CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

2

CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
58

3

imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge.). The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. degree awarding institutions. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . R&D organizations. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. It is. dated December 4th 1976. PROF. D773/76-JEA (cur.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. Lahore. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. therefore. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. 63. universities and other institutions of higher education. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream.ALTAF ALI G. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. It also aimed to give a basic. and 36. DR. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. respective accreditation councils and stake holders.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. the Federal Government vide notification No. The world has turned into a global village.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation.

R&D.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. OF NCRC. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. COL. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. PREP. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. UNI. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. OF CURRI. REC. OF FINAL CURRI. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. EXP. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. Preparation 5 .

Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Member 3. Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. Dr. Following attended the meeting:1. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Dr. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Member 6 . Lahore Member 6. 7. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Member 5. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Member 4. Karachi from 28-30. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre.

Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Member 15. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Dr. 13. Dr. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. 7 . Dr. Member 11. Dr. Member 10. Member 14. Prof. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Dr. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Dr. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi.8. Prof. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Karachi Member 12. Member 16. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor.

Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Member 19. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. Member 20. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Dr. Secretary Dr. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. Chairman. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. Karachi. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. 8 . 1. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr.17. Director of HEC Regional Center. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. The meeting was opened by Mr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. Dr. 2. Mr. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. At first. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. Faisalabad Member 18. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Mr.

The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. 1.3. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. In last few centuries. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. 3. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. 5. 6. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. 4. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. 2. The committee thanked Mr. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment.

skills and behaviour patterns. regional and global contexts. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. Apply theoretical understanding. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. 5. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . This committee. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. ii. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. in its preliminary meeting. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science.

Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals.. Integrating natural sciences. Sc. 4. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. eight semesters in the semester system. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. 6. with consensus. 2. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. The medium of instruction. A.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. 1. The 11 . that: 1. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science.e. 3. 5. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes.

Introductory Economics* 17. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Environmental Microbiology 21. Biology –II* 9. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Biology –I* 3. Fundamentals of Ecology 20.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Basic Chemistry* 4. Climatology* 23. Environmental Pollution 22. Environmental Physics 16. Introduction to Earth Science 8. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. English-I 6. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Introduction to Computer 14. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. English-II 12. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. English-III 18. Psychology* . Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Environmental Chemistry 15.

ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. English-IV/ Univ. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Natural Resource Management 40. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. 44. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. Applied Ecology 26. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. Environmental Management Systems 34. Environmental toxicology 27. 46. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. Environmental Economics 29. Environmental Monitoring 36. Climate Change 38. Environmental Biotechnology 32. Opt.24. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. 45. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . ELECTIVE-III 42. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43.

• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .

2007. environmental pollution. proteins and nucleic acids. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . urbanization. current global.B & Keller. & Nebel. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. 2007. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. B.T. & Yonavjak.L. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet.. Botkin.M. Schoch. John Wiley & Sons. 4th Ed. 10th Ed.J. philosophical. McKinney. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. R. lipids. development in industry and agriculture. its importance in human life. and their relationships with various environmental factors. poverty and resource depletion. history. Miller. Thomson Learning. 6th Ed. G. ecological. Human environment and its problems: global. Recommended Books: 1. L. 4. E. ethical. biological and social. Wright. national. D. R.. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. socio-economic. 15 . regional. 2007 3. 2002. M. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. Pearson Educational. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future.A. Different aspects of environment: physical. 2.

phospholipids in membrane systems. USA. chemical basis of life. V. esters. E. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. R. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Structure and the basis of function. proteins. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. Lewis. 2. Origin of life: chemical evolution. Bulter. Wadsworth Group. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. Australia . Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. 2003. Cassimeris. Plopper. Molecular Biology through Questions. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. lipids. Ltd. lipids. chemical diversity.Hill International Edition.. USA. the molecule of genetic information and replication.. covalent. G. Nucleic acids. Cells. Starr. amines). overview of structure and function of cell organelles. Self Assessment and Revie. 2008. 5th Edetion. 5. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. M. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. McGraw.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. L. 2007. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. USA. and Lewis. Introduction to cell biology. J. Cell division. C. 2007. origin of metabolism. New York. 8th Ed. Shier. Canada. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. D. 16 . Crossley. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. B. 3. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. Aromatic compounds. Biology: a Human Emphasis. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. Ionic. carbonyls. carboxylic acids.. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc.. N. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. R. Lingappa. coordinate covalent bond. 1996. carbohydrates. polypeptides in protein diversity. A. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. 4. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. 1.. and Whitelaw. protobionts.

K. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. 4. Understanding Environmental Pollution. law of Cosines. Recommended Books: 1.. 2nd Edition. radicals. D. USA.. expansion of determinants. Canada. Solution chemistry. Column chromatography.D. angle-sum formula. D... D..ions. Osmosis and Dialysis. Blackwell Science. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. molal. Photochemical reactions. Skoog. Jickells. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. 17 .. Liss. 8th Edition. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix..E. and Reid.Special Products (Binomial Expression). determinants. minor and cofactor of a matrix. West. Andrews. Lab Work Preparation of molar.J. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula.C.. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). Hill. 1st Ed. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. J. B. UK.. Cambridge University Press. series and means. 3. P. Colloids chemistry. Brimblecombe.S. USA. equations of lines (linear equations). 2005. Thomson and Brooks. graphs. 2004. T. simultaneous equations and their solutions. 6th Edition. double angle formulas. Thin layer chromatography. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. normal solutions/buffers. UK. Freeman and Company. EC and TDS in waste water. real line. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. J.H.A. 2nd Edition. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. Measurement of pH. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. Harris. 2003. 5. W. 2. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane.M. Surface chemistry. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. F. Jones and Barlett. M. Girard. 2004.J.E. values of trigonometric functions. geometric and harmonic sequence. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). 2004. Algebra of matrices. straight line and related concepts. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. P. and Holler.

Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. Calculus and Analytical Geometry.. theorems on differentiation (sum. Introduction to rocks and minerals. Integration: Formulas of integration. faults. product and quotient rules without derivations). Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. Addission. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. 1999. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. plate tectonics. Introduction to folds. 18 . nonrepeated linear factors. foliation. Narosa Publishing House. 2. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. igneous and metamorphic rocks. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. and Finney. Thomas. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. New Delhi. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. Pacific Grove. 4. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure .. earthquakes and volcanoes. weathering and erosion. California. earthquakes. lineation and unconformities. Trignometry for College students. Weathering. theorem of integration. difference. Fossils and their significance. composition and its internal structure. irreducible quadratic factors. Abraham. G. different earth processes like mountain buildings. Scott Foresman and Company. erosion and related landforms. mountain building.Cramer’s Rule. 4th Ed.B. Recommended Books: 1. Smith. K. Chatterjee. joints. Chain rule.Wesley. its origin. 3. Analytical Geometry. S. D. age. R. the processes of their formation. L. Earth as a member of solar system. by parts integration (simple applications).B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. Jr. J. Introduction to sedimentary. cleavages.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . 10th Ed.

2004. causes of extinction. different classification systems. multicellularity. E.. 3rd Edition. 2005.Identification of rocks and minerals. R. 19 . Foundations of Structural Biology. 2007 2. 9th Edition. invasion of life on land. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. Tarbuck. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. Brooks/Cole. Prentice Hall. biodiversity crises. F.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. crucial for organisms’ sustainability.. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. D. Prentice Hall. Biodiversity of canal. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. K.. J. Darwinism. 11th Edition. D. Park. 2007 3. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. G. and Tasa. and Tasa. Biodiversity of deserts. J. F.. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. examples of adjustments in varied environment. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. Routledge.. molecular basis of biodiversity. K. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. Biodiversity of hilly areas. Geological time chart with biodiversity. Lutgens. J. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. and Monroe. measuring biodiversity. Use of brunton compass and GPS. modern concepts. Physical Geology and Process of Science.. Lutgens. animals). Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. Lamarckism. protocell formation. Smith. Life in sea. Field Study tour. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. population loss and decline. consequences of losing biodiversity. How Does Earth Work. G. A. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . Wicander. 5. Recommended Books: 1. Earth Science.. and Pun. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources.. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. Prentice Hall: 2006.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. 4. E. Tarbuck. interactions among diversified life. unicellularity. 5th Edition.. R.

The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. 3. C. and Sustainable Living. Inc. 4. The Biosphere. Inc. Consumption. IL:WavelandPress.. J. 2. Scope and application. J. Hannen. Culture. I. Wadsworth Group. I. globalization and environmental issues.K. UK. 3. USA. 2006.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. (editor). Adam. Conceptualizing environment. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. 2000. P. K. Biology. L. New York: New York University Press. UK. Biodiversity (An Introduction). The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. C. Townsend. Contemporary environmental status. CA: AltaMira Press. Gaston. The Ecology of global consumer culture. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. Environmental Risks and the Media. Understanding the environment-human relationship. Nora and Wilk. Blackwell Science Ltd. Chronological. Walnut Creek. 2003.. 2001. Tripartite nature of environment. a Human Emphasis. 20 . John Wiley and Sons. Allan & Carter. R. 2nd Edition. K. 2005. 2. and Spicer. Bradbury. Goals and expectations. Contemporary environment issues and debate. Routledge. Prospect Heights. 2009. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. Starr. Crumley. Perspective of human-environment evolution. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . UK. Use of environment for vested interest. Recommended Books: 1. and concerns. (editors). 5th Edition.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. culture and society. 2009. power & hegemony.

it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. Introduction to MS-Word. Ms-Power Point.1999.Microsoft office 2000. computer programs and basic applications. Course Outlines Definition. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. 21 . K.6th Ed. Ms-Access. as are their effects on the biosphere.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. Fundamentals of computer. 6.. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. processing hardware. Selin.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. output hardware. Ms-Excel. Long N. Hardware: Input Hardware. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry.London 1996. 2. Courter. e-mail. G. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry.5. Operating system (Windows).H.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . Storage hardware. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. internet. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Ed. system software. Configurations. Types and classification of computers. Local Area Network.. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. Recommended Books: 1. 2003. Milton. Long l. software packages. Marquis A. Software: Application software. Rutledge.

Entropy.T. G.. Miller. USA. their sources and toxic actions. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. Recommended Books: 1. C. 2. Turbulent diffusion. Sound and Noise. Gaussian plumes in the air. Jones and Barlett. interaction of light with matter. Electromagnetic radiation. Hernandez-Esparza.. 4. Human perceptions and noise criteria. Ibanez. 2005. photosynthesis. Energy. Nuclear energy. P. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. atmospheric and soil chemistry. Transport of pollutants. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. UK. Active control of sound... Equations of fluid dynamics. 2008. Liss. Canada. B..D. Environmental impact of various industries.S.. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Heat radiation and heat transfer.. T. Basic acoustics. K. DoriaSerrano.E. A. Ozone and UV light.M. India. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. Particle physics.J. Thomson-Brooks. Reducing the transmission of sound. Blackwell Science. Environmental Science. 3. Girard. Springer. Global climate and climatic change. 5. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. 1999. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. Environmental Chemistry. P. Turbulent jets and plumes. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. Fate of pollutants in environment. Energy conversion. Samir. Diffusion. Radioactivity and nuclear physics.G. J.E. Conversion of mass. Isotopes and radioactive decay. J. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. 2004. 2nd Edition. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . 1st Edition. Brimblecombe. and Singh. Turbulence. and Reid. M. its causes and adverse effects on environment. Fregoso-Infante. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. Environmental Chemistry. J. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. M... Chemical reactions.. Liquids and Gasses. Ozone chemistry. Solar spectrum. Jickells. 2004..Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. Andrews. Fundamentals of aquatic. Germany. trophic level. Solids.

2006. economic growth. economic welfare and difference among all. S. Environmental economics. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. UK. Economic management and environmental quality. H. Physics of the Environment and Climate. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. Seinfeld. economic progress. Recommended Books: 1. USA. Producer behavior. P. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. N..Economic development. C. Man environmental relationship. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. poverty. Field visit. 2008. and Resource allocation. Smith. Measures for sustainable development. and Van Grondelle. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. 2008.1998. S. concepts and measurement. Kentucky USA. Pakistan economic context: National income. Guyot. USA. interaction between ecology and economic management. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. R. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. USA. Todaro. and Pandis. population and environmental quality. Growth and development. USA. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. 2001. Routledge. G. New York. E. Praxis publishing. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. 4. 23 . J. Natural resources and the economy. Environmental Physics. Sustainable development. 2. Introductory Environmental Physics. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Recommended Books: 1. Economic functions of environment. John Wiley and Sons Inc. producer and community point of view. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. 2001. Economic Development. Yusuf. economic growth and its measurement. Impact of economic activity on environment. 3. World Bank Publications. 2. Growth and Environment. Wesely Publishers. Boeker. M. 7th Ed. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods.

Touchstone Books. Frodeman. World Bank Publications. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. C. concepts and approaches. International Thomson Publishing. WCIV7AA. M. and White.. description of population. levels of ecological organization. species. 24 . Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. B. water. community and ecosystem. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. B. Environmental philosophy and ethics. Farmington Hills. 2009.. USA. Swift. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . B. A History of Western Philosophy. its fundamental concepts. soil. Ecosystem and its types. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. & Pierce. 3. Hanley. LLC. Introduction to ethical theory. 2008. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. Palgrave Macmillan. Environmental Critics of agriculture. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources.3. DeVeer. London. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. Kessinger Publishing.A. biogeography. and systems ecology. Callicott. J. 2. 4. 2002. role of light. Course Outlines Introduction. Economics. temperature. England.. Natural philosophy. USA.V. Ecology. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography.. 2008. Portland 1967. population. the ethics of soil.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. R. J. Shogren. N. Recommended Books: 1. ethics and ecology. 2007. D. community. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. branches of ecology. 4. Russell.

agricultural and industrial ecosystems.topography and air as ecological factors. M C J 1st ed. Recommended Books 1. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. After completion of this course. 2. 1999 4. 5th Ed. Cambridge University Press. UK. G. various concepts of community. J. 2004. Lab Work 25 . Biogeochemical cycles of C. M J. C. productivity of different ecosystems. distribution limits. landscape ecology. New York. 1992. UK. Ecology (concepts and applications. and More. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. and Barett. C.) Moles. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. and S. King’s College London. Population distribution and abundance. Fundamentals of Ecology.L and Reiss. Biomes of the world. M. B. Ecosystem: structure and function. landscape changes and their importance. P. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). 3. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology.W. community dynamics. 2001 5. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. population dynamics. J. WCB/McGraw-Hill. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. New Delhi. N. Populations. Chapman. 2000. Systems ecology. Odum. plant geography and animal distribution. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. Ecology (principles and applications). bacteria and eukarya. 1st Ed. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Tata McGraw-Hill.Cox. characteristics of urban. biotic factors. students will be able to understand the significance. Dash. Fundamentals of Ecology. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. aquatic microbiology. Concepts of Limiting factors. Microbial metabolism. ecological modeling. 6th Ed. habitat and niche. E P.

Academic Press. Cambridge UK.. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. Harley.. Solid Waste generation. Butterworth-Heinemann. 2009. and Klein. Soil.I. Fuhrmann. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. USA.J. 2005. 4. G.F. D. Academic Press.and Brendecke. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. R. 2002.J. R.W. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents.K.1998. Sylvia. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. Cambridge University Press. Environmental Microbiology. W.L. 2. USA. M. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. London. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. 4th Edition. Microbiology. Pepper. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal...J. American Society for Microbiology. Knudsen.. I. 3. USA.. Water. Hartel. Pollution Control Strategies.Gerba. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology.M. and Jeffery.. 5. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. F.J. isolation. M.A. Hill.. transportation & treatments. 1995. A. and Stetzenbach. 2 Edition.D.A. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. its sources and their effects.M. Academic Press. Understanding Environmental Pollution. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). 2007. D. Case Studies.. 2005. (Elsevier) USA. 2. Peiece. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. McInernery. J. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. Effects of Pollutants.P. Hurrst. Washington DC. 3.C.. L. C. UK. D. Prescott.L.G. 2nd Edition. Environmental Pollution and Control. C. 2005. Recommended Books: 1. Human & other living organisms. Marine & Industrial pollution.R..L. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. New Jersey. Noise.and Vesilaind. Prentice Hall.V. J. USA.B. Recommended Books 1.. L. P.A. and Zuberer. 26 .P. Collection. Crawford. McGraw Hill Inc. P. Maier. Weiner. Dilution plate technique.M. Mean plate count. and Gerba. purification and preservation.. peppor.P.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. USA. J.J.

Marcel Dekkar. Austin Miller.2nd Editions. Houghton J. global circulation. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. Cambridge University Press. climatic zones of Pakistan. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . 2003. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. 3. Pandis. Lutgens. K. The Hydrologic cycle. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. Tarbuck. 2002. American Public Health Association (APHA). Recommended Books: 1. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. Weather and Climate. John Wiley and Sons. Spyros. Environmental psychology. The climate of Pakistan. Solar radiations. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. Four Spheres of the Earth.E. Mechanism of heat transfer. Surface winds.. John H. air pressure. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. 5.F. 4. Royal book company.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. condensation and cloud Formation.K. 2. Shamshad... The Physics of Atmospheres. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences.W. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. local winds. Methods of psychology. A. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. Climatology. Cloud Classification. Karachi.4. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. . 1992. N. Radiation and climate.M. 2006 5. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. Lawrance K. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. 27 . 6th Edition. Sadder.J. 1988. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). Factors affecting air Pressure. The Atmosphere.. A brief historical background and schools of psychology.

Eysenck. T. CRC Press. Background and scope.D. Soil as a natural resource. carbon dioxide and global climate change. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. Bell. sustainable agriculture. London. and Baum A. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. energy and carbon balance. soil erosion and conservation. High population density and psychological impacts.C. Greene. Fisher J. Environmental perception and cognition. Environmental Psychology.W. techniques and methods of restoration. solar radiation and primary production. CRC Press. threats and mitigation.characteristics and research methods. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. 2001. limitation of irrigated agriculture. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. Fundamental of Psychology. Ecological restoration. 1992. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. soil resources of Pakistan.. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. P. 2. Recommended Books: 1. Water and distribution of species. Sustainable livestock management practices. rivers. Pollution control through Ecology. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. Ecology of food production.A. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. species response to pollutants. Course Outline Introduction. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. M. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals.. their management and ecological restoration. Restoration of derelict lands. concepts. 5th Edition. Routledge. Routledge. Water as an ecological resource. Future water scenario of Pakistan. 28 . soil salinity and water logging. Sustainable agricultural practices. London.

Peshawar. water and soil. 2006. Thomson Brooks/Cole.. 2004. Rashid. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. Newman. 2000 2. P. toxins & toxicants. 3. Margaret A. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. biological effects. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. 1996. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. Chemical interactions and their types. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. Soil Science. J. terminologies: Poisons. from natural and anthropogenic sources. Immunological considerations in toxicology. 1989. D. 29 . R. 4.National Book Foundation. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. Shirkat Gah. Zedler. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. A. Fundamentals of Ecology. B. dose response relationship in living organisms. E.A. K and Habib. Studies in Pakistan Geography.P. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. A. Odum E. Island Press. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. Potentiation and Addition. J. 2nd ed. soil and air samples. Falk. Synergism. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals.Recommended Books: 1. toxins vs toxicants. University of Peshawar. Blackwell Scientific Publications. USA. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. 5th Edition. G. 5. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. and Barett. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. on human and other living organisms. Lahore. Oxford.W.. Foundations of Restoration Ecology.. their containment and control strategies. Organs. and Hobbs. and Memon.. Islamabad.1998. Israr-ud-Din.S. Pakistan’s Environment. K. toxicology of chemicals.I. in vivo & in vitro assays. toxicity screening using microbial systems. Mumtaz. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History.

5th Edition. T and Turner.2005 2. education. major ecosystems. water resources. Government of Pakistan. measuring environmental benefits. USA. 3. Ballantyne. international trade and the environment.D. Vol. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. clean development mechanism. Recommended Books: 30 . General and Applied Toxicology. Course Outlines Introduction to history. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development.M. health. industry. B. 2005 2. geography. P. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. Macmillan Press Ltd. Hughes. 1993.1 & 2. 1st Edition.Science of Poisons . valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. Economic: agriculture. urbanization and pollution. CRC Press Llc. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. USA. the economy and the environment. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement.). M. McGrawhill.. people. Recommended Books 1. Course Outlines Introduction. economic development and the environment. W. Ecological: ecological zones. USA. State of the Environment-Pakistan . W. economic aspects of different environmental problems. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. pollution control-a general model. culture. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology.Recommended Books 1. 3. 1st Edition. (ed. Williams. land. 1996. Klassen. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. 1992. topographic zones.

Lab Work S. Collingwood. NO3–N & NH4-N). D. 2. J. precision and accuracy. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. USA. 1999. Oxford. Fluoride.A. and F. Turner. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. Thomson and Brooks. preparation and storage. L. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve.D. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. units. water and plant analysis. CSIRO Publ. Kolstad. Sample preservation methods. Conductivitymetry. 2. D.. Titrimetery.. Oxford University Press. M. Field. K. Gravimetery. C. salinity & sodicity). New York. 2003. Environmental Economics. 3.2004. M. A. Conductivitymetry. I. Recommended Books: 1. handling..J. Skoog.. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. Johns Hopkins University Press. Reuter. Holler.R. 4. Australia.W. Freeman & Co. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. Use of Potentiometery. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. and derived S. 31 . Analytical techniques for soil.K. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin.I. COD.1.. D. Environmental Economics: An Introduction.UK. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. and Batemen. Sparrow and D. West. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Harris..and Field. Peverill. C. Biomarkers in environmental assessment.I. Titrimetery. Sample collection.C.2002. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual.K. 8th Edition. Gravimetery. Standard solutions and standard curves. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. B. Data interpretation for quality control. 1993. 2005. 2000. All Solids.L. 3. BOD. 6th Edition. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. D. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. Pearce.

5th Ed.W. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. Environmental Biotechnology. J. 2009. and Russel. PCR. National Biotechnology Commission. D. Biosensor. Hans- Joachim. A. England. 2001. National Biosafety Guidelines. Isolation.P. J. Course Outlines Introduction. 2005. Chichoster. 2005. Government of Pakistan. Biomarkers. Introduction to microbial kinetics. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. Recommended Books 1. 4.D. Derbre. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques.1999. 2007. purification and preservation of DNA. students will be able to understand the significance. J.).. 3. Wiley-VCH Verlag. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. 2nd Ed. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. Biotechnology. USA. New York. USA. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. Germany. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. New York. Cambridge University Press.. 2.E. After completion of this course. Smith. Bioreactors. Recombinant DNA technology. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. W. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . (ed. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. and Josef. Oxford University Press. and application of biotechnology in the environment. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. Tools in environmental biotechnology. Sambrook. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. USA. Scragg.

F. Rancez. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . Inc. Guilfoud press New York. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Fishery and wildlife. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. Image Processing. John Wiley and Sons. analysis and output. John Wiley and Sons. Mc Graw Hill Education. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. 5. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. R. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. Forestry. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. 3. Aerial photography. Active and Passive remote sensing. Preparation of thematic maps.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. K and L. Using and reading GPS in field. Inc. history and platforms. Dessinov. Cartography. Introduction to GIS. History and data collection. 2008. Types of data used in GIS. Harvey. Agriculture. A. V. eradication of the duplicated data. Different types of maps. 4. Data entry and output. map projection and coordinate systems. 2009. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. 2. Interpretation. 2000. Lulla. Energy Sources. integration of information from many sources. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Introduction to Photogrammetry. 2000. Pearsons Education. Inc. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Data acquisition. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. advantages and limitations of process. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. Z. 1999. Satellite Imageries. Jensen. Campbell.

Environmental Economy. Conservation of biodiversity. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. B. M. economic.2nd Ed. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. Sheldon. F. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Course Outlines Introduction.. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. Methods of environmental protection.C. ecological. need and approach. philosophical. American Society for Quality. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. 2. etc. principles of Cleaner production. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. and Qasim. Khan. Environmental Management tools. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). Michigan. 1998. 2006. International Organization for Standardization. alpha and beta diversity. threats to biodiversity. cleaner technologies.). 34 . hot spots of biodiversity.. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. social and ethical values of biodiversity. 2005. Environmental aspects and impacts. American Society for Quality. M. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. WWF Pakistan.. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. 3. standards and guidelines. and Yoxon. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. 4. Systems and Support Techniques. eco-design. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. plant. Environment and sustainable development. Environmental Management Systems Principles. Related Environmental legislation. types of biodiversity. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance.3rd Edition . 2001. A. Certification of EMS.

B. Quality assurance and quality control. Lahore). Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures.e. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. 2000. C. quality control sampling.D. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. Kings College. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation.. Recommended Books: 1. forests. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. protected areas. national and international laws and regulations. international agreements. 1998. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. air.conservation at species. plants. presampling requirements/information. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. soil and living organisms. ecotourism. Sinauer. A Primer for Conservation Biology. and Morre. London. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. 2. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. Publ. P. conservation strategies. Sunderland. refrigeration and freezing methods.. habitats. water. conservation in man-made ecosystems. field custody. cities. chemical addition. Preservation methods including pH control. conservation and livelihood. Associates Inc. management. sampling and design purposes. croplands. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. population. Mirza. Z. 2ndEd. P.. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. EIA requirement. 35 .B. laboratory custody. 3. Biogeography. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. community and ecosystem level. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. Rawalpindi. 2000. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. Conservation of wildlife. Saad Printers. Course Outlines Introduction.R.B. quality assessment. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. their categories. Considerations. Legal protection of species. Cox. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. design and types of samples. NOC for plant operation. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques.

1999. The Measurement of Climate Change. H.. N. 3. 5. Forstner U. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. Chapman and Hall. S. 2008. Regional droughts and 36 . (ed) Springer. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. Peakall. agriculture.) McGraw-Hill. S. Human responses to potential climate change. 2nd Edition. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. UK. altered community structure. Korte.USA. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. Recent Climate Change Indicators. human health. its causes and effects. Murai. R. Chuviero. D. 8. Lewis Publisher London. McKlivie. I. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. Energy and Temperature. L. Ozone depletion. Earth Observation of Global Change. New York. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. Remote Sensing Note. 2002.Recommended Books: 1. 6. Manahan. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. regional. 2. Keith. Moisture in the Atmosphere. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. 2000. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. 1992. Physical. Environmental Chemistry. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. E. D. extinctions. E. USA. (eds. . USA. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. phenological changes. Tokyo. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. 7. chemical. F.1996. Precipitation. and Guethner.. 2008. USA. 2002. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. Burden. biological.

Effects. mitigation and impact management. National Book Foundation. (ed. Recommended Books: 1.Causes. Recommended Books: 1. Global Warming and Climate Change. Blackwell. J. Hardy. 1986. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels.Causes. Hardy. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. Houghton. social impact assessment (SIA). 1999. 2005. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society.T. D.. Glasson. reporting. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. London. 2. 2004. London. Oxford.. EIA project management. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach... Earthscan Publication Ltd. 4.). review of EIA quality. 6.. J. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. 1st Edition. A. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. Effects. 37 . public involvement. and Solutions. 5. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. J. T. Islamabad. scoping. Climate Change . project implementation and follow up. and Solutions. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. Sringer. Types & Resources to produce Energy. screening. Keith. and Chadwick. J. 2000. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. & Nixon. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. Ministry of Housing and Works. impact analysis. 1994. Petts.(ed). 4. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project.A. Routledge. 3. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. solids. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. 2003. R. 2005. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. 2003. 2. Islamabad. J. and noise. Therivel. overview. 3. John Wiley & Sons. Main stages in EIA process. Climate Change . Global Change and the earth system.cataclysmic climate change. liquid. 2005.O.. John Wiley & Sons.. A. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). decision-making to implement the project. Cost and benefits of EIA. law. Harrop.

B and Warren. Evans. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. effective management. threat and its causes. Recommended Books: 1. forest types and its existing management.. F. Rangeland Management: existing status.5. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. wildlife census. agriculture chemicals. requirement. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. A. and Tu. & McCabe. (ed.. solar power. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. United Nations Environment Programme.. their current status and threats. S. Carpenter. USA. 1993. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. 2nd Edition. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. management options. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. Ludwig. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. agriculture products and their share in GDP. R. methodologies. Conservation in Progress. Types. existing management approaches.). wind power and nuclear power. 1997. Development of Management Plan: needs. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. national and provincial legislation. national agriculture policy. management options. R. 2002. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. B.. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. Sadler.. J.. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. threats. Asian Development Bank. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. best available option for future. national example. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. 6. process and contents of the management plan. New York. Everitt. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. 38 . their pros and cons. B. problem in agriculture. M. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. limitation in the future. importance. Goldsmith.. Lohani. John Willey & Sons. causes and methods for its improvement. H.

Interviews. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). 3. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. 1992. types of sampling design/. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. Thousand Oaks. Questionnaire. New York. Material Methods. Sage CA. J. Dasmann. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. & Plano Clark. London. GOP and IUCN.E. 1990. research methods. Scientific Research: Science. Bibliography. How to put things together? Introduction. Sampling: the logic of sampling. Literature Search: Database.F. and Jorqensen. W. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). 5. Review of Literature. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. Objectives. Islamabad. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. R. population and sampling frames.2. Case Studies. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling.A pre-requisite for Research. concepts and terminologies. P. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. Creswell. Review of Literature. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Search Engines. Inference based on findings. John Wiley & Sons. 4. Experimental Research.Amsterdam. Methodology.L.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design.. 39 . V. 1984. 2007. Scientific Methods. Hansen.E. Environmental Conservation. Research Design & Research Methods. Selecting the Research Method. to introduce students to research design. USA. Elsevier. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. S. Surveys. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. Research Proposal: its importance .

G.USA. Moriarty. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. Government of Pakistan 3. SNBP Local Government Ordinance.2. 3rd Edition. 3. USA. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. S. 2001. Wadsworth Publishing Company. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. National Environmental Policy 4. Diamon. Marilyn F. 2. Survey Research Methods. Chichester. National Conservation Strategy 5. 5. 2000. 1997. 2nd Edition. Univ. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan.. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Qadar. The Craft of Research by Wayne C... Recommended Books: 1. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Sage Publishers. Students project in Environmental Science. Belmont California. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. R.Batty. regulations made there under. USA. 2008. John and sons Ltd. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. 2003. 1989. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules.S. Robert Yin.h. 2003. M.Harrad. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans.. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. Babbie. England. E. 1997. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. Booth. Law Books House. 4. of Chicago Press. and Arhonditsis. 6.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

Oxford University Press Karachi. N. Pakistan .Varis. R. (eds. groundwater exploitation.. Mirajuddin Publication . I. water supply and demand management measures. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. pollution aspects. watershed/catchment. 2005. virtual water. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. Ahmed. Biswas. 2. 3.. 2006.K. Indus Water Accord 1991. precipitation distribution in Pakistan.. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. flood and drought management. Oxford University Press New Delhi. fisheries management. with drinking water facilities like springs. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. 44 . 5. 2003.. Recommended Books: 1. J. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. U. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. and Qamar. P.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. 4. K. Islamabad. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. (ed. and Malik. flood and droughts. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. A. SDPI Oxford University Press.). tubewells. 1993. Revised & enlarged edition. Ahmed. Khan. integrated water resources management (IWRM). N. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. Bengali. C. and Tortajada. 2006. recycling and re-use of wastewater.. hydrological cycle. O. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. Pakistan..Lahore..). water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. Lahore. Asia Printer. A. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. water quality and quantity aspects. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. R. Briscoe. 6. A. Islamabad. wetlands resources management. Course Outlines Water resource and its management.1993. The Politics of Managing Water. Cheema. Mirajuddin Publication .

Physical and chemical properties of soil. Cation and anion exchange. Course Outlines Introduction. Urbanization.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. Gardiner.C. National Book Foundation. Islamabad. E. Academic Press. Miller. the salient features of urban environments. Prentice Hall. 1.T. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. transport. Soil Science. Upper Saddle River. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. R. Upper Saddle River. 2008. CA. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. R. Pakistan. and Weil. USA. Bashir. Urban ecosystem. Physical and chemical processes of weathering.W. Definition. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. Hillel. R. management and green productivity. urban political ecology. Types and properties of parent materials. urban settlements. Brady.R. urban flora and fauna. Soils in Our Environment. Course Outlines Introduction. Factors and processes of soil formation. soils. Soil forming minerals. PrenticeHall. USA. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. humans as components of urban ecosystems. 11th Edition. NJ. hydrological processes. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. USA. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. Forms of urbanization. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. 45 . future of urban centers. urbanization in Pakistan. 2007.. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. urban landscapes characteristics. D. San Diego. and Bantel. 1996. Soil degradation. Causes of urbanization. N. D. Process and outcome. After completion of this course. NJ.. 2007.

S. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. Land use planning theories.. 1. London. Principles of planning. Recommended Books: 1. USA. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. The Works: Anatomy of a City. M. Hague..and Kowaril. Springer. Kate.. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. 2006. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. C. City Design for Sustainable Development. 2009. D. Justification for planning for city management. J.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. Elements of urban planning. Gilbert. Alberti. nature and purpose of urban planning. The planning process. Levels of planning. 2. M. Planning theories and concepts. UR. I. 4. O. Chapman and Hall. 5. UK. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. A. SAGE Publications Ltd. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. USA. Routledge.. Hough. 3. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. Types of Urban Plans. Sukopp. UK. 1989.. 2. Ward. Routledge. 2004. New trends in planning and city management.L. New York. 46 . Smith.and Maser. nd 2 Edition. Penguin Group. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. V. SBS academic publishing. S. H. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development.S. Planning and its relationship with other professions. Scope.1990. Planning and Urban Change. UK. 2007. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. 2004. London. 2000. Silberstein. Aims and Objectives of planning. Hejny. CRC Press LLC.

H. 3. Flooding. 2nd Edition.F. E&UA Div.. Introducing Town Planning. 1993. D. Clara. i. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. Socio-economic factors. 1991.W. 4. Recommended Books: 1. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. Earthquake Management. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. Natural Disasters Alexander.B. Kates. It discusses a wide range of aspects. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. 1993. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). and Woodrow. Role of Media in Disaster Management. The Guilford Press. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters.. 47 . Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. Physical factors. 1989... P.W. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. Disaster as an opportunity for development. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. Manila. Boulder . Chapman & Hall.. 1986. Paris.. R. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures.e. Prediction. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research.. Earthquake. Westview Press. ADB. Hazards. International phenomenon. Islamabad. New York.UNESCO. Different approaches and Indicators. Political factors. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. and White G. Ministry of Housing and Works. G. New York. Cultural factors. 2. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors.J. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. Government of Pakistan. Flood Management: Organizational Role. 4. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Longman Group.3. Disaster Management: Components of management.. UK. Natural cycles and their role. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. Landslide. 1993. M.

environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet.B and Keller. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. F. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Quorum Books. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. Westport. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. energy resources. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. Sustainable livestock management. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. Paris. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. 2.. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life.. L. Agroecology. 6th Edition. hydropower. 2007. primary producers. Schoch. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. M. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. John Wiley and Sons.5. 2001.L. OECD/IEA. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. and Mushkatel. Biotic structure.. Consumer and producer relationship. E. sustainable energy management. 1. 1983. R. New York. and Yonavjak.H. Botkin. 2007. Perry R. decomposers. local. D. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. uses. Disasters and Development Cuny. McKinney. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. 4th Edition.C. alternate energy resources. merits and demerits of wind.W. 6. 48 . A. solar. 3. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. types. Ecological concept in crop and food production. 1984. consumers. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. USA.A.M. energy resources of Pakistan. biomass resources.

G. and Rossel. E-11 Seminar 49 . C. USA. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. Agrocology. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. Study of index of diversity. M. Study of stratification and profile diagram. CBS Publishers and Distributors. Kapur. USA. 1990. Westview Press. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. Experimental Plant Ecology. and Sudha. R. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture.. 3. Yandermeer J. Boulder. 1995.H. India. New York.P. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. Recommended Books: 1. 2. Altreri. Corol.R.M. P. 2000.A. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. New Delhi.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram.

the Committee agreed on the following principles. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. that: 1. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. 3.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. availability of the faculty and other facilities. 5. 50 . 2. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. 4.

7. 16. 7. 10. 11. 8. 9. 4. 23. 25. 3. 19. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 11. 13. 6. 12. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 2. 9. 5.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 8. 17. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 10. 6. 4. 15. 14. 2. 26. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 3. 5. 24. 21. 12. 22. 18. 20. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme.

1994.. 3. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. Hansen.T. FURTHER READINGS 1. GOP and IUCN. S. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS).. Relationship of culture. Islamabad. Khan K. P. technology and resource use. NCS.1991. WCS. Environmental control Policies. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. Regional and International Environmental Issues. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. Oxford University Press. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. Mackenzie.F. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space.1995.E. and Jorqensen. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. Money. Geography of Pakistan.A. 1991. F.. Karachi. Provincial and Local Strategies. Conservation Strategies. 1987. S. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. and Bell. 2. 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press. 52 . Treaties. Ball. S. Hodder and Stoughton. Mackenzie J. 4.DETAILS OF M. 2. 1992. development of concepts.S. London. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. 3.E. Recommended Books: 1.. Conventions and Protocols in Global. status of Terrestrial.. Elsevier. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. D. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Environment People and Economy. Instruments and methods. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. London Black Stone Press Ltd.1994. Amsterdam. Draft National Environmental Policy. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall.

DC. Ed. role and importance. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review).. social impact assessment. 2. Environment Department. Environmental Chemical Analysis. Demographic impact assessment. History. 1993. WB. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. C. England. process. UK. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update.A. Ministry of Environment. World Bank. Burnt Hill. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. Case Studies and review. John Wiley & Sons. Assessment of environmental impacts. Government of Pakistan. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. A. Recommended Books: 1. Gas Chromatography etc. A one Publishers Lahore. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. 53 . Wood. F & Bronstein. Wastewater. Cost benefit analysis of projects. sample collection and preservation. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. Longman House. FURTHER READINGS 1.Vanclay. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. Air and Solid Waste. ecological impact assessment. Washington. Environmental auditing. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). ed. Principles of physical. 2. Recommended Books: 1. procedures and methods of EIA. economic impact assessment. K. 1995. Longman Scientific and Technical. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). Ahmed. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. opportunities and issues. D. sampling rules. Harlow Essex. Chichester. 3.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. 1995.

Explanation of Horizontal Logic. 1993. J. T. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. Yassi. B. Inc. John Wiley and Sons. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. economic evaluation. outputs. 2002. Project Planning.. 1st Ed. USA. prevention and control. Recommended Books: 1. 3. 2. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. Kjelllström. and Guidotti. J. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. and Wright. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). 4. development objectives.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. Project Initiation. 1992. Prentice Hall International Inc. Primary health care services. London. 1st Ed. work breakdown structure. Project Planning and Approval Processes. USA. principles and practices. Nebel. New York. Defining Project objectives. Reasons for Project success or failure. R. activities.. K. Caeneross. S. 1997. feasibility study. M. 54 . T. 2001. inputs.2000. air borne. Oxford University Press New York. L. UK.. indicators. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. Meredith J. 1st ed. Public health concept. A Guide to Project Management. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. Environmental Health Engineering. T.. safety techniques. Accident prevention and safety plans. Mantel s. Park.. assumptions. Project Life Cycle. de Kok. R. 5. Writing Project Proposal.. Lippmann. M/S Banarsid. Basic Environmental Health. Wiley Interscience. Project Management Institute. Need identification. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne.. 2. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. Ergonomic and Safety. T.. 1998. A. Occupational Health: problems and issues. Government Policies and Programs. Resource Mobilization. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. specific objectives. Planning Commission Performas. 2nd Ed.. means of verification. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works).

Environmental Auditing. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. D. gas.A. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. USA. Principles of cleaner production. 55 . UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). OECD/IEA. Recommended Books: 1. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. M. industry and domestic sectors. Related Environmental regulations.. 2. energy resources of Pakistan. E. Sources of data. 6th Edition. bio-energy resources.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. nuclear) local. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. John Wiley and Sons. hydropower. solar. petroleum.M. 1998. L. 3. energy resources. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. Michigan-January 2001.B and Keller. types. 4. Sayre. R. uses. St Luise Press. principles and elements of the process of EMS. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Paris. 2007. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Paris. merits and demerits of wind. Environmental auditing. 2001. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. Schoch. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. non-renewable and renewable. D.L. 2007. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. 1990b. transport. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. and Yonavjak. 3. Switzerland. 4th Edition. Botkin. ISO Central Secretariat. alternate energy resources. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. 2. data collection and interpretation. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. McKinney. sustainable energy management for agriculture. Recommended Books: 1.

Maarel. Vegetation Ecology Ed. 1. water resources. Species richness. Effects. Recommended Books: 1.D. 2003. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. Effects.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. ED. vegetation dynamics. Recommended Books: 1. Plant Ecology. & Charlesworth. 2005. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. John Wiley & Sons. 2. Berlin. 1st Edition. J.T. Springer. human activities and vegetation dynamics. D.. K. Blackwell Publishing. (Ed. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. types and their climatic effects. and Solutions. 2. 2003. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. 2005. John Wiley & Sons. global aspects of plant ecology. Hardy. resources and plants. B & Jager. Climate Change . types of climate change models. UK 1991.Causes. John Wiley & Sons. Climate change and food production. Shulze. The Green House Effect. geographical and temporal patterns. management and restoration. 2005.. Blackwell Publishing. Modeling of climate change. 3. plant conservation. Plant population dynamics. 4. 2005. J. Earthscan Publication Ltd. T. D. 56 . 5. 2004. Oxford. Beck. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Climate Change and Ecosystems. Warrick. Life history strategies of plants. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Hardy. forests. E & Muller-Hohenstein. Climate Change . competition and coexistence. etc. E. Green House Gases. J. Chichester.). Introduction to Plant Population Biology.Causes. and Solutions. ECOPE 29. 3. Houghton. UK. plant invasions. Oxford UK. London. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. survival and extinction. Silvertown.

J. Wildlife Ecology and Management. 57 . UK. Blackwell Publsihing. 1992. distribution. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. Essentials of Conservation Biology. R. Protected areas. UK. 3. Wildlife of Pakistan. Roberts. 2. their ecological and economic importance. Oxford University Press. 1973 2. deforestation and its control. 4.D. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. T. & Ripley. kinds. Bailey. distribution. II). Protected areas in Pakistan. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. problems and solutions. 2002. J. Oxford. 2002. Weddell. Principles of Wildlife Management. Cambridge University Press. Primack. USA. S. Protection and restoration of species. Sustainable forest management. 2004. T.L. J. K. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. Consumptive.J. 5. John Wiley And Sons. Forests.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction.A. their importance.G. Inc. & Spicer. threats and conservation. Oxford University Press.J. Mcmillan.B. Recommended Books: 1. Forest plantations. W. Establishment and management of protected areas. status. Threatened animals and plants. their types and role in conservation. London. And Bolen. Recommended Books: 1. types.J. Oxford. I). S. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. Wetlands. Oxford University Press. biological diversity. Global and national biodiversity. Sinauer Assocaites. B. Participatory forest management. distribution and management. Publishers Sunderland. Biodiversity: An introduction. habitats and ecosystems. 1984. Loss of biodiversity. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. Oxford. 1986. E. Rangeland management.(2nd Ed. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. 3. types. Robinson. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. Extinction of species. Cambridge.) Gaston. Status of forests in Pakistan. Conserving Living Natural Resources. Cambridge. 1998. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. Roberts. management. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. its causes.

2000. 58 . V. G. Environmental problems of urban life. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. urbanization in Pakistan. USA.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. New York. drinking water and solid waste in cities. Clara. 4. Kate. sanitation. Longman Group. 2004. UK. 2007. Urban land use planning and management. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. urban landscape characteristics.. 2... A. 1993.and Maser. H. Silberstein. 3. Ministry of Housing and Works. future of urban centers. Penguin Group. urban political ecology. urban systems and their characteristics. Sustainable cities. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Introducing Town Planning. S. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Recommended Books: 1. USA. C. Government of Pakistan. Ward. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. Forms of urbanization. London. management of transport. E&UA Div. UK. CRC Press LLC. SAGE Publications Ltd. 1986. Planning and Urban Change. Islamabad.. J.

Thomson and A. ISBN 0194313492 59 . a) Functional English Grammar 1. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. Practical English Grammar by A. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. Oxford University Press. Third edition. Martinet.J.V. Exercises 1. 1997.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking.Annexure .

1997. Oxford University Press. Third edition. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . Martinet. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. Writing. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis.V.2. b) Practical English Grammar by A. Reading/Comprehension 1. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin.J. intensive and extensive. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Exercises 2. Reading. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. and speed reading. Thomson and A. Third Impression 1992. minutes of meetings. Upper Intermediate. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Oxford Supplementary Skills. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. Fourth Impression 1993. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet.

Martinet. Oxford Supplementary Skills. language. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Reading 1. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Third edition. Fourth Impression 1992. Writing. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. discursive. Exercises 2. form. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Third Impression 1991. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). introduction to presentations. Practical English Grammar by A. Oxford Supplementary Skills. content. Oxford University Press 1986. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco.V. clarity. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. 2. Writing. Writing. descriptive and argumentative writing). c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Advanced. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Advanced by Ron White. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . b) Writing 1. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. 2.1. Reading. Fourth Impression 1993. Third Impression 1992. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet.J. narrative. Thomson and A.

A Custom Publication. Mandell. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. Kirszner and Stephen R. 3. argumentative and report writing). Martin’s Press. without taxing the taste of engineering students). 62 . 2.(particularly suitable for discursive. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. descriptive. College Writing Skills by John Langan. Compiled by norther Illinois University. Kathleen Shine Cain. 2004. St. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader.

Study the process of governance. Akbar. 1977-88 e. 1988-99 f. 63 Books Recommended 1. 1947-58 b. . The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. Muslim advent iii. 2. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. contemporary Pakistan. Indus Civilization ii. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. ideological background of Pakistan. Ethnicity d. politics. Location and geo-physical features. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Zaidi. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. government. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. 4. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. State & Society in Pakistan. People and Land i.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. Course Outline 1. 1999 onward 3. Economic institutions and issues b.M. b. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. Safdar. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. 2. Contemporary Pakistan a. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Karachi: Oxford University Press. 2000. 1994. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Mehmood. Society and social structure c. 1958-71 c. 1993. 3. Historical Perspective a. Pakistan Political Roots & Development.Annexure . S. national development. 1971-77 d. Lahore. S. Shahid Javed.

Enigma of Political Development. 14. Amin.5. 11. 9. Ansar. 1976.. Aziz. Afzal. Lawrence. 64 . Politics in Pakistan. 1972. 1980. II & III. Safdar. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Wayne. 12. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. 10. Zahid. Islamabad.K. 1987. 7. Ziring. Tahir. Muhammad Waseem. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. Sayeed. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Washington: American Enterprise. History & Culture of Sindh. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. Institute of Public Policy Research. Mehmood. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. K. Political Parties in Pakistan. 1980. I. 1967. Rafique. Noor ul. The Political System of Pakistan. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 6. Ethno . Khalid Bin. Pakistan Under Martial Law. 13. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Haq. Vol. Party. 8. nd. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. M.National Movement in Pakistan. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. 1993. 1998. Lahore: Vanguard. Club Road.The Emergence of Banglades. Wilcox.

A.20) Related to thinking.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.Tadabar (Verse No1.A.Annexure .19.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 . Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.57.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.6.21.A.58.56.A. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.40.

in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.

Bhatia. Islamabad (2001) 67 . “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. Ahmad Hasan. “Studies in Islamic Law. International Islamic University. Pakistan. “Emergence of Islam” .3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. IRI.S. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad.

Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). Matrices: Introduction to matrices. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. PWS-Kent Company. functions. types of functions. not majoring in mathematics. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Boston 68 . College Algebra and Trigonometry. set operations. complex numbers. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Sharron S. 1978. introduction to sets.Annexure . trigonometric identities. cube roots of unity. Beckenback EF. Houghton & Mifflin. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. system of linear equations. 1987. equations reducible to quadratic equations. 1986. matrix inverse. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. Wooton W. harmonic progression. types. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. Cramer’s rule. determinants. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. geometric progression. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. PWS-Kent Company. Boston Swokowski EW.

Reading. continuity. left-hand and right-hand limits. John Wiley. 1995. Finney AR. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. equation of a line. New York Stewart J. Calculus (11th edition). Addison-Wesley. continuous functions. inequalities. Calculus (3rd edition). Davis S. Boston Thomas GB. not majoring in mathematics. intersection of two lines. not majoring in mathematics. angle between two lines. slope of a line. PWS-Kent Company. 69 .2. USA 3. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. derivatives. 1983. 2005. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. functions and their graphs. integration by substitution. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. distance between a point and a line. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. change of variables in indefinite integrals. distance between two points. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. Ma. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. Bevens I. rational and transcendental functions. various forms of equation of a line. 2005. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). parallel and perpendicular lines. differentiation of polynomial. Recommended Books: Anton H. integration by parts. solution of equations involving absolute values.

Introduction to sets. inverse of matrices. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. • Contents 1. Freshman and Company. Boston Swokowski EW. set operations. equations reducible to quadratic equations. 1987. Scott. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. PWS-Kent Company. functions.Circle: Equation of a circle. types of functions. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). 1969 Kaufmann JE. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). 1986. Cramer’s rule. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Conic Sections: Parabola. Boston 4. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. determinants. Analytic Geometry. nature of roots of quadratic equations. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. PWS-Kent Company. hyperbola. system of linear equations. intersection of lines and circles. 70 . circles determined by various conditions. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. ellipse. types of matrices. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. locus of a point in various conditions. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines.

bar frequency diagram histogram. Latest Edition. Walpole. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. characteristics of statistics. Measures of dispersion: Range. 5. Prentice Hall. Swokowski. E.. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. frequency polygon.geometric and harmonic progressions. R. 2. R.. R. 71 . moments. individual. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. relationship of statistics with social science. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. discrete and continuous series. array. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. Latest Edition. types of frequency series. cumulative frequency curve.. 2. Latest Edition. Graphs: Graph of straight line. 3.. standard deviation. Boston. Books Recommended: 1. J. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. quartiles. PWS-Kent Company. variance. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. trigonometric identities. 4. Kaufmann. W. circle and trigonometric functions. tally sheet method. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. skewness and kurtosis. Wilcox. E. ungrouped and grouped data. E. deciles and percentiles.

4. H. Prentice-Hall. 5. 3. E. applications of integration. Contents 1. Trigonometric Functions. the chain rule. Addison Wesley publishing company. Bevens.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. Anton. Calculus. logarithmic integration. Calculus. et al. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. sinusoidal function. 11th Edition. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. Rational and Transcendental Functions. Equation of a Line. implicit differentiation. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. Jhon Willey & Sons. 8th edition. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. substitution method. Mathews. integration by inspection. Davis. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . Extreme Values of Functions. Inc. logarithmic differentiation. Gleason. Schaum’s Outline Series. Hughes-Hallett. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. McCallum. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering.Jr. Second Edition 1992. Recommended Books: 1. 2002. 1999. 2005. integration using partial fractions. 4th edition. plane polar coordinates. and Transcendental Functions. Least-Squares Line. Frank A. Continuous Functions. Calculus Single and Multivariable. reduction formulae. I. • Integration Integration from first principles. Continuity. Swokowski. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. Leibnitz’ theorem. 2005. S. integral inequalities. quotients. Rational Functions. 2. Inequalities. special points of a function. 6. Integration by Parts. John Wiley & Sons. W. Calculus. Solution of equations involving absolute values. integration by parts. John H. infinite and improper integrals. products. Elliott Mendelson. the inverse of differentiation. theorems of differentiation. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. Thomas. 1983. 3rd Edition. 2. Boston. 6. Inc. Slope of a Line.

inverses of hyperbolic functions. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. finding the nth roots of unity.Additions and subtraction. the difference method. geometric series. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. arithmetico-geometric series. multiplication. solving hyperbolic equations. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. series involving natural numbers. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. identities of hyperbolic functions. approximation errors in Taylor series. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. modulus and argument. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. complex conjugate.

mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. of a unitary matrix. Pappus’ theorems. centers of mass and centroids. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. orthogonal. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. moments of inertia. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes.5. symmetric and antisymmetric. Hermitian. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. 6. masses. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. line to line. the inner product. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. point to plane. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. vector product. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . scalar triple product.

divergence of a vector field. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. combinations of grad. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. spherical polar coordinates 75 . Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions.8.

basic principles of classification and Tabulation. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Presentation of Data Introduction. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive.Annexure . The Variance and standard deviation. Editing of Data. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Absolute and relative measures. probability and non-probability sampling. Box and Whisker Plot. The Mean Deviation. Test statistics. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Exercises Unit 6. Probability and Probability Distributions. Range. null and alternative hypothesis. sampling and non sampling errors. Errors of measurement. Data. Collection of primary and secondary data. Pie chart. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Unit 4. The semi-Interquartile Range. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Constructing of a frequency distribution. The Mode.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Exercises. level of significance. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Empirical Relation between Mean. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Statistical problem. Exercises. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Coefficient of variation. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Quantiles. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Exercises. Discrete and continuous variables. properties of Good Average. Histogram. Difference of means and proportions. Historigram. Graphs and their Construction. Unit 2. bias. Standardized variables. Different types of Averages. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Unit 3. Sources. Unit 7. Observations. Stem and Leaf Display. Change of origin and scale. Unit 5. Population. Exercises. Type-I and Type-II errors. 76 . definition of outliers and their detection. Significant digits. Exercises. sampling with and without replacement. Rounding of a Number. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Exercises. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Diagrams. Moments and Moments ratios. Types of frequency curves. Bar charts. acceptance and rejection regions. Median and mode. sample design and sampling frame.

Regression and Correlation Introduction. Exercises Unit 10. examples. r and R2. Macmillan Publishing Co. simple linear regression. 3rd Ed. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. Testing of Hypothesis. 1982. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. F. Coefficient of linear correlation. Kitab Markaz. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole.Single Population Introduction. Correlation. Exercises. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Inc. Exercises Unit 9. New York. Contingency Tables. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. R. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. E. 2 Muhammad. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies.Unit 8. Unit 11. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. 77 . its estimation and interpretation. “Introduction to Statistics”. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. cause and effect relationships. 2005...

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful