environmental science | Sustainability | Ecology

CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

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certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. degree awarding institutions. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. It also aimed to give a basic.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. 63. D773/76-JEA (cur. It is. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. universities and other institutions of higher education. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. The world has turned into a global village. the Federal Government vide notification No. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. DR. PROF.). Lahore. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . and 36. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. R&D organizations. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. therefore. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years.ALTAF ALI G. dated December 4th 1976. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30.

HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. OF FINAL CURRI. COL.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. EXP. OF NCRC. Preparation 5 . Abbreviations Used: NCRC. OF CURRI. REC. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. UNI. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. R&D. PREP.

7. Dr. Dr. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Rawalpindi Dr. Member 6 . Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Member 3. Lahore Member 6. Dr. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Following attended the meeting:1. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Karachi from 28-30. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Member 4. Member 5.

7 .8. Prof. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. 13. Prof. Dr. Dr. Dr. Dr. Member 15. Member 14. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Dr. Karachi Member 12. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Member 11. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Dr. Member 10. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Member 16.

Dr. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. At first. 8 . Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. Karachi. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. 2. Chairman. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. Secretary Dr. 1. Mr. Dr. Mr. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr.17. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. Director of HEC Regional Center. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Member 19. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. Member 20. Faisalabad Member 18. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. The meeting was opened by Mr. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science.

The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. 5. The committee thanked Mr. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. 1. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. 2. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. In last few centuries. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre.3. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. 3. 4. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. 6. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities.

skills and behaviour patterns. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. This committee. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . in its preliminary meeting. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. ii. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. regional and global contexts. Apply theoretical understanding. 5. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii.

assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. The medium of instruction.. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. 2. eight semesters in the semester system. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. 3. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. A. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. that: 1. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. with consensus. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals.e. The 11 . 4. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. Integrating natural sciences. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. 1.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. 5. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. 6. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. Sc.

English-II 12. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Introductory Economics* 17. Biology –I* 3. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Introduction to Environmental Science 2.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Biology –II* 9. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Environmental Pollution 22. Environmental Physics 16. Introduction to Computer 14. English-III 18. Basic Chemistry* 4. Psychology* . Introduction to Earth Science 8. Environmental Chemistry 15. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. English-I 6. Environmental Microbiology 21. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Climatology* 23.

Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . Environmental Biotechnology 32. Environmental toxicology 27. 44. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Opt. Natural Resource Management 40. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. English-IV/ Univ. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. Environmental Management Systems 34.24. Environmental Monitoring 36. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. 45. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Applied Ecology 26. Climate Change 38. ELECTIVE-III 42. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. 46. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. Environmental Economics 29.

• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .

Environmental Science: systems and solutions. R. G. D. national.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. current global. lipids.T. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. history. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates.B & Keller. 2007 3.J. & Yonavjak. Miller. regional. and their relationships with various environmental factors. ethical. 10th Ed. proteins and nucleic acids. Recommended Books: 1. Thomson Learning. Schoch. urbanization.. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. 6th Ed. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. its importance in human life. R. 4th Ed. L. poverty and resource depletion. 2002. environmental pollution. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. Environmental Science: working with the Earth.M. philosophical.L. Different aspects of environment: physical. 4. Pearson Educational. 2007. 2007. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . 15 . Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. Wright.A. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society.. 2. Human environment and its problems: global. & Nebel. socio-economic. biological and social.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. development in industry and agriculture. E. McKinney. M. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. ecological. B. John Wiley & Sons. Botkin.

amines). Ionic. L. coordinate covalent bond. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. protobionts. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. Crossley. Cassimeris. 2007. McGraw. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. 2007. G. Starr. Plopper. Nucleic acids. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. carbonyls. Aromatic compounds. Cell division.. Introduction to cell biology. New York. carbohydrates. V. Self Assessment and Revie. Structure and the basis of function. A. phospholipids in membrane systems. 8th Ed. Australia . Lewis. Wadsworth Group. Bulter. N.. R. 2003. USA. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. covalent. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. R. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. J. Shier. Biology: a Human Emphasis. lipids. USA. Molecular Biology through Questions. C. D. carboxylic acids. esters. 1. M. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. the molecule of genetic information and replication. 2. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. and Whitelaw.. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. lipids. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. polypeptides in protein diversity. and Lewis. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards.. USA. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Canada.Hill International Edition. 5. E. proteins. 16 .. 1996. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. 4. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. origin of metabolism. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. chemical diversity. Cells. chemical basis of life. Origin of life: chemical evolution. 3. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. B. 5th Edetion. Ltd. 2008. Lingappa. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

Recommended Books: 1. radicals. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). M. 2005. UK. 2nd Edition.J. D. P. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula.C. geometric and harmonic sequence. Sequence and series: Arithmetic.K.. D. USA. Canada. Jickells.. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. and Holler. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. 3. minor and cofactor of a matrix. Harris.. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane.ions.. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. D. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. Freeman and Company. 2004. EC and TDS in waste water.Special Products (Binomial Expression).D. Blackwell Science. Andrews. Thin layer chromatography.. 1st Ed. equations of lines (linear equations). They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. law of Cosines.H. T. Osmosis and Dialysis. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. Lab Work Preparation of molar. Liss.E. 4.M. Jones and Barlett. 2003.. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. graphs. Hill. Column chromatography. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers.S.. 5.. Colloids chemistry. USA. 17 .. Solution chemistry. UK. double angle formulas. Brimblecombe. 2.J. values of trigonometric functions. angle-sum formula. W.A. real line. normal solutions/buffers. Algebra of matrices. J. and Reid. Thomson and Brooks.E. 6th Edition. F. Understanding Environmental Pollution. B. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Measurement of pH. Surface chemistry. 2004. 2nd Edition. Skoog. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. J. straight line and related concepts. expansion of determinants. Girard. molal. Cambridge University Press. 8th Edition. 2004. Photochemical reactions. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). series and means. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. determinants. simultaneous equations and their solutions. West. P.

G. Thomas. New Delhi. Introduction to rocks and minerals. S. cleavages. Integration: Formulas of integration. R. Fossils and their significance. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. Trignometry for College students. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. irreducible quadratic factors. Introduction to folds. its origin. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. Narosa Publishing House. L.. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. Introduction to sedimentary. and Finney. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. faults. Scott Foresman and Company. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . K. different earth processes like mountain buildings. 4. Pacific Grove. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. Chain rule.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . Recommended Books: 1. plate tectonics. 1999. difference. mountain building. joints. by parts integration (simple applications). Weathering.B. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.Wesley. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. igneous and metamorphic rocks.. earthquakes and volcanoes. Jr. 2. composition and its internal structure. the processes of their formation.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. Chatterjee. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. Earth as a member of solar system. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. foliation. Abraham. theorems on differentiation (sum. Analytical Geometry. erosion and related landforms.Cramer’s Rule. product and quotient rules without derivations). 10th Ed. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. earthquakes. theorem of integration. Smith. weathering and erosion. 3. nonrepeated linear factors. D. Addission. age. lineation and unconformities. 4th Ed. 18 . California. J.

taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification.. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. Foundations of Structural Biology. measuring biodiversity. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. invasion of life on land. Tarbuck. R. Darwinism. 9th Edition. 4.. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. Routledge. 5th Edition. F. Biodiversity of canal. different classification systems. J. population loss and decline. Recommended Books: 1. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. Tarbuck. and Tasa.. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. Earth Science. J. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life.. Life in sea. J. examples of adjustments in varied environment. multicellularity. Park.. D. K. 3rd Edition. D. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. E. E. Field Study tour. 19 . 2005. consequences of losing biodiversity. A. Prentice Hall: 2006. R. Lutgens. How Does Earth Work. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water.. and Monroe. Smith. Geological time chart with biodiversity. K. and Pun. F. Lamarckism. modern concepts. 11th Edition. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. and Tasa. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. causes of extinction. protocell formation. 2007 2. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . molecular basis of biodiversity. 2007 3..Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. biodiversity crises. Biodiversity of deserts. Lutgens. animals). Brooks/Cole. Use of brunton compass and GPS. Wicander. Physical Geology and Process of Science. Prentice Hall. unicellularity. G. Prentice Hall.. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time.Identification of rocks and minerals. Biodiversity of hilly areas. 5.. G. interactions among diversified life.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. 2004. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories.

C. 20 . The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. Routledge. Gaston. 2. The Biosphere. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. 2001. The Ecology of global consumer culture. 2006. globalization and environmental issues. Prospect Heights. 4. Contemporary environmental status. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. Consumption. Scope and application. R. and Spicer. 2000. Wadsworth Group. Contemporary environment issues and debate.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. 2nd Edition. J. L. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . Use of environment for vested interest. UK. Blackwell Science Ltd. 2009. Townsend. Recommended Books: 1. Tripartite nature of environment. Crumley. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. I. Biology. Allan & Carter. Adam. Inc. C. P. Biodiversity (An Introduction). Culture. 2003. Hannen. Understanding the environment-human relationship. John Wiley and Sons. and Sustainable Living. (editor).. Conceptualizing environment. 2009. Goals and expectations. 3. IL:WavelandPress. Perspective of human-environment evolution. 5th Edition. Walnut Creek. Nora and Wilk. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. CA: AltaMira Press. K. USA. power & hegemony. Bradbury. Starr. K. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. 2. Inc. UK. culture and society. J. and concerns. 3. a Human Emphasis..K. (editors). UK. New York: New York University Press. Environmental Risks and the Media. I. 2005. Chronological.

Introduction to MS-Word.London 1996. processing hardware. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. 2. Ms-Excel. 2003. 6. system software. Ms-Power Point. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. Milton. Fundamentals of computer. Long l.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. Ms-Access. Operating system (Windows). 21 . Storage hardware. Rutledge. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. Courter. Recommended Books: 1. K. Software: Application software. Selin. computer programs and basic applications.6th Ed.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure .H. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. Marquis A.Microsoft office 2000.. G. Local Area Network. Types and classification of computers. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. Ed. output hardware. software packages. Kluwer Academic Publishers. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry.. Long N. e-mail. Course Outlines Definition. as are their effects on the biosphere. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere.5.1999. Configurations. internet. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure .C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. Hardware: Input Hardware.

J. Miller. Chemical reactions. M. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. and Singh. 5. Solar spectrum. Human perceptions and noise criteria. C..T. 2004. B. Liquids and Gasses. T. Turbulent jets and plumes. Reducing the transmission of sound. Girard. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants.. Conversion of mass. Transport of pollutants.D. Turbulence. Andrews. UK. Ozone and UV light. Thomson-Brooks. Brimblecombe. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. USA. atmospheric and soil chemistry. Jickells.E. Environmental Science. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. Ozone chemistry. M.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. 3. 2008. 2004. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. Environmental Chemistry. 2. Equations of fluid dynamics. G. Measurement and comparison of the 22 .. Solids. J.. Fate of pollutants in environment. K. Energy conversion. Isotopes and radioactive decay. P.. interaction of light with matter. Samir. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. Turbulent diffusion.. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Blackwell Science..M. Electromagnetic radiation. Active control of sound. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. Germany. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. Particle physics. 2nd Edition. and Reid. Springer. Hernandez-Esparza. Basic acoustics. 1st Edition.. J.E. Fregoso-Infante.. Gaussian plumes in the air.G. Recommended Books: 1. Jones and Barlett. their sources and toxic actions.S. 1999. Entropy. Environmental impact of various industries. Environmental Chemistry. Fundamentals of aquatic. Diffusion. DoriaSerrano.. A. Sound and Noise. Liss. trophic level. P. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. 4. Global climate and climatic change. Canada. its causes and adverse effects on environment. photosynthesis. 2005. Energy. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. Nuclear energy. Ibanez.. India. J. Heat radiation and heat transfer.

USA. concepts and measurement. John Wiley and Sons Inc. USA. and Pandis. 2008. 3. S. R. Man environmental relationship. Environmental economics. Economic Development. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. Kentucky USA. Routledge. USA. Yusuf. producer and community point of view. Guyot. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. Smith. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. Growth and Environment.. C. World Bank Publications. UK. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. H. J. Course Outlines Introduction to economics.1998. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. Growth and development. Seinfeld. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. Producer behavior. E. Physics of the Environment and Climate. G.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. 2006. 2. economic progress. Economic management and environmental quality. 2001. poverty. 2. Economic functions of environment. population and environmental quality. P. 23 . Wesely Publishers.Economic development. Boeker. economic growth and its measurement. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. New York. and Resource allocation. economic welfare and difference among all. 7th Ed. Environmental Physics. Introductory Environmental Physics. Field visit. N. 2008. 2001. S. Measures for sustainable development. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. Sustainable development. USA. Todaro. Natural resources and the economy. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. M. economic growth. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Praxis publishing. Recommended Books: 1. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. 4. and Van Grondelle. interaction between ecology and economic management. Impact of economic activity on environment. Recommended Books: 1. Pakistan economic context: National income.

its fundamental concepts. 4. branches of ecology. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. 2008. Shogren. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . water. B. 4. species. soil. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. N. Economics. Callicott.. Hanley. and systems ecology. biogeography. levels of ecological organization. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. R. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale.. M. WCIV7AA. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. Palgrave Macmillan.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. Natural philosophy. 2008. & Pierce. C. England. 2007. 2009. Farmington Hills. Russell. Environmental Critics of agriculture. Ecology.V. Environmental philosophy and ethics. J. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. J. London. Course Outlines Introduction. Recommended Books: 1. B. B. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy.. 3. USA. 2. Touchstone Books. and White. ethics and ecology. Kessinger Publishing. population. Portland 1967. community. temperature. community and ecosystem. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography.3. D. Frodeman. International Thomson Publishing. Swift. USA.A. concepts and approaches. LLC. 24 . A History of Western Philosophy. Introduction to ethical theory. Ecosystem and its types. the ethics of soil. DeVeer. role of light. description of population.. 2002. World Bank Publications.

and Barett. B. and S. 2000. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. Thomson Brooks/Cole. M. 3. N. Lab Work 25 . C. 1992. New Delhi. Populations. Microbial metabolism. landscape changes and their importance. J. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. 1st Ed. Systems ecology. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. Cambridge University Press. M J. C. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. aquatic microbiology. Biogeochemical cycles of C. Fundamentals of Ecology. P. Fundamentals of Ecology. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. distribution limits. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. students will be able to understand the significance. Chapman. community dynamics. After completion of this course.) Moles. M C J 1st ed. biotic factors. G. 2004. Concepts of Limiting factors. E P. Ecology (principles and applications). characteristics of urban.L and Reiss. Ecosystem: structure and function. ecological modeling. productivity of different ecosystems. 5th Ed. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. and More. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. Ecology (concepts and applications. WCB/McGraw-Hill. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. various concepts of community. population dynamics. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). with special emphasis on their environmental impact. Dash. habitat and niche. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. 2001 5. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. Biomes of the world. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. J. Odum. landscape ecology. Recommended Books 1. Tata McGraw-Hill. 2. 6th Ed. 1999 4. Population distribution and abundance.W. bacteria and eukarya.Cox. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. UK. King’s College London. UK. New York.topography and air as ecological factors. plant geography and animal distribution.

26 . USA. J... Human & other living organisms. G. Microbiology. 5. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. and Zuberer. 3.F.M. C. Soil. McGraw Hill Inc. F.. 1995. Case Studies.. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water.1998. M. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. 2. Fuhrmann. J. Academic Press. Weiner. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. Hartel. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. Water. Prescott. peppor.and Brendecke. 2007. Cambridge UK. Marine & Industrial pollution. Environmental Pollution and Control. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. Environmental Microbiology.and Vesilaind. and Gerba. 2005.G. and Klein. Noise. Knudsen. and Jeffery. and Stetzenbach. Recommended Books 1.L.V. P.. 2002. Hurrst. Dilution plate technique. USA.L. Pepper.J. Maier.B. Collection. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. D.W. 2009. R. 2 Edition. Crawford. purification and preservation.. L. Solid Waste generation.C. isolation. Mean plate count. 4. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. P.P. UK.. Sylvia.L. American Society for Microbiology. Butterworth-Heinemann. Hill.P. M. Recommended Books: 1. Pollution Control Strategies.J. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution... C. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. Understanding Environmental Pollution. 2. USA. R.P. transportation & treatments. McInernery.A.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection.A. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. W. 3. its sources and their effects. (Elsevier) USA. Academic Press. USA. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. 2nd Edition. D. I.K.J. New Jersey.A..M. 4th Edition.J.Gerba. D. Cambridge University Press. Prentice Hall.. Washington DC. Peiece. L. Harley. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. A. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual.R. 2005.I. Academic Press. USA. London. J. Effects of Pollutants..D.J. 2005.M. Types of Environmental pollution: Air..

. N. Factors affecting air Pressure. Recommended Books: 1. 1992. Four Spheres of the Earth. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. 1988. Pandis. The Atmosphere.. Austin Miller. Karachi. air pressure. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. Tarbuck. Lutgens.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. local winds.F. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. John H. Shamshad. The Hydrologic cycle. A. American Public Health Association (APHA).M. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. 6th Edition. Houghton J. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Radiation and climate. Methods of psychology.K. 2002. K. Environmental psychology. John Wiley and Sons.4. . Sadder. The Physics of Atmospheres. Mechanism of heat transfer. Solar radiations. The climate of Pakistan. Cloud Classification. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided.W. condensation and cloud Formation. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. Marcel Dekkar. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. 5. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. Climatology..2nd Editions. 2006 5. Royal book company. global circulation. Lawrance K. Cambridge University Press. 27 . climatic zones of Pakistan. 2003. 3. Surface winds.E. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. Weather and Climate. Spyros. 4. 2.. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan).J.

M. Ecological restoration. London. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Pollution control through Ecology. Ecology of food production. Eysenck. Future water scenario of Pakistan. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. soil resources of Pakistan. Soil as a natural resource. limitation of irrigated agriculture.. rivers. species response to pollutants. Routledge. Sustainable agricultural practices. Restoration of derelict lands. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change.C. threats and mitigation. sustainable agriculture. Water as an ecological resource.characteristics and research methods.A. soil salinity and water logging. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. 1992. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. Sustainable livestock management practices. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. 2001. Bell. Fisher J. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. solar radiation and primary production. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. London. CRC Press. Greene. Background and scope. 5th Edition. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. Recommended Books: 1. carbon dioxide and global climate change. High population density and psychological impacts. T. Water and distribution of species. 2. Fundamental of Psychology.D.W. soil erosion and conservation. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. Environmental perception and cognition. Environmental Psychology. CRC Press. Routledge.. Course Outline Introduction. their management and ecological restoration. techniques and methods of restoration. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. 28 . P. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. concepts. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. and Baum A. energy and carbon balance.

in vivo & in vitro assays. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. 29 . R. Potentiation and Addition. Rashid. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. 5th Edition. Shirkat Gah. Studies in Pakistan Geography. Margaret A. University of Peshawar. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. Falk.Recommended Books: 1. Island Press. 1989. toxicity screening using microbial systems. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. their containment and control strategies. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. Thomson Brooks/Cole. G. from natural and anthropogenic sources. 2006. and Barett. Israr-ud-Din. Odum E. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. E. 2nd ed. on human and other living organisms. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. Newman. toxicology of chemicals. 2004. K and Habib.1998. USA.National Book Foundation. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. dose response relationship in living organisms. soil and air samples. K. J. and Memon. Mumtaz. 1996. A. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. P. Lahore. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. Organs. terminologies: Poisons. Oxford.A. A.W. toxins & toxicants. Chemical interactions and their types. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. water and soil. J. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. Peshawar. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Pakistan’s Environment.. Islamabad.. 3. D. biological effects. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents.. Soil Science. Zedler. and Hobbs. Synergism.. Fundamentals of Ecology. 5. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. 2000 2. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. toxins vs toxicants. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History.P. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications.S. B.I. Immunological considerations in toxicology. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. 4.

1st Edition. topographic zones. urbanization and pollution. major ecosystems. Government of Pakistan.Recommended Books 1. people. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development.2005 2. W. education. economic aspects of different environmental problems. 1st Edition. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. T and Turner. State of the Environment-Pakistan . Klassen. 2005 2. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. CRC Press Llc.1 & 2. Recommended Books 1. economic development and the environment. W. culture. the economic benefits of different environmental resources.). the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. USA. industry. USA. Recommended Books: 30 . Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. 5th Edition. pollution control-a general model. health. Course Outlines Introduction to history. General and Applied Toxicology.M. B. measuring environmental benefits.. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. water resources. clean development mechanism. Hughes. Ecological: ecological zones.Science of Poisons . USA. Ballantyne. Course Outlines Introduction. 1996. 3. the economy and the environment. 3. geography. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement.D. Macmillan Press Ltd. (ed. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. Vol. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. McGrawhill. P. 1993. land. Williams. M. 1992. international trade and the environment. Economic: agriculture.

D. Harris. D.. Skoog.. BOD.. preparation and storage. 2005. L. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. Use of Potentiometery. 4. 31 . Standard solutions and standard curves. 8th Edition. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. 2. Titrimetery. Kolstad. Conductivitymetry. 2. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. A. Freeman & Co. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive.I. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. Conductivitymetry.A. I. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. precision and accuracy. water and plant analysis. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. Peverill. Collingwood. West. 3. Sample preservation methods. and Batemen. Sparrow and D. 1993. Australia. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Johns Hopkins University Press.L. Titrimetery.. D. Holler. 1999. M. CSIRO Publ.I. Data interpretation for quality control. salinity & sodicity). New York. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. C. Gravimetery.and Field. Recommended Books: 1.C. M. and derived S. Gravimetery.W. NO3–N & NH4-N). Environmental economics: An elementary introduction.UK. Thomson and Brooks.K. Oxford University Press.D. COD.2004. 3. Fluoride.. B. Environmental Economics. 2003. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. Analytical techniques for soil. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. handling.. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. J.K. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Field.R. K. D. Turner. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. Oxford.1.J. Sample collection. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. USA.2002. 6th Edition. All Solids. Pearce. 2000. Lab Work S. C. and F. Reuter. units. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association).

New York. Chichoster. Isolation. J. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Recommended Books 1. Biosensor.. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. (ed. 2001..P. USA. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. England. Sambrook. 2007. Hans- Joachim. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. W. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. 5th Ed. Introduction to microbial kinetics. Environmental Biotechnology. Biomarkers. 2nd Ed. purification and preservation of DNA. USA. USA. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. 2009. and Russel. Smith. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. D.W.E.1999.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. PCR. Wiley-VCH Verlag. Germany. National Biotechnology Commission. Oxford University Press. students will be able to understand the significance. Derbre. Recombinant DNA technology. Bioreactors. 3. 2005. Course Outlines Introduction. Cambridge University Press.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. 2. J.). A. 2005. J.D. National Biosafety Guidelines. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. After completion of this course. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . New York. and application of biotechnology in the environment. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. Biotechnology. 4. Scragg. Government of Pakistan. and Josef. Tools in environmental biotechnology.

Introduction to Photogrammetry. F. map projection and coordinate systems. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). 3. Z. Energy Sources. integration of information from many sources. History and data collection. 4. Image Processing. advantages and limitations of process. Inc. Active and Passive remote sensing. Interpretation. Cartography. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). Forestry. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. Guilfoud press New York. Introduction to GIS. Aerial photography. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. Using and reading GPS in field. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. K and L. history and platforms. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. 1999. Dessinov. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. John Wiley and Sons. Pearsons Education. Campbell. Mc Graw Hill Education.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. R. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Different types of maps. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . Lulla. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. Preparation of thematic maps. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Inc. Fishery and wildlife. eradication of the duplicated data. Inc. Satellite Imageries. analysis and output. 5. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Jensen. 2000. Rancez. 2008. Agriculture. Data entry and output. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. 2000. Harvey. John Wiley and Sons. A. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. V. 2. 2009. Data acquisition. Types of data used in GIS.

threats to biodiversity and its conservation.. 4. threats to biodiversity. Systems and Support Techniques. ecological. F. 3. 2006. Environmental Economy. International Organization for Standardization. economic. philosophical. Environmental Management tools. social and ethical values of biodiversity. alpha and beta diversity. and Qasim. Sheldon. American Society for Quality. principles of Cleaner production. standards and guidelines. Conservation of biodiversity. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. Khan. Certification of EMS. Methods of environmental protection. American Society for Quality. and Yoxon. Related Environmental legislation. cleaner technologies. B. Environment and sustainable development. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. 2. 2001. hot spots of biodiversity.3rd Edition . M. M. Environmental aspects and impacts. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. eco-design.C.2nd Ed.). Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. 34 . Course Outlines Introduction. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. etc. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. Michigan.. WWF Pakistan. 1998. need and approach. types of biodiversity. 2005. plant. A.. Environmental Management Systems Principles.

A Primer for Conservation Biology. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation.. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. habitats. 1998. Publ. population. Kings College.D. Saad Printers. forests. Recommended Books: 1. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. 2ndEd. EIA requirement.conservation at species. croplands. P. soil and living organisms. quality control sampling. ecotourism. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. C. Mirza. design and types of samples. Lahore). Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city.B. Sunderland. Biogeography. field custody. their categories. plants. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. Course Outlines Introduction. and Morre. Cox. 2. 2000. 2000. conservation in man-made ecosystems. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. refrigeration and freezing methods. 35 . Sinauer. Preservation methods including pH control. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. cities. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. Associates Inc.e. air. presampling requirements/information. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. Legal protection of species. P. Conservation of wildlife. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. 3. national and international laws and regulations. conservation and livelihood.. quality assessment. conservation strategies. chemical addition. Considerations. sampling and design purposes. Rawalpindi. management. water. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. laboratory custody. London.B. NOC for plant operation. protected areas. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan.R. Quality assurance and quality control. community and ecosystem level. Z. international agreements..B.

USA.. S. 2002. and Guethner. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. 7. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. New York. Lewis Publisher London. Physical. 2008. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. Regional droughts and 36 . S. Moisture in the Atmosphere. Chuviero. 2000. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. human health. 5.Recommended Books: 1. H. Peakall. L. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. Burden. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. E. Ozone depletion. I. Murai. agriculture. USA.1996. (eds. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. 2. 2008. D.1999. Earth Observation of Global Change. The Measurement of Climate Change. Energy and Temperature. 2nd Edition. 6. R. Precipitation. . Tokyo. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. McKlivie. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. Keith. its causes and effects. D. F. 3.) McGraw-Hill. Chapman and Hall. 2002. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. E. biological. N. Environmental Chemistry.. USA. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. Remote Sensing Note. altered community structure. Manahan. extinctions. 8. phenological changes. 1992. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. Recent Climate Change Indicators. regional. chemical. UK.USA. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. (ed) Springer. Human responses to potential climate change. Korte. Forstner U. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data.

Petts. overview.T. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. and noise. Islamabad.. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Blackwell..(ed). COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. EIA project management. Climate Change . Climate Change .Causes. project implementation and follow up. Therivel. 2003. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. 2. screening. 2004. and Solutions.O. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. Islamabad.. Main stages in EIA process. impact analysis. review of EIA quality. Earthscan Publication Ltd. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. Hardy. 5.). 2005. J. Houghton. 1986.Causes. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. A. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. London.. and Chadwick. solids. John Wiley & Sons. Sringer. Effects. 6. National Book Foundation. Ministry of Housing and Works. and Solutions. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. 37 . Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. 1999. mitigation and impact management. law. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). A. J. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. public involvement. John Wiley & Sons. 2. Types & Resources to produce Energy. 2000. (ed. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. Recommended Books: 1. D. 3. J. & Nixon. Keith. R. Cost and benefits of EIA. Recommended Books: 1. scoping. reporting. social impact assessment (SIA). Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Hardy. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. 1st Edition. 4. Glasson. 2005. 1994. 3. Global Change and the earth system.A. London. J. Oxford. Effects. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. 2005. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. 2003. liquid. Global Warming and Climate Change. decision-making to implement the project. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. T. Harrop. Routledge..cataclysmic climate change. J... 4.

national example. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly.. F. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. management options. effective management. J. B. methodologies. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. Sadler. problem in agriculture. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. Evans.5. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. Rangeland Management: existing status. wind power and nuclear power. Everitt. and Tu. their pros and cons. causes and methods for its improvement. process and contents of the management plan. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources.. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. (ed. Goldsmith. agriculture products and their share in GDP. R. best available option for future. Lohani. M.. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan.. Ludwig. threats. United Nations Environment Programme. 1997. Asian Development Bank. New York. national and provincial legislation. John Willey & Sons. wildlife census. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. & McCabe. agriculture chemicals. importance. 6. 1993. S. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources.. A. Carpenter. management options. requirement. Recommended Books: 1. national agriculture policy. R. solar power. B.. Conservation in Progress. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. forest types and its existing management. 2nd Edition. USA. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies.. threat and its causes. 38 . existing management approaches. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. limitation in the future. their current status and threats.B and Warren. 2002.). Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. Development of Management Plan: needs. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. Types. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. H.

types of sampling design/. Material Methods. How to put things together? Introduction.L. P. Case Studies. Surveys. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. John Wiley & Sons. New York. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. Dasmann. GOP and IUCN. 4.. Search Engines. Sampling: the logic of sampling. 5. Scientific Methods. Sage CA. USA. Scientific Research: Science.A pre-requisite for Research.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. population and sampling frames. Elsevier. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. Objectives. Methodology.E. Selecting the Research Method. Literature Search: Database. Bibliography. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. Research Proposal: its importance . & Plano Clark. to introduce students to research design. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. concepts and terminologies. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. J. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. Environmental Conservation. Inference based on findings. Research Design & Research Methods.E. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). 1992. Hansen. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. Creswell. W. V. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem.Amsterdam. and Jorqensen. 1990. Interviews.F. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). London. 1984. S.2. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. Review of Literature. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. 2007. Questionnaire. research methods. Thousand Oaks. R. 39 . Review of Literature. Islamabad. 3. Experimental Research.

Batty. M. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. 2008. S. Diamon. Booth.. Univ. and Arhonditsis. England. 2001 and the rules of business made there under.2. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. Marilyn F. Belmont California. 2000.. 2. Robert Yin. Survey Research Methods. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. 2nd Edition. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. 5. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. 1989. 2003. Students project in Environmental Science. Sage Publishers.S. 6. National Environmental Policy 4. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . 3rd Edition. Wadsworth Publishing Company. John and sons Ltd.Harrad. Chichester. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. regulations made there under. 3. 1997. 2001. Government of Pakistan 3. USA. Moriarty. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. Babbie. of Chicago Press. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. Recommended Books: 1. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. E.h.. National Conservation Strategy 5. R.USA. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. G. Qadar. 2003. 4.. 1997. Law Books House. USA. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

N. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. with drinking water facilities like springs.. R. Oxford University Press New Delhi.. Briscoe. A. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. 2. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency.1993. 4. recycling and re-use of wastewater. 2006.Varis. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. A. Mirajuddin Publication . wetlands resources management. water quality and quantity aspects. 6. C. Bengali. Mirajuddin Publication . groundwater exploitation. and Malik. J. 44 .. 2006. N. P. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. virtual water. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). fisheries management. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. 5. U. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant.).Lahore. Biswas. flood and droughts. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. (ed... Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. and Tortajada. Lahore. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. Cheema. 2003. Pakistan. The Politics of Managing Water.. and Qamar. Asia Printer.K. 1993. Revised & enlarged edition. integrated water resources management (IWRM). 3. 2005. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. Islamabad. Recommended Books: 1.. Pakistan . hydrological cycle. tubewells. watershed/catchment. Khan. Oxford University Press Karachi. O. pollution aspects. K. Indus Water Accord 1991. I. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. Ahmed. (eds. R. Islamabad. A. Ahmed. water supply and demand management measures. SDPI Oxford University Press. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. flood and drought management.).

Physical and chemical properties of soil.C. NJ. future of urban centers. Definition. Soil degradation.R. Types and properties of parent materials. Upper Saddle River. Hillel. urban political ecology. Causes of urbanization. Soils in Our Environment. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. Academic Press. management and green productivity. Forms of urbanization. and Weil. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. hydrological processes. 2008. soils. NJ. N. D. USA. Urbanization. 11th Edition. Upper Saddle River. Islamabad. San Diego. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. Pakistan. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. urban settlements. Cation and anion exchange. Urban ecosystem.W. PrenticeHall. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. D. urban landscapes characteristics. urbanization in Pakistan. After completion of this course. Soil forming minerals. Miller. humans as components of urban ecosystems. 1996. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. urban flora and fauna. Soil Science. USA. E. and Bantel. Brady. 2007. 1. Prentice Hall. 2007. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. Course Outlines Introduction. 45 . USA. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals.. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. the salient features of urban environments.T. Bashir.. R. Gardiner. R. CA. Factors and processes of soil formation. transport. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. R. National Book Foundation. Course Outlines Introduction. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. Process and outcome.

Planning and Urban Change. 1989. The planning process. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Routledge. Penguin Group. Gilbert. 5. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. Hough.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. Land use planning theories. Sukopp. Scope. Aims and Objectives of planning. M. Alberti. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. UK. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. A.. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. CRC Press LLC. D... C. 2006. 2007. Types of Urban Plans. Routledge. Hejny.L. The Works: Anatomy of a City. UK. S. USA. 4. J. USA. Chapman and Hall. H. SAGE Publications Ltd. The Ecology of Urban Habitats.. Planning theories and concepts. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. Kate. S. Silberstein. 1. London. 3. nature and purpose of urban planning. nd 2 Edition. London.and Maser. Principles of planning. I. 2. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. Justification for planning for city management. Ward. 2004. Recommended Books: 1.. Hague.and Kowaril. O. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. V. New York. New trends in planning and city management. UK. Springer.S. City Design for Sustainable Development. M. 46 . Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. Levels of planning. Smith. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. 2000. 2. Elements of urban planning. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. SBS academic publishing. UR. 2004. Planning and its relationship with other professions. 2009.1990.

this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. ADB. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. Recommended Books: 1. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. Westview Press. 47 .B. 1991. D. Cultural factors.. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. The Guilford Press. Natural cycles and their role. Clara.. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. R. Physical factors. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development..3. 4. UK. International phenomenon. Introducing Town Planning. Prediction. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. M. Chapman & Hall. Landslide. i. 2nd Edition. Government of Pakistan. and Woodrow. Disaster Management: Components of management. Longman Group. E&UA Div. Different approaches and Indicators. and White G. 1993. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. 1986. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research.F. 1989. Natural Disasters Alexander. Flooding. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). P. Earthquake Management... Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. New York. Political factors. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. Kates. Manila. 4. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. 1993. 2. Ministry of Housing and Works.W. Role of Media in Disaster Management.UNESCO. Flood Management: Organizational Role. 1993. H. Islamabad. Earthquake.e. Techniques and methods to assess hazard.W. New York. Socio-economic factors.. G. Boulder . 3. Hazards.J.. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. Paris. Disaster as an opportunity for development. It discusses a wide range of aspects.. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards.

H. types. alternate energy resources. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. 2001.B and Keller. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. Disasters and Development Cuny. sustainable energy management. USA. 2007. E. OECD/IEA. McKinney. Agroecology. 6. energy resources of Pakistan.5. New York. hydropower. 1. and Mushkatel. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. Sustainable livestock management. A. Westport. 6th Edition. 1983. solar. Schoch. primary producers. Ecological concept in crop and food production. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. 2007. John Wiley and Sons. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems.L. 4th Edition. Perry R.W.. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem.C. 48 . Quorum Books.A.. L. F.M. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. local. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Botkin. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. uses. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. merits and demerits of wind. Biotic structure. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources.. decomposers. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. 3. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. consumers. Paris. biomass resources. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. 1984. M. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. and Yonavjak. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. energy resources. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Consumer and producer relationship. D. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. R. 2.

C. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. Study of index of diversity. and Rossel. Experimental Plant Ecology. 2. P.. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. New Delhi. 1995. Recommended Books: 1. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. Altreri. 2000. Kapur.P. M. E-11 Seminar 49 . Agrocology.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. USA. India. New York. Boulder. and Sudha. Yandermeer J. Corol. CBS Publishers and Distributors. 1990. R.M. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. Westview Press. 3.A.Determination of density and abundance of plant species.R. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species.H. USA. Study of stratification and profile diagram.G.

availability of the faculty and other facilities. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. 5. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. 3. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. that: 1. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. 2. the Committee agreed on the following principles. 4. 50 .

9. 14. 4.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 8. 7. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 10. 4. 2. 6. 21. 3. 12. 16. 9. 10. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 18. 26. 6. 7. 13. 3. 20. 22. 11. 2. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 23. 11. 5. 25. 5. 12. 15. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 19. 17. 24. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 8.

Islamabad. Provincial and Local Strategies. Environmental control Policies. 3. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. Instruments and methods. Elsevier. WCS.A. Amsterdam. 1987. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems.S. London. 2. Oxford University Press. status of Terrestrial. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. S.1994. Oxford University Press. Hansen. 1992. 2. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Regional and International Environmental Issues. 1991. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. development of concepts.. Treaties.. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. Mackenzie. S.. F. Hodder and Stoughton. Mackenzie J. P. and Bell. Khan K. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. NCS. Karachi.DETAILS OF M. Relationship of culture. and Jorqensen. 3. 2nd Edition. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. London Black Stone Press Ltd.. D. Geography of Pakistan. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). 4.1995. Conventions and Protocols in Global. 52 . Draft National Environmental Policy. Environment People and Economy. technology and resource use. Money.1991. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. Recommended Books: 1.E. Ball.. FURTHER READINGS 1. GOP and IUCN.F. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall.1994. S. Conservation Strategies.T.E. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change.

Recommended Books: 1. 53 . K. 1995. A. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. Recommended Books: 1. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. procedures and methods of EIA. Case Studies and review. ecological impact assessment.A.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. Environmental Chemical Analysis. Burnt Hill. C. Wood..Vanclay. Assessment of environmental impacts. FURTHER READINGS 1. Chichester. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. Air and Solid Waste. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. 1995. social impact assessment. opportunities and issues. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. Wastewater. Principles of physical. Longman Scientific and Technical. DC. 2. process. 2. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Demographic impact assessment. WB. D. Government of Pakistan. Environment Department. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). UK. ed. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. Washington. Cost benefit analysis of projects. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). role and importance. F & Bronstein. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Harlow Essex. Gas Chromatography etc. Longman House. sampling rules. A one Publishers Lahore. Ahmed. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. sample collection and preservation. 1993. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. Ed. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. economic impact assessment. England. John Wiley & Sons. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. History. Ministry of Environment. Environmental auditing. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. World Bank. 3.

Yassi. Prentice Hall International Inc. Lippmann. Accident prevention and safety plans. Project Planning and Approval Processes. Kjelllström. T. development objectives. 2. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. New York.. Resource Mobilization. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. Park. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. Basic Environmental Health. 2nd Ed. R. Defining Project objectives. J. feasibility study.. and Wright. Ergonomic and Safety. K. indicators. Oxford University Press New York.2000. Meredith J. USA. John Wiley and Sons. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. Planning Commission Performas. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. 2. T. de Kok. 1st Ed. 3. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. Need identification. economic evaluation. Project Life Cycle. 5. Inc. 1992.. outputs. USA. and Guidotti. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). 2002. inputs. 1st ed. Nebel. 54 .. Recommended Books: 1. S. A Guide to Project Management. principles and practices. Reasons for Project success or failure. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. 4. activities. London. J. T. Project Planning. work breakdown structure.. R. Mantel s. 1st Ed. specific objectives. Caeneross. B. safety techniques.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project.. 1993. Environmental Health Engineering. prevention and control. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). air borne. T.. 2001. Project Initiation. Public health concept. Project Management Institute. M/S Banarsid... Occupational Health: problems and issues. L. Writing Project Proposal. A. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. Wiley Interscience. UK. Primary health care services. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. Government Policies and Programs. M. 1997. 1998. means of verification. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. assumptions.

Michigan-January 2001. R. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. 1990b. Paris. Recommended Books: 1. energy resources. petroleum. McKinney. Botkin. 2007. Schoch. John Wiley and Sons. principles and elements of the process of EMS. USA. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. St Luise Press. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. Sayre. Principles of cleaner production. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. and Yonavjak. uses. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. D. transport. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. 6th Edition. nuclear) local. non-renewable and renewable. 3. solar. 55 . bio-energy resources. merits and demerits of wind. 4th Edition. 2. Sources of data. Environmental auditing. 2. E. L. Switzerland.A. energy resources of Pakistan. Environmental Auditing. 4. hydropower. 2001. 1998.. 3. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. M. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. types. data collection and interpretation. Paris. ISO Central Secretariat.B and Keller. D. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).L. OECD/IEA. alternate energy resources. 2007. industry and domestic sectors.M. gas. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Recommended Books: 1. Related Environmental regulations. sustainable energy management for agriculture.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System.

Oxford. 56 . forests. 2004. 2. Chichester. Recommended Books: 1. Springer. 1. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. resources and plants. UK 1991. Plant population dynamics. Plant Ecology. water resources. 2. The Green House Effect. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. global aspects of plant ecology. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Houghton. 2005. John Wiley & Sons..T. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. Effects. D. Beck. 2003.D. Blackwell Publishing. T. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. etc. Silvertown. Recommended Books: 1. Vegetation Ecology Ed. B & Jager. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Warrick. Climate Change and Ecosystems. Hardy. Effects. plant conservation. Berlin. 3. Hardy. Climate change and food production. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. 4. London. D. UK. Shulze. J. 3. Climate Change . E. 5. Blackwell Publishing. Green House Gases.). (Ed. and Solutions. J. Species richness. J. management and restoration. 2003. and Solutions. Climate Change . Maarel. & Charlesworth.. vegetation dynamics. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. Oxford UK. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. John Wiley & Sons. 2005. K. 2005. ED. survival and extinction. 1st Edition. types and their climatic effects. Modeling of climate change. types of climate change models. human activities and vegetation dynamics. competition and coexistence.Causes. Earthscan Publication Ltd. John Wiley & Sons. Life history strategies of plants. plant invasions.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. ECOPE 29.Causes. geographical and temporal patterns. 2005. E & Muller-Hohenstein.

Essentials of Conservation Biology. 2002. Establishment and management of protected areas. Global and national biodiversity. K. Robinson. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. I). Sustainable forest management. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. their types and role in conservation. And Bolen. deforestation and its control. T. S. 1992. Oxford University Press. J. Rangeland management. Forest plantations. Cambridge University Press. Recommended Books: 1. Wildlife Ecology and Management. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. their ecological and economic importance. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Inc. 1998. threats and conservation.B. 4. S. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity.A. problems and solutions.J. Roberts. E. status. 2004. 5. Protected areas in Pakistan. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. 2002. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. types. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. London. Participatory forest management. Oxford.D. UK. Protection and restoration of species.J. R. biological diversity. Cambridge. Extinction of species. Weddell. T.J. 3. Forests. Publishers Sunderland. Blackwell Publsihing. Protected areas. II). 57 . Biodiversity: An introduction.) Gaston. its causes.L.(2nd Ed. Cambridge. 1973 2. Primack. Oxford. habitats and ecosystems. Principles of Wildlife Management. & Spicer. 1986. distribution. John Wiley And Sons. B. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. Threatened animals and plants. management. Status of forests in Pakistan. Oxford University Press. kinds. UK. & Ripley. Recommended Books: 1.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. Roberts. 3. Wetlands. Consumptive. Oxford University Press. Sinauer Assocaites. Wildlife of Pakistan. Oxford. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. types.G. Loss of biodiversity. USA. 2. Mcmillan. Conserving Living Natural Resources. J. W.J. their importance. Bailey. distribution and management. 1984. distribution.

drinking water and solid waste in cities. 2007. Islamabad. UK. urban political ecology. USA. H. Clara. 4. Planning and Urban Change.. SAGE Publications Ltd. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. CRC Press LLC. USA. 2000. Longman Group. Ward. New York. urban systems and their characteristics. 1986. Kate. London. C.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. future of urban centers. urban landscape characteristics. A.. management of transport. 2. J. sanitation. Sustainable cities. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Government of Pakistan. 58 . Ministry of Housing and Works. urbanization in Pakistan. Urban land use planning and management. G. S. E&UA Div. 3.. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Silberstein. V. Introducing Town Planning. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. 1993. Recommended Books: 1. 2004. Environmental problems of urban life. Penguin Group. UK. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development.. Forms of urbanization.and Maser.

Thomson and A.Annexure . ISBN 0194313492 59 . Exercises 1. Practical English Grammar by A. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1.V. a) Functional English Grammar 1.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking.J. Oxford University Press. Martinet. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. Third edition. 1997. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase.

Writing. b) Practical English Grammar by A. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. minutes of meetings. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. Exercises 2. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Oxford Supplementary Skills. intensive and extensive. Thomson and A. Oxford University Press. Reading. Third Impression 1992. Reading/Comprehension 1. Upper Intermediate. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs.V. Fourth Impression 1993. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. 1997.J. Martinet. Third edition. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. and speed reading.2.

b) Writing 1. introduction to presentations. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. Practical English Grammar by A. 2. discursive. descriptive and argumentative writing). Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Reading. content. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Oxford Supplementary Skills. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. form.J. clarity. Reading 1. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Third Impression 1992. Writing. 2. Third Impression 1991. Third edition. Advanced by Ron White. Fourth Impression 1992. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Advanced. Martinet. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Thomson and A. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . Oxford Supplementary Skills. language. narrative. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Oxford University Press 1986.V. Writing. Fourth Impression 1993. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Exercises 2.1. Writing.

Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. without taxing the taste of engineering students). Kirszner and Stephen R. 62 . St. Martin’s Press. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. 2004. descriptive. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. Kathleen Shine Cain. 3. 2. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. argumentative and report writing).(particularly suitable for discursive. College Writing Skills by John Langan. A Custom Publication. Mandell. Compiled by norther Illinois University.

Location and geo-physical features. S. contemporary Pakistan. 4. ideological background of Pakistan. national development.M. Historical Perspective a. 2000.Annexure . issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. 63 Books Recommended 1. Economic institutions and issues b. 1993. 1994. Contemporary Pakistan a. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. Akbar. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. People and Land i. Mehmood. 1977-88 e. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. 1999 onward 3. State & Society in Pakistan. politics. Muslim advent iii. 2. 2. Indus Civilization ii. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. 3. 1947-58 b. b. 1988-99 f. . 1971-77 d. Society and social structure c. Course Outline 1. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Study the process of governance.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. Safdar. Zaidi. Lahore. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. Shahid Javed. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. Karachi: Oxford University Press. S. government. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. 1958-71 c. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Ethnicity d.

Mehmood. 1976. Aziz. 64 . 11. The Political System of Pakistan.National Movement in Pakistan. 13. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Zahid. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. 7. 12. 1987. Muhammad Waseem.The Emergence of Banglades. History & Culture of Sindh. Islamabad. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Vol. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Political Parties in Pakistan. 1998. Afzal. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Institute of Public Policy Research. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. 10. Enigma of Political Development. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1980. 8. Haq. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. 14. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. M. Washington: American Enterprise. Khalid Bin. Party. Noor ul. nd. Wayne. Tahir. 1993. 9. 1980. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Sayeed. II & III. 1972. I. Ethno . Ziring. Politics in Pakistan. Lawrence.K. Rafique. Safdar. Wilcox. Ansar.5. Lahore: Vanguard. 1967.. 6. Amin. Club Road. Pakistan Under Martial Law. K.

A.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.Tadabar (Verse No1.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.56.6.58.57.20) Related to thinking.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.A.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.A. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.40. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.Annexure .W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.A.19.21.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.

in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.

Ahmad Hasan. Islamabad (2001) 67 .S. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Studies in Islamic Law. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. International Islamic University.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. Pakistan. Bhatia. “Emergence of Islam” . “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. IRI. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah.

Annexure . COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. not majoring in mathematics. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. system of linear equations. harmonic progression. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. functions. introduction to sets. types. complex numbers. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. Boston 68 . Sharron S. trigonometric identities. 1987. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Houghton & Mifflin. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. types of functions. Cramer’s rule. matrix inverse. cube roots of unity. equations reducible to quadratic equations.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. Beckenback EF. set operations. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. determinants. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. 1986. PWS-Kent Company. geometric progression. Boston Swokowski EW. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. 1978. PWS-Kent Company. Wooton W.

with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. USA 3. not majoring in mathematics. integration by substitution. 69 . 1983. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. PWS-Kent Company. Ma. functions and their graphs. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. John Wiley. Calculus (11th edition). Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. differentiation of polynomial. inequalities. various forms of equation of a line. Recommended Books: Anton H. Addison-Wesley. equation of a line. New York Stewart J. slope of a line.2. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. left-hand and right-hand limits. Calculus (3rd edition). distance between two points. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Boston Thomas GB. solution of equations involving absolute values. change of variables in indefinite integrals. rational and transcendental functions. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Finney AR. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. angle between two lines. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. continuity. intersection of two lines. not majoring in mathematics. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. Davis S. 2005. derivatives. continuous functions. 2005. integration by parts. 1995. Reading. Bevens I. parallel and perpendicular lines. distance between a point and a line.

Conic Sections: Parabola. Boston 4. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. locus of a point in various conditions. types of functions. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. 1986. hyperbola. PWS-Kent Company. inverse of matrices. 1969 Kaufmann JE. Cramer’s rule. set operations. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. • Contents 1. equations reducible to quadratic equations. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. Scott. nature of roots of quadratic equations. types of matrices. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). system of linear equations. Freshman and Company. intersection of lines and circles. Boston Swokowski EW. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). Analytic Geometry. determinants. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. 70 .Circle: Equation of a circle. functions. PWS-Kent Company. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. 1987. ellipse. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. circles determined by various conditions. Introduction to sets.

5. characteristics of statistics. Boston. E. Latest Edition. trigonometric identities. 71 . MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. E. Kaufmann.. J. quartiles. Walpole. 3. ungrouped and grouped data. array. PWS-Kent Company. E. Graphs: Graph of straight line. 4. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. Prentice Hall. discrete and continuous series. types of frequency series. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. R. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. cumulative frequency curve. 2. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. standard deviation.. circle and trigonometric functions. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. Swokowski. relationship of statistics with social science. moments..geometric and harmonic progressions. Latest Edition. R. bar frequency diagram histogram. W. Measures of dispersion: Range. R. variance. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. skewness and kurtosis. Books Recommended: 1.. frequency polygon. individual. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. tally sheet method. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. 2. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. Latest Edition. deciles and percentiles. Wilcox.

et al. 2002. Inequalities. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. 3rd Edition. Continuous Functions. I. S. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. 6. implicit differentiation. integration by parts. Calculus. Second Edition 1992. Jhon Willey & Sons. Prentice-Hall. Schaum’s Outline Series. • Integration Integration from first principles. 5. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. Inc. Mathews. 4. E. applications of integration. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . special points of a function. integral inequalities. McCallum. 3. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. the chain rule. John H. Least-Squares Line. products. logarithmic differentiation. John Wiley & Sons. Swokowski. Contents 1. Equation of a Line. integration by inspection. 2. 2005. Calculus. 2. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. Extreme Values of Functions. Rational and Transcendental Functions. H. Davis. Inc. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. Addison Wesley publishing company.Jr. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. the inverse of differentiation. and Transcendental Functions. W. Recommended Books: 1. Bevens. Trigonometric Functions. Solution of equations involving absolute values. theorems of differentiation. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. 8th edition. Calculus. infinite and improper integrals. 2005. Gleason. Elliott Mendelson. 4th edition. 1983. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. plane polar coordinates. Integration by Parts. Frank A. integration using partial fractions. 6. Calculus Single and Multivariable. 1999. Slope of a Line. reduction formulae. Leibnitz’ theorem. logarithmic integration. Hughes-Hallett. 11th Edition. sinusoidal function. Rational Functions. quotients. Continuity. Thomas. Boston. substitution method. Anton.

operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. modulus and argument. solving hyperbolic equations. finding the nth roots of unity. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. complex conjugate. approximation errors in Taylor series. series involving natural numbers. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. multiplication. inverses of hyperbolic functions. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. geometric series. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4.Additions and subtraction. identities of hyperbolic functions. arithmetico-geometric series. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. the difference method.

equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. orthogonal. masses. vector product. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . symmetric and antisymmetric.5. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. of a unitary matrix. centers of mass and centroids. point to plane. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. line to line. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. scalar triple product. moments of inertia. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. 6. Hermitian. Pappus’ theorems. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. the inner product. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line.

combinations of grad.8. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. divergence of a vector field. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. spherical polar coordinates 75 . Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions.

Exercises. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Historigram. definition of outliers and their detection. Ogive for Discrete Variable. The semi-Interquartile Range. Unit 7. properties of Good Average. Exercises. Type-I and Type-II errors. Exercises. Range. Exercises. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Rounding of a Number. sampling and non sampling errors. Graphs and their Construction. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Unit 4. Change of origin and scale.Annexure . Empirical Relation between Mean. Bar charts. Exercises Unit 6. probability and non-probability sampling. Absolute and relative measures. Standardized variables. Box and Whisker Plot. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Data. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. sample design and sampling frame. Discrete and continuous variables. Histogram. Population. Statistical problem. Exercises. bias. Presentation of Data Introduction. The Mode. Quantiles. Moments and Moments ratios. Observations. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. The Mean Deviation. Errors of measurement. Unit 2. Diagrams. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Probability and Probability Distributions. Sources. Unit 5. Collection of primary and secondary data. Significant digits.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Constructing of a frequency distribution. acceptance and rejection regions. sampling with and without replacement. 76 . Editing of Data. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. null and alternative hypothesis. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Stem and Leaf Display. Pie chart. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Types of frequency curves. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Test statistics. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Difference of means and proportions. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Different types of Averages. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Unit 3. Median and mode. Exercises. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. level of significance. The Variance and standard deviation. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Coefficient of variation. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive.

Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. E. 2 Muhammad. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. Contingency Tables. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. Macmillan Publishing Co. r and R2.. F. Correlation. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes.Single Population Introduction. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. Regression and Correlation Introduction. Kitab Markaz. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. examples. 1982. R. Exercises. cause and effect relationships. its estimation and interpretation. 2005. Testing of Hypothesis. New York. Unit 11. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters.Unit 8. Exercises Unit 10. Exercises Unit 9. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. “Introduction to Statistics”. 77 . Inc. simple linear regression. Coefficient of linear correlation. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. 3rd Ed. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”..

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