CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
58

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According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. 2007 at HEC Regional Center.). the Federal Government vide notification No. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. degree awarding institutions. D773/76-JEA (cur. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. The world has turned into a global village. It is. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. dated December 4th 1976. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. PROF.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. Lahore. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. 63. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges.ALTAF ALI G. It also aimed to give a basic. and 36. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. therefore. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. universities and other institutions of higher education. R&D organizations. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. DR.

PREP. OF CURRI. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. COL. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. OF FINAL CURRI. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. REC.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. EXP. R&D. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. Preparation 5 . INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. UNI. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. OF NCRC.

Member 5. Karachi from 28-30. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Dr. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Member 4. Lahore Member 6. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. 7. Dr. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Member 3. Following attended the meeting:1. Member 6 . Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Rawalpindi Dr.

Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Member 11. Dr.8. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Member 10. Member 14. Karachi Member 12. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. 7 . Dr. Dr. 13. Prof. Member 15. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Member 16. Dr. Dr. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Dr. Prof. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof.

Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Member 19. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Mr. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Chairman. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. Dr. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. Faisalabad Member 18. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. Director of HEC Regional Center. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. The meeting was opened by Mr. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. At first. 1.17. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. Mr. 2. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Dr. 8 . Secretary Dr. Member 20. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. Karachi. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr.

The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. 5. In last few centuries. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society.3. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. 1. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. 3. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. 4. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. 6. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. The committee thanked Mr. 2. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment.

the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. 5. Apply theoretical understanding. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. ii. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. skills and behaviour patterns. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. in its preliminary meeting. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. This committee. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. regional and global contexts. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i.

5. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. A. The 11 . 3. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. 4. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles.e. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment.. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. Sc. eight semesters in the semester system. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. 2. Integrating natural sciences. 6. 1. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. with consensus. The medium of instruction. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. that: 1.

Introduction to Computer 14. English-II 12. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Environmental Chemistry 15. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Climatology* 23. Basic Chemistry* 4. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. English-III 18. Environmental Physics 16. Psychology* . Introduction to Earth Science 8. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Environmental Pollution 22. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Biology –II* 9. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Environmental Microbiology 21. Introductory Economics* 17. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Biology –I* 3. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. English-I 6. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1.

Natural Resource Management 40. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Environmental Biotechnology 32. Environmental Economics 29. ELECTIVE-III 42. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Climate Change 38. Environmental Management Systems 34. English-IV/ Univ. Opt. Environmental toxicology 27. Applied Ecology 26. 44. 45. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. Environmental Monitoring 36. GIS & Remote Sensing 33.24. 46.

• Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical.

. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. L. philosophical. 2007. its importance in human life. R. 2002. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. Miller.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. & Yonavjak. proteins and nucleic acids.A. 6th Ed. urbanization. 15 . Schoch. current global. ethical.. and their relationships with various environmental factors. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. national. Recommended Books: 1. 2007 3. M. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. D. 2. development in industry and agriculture. Human environment and its problems: global. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. John Wiley & Sons.T. environmental pollution. Major components of environment: physico-chemical.B & Keller. history.J. 2007. Wright. & Nebel. biological and social.L. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . Thomson Learning. R. lipids. 10th Ed. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. McKinney. 4th Ed.M. Different aspects of environment: physical. poverty and resource depletion. Botkin. socio-economic. 4. Pearson Educational.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. E. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. regional. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. G. B. ecological.

Wadsworth Group. Self Assessment and Revie. 1. J. proteins.Hill International Edition. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin.. E. 2. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. 4. Bulter. 8th Ed. 1996. M. Biology: a Human Emphasis. Plopper. N. carbohydrates. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. Introduction to cell biology. 2007.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. protobionts. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. McGraw. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. Australia . and Lewis. amines). R. New York. polypeptides in protein diversity. Structure and the basis of function. carboxylic acids. covalent. 2007. 16 . carbonyls. Canada. esters. USA. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. Lingappa. Starr. coordinate covalent bond. and Whitelaw. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. G. 3. B. Nucleic acids. phospholipids in membrane systems. V. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. 2008. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. D. Shier. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. 5th Edetion. 5.. Ltd. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. A. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. origin of metabolism. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. Aromatic compounds. Ionic. R. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. Lewis. Origin of life: chemical evolution. Cell division. Crossley. 2003. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. Cells. Cassimeris. C. USA. lipids. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards.. chemical diversity. lipids. the molecule of genetic information and replication.. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. chemical basis of life. L. Jones and Bartlett Publishers.. USA. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. Molecular Biology through Questions. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells.

Hill. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. and Reid. Photochemical reactions. P. 2nd Edition. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. Lab Work Preparation of molar. real line. B. equations of lines (linear equations). 2003. Thomson and Brooks. 2004. 5.. P.. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. 2. minor and cofactor of a matrix. 6th Edition.D. Recommended Books: 1. normal solutions/buffers.. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. Blackwell Science. Surface chemistry. graphs.A. 2005. UK. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences.ions. D. West. straight line and related concepts.E.. Jickells. Cambridge University Press. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. angle-sum formula.K. double angle formulas. Liss. Solution chemistry. EC and TDS in waste water. 8th Edition. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. Binomial theorem (Simple applications)..M. expansion of determinants. Jones and Barlett.C. simultaneous equations and their solutions. W. and Holler. Measurement of pH. USA. J. Osmosis and Dialysis. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. USA. M... Canada. series and means. 4.. 3. 2004. determinants. T. Girard. geometric and harmonic sequence. 2004. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. 2nd Edition. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. radicals.S. J. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Harris.E.Special Products (Binomial Expression). Algebra of matrices. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). values of trigonometric functions. D. D. Brimblecombe.J. Colloids chemistry. Column chromatography. law of Cosines. UK. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis.J. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). Andrews. 17 . F. Use of spectrophotometric techniques.. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. molal. Thin layer chromatography.H. Skoog. 1st Ed. Freeman and Company.

R. joints. 4th Ed. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. California. plate tectonics.Cramer’s Rule. Analytical Geometry. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. age. product and quotient rules without derivations). Narosa Publishing House. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. theorem of integration.. D. L.. Pacific Grove. Scott Foresman and Company. K. 18 . igneous and metamorphic rocks. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. Thomas. irreducible quadratic factors. Trignometry for College students. Fossils and their significance. 2. different earth processes like mountain buildings. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. mountain building. New Delhi. 1999.B. earthquakes. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation.Wesley. Introduction to folds. theorems on differentiation (sum. 3. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. Addission. by parts integration (simple applications). earthquakes and volcanoes. nonrepeated linear factors. weathering and erosion. Integration: Formulas of integration. Jr. foliation. erosion and related landforms. G. 10th Ed. Introduction to sedimentary. composition and its internal structure. 4. cleavages. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . difference. faults.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. its origin. Recommended Books: 1. Weathering. and Finney. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. Chain rule. Abraham. J. S. Chatterjee. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . lineation and unconformities. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. the processes of their formation. Introduction to rocks and minerals. Smith. Earth as a member of solar system.

Brooks/Cole. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . Lamarckism. G. 19 .II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. Biodiversity of canal. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. Park. measuring biodiversity. 11th Edition. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. Foundations of Structural Biology. Routledge.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. F. Earth Science. F. and Monroe. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. Physical Geology and Process of Science. animals). Field Study tour.. Geological time chart with biodiversity. Biodiversity of deserts. 4. consequences of losing biodiversity. 5. 2005. Tarbuck. R. 5th Edition. Recommended Books: 1. molecular basis of biodiversity. 2004. J. J. interactions among diversified life. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. E. population loss and decline. J.. invasion of life on land. How Does Earth Work. examples of adjustments in varied environment. Wicander. protocell formation. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. Lutgens. multicellularity. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. and Pun. 2007 2. Darwinism. 9th Edition. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. Prentice Hall: 2006. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. R. A. E. modern concepts. Lutgens. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology.. D. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants.. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity.. Use of brunton compass and GPS. Smith. D. different classification systems. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. biodiversity crises.Identification of rocks and minerals.. unicellularity. Geographical aspects of biodiversity.. Prentice Hall.. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. Life in sea. G. 2007 3. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. Biodiversity of hilly areas. and Tasa. K. causes of extinction. Prentice Hall. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. 3rd Edition.. K. Tarbuck. and Tasa.

a Human Emphasis. 2006. Consumption. 2nd Edition. L.K. Prospect Heights. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. I. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. Biodiversity (An Introduction). Gaston. 20 . Contemporary environment issues and debate. Hannen. Bradbury. K. Crumley. 2009. Inc. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. R. UK.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. Culture. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. C. Conceptualizing environment. 3. 5th Edition. power & hegemony. 2. Environmental Risks and the Media. and concerns. (editors). Tripartite nature of environment. J. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies.. Recommended Books: 1. globalization and environmental issues. Nora and Wilk. Wadsworth Group. 2. Starr. John Wiley and Sons. USA. Blackwell Science Ltd. IL:WavelandPress. 2005. Perspective of human-environment evolution. C. Contemporary environmental status. 3. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. Biology. Chronological.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. Goals and expectations. New York: New York University Press. UK. P. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. Allan & Carter. and Sustainable Living. 2009. Routledge. 2000. culture and society. and Spicer. 2003. 4. Understanding the environment-human relationship. 2001. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure .. Walnut Creek. Use of environment for vested interest. (editor). Adam. Townsend. CA: AltaMira Press. Scope and application. Inc. UK. J. I. The Biosphere. The Ecology of global consumer culture. K.

Types and classification of computers.Microsoft office 2000.5. internet. system software. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. Long l. output hardware. Marquis A. Storage hardware. Ms-Power Point. Ms-Access. G.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . Recommended Books: 1. Fundamentals of computer. 2003. 21 . computer programs and basic applications. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. Long N. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . Ed. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. Operating system (Windows). 2.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. e-mail. as are their effects on the biosphere. Rutledge. K.London 1996.. Introduction to MS-Word.1999. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures.. Milton.H. Course Outlines Definition. Ms-Excel. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. Kluwer Academic Publishers. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. 6. Configurations. Hardware: Input Hardware. processing hardware. Courter. Selin.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. software packages.6th Ed. Software: Application software. Local Area Network.

Basic acoustics.. Turbulence. Jickells... Environmental Chemistry. Liss. 1999. Diffusion.. Energy conversion. Solar spectrum. Miller. B. K. J. Fate of pollutants in environment. Turbulent diffusion. atmospheric and soil chemistry..M. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts.. P. their sources and toxic actions. trophic level. Andrews. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. Nuclear energy. Active control of sound. Thomson-Brooks.E. Gaussian plumes in the air. 4. 2008. Turbulent jets and plumes. Samir. M. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . Ibanez. Fregoso-Infante. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. Human perceptions and noise criteria.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. USA. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Particle physics. 2004. 2005. Entropy.. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. Liquids and Gasses.. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Germany. 2. 1st Edition. Solids. C. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. 2004.S.T. India. J.D. T. Electromagnetic radiation. photosynthesis. J. Canada. A. Equations of fluid dynamics.E. Blackwell Science. Ozone and UV light. Environmental Chemistry.. and Singh. Environmental Science. 3. Reducing the transmission of sound. Global climate and climatic change.. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants.J. P. Energy. Hernandez-Esparza. Chemical reactions. Sound and Noise. Fundamentals of aquatic. Brimblecombe. Transport of pollutants. Ozone chemistry. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. M. Environmental impact of various industries. Girard. G. Recommended Books: 1. Heat radiation and heat transfer. DoriaSerrano.G. Conversion of mass. Isotopes and radioactive decay. interaction of light with matter. its causes and adverse effects on environment. Springer. and Reid. 2nd Edition. UK. 5. Jones and Barlett.. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems.

Wesely Publishers. economic welfare and difference among all. 2006. Physics of the Environment and Climate. New York. Producer behavior. Environmental Physics. Impact of economic activity on environment. Seinfeld. population and environmental quality. R. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Guyot. 2001. John Wiley and Sons Inc. economic progress. 2008. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. Introductory Environmental Physics. 2001. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. Todaro. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. S. Man environmental relationship. P. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. M. N. Field visit. 23 . USA. Kentucky USA. C.Economic development. and Pandis. E. Boeker. economic growth. and Van Grondelle. World Bank Publications. 2. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. 4. economic growth and its measurement. Recommended Books: 1. Routledge. USA. H. Pakistan economic context: National income. Recommended Books: 1. 2.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. Yusuf. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change.. 7th Ed. and Resource allocation. Economic Development. poverty. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. Praxis publishing. Economic functions of environment. Growth and development. Measures for sustainable development.1998. G. Environmental economics. Sustainable development. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. UK. J. 3. USA. producer and community point of view. 2008. Economic management and environmental quality. Smith. Natural resources and the economy. interaction between ecology and economic management. Growth and Environment. concepts and measurement. S. USA.

Portland 1967. Palgrave Macmillan. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . levels of ecological organization. branches of ecology. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. Environmental philosophy and ethics. B. description of population. 24 . Callicott. Natural philosophy. World Bank Publications. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. concepts and approaches. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy.. and systems ecology. 3. Ecosystem and its types. & Pierce. 4. Environmental Critics of agriculture. Russell. and White. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. USA. M. ethics and ecology. Economics. International Thomson Publishing. B.. A History of Western Philosophy. LLC. soil. Course Outlines Introduction. D. J. community. Swift. Farmington Hills. community and ecosystem. N.. 2008.A. water. Hanley. population. 4. Recommended Books: 1.3.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. Frodeman.V. Ecology. the ethics of soil. 2009. 2007. its fundamental concepts. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. Introduction to ethical theory. role of light. temperature. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. Kessinger Publishing. C. 2. London. USA. R. WCIV7AA. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography.. B. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. England. 2002. DeVeer. species. 2008. Shogren. biogeography. Touchstone Books. J.

carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. 3. ecological modeling. C. WCB/McGraw-Hill. 2. King’s College London. habitat and niche. M. J. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. After completion of this course. J. and More. 1999 4. productivity of different ecosystems. Biomes of the world. Biogeochemical cycles of C. Dash. 2004. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. Microbial metabolism. Ecosystem: structure and function.topography and air as ecological factors. C. Fundamentals of Ecology. and S. M C J 1st ed. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. 1st Ed. Systems ecology. 1992. population dynamics.) Moles. 2001 5. landscape ecology. Populations.L and Reiss. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. Population distribution and abundance. M J. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. Ecology (concepts and applications. bacteria and eukarya. biotic factors. characteristics of urban. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). Concepts of Limiting factors. landscape changes and their importance. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. Chapman. Tata McGraw-Hill. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. New York. UK. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. students will be able to understand the significance. plant geography and animal distribution.Cox. 5th Ed. B. 6th Ed. Fundamentals of Ecology. 2000. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. P. various concepts of community. and Barett. New Delhi. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. aquatic microbiology.W. distribution limits. Lab Work 25 . UK. G. Odum. E P. community dynamics. Ecology (principles and applications). N. Cambridge University Press. Recommended Books 1. Microbiology of terrestrial environments.

Hill.J. Pepper. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. UK. isolation.G. P.. Academic Press.J. Mean plate count. 4th Edition.. J. Water.M.. Pollution Control Strategies. J. McGraw Hill Inc. London. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution.K.M. I. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal.J. J.A. Sylvia.B.D. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). C..Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection.1998. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic.P..and Brendecke. Recommended Books 1. Prentice Hall. Fate of Environmental Pollutants.J. Microbiology. 2007.L.F. 2002. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. Solid Waste generation.P..M. 2005. Environmental Microbiology.J. Maier. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution.. its sources and their effects.. F. L. 2nd Edition. transportation & treatments. 2005. Peiece. Cambridge UK. and Stetzenbach. USA. 1995. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. USA. Knudsen. Understanding Environmental Pollution. (Elsevier) USA. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. Hurrst.A. Soil. R. New Jersey. Prescott. Environmental Pollution and Control. 2 Edition. Harley.Gerba. USA. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. Weiner. Marine & Industrial pollution. L... W. and Klein.R. and Jeffery.I.A. American Society for Microbiology. P. 4.W. C. Human & other living organisms. Butterworth-Heinemann. 3.V. Hartel. R.P. M.L. G. USA. USA. Washington DC. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. 2009. Cambridge University Press. Recommended Books: 1. Types of Environmental pollution: Air.. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. 5.L. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. A. 2. D.and Vesilaind. Effects of Pollutants. purification and preservation. M.. Fuhrmann. Academic Press.. Noise. D. 2. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. McInernery. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. 26 . and Zuberer. and Gerba. Case Studies. 2005. 3.C. Academic Press. Dilution plate technique. peppor. Crawford. D. Collection.

The climate of Pakistan. American Public Health Association (APHA). 5. 2006 5.4. Tarbuck.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment.F. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems.K. Environmental psychology. Pandis. 27 . concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). 2. Recommended Books: 1. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. Austin Miller. condensation and cloud Formation. 2003.. Spyros. Climatology. global circulation. Four Spheres of the Earth. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. Sadder. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. The Physics of Atmospheres. Lutgens.. John H. N. 1992. Surface winds.2nd Editions. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . 6th Edition.E.W. The Atmosphere. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere... John Wiley and Sons. The Hydrologic cycle. Lawrance K. Houghton J. 2002. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Shamshad. Weather and Climate. climatic zones of Pakistan. Marcel Dekkar. Karachi. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. K. 1988. . 4. 3. Radiation and climate. Solar radiations. Cloud Classification. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. A.M. air pressure. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. Royal book company. local winds. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. Mechanism of heat transfer. Factors affecting air Pressure. Methods of psychology.J. Cambridge University Press.

. P. concepts. their management and ecological restoration. Eysenck. Fundamental of Psychology. Routledge. 1992. rivers. soil salinity and water logging. T. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. Water as an ecological resource. Ecological restoration. 2001. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. soil erosion and conservation. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts.D. London. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. London. CRC Press. Water and distribution of species. Routledge. solar radiation and primary production.characteristics and research methods. 2. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Greene. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. carbon dioxide and global climate change.. soil resources of Pakistan. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. 28 . Soil as a natural resource. threats and mitigation. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. Ecology of food production. Future water scenario of Pakistan. Bell. 5th Edition. Course Outline Introduction. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. M.W. Pollution control through Ecology. and Baum A.C. limitation of irrigated agriculture. CRC Press. Recommended Books: 1. species response to pollutants.A. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. Restoration of derelict lands. Sustainable agricultural practices. Environmental Psychology. sustainable agriculture. High population density and psychological impacts. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. techniques and methods of restoration. Environmental perception and cognition. Background and scope. energy and carbon balance. Sustainable livestock management practices. Fisher J.

Organs. dose response relationship in living organisms. Israr-ud-Din. R. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. Lahore. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Peshawar. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. and Memon. 2000 2. their containment and control strategies. Fundamentals of Ecology. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. 2nd ed. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. E. 5.. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. Studies in Pakistan Geography. toxicology of chemicals. B. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. Pakistan’s Environment. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. K. Margaret A. and Barett. G. biological effects. J.I. from natural and anthropogenic sources. on human and other living organisms. A. soil and air samples. Zedler. Mumtaz. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. Oxford. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. 2004.Recommended Books: 1. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. D. Islamabad. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. K and Habib.S. A. and Hobbs.. Chemical interactions and their types. terminologies: Poisons. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. Odum E. Rashid. Island Press. 29 . toxicity screening using microbial systems. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications.. Synergism. Soil Science. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic.1998. 2006. P. 5th Edition.. water and soil. in vivo & in vitro assays. Newman. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. Shirkat Gah. USA. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. 4.P. 1996. toxins vs toxicants. 3. Blackwell Scientific Publications. 1989. Foundations of Restoration Ecology.W. Immunological considerations in toxicology. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. Falk. University of Peshawar.A. J. toxins & toxicants.National Book Foundation. Potentiation and Addition.

Klassen. measuring environmental benefits. land. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York.Science of Poisons . Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. economic development and the environment. T and Turner. topographic zones.M. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. Ecological: ecological zones. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. P. Recommended Books 1. 1st Edition. 1993. water resources. pollution control-a general model. Hughes. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. 1996. B. USA. Recommended Books: 30 . 3. USA. international trade and the environment. McGrawhill. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement.. M. Government of Pakistan. 1st Edition. industry. clean development mechanism. 1992. Williams. Vol. Course Outlines Introduction to history. W. USA. geography. major ecosystems.1 & 2. health. 3. people.2005 2. W. urbanization and pollution. Economic: agriculture. the economy and the environment. culture. Macmillan Press Ltd. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. economic aspects of different environmental problems. CRC Press Llc. General and Applied Toxicology.Recommended Books 1. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. State of the Environment-Pakistan . Ballantyne. (ed. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. Course Outlines Introduction. education. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements.D. 5th Edition. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis.). 2005 2.

C. 2003. Pearce.I. B. COD. Thomson and Brooks. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. Data interpretation for quality control. 6th Edition.. Holler. I. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions.UK. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Use of Potentiometery. Spectroscopy and Chromatography.D. K. Conductivitymetry. Gravimetery. 2000. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve..and Field. Gravimetery. Sample collection. Oxford. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. 1999. Environmental Economics. USA. and F. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. 2. Lab Work S. Johns Hopkins University Press. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. BOD. Skoog. J.I. A. D. preparation and storage. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Analytical techniques for soil. Recommended Books: 1. units. Titrimetery. West. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. Oxford University Press. M.A. water and plant analysis.K.R. Kolstad. Fluoride..K. 3.. Standard solutions and standard curves.2004. 4. 2005. M. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. precision and accuracy. Conductivitymetry. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. 1993. D. and derived S.C. Field. salinity & sodicity).. New York.1. 31 . Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Peverill. and Batemen. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. D. Turner. CSIRO Publ.. Collingwood. handling. Reuter. Harris. Australia. Titrimetery. 8th Edition.W. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. 2. NO3–N & NH4-N). Sample preservation methods. 3. Freeman & Co.2002. C.L. D. All Solids. Sparrow and D.J. L.

P. and Russel. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. Oxford University Press. Chichoster. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . Recommended Books 1. Scragg. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. D.). Derbre. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. 2001. J. New York. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. Germany. students will be able to understand the significance. Wiley-VCH Verlag. Government of Pakistan. A.1999.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments.. Recombinant DNA technology. Course Outlines Introduction. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. USA. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns.D. Biotechnology. 2. After completion of this course. Environmental Biotechnology. 2009.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution.W. National Biotechnology Commission. Sambrook.. Biomarkers. England. Biosensor. 2007. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. W. USA. Hans- Joachim. 3. 2005. 4. Bioreactors. Introduction to microbial kinetics. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. Tools in environmental biotechnology. J. New York. 5th Ed. National Biosafety Guidelines. J. and Josef. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. purification and preservation of DNA. (ed. USA. and application of biotechnology in the environment. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. 2005. PCR.E. Cambridge University Press. Isolation. Smith. 2nd Ed.

K and L. R.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. Fishery and wildlife. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. Data entry and output. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. John Wiley and Sons. Data acquisition. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. 4. Image Processing. Lulla. map projection and coordinate systems. Using and reading GPS in field. Interpretation. Dessinov. 2009. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . History and data collection. Cartography. Jensen. Aerial photography. Mc Graw Hill Education. V. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). F. A. 2000. 1999. history and platforms. Harvey. Satellite Imageries. integration of information from many sources. John Wiley and Sons. Forestry. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. 2. Inc. Pearsons Education. analysis and output. Active and Passive remote sensing. 2000. Agriculture. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. Guilfoud press New York. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Different types of maps. Z. Introduction to Photogrammetry. advantages and limitations of process. Inc. Types of data used in GIS. Preparation of thematic maps. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Inc. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. eradication of the duplicated data. Campbell. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). 3. Rancez. Introduction to GIS. 5. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. Energy Sources. 2008. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling.

hot spots of biodiversity. eco-design. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. alpha and beta diversity. 2001. 2006. Methods of environmental protection. Michigan. plant. threats to biodiversity.. and Yoxon. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. need and approach. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. M.3rd Edition . Khan. American Society for Quality. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. 1998. standards and guidelines. WWF Pakistan. 2. social and ethical values of biodiversity.. types of biodiversity. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. economic. B. Sheldon. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS).C. Certification of EMS. cleaner technologies. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. Environmental Economy. and Qasim. 3. Environmental Management Systems Principles. philosophical. American Society for Quality. etc. ecological. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. International Organization for Standardization. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). 4. F. Systems and Support Techniques.). Environmental aspects and impacts. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. Course Outlines Introduction. Related Environmental legislation. Environmental Management tools. A. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System.2nd Ed. 34 .. Environment and sustainable development. principles of Cleaner production. M. Conservation of biodiversity. 2005.

Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. 1998. water. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. Sunderland. 2ndEd. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. and Morre. Associates Inc. P. Publ. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. Rawalpindi. quality assessment. habitats.B.. chemical addition. their categories. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring.B. sampling and design purposes. P. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. refrigeration and freezing methods. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. C. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. conservation and livelihood. Conservation of wildlife. 35 . soil and living organisms. Course Outlines Introduction. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. laboratory custody. international agreements. air. cities. quality control sampling. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment.B. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. Z. Kings College. ecotourism. Lahore). forests. A Primer for Conservation Biology. conservation strategies.e. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. Preservation methods including pH control. Recommended Books: 1. national and international laws and regulations. Quality assurance and quality control. community and ecosystem level. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring.. presampling requirements/information. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. Mirza. plants. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. field custody. population. Biogeography. Saad Printers. Cox. Sinauer. Considerations. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora.. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. 2000. EIA requirement. NOC for plant operation. 3. protected areas.R. management. conservation in man-made ecosystems. 2. croplands.D. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. 2000. Legal protection of species. London.conservation at species. design and types of samples.

Forstner U. E. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. extinctions. 2. Murai. Remote Sensing Note.) McGraw-Hill. F. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. 7. McKlivie. New York.1999. agriculture. 3. phenological changes. . Energy and Temperature. R. 1992. chemical. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. Earth Observation of Global Change. UK. Recent Climate Change Indicators. Moisture in the Atmosphere. 2000. H. Regional droughts and 36 . Chuviero. Human responses to potential climate change. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. S. regional. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. its causes and effects.. 5. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. S. 8. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. E. D. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. Peakall. Ozone depletion. (ed) Springer.1996. 2008. Japan Association on Remote Sensing.USA. altered community structure. 2002. USA. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. Manahan.. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. and Guethner. I. USA. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. (eds. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. Precipitation. Environmental Chemistry. Lewis Publisher London. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. Physical. 6. 2008.Recommended Books: 1. 2002. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. Korte. USA. Keith. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. Tokyo. Chapman and Hall. L. 2nd Edition. D. N. human health. biological. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. Burden. The Measurement of Climate Change.

Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan.. London. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Glasson. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. and Solutions. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. screening. R.. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. 4. 2. 1994. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. and Chadwick. Cost and benefits of EIA.. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. 37 . Islamabad. 6.(ed). law. and Solutions. & Nixon.Causes. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. reporting. project implementation and follow up. Hardy. D. J. review of EIA quality. 5. National Book Foundation. Therivel. 2003. J. Effects. Islamabad.cataclysmic climate change. Earthscan Publication Ltd. (ed. 1st Edition. 1999. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction.. 3. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. John Wiley & Sons. Petts. Keith. Effects. J.). Climate Change . public involvement. 2. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. 2004. Global Change and the earth system. Recommended Books: 1. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. 4. Hardy. J. A. decision-making to implement the project.Causes. T. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. impact analysis. Recommended Books: 1. Blackwell. 1986. social impact assessment (SIA). mitigation and impact management. 2005. Climate Change . London. scoping. overview. Sringer. 2000. Oxford. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. Types & Resources to produce Energy.T. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. liquid. A. Houghton. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. 3.O.. EIA project management. Harrop.A.. 2003. 2005. Routledge. J. John Wiley & Sons.. Ministry of Housing and Works. 2005. and noise. solids. Global Warming and Climate Change. Main stages in EIA process. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T.

Conservation in Progress. Rangeland Management: existing status. Development of Management Plan: needs. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. A. solar power. their current status and threats. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. John Willey & Sons. Goldsmith. Carpenter. B. 2nd Edition. 38 . threat and its causes. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. best available option for future. problem in agriculture. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. forest types and its existing management. Lohani. M. and Tu. F. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual.). causes and methods for its improvement. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. management options.. New York. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. Types. limitation in the future. management options... wildlife census. requirement.. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. methodologies. importance. H. J. national and provincial legislation. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. & McCabe. 2002. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. agriculture chemicals. Ludwig. Recommended Books: 1. United Nations Environment Programme. 1997.. national agriculture policy. Everitt. (ed. 1993.5. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. Sadler. Asian Development Bank. threats. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. R. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. effective management. their pros and cons. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. Evans.B and Warren. B. process and contents of the management plan. 6. wind power and nuclear power. national example. S. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning.. R. USA. existing management approaches. agriculture products and their share in GDP.. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification.

USA. 39 . Environmental Conservation. Dasmann.E. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. Research Design & Research Methods.Amsterdam. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. R. Creswell. 1984. Thousand Oaks. Surveys. 3. Research Proposal: its importance . Islamabad. W. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. Questionnaire. Experimental Research. Search Engines. J. & Plano Clark. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. How to put things together? Introduction. P. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. Bibliography. Hansen. Interviews.L. types of sampling design/. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. Material Methods. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. Selecting the Research Method.F. V. Scientific Research: Science. Scientific Methods. 2007. New York. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. Review of Literature. Methodology. Elsevier. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling.E. John Wiley & Sons. London.2. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS).A pre-requisite for Research. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. population and sampling frames. Sage CA. Case Studies. and Jorqensen. S. Inference based on findings. 1990. Literature Search: Database. Sampling: the logic of sampling.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study.. Review of Literature. concepts and terminologies. to introduce students to research design. GOP and IUCN. research methods. Objectives. 5. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. 1992. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. 4.

S. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. 2nd Edition. Law Books House. 4.. Booth. 2003.Harrad. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. 2003. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. 2008. Belmont California. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . Univ. 3rd Edition.h. E. Students project in Environmental Science. USA.. 5.S. Survey Research Methods. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. of Chicago Press.. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. 6. Babbie. SNBP Local Government Ordinance.2. National Conservation Strategy 5. Marilyn F. and Arhonditsis. R. G. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. The Craft of Research by Wayne C.. John and sons Ltd. Moriarty. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. Wadsworth Publishing Company.Batty. regulations made there under. Qadar. Chichester. Robert Yin. USA. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 1997. M. England. 2. 3. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. Government of Pakistan 3. Recommended Books: 1. 2001. 1997. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. 1989. Sage Publishers. National Environmental Policy 4. Diamon.USA. 2000.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

Revised & enlarged edition. J. flood and drought management. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. 4. 1993.. tubewells. I. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. U.). R. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. 3. Islamabad.. P.1993. pollution aspects. Asia Printer. hydrological cycle.Lahore. Briscoe.K.. 2006. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. Khan. 2005. 2006. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). virtual water. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. Islamabad. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. A. 6. and Malik. 2. 5. recycling and re-use of wastewater. Recommended Books: 1. Mirajuddin Publication . Mirajuddin Publication . K. A. Cheema. and Qamar.. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. watershed/catchment. A.. groundwater exploitation. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. wetlands resources management. (eds. with drinking water facilities like springs.). Lahore. precipitation distribution in Pakistan.. Ahmed. (ed.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan.Varis. O. Pakistan. SDPI Oxford University Press. Indus Water Accord 1991. The Politics of Managing Water. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. R. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. flood and droughts.. Oxford University Press New Delhi. Oxford University Press Karachi. Pakistan . 44 . Bengali. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. N. Ahmed. water quality and quantity aspects. integrated water resources management (IWRM). water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. N. and Tortajada. C. Biswas. fisheries management. 2003. water supply and demand management measures.

45 . urban landscapes characteristics. 1996. Bashir. future of urban centers. Forms of urbanization. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. NJ. USA. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils.R. N. USA. USA. management and green productivity. Soil Science. PrenticeHall. Definition. Islamabad. R. Soil forming minerals. the salient features of urban environments. Physical and chemical properties of soil. After completion of this course. Upper Saddle River.. Miller. Cation and anion exchange. San Diego. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. transport. D. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. National Book Foundation. Brady. R. Hillel. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants.W. Process and outcome. 2007. Course Outlines Introduction.C. soils. Prentice Hall.. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. urban political ecology. Course Outlines Introduction. Causes of urbanization. humans as components of urban ecosystems. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. and Weil. urban settlements. Factors and processes of soil formation. CA.T. and Bantel. R. Upper Saddle River. urban flora and fauna. Types and properties of parent materials. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. E. D. urbanization in Pakistan. hydrological processes.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. NJ. Soil degradation. Gardiner. Academic Press. Soils in Our Environment. 2007. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. Urban ecosystem. Urbanization. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. 1. 2008. 11th Edition. Pakistan. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life.

nature and purpose of urban planning. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. CRC Press LLC..Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. Types of Urban Plans. UK. USA. Routledge. Sukopp. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Recommended Books: 1. 2007. 2004. Justification for planning for city management. New trends in planning and city management. London. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. Land use planning theories. Scope. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. Aims and Objectives of planning. S. 1989.. Smith. O. Principles of planning. 2000. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. Hough. Springer. 5. V. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. UK. Planning theories and concepts. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. Ward. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. 46 . City Design for Sustainable Development. Routledge. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. SAGE Publications Ltd. nd 2 Edition. C. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. S. Alberti. Chapman and Hall.. M. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. USA. Planning and Urban Change. D. A. 2006.and Kowaril. J. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. SBS academic publishing. I. 2004. 1. 2009. 2. New York. UR. Penguin Group. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. 2. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. Kate. UK. M. 4. Planning and its relationship with other professions. Gilbert. H.S. Silberstein.1990. Hejny.. 3. London.L. The planning process. Elements of urban planning. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Hague..and Maser. Levels of planning. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city.

E&UA Div. Islamabad. Disaster Management: Components of management. Clara. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. International phenomenon. Cultural factors. Flooding. 2nd Edition. Socio-economic factors. M. UK. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. Prediction. New York. Earthquake Management. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Techniques and methods to assess hazard. Landslide.B. Kates. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies.. Flood Management: Organizational Role.UNESCO. Introducing Town Planning. Natural Disasters Alexander. 4. D. Westview Press. Longman Group. i. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. Different approaches and Indicators. 1993. 1993. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. It discusses a wide range of aspects. 2.. Earthquake. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. Paris. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. 1989. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches.. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies.. 4. and White G. Hazards.. Recommended Books: 1. Natural cycles and their role. New York. Chapman & Hall.3. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. Government of Pakistan. and Woodrow. Role of Media in Disaster Management. R. Manila. P. Political factors.F. ADB.J. Ministry of Housing and Works. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. H. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation.W. Physical factors. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. Boulder .. 1991.W. Disaster as an opportunity for development. G. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. 47 .e. 1993. The Guilford Press. 3. 1986.. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson..

D. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. hydropower. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. types. 1984. Consumer and producer relationship.W. R. local. M. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. Sustainable livestock management. 1983. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation..L. Quorum Books. 2007. sustainable energy management. merits and demerits of wind. Paris. and Yonavjak. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. 6th Edition. uses. Perry R. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. Schoch. 2001. F. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. decomposers. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. Biotic structure. 2007. Ecological concept in crop and food production. John Wiley and Sons. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. USA.B and Keller. Botkin.. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. 4th Edition. 3. alternate energy resources. 1. 48 . energy resources of Pakistan. 2.M. New York. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. solar. 6. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. Disasters and Development Cuny.A. and Mushkatel. Westport. McKinney. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment.. OECD/IEA.H. E. primary producers. A. biomass resources. Agroecology. energy resources. consumers. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers.C. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources.5. L.

Yandermeer J. USA. 1995. New Delhi. Agrocology. Boulder. 3.M. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. Corol. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. C..G. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. and Sudha.R. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. and Rossel. R. USA. Study of index of diversity. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. India.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram.H.A. CBS Publishers and Distributors. 1990. New York. P. M. Study of stratification and profile diagram. 2000. Altreri. Westview Press. 2. E-11 Seminar 49 . Kapur. Experimental Plant Ecology.P. Recommended Books: 1.Determination of density and abundance of plant species.

50 . the Committee agreed on the following principles.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. 3. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. 4. 5. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. availability of the faculty and other facilities. that: 1. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. 2. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor.

20. 10.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 8. 7. 8. 19. 17. 2. 16. 12. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 25. 11. 24. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 6. 4. 5. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 9. 18. 6. 12. 4. 3. 14. 10. 15. 3. 23. 26. 5. 22. 2. 7. 21. 13. 11. 9.

Recommended Books: 1. 1992.E.DETAILS OF M. S. Hansen. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. P.E.. London Black Stone Press Ltd. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. Oxford University Press. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment.1994. Geography of Pakistan. Relationship of culture. and Bell. Hodder and Stoughton. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. WCS. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. 52 . 3. Conservation Strategies.. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. Karachi. status of Terrestrial. 1987. Islamabad. development of concepts. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall.1994. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. 4. D. F.T. Draft National Environmental Policy. Instruments and methods. NCS. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). FURTHER READINGS 1. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. 1991. Ball. Conventions and Protocols in Global. London. Mackenzie. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. Provincial and Local Strategies. Oxford University Press. Treaties. and Jorqensen. S. Khan K.1995. 2nd Edition. 2. S. 2.S.A. Money. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. 3. Regional and International Environmental Issues.1991. GOP and IUCN. technology and resource use. Environmental control Policies... Amsterdam.F.. Environment People and Economy. Elsevier. Mackenzie J.

social impact assessment. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). C. 53 .Vanclay. England. Wood. Ministry of Environment. D. Environmental Chemical Analysis. Recommended Books: 1. sampling rules. 1995. Burnt Hill. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). 1995. Environmental auditing. Longman House. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water.. Harlow Essex. Principles of physical. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. ecological impact assessment. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. process. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. K. Chichester. 3. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. 2. UK.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. role and importance.A. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. opportunities and issues. F & Bronstein. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. ed. 2. Gas Chromatography etc. Cost benefit analysis of projects. John Wiley & Sons. Ed. A one Publishers Lahore. DC. procedures and methods of EIA. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. FURTHER READINGS 1. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. History. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. Demographic impact assessment. 1993. Government of Pakistan. Case Studies and review. Longman Scientific and Technical. World Bank. Assessment of environmental impacts. Washington. WB. Ahmed. sample collection and preservation. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). Recommended Books: 1. Wastewater. A. Air and Solid Waste. Environment Department. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. economic impact assessment.

Accident prevention and safety plans. Inc. prevention and control. Project Planning and Approval Processes. J. indicators. Project Planning. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. 1997. 2. Prentice Hall International Inc. 2002. Yassi. development objectives. Oxford University Press New York. 54 . Resource Mobilization. M/S Banarsid. Planning Commission Performas. Lippmann. 4. London. Occupational Health: problems and issues. Project Management Institute. Primary health care services. USA. L. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). T.. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. Wiley Interscience.2000.. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. 1992. T. R. R. Project Initiation. specific objectives. means of verification. Caeneross. economic evaluation.. T. A. 1st Ed. UK. Nebel. 1st Ed. Project Life Cycle. Kjelllström. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation.. 2. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. 5. activities. and Wright. J. Reasons for Project success or failure. air borne. 1st ed. feasibility study. and Guidotti. outputs. New York. assumptions. safety techniques. work breakdown structure. 2001. 3. Writing Project Proposal. Basic Environmental Health. 1993. USA. Need identification. Meredith J. principles and practices. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. S. K. 2nd Ed. inputs. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). Park.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. Ergonomic and Safety. Government Policies and Programs.. Mantel s. de Kok. John Wiley and Sons. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. M.. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. 1998. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. Public health concept. B. A Guide to Project Management. T. Defining Project objectives.. Recommended Books: 1... Environmental Health Engineering.

USA. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor.. Botkin. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. John Wiley and Sons. solar.A. energy resources of Pakistan. hydropower. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. data collection and interpretation. gas. Recommended Books: 1. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). 3. Environmental auditing. Michigan-January 2001. principles and elements of the process of EMS. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. alternate energy resources. 2001. E.L. Principles of cleaner production. merits and demerits of wind. and Yonavjak. Environmental Auditing. D. Switzerland. M. McKinney. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. St Luise Press. Sources of data. R. D. 2007. 3. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. energy resources. 55 . patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. Recommended Books: 1. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. 2007. OECD/IEA. 6th Edition. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. petroleum. types. 4. ISO Central Secretariat.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System.B and Keller. Paris. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). industry and domestic sectors. L. bio-energy resources. uses. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. 2. 1998. Paris. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Sayre. Related Environmental regulations. 2. sustainable energy management for agriculture. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. 1990b. non-renewable and renewable. Schoch.M. nuclear) local. transport. 4th Edition.

resources and plants. 56 . Blackwell Publishing. geographical and temporal patterns. 5. J. J. Vegetation Ecology Ed. 3. human activities and vegetation dynamics.D. T. J. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. D. Warrick. 2005.Causes. ED. survival and extinction. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. 2003. 2004. Oxford. Maarel. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. Hardy. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. vegetation dynamics.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. Species richness. Recommended Books: 1.. John Wiley & Sons. Silvertown. E. ECOPE 29. Green House Gases. Effects. Chichester. Hardy. Recommended Books: 1. 2003. types and their climatic effects. Plant population dynamics. & Charlesworth. Life history strategies of plants. UK 1991. 1. Modeling of climate change. UK.T. Climate Change . (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. London. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach.Causes. (Ed. 2005. Shulze. 1st Edition. and Solutions. Earthscan Publication Ltd. etc. 3. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. Climate Change and Ecosystems. Effects. John Wiley & Sons.). John Wiley & Sons. 4. plant conservation. global aspects of plant ecology. Climate Change . 2005. D. Springer. Houghton. B & Jager. Oxford UK. 2. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The Green House Effect. Beck. types of climate change models. management and restoration. forests. competition and coexistence. K. E & Muller-Hohenstein. Berlin. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. water resources. and Solutions. Climate change and food production. Plant Ecology. Blackwell Publishing.. 2. 2005. plant invasions.

A. & Spicer.D. Forests. habitats and ecosystems. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. threats and conservation. UK. R. distribution. I). The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Principles of Wildlife Management. biological diversity. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. J. its causes. Publishers Sunderland. & Ripley. 2002. Cambridge University Press. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. Essentials of Conservation Biology. Bailey.L. 3. Conserving Living Natural Resources. Global and national biodiversity. Robinson. Biodiversity: An introduction. distribution. Oxford University Press. London. Cambridge. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE.J. their importance.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. 1986. management. problems and solutions. Establishment and management of protected areas. B. W. Status of forests in Pakistan. Participatory forest management. Rangeland management. Roberts.B. status. 4. 1984. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. Wetlands. deforestation and its control. Sustainable forest management. Recommended Books: 1. 2004. UK. Oxford University Press.(2nd Ed. 1992. Inc. Consumptive. T. S. Oxford University Press. Threatened animals and plants. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. types. Protected areas. Forest plantations. And Bolen. Extinction of species. E. K. types. Weddell. their types and role in conservation. 1998.J. 3. Primack. Loss of biodiversity. 2002. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. II). Roberts. 1973 2. Blackwell Publsihing. Wildlife Ecology and Management. John Wiley And Sons. Recommended Books: 1. Oxford. their ecological and economic importance. kinds. Oxford. Protection and restoration of species. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. Mcmillan. Sinauer Assocaites.) Gaston. USA. 5. Wildlife of Pakistan.J. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. J. S. T. 2. distribution and management. Oxford. Protected areas in Pakistan.J. Cambridge. 57 .G.

USA. S. 58 . urban political ecology. 3. London. Ward. sanitation. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. Islamabad. 2004. Urban land use planning and management. E&UA Div. UK. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. management of transport.. J. 1993. USA.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. Introducing Town Planning. UK. Longman Group. Clara. A. drinking water and solid waste in cities. Silberstein. 4. 2000. New York. Planning and Urban Change. C. future of urban centers. Sustainable cities. 1986. 2007. urban landscape characteristics. urban systems and their characteristics. G.. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Forms of urbanization. Ministry of Housing and Works. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Recommended Books: 1. urbanization in Pakistan. Penguin Group. 2. H.. SAGE Publications Ltd. CRC Press LLC.and Maser. V. Kate. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Environmental problems of urban life. Government of Pakistan..

A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. Thomson and A. Exercises 1. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase.Annexure . Oxford University Press. a) Functional English Grammar 1.J. Practical English Grammar by A. 1997. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. ISBN 0194313492 59 . Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. Third edition. Martinet.V.

style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. minutes of meetings. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. b) Practical English Grammar by A. and speed reading. intensive and extensive. 1997. Exercises 2. Thomson and A. Third Impression 1992. Third edition. Reading. Oxford University Press. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content.J. Martinet. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. Reading/Comprehension 1.V. Fourth Impression 1993.2. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Writing. Upper Intermediate.

Oxford University Press 1986. language. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. Third edition. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Reading. content. 2. Writing. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Third Impression 1991.1. Writing. Fourth Impression 1992.J. Advanced. Oxford Supplementary Skills. discursive.V. Fourth Impression 1993. Advanced by Ron White. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. descriptive and argumentative writing). argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Thomson and A. Writing. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. narrative. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Exercises 2. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Reading 1. Martinet. Third Impression 1992. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Oxford Supplementary Skills. form. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Practical English Grammar by A. introduction to presentations. 2. b) Writing 1. Oxford Supplementary Skills. clarity. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 .

(A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. A Custom Publication. College Writing Skills by John Langan. Kathleen Shine Cain. Kirszner and Stephen R. 2004.(particularly suitable for discursive. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. Mandell. 2. Compiled by norther Illinois University. without taxing the taste of engineering students). 3. descriptive. 62 . Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. argumentative and report writing). Martin’s Press. St. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G.

Economic institutions and issues b. Indus Civilization ii.Annexure . S. Zaidi. 1993. 2. 1977-88 e. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. S. Karachi: Oxford University Press. government. 2000. Ethnicity d. 2. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. politics. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. Location and geo-physical features. 1999 onward 3. 1988-99 f. Lahore. 4. ideological background of Pakistan.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c.M. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. . Karachi: Oxford University Press. 63 Books Recommended 1. Shahid Javed. State & Society in Pakistan. People and Land i. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. 3. 1958-71 c. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Study the process of governance. Akbar. contemporary Pakistan. 1994. Mehmood. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Historical Perspective a. Contemporary Pakistan a. Course Outline 1. 1971-77 d. Muslim advent iii. 1947-58 b. national development. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. b. Safdar. Society and social structure c.

1987. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Pakistan Under Martial Law. 1998. History & Culture of Sindh. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Ansar. Muhammad Waseem. 1980. 1993. 8. Political Parties in Pakistan. 1967. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Wilcox. 1980. Politics in Pakistan.National Movement in Pakistan. Club Road. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. 1972. K. nd. I. Ziring. Mehmood. Vol. Tahir.The Emergence of Banglades. Sayeed. Lahore: Vanguard. 12. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. Safdar. Aziz. 10. Noor ul. Amin. Party. Khalid Bin. Afzal. 6..K. Wayne. 1976. Ethno . Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Haq. Institute of Public Policy Research. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. 11. 9.5. Islamabad. 14. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Washington: American Enterprise. 64 . 7. Rafique. M. Enigma of Political Development. Lawrence. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. 13. Zahid. II & III. The Political System of Pakistan.

Tadabar (Verse No1.A.A.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.Annexure .W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.A.A.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.40.6.19. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.56.58.21.57.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.20) Related to thinking.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.

3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt. in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .

Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. International Islamic University. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah.S. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. Ahmad Hasan.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. Islamabad (2001) 67 . “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. “Studies in Islamic Law. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. IRI. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Emergence of Islam” . ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. Pakistan. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. Bhatia. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H.

Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. matrix inverse. equations reducible to quadratic equations. cube roots of unity.Annexure . Sharron S. PWS-Kent Company. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. system of linear equations. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. geometric progression. 1986. types of functions. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. Boston 68 . types. not majoring in mathematics. functions. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. complex numbers. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. 1987. set operations. 1978. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. PWS-Kent Company. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. determinants. introduction to sets. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. trigonometric identities. Beckenback EF.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. harmonic progression. Wooton W. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). Boston Swokowski EW. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. Cramer’s rule. Houghton & Mifflin.

parallel and perpendicular lines. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. slope of a line. angle between two lines. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. differentiation of polynomial. 2005. rational and transcendental functions. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Finney AR. John Wiley. various forms of equation of a line. equation of a line. 2005. intersection of two lines. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. left-hand and right-hand limits. functions and their graphs. distance between two points. Addison-Wesley. integration by parts. Davis S. 1983. USA 3. solution of equations involving absolute values. Recommended Books: Anton H. Calculus (11th edition). New York Stewart J. not majoring in mathematics. Boston Thomas GB. distance between a point and a line. integration by substitution. Bevens I. continuous functions.2. continuity. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). 1995. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. PWS-Kent Company. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. Calculus (3rd edition). Ma. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. inequalities. Reading. derivatives. 69 . Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. change of variables in indefinite integrals. not majoring in mathematics.

types of matrices. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Conic Sections: Parabola. • Contents 1. equations reducible to quadratic equations. inverse of matrices. PWS-Kent Company. system of linear equations. 1987. types of functions. set operations. locus of a point in various conditions. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. Analytic Geometry. Boston Swokowski EW. Freshman and Company. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. determinants. Cramer’s rule. Introduction to sets. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. Scott. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. hyperbola. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. 1986. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). functions. Boston 4. 1969 Kaufmann JE. ellipse. circles determined by various conditions. intersection of lines and circles. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. nature of roots of quadratic equations. College Algebra and Trigonometry.Circle: Equation of a circle. PWS-Kent Company. 70 . Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition).

PWS-Kent Company. characteristics of statistics. ungrouped and grouped data. 3. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. array. R. W. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. R. 5. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. 71 . Measures of dispersion: Range. circle and trigonometric functions. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. E. 4. Kaufmann. Latest Edition. Latest Edition. 2. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. quartiles. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. Wilcox. discrete and continuous series. frequency polygon.geometric and harmonic progressions. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines.. bar frequency diagram histogram. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics.. relationship of statistics with social science. cumulative frequency curve. tally sheet method. trigonometric identities. Walpole. types of frequency series. standard deviation. moments. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. Books Recommended: 1. variance. R. individual. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. Prentice Hall. deciles and percentiles. E. Boston. skewness and kurtosis. Latest Edition. E. Graphs: Graph of straight line.. 2. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. Swokowski. J..

Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. Solution of equations involving absolute values. Thomas. logarithmic integration. 4th edition. Hughes-Hallett. substitution method. Boston. Rational and Transcendental Functions. Frank A. et al. Slope of a Line. E. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. Anton. Equation of a Line. S.Jr. Elliott Mendelson. 3. Jhon Willey & Sons. applications of integration. 3rd Edition. 2002. Calculus. sinusoidal function. Inc. and Transcendental Functions. infinite and improper integrals. Continuity. Gleason. Inequalities. Addison Wesley publishing company. Schaum’s Outline Series. Calculus Single and Multivariable. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. Bevens. Least-Squares Line. Inc. Extreme Values of Functions. integration by parts. 8th edition. 1999. integral inequalities. integration using partial fractions. Contents 1. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. Rational Functions. 4. Calculus. integration by inspection. 6. 5. H. 1983. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. Mathews. the chain rule. logarithmic differentiation. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. quotients. John H. the inverse of differentiation. Davis. Leibnitz’ theorem. Second Edition 1992. implicit differentiation. • Integration Integration from first principles.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. 2005. 2. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. Continuous Functions. 2. W. products. special points of a function. I. Integration by Parts. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. 11th Edition. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. theorems of differentiation. 6. plane polar coordinates. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. 2005. McCallum. Calculus. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . Swokowski. John Wiley & Sons. Recommended Books: 1. reduction formulae. Trigonometric Functions. Prentice-Hall.

identities of hyperbolic functions. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. finding the nth roots of unity. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. inverses of hyperbolic functions. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . the difference method. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. approximation errors in Taylor series. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. solving hyperbolic equations. geometric series. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. modulus and argument. complex conjugate.Additions and subtraction. multiplication. series involving natural numbers. arithmetico-geometric series. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem.

some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. of a unitary matrix. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. scalar triple product. Hermitian. the inner product. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. centers of mass and centroids. orthogonal. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. point to plane. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. symmetric and antisymmetric. 6. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. masses. vector product. line to line.5. moments of inertia. Pappus’ theorems.

Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. spherical polar coordinates 75 . divergence of a vector field. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products.8. combinations of grad. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates.

Exercises. Probability and Probability Distributions. Box and Whisker Plot. Bar charts. Unit 4. Discrete and continuous variables. Median and mode. Histogram. The Mode. Moments and Moments ratios. Coefficient of variation.Annexure . Different types of Averages. Errors of measurement. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Collection of primary and secondary data. Range. Quantiles. Type-I and Type-II errors.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Test statistics. Presentation of Data Introduction. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Significant digits. Stem and Leaf Display. Population. Exercises. Unit 3. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Observations. probability and non-probability sampling. Constructing of a frequency distribution. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Exercises Unit 6. Unit 2. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. sampling with and without replacement. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. The Variance and standard deviation. Standardized variables. Statistical problem. Types of frequency curves. Difference of means and proportions. Diagrams. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. null and alternative hypothesis. Editing of Data. Change of origin and scale. Graphs and their Construction. The Mean Deviation. Exercises. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Unit 5. 76 . Rounding of a Number. Empirical Relation between Mean. Historigram. definition of outliers and their detection. Data. Exercises. Pie chart. properties of Good Average. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Unit 7. sampling and non sampling errors. Exercises. sample design and sampling frame. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. The semi-Interquartile Range. Sources. bias. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Exercises. level of significance. Absolute and relative measures. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. acceptance and rejection regions.

Macmillan Publishing Co. Exercises Unit 9.. Exercises Unit 10. 2005. Coefficient of linear correlation. simple linear regression.Unit 8. Exercises. E. examples. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. cause and effect relationships. its estimation and interpretation. r and R2. New York.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. 77 . Unit 11. Correlation.Single Population Introduction. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. Testing of Hypothesis.. 2 Muhammad. Contingency Tables. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. 3rd Ed. F. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. R. 1982. “Introduction to Statistics”. Regression and Correlation Introduction. Inc. Kitab Markaz. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters.

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