gravimetery. Thomson and Brooks. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater... Sparrow and D.. Titrimetery. precision and accuracy. Australia. 6th Edition. M.UK. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. and F. Recommended Books: 1. Peverill. Collingwood. 4. Spectroscopy and Chromatography.1. 8th Edition..C. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. I. Oxford University Press.and Field. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. 3. Use of Potentiometery. M. D. Analytical techniques for soil. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Holler. Conductivitymetry.L. C. Oxford. units. Harris. J. handling. Gravimetery. Kolstad. 2.I. K. Sample collection. D. West. 3.R. Data interpretation for quality control. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples.D. BOD. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. New York. C. 2000. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Titrimetery. Reuter. and derived S. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Conductivitymetry.

Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. Recombinant DNA technology. Hans- Joachim. Chichoster. Cambridge University Press. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques.W. students will be able to understand the significance. National Biosafety Guidelines.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. National Biotechnology Commission. Recommended Books 1. New York. 2nd Ed.). 2009. After completion of this course. PCR. Course Outlines Introduction. 2007. Biotechnology. Biomarkers.. J. Sambrook. Government of Pakistan. 2. USA. 2001. (ed. Smith. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. Oxford University Press. Biosensor. A. and application of biotechnology in the environment. 3. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. 2005. purification and preservation of DNA. USA. D. USA. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms.. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 .D. New York. W. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment.1999.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments.P. Environmental Biotechnology. and Josef. 4. Derbre. Bioreactors. Wiley-VCH Verlag. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. Tools in environmental biotechnology. England. Introduction to microbial kinetics. 2005. Isolation. Scragg.E. J. 5th Ed. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. Germany. and Russel. J.

history and platforms. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. Z.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. K and L. History and data collection. Preparation of thematic maps. Lulla. John Wiley and Sons. 2000. Cartography. 3. Active and Passive remote sensing. 2. 4. R. F. Inc. Data entry and output. Aerial photography. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. analysis and output. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. integration of information from many sources. Types of data used in GIS. Agriculture. Using and reading GPS in field. Introduction to GIS. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Fishery and wildlife. eradication of the duplicated data. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. Satellite Imageries. A. 2009. Rancez. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. Introduction to Photogrammetry. Energy Sources. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). Campbell. Jensen. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . 5. Mc Graw Hill Education. John Wiley and Sons. Inc. 2008. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Guilfoud press New York. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Dessinov. Inc. 2000. advantages and limitations of process. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Interpretation. V. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. Forestry. Harvey. Data acquisition. 1999. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. Different types of maps. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Image Processing. Pearsons Education. map projection and coordinate systems.

animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. cleaner technologies. 2006. Environmental Management tools. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. hot spots of biodiversity.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. threats to biodiversity. F. 34 . A. types of biodiversity. Michigan. International Organization for Standardization. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes.. Certification of EMS.C. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. 3. etc.. philosophical.. standards and guidelines. Environmental Economy. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. economic. Related Environmental legislation. Systems and Support Techniques.2nd Ed. and Yoxon. alpha and beta diversity.3rd Edition . Environmental Management Systems Principles. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. Conservation of biodiversity. 1998. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). 2. and Qasim. Sheldon. plant. 2001. Khan. Environment and sustainable development. principles of Cleaner production. ecological. Course Outlines Introduction. Environmental aspects and impacts. B. need and approach. Methods of environmental protection. social and ethical values of biodiversity. M.). American Society for Quality. M. 2005. eco-design. 4. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. WWF Pakistan. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. American Society for Quality. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor.

quality assessment. Rawalpindi. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. 3. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. Associates Inc. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme.B. presampling requirements/information. management. field custody. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. Conservation of wildlife.. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. Biogeography. forests. EIA requirement. 2000.conservation at species. Considerations. 2000. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. 2. design and types of samples. habitats. 1998. protected areas. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring.. Lahore). A Primer for Conservation Biology. conservation and livelihood. their categories. Recommended Books: 1. refrigeration and freezing methods. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment.R. water. cities. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. quality control sampling. P. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. London. air. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. P. croplands. Legal protection of species. NOC for plant operation. 2ndEd. Quality assurance and quality control. laboratory custody. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. Saad Printers. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. Course Outlines Introduction. soil and living organisms. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. conservation in man-made ecosystems. chemical addition. sampling and design purposes. national and international laws and regulations. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. Preservation methods including pH control. Mirza. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water.. Sunderland. and Morre. Cox. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. conservation strategies. ecotourism.e. population. Publ. international agreements. C. community and ecosystem level. Kings College.B. Z. 35 .D. plants. Sinauer.B.

New York. USA. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. E. 2002. Korte. Earth Observation of Global Change. extinctions. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. 1992. USA. 5. D. F. its causes and effects. Regional droughts and 36 . Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. I. D. (ed) Springer. 8. altered community structure. (eds. Manahan. agriculture. and Guethner. R. 2. UK. S. 2nd Edition. Tokyo. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. biological. Chuviero.. Environmental Chemistry. USA. N.. . COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. Peakall. regional. Burden.USA. E. chemical. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. Ozone depletion. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. The Measurement of Climate Change.1996. Keith. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. 7. phenological changes. 3. Energy and Temperature. Precipitation. Forstner U. Human responses to potential climate change. Lewis Publisher London.Recommended Books: 1.) McGraw-Hill. 2002. L. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. 2008. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. McKlivie. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. Physical. Chapman and Hall. 6. 2008. H. Murai. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. Moisture in the Atmosphere. S. 2000. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. human health. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. Remote Sensing Note. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data.1999. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. Recent Climate Change Indicators. Air Pollution and Acid Rain.

Routledge. Global Warming and Climate Change. overview. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). Effects. J. liquid. and Solutions. Islamabad. impact analysis.. Hardy. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. Therivel. 2003. (ed. 2. 5. T. Islamabad. Sringer. Harrop.(ed). 6. London. 1986. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. National Book Foundation. decision-making to implement the project. Hardy. scoping. Petts. Cost and benefits of EIA..cataclysmic climate change. Oxford.. Blackwell. Effects.). 3. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. Earthscan Publication Ltd. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. Main stages in EIA process. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach.. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. London. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. solids. 2. law.T. 1st Edition. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. 3.Causes. review of EIA quality. A. J. J. John Wiley & Sons.. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press.. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project.Causes. Recommended Books: 1. 4. Keith. D. social impact assessment (SIA). policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. project implementation and follow up. J. Global Change and the earth system. John Wiley & Sons. 2000. Climate Change . and Solutions. A. 2005. & Nixon. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T.A.. public involvement. mitigation and impact management. EIA project management. 2004. reporting. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. Climate Change . Houghton. R. J. 2005. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. screening.O. Ministry of Housing and Works. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. and Chadwick. 2003. 2005. Glasson. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. 37 . 1994. Types & Resources to produce Energy. 4. 1999. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. and noise.

problem in agriculture. (ed.. M. forest types and its existing management. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. requirement. methodologies. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. threat and its causes. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. R. F. their current status and threats. process and contents of the management plan. Asian Development Bank. New York. and Tu. 6. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. Everitt.. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan.. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. best available option for future. importance. Types. S. A. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. causes and methods for its improvement. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. Conservation in Progress. Evans.. agriculture products and their share in GDP. national example. & McCabe. effective management. 1993. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. Recommended Books: 1. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. Carpenter. national agriculture policy. their pros and cons. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. USA. Lohani. Development of Management Plan: needs. Goldsmith. United Nations Environment Programme. B. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations.B and Warren. John Willey & Sons. Sadler. 1997.. wind power and nuclear power. Rangeland Management: existing status.). threats. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly.. solar power. 2nd Edition. national and provincial legislation. Ludwig. H. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. wildlife census. limitation in the future. 2002. J. management options. 38 . existing management approaches. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan.5. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. agriculture chemicals. R. management options. B..

Experimental Research. 5.E. Material Methods.2. Bibliography. Review of Literature. Literature Search: Database. Objectives. Inference based on findings. London.Amsterdam. 1992. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. Scientific Research: Science. J.A pre-requisite for Research. Research Proposal: its importance . Selecting the Research Method.E. concepts and terminologies. Search Engines. research methods. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). How to put things together? Introduction.L. New York. Creswell. 1990. 2007. R. Case Studies. Elsevier. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. W. John Wiley & Sons. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Sage CA. Methodology. P.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. 39 . 4. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. USA. Research Design & Research Methods.. Environmental Conservation. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. Scientific Methods. types of sampling design/. Interviews. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. Review of Literature. Questionnaire. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. 3. GOP and IUCN. Surveys. Thousand Oaks. population and sampling frames.F. V. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. Islamabad. Hansen. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Dasmann. 1984. & Plano Clark. and Jorqensen. Sampling: the logic of sampling. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. to introduce students to research design. S.

G. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. 3rd Edition. Law Books House. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. 3.Batty. Moriarty. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. R. Diamon. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. 4. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. John and sons Ltd. USA. 2003. 5. Belmont California. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act.. 2003.. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. Marilyn F. 2. Chichester. E. Students project in Environmental Science. National Environmental Policy 4. 2000. Recommended Books: 1. England. Univ. Sage Publishers. 6.. regulations made there under.. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. National Conservation Strategy 5.h. M. 1989.S. Qadar. USA.2. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. Wadsworth Publishing Company. S. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. Government of Pakistan 3. 2nd Edition.Harrad. and Arhonditsis. 1997. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. Robert Yin. 2008. Babbie. of Chicago Press. 2001.USA. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. Booth. 1997. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . Survey Research Methods.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. A. Recommended Books: 1.. 44 . Cheema. and Malik. R. fisheries management. Mirajuddin Publication . Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. 2003. virtual water. A. A. pollution aspects. flood and drought management. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. 2.Varis. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. water quality and quantity aspects. Khan.Lahore. Pakistan . water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan.). Pakistan. 2005. wetlands resources management. Asia Printer. 1993. 4. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. and Qamar. integrated water resources management (IWRM). flood and droughts. Biswas. tubewells. Mirajuddin Publication . Indus Water Accord 1991. I. R. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. 6... 2006.. J. Lahore. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. watershed/catchment. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. K.. C. N. 5. recycling and re-use of wastewater. groundwater exploitation. (eds. The Politics of Managing Water. Briscoe. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. 2006. O. Ahmed. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. Bengali.K. Oxford University Press New Delhi. N. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. with drinking water facilities like springs. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. (ed. P. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. hydrological cycle.). Oxford University Press Karachi. U. water supply and demand management measures. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. and Tortajada. Islamabad.. 3.1993. Ahmed. Islamabad. SDPI Oxford University Press.. Revised & enlarged edition.

1996. Prentice Hall. Cation and anion exchange. PrenticeHall. Course Outlines Introduction. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. USA. Gardiner. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. NJ. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. Urbanization. Hillel. CA.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment.C. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. Islamabad. urban settlements. and Weil. D. Urban ecosystem. NJ. future of urban centers. Upper Saddle River. humans as components of urban ecosystems. Physical and chemical properties of soil. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. D. and Bantel. N. Miller.. Soil forming minerals. Course Outlines Introduction. 1. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. Forms of urbanization. R. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. Soils in Our Environment.W. USA. Academic Press. Types and properties of parent materials. urban landscapes characteristics. E. Factors and processes of soil formation. management and green productivity. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. R. Soil degradation. transport. 45 . Upper Saddle River. Bashir. Brady. San Diego.R. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. 2007. the salient features of urban environments. urbanization in Pakistan. Process and outcome. hydrological processes. 11th Edition. R. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. Causes of urbanization. Pakistan.T. 2007. After completion of this course. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. 2008. USA. National Book Foundation. urban flora and fauna. Soil Science. urban political ecology. soils.. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. Definition.

nature and purpose of urban planning. The Works: Anatomy of a City. 5. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. Routledge. 3.and Kowaril. Planning and Urban Change. J. 2004. Kate. 2006. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. I. 2009. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. 2. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. Planning and its relationship with other professions. The planning process. Ward. UR. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level.L. Levels of planning. Scope. Silberstein. SBS academic publishing. Land use planning theories.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. Planning theories and concepts. London. Justification for planning for city management. S. Hough. 2007. V... UK.1990. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. Routledge. 2004. New trends in planning and city management. Types of Urban Plans. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management.S. Alberti.. CRC Press LLC. 1989. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. Springer. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. Chapman and Hall. City Design for Sustainable Development. Gilbert. 4. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. H. UK. 2000. SAGE Publications Ltd. 46 . M. A. Hague. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. Hejny. UK. London.. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. nd 2 Edition. S. O.and Maser. C. Elements of urban planning. USA. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. USA. Aims and Objectives of planning. 1. M. 2. Smith. Penguin Group. New York. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. Sukopp. Principles of planning.. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. Recommended Books: 1. D.

Role of Media in Disaster Management. The Guilford Press. D. Disaster as an opportunity for development. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. Landslide. ADB. Flooding. 4.UNESCO. 2nd Edition. Prediction. Boulder .. E&UA Div..e. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. 1991..W... Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. G. Socio-economic factors. R.. It discusses a wide range of aspects. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. Longman Group. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. Kates. 4. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. Earthquake Management. Chapman & Hall. Different approaches and Indicators. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. and Woodrow.. 2. New York. Political factors. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Natural Disasters Alexander. New York. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. International phenomenon. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. Government of Pakistan.W. Westview Press.J. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. Disaster Management: Components of management.F. Ministry of Housing and Works. The Environment as Hazard Burton I.. Flood Management: Organizational Role.B. Physical factors. 1986. Paris. Introducing Town Planning. M. Manila. Earthquake. Natural cycles and their role. Clara. Cultural factors. 47 . vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. 1989. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. and White G. H. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. Recommended Books: 1. UK. 1993. Islamabad. 1993.3. P. Hazards. 1993. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. i. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. 3. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards.

Perry R. primary producers. biomass resources. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources.. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Westport.M. energy resources. merits and demerits of wind. 1984. hydropower. sustainable energy management. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. L. E. energy resources of Pakistan. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. uses. R. John Wiley and Sons. local. 2001. 1983. Disasters and Development Cuny. 3. 2007. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. and Mushkatel. 2007. D. Consumer and producer relationship. Biotic structure. M.. 6th Edition.C. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity.B and Keller. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life.. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. decomposers. A.A.5. 2. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems.L. 4th Edition. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. Quorum Books. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. USA. Sustainable livestock management. Botkin. 1. Ecological concept in crop and food production. consumers. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. 6. solar. OECD/IEA. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Paris. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.W. McKinney. New York. and Yonavjak. Schoch. F. alternate energy resources.H. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. 48 . Farming practices for pests and weeds control. types. Agroecology. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment.

CBS Publishers and Distributors. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. E-11 Seminar 49 . and Rossel.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. C. USA. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. USA. Agrocology. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. New Delhi. 2000. New York. 1990..Determination of density and abundance of plant species. 2. Study of index of diversity. 1995. P.H.G. Westview Press.R. Kapur. M.M. India. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. Yandermeer J. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. and Sudha.P. Experimental Plant Ecology. R. Boulder. Altreri. 3.A. Study of stratification and profile diagram. Recommended Books: 1. Corol.

5. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. availability of the faculty and other facilities. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. 3. the Committee agreed on the following principles. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. 2. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. 50 . The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. that: 1. 4. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization.

6. 24. 9. 20. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 11. 15. 2. 6. 4. 7. 12.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 12. 14. 10. 21. 7. 5. 26. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 16. 3. 10. 19. 18. 8. 8. 23. 5. 17. 25. 4. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 3. 2. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 13. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 9. 22. 11.

Oxford University Press. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. and Jorqensen.1995. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. S.. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems.1991. 3. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. NCS. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. Hansen. Mackenzie. 52 ... Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. 2.S. Money. Environment People and Economy. Treaties. WCS. 1987. Instruments and methods. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. development of concepts.1994.DETAILS OF M. Relationship of culture. technology and resource use.F. 3. Draft National Environmental Policy.T.. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Elsevier. Khan K. P. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. status of Terrestrial. 1992. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan.. Karachi. F. London.E. Conventions and Protocols in Global. Provincial and Local Strategies. Geography of Pakistan.1994. 2. 2nd Edition. 4. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. Ball. Environmental control Policies. Oxford University Press. Amsterdam. and Bell. Regional and International Environmental Issues. GOP and IUCN. Hodder and Stoughton. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. Islamabad.A. FURTHER READINGS 1. 1991. Conservation Strategies. London Black Stone Press Ltd. S. Recommended Books: 1. D.E. S. Mackenzie J. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan.

role and importance. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. ecological impact assessment. sample collection and preservation. Cost benefit analysis of projects. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. Wastewater. Ahmed. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. Air and Solid Waste. K. 53 . Government of Pakistan.Vanclay. Environment Department. 1993. History. WB. opportunities and issues. ed. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. World Bank. DC.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. Ed. England. Environmental Chemical Analysis. 2. Recommended Books: 1.. procedures and methods of EIA. Burnt Hill. John Wiley & Sons. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. Longman House. A. Harlow Essex. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. economic impact assessment. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). social impact assessment. Assessment of environmental impacts. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. C. 1995. UK. Longman Scientific and Technical. A one Publishers Lahore. D. 2. Washington. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. F & Bronstein. 1995. Wood. Principles of physical. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. sampling rules. Environmental auditing. Ministry of Environment. 3. Demographic impact assessment. Gas Chromatography etc. process. Recommended Books: 1. Case Studies and review. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. FURTHER READINGS 1.A. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Chichester.

Wiley Interscience. Mantel s. UK. T. activities. 1993. Lippmann. 1998. Need identification. air borne. 1997. prevention and control. T. Defining Project objectives. economic evaluation. J. 2. L. Resource Mobilization. specific objectives. New York. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures... 1st ed. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. Caeneross. Project Management Institute.. Project Life Cycle. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. means of verification. inputs. 2. work breakdown structure. R. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. Environmental Health Engineering. Government Policies and Programs. Kjelllström. Yassi. Project Initiation.. 2002.. John Wiley and Sons. A. feasibility study. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. M/S Banarsid. Public health concept. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. Occupational Health: problems and issues. 5. S. Reasons for Project success or failure. 1st Ed.. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. Accident prevention and safety plans. indicators. 2nd Ed. 3. Nebel.. M. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. 54 . principles and practices. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. T. Explanation of Horizontal Logic.2000. Writing Project Proposal.. and Guidotti. Planning Commission Performas. 1st Ed. R.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project.. development objectives. Park. de Kok. outputs. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). Inc. Oxford University Press New York. Ergonomic and Safety. USA. 4. Prentice Hall International Inc. J. Project Planning and Approval Processes. B. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. USA. Recommended Books: 1. assumptions. safety techniques. T. Meredith J. and Wright. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). London. 1992. 2001. K. Project Planning. Primary health care services. Basic Environmental Health. A Guide to Project Management.

Paris. 4. Switzerland. 1990b. 2007. McKinney. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. ISO Central Secretariat. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. D. Environmental auditing. Sayre. Sources of data. John Wiley and Sons.A. Botkin. non-renewable and renewable. Michigan-January 2001. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions.B and Keller. Schoch. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. 3. 2001. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. 2. R. Environmental Auditing. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. petroleum. 2007.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. 6th Edition.. Recommended Books: 1. L. M. sustainable energy management for agriculture. alternate energy resources. 1998. types. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. E. St Luise Press. data collection and interpretation. gas.M. Recommended Books: 1. energy resources of Pakistan. and Yonavjak. bio-energy resources. Paris. Principles of cleaner production. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. 2. hydropower. merits and demerits of wind. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). industry and domestic sectors. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). 3. OECD/IEA. Related Environmental regulations. energy resources.L. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. solar. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. uses. 4th Edition. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. nuclear) local. D. transport. USA. 55 . patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. principles and elements of the process of EMS. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Earthscan Publication Ltd. and Solutions. Plant Ecology. Warrick. K. Silvertown. and Solutions. 3. B & Jager. 3. 1. survival and extinction. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. J. 5. Modeling of climate change. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach.. 1st Edition. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. Hardy. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Effects. 2005. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. Berlin. Chichester. ED. Climate Change and Ecosystems. Effects. types of climate change models. D. 2003. Life history strategies of plants. 2005.D. 2005. Oxford UK. Houghton. water resources. Recommended Books: 1. J. E & Muller-Hohenstein. Species richness. resources and plants. Climate Change . Climate change and food production. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. John Wiley & Sons. & Charlesworth. D. forests. 4. Blackwell Publishing. (Ed. London.Causes. John Wiley & Sons. etc. 2003.. 2. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. management and restoration. Vegetation Ecology Ed. plant conservation. vegetation dynamics. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. global aspects of plant ecology. Maarel. Hardy.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. The Green House Effect.Causes. Climate Change . Green House Gases.). J. 2005. E.T. Recommended Books: 1. UK 1991. Beck. Plant population dynamics. 56 . Springer. Shulze. types and their climatic effects. Oxford. John Wiley & Sons. human activities and vegetation dynamics. competition and coexistence. Blackwell Publishing. plant invasions. UK. 2. geographical and temporal patterns. ECOPE 29. T. 2004.

Consumptive. 57 . Participatory forest management. John Wiley And Sons.G. 4. Threatened animals and plants. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. J. Status of forests in Pakistan. threats and conservation. Oxford University Press. their ecological and economic importance. Mcmillan. Inc. Recommended Books: 1. Sustainable forest management. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. T. distribution and management. S. Extinction of species.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. Rangeland management. Conserving Living Natural Resources.J. Primack. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. Global and national biodiversity. Loss of biodiversity. USA. 2. 3.J. status. Oxford. Recommended Books: 1. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. Principles of Wildlife Management. Oxford. kinds. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. problems and solutions.) Gaston. Forests. Wildlife of Pakistan. 3. Wetlands. UK. Publishers Sunderland. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. Wildlife Ecology and Management. Protected areas in Pakistan. Essentials of Conservation Biology. types. distribution. E. Sinauer Assocaites. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. Robinson. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. Cambridge.B. its causes. Establishment and management of protected areas. their types and role in conservation.J. And Bolen. K. Roberts. 1973 2. Biodiversity: An introduction. Protection and restoration of species. biological diversity. Blackwell Publsihing. Weddell. Protected areas. B. & Ripley. Oxford University Press. their importance. London. deforestation and its control. Forest plantations. 1992. W. Roberts.(2nd Ed.D. Cambridge University Press. S. 2002.L. types. I). R. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Bailey. management. 2004. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation.A. II). 1986. Cambridge. habitats and ecosystems.J. Oxford University Press. 1998. Oxford. UK. J. 1984. 5. T. distribution. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. 2002. & Spicer.

Penguin Group. 4. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. 2007. 1993. Planning and Urban Change. E&UA Div.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction.. Urban land use planning and management. UK. Clara. Government of Pakistan.and Maser.. future of urban centers. G. V. Recommended Books: 1. management of transport. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. urban systems and their characteristics. The Works: Anatomy of a City. 1986. urban political ecology. SAGE Publications Ltd.. sanitation. C. Introducing Town Planning. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. New York. Longman Group. Sustainable cities. H. Environmental problems of urban life. urbanization in Pakistan. Ward. drinking water and solid waste in cities. urban landscape characteristics. Kate. Silberstein. London. 3. Ministry of Housing and Works.. J. 2000. USA. 58 . S. 2. CRC Press LLC. Islamabad. UK. A. USA. 2004. Forms of urbanization.

J. 1997. Exercises 1. Practical English Grammar by A. Thomson and A. Martinet.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking.V. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. Third edition. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. ISBN 0194313492 59 . Oxford University Press. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1.Annexure . a) Functional English Grammar 1.

Oxford University Press. Exercises 2. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. Thomson and A. b) Practical English Grammar by A. Third Impression 1992.J. Fourth Impression 1993. Upper Intermediate.2. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Writing. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41.V. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. 1997. Reading/Comprehension 1. minutes of meetings. Oxford Supplementary Skills. intensive and extensive. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. Martinet. Reading. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . Third edition. and speed reading. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing.

Fourth Impression 1992. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. 2. Third Impression 1991. Oxford University Press 1986. Reading. Oxford Supplementary Skills. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. 2. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. clarity. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Practical English Grammar by A. Advanced by Ron White.V. Exercises 2. Martinet. Reading 1. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Writing. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Third Impression 1992. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Third edition. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. content. Advanced. Fourth Impression 1993. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). descriptive and argumentative writing). discursive. introduction to presentations. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. b) Writing 1. Writing.J.1. narrative. Thomson and A. Writing. Oxford Supplementary Skills. form. language.

argumentative and report writing). A Custom Publication. descriptive. 3. without taxing the taste of engineering students). College Writing Skills by John Langan. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. Compiled by norther Illinois University. Kathleen Shine Cain. 2. Mandell. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. 62 .(particularly suitable for discursive. St. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. Martin’s Press. 2004. Kirszner and Stephen R. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G.

1988-99 f. Course Outline 1. 1993. S. Location and geo-physical features. Economic institutions and issues b. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. 1947-58 b. 1958-71 c. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. 4. contemporary Pakistan. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. 1977-88 e.M. Contemporary Pakistan a. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. politics. Zaidi. Shahid Javed. 2. . Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. ideological background of Pakistan. Ethnicity d. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. Safdar. State & Society in Pakistan. Mehmood. 2000. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. government. S. People and Land i. Society and social structure c. Historical Perspective a. Muslim advent iii. national development. Indus Civilization ii. Lahore. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Study the process of governance. 3. Akbar. 1999 onward 3. 1994. 2. 1971-77 d.Annexure . Karachi: Oxford University Press. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. 63 Books Recommended 1.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. b.

Wilcox. 12. Mehmood. Zahid.National Movement in Pakistan. 1980. Rafique. I. Ethno . Tahir. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. The Political System of Pakistan.5. Enigma of Political Development. K. 1967. Sayeed. Haq. nd. 1976. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. M. Khalid Bin. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Noor ul. 1993. II & III. Aziz. Club Road. Ansar. Institute of Public Policy Research. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Safdar.The Emergence of Banglades. Pakistan Under Martial Law. Ziring. 8. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia.. History & Culture of Sindh. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. 14. 9. 13. Lawrence. 1980. Amin. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. 1998. 10. Vol. Islamabad. 1987. 64 .K. 7. Politics in Pakistan. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. Muhammad Waseem. Afzal. 1972. 11. Lahore: Vanguard. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. Party. Political Parties in Pakistan. 6. Washington: American Enterprise. Wayne. Karachi: Royal Book Company.

A.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .Tadabar (Verse No1. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.56.A.20) Related to thinking.6.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.A. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.58.40.57.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.19.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.21.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.Annexure .A.

in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.

“Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. Islamabad (2001) 67 . International Islamic University. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. Bhatia. IRI. Pakistan. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. “Studies in Islamic Law. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Ahmad Hasan. “Emergence of Islam” . Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H.S.

Beckenback EF. introduction to sets. system of linear equations. complex numbers. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. types of functions.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. College Algebra and Trigonometry. determinants. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. trigonometric identities. set operations. Sharron S. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. Boston 68 . relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. 1986. Boston Swokowski EW. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. types. harmonic progression. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. not majoring in mathematics. cube roots of unity. equations reducible to quadratic equations. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). functions. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Houghton & Mifflin.Annexure . Cramer’s rule. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. matrix inverse. PWS-Kent Company. 1978. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. geometric progression. Wooton W. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. PWS-Kent Company. 1987. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1.

New York Stewart J. intersection of two lines. Finney AR. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. Bevens I. continuous functions. Addison-Wesley. Calculus (11th edition). not majoring in mathematics. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. differentiation of polynomial. USA 3. continuity. Ma. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. rational and transcendental functions. not majoring in mathematics. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. angle between two lines. inequalities. various forms of equation of a line. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. 2005. Recommended Books: Anton H. distance between two points. 2005. equation of a line. Boston Thomas GB. parallel and perpendicular lines. Reading. 69 . left-hand and right-hand limits. solution of equations involving absolute values. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. John Wiley. integration by parts.2. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. functions and their graphs. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. integration by substitution. PWS-Kent Company. Calculus (3rd edition). derivatives. Davis S. 1995. slope of a line. distance between a point and a line. 1983. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. change of variables in indefinite integrals. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh.

Cramer’s rule. 1987. nature of roots of quadratic equations. Scott. types of matrices. 1969 Kaufmann JE. PWS-Kent Company. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. 1986. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. Freshman and Company. system of linear equations.Circle: Equation of a circle. Analytic Geometry. inverse of matrices. Introduction to sets. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. Conic Sections: Parabola. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. determinants. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. intersection of lines and circles. equations reducible to quadratic equations. set operations. ellipse. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). hyperbola. types of functions. PWS-Kent Company. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. 70 . • Contents 1. functions. Boston Swokowski EW. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. circles determined by various conditions. locus of a point in various conditions. Boston 4. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S.

individual. cumulative frequency curve. trigonometric identities. Boston.. Walpole. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. quartiles. moments. variance. Kaufmann. skewness and kurtosis. 2. R. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes... discrete and continuous series. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. J. PWS-Kent Company. deciles and percentiles. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. E. Graphs: Graph of straight line. tally sheet method. R. Measures of dispersion: Range. 71 . E. characteristics of statistics. Swokowski. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. frequency polygon. relationship of statistics with social science. Prentice Hall. Latest Edition. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. Wilcox. Books Recommended: 1.geometric and harmonic progressions. Latest Edition. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. array. 5. Latest Edition. ungrouped and grouped data. W. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. E. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. 3. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. 2. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. standard deviation. circle and trigonometric functions. 4. R.. types of frequency series. bar frequency diagram histogram.

4th edition. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. Swokowski. 2002. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. • Integration Integration from first principles. reduction formulae. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. Thomas. Anton. John H. products. Bevens. John Wiley & Sons. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . Leibnitz’ theorem. Contents 1. Elliott Mendelson. infinite and improper integrals. Calculus Single and Multivariable. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. 6. the chain rule. quotients. Trigonometric Functions. 2005. 1999. substitution method. special points of a function. Jhon Willey & Sons. Continuity. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. Inequalities. McCallum. Integration by Parts. 4. logarithmic integration. integration by inspection. 2. Rational and Transcendental Functions. Calculus. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. Second Edition 1992. 1983. Davis. Hughes-Hallett. Mathews. theorems of differentiation. Inc. Calculus. Inc. implicit differentiation. Continuous Functions. Prentice-Hall. 2005. 8th edition. Slope of a Line. Equation of a Line. Gleason. Least-Squares Line. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. the inverse of differentiation. integral inequalities. 2. integration using partial fractions. Rational Functions. et al.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. Frank A. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. W. I. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. applications of integration. H. Schaum’s Outline Series. integration by parts. and Transcendental Functions. S.Jr. logarithmic differentiation. 6. Recommended Books: 1. Addison Wesley publishing company. 3. Extreme Values of Functions. Solution of equations involving absolute values. sinusoidal function. 5. 11th Edition. 3rd Edition. plane polar coordinates. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. Boston. E. Calculus.

modulus and argument. finding the nth roots of unity. complex conjugate. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. arithmetico-geometric series. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. inverses of hyperbolic functions. series involving natural numbers. multiplication. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. geometric series. solving hyperbolic equations. the difference method. approximation errors in Taylor series. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. identities of hyperbolic functions.Additions and subtraction. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities.

equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. orthogonal. 6. scalar triple product. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. of a unitary matrix. Pappus’ theorems. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. the inner product. line to line. vector product. masses. centers of mass and centroids. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal.5. moments of inertia. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. point to plane. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. symmetric and antisymmetric. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. Hermitian. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix.

differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. spherical polar coordinates 75 . divergence of a vector field. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products.8. combinations of grad. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates.

Different types of Averages. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Empirical Relation between Mean. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. level of significance. Unit 5. definition of outliers and their detection. Exercises. Stem and Leaf Display. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. probability and non-probability sampling. Diagrams. Sources. Exercises. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Population. null and alternative hypothesis. Errors of measurement. The Variance and standard deviation. Median and mode. Quantiles. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Change of origin and scale. Probability and Probability Distributions. properties of Good Average. Exercises. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Standardized variables. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Type-I and Type-II errors. Range. Exercises. sample design and sampling frame. Exercises. Presentation of Data Introduction. Graphs and their Construction. Unit 7. Unit 3. Exercises. Unit 2. acceptance and rejection regions. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Collection of primary and secondary data. sampling with and without replacement. Rounding of a Number. Significant digits. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. The Mode. sampling and non sampling errors. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. 76 . Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Historigram. The semi-Interquartile Range. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Coefficient of variation. Data. Test statistics. bias. Histogram. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Observations. Statistical problem.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Unit 4.Annexure . basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Discrete and continuous variables. Absolute and relative measures. Types of frequency curves. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Difference of means and proportions. Bar charts. Editing of Data. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Pie chart. The Mean Deviation. Box and Whisker Plot. Constructing of a frequency distribution. Exercises Unit 6. Moments and Moments ratios.

examples. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. Contingency Tables. Unit 11. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. 77 . Coefficient of linear correlation. Exercises Unit 9. Macmillan Publishing Co. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. R. Kitab Markaz. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. New York. “Introduction to Statistics”. Regression and Correlation Introduction. its estimation and interpretation.. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. Testing of Hypothesis. F. 2 Muhammad. simple linear regression. E. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. Exercises Unit 10. Exercises.Single Population Introduction. 2005. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table.. Correlation.Unit 8. 1982. 3rd Ed. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. cause and effect relationships. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. r and R2. Inc. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies.

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