CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
58

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universities and other institutions of higher education. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. PROF. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 .50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. It also aimed to give a basic. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic.). and 36. R&D organizations. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. dated December 4th 1976. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. Lahore. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. D773/76-JEA (cur. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. 63. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. DR. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. The world has turned into a global village. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. the Federal Government vide notification No. degree awarding institutions. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. It is. therefore. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level.ALTAF ALI G. respective accreditation councils and stake holders.

OF NCRC. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. EXP. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. Preparation 5 . Abbreviations Used: NCRC. UNI. COL. REC. OF FINAL CURRI. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. PREP.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. R&D. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. OF CURRI. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI.

Lahore Member 6. Rawalpindi Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. Member 3. Following attended the meeting:1. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Member 6 . Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Dr. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Member 5. Dr. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. 7. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Member 4. Karachi from 28-30. Dr.

Prof. Karachi Member 12. 13. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Member 15. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Member 11. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Member 16. Dr. Member 10. Dr.8. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. 7 . Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Dr. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Dr. Member 14. Dr. Prof. Dr.

Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. The meeting was opened by Mr. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Member 20. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. Director of HEC Regional Center. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. 2. Mr. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Karachi. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. Chairman. 1. Dr. Faisalabad Member 18.17. 8 . Secretary Dr. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. Dr. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Member 19. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Mr. At first.

Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. 4. 2. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. 1. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. In last few centuries. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. 3. 6. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. 5.3. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. The committee thanked Mr. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development.

Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. 5. ii. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. in its preliminary meeting. This committee. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. regional and global contexts. skills and behaviour patterns. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. Apply theoretical understanding. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems.

assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. that: 1. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. 2. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. A. Sc. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. with consensus. Integrating natural sciences. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. The 11 . Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. 5. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. eight semesters in the semester system. 3. 4.. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. The medium of instruction. 1. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. 6.e. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration.

Environmental Physics 16. Environmental Pollution 22. Introduction to Computer 14. Introductory Economics* 17. Biology –II* 9. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. English-II 12. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Basic Chemistry* 4. Psychology* . Introduction to Earth Science 8. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Biology –I* 3. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. English-III 18. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. English-I 6. Climatology* 23. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Environmental Microbiology 21. Environmental Chemistry 15.

24. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. Environmental toxicology 27. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. Environmental Biotechnology 32. Natural Resource Management 40. Environmental Economics 29. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Environmental Monitoring 36. 44. 45. Applied Ecology 26. Environmental Management Systems 34. Climate Change 38. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . Opt. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. ELECTIVE-III 42. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. English-IV/ Univ. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. 46.

• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .

Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. poverty and resource depletion. Wright. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment.T.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. Environmental Science: working with the Earth.A. ethical. Pearson Educational. R. R. 2. 2002.B & Keller.. 2007 3. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. proteins and nucleic acids. environmental pollution. Different aspects of environment: physical. D.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. B. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. history. Botkin. 2007. 2007.L. current global. Human environment and its problems: global. 10th Ed. E. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY .M.. lipids. Thomson Learning. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. 15 . L. & Nebel. 4th Ed. 4. Recommended Books: 1. G. McKinney. regional. development in industry and agriculture. & Yonavjak. Miller. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. national. John Wiley & Sons. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. urbanization.J. M. biological and social. philosophical. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. and their relationships with various environmental factors. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. 6th Ed. Schoch. ecological. its importance in human life. socio-economic.

L. 2007.. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. Self Assessment and Revie. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. Nucleic acids.. B.. USA. 8th Ed. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. USA. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. protobionts. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. coordinate covalent bond. Aromatic compounds. McGraw. 2003. Cassimeris. amines). V. chemical diversity. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. 2. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. J. origin of metabolism. Molecular Biology through Questions. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. Shier. 2008. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. carbonyls. Origin of life: chemical evolution. Crossley. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. phospholipids in membrane systems. and Lewis. Cells. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. covalent. M. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. Wadsworth Group. C. Lingappa. polypeptides in protein diversity. D.Hill International Edition. and Whitelaw. lipids. lipids.. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. N. R. the molecule of genetic information and replication. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. chemical basis of life. 5. Biology: a Human Emphasis. Ltd. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. Ionic. Lewis. Canada. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. E. carboxylic acids. proteins. Plopper. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 5th Edetion.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. 4. 1996. 1. 3. carbohydrates.. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. G. Cell division. USA. 2007. Bulter. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. A. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. Starr. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. R. esters. New York. Structure and the basis of function. 16 . Introduction to cell biology. Australia .

2004. values of trigonometric functions. 2. Hill. EC and TDS in waste water.E..ions.. Photochemical reactions. Osmosis and Dialysis. W. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. expansion of determinants. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. series and means. equations of lines (linear equations). angle-sum formula. Thomson and Brooks. Andrews. 2nd Edition.S. Measurement of pH. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. Column chromatography. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. J.J. D. Binomial theorem (Simple applications).D. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. D. 1st Ed. West. Jickells.. 4. Algebra of matrices. Qualitative Chemical Analysis.. 2nd Edition.H..Special Products (Binomial Expression).J. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. P. Skoog.E. 17 . basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). 2003.. 6th Edition. Solution chemistry. Freeman and Company. geometric and harmonic sequence. Cambridge University Press. normal solutions/buffers. Recommended Books: 1. UK. M. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. radicals. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. Canada. B.. D. and Holler. simultaneous equations and their solutions.. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. and Reid. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. 3. J. determinants. T. USA. graphs.. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. Blackwell Science. straight line and related concepts. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. Thin layer chromatography.A. USA. double angle formulas. Harris. F.K. Girard. Understanding Environmental Pollution. 2005.C. law of Cosines. Colloids chemistry. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). 8th Edition. Brimblecombe. 2004. Surface chemistry. Liss. real line. P. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. minor and cofactor of a matrix. Jones and Barlett. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. 5.M. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. UK. molal. Lab Work Preparation of molar. 2004.

composition and its internal structure. 4. 4th Ed. Chain rule. and Finney. 3. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. L. weathering and erosion.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. Introduction to sedimentary. foliation. Introduction to folds. G. Chatterjee. plate tectonics. Earth as a member of solar system.. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. Thomas. 18 . earthquakes. by parts integration (simple applications). difference. Weathering. California. Abraham.. S. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. Integration: Formulas of integration. cleavages.B. faults. Jr. D.Cramer’s Rule. Trignometry for College students. erosion and related landforms. the processes of their formation.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. Addission. mountain building. J. Fossils and their significance. irreducible quadratic factors. K. 2. 10th Ed. 1999. joints. Introduction to rocks and minerals. theorem of integration. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. product and quotient rules without derivations). New Delhi. earthquakes and volcanoes. theorems on differentiation (sum. lineation and unconformities. Recommended Books: 1. Analytical Geometry. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. nonrepeated linear factors. Pacific Grove. Narosa Publishing House. Calculus and Analytical Geometry.Wesley. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. its origin. Scott Foresman and Company. age. different earth processes like mountain buildings. R. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. igneous and metamorphic rocks. Smith.

river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. Tarbuck. Lutgens. 4. Field Study tour. Lamarckism. J. Routledge. Wicander. Recommended Books: 1. molecular basis of biodiversity. Physical Geology and Process of Science.. Biodiversity of hilly areas. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. Tarbuck. A.. 3rd Edition.. modern concepts. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . different classification systems. 2004. Lutgens. 19 ..II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. 11th Edition. R. Prentice Hall.. G.. E. Prentice Hall. Life in sea.. invasion of life on land. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. population loss and decline. interactions among diversified life. animals). Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. and Tasa.Identification of rocks and minerals. K. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. and Monroe. and Pun. Use of brunton compass and GPS. Brooks/Cole. Geological time chart with biodiversity.. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. J. Smith. D. Park. 5. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. causes of extinction. 2005. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. 5th Edition. biodiversity crises. E. D. Foundations of Structural Biology. K. Biodiversity of canal. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. protocell formation. measuring biodiversity. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. 2007 3. Biodiversity of deserts. Prentice Hall: 2006. 2007 2. G. unicellularity. How Does Earth Work.. 9th Edition. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. Darwinism. examples of adjustments in varied environment. F. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. and Tasa. Earth Science. consequences of losing biodiversity. J. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. F. multicellularity. R.

E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. Chronological. USA. Gaston. Contemporary environmental status. 2nd Edition. C. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. (editor). Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. Nora and Wilk. 2009. Perspective of human-environment evolution. a Human Emphasis. New York: New York University Press. globalization and environmental issues. 2006. UK. 2000. Recommended Books: 1. Scope and application. Wadsworth Group. 3. 2001. 2003. Biodiversity (An Introduction). New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . J. C. L. Prospect Heights. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. Understanding the environment-human relationship. K. and concerns. John Wiley and Sons.K. 2. UK. and Spicer. 4. (editors). Goals and expectations. The Biosphere. Adam. Environmental Risks and the Media. Culture. 2. 2009. Inc. The Ecology of global consumer culture. 2005. Inc. Blackwell Science Ltd. 5th Edition. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. Crumley. 20 . and Sustainable Living. Consumption. Hannen.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. power & hegemony. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. Bradbury. R. culture and society. UK. Use of environment for vested interest. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. Starr. Walnut Creek. 3. I. Contemporary environment issues and debate. CA: AltaMira Press. Conceptualizing environment. IL:WavelandPress. Biology. P. Tripartite nature of environment... J. Townsend. I. Routledge. Allan & Carter. K.

Microsoft office 2000. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. as are their effects on the biosphere. 6. 2. Course Outlines Definition. Recommended Books: 1.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. Courter. Configurations. software packages. Operating system (Windows). computer programs and basic applications. 2003. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. K. Fundamentals of computer. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. 21 . Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. Ms-Power Point. processing hardware.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . Long l.1999. Ed. Introduction to MS-Word..London 1996.6th Ed. system software. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . Types and classification of computers. e-mail. Hardware: Input Hardware. Software: Application software. Rutledge. Local Area Network. Ms-Access. internet. Long N. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Marquis A. Ms-Excel.5.H. Storage hardware.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. Milton. G. output hardware. Selin..

Germany. USA.. Fate of pollutants in environment.T. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. 1999. Equations of fluid dynamics. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Energy conversion. Canada. Heat radiation and heat transfer. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. 2004. Conversion of mass. 5. C.. Liss. Turbulent jets and plumes. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. atmospheric and soil chemistry. Gaussian plumes in the air. 2008. Electromagnetic radiation. Entropy. Miller.D..S. Ozone and UV light. Samir. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. its causes and adverse effects on environment.E. Environmental Chemistry. J. 1st Edition. DoriaSerrano. Diffusion. Chemical reactions. Thomson-Brooks... UK. Environmental impact of various industries. Environmental Science. their sources and toxic actions. 2005. Brimblecombe. photosynthesis. Energy. Springer. Human perceptions and noise criteria. K.. Environmental Chemistry. Isotopes and radioactive decay. 4. Sound and Noise. trophic level. Particle physics. Jones and Barlett. Basic acoustics. 2004. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. 2nd Edition. Hernandez-Esparza.G.M. Fundamentals of aquatic. and Singh.. J. P. Nuclear energy. Jickells. G. 2.. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. India. Global climate and climatic change. Solar spectrum. Ibanez. and Reid. Solids. Turbulent diffusion. M. Girard. Fregoso-Infante. A. B. Recommended Books: 1... 3. T. interaction of light with matter. P. Transport of pollutants. Blackwell Science. Reducing the transmission of sound. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. Ozone chemistry. M. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. J. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Liquids and Gasses..J.E. Turbulence. Andrews. Active control of sound.

and Resource allocation. Economic Development. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. 3. Man environmental relationship. interaction between ecology and economic management. 2006. Pakistan economic context: National income. and Van Grondelle. G. 2008. Natural resources and the economy. Measures for sustainable development. Physics of the Environment and Climate. USA. Guyot. Growth and development. J. USA. Recommended Books: 1. 2. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. R. Economic management and environmental quality. Todaro. John Wiley and Sons Inc. M. USA. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. Sustainable development. Boeker. Kentucky USA. Environmental Physics. 4. and Pandis. Introductory Environmental Physics. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. Impact of economic activity on environment. Praxis publishing. Field visit. economic growth and its measurement. 2008. Smith. producer and community point of view.. Producer behavior. 23 . P. Yusuf. population and environmental quality. 2001. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change.1998. Recommended Books: 1. N. poverty. economic welfare and difference among all. Routledge. economic progress. UK. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. concepts and measurement. Seinfeld. C. World Bank Publications. 2001. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. 7th Ed. E. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. economic growth. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. John Wiley and Sons Inc. New York. Wesely Publishers. 2. Economic functions of environment. Growth and Environment. S. S.Economic development. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. USA. Environmental economics.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. H. Course Outlines Introduction to economics.

Environmental Critics of agriculture. Ecosystem and its types. B. temperature. soil. DeVeer. community and ecosystem. & Pierce. J. D. Shogren. Course Outlines Introduction. 2. Frodeman. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice..3. Recommended Books: 1. USA. concepts and approaches.. Russell. Swift. biogeography.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. Ecology. 24 . C. community. England. B. LLC. International Thomson Publishing. 2007.A. role of light. 4. WCIV7AA. Economics. Hanley. 2009. 2008. Touchstone Books. water. the ethics of soil. its fundamental concepts. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. species. and White. Palgrave Macmillan. A History of Western Philosophy.. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. ethics and ecology. London. Natural philosophy. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. and systems ecology. Callicott. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. B. N. World Bank Publications. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. USA. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. M. 2002. Farmington Hills. R. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. Introduction to ethical theory. Portland 1967. population. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . levels of ecological organization. 4.V. 3.. 2008. branches of ecology. J. Environmental philosophy and ethics. description of population. Kessinger Publishing.

2. J. After completion of this course. C. students will be able to understand the significance. Populations. Biogeochemical cycles of C.) Moles. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. bacteria and eukarya.L and Reiss. G. 1999 4. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. Fundamentals of Ecology. P. Fundamentals of Ecology. population dynamics. 2000. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). King’s College London. plant geography and animal distribution. UK. various concepts of community. New Delhi. community dynamics. New York. biotic factors. 5th Ed. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. landscape changes and their importance. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. E P. Concepts of Limiting factors. habitat and niche. Ecology (concepts and applications. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. Odum. productivity of different ecosystems. Recommended Books 1. distribution limits. Ecosystem: structure and function. ecological modeling. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. C. Cambridge University Press. UK. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. B. J. 2001 5.Cox. 3. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. landscape ecology. and More. 1st Ed. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Microbial metabolism. Chapman. N.topography and air as ecological factors. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. and S. characteristics of urban. Population distribution and abundance. aquatic microbiology.W. Tata McGraw-Hill. Ecology (principles and applications). M C J 1st ed. 1992. and Barett. WCB/McGraw-Hill. 2004. M J. Lab Work 25 . M. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. Dash. Biomes of the world. 6th Ed. Systems ecology. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea.

P. Pollution Control Strategies. and Klein.L.I.J. Academic Press. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution.P.B. New Jersey.L..C.G. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual.J. 2. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. P. USA.R. Peiece. Noise. Crawford.and Brendecke. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). 4th Edition. L. Microbiology. UK. Knudsen. J.1998. Environmental Pollution and Control.A.. C. transportation & treatments. 2. 3. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. C. Hartel. Fate of Environmental Pollutants.K. and Stetzenbach. 2 Edition. W. I. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. American Society for Microbiology. Dilution plate technique. Cambridge UK. Case Studies. Soil. Cambridge University Press. F. USA. P. D. peppor. Hill. Sylvia. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. Prescott. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. 2005. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. Hurrst. L. J. Washington DC. Maier...J. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology.L. R.P. 2007. Fuhrmann. USA... and Zuberer. (Elsevier) USA. Pepper.J. 2002. Effects of Pollutants. Solid Waste generation.A. Recommended Books 1.F. A. Marine & Industrial pollution.M. Water.W. 2005.. Environmental Microbiology. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. Prentice Hall. M. J.A. McGraw Hill Inc. 2nd Edition. R. Mean plate count.. Understanding Environmental Pollution.J. 3. G. Butterworth-Heinemann.D.. Academic Press. 2009. 2005.. and Gerba. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. Academic Press. and Jeffery.V.Gerba. Recommended Books: 1.M.and Vesilaind. McInernery. purification and preservation. London. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. 4...M. 1995.. D. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. D. 5. Harley. Weiner. USA. USA. M. isolation. Collection. 26 . Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. its sources and their effects.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. Human & other living organisms.

. local winds. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. . 5. Lutgens.M. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology..2nd Editions. The climate of Pakistan. Surface winds. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History.. Marcel Dekkar. Four Spheres of the Earth. 2002. 27 . Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. A. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . 3. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. climatic zones of Pakistan. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). John H. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. Solar radiations. A brief historical background and schools of psychology.K. Austin Miller.F. global circulation. Mechanism of heat transfer. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere.E. Cloud Classification. Pandis. Environmental psychology. Recommended Books: 1. Shamshad. air pressure. Tarbuck. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. Methods of psychology.J. Karachi.W. Royal book company. 6th Edition. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. Sadder. Lawrance K. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. 2. 2006 5. The Hydrologic cycle. condensation and cloud Formation. Factors affecting air Pressure. Radiation and climate. 1992. Houghton J. American Public Health Association (APHA). The Physics of Atmospheres. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. 2003. Cambridge University Press. 1988. The Atmosphere.. Weather and Climate. N. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. Climatology. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. 4. Spyros. John Wiley and Sons. K.4.

1992. Routledge. Recommended Books: 1.D. soil erosion and conservation. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan.characteristics and research methods. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. Course Outline Introduction. their management and ecological restoration. techniques and methods of restoration. Eysenck. Bell. Future water scenario of Pakistan. London. M. Environmental Psychology. 28 . sustainable agriculture. threats and mitigation. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. Greene. rivers. Sustainable livestock management practices.. Water as an ecological resource. limitation of irrigated agriculture. solar radiation and primary production. 5th Edition. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. T. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. carbon dioxide and global climate change. Environmental perception and cognition. Ecology of food production. Fundamental of Psychology. Sustainable agricultural practices.. concepts. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. CRC Press.C. 2. Background and scope. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. and Baum A.A. Restoration of derelict lands. Pollution control through Ecology. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. species response to pollutants. Ecological restoration. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. soil resources of Pakistan. energy and carbon balance. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. London. Routledge. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. Soil as a natural resource. P. 2001. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. soil salinity and water logging. Water and distribution of species.W. CRC Press. High population density and psychological impacts. Fisher J. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts.

Rashid. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. 2000 2. toxins & toxicants.National Book Foundation. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. on human and other living organisms. J. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. Odum E.A. Newman. USA. 3. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. Pakistan’s Environment. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. 2006. Chemical interactions and their types. Synergism. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. 29 . Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. toxicology of chemicals. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. A. E.. Potentiation and Addition. water and soil. 2nd ed. 2004. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. biological effects. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. 1996. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. G. Oxford. Organs. soil and air samples. Island Press. R. K. Peshawar. Immunological considerations in toxicology.I. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. Soil Science. Margaret A. Thomson Brooks/Cole.S.1998. Fundamentals of Ecology. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. and Hobbs. 4. B. Shirkat Gah. Blackwell Scientific Publications.. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. Mumtaz. 1989. Falk. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. toxicity screening using microbial systems. 5th Edition. K and Habib. Islamabad. A. dose response relationship in living organisms. Studies in Pakistan Geography. Lahore. Israr-ud-Din.W. terminologies: Poisons.Recommended Books: 1.P. from natural and anthropogenic sources.. J. D. 5. their containment and control strategies. Zedler. toxins vs toxicants.. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. and Barett. University of Peshawar. P. in vivo & in vitro assays. and Memon.

valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. P. W.Science of Poisons . Williams.Recommended Books 1. USA.). CRC Press Llc. the economic benefits of different environmental resources.2005 2. Hughes.D. Course Outlines Introduction. 2005 2. Ecological: ecological zones.1 & 2. Ballantyne. people. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. Recommended Books: 30 . Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. geography. (ed. economic development and the environment. Klassen. Government of Pakistan. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. Macmillan Press Ltd. urbanization and pollution. 1992. M. W. water resources. culture. major ecosystems. international trade and the environment. 1996. USA. health.M. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. 3. Vol. 3. measuring environmental benefits. B. industry.. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. 1st Edition. the economy and the environment. 1993. State of the Environment-Pakistan . 5th Edition. T and Turner. USA. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. pollution control-a general model. 1st Edition. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. land. General and Applied Toxicology. education. Recommended Books 1. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. Economic: agriculture. economic aspects of different environmental problems. Course Outlines Introduction to history. clean development mechanism. topographic zones. McGrawhill.

Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. D. I. Fluoride.D. Sparrow and D.. Recommended Books: 1.UK. D. L. Thomson and Brooks. B. precision and accuracy.K. 1993. 8th Edition.2004.. C. CSIRO Publ.. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. 2. Data interpretation for quality control.C. NO3–N & NH4-N). A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. M. Standard solutions and standard curves. Australia. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. Holler. Use of Potentiometery. K.J. handling. Conductivitymetry. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Oxford University Press. Collingwood.1. All Solids. Kolstad. salinity & sodicity). Conductivitymetry. Lab Work S. COD. and F.I. West. C. Field. Biomarkers in environmental assessment..A. soil (NPK and organic matter contents.K.and Field. preparation and storage. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Harris. 2003. M. Skoog. water and plant analysis. Gravimetery. Oxford. Johns Hopkins University Press.R. 3. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. 2000. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Freeman & Co. 4.W. J. Peverill. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. Titrimetery. Sample collection. Gravimetery.. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. 6th Edition.. USA. D. Turner.I. BOD. and Batemen. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. 1999. Environmental Economics. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions.2002. units. 2. 3. and derived S. 31 . A. 2005. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. New York. Sample preservation methods.L. Analytical techniques for soil. D. Titrimetery. Reuter. Pearce.

2005. New York.D. New York.W. J.). Recombinant DNA technology. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. 2009. 5th Ed. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. J. W. Tools in environmental biotechnology. 2nd Ed.. National Biotechnology Commission.1999. Government of Pakistan. Biosensor.P. and Russel. 2.E.. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. PCR. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. 2007. Hans- Joachim. After completion of this course. England. Oxford University Press. National Biosafety Guidelines. Isolation. Sambrook. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. Bioreactors. Cambridge University Press. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. Derbre. 3. Smith. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. purification and preservation of DNA. (ed. A. Scragg. 2005. J. Recommended Books 1. D. USA. students will be able to understand the significance. and application of biotechnology in the environment. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. Introduction to microbial kinetics. Environmental Biotechnology. USA.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . Germany. Chichoster. Biomarkers. Course Outlines Introduction. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. Wiley-VCH Verlag. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. 2001. Biotechnology. USA. and Josef. 4.

R. Pearsons Education. Cartography. History and data collection. K and L. Inc. Image Processing. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. 2009.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. Preparation of thematic maps. 3. Campbell. Using and reading GPS in field. Types of data used in GIS. A. Mc Graw Hill Education. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Interpretation. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. 5. integration of information from many sources. Different types of maps. Fishery and wildlife. Aerial photography. Dessinov. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Rancez. Lulla. Introduction to GIS. 4. Forestry. 2008. V. eradication of the duplicated data. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Inc. Introduction to Photogrammetry. 2. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . F. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). Z. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Jensen. Agriculture. Data acquisition. analysis and output. John Wiley and Sons. history and platforms. Harvey. Inc. 2000. Active and Passive remote sensing. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. Guilfoud press New York. Satellite Imageries. 1999. advantages and limitations of process. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. 2000. Data entry and output. Energy Sources. map projection and coordinate systems. John Wiley and Sons.

Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. economic. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. threats to biodiversity. Michigan.). etc. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. Environmental Management tools. Certification of EMS. Course Outlines Introduction. B. ecological. 1998. 2006. and Qasim. philosophical.3rd Edition . International Organization for Standardization. cleaner technologies.2nd Ed. social and ethical values of biodiversity.. and Yoxon. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. 2005. American Society for Quality. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. need and approach. Related Environmental legislation. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. Khan. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Methods of environmental protection. types of biodiversity. American Society for Quality.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. hot spots of biodiversity. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. A. 4. Environmental aspects and impacts. plant. M. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. M. eco-design. Environmental Economy. Sheldon. Environment and sustainable development. 2001. alpha and beta diversity. 34 . Conservation of biodiversity. standards and guidelines. 2. Systems and Support Techniques. F. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan... WWF Pakistan. principles of Cleaner production.C. Environmental Management Systems Principles. 3. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS).

Publ. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. NOC for plant operation. forests. chemical addition. Quality assurance and quality control.. air. ecotourism. design and types of samples. 3. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. C. 2000. Saad Printers. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. quality control sampling. water.. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. Kings College. community and ecosystem level. plants. Z. Lahore).B. croplands. 2000. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. refrigeration and freezing methods. and Morre. Mirza. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. cities. Considerations. national and international laws and regulations. P.. 2ndEd. conservation strategies. quality assessment. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. Sinauer. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. Conservation of wildlife. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. Rawalpindi. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. conservation and livelihood. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. London. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. laboratory custody. Legal protection of species. protected areas. habitats.D.e. population. international agreements. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. Sunderland. 2. their categories. Preservation methods including pH control. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation.conservation at species.B. Recommended Books: 1. 1998. soil and living organisms. EIA requirement. 35 . Biogeography. management. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. P. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment.B. Course Outlines Introduction. A Primer for Conservation Biology. sampling and design purposes. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. presampling requirements/information. field custody. Cox. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. Associates Inc. conservation in man-made ecosystems.R.

Peakall.1999. The Measurement of Climate Change. Environmental Chemistry. USA.USA. Murai. 2nd Edition. Regional droughts and 36 . New York. Precipitation. Burden. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. N. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. 2002. 6. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. R. 3. Energy and Temperature. Tokyo. agriculture. 7. phenological changes. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. (eds. . Human responses to potential climate change. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. 2000. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. D. human health. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. and Guethner. USA. 1992. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. McKlivie. E. H. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. chemical. altered community structure. extinctions. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. E. Chapman and Hall. Forstner U. 2002. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. I. biological. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. Physical. Keith. L. Recent Climate Change Indicators. Remote Sensing Note. USA. F. S. D. Earth Observation of Global Change. Moisture in the Atmosphere. regional. Korte. 2. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention.) McGraw-Hill. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. UK. (ed) Springer.. Ozone depletion. Lewis Publisher London.. 8. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. Manahan. 5. its causes and effects. 2008. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. S. 2008. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. Chuviero.Recommended Books: 1. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change.1996. and social factors contributing to climate and global change.

A. 37 . Global Change and the earth system. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. J. R. Recommended Books: 1. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. solids. Types & Resources to produce Energy. 2000. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. 2005. J.Causes.. 1st Edition. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. 2005.. Petts. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. liquid. Climate Change . screening. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. & Nixon. 1999. Effects. 2003. National Book Foundation. 6. 2. EIA project management. and Chadwick. 4. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. J. Oxford. Islamabad. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. decision-making to implement the project. Routledge.O. Houghton. 1986. Hardy. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. Earthscan Publication Ltd. impact analysis. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Cost and benefits of EIA. Keith. Sringer.. Harrop. overview. London.A. Effects. 4. Main stages in EIA process. Islamabad.. 3. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. National Environmental Quality Standards for air... mitigation and impact management.Causes. Glasson. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. D. reporting. Therivel. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. 2004. Climate Change .cataclysmic climate change. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). Recommended Books: 1. scoping. 2.). review of EIA quality. project implementation and follow up. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. law. J. Blackwell. Hardy.. John Wiley & Sons. A.(ed). T. (ed. 2005. 3. 1994. and Solutions. London. public involvement. 2003. 5. J. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. Ministry of Housing and Works. Global Warming and Climate Change. and noise. and Solutions. social impact assessment (SIA).T. John Wiley & Sons.

. national and provincial legislation. J. F.. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. Evans. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. USA.. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. Recommended Books: 1.. B. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. best available option for future. H. New York. 2nd Edition. A. 6. John Willey & Sons. methodologies.. Ludwig.5. existing management approaches. Types. causes and methods for its improvement. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. process and contents of the management plan. 1997. Goldsmith. Lohani. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. Rangeland Management: existing status. 38 . Everitt. wind power and nuclear power. 1993.. B. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. United Nations Environment Programme. R. national example. agriculture chemicals. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. threats. Conservation in Progress. 2002. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. agriculture products and their share in GDP. solar power. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. R.B and Warren.). management options. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. Development of Management Plan: needs. and Tu. & McCabe. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. limitation in the future. forest types and its existing management. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. requirement. Sadler. M. national agriculture policy. effective management.. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. problem in agriculture. S. wildlife census. their current status and threats. Carpenter. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. importance. threat and its causes. their pros and cons. Asian Development Bank. management options. (ed.

and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. P. 1990. John Wiley & Sons.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. Environmental Conservation.2. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. Objectives. J. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). 2007. Questionnaire. Surveys. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. R. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design.E.. population and sampling frames. Research Proposal: its importance . & Plano Clark. Material Methods.F.L. 5. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. Methodology. Review of Literature. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. Bibliography. 4. W. New York.E. Inference based on findings. Elsevier. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. London. Creswell. GOP and IUCN. Islamabad. Sampling: the logic of sampling. 1984. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. Selecting the Research Method. Thousand Oaks. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. research methods. Literature Search: Database. Case Studies. Scientific Research: Science. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. Search Engines. Review of Literature. Interviews. Research Design & Research Methods. 1992. 39 . Scientific Methods. to introduce students to research design. and Jorqensen. How to put things together? Introduction. 3. USA. Dasmann.A pre-requisite for Research. S. types of sampling design/. concepts and terminologies.Amsterdam. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. V. Hansen. Sage CA. Experimental Research. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1.

John and sons Ltd. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. National Environmental Policy 4. Qadar. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act.. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. Univ. Babbie. 2000. 3. E. 1989. Robert Yin. Booth. Belmont California.Harrad. Chichester. Moriarty. 1997. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. 4.2. Law Books House. Marilyn F. National Conservation Strategy 5. Diamon. England. USA. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. R. and Arhonditsis. Wadsworth Publishing Company.S. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. 2003.h. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Government of Pakistan 3. 2008. of Chicago Press. Sage Publishers. USA. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. S. 5. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . 6. 2003.. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. 2001 and the rules of business made there under.USA..Batty. Students project in Environmental Science. 3rd Edition. Survey Research Methods.. 2001. M. 1997. G. 2nd Edition. regulations made there under. 2.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
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Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. N. Lahore. 2003. Biswas. flood and droughts. Cheema.. C. 2006. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. Bengali. N. R. and Tortajada. Oxford University Press New Delhi... 2005. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. O. hydrological cycle.. with drinking water facilities like springs.Varis. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan.). Islamabad. SDPI Oxford University Press.K. 2006. Recommended Books: 1. virtual water. groundwater exploitation. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. 5.. 4. watershed/catchment. (eds.. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. Asia Printer. (ed. J. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. Khan. U. Revised & enlarged edition. 3. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. recycling and re-use of wastewater. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan.). Ahmed. The Politics of Managing Water. water supply and demand management measures. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). A. integrated water resources management (IWRM). Islamabad. Pakistan. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. Oxford University Press Karachi. 6.Lahore. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. Ahmed. A. A. pollution aspects. 1993. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. 2. tubewells. Briscoe. and Malik. Pakistan . P. 44 . Indus Water Accord 1991. K. and Qamar. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency.. water quality and quantity aspects. fisheries management. I. wetlands resources management. flood and drought management. Mirajuddin Publication . R. Mirajuddin Publication .1993. Course Outlines Water resource and its management.

Islamabad.T. Physical and chemical properties of soil. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals.W. future of urban centers. humans as components of urban ecosystems. Brady. Urban ecosystem. Hillel. soils. urban political ecology. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. PrenticeHall. R. 45 . Miller. Types and properties of parent materials.R. D. Factors and processes of soil formation. Course Outlines Introduction. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. 2007. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. R. Pakistan. 1996. CA. Forms of urbanization. R. NJ. and Weil. Academic Press. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. N. NJ. urban landscapes characteristics.. USA. USA. 11th Edition. Soil degradation. After completion of this course. 2008. Gardiner. Soil Science. 1. Prentice Hall. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. transport. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. D. urbanization in Pakistan. Causes of urbanization.C. and Bantel. hydrological processes. Upper Saddle River. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. urban flora and fauna. San Diego. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. the salient features of urban environments.. Bashir. Soil forming minerals. 2007. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. Soils in Our Environment. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. Cation and anion exchange. Process and outcome. Course Outlines Introduction. management and green productivity. E. Urbanization. Definition. Upper Saddle River. National Book Foundation.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. urban settlements. USA.

Planning and Urban Change. 4. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Elements of urban planning. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. UK. Penguin Group. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. M... C. 2009. Land use planning theories. Aims and Objectives of planning. I. 2004. 1. New York. 2. City Design for Sustainable Development. M. UR. Silberstein. 2006. Gilbert. UK. UK. S. 2004. USA.. SAGE Publications Ltd. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. Recommended Books: 1.L. S. 3. nd 2 Edition.and Maser. O.and Kowaril. 5. London. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. Hough. Justification for planning for city management.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. CRC Press LLC. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. Planning theories and concepts. 46 . H. Alberti. 2000. Types of Urban Plans. Hejny. Smith. The planning process. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. USA. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. V.S. Ward. London. Chapman and Hall. Planning and its relationship with other professions. Kate. 1989. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments.. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. J. Levels of planning. nature and purpose of urban planning. A.1990. Routledge.. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. D. Hague. Sukopp. New trends in planning and city management. Springer. SBS academic publishing. Scope. Principles of planning. 2. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. Routledge. 2007. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans.

To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. The Guilford Press. i. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson.F.W. 1991. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. D.J. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. H.3. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. Prediction. Flooding. 1993. Manila. Disaster Management: Components of management. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. Physical factors. 1989. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. Disaster as an opportunity for development. Earthquake. Different approaches and Indicators. Introducing Town Planning. E&UA Div. Natural Disasters Alexander. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. Chapman & Hall. Landslide. Cultural factors. It discusses a wide range of aspects. and White G. International phenomenon. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. P. R. 1986.. Government of Pakistan. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. ADB. 2nd Edition. Natural cycles and their role. Westview Press. Hazards.. New York. Ministry of Housing and Works.B. Socio-economic factors.. Recommended Books: 1... M. G. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. and Woodrow. 2. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. Role of Media in Disaster Management. 1993..UNESCO. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. 3. Political factors. Islamabad. Longman Group. Earthquake Management. 47 . Kates. Flood Management: Organizational Role. UK. 1993.W. Boulder . Paris. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. 4.. Clara. 4..e. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. New York. Techniques and methods to assess hazard.

Disasters and Development Cuny. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. D. Biotic structure. 6th Edition. Agroecology. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. 2007. solar. 1. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. energy resources. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. 1984. types. Perry R.. primary producers. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. 1983. 2.C. decomposers.H. Quorum Books. John Wiley and Sons. biomass resources.5. local. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. Sustainable livestock management. sustainable energy management.W. alternate energy resources. 48 . M. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems.M. Paris. energy resources of Pakistan. McKinney. Westport. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. F. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. Botkin. USA. and Mushkatel. OECD/IEA. 4th Edition. and Yonavjak. 6. E. R. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. New York. consumers. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. 2001. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. 3. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources.L. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. Consumer and producer relationship. merits and demerits of wind. 2007. Schoch.A.. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. Ecological concept in crop and food production. L. hydropower.B and Keller. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. uses.. A. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment.

Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species.. and Sudha. 1990.A.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. R. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. P. Westview Press. M. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture.G. Yandermeer J.P. E-11 Seminar 49 .R. New Delhi. 3. USA. CBS Publishers and Distributors.H. Study of stratification and profile diagram. USA. and Rossel. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. Agrocology. C. 2. Recommended Books: 1. India. New York. 1995. Boulder.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. Corol. Altreri. 2000. Kapur. Experimental Plant Ecology.M. Study of index of diversity. McGraw Hill Publishing Company.

The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. 2.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. 50 . The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. availability of the faculty and other facilities. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. 5. 4. 3. that: 1. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. the Committee agreed on the following principles.

7. 8. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 6. 9. 15. 12. 2. 3. 14. 11. 18. 16. 12. 20. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 8. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 11. 7. 26. 23. 4. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 6. 5. 22. 17. 10. 4. 21. 5. 24.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 19. 25. 3. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 10. 2. 13. 9. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife.

Islamabad. Karachi..S. 2nd Edition. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. F.. 2.T.E. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. status of Terrestrial. D. Ball. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. Conventions and Protocols in Global. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. Environment People and Economy. Oxford University Press. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. 1992. GOP and IUCN. S. Relationship of culture. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS).E. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. WCS. Money. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. S. 1987. Amsterdam.1994.DETAILS OF M. 1991. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Mackenzie J. Hodder and Stoughton.. Draft National Environmental Policy.1991. London. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. Geography of Pakistan.A. Khan K. Oxford University Press. Mackenzie. Elsevier. 3. Conservation Strategies. Instruments and methods.F. S. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. development of concepts. NCS. 2. Regional and International Environmental Issues. 52 . technology and resource use. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling.1995. P.. and Jorqensen. FURTHER READINGS 1. Treaties.1994.. London Black Stone Press Ltd. 4. Hansen. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. Provincial and Local Strategies. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. and Bell. 3. Environmental control Policies.

1995. Recommended Books: 1. Cost benefit analysis of projects. A one Publishers Lahore. 2. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. social impact assessment. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. 3. Government of Pakistan. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. Air and Solid Waste. Ministry of Environment. Longman Scientific and Technical. opportunities and issues. A.Vanclay. Burnt Hill. World Bank. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Longman House. C. Environment Department. ecological impact assessment. Gas Chromatography etc. Ahmed. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. D. DC. WB. Environmental Chemical Analysis. UK. Wastewater. England. process. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. Wood. Environmental auditing. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. K. John Wiley & Sons. role and importance. 53 . Assessment of environmental impacts. Ed. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Case Studies and review. History. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction.. economic impact assessment. 1995.A. F & Bronstein. Principles of physical. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. Demographic impact assessment. 2. sample collection and preservation. Washington. Recommended Books: 1. FURTHER READINGS 1. sampling rules. Chichester. 1993. ed. Harlow Essex. procedures and methods of EIA.

1998. Primary health care services. Occupational Health: problems and issues. principles and practices. Resource Mobilization. activities. A Guide to Project Management. S. Lippmann. Defining Project objectives. 3. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. Ergonomic and Safety. safety techniques. K. inputs. T. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. MS Project Recommended Books: 1.2000. Project Management Institute.. 5. 2002. Meredith J. B. 2. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems.. 2. Planning Commission Performas. means of verification. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. USA.. Project Planning. outputs. Project Initiation. Mantel s. economic evaluation. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. 1st Ed. A. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. Need identification. Project Planning and Approval Processes.. work breakdown structure. 2001. Oxford University Press New York. Writing Project Proposal. indicators. 1992. Basic Environmental Health. Environmental Health Engineering.. 1997. 1st ed. Public health concept. USA. Project Life Cycle. 54 . UK. 1st Ed. prevention and control. specific objectives. 1993. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). J. R. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. assumptions. M. development objectives. London... R. John Wiley and Sons. Prentice Hall International Inc. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). J. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. Nebel. M/S Banarsid. Inc. Yassi. T. 4. New York.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. feasibility study. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. T. Park. Wiley Interscience.. L. Kjelllström. air borne. and Wright. Government Policies and Programs. and Guidotti. de Kok. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. Accident prevention and safety plans. Reasons for Project success or failure. 2nd Ed. Recommended Books: 1. T. Caeneross..

2. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Principles of cleaner production. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. bio-energy resources. D. Sources of data. Sayre. E. sustainable energy management for agriculture. 2007. Botkin. 6th Edition. energy resources of Pakistan. uses. and Yonavjak. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. 55 . McKinney. Related Environmental regulations.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.M. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. non-renewable and renewable. industry and domestic sectors. 1990b. 4. 2001. petroleum.A. principles and elements of the process of EMS.L. gas. R. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. alternate energy resources. data collection and interpretation. Environmental auditing. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). solar. John Wiley and Sons.B and Keller. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future.. transport. USA. ISO Central Secretariat. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. Paris. 2007. energy resources. D. 3. Switzerland. Environmental Auditing. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. Paris. OECD/IEA. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. Recommended Books: 1. Recommended Books: 1. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. 2. 4th Edition. Michigan-January 2001. merits and demerits of wind. types. nuclear) local. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. L. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). hydropower. 1998. Schoch. 3. St Luise Press. M. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan.

survival and extinction. 2003. plant conservation. T. Silvertown. Earthscan Publication Ltd. water resources. Effects.. 2005. (Ed. Maarel. management and restoration. Blackwell Publishing. ED. and Solutions. Climate change and food production. Springer. vegetation dynamics. E & Muller-Hohenstein. global aspects of plant ecology. D. geographical and temporal patterns. London.T. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. etc.Causes. Plant Ecology. 2005. 1st Edition. E. 3. 1. Climate Change and Ecosystems. The Green House Effect. Blackwell Publishing. Climate Change . 2005. Climate Change . 4. 3. types and their climatic effects. plant invasions. Effects. UK 1991. K. Species richness. 5. types of climate change models. forests. ECOPE 29. Berlin. resources and plants. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. and Solutions. John Wiley & Sons. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. 2003. 2005. Houghton.. Hardy. Hardy. 2004. Warrick. J. Recommended Books: 1. Life history strategies of plants. 2. Green House Gases. John Wiley & Sons. competition and coexistence. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Modeling of climate change. Shulze.Causes.D.). J. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. B & Jager. Oxford. Recommended Books: 1.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. John Wiley & Sons. 56 . J. UK. D. 2. Plant population dynamics. Oxford UK. Vegetation Ecology Ed. human activities and vegetation dynamics. Beck. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. & Charlesworth. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. Chichester.

management. W. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. E. Oxford. Rangeland management. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. T. Consumptive. I). Status of forests in Pakistan. 5. Roberts.J. Primack. Bailey. Biodiversity: An introduction. Global and national biodiversity. B. Participatory forest management. 3. distribution. Oxford University Press. Mcmillan. T. their importance. Protection and restoration of species. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. deforestation and its control. Establishment and management of protected areas.L. Roberts. 2002. distribution. & Ripley. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. II).G. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity.D. 1984. USA. Essentials of Conservation Biology. S. Forests. problems and solutions. Wildlife Ecology and Management. Oxford. threats and conservation.B. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. And Bolen. 1992. Oxford. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. Blackwell Publsihing. Wetlands. Protected areas in Pakistan. Inc. Cambridge. UK. 2004. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol.J. Oxford University Press.J. Sinauer Assocaites. Recommended Books: 1. R. Cambridge.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. Sustainable forest management. London. Loss of biodiversity. Publishers Sunderland. Wildlife of Pakistan.) Gaston. J. 1986. Weddell. 1973 2. Cambridge University Press. J.A. 57 .J. Conserving Living Natural Resources. Forest plantations. Oxford University Press. kinds. 1998. habitats and ecosystems. Robinson. Principles of Wildlife Management. 2. types. status. Recommended Books: 1. their types and role in conservation. distribution and management. John Wiley And Sons. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. types. 3. 4. Threatened animals and plants.(2nd Ed. their ecological and economic importance. Extinction of species. Protected areas. biological diversity. its causes. UK. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. & Spicer. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. 2002. K. S.

drinking water and solid waste in cities. 2007.. C. Silberstein. G. urban landscape characteristics. V.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. 2004. The Works: Anatomy of a City. management of transport.. Environmental problems of urban life. USA. A. Government of Pakistan. E&UA Div. London. SAGE Publications Ltd. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. USA. 4. UK. Kate. Longman Group. Recommended Books: 1. 3.. New York. Forms of urbanization. 2. urban political ecology. Planning and Urban Change. sanitation. CRC Press LLC. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. 1993. Penguin Group. S. Islamabad. 58 . UK. J. 1986. Clara. 2000. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Urban land use planning and management. Introducing Town Planning.. Sustainable cities. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Ministry of Housing and Works. H. Ward. urban systems and their characteristics. urbanization in Pakistan.and Maser. future of urban centers.

V. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. Thomson and A. Exercises 1.Annexure .A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. Practical English Grammar by A. a) Functional English Grammar 1. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. ISBN 0194313492 59 .J. Martinet. Oxford University Press. Third edition. 1997. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase.

Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. Third Impression 1992. Writing.J. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. Reading. Fourth Impression 1993. intensive and extensive. and speed reading. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 .V. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. Martinet. Third edition. Thomson and A. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. b) Practical English Grammar by A.2. minutes of meetings. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. Oxford University Press. Oxford Supplementary Skills. 1997. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. Reading/Comprehension 1. Exercises 2. Upper Intermediate.

descriptive and argumentative writing). Writing. clarity. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . Reading 1. Oxford Supplementary Skills. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Fourth Impression 1993. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Advanced. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Exercises 2. discursive. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. Third Impression 1991. Third edition. Third Impression 1992. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Thomson and A. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Practical English Grammar by A. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. b) Writing 1. Reading. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Fourth Impression 1992. Writing. form. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. 2. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. narrative. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Martinet. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Oxford University Press 1986. introduction to presentations.V. 2.1. language. Writing.J. Advanced by Ron White. content.

3. Compiled by norther Illinois University. 2004. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader.(particularly suitable for discursive. 2. descriptive. argumentative and report writing). Martin’s Press. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. Kathleen Shine Cain. without taxing the taste of engineering students). Kirszner and Stephen R. St. Mandell. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. A Custom Publication. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. 62 . College Writing Skills by John Langan.

Muslim advent iii. Location and geo-physical features. Shahid Javed. government. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Safdar. Society and social structure c. Economic institutions and issues b. 1971-77 d. 2. 4. ideological background of Pakistan. 2. contemporary Pakistan. 1999 onward 3. Contemporary Pakistan a. 1977-88 e. 1988-99 f. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. S. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy.M. politics. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. Indus Civilization ii. Ethnicity d. Lahore. 63 Books Recommended 1. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Zaidi. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. Mehmood. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. State & Society in Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press. S. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. People and Land i. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. Akbar. 1994. national development. Course Outline 1.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective.Annexure . 3. . 2000. Historical Perspective a. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. 1958-71 c. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. Study the process of governance. 1947-58 b. b. 1993.

History & Culture of Sindh. Pakistan Under Martial Law.K. nd. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Tahir. Khalid Bin. 1972. 6. 10. Enigma of Political Development. Sayeed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. 13. Ziring. 1980. Aziz. Club Road.5. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. M. Islamabad. Wayne. 64 . Washington: American Enterprise.. 12. Lawrence. 1967. Mehmood. I.National Movement in Pakistan. II & III. Muhammad Waseem. Noor ul. Zahid. Safdar. Ansar. 1976. 14. Wilcox. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Party. 1993. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. The Political System of Pakistan.The Emergence of Banglades. Political Parties in Pakistan. Amin. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Lahore: Vanguard. 7. 8. Institute of Public Policy Research. 1987. Rafique. 1998. Ethno . Pakistan Kayyun Toota. 9. Vol. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Afzal. 11. 1980. K. Politics in Pakistan. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Haq.

20) Related to thinking.58. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.57.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.21.A.A. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.A.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .Tadabar (Verse No1.6.40.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.56.A.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.19.Annexure .

3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt. in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .

” Hussain Hamid Hassan. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. Bhatia. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. Pakistan. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq.S. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. “Emergence of Islam” . IRI. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. “Studies in Islamic Law. International Islamic University. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. Ahmad Hasan. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. Islamabad (2001) 67 .

cube roots of unity. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. types of functions. set operations. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). matrix inverse. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. 1978. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. equations reducible to quadratic equations. Wooton W. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. harmonic progression. Beckenback EF. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. introduction to sets. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. complex numbers. 1986. PWS-Kent Company. determinants. Houghton & Mifflin. Cramer’s rule. system of linear equations. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. PWS-Kent Company. Boston 68 . binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. geometric progression. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. Sharron S.Annexure . trigonometric identities. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. types. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. not majoring in mathematics. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Boston Swokowski EW. functions. 1987.

69 . functions and their graphs.2. Calculus (11th edition). Finney AR. 2005. left-hand and right-hand limits. PWS-Kent Company. Calculus (3rd edition). Calculus and Analytic Geometry. inequalities. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. 2005. slope of a line. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. rational and transcendental functions. Recommended Books: Anton H. parallel and perpendicular lines. New York Stewart J. Davis S. John Wiley. Boston Thomas GB. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. not majoring in mathematics. continuity. integration by parts. distance between two points. Ma. continuous functions. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. derivatives. angle between two lines. change of variables in indefinite integrals. intersection of two lines. USA 3. differentiation of polynomial. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. distance between a point and a line. not majoring in mathematics. 1983. Bevens I. integration by substitution. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. various forms of equation of a line. solution of equations involving absolute values. Addison-Wesley. equation of a line. 1995. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. Reading.

Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. 1986. 1987. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. hyperbola. system of linear equations. Boston 4. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. Boston Swokowski EW. circles determined by various conditions. inverse of matrices. locus of a point in various conditions. ellipse. 70 . equations reducible to quadratic equations. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). College Algebra and Trigonometry. determinants. PWS-Kent Company. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. Freshman and Company. set operations. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. types of matrices. • Contents 1. types of functions. 1969 Kaufmann JE. Scott. Introduction to sets. Conic Sections: Parabola. Cramer’s rule. functions. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. PWS-Kent Company.Circle: Equation of a circle. Analytic Geometry. nature of roots of quadratic equations. intersection of lines and circles. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics.

inter quartile deviation mean deviation. bar frequency diagram histogram. frequency polygon. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. 3. ungrouped and grouped data. deciles and percentiles. Kaufmann. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. quartiles. R. discrete and continuous series.. skewness and kurtosis. R. array. Wilcox. Swokowski. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. E. E. Latest Edition. moments. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’.. characteristics of statistics. Latest Edition. R. W. standard deviation. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. 4. 2. individual. tally sheet method. Books Recommended: 1. relationship of statistics with social science. Prentice Hall.geometric and harmonic progressions. 2. 71 . variance. Walpole... E. PWS-Kent Company. 5. types of frequency series. Latest Edition. Measures of dispersion: Range. trigonometric identities. cumulative frequency curve. Boston. Graphs: Graph of straight line. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. circle and trigonometric functions. J. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry.

6. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. Inequalities. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. W. 4th edition. • Integration Integration from first principles. 1999. Schaum’s Outline Series. 2. Gleason. Trigonometric Functions. integration by parts. 2. integral inequalities. 6. Jhon Willey & Sons. implicit differentiation. Contents 1. Slope of a Line. substitution method. Solution of equations involving absolute values. 8th edition. Integration by Parts. Continuous Functions. Swokowski. Mathews. Elliott Mendelson. the chain rule. products. and Transcendental Functions. infinite and improper integrals.Jr.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. Thomas. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . Calculus Single and Multivariable. Recommended Books: 1. sinusoidal function. S. integration using partial fractions. Leibnitz’ theorem. E. Rational and Transcendental Functions. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. Addison Wesley publishing company. reduction formulae. Calculus. Extreme Values of Functions. 11th Edition. John Wiley & Sons. applications of integration. 2005. Davis. Prentice-Hall. Bevens. Calculus. 3rd Edition. McCallum. Boston. integration by inspection. Least-Squares Line. quotients. 2002. Calculus. I. et al. plane polar coordinates. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. 1983. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. 2005. Hughes-Hallett. logarithmic integration. Anton. the inverse of differentiation. 4. logarithmic differentiation. special points of a function. Frank A. 5. Second Edition 1992. Continuity. John H. H. Rational Functions. Inc. theorems of differentiation. Equation of a Line. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. Inc. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. 3.

hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. the difference method. complex conjugate. inverses of hyperbolic functions. arithmetico-geometric series. modulus and argument. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. series involving natural numbers. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. approximation errors in Taylor series. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. multiplication. identities of hyperbolic functions. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. finding the nth roots of unity. geometric series. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4.Additions and subtraction. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. solving hyperbolic equations.

Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. vector product. moments of inertia. Pappus’ theorems. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. scalar triple product. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. symmetric and antisymmetric. line to line. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals.5. orthogonal. of a unitary matrix. point to plane. centers of mass and centroids. 6. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. Hermitian. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. masses. the inner product. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal.

combinations of grad. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. divergence of a vector field. spherical polar coordinates 75 . Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field.8. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates.

Observations. The Variance and standard deviation. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Ogive for Discrete Variable. sampling and non sampling errors. The semi-Interquartile Range. Exercises. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Significant digits. sampling with and without replacement. Empirical Relation between Mean.Annexure . null and alternative hypothesis. Presentation of Data Introduction. probability and non-probability sampling. Exercises Unit 6. Exercises. Different types of Averages. Probability and Probability Distributions. Histogram. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Quantiles. Diagrams. Difference of means and proportions. bias. acceptance and rejection regions. Population. Rounding of a Number. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. The Mode. Collection of primary and secondary data. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. 76 . Type-I and Type-II errors. Exercises. Stem and Leaf Display. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Box and Whisker Plot. Exercises. definition of outliers and their detection. Discrete and continuous variables. Absolute and relative measures. Unit 5. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Editing of Data. Graphs and their Construction. sample design and sampling frame. Pie chart. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Sources. Unit 3. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. properties of Good Average. Unit 7. Bar charts. Unit 4. Coefficient of variation. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Constructing of a frequency distribution. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Exercises. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. The Mean Deviation.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Statistical problem. level of significance. Errors of measurement. Range. Median and mode. Test statistics. Moments and Moments ratios. Standardized variables. Types of frequency curves. Exercises. Change of origin and scale. Unit 2. Data. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Historigram.

Single Population Introduction. 1982. Testing of Hypothesis. Correlation. “Introduction to Statistics”. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. New York. estimation of parameters and their interpretation.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. F. 2 Muhammad. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. Contingency Tables. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. examples. R.Unit 8. Regression and Correlation Introduction. simple linear regression. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. Exercises Unit 9. cause and effect relationships. 3rd Ed. Inc.. r and R2. Coefficient of linear correlation. Unit 11. Exercises. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”.. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. its estimation and interpretation. 2005. Macmillan Publishing Co. E. Kitab Markaz. 77 . Exercises Unit 10.

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