CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
For BS MS
HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD
CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………
6 12 14 50 51
The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives.). A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level.
PROF. R&D organizations. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. therefore. dated December 4th 1976. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. Lahore. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. universities and other institutions of higher education. D773/76-JEA (cur. DR. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours.PREFACE
Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation.ALTAF ALI G. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. SHAIKH
Member Academics August 2009
. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. and 36. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. The world has turned into a global village. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. It also aimed to give a basic. 63. the Federal Government vide notification No. It is. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. degree awarding institutions.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees.
FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC
COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. OF CURRI.
STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV
CURRI. UNDER CONSIDERATION
CURRI. R&D. IN DRAFT STAGE
COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. OF NCRC. OF DRAFT BY NCRC
IMPLE. EXP. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS
APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP
PREP. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission
ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. OF FINAL CURRI. HEC
BACK TO STAGE-I
PREP. REC. COL.
Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr.
Dr. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Rawalpindi Dr. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Following attended the meeting:1. Lahore Member
6. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Rawalpindi Dr.
. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall.Introduction
The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener
2. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Dr.
5. Karachi from 28-30.
15. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof.
11. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Dr.
Dr. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore
9. Karachi Member
12. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Dr.
10. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof.
16. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore.8.
Prof. Dr. Dr. Dr. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor.
Dr. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Mr. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr.
Dr. Director of HEC Regional Center. Chairman. Faisalabad
18. The meeting was opened by Mr. At first. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Mr. 2. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. Karachi.
. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society.
20. 1. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr.17.
19. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Islamabad coordinated the meeting.
a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. In last few centuries.
3. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity.
The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. 5.
These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated.
The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses.
The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues
.3. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. 4. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. The committee thanked Mr. 6.
Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment.
1. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population.
Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local.
5. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. regional and global contexts.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. skills and behaviour patterns.
ii. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge
iv. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. This committee. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. Apply theoretical understanding. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today.
The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. in its preliminary meeting. professional judgment and skills in
mitigation of environmental problems
iii. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the
. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative
structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management
5. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable
Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in
the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. The medium of instruction. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be
comprehensive in their coverage of the contents
2. assessment and evaluation will be English
for degree programmes in Environmental Science.
5. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental
Science.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. 4..
UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME
BS Environmental Science
Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i.
3. 6. that:
1. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration.e. 2.
Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. 1. Integrating natural sciences. with consensus. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes.
A. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. Sc. The
. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. eight semesters in the semester system.
Environmental Microbiology 21. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours
3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17
Semester – 2
7. Introduction to Computer 14. Climatology* 23. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Environmental Physics 16. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. English-II 12. Psychology*
. Biology –II* 9. Introduction to Earth Science 8. Environmental Pollution 22. English-I 6.
SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR
Course Titles Semester – 1
1. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0)
Semester – 4
19.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Biology –I* 3. Basic Chemistry* 4. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17
SECOND YEAR Semester – 3
13. Introductory Economics* 17. English-III 18. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Environmental Chemistry 15. Fundamentals of Ecology 20.
44. Total Credit Hours
3 (3-0) 18
THIRD YEAR Semester – 5
25. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. Environmental Monitoring 36. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. 45. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours
FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7
37. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Environmental toxicology 27. Climate Change 38. English-IV/ Univ. Environmental Biotechnology 32. Environmental Economics 29. Applied Ecology 26. 46. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18
Semester – 8
43. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136
Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours
.24. Natural Resource Management 40. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19
Semester – 6
31. Opt. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. ELECTIVE-III 42. Environmental Management Systems 34. GIS & Remote Sensing 33.
• Universities can choose from the list provided under general category
.• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical.
E. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. regional. Pearson Educational. proteins and nucleic acids. D.A. 4. 2007 3. McKinney. ethical. Human environment and its problems: global.
1. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. Botkin. philosophical. its importance in human life. Miller. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. Schoch. & Nebel. urbanization. Different aspects of environment: physical. 2007. B. Wright. national. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. R. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. development in industry and agriculture. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. history..T. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. L. biological and social.L. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. M. Thomson Learning. socio-economic. and their relationships with various environmental factors. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. John Wiley & Sons..M. COURSE 2
BIOLOGY .B & Keller.
The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. G. 2. ecological. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. 6th Ed. 10th Ed. current global. & Yonavjak. R. poverty and resource depletion. 4th Ed. 2002. environmental pollution.
Introduction: basic concepts. 2007.J.DETAILS OF COURSES
FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0)
To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline.
. Australia .
Chemical Bonding. chemical diversity. Shier. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin.. Aromatic compounds. Nucleic acids. Introduction to cell biology. amines). Biology: a Human Emphasis. Cassimeris. Bulter. covalent. C. USA. phospholipids in membrane systems.Course Outlines
Introduction: Definition and concept of life. and Lewis. and Whitelaw. the molecule of genetic information and replication. protobionts.
1. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. G. carboxylic acids. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. Starr. J. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. Self Assessment and Revie. carbonyls. 8th Ed. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. McGraw. 2003. N. polypeptides in protein diversity.. R..
The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions.. proteins. 5. Cells. Origin of life: chemical evolution. Ltd. L. lipids. Lewis. coordinate covalent bond. Crossley. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. 2008. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. origin of metabolism.
Biology’ Campbell. 2007. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis.Hill International Edition. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. R. Structure and the basis of function. Wadsworth Group. 1996. lipids. chemical basis of life. 3. Canada. Ionic. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. B. Lingappa. carbohydrates. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. New York. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. 5th Edetion. 4. USA. Cell division. USA. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. M. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. V. Plopper.. 2007. 2. esters. A. D. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. E. Molecular Biology through Questions.
law of Cosines. Lab Work Preparation of molar. simultaneous equations and their solutions. Use of spectrophotometric techniques.. Cambridge University Press. J. 2nd Edition. M.H. angle-sum formula.. J. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. geometric and harmonic sequence. double angle formulas. D. P. 2nd Edition. Blackwell Science. values of trigonometric functions. Canada. series and means.
1. 8th Edition. Osmosis and Dialysis. determinants. and Holler. normal solutions/buffers.E.M. Solution chemistry. Andrews. D. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics... Hill. COURSE 4
The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. P.D. W. B. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. Principles of Environmental Chemistry.. West. 2004. 4. radicals. Column chromatography. minor and cofactor of a matrix. molal. 2003. real line. 2004. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis.ions. 5. D. T. UK. Liss.J. Freeman and Company. equations of lines (linear equations).. Thomson and Brooks.. Girard. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. Photochemical reactions. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix.Special Products (Binomial Expression). Qualitative Chemical Analysis.C.A. 1st Ed. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). Understanding Environmental Pollution. Colloids chemistry. 2004.
.S. Surface chemistry. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). Harris. 3. straight line and related concepts. and Reid. UK. Brimblecombe. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. Thin layer chromatography. EC and TDS in waste water. Measurement of pH. Jickells. 6th Edition. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. Arithmetic and Trigonometry
Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers.. USA. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. USA. 2. Skoog. F. Algebra of matrices. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field.K. expansion of determinants. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). graphs. Jones and
theorems on differentiation (sum. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. joints. 3. 2. erosion and related landforms.
Introduction and scope of geology and geography. Integration: Formulas of integration. its origin.
. Fossils and their significance. 10th Ed. by parts integration (simple applications). earthquakes and volcanoes. G. L. K. irreducible quadratic factors. Smith. 1999.. 4th Ed. S. difference. age.B SEMESTER 2
INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives
This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation.
1. foliation. and Finney.Cramer’s Rule. Thomas. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. Jr. Introduction to folds.B. Earth as a member of solar system. composition and its internal structure. D. Scott Foresman and Company. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. Analytical Geometry. Introduction to rocks and minerals. igneous and metamorphic rocks. COURSE 5
English-I (Functional English) Annexure . theorem of integration. product and quotient rules without derivations). Addission. 4. faults. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. Introduction to sedimentary. Pacific Grove. Abraham. J. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Weathering. nonrepeated linear factors. mountain building. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals.. Trignometry for College students.A
Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . New Delhi. California. Chatterjee. Chain rule. earthquakes. the processes of their formation.
R. different earth processes like mountain buildings. cleavages. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. Narosa Publishing House. lineation and unconformities. weathering and erosion.Wesley. plate tectonics.
Lamarckism. and Monroe. J. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. 5th Edition. invasion of life on land. 11th Edition. R. Biodiversity of canal.II
This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution.. How Does Earth Work. Prentice Hall. 5.. 2004. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. Biodiversity of hilly areas. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. modern concepts. and Pun. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. Earth Science. Physical Geology and Process of Science.Identification of rocks and minerals. Geological time chart with biodiversity. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. F. unicellularity. and Tasa.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. 3rd Edition. 9th Edition. Prentice Hall: 2006. Geographical aspects of biodiversity.. Lutgens. K. interactions among diversified life. Brooks/Cole. D. measuring biodiversity. causes of extinction. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. F. R. Biodiversity of deserts... It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. 4.
Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. G. COURSE 8
BIOLOGY . Tarbuck.. protocell formation. Park. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. Darwinism.. 2007 3. 2005. and Tasa. A. E. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time.. animals). Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. multicellularity. Field Study tour. population loss and decline. Wicander. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. J. different classification systems. Tarbuck. J. examples of adjustments in varied environment.. E. Smith. Lutgens. G. D. Foundations of Structural Biology.
1. Prentice Hall. biodiversity crises. Routledge. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. consequences of losing biodiversity. Life in sea. molecular basis of biodiversity.
K. Use of brunton compass and GPS. 2007 2.
Blackwell Science Ltd.
2009. Townsend. Starr. Inc. Tripartite nature of environment. Prospect Heights. R. culture and society. and concerns. 3. Inc. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. Understanding the environment-human relationship. New York: New York University Press. Crumley. J. Use of environment for vested interest. C. Adam. a Human Emphasis. USA. C.
Annexure . Routledge.
The Biosphere. (editor). Wadsworth Group. The Ecology of global consumer culture. UK. and Spicer. 2005. Chronological. Scope and application.. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. Walnut Creek. 2003. 5th Edition. Biology. I. Gaston.
2.. Contemporary environment issues and debate. 2. Bradbury. 2006.K. 2nd Edition. 4. 2001. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. Culture. (editors).E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY
Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. Goals and expectations. K. 2009. Conceptualizing environment.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies)
1. 2000. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. and Sustainable Living. 3 (3-0)
Relationship between environment. P. Contemporary environmental status. Allan & Carter. IL:WavelandPress. power & hegemony.
. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. UK. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. Consumption. Nora and Wilk. UK. Biodiversity (An Introduction). Environmental Risks and the Media. CA: AltaMira Press. globalization and environmental issues. Perspective of human-environment evolution. J. L. K. John Wiley and Sons. 3. Hannen.
Local Area Network. Ed. e-mail. system software. Marquis A.1999. processing hardware. COURSE 11
English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . Ms-Power Point.C SEMESTER 3
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER
This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components.
Definition. Long l.London 1996. Hardware: Input Hardware. Long N. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures.
1. software packages.. 2. 2003. Ms-Excel. Types and classification of computers. 6. Operating system (Windows). After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. Storage hardware. K.BPB publication
This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. internet. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. Courter. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. Introduction to MS-Word.H. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. Configurations.Microsoft office 2000. Software: Application software. computer programs and basic applications.5. Ms-Access. Fundamentals of computer. Rutledge.6th Ed.. Selin. as are their effects on the biosphere.A
ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . Milton. output hardware. G. Kluwer Academic Publishers. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere.
Andrews. 2004.E. Ibanez. Particle physics. Diffusion. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. Energy. Ozone chemistry.E.M. Ozone and UV light. interaction of light with matter. B. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. Environmental Chemistry. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry.. Hernandez-Esparza. M.. Nuclear energy.
1. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. Turbulent diffusion. J.. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. Global climate and climatic change. Environmental impact of various industries. atmospheric and soil chemistry.. Conversion of mass.. Thomson-Brooks. 5. Samir. Fate of pollutants in environment.T. 2nd Edition. Jones and Barlett.G. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Liquids and Gasses. Chemical reactions. P. their sources and toxic actions. USA. 3. Equations of fluid dynamics. Solids. Brimblecombe. Principles of Environmental Chemistry.. J. and Reid. Basic acoustics. Fregoso-Infante. A.. Germany. India. Isotopes and radioactive decay. Jickells.Course Outlines
Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. COURSE 15
The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. Environmental Science. J. Solar spectrum. Heat radiation and heat transfer. Gaussian plumes in the air. Miller. Measurement and comparison of the
. Electromagnetic radiation. G. T. P. Turbulent jets and plumes.. UK. 4. Turbulence. and Singh.J. Environmental Chemistry. Liss.D. Reducing the transmission of sound. Blackwell Science. DoriaSerrano. Springer. Sound and Noise. 1st Edition. Transport of pollutants. trophic level. Active control of sound. 2008. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. Fundamentals of aquatic. photosynthesis. Energy conversion. 2004. Girard. M. Human perceptions and noise criteria. 2. K. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. its causes and adverse effects on environment.. 2005. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light.S.. 1999. Entropy. C. Canada.
Introduction to environmental physics..
Economic functions of environment. USA. John Wiley and Sons Inc. S. producer and community point of view. The World Bank's annual World Development Report.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. Kentucky USA. Introductory Environmental Physics. economic progress. Environmental Physics. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development.
1. Impact of economic activity on environment. Man environmental relationship. Producer behavior. concepts and measurement. H. G.
2. USA.1998. Pakistan economic context: National income. USA. and Pandis. USA. Physics of the Environment and Climate. Todaro. 2008. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. interaction between ecology and economic management.Economic development..
Introduction to economics. Yusuf. Wesely Publishers. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30
Years of the World Development Repor. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. Sustainable development. Guyot.
1. 2001. M. Measures for sustainable development. Economic management and environmental quality. and Resource allocation. 4. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. Boeker. R. poverty. Environmental economics. economic growth and its measurement. J. Economic Development. 3. Routledge. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. economic welfare and difference among all. S. 7th Ed.
. Natural resources and the economy. N. 2006. population and environmental quality. Seinfeld. E. Growth and Environment. UK. economic growth. and Van Grondelle. Smith. World Bank Publications. Praxis publishing. 2001. C. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. Field visit. John Wiley and Sons Inc. P. COURSE 16
The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. 2. Growth and development. New York.
The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. 4. DeVeer. N.A
To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. M. Frodeman.V. USA. its fundamental concepts. Ecology. Touchstone Books. Natural philosophy.
Definition of philosophy. population. A History of Western Philosophy. Shogren. B. WCIV7AA. 2002. LLC.. 2.
1. Environmental philosophy and ethics. D. B. water.A. Palgrave Macmillan. C. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. community and ecosystem. Hanley.
FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY
To develop an understanding in the about ecology.. community.
World Bank Publications.
J. biogeography. B. International Thomson Publishing.
Introduction. Callicott. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. description of population. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. Portland 1967. Swift. 2007. Introduction to ethical theory. branches of ecology. 2008. & Pierce. London. ethics and ecology. Kessinger Publishing. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography.. soil. and systems ecology. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. Russell. concepts and approaches.3. Farmington Hills. Ecosystem and its types. J. R. temperature. levels of ecological organization. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. species.. Environmental Critics of agriculture. 3.
. and White. Economics. 2008. England. USA. the ethics of soil. role of light.
4. COURSE 17
English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills)
Annexure . 2009.
M C J 1st ed. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. habitat and niche. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. 5th Ed. students will be able to understand the significance. and Barett. Chapman. 2004. 2000. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. J.topography and air as ecological factors. After completion of this course. C. and S. Populations. Fundamentals of Ecology. landscape ecology. landscape changes and their importance. 3. Cambridge University Press.L and Reiss. Ecology (concepts and applications. bacteria and eukarya. P. E P. various concepts of community. 1992. Microbial metabolism. G. productivity of different ecosystems. B.W. M J.) Moles. biotic factors. King’s College London. Concepts of Limiting factors. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. Population distribution and abundance. characteristics of urban. COURSE 20
This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. 2. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. WCB/McGraw-Hill.
1. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. UK. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. Biomes of the world. Ecology (principles and applications). with special emphasis on their environmental impact. Fundamentals of Ecology. Systems ecology.
Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. C. 1999 4. Ecosystem: structure and function. UK. Thomson Brooks/Cole. population dynamics. Dash. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. Biogeochemical cycles of C. M.Cox. aquatic microbiology. plant geography and animal distribution. New Delhi. Odum. J. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). ecological modeling. Tata McGraw-Hill.
Ed. community dynamics. and More. 6th Ed. New York. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. distribution limits. N. 2001 5.
. 2005. M.. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). D. its sources and their effects. F. Prescott. W. Academic Press. Fuhrmann..M. and Zuberer. Harley. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual.P. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution.J. 2nd Edition.J.. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution.W. J. Crawford. L. C.. McInernery. Peiece. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally.B.L.Gerba.A.
Environmental Microbiology. A. 2009.J. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel.. Mean plate count. Environmental Pollution and Control. isolation. Manual of Environmental Microbiology.
3.and Brendecke. Sylvia. Cambridge UK.M. 2002.1998. I. 2005.. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines.D. Case Studies. 4. USA.P. New Jersey. Marine & Industrial pollution. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. D.J. Noise. D.
1.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. transportation & treatments. Hurrst. Cambridge University Press. Weiner. Washington DC. Dilution plate technique. (Elsevier) USA.
1. purification and preservation.F. American Society for Microbiology.G.A. and Stetzenbach. Pollution Control Strategies.K. peppor. Microbiology.L. 2007. Pepper.and Vesilaind. G. Hartel. Collection.. Water. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Hill. C. Soil. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water.. 3.J. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. Maier. 4th Edition. USA. J. Academic Press. M. Effects of Pollutants. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal.L. Solid Waste generation. and Gerba. Academic Press.C. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. and Klein.I. R.
Introduction to Environmental pollution. UK.M. Butterworth-Heinemann. L... McGraw Hill Inc. P. 2005. 2 Edition. 2. R. London.R. USA. and Jeffery.. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic.. USA. USA.
The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. Human & other living organisms. 1995. Prentice Hall. Knudsen. J.A.P. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents.
F. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. Mechanism of heat transfer. K. Lutgens. Pandis. Houghton J. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. Austin Miller. Solar radiations. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. Sadder. Four Spheres of the Earth. Royal book company. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. John Wiley and Sons. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. The Hydrologic cycle. 2. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. 6th Edition. 1988. Climatology. Weather and Climate. 2002. Shamshad. 5. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. Marcel Dekkar. Environmental psychology..From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld.. local winds. air pressure.J. 2003. A. Cambridge University
Press. COURSE 22
The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. Spyros.
1. John H. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided.W.2nd Editions. 1992. Surface winds. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere.4. The Physics of Atmospheres. Tarbuck. Lawrance K. . American Public Health Association (APHA). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . 3. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications.
Introduction to psychology. Radiation and climate. Karachi. Methods of psychology.M. global circulation. condensation and cloud Formation.E. The Atmosphere. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). Factors affecting air Pressure.K.
Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. COURSE 23
This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. climatic zones of Pakistan. The climate of Pakistan... 2006 5. 4. N. Cloud Classification.
limitation of irrigated agriculture. concepts. Future water scenario of Pakistan. carbon dioxide and global climate change. Environmental perception and cognition. and Baum A. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. species response to pollutants.
Introduction. Restoration of derelict lands. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. 2001.
1. P. energy and carbon balance. T. Sustainable agricultural practices. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Routledge. solar radiation and primary production. Fundamental of Psychology. Background and scope. Environmental Psychology. Eysenck. rivers. Greene. threats and mitigation. Routledge. 1992. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. their management and ecological restoration. 5th Edition. 2.
. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. Pollution control through Ecology. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. techniques and methods of restoration. Fisher
J.characteristics and research methods. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. sustainable agriculture. Ecology of food production. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. Soil as a natural resource. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. M.. Water as an ecological resource. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine..D. soil erosion and conservation. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. London. Sustainable livestock management practices. soil salinity and water logging. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. CRC Press. Water and distribution of species. soil resources of Pakistan. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species.W.A. High population density and psychological impacts. COURSE 24
ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional )
This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. Ecological restoration. Bell. CRC Press. London.C.
. Newman.P. in vivo & in vitro assays. and Hobbs. Mumtaz. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. biological effects. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. 5th Edition.1998. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. Lahore.. D. Rashid.I. USA. 5.W. from natural and anthropogenic sources. Peshawar. 3. toxins & toxicants. K and Habib. Zedler. water and soil. Pakistan’s Environment. and Barett.National Book Foundation. Falk. Chemical interactions and their types. A. 1989. 2nd
ed. 2004. K. Shirkat Gah. P. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. Thomson Brooks/Cole.. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. COURSE 26
The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. A. 2000 2. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. dose response relationship in living organisms. Island Press. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Organs. G. J. Potentiation and Addition. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management
Determination of chemicals in water. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. Soil Science. 2006. Israr-ud-Din. Islamabad. Foundations of Restoration Ecology.S. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. University of Peshawar.Recommended Books:
1. J. and Memon.
Introduction to Toxicology: History. Fundamentals of Ecology. Margaret A. 4. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques.A. toxicology of chemicals. their containment and control strategies. on human and other living organisms. E. Odum E.. toxins vs toxicants. terminologies: Poisons. Oxford. soil and air samples. B. 1996. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. Synergism. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. Studies in Pakistan Geography. Immunological considerations in toxicology. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. toxicity screening using microbial systems. Determination of Interaction of chemicals..
the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. clean development mechanism. pollution control-a general model. 1992.2005 2. COURSE 27
ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN
To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. USA. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. Ballantyne. Ecological: ecological zones. B. international trade and the environment. measuring environmental benefits. W. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. urbanization and pollution. people. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. M. 1st Edition. State of the Environment-Pakistan . land.
Introduction to history.Science of Poisons .. T and Turner. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. W.1 & 2.D.M. Hughes. water resources. P. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. (ed. 5th Edition. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. 1989 COURSE 28
This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. the economy and the environment. Vol. topographic zones. 3.
1. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. 3. McGrawhill. health. CRC Press Llc. General and Applied Toxicology. economic development and the environment. 1st Edition. economic aspects of different environmental problems. major ecosystems.
Introduction. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. USA. 1996. culture. Economic: agriculture.). geography.Recommended Books
1. USA. Macmillan Press Ltd. Williams. education. industry. Klassen.
. Government of Pakistan. 1993. 2005 2.
2004. Standard solutions and standard curves. Pearce. Titrimetery. C. L. precision and accuracy. COD.. 2. C. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual.
Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. 2. Oxford University Press.K. M.I. West. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Holler. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. salinity & sodicity).A. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve..R. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction.C.. 2003. Peverill. CSIRO Publ. 1993. Johns Hopkins University Press. Analytical techniques for soil.. 2000. Turner. water and plant analysis. Thomson and Brooks. Gravimetery. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. preparation and storage. D. Field. A.L. NO3–N & NH4-N). Conductivitymetry. Fluoride. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). New York. handling. and F.
1. 3. Reuter.1. Sample collection.. Sample preservation methods.. Collingwood. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. Australia. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Conductivitymetry. Harris. D.UK. Kolstad. 1999. D. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. I. COURSE 29
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2)
The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. 2005. 3.
S. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. and derived S. units. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. and Batemen. All Solids.W. Use of Potentiometery.D.K. BOD. Data interpretation for quality control.I.2002. M. Environmental Economics. USA. Titrimetery. B.J. 6th Edition. D. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. Oxford. Skoog. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. 4. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Freeman & Co. K.and Field. 8th Edition. Sparrow and D. Gravimetery.
National Biosafety Guidelines. W.
Introduction. 2007. Biomarkers. and Russel. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. PCR. New York.. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. COURSE 32
GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1)
. Sambrook. USA. J. Biosensor. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. Cambridge University Press. Government of Pakistan. Hans-
Joachim. Wiley-VCH Verlag.D. (ed. Isolation.W. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment.. 3. USA.1999. Tools in environmental biotechnology. Biotechnology. National Biotechnology Commission. and application of biotechnology in the environment.COURSE 30
ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6
ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY
This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments.
1. 2001. England.E. 4. Environmental Biotechnology. USA. 2005. Chichoster. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. D. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. J. purification and preservation of DNA. Recombinant DNA technology. students will be able to understand the significance. After completion of this course. Bioreactors. New York. Scragg. 2. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. Germany. Oxford University Press. A. 2009. 2005. Derbre. 2nd Ed. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures.P. J. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. 5th Ed. and Josef.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. Smith. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. Introduction to microbial kinetics.).
Introduction to basic molecular techniques.
Z. John Wiley and Sons. 2. Satellite Imageries. Inc. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Rancez. Inc. A. Campbell. Harvey. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. Dessinov. Energy Sources. Jensen. Data acquisition. Interpretation. R. integration of information from many sources. Pearsons Education. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. 5. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Lulla. Forestry. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). Active and Passive remote sensing. F.Objectives
The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning.
Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. A
Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Image Processing. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. Introduction to Photogrammetry. Different types of maps. eradication of the duplicated data. Cartography. K and L. history and platforms. Inc. Introduction to GIS. John Wiley and Sons. 3. map projection and coordinate systems. Mc Graw Hill Education. Aerial photography. Types of data used in GIS. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Preparation of thematic maps. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. advantages and limitations of process. 2000. Guilfoud press New York. 2009. History and data collection. COURSE 33
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
. V. Fishery and wildlife.
Introduction to ArcView. 1999. Data entry and output. 2008. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Reading maps (Maps characteristics)
1. Agriculture. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Using and reading GPS in field. 4. 2000. analysis and output.
2006. philosophical.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. American Society for Quality. Systems and Support Techniques. principles of Cleaner production.
. M. plant.
Introduction. Environmental Management Systems Principles. etc. Related Environmental legislation. F. Sheldon. Michigan. 2005. Environment and sustainable development. economic. and Yoxon. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. alpha and beta diversity. Environmental aspects and impacts.). hot spots of biodiversity. 3. Khan.C.
Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. American Society for Quality. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. Certification of EMS. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. Environmental Management tools. 2. Conservation of biodiversity. COURSE 34
BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION
The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity.2nd Ed. types of biodiversity. B. threats to biodiversity. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System.. cleaner technologies. A.
Industrial Field Trip
1. International Organization for Standardization. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. social and ethical values of biodiversity. and Qasim. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. 4. M.3rd Edition . Environmental Economy. need and approach. standards and guidelines. Methods of environmental protection. 1998. threats to biodiversity and its conservation.. 2001. ecological. eco-design. WWF Pakistan. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes.
Publ. forests. Preservation methods including pH control. international agreements.. ecotourism. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. conservation strategies. 2000. refrigeration and freezing methods. London. role of traditional knowledge in conservation.conservation at species. Lahore). Sunderland. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. Considerations. quality assessment. Quality assurance and quality control. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. Kings College. population.B. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. laboratory custody. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. plants. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. croplands. 3. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation.D. Cox. Mirza. protected areas.. P. C. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. Legal protection of species. Z.
Introduction. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. national and international laws and regulations. 2ndEd. COURSE 35
This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i.B. 1998. chemical addition. A Primer for Conservation Biology. Sinauer. Biogeography. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. cities. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance.e. 2. management. 2000. conservation in man-made ecosystems. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes.
Sampling techniques (air. Saad Printers. community and ecosystem level.
. Conservation of wildlife.B. habitats. P. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. design and types of samples. sampling and design purposes. conservation and livelihood. quality control sampling. their categories. air. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. presampling requirements/information. Associates Inc. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. water. Rawalpindi.R. soil and living organisms. and Morre. NOC for plant operation. field custody.
1.. EIA requirement.
R. Manahan.USA. D. phenological changes. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. . 2nd Edition. I. Recent Climate Change Indicators. USA. L. Physical. Human responses to potential climate change. human health. chemical. (eds. 7. 8. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. Earth Observation of Global Change. Burden. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. F. Korte. New York. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. UK. 1992. Keith. 2008. N. D. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. McKlivie. Chapman and Hall. altered community structure. Forstner U. Ozone depletion. 2008. its causes and effects. COURSE 36
ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7
The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. 6. Energy and Temperature. Murai. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. USA. Chuviero. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. regional. Precipitation. 2. E.1996.Recommended Books:
1. extinctions. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. 2000. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. S. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. E. Environmental Chemistry. biological.) McGraw-Hill. Lewis Publisher London. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. 5. agriculture. S. Regional droughts and
. 3. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. Remote Sensing Note. Moisture in the Atmosphere. 2002.
Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change.. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. USA. Peakall. (ed) Springer. 2002. The Measurement of Climate Change. Patterns in Winds and Pressure.1999. Tokyo. and Guethner.. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. H.
(ed). Earthscan Publication Ltd. and Solutions. 4. London. 6. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. 2004. Islamabad. Keith. (ed. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. Islamabad. Sringer. 2005. and noise. Petts. John Wiley & Sons. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized.cataclysmic climate change. impact analysis. J. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach.. EIA project management. J. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University... Hardy. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. R. Main stages in EIA process. 1999. A. Routledge. 2003. 4. J.A. and Solutions.
1. National Book Foundation. National Environmental Quality Standards for air.T. 1st Edition. D. social impact assessment (SIA). & Nixon. 2005. scoping. Effects. 2005. Climate Change . 3.
1. Ministry of Housing and Works. Effects. Glasson. London. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. Climate Change . Oxford. reporting. law. screening. 1986. overview. project implementation and follow up. Blackwell. public involvement. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). Global Change and the earth system.).Causes. mitigation and impact management. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. and the public is informed about the project proposal
Introduction. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. 5. 2003. 1994. J.. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. 2000. 2. J. A.. and Chadwick. review of EIA quality. Hardy. Cost and benefits of EIA. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice.Causes. Houghton. liquid. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of
Pakistan. 3. solids.O. Types & Resources to produce Energy. Harrop. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. T. COURSE 38
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. John Wiley & Sons. Global Warming and Climate Change.
. decision-making to implement the project. 2... Therivel.
reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. national agriculture policy.. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. 1993. management options. Types. wildlife census. Rangeland Management: existing status. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. Conservation in Progress. methodologies.. F. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. best available option for future. forest types and its existing management. H. New York. J. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. B... 1997.
Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources.. Lohani. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. Carpenter. Asian Development Bank. Goldsmith. R. 2nd Edition. United Nations Environment Programme. their pros and cons. agriculture products and their share in GDP. agriculture chemicals. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. existing management approaches. limitation in the future. Watershed management: Importance basic principles.
NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
To train students on the identification. Development of Management Plan: needs. effective management. national and provincial legislation. & McCabe. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. importance. 2002. and Tu. causes and methods for its improvement. wind power and nuclear power. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. Evans. problem in agriculture.).
1. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. A.
. R. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. John Willey
& Sons. management options.. M. threat and its causes.5. process and contents of the management plan. Ludwig. national example.. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. S. threats.B and Warren. Everitt. Sadler. USA.
6. requirement. B. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. solar power. their current status and threats. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly.
(ed. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy.
Methodology. How to put things together? Introduction.
. Islamabad. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. GOP and IUCN. Scientific Methods. 2007. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. John Wiley & Sons. J. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation
1.. and Jorqensen. Interviews. and the process of doing research and reporting the results
Introduction to Research.
& Plano Clark. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. to introduce students to research design. Dasmann. Experimental Research. 1984. Research Proposal: its importance .L. Case Studies. Material Methods. Pearce &
Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. Review of Literature. Bibliography. population and sampling frames. Elsevier. concepts and terminologies. 4. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. USA.1991
RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE
The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. New York. 3. Search Engines. types of sampling design/. Environmental Conservation. S. Sampling: the logic of sampling. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). Creswell. Hansen.2. Thousand Oaks. 5. Questionnaire.E. Review of Literature. 1992. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. 1990. Research Design & Research Methods. Inference based on findings. research methods.F. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. Literature Search: Database. Scientific Research: Science. R. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). London. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. Objectives. Sage CA.Amsterdam. W. V. Surveys.E. Selecting the Research Method. P.A pre-requisite for Research.
Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. 5. 2. 2001. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. Survey Research Methods. E. 2008. regulations made there under. Sage Publishers.Batty. Moriarty. 6. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. 2003. of
Chicago Press. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. S. Belmont California. M..
1. 3. 4. 1997.USA. Univ. Qadar. 2nd
Edition. and Arhonditsis. Diamon.Harrad. National Conservation Strategy 5. England. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. National Environmental Policy 4. 1989.2. Marilyn F. 2003. Government of Pakistan 3. Babbie. Robert Yin. USA.. 1997. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. Students project in Environmental Science. 3rd Edition. Booth. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans.. COURSE 44
HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT
. John and sons Ltd. Law Books House. G. USA. R. 2000.. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. Wadsworth Publishing Company.
National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. Chichester.
ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8
ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives
To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development.S.h.
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45
POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.
Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46
RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,
5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.
Water resource and its management.. water supply and demand management measures. N. Ahmed. 6. Oxford University Press Karachi. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector.
1. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry.. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. 2006. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT).
. R. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. Khan. J. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. Revised & enlarged edition. hydrological cycle. R. A. flood and drought management.Varis. A. Islamabad. watershed/catchment.. U. Indus Water Accord 1991.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. pollution aspects.
Mirajuddin Publication . Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. 2003. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment.1993. Asia Printer. and Malik. A. virtual water. (ed. Cheema.). I. SDPI Oxford University Press. recycling and re-use of wastewater. Pakistan.K. 5. P. integrated water resources management (IWRM). tubewells. with drinking water facilities like springs.. Briscoe. wetlands resources management. 3. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. (eds. Islamabad.). Ahmed. Mirajuddin Publication . improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. groundwater exploitation. O. 4. 2005. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. N. Oxford University Press New Delhi.Lahore. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. 1993. Lahore. water quality and quantity aspects.
One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant.. fisheries management. Pakistan . flood and droughts.. 2006. C. Bengali. The Politics of Managing Water. K. and Tortajada. Biswas. 2. and Qamar. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia.
W. urbanization in Pakistan. Urbanization.
Introduction. urban settlements. soils.T. Pakistan.R. San Diego. urban landscapes characteristics. Gardiner. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. NJ. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. Process and outcome. Islamabad. Brady. Bashir. PrenticeHall. 2007. 2007.. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. 11th Edition. D. D. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. Types and properties of parent materials. R. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. After completion of this course. Academic Press.E-3
SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT
This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. N.. NJ.
. Cation and anion exchange. USA. Definition. hydrological processes. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. Factors and processes of soil formation. management and green productivity. Prentice Hall. transport. Forms of urbanization. Physical and chemical properties of soil. 1. 1996. USA. Upper Saddle River. future of urban centers. Hillel. the salient features of urban environments.
The Nature and Properties of Soils. Soil degradation. E. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. USA. Upper Saddle River. R. Causes of urbanization. and Weil. humans as components of urban ecosystems.
Introduction. Urban ecosystem. National Book Foundation. and Bantel. Soil forming minerals. R. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. E-4
This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. Soil Science. Soils in Our Environment. urban political ecology. residential mobility and the neighborhood change.C. urban flora and fauna. Miller. CA. 2008.
A. 2. Smith. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. S. 3. J. I. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. Elements of urban planning. 2009. nature and purpose of urban planning. Gilbert. Principles of planning. The Works: Anatomy of a City. O. 1989.1990. S. USA.. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. Aims and Objectives of planning. USA..and Maser. Silberstein. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. nd 2 Edition.
1. CRC Press LLC. M. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. Land use planning theories.and Kowaril. New York. 2. 2007.
URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT
The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels.. UK. The planning process. Routledge. Levels of planning. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation.
Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. Ward. H.
. UR. Springer. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. Sukopp. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. SBS academic publishing. Scope.
1. 2006. V. D.S. Hague. 2004.
Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. 5. Kate.Recommended Books:
Urban Ecology. Justification for planning for city management. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. 2000.. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Penguin Group. London. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. Planning theories and concepts. Types of Urban Plans. Hough. Routledge.L. City Design for Sustainable Development. M.. Chapman and Hall. SAGE Publications Ltd. UK. Hejny. C. 2004. Alberti. Planning and Urban Change. Planning and its relationship with other professions.
London. UK. 4. New trends in planning and city management.
3. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. Islamabad. Natural Disasters Alexander. 1986. 1993..W. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. D. International phenomenon. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made.. E-7
This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies.
Government of Pakistan. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. The Guilford Press. E&UA Div. Earthquake Management. Physical factors. Ministry of Housing and Works. 3. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. Westview Press. Disaster as an opportunity for development. Flooding... vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches..
Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. Prediction. Introducing Town Planning. 2. Chapman & Hall. ADB. Disaster Management: Components of management. New York. 1993. UK.
. Political factors. H. 4. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. i. Clara... Earthquake. and Woodrow. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. 1993. Boulder . Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. Flood Management: Organizational Role. 2nd Edition. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards.J. New York. Role of Media in Disaster Management. G.UNESCO. 1989. 1991. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. Longman Group. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. Manila. Socio-economic factors. Cultural factors. Hazards.B.F. Landslide. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. Different approaches and Indicators. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. P.e. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Natural cycles and their role. M. 4. It discusses a wide range of aspects. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research..W. and White G. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. Kates. Paris.
primary producers. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. decomposers.A. solar. E-9
Energy and Environment
This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. and Yonavjak. Botkin. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. Agroecology.
Introduction to agro-ecosystem. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. McKinney.
Energy-development and environment. and Mushkatel. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems.
Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. uses. 2007. 1983. 1984.5. 3. local.W. USA. 6. Consumer and producer relationship. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources.
The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. Schoch. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. Sustainable livestock management. OECD/IEA. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers.H. 4th Edition. F. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. alternate energy resources. energy resources. A. Quorum Books..L. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. D. consumers.C. John Wiley and Sons. hydropower. L. merits and demerits of wind. Perry R. E. Ecological concept in crop and food production. Deforestation for agricultural purposes.B and Keller. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. Disasters and Development Cuny. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. 2001. R.
. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. M.. biomass resources. 2007. Paris. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. 2. energy resources of Pakistan. 6th Edition. Biotic structure. New York. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. Westport.M.
1. sustainable energy management.. types. Farming practices for pests and weeds control.
2000. Study of stratification and profile diagram. and Rossel. India. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. USA. R. M. Altreri. C. New Delhi. Boulder.P.G. 1990. USA. P. 3.
1.R.M. New York. Agrocology.Determination of density and abundance of plant species.Lab Work
Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species.A. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. Westview Press. Kapur. CBS Publishers and Distributors. Corol. 1995. Yandermeer J.
. 2..H. Study of index of diversity. and Sudha. Experimental Plant Ecology.
The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after
four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME
MS in Environmental Science
Regarding MS Degree Programme. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization.
2. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. the Committee agreed on the following principles. 3. that: 1. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”.
. availability of the faculty and other facilities. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. 4. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. 5.
6. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development
3. 10. 16.
25. 7. 2. 18. 4.
23. 8. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 9. 11. 26. 5. 9.
Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
CORE COURSES Course Titles
1. 15. 3. 6. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3
1. 19. 14. 8. 10.
The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 22. 17. 11. 21. 12.
24. 7. 5. 13. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture.
DETAILS OF M. Hodder and Stoughton. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our
Common Future. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. Oxford University Press. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management.. P. 2nd Edition. Khan K.
1. 3. Treaties. Hansen.. Provincial and Local Strategies. Karachi. S. Elsevier. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences.T. 3..1995.S. Conservation Strategies. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. Draft National Environmental Policy. S. and Jorqensen. Mackenzie J. F. and Bell. Conventions and Protocols in Global. development of concepts.E.E. WCS. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan.1994.1994.A. Environment People and Economy. NCS. Amsterdam. Instruments and methods. technology and resource use. S. 2.1991.. 1991. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of
the Environment. Mackenzie. 1992. Islamabad. 4. D. Oxford University Press. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. GOP and IUCN. Relationship of culture. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. Environmental control Policies.. 2. London. status of Terrestrial. London Black Stone Press Ltd. Geography of Pakistan. Ball.
1. Carrying capacity and sustainable development.
.F. Money. 1987. Regional and International Environmental Issues.
A. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Longman Scientific and Technical.A. COURSE 3
ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. DC. Harlow Essex. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. Ahmed. Ed. K. UK. social impact assessment. Environmental auditing.. Gas Chromatography etc. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. 2. 1995. sampling rules. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. History. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water.
. Longman House. role and importance. sample collection and preservation. John Wiley & Sons. ecological impact assessment.
1. Assessment of environmental impacts. D. World Bank. 3. Environmental Chemical Analysis. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. England. Principles of physical. Air and Solid Waste. procedures and methods of EIA. C. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Environment.Vanclay.COURSE 2
ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES
Introduction. Demographic impact assessment. A
one Publishers Lahore. Chichester.
1. Cost benefit analysis of projects. 1995. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. economic impact assessment. Wood. ed. 1993. opportunities and issues. Environment Department. WB. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). Washington. process. Case Studies and review. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. 2. Burnt Hill. F & Bronstein. Wastewater.
Mantel s. R. 1998. and Wright. L. USA. J. Project Planning. specific objectives. Defining Project objectives. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne.. M/S Banarsid.. Resource Mobilization. T. Reasons for Project success or failure. Project Life Cycle... S. J. 2. 1st ed..2000. Need identification. Inc. economic evaluation. development objectives. 5. John Wiley and Sons. Project Initiation. 1st Ed. Meredith J. 2002. activities. T. Project Planning and Approval Processes. principles and practices. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. inputs. Yassi. feasibility study. COURSE 5
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT
Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. Public health concept. and Guidotti. work breakdown structure..
1993. Primary health care services. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. prevention and control. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. Project Management Institute. assumptions. indicators. 2001. Prentice Hall International Inc. UK. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation.. MS Project
1. safety techniques. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. Caeneross. Environmental Health Engineering. de Kok. Accident prevention and safety plans. 4. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects).
. Basic Environmental Health. Oxford University Press New York. Planning Commission Performas. 2. 1992.COURSE 4
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Introduction: What is a Project. M. Lippmann. A. R. London. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). 1997. Nebel.. USA. outputs. 2nd Ed. T. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. air borne. Occupational Health: problems and issues. 3.
1. Writing Project Proposal. A Guide to Project Management. Wiley Interscience. Government Policies and Programs. means of verification. New York. Kjelllström.. K. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. B. T. Park. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. 1st Ed. Ergonomic and Safety.
4. Sources of data. energy resources of Pakistan. Environmental auditing.
. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. 3. M.. Sayre. 4th Edition. E. and Yonavjak. L. bio-energy resources. 1990b. 2007. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Switzerland.
1. USA. 3. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). John Wiley and Sons. merits and demerits of wind. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. D. 2. alternate energy resources. Paris. non-renewable and renewable. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment).COURSE 6
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
Introduction to Environmental Management System. 2001.M. data collection and interpretation. types. solar. ISO Central Secretariat. Environmental Auditing. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized
Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. principles and elements of the process of EMS. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources.L. McKinney. 2007. energy resources.
Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. gas. nuclear) local. uses. D. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. industry and domestic sectors. Principles of cleaner production. OECD/IEA. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. Michigan-January 2001.B and Keller. 1997 COURSE 7
ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT
Energy and its forms. Schoch.A. 1998. Related Environmental regulations. transport.
2. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. sustainable energy management for agriculture. St Luise Press. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. hydropower. Botkin. 6th Edition.
climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. Climate Change and Ecosystems. Oxford. Hardy. Berlin. global aspects of plant ecology. 3. Warrick. geographical and temporal patterns. J. COURSE 9
ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY
Environmental conditions. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press.
2005.. UK. 1.
1. Vegetation Ecology Ed. types and their climatic effects. Shulze.COURSE 8
Introduction. 2003..D. Modeling of climate change. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Species richness. Chichester.T. Plant Ecology. Effects. The Green House Effect. Life history strategies of plants. 2. K. forests. Oxford UK. and Solutions. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. resources and plants. 2. Silvertown. London. 4. water resources. E & Muller-Hohenstein. 2004. ED. Blackwell Publishing. Blackwell Publishing. E. competition and coexistence. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. Springer. Maarel.).Causes. types of climate change models. John Wiley & Sons. John Wiley & Sons. Effects. survival and extinction.
. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T.
1. etc. J. Beck. ECOPE 29. 1st Edition. human activities and vegetation dynamics. D. T. Climate Change . fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. management and restoration. Climate Change . Plant population dynamics. John Wiley & Sons. Green House Gases. D. 2005. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. (Ed. Climate change and food production. UK 1991. plant conservation. Earthscan Publication Ltd. 3. Hardy. plant invasions. & Charlesworth. 2005. 2003. Houghton. 5. 2005. vegetation dynamics. J. and Solutions. B & Jager.Causes.
5. Primack. their types and role in conservation. Mcmillan. Oxford. S.J. K.
1. J. distribution. Oxford University Press. threats and conservation.
Inc. Robinson. 2002. Weddell. Wildlife Ecology and Management. 1992. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. Oxford
University Press. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT
Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. Consumptive. types. UK. distribution. Loss of biodiversity. Oxford. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. Extinction of species. Roberts. 2004. Roberts. 1998.
1. management. T. 4. 1973 2. Protected areas in Pakistan. UK. Principles of Wildlife Management. their ecological and economic importance. 2002. & Ripley. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. Biodiversity: An introduction. I). & Spicer. its causes. habitats and ecosystems.J. S. Protected areas. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. 3. Global and national biodiversity. Forests. J. E. problems and solutions. status. Status of forests in Pakistan. Blackwell Publsihing. Wildlife of Pakistan. Rangeland management. 1986. distribution and management.J. R. Essentials of Conservation Biology. deforestation and its control. W. Wetlands. B. 1984.(2nd Ed. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. USA. T. 2.J.G.D. Oxford University Press. John Wiley And Sons. Conserving Living Natural Resources. Establishment and management of protected areas. biological diversity. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. II). Bailey. Protection and restoration of species. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol.) Gaston. Cambridge. Participatory forest management.
. types. Cambridge. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. Oxford. Forest plantations. kinds.A. Threatened animals and plants. Cambridge University Press. COURSE 11
WILDLIFE. Publishers Sunderland. London.B.L. their importance. Sustainable forest management. And Bolen. 3. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. Sinauer Assocaites.COURSE 10
E&UA Div. Environmental problems of urban life.
. H. J. 2000. UK. 3. A.. Penguin Group. UK. urbanization in Pakistan. Longman Group. Government of Pakistan. USA. 2004. Clara. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. C. V. urban systems and their characteristics. Introducing Town Planning. SAGE Publications Ltd. urban political ecology. CRC Press LLC. Kate. management of transport. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. USA.
1. The Works: Anatomy of a City.. Ward. 2. drinking water and solid waste in cities. 2007. Planning and Urban Change. future of urban centers. Forms of urbanization. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards.and Maser. Urban land use planning and management.COURSE 12
ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
Introduction. S. G.. Ministry of Housing and Works. 1993. New York. sanitation. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. 4. Silberstein. urban landscape characteristics.
London. 1986. Sustainable cities.. Islamabad.
Annexure . Exercises 1. Third edition.
Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure.J. Thomson and A. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English
Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher
Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building
1. Martinet. ISBN 0194313492
. a) Functional English Grammar 1. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. Oxford University Press.A
COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES
English I (Functional English) Objectives:
Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. 1997.V. Practical English Grammar by A.
Oxford University Press.
Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. Upper Intermediate. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Third edition. minutes of meetings. Reading. Martinet. 1997. Third Impression 1992. Writing. Thomson and A. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. Exercises 2. Oxford Supplementary Skills. and speed reading. intensive and extensive. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Reading/Comprehension 1. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Speaking
English II (Communication Skills)
Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs.J. b)
Practical English Grammar by A.2. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. Fourth Impression 1993.V. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. style and pronunciation)
Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review
a) Communication Skills Grammar
. Oxford Supplementary Skills.
Writing. Thomson and A.1. Oxford Supplementary Skills. descriptive and argumentative writing). ISBN 0 19 431350 6. Third Impression 1992. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. Martinet. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin.
English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills)
Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking
Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. 2. Advanced. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Writing.J. 2. Writing. Advanced by Ron White. Third Impression 1991. introduction to presentations. clarity. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Reading. Exercises 2. language. Fourth Impression 1992. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco.
Writing 1. discursive. Fourth Impression 1993.V. Reading 1. form. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing
Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building
Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Oxford Supplementary Skills.
Practical English Grammar by A. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. ISBN 0 19 435407 3
. Oxford University Press 1986. narrative. content. Third edition. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky.
3. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. Martin’s Press. without taxing the taste of engineering students). (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. Mandell. Kathleen Shine Cain.
Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. A Custom Publication. St.
descriptive. 2004. Kirszner and Stephen R. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. Compiled by norther Illinois University. argumentative and report writing).(particularly suitable for discursive. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G.
College Writing Skills by John Langan. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education.
contemporary Pakistan. People and Land i. State & Society in Pakistan. S. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. 1994. Zaidi. 2. politics. 1958-71 c. Mehmood. Historical Perspective a.
1. 1999 onward
3. Safdar. Indus Civilization ii. Shahid Javed. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. ideological background of Pakistan.
Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
4. Muslim advent iii. 2000. 1947-58 b. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. Society and social structure c. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. b.
Contemporary Pakistan a.
1. Economic institutions and issues b. S.
Pakistan Studies (Compulsory)
• • Develop vision of historical perspective.
3. Study the process of governance. government. Ethnicity d. national development. Karachi: Oxford University Press. 1971-77 d. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980.Annexure . Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. 1993.M. 1977-88 e. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. 1988-99 f. Location and geo-physical features. Lahore. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. Akbar. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki.
Washington: American Enterprise. I. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Aziz. Tahir. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Sayeed. Muhammad Waseem. M. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies.
. 1998. Mehmood. The Political System of Pakistan. Safdar. Vol. 8.K. Lawrence. Khalid Bin. 10. Political Parties in Pakistan.
13. Pakistan Under Martial Law.
11. Enigma of Political Development. 1980.
14. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. History & Culture of Sindh. 7. Noor ul. II & III.National Movement in Pakistan. 1993. 1987. Rafique. Haq.
6. Lahore: Vanguard. Islamabad. K. Institute of Public Policy Research. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd.5.
Wilcox. Amin. Ethno . Party. 1972. Club Road. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. Zahid. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. 1976.The Emergence of Banglades.. 12. Ansar. 1980. Politics in Pakistan. Wayne. Ziring. 1967. nd. 9. Afzal.
63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No. 2 (2-0)
Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran
Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.A.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.A.21.20) Related to thinking.57.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina
.Tadabar (Verse No1.40.56.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory)
This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.19.A. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.Annexure .6.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.A.58.
in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family
.3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.
” Hussain Hamid Hassan. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. Ahmad Hasan. “Emergence of Islam” . Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. Bhatia. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Pakistan.S.3)
Ethical Values of Islam
2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)
Hameed ullah Muhammad. Islamabad (2001)
. IRI. “Studies in Islamic Law. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. International Islamic University. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University.
1978. PWS-Kent Company. cube roots of unity. Sharron S.D
Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. functions. Houghton & Mifflin. matrix inverse. Cramer’s rule. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. set operations. determinants. geometric progression. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. types. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. Boston
. 1987. Wooton W. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. types of functions.
MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA)
Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0
Specific Objectives of the Course:
To prepare the students. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. trigonometric identities. Boston Swokowski EW. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression.
COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS)
1. system of linear equations. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations.
Preliminaries: Real-number system. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. not majoring in mathematics. harmonic progression. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. equations reducible to quadratic equations. introduction to sets.
Dolciani MP. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. College Algebra and Trigonometry. PWS-Kent Company. complex numbers. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition).Annexure . 1986. Beckenback EF.
MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY)
Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours:
Specific Objectives of the Course:
To prepare the students. not majoring in mathematics. solution of equations involving absolute values. Ma. differentiation of polynomial. rational and transcendental functions. not majoring in mathematics.
. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. various forms of equation of a line. PWS-Kent Company. derivatives. slope of a line. 1995. parallel and perpendicular lines. functions and their graphs. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). distance between a point and a line. angle between two lines. John Wiley. Calculus (11th edition). with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. equation of a line. change of variables in indefinite integrals. 2005. continuous functions.
Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh.2. Calculus (3rd edition). left-hand and right-hand limits. distance between two points. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. 2005. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. Davis S. integration by substitution.
MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS)
Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0
Specific Objectives of the Course:
To prepare the students. Addison-Wesley.
Preliminaries: Real-number line. continuity. intersection of two lines. Finney AR. Reading. integration by parts. USA 3. 1983. Boston Thomas GB. inequalities. New York Stewart J.
Freshman and Company. Scott. the general-second-degree equation
. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. Boston Swokowski EW. locus of a point in various conditions. 2008 and onward
Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives
To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. Cramer’s rule. equations reducible to quadratic equations. PWS-Kent Company. circles determined by various conditions. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). PWS-Kent Company. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. ellipse. determinants. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). intersection of lines and circles. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. Boston 4.Circle: Equation of a circle. nature of roots of quadratic equations. system of linear equations. set operations. types of functions. functions.
1. Introduction to sets. types of matrices. 1969 Kaufmann JE. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. inverse of matrices. College Algebra and Trigonometry. hyperbola. 1986. Analytic Geometry. 1987. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics.
Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. Conic Sections: Parabola.
. W. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry.geometric and harmonic progressions. array. Walpole. bar frequency diagram histogram. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. standard deviation. characteristics of statistics. frequency polygon. cumulative frequency curve. Measures of dispersion: Range.
Latest Edition.. Wilcox. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. Boston.. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations.
Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. relationship of statistics with social science. R. R. E. deciles and percentiles.
2. ungrouped and grouped data. 3. Swokowski. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. 2. tally sheet method. types of frequency series. discrete and continuous series. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. Graphs: Graph of straight line. circle and trigonometric functions. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. Prentice Hall. Kaufmann. quartiles.. 4. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. Latest Edition. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution.
. PWS-Kent Company. E. trigonometric identities. E. Latest Edition. moments. R. variance. 5. individual. skewness and kurtosis.
MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY
3 Mathematics at Secondary level
Credit Hours: Prerequisites:
Specific Objectives of Course:
To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines.
Calculus. Jhon Willey & Sons. plane polar coordinates. H. 11th Edition. implicit differentiation. Bevens. I. integration by parts. 4. quotients. Extreme Values of Functions. the inverse of differentiation. Frank A. 1983. logarithmic differentiation. W. Addison Wesley publishing company. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. Boston. logarithmic integration. reduction formulae. infinite and improper integrals. 4th edition. 3. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. 1999. Trigonometric Functions. 8th edition. the chain rule. Prentice-Hall. 2. Least-Squares Line. 2005. 5. Solution of equations involving absolute values. John H. Second Edition 1992. Davis. Anton.Course Outline:
Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. Equation of a Line. Mathews. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. Slope of a Line. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. Rational Functions. Leibnitz’ theorem. and Transcendental Functions. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. substitution method. products. E. Calculus Single and Multivariable. McCallum. 2002. applications of integration. S. Inequalities. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. Continuous Functions.
Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers
. Integration by Parts. Swokowski. John Wiley & Sons. 3rd Edition.Jr. Calculus. special points of a function. integration by inspection. Schaum’s Outline Series. Gleason.
2005. theorems of differentiation. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. Hughes-Hallett.
MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS
1. Inc. Elliott Mendelson. • Integration Integration from first principles. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. Inc. et al. Calculus. 6. integration using partial fractions. Rational and Transcendental Functions. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. sinusoidal function.
1. Thomas. Continuity. integral inequalities. 6.
geometric series. multiplication. approximation errors in Taylor series. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. complex conjugate. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints
. modulus and argument. arithmetico-geometric series. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence.Additions and subtraction. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. inverses of hyperbolic functions. solving hyperbolic equations. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. series involving natural numbers. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. the difference method. identities of hyperbolic functions. finding the nth roots of unity.
symmetric and antisymmetric. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. scalar triple product. centers of mass and centroids.5. vector product.
Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. moments of inertia.
6. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors
Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. of a unitary matrix. orthogonal. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values
. line to line. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. the inner product. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. point to plane.
Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. masses. Hermitian. Pappus’ theorems. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices.
curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. combinations of grad. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates.8. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. spherical polar coordinates
Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. divergence of a vector field.
Discrete and continuous variables. Unit 2. Sources. Exercises. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Graphs and their Construction. Exercises. Exercises. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. probability and non-probability sampling. The semi-Interquartile Range. Presentation of Data Introduction. properties of Good Average. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Quantiles. Unit 5. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. acceptance and rejection regions. Range. Unit 3. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Box and Whisker Plot. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Bar charts. Exercises Unit 6. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Statistical problem. Errors of measurement. sampling with and without replacement. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Observations. Different types of Averages. Change of origin and scale. Unit 4. Stem and Leaf Display. Rounding of a Number. Test statistics. Empirical Relation between Mean. Exercises. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Probability and Probability Distributions. bias. Constructing of a frequency distribution. sample design and sampling frame. The Mode. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. null and alternative hypothesis. Pie chart. Historigram. Moments and Moments ratios. sampling and non sampling errors.E
INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS
Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1.
. The Mean Deviation. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. level of significance. Population. Standardized variables. Types of frequency curves. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. The Variance and standard deviation. Editing of Data.Annexure . Unit 7. Histogram. Collection of primary and secondary data. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Median and mode. Difference of means and proportions. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Diagrams. Data. definition of outliers and their detection. Significant digits. Exercises. Coefficient of variation. Absolute and relative measures. Type-I and Type-II errors. Exercises. Hypothesis Testing Introduction.
Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. Contingency Tables. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. cause and effect relationships. E.
. 3rd Ed. “Introduction to Statistics”. R. r and R2. Regression and Correlation Introduction. its estimation and interpretation. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. simple linear regression. 1982.Unit 8. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. Testing of Hypothesis. Exercises. F.. 2 Muhammad. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Macmillan Publishing Co. Unit 11. examples. Coefficient of linear correlation. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. New York. Inc. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies.Single Population Introduction. Examples
1 Walpole. 2005. Correlation.. Kitab Markaz. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. Exercises Unit 9. Exercises Unit 10.