CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
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63. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. universities and other institutions of higher education. the Federal Government vide notification No. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. DR. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. The world has turned into a global village. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. therefore. R&D organizations. D773/76-JEA (cur. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. dated December 4th 1976. It is. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream.ALTAF ALI G. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. 2007 at HEC Regional Center.). the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. PROF. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. degree awarding institutions. Lahore. and 36. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. It also aimed to give a basic.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives.

Preparation 5 . OF FINAL CURRI. R&D. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. UNI. OF CURRI.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. COL. OF NCRC. PREP. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. EXP. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. REC.

Karachi from 28-30. Following attended the meeting:1. Rawalpindi Dr. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Lahore Member 6. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Member 5. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Dr. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Member 4. Member 6 . Dr. 7. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Member 3.

Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Member 15. Member 16. Dr. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Dr. Dr. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Prof. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. 7 . Dr. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Member 14. Dr. 13. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Dr. Karachi Member 12. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Member 11. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi.8. Member 10. Prof.

The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. 8 . Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. The meeting was opened by Mr. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Director of HEC Regional Center. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. At first. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Dr. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Secretary Dr. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Faisalabad Member 18. 2. Chairman. Karachi. Mr. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. Dr. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. 1. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. Member 19. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Member 20.17. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. Mr. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively.

3. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. 5. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. 1. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. 6. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants.3. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. 2. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. In last few centuries. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. 4. The committee thanked Mr.

skills and behaviour patterns. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. regional and global contexts. Apply theoretical understanding. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. in its preliminary meeting. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. This committee. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. ii. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. 5.

as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. that: 1.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. Integrating natural sciences.e. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. The medium of instruction. 1. A. 2. with consensus. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. The 11 . Sc. eight semesters in the semester system. 6. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. 4. 5. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. 3. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F.. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration.

Psychology* . SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. English-II 12. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Climatology* 23. Biology –I* 3. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Basic Chemistry* 4. Introduction to Earth Science 8. Introduction to Computer 14. Introductory Economics* 17. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Environmental Pollution 22.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Environmental Microbiology 21. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Biology –II* 9. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. English-I 6. English-III 18. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Environmental Chemistry 15. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Environmental Physics 16.

Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . 44. ELECTIVE-III 42. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. 45. 46. English-IV/ Univ. Environmental toxicology 27. Opt. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. Natural Resource Management 40. Climate Change 38. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. Environmental Monitoring 36. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Environmental Biotechnology 32. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. Applied Ecology 26. Environmental Management Systems 34. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Environmental Economics 29. GIS & Remote Sensing 33.24. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25.

• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .

B. Wright. ecological. & Yonavjak. Different aspects of environment: physical. Environmental Science: working with the Earth.J. and their relationships with various environmental factors.L. biological and social. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY .DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. & Nebel.A. philosophical. John Wiley & Sons. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. 10th Ed. R. Miller. McKinney. its importance in human life. ethical. Thomson Learning.. proteins and nucleic acids. 2007. development in industry and agriculture. 4.. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. regional. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. national. R. 2. M. history. current global. environmental pollution. E. urbanization. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. G. Schoch. Pearson Educational. 6th Ed.M. Human environment and its problems: global. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. 4th Ed. Botkin. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. socio-economic. 15 . poverty and resource depletion.B & Keller. 2007. D. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society.T.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. 2002. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. 2007 3. lipids. L.

The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. Introduction to cell biology. 2. Cells. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. 5th Edetion. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. 5. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. carboxylic acids. Plopper. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. Biology: a Human Emphasis. Shier. V. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. M. 3. Cell division. covalent. USA. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. phospholipids in membrane systems. and Lewis. Nucleic acids. Self Assessment and Revie. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. 1996. Canada. D. 1.. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. Aromatic compounds. L. 2003. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt.Hill International Edition. N. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. E. 8th Ed.. 2007. carbonyls. R. carbohydrates. New York. R. protobionts. origin of metabolism. Wadsworth Group... Australia . lipids. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. USA. lipids. proteins. Structure and the basis of function. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. esters. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. Origin of life: chemical evolution. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. C. Molecular Biology through Questions. Lingappa. A.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. McGraw. USA. G. J. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. the molecule of genetic information and replication. chemical diversity. 2008. coordinate covalent bond. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. 16 . polypeptides in protein diversity. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. Bulter. Cassimeris. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. amines). 2007. chemical basis of life. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Lewis. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology.. Ionic. 4. B. Starr. Ltd. Crossley. and Whitelaw.

5. Skoog..ions.J. USA. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. Freeman and Company. double angle formulas. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. Harris. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. 17 . simultaneous equations and their solutions. Recommended Books: 1. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. Cambridge University Press.E. Understanding Environmental Pollution. geometric and harmonic sequence.K. West. Measurement of pH.D. M. Solution chemistry. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra.E. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). 2005. radicals.J. Girard. Thin layer chromatography. molal. Algebra of matrices. series and means. D. Blackwell Science.. Canada. Osmosis and Dialysis. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). minor and cofactor of a matrix.. USA. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. T. Lab Work Preparation of molar. graphs. EC and TDS in waste water. 2003. J. expansion of determinants. Jickells.A. Photochemical reactions. 8th Edition. and Holler. D..... 2nd Edition. Colloids chemistry. Jones and Barlett.C. real line. Column chromatography. values of trigonometric functions. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Hill. 2004. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. 2nd Edition. determinants.M. 2004. 2. UK. 3. F. Liss. D. Thomson and Brooks. Surface chemistry. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. law of Cosines. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. W. B. and Reid. 4. Brimblecombe. equations of lines (linear equations). Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula.S. P. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. angle-sum formula. 2004.H. normal solutions/buffers. J. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics... 6th Edition. straight line and related concepts. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. 1st Ed.Special Products (Binomial Expression). Use of spectrophotometric techniques. Andrews. UK. P.

Addission. New Delhi. California. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. Chain rule. igneous and metamorphic rocks. Analytical Geometry. faults. R. Introduction to sedimentary. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. Thomas. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. Introduction to rocks and minerals. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. by parts integration (simple applications). Narosa Publishing House. Recommended Books: 1. Chatterjee.Wesley. S. Jr. Weathering.. 4. Pacific Grove. Abraham. product and quotient rules without derivations). Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. irreducible quadratic factors. lineation and unconformities. mountain building. Fossils and their significance. J. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. earthquakes and volcanoes. K. earthquakes. nonrepeated linear factors. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. theorem of integration. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system.B.. Introduction to folds. plate tectonics. composition and its internal structure. cleavages.Cramer’s Rule. Smith.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . foliation. and Finney. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. G. L. weathering and erosion. Integration: Formulas of integration. age. 2. different earth processes like mountain buildings. 3. Earth as a member of solar system. 4th Ed. theorems on differentiation (sum. erosion and related landforms. the processes of their formation. Scott Foresman and Company. its origin. 18 . joints. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. D. 10th Ed. difference. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . Trignometry for College students. 1999.

Prentice Hall: 2006.Identification of rocks and minerals. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. unicellularity. interactions among diversified life. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. Routledge. Darwinism. Lamarckism. Geological time chart with biodiversity. E. 11th Edition.. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. G. 2007 3.. and Tasa.. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. Brooks/Cole. Biodiversity of canal. G. K. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. D. 3rd Edition. Prentice Hall. J. R. examples of adjustments in varied environment. biodiversity crises. animals). It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. Earth Science. Lutgens. Recommended Books: 1. and Pun. Biodiversity of hilly areas. D. F. multicellularity. modern concepts. Physical Geology and Process of Science. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. population loss and decline. 2007 2. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. Prentice Hall. Tarbuck. E. Wicander. Smith.. different classification systems. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. F. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. measuring biodiversity. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species.. 5. invasion of life on land. 9th Edition. 2005. 4. Foundations of Structural Biology. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. molecular basis of biodiversity.. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. Biodiversity of deserts. K. Field Study tour. How Does Earth Work. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. protocell formation. Use of brunton compass and GPS. causes of extinction. J. Lutgens. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. Life in sea. and Tasa. Tarbuck. J. Geographical aspects of biodiversity.. 19 .Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps... Park. and Monroe. 2004. R. 5th Edition. consequences of losing biodiversity.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. A.

Adam. The Ecology of global consumer culture. 2nd Edition. Perspective of human-environment evolution. Recommended Books: 1. K. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. 3. Wadsworth Group. Prospect Heights. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . Scope and application. C. Consumption. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. P. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. and Sustainable Living. 5th Edition. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. Nora and Wilk. Walnut Creek. Allan & Carter. C. K. 2003. Inc. Tripartite nature of environment.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems.K. 2. (editors). Understanding the environment-human relationship. 3. Bradbury. New York: New York University Press. UK. Environmental Risks and the Media. USA. UK. Conceptualizing environment. Starr. The Biosphere. a Human Emphasis.. Goals and expectations. 4.. Townsend. Use of environment for vested interest. Crumley. CA: AltaMira Press. Routledge. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. R. Contemporary environment issues and debate. Inc. Chronological. and Spicer. John Wiley and Sons. Blackwell Science Ltd. Contemporary environmental status. UK. I. 2. 20 . New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. 2009. (editor). 2005. globalization and environmental issues. 2000. Biodiversity (An Introduction). Hannen. Gaston. J.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. I. J. 2001. 2009. and concerns. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. power & hegemony. Biology. L. culture and society. IL:WavelandPress. 2006. Culture.

Introduction to MS-Word. K. as are their effects on the biosphere. Rutledge. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. Ms-Power Point. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. Types and classification of computers.Microsoft office 2000. Storage hardware.London 1996. Fundamentals of computer. Configurations. Long N. Marquis A. software packages. output hardware. Ed. internet. G..BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. computer programs and basic applications. Ms-Access. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . Local Area Network. e-mail. processing hardware. Software: Application software. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry.1999. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. Recommended Books: 1. 2.6th Ed. Selin. Ms-Excel. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Course Outlines Definition.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse.. 21 . Long l. Operating system (Windows). Courter. Milton.5. system software. Hardware: Input Hardware. 2003. 6. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere.H.

its causes and adverse effects on environment.. J. 2005. Entropy. Fate of pollutants in environment.. Liquids and Gasses. Blackwell Science. UK. Ibanez. Samir. Jickells.. atmospheric and soil chemistry. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. Energy. Turbulence. Girard. Particle physics. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. trophic level.. Hernandez-Esparza. Turbulent jets and plumes. Electromagnetic radiation. K.. DoriaSerrano. J. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . Conversion of mass. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. Global climate and climatic change.M. Liss. Environmental Science. M. Environmental Chemistry. Thomson-Brooks. 2nd Edition.. Environmental impact of various industries. Turbulent diffusion. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. P. photosynthesis. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. Environmental Chemistry. 4. Human perceptions and noise criteria. 2. 3. Germany. Heat radiation and heat transfer.. Diffusion.S. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. 5. Jones and Barlett.T. Nuclear energy.. Basic acoustics. Springer. Brimblecombe. B. Miller. 1st Edition. Solar spectrum. P. Solids. Canada.. Gaussian plumes in the air.. 1999. their sources and toxic actions. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. T.. Chemical reactions. and Singh. Fregoso-Infante. Fundamentals of aquatic. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. Equations of fluid dynamics. Andrews. Energy conversion. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter.D. G. M. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. 2004. Ozone and UV light. Isotopes and radioactive decay. Radioactivity and nuclear physics.E. Active control of sound. India. Transport of pollutants.G.E. 2008. Recommended Books: 1.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. Sound and Noise. Ozone chemistry. 2004.J. Reducing the transmission of sound. and Reid. USA. A. J. interaction of light with matter. C.

2001. Sustainable development. 2. and Van Grondelle. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. USA. Environmental economics. Man environmental relationship.. R.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. S. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. Recommended Books: 1. Yusuf. Natural resources and the economy. Introductory Environmental Physics. E. economic progress. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. 2008. Growth and development. 2008. New York. J. World Bank Publications. Smith. economic growth and its measurement. P. Wesely Publishers. H. economic welfare and difference among all. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. producer and community point of view. poverty. Routledge. 2001. Field visit. Impact of economic activity on environment. USA. population and environmental quality. Boeker. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. economic growth. interaction between ecology and economic management. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. Seinfeld. Measures for sustainable development. Economic Development. Recommended Books: 1. Physics of the Environment and Climate. USA. and Pandis. N. Kentucky USA. John Wiley and Sons Inc. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. 4. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. 23 . UK. 2006. 3. 2.Economic development. Producer behavior. Growth and Environment. Guyot. Todaro. M. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. 7th Ed. Praxis publishing. Environmental Physics. and Resource allocation. concepts and measurement.1998. Economic functions of environment. John Wiley and Sons Inc. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. S. G. USA. Pakistan economic context: National income. C. Economic management and environmental quality.

2002. Russell. USA. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. 2007. Touchstone Books. J. Shogren. 4. International Thomson Publishing. Hanley.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. & Pierce. temperature. soil. its fundamental concepts. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice.. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . C. J. role of light. description of population. 24 . Palgrave Macmillan. Environmental Critics of agriculture. DeVeer. community and ecosystem. A History of Western Philosophy.. biogeography. Environmental philosophy and ethics. Economics.V. Portland 1967. D. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. B. 4. 2. Kessinger Publishing. Farmington Hills. species. branches of ecology. Swift. N. population. Frodeman. London. B. England. R. community.. M. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. ethics and ecology.A. 3. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. Course Outlines Introduction. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. Introduction to ethical theory.. B. and White. World Bank Publications. WCIV7AA. water. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. 2008. 2008. LLC. USA.3. Recommended Books: 1. Natural philosophy. and systems ecology. levels of ecological organization. concepts and approaches. Ecosystem and its types. Ecology. 2009. Callicott. the ethics of soil. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview.

Biomes of the world. Fundamentals of Ecology. Dash. 1999 4. M C J 1st ed. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. Recommended Books 1. landscape ecology. Ecology (concepts and applications. UK. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. King’s College London. 5th Ed. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). aquatic microbiology. After completion of this course. productivity of different ecosystems. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. Fundamentals of Ecology. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. J. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization.) Moles. Systems ecology.Cox. characteristics of urban. ecological modeling. P. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. and S. habitat and niche. Populations. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. Biogeochemical cycles of C. 1st Ed. Ecosystem: structure and function. E P. Population distribution and abundance. Cambridge University Press. landscape changes and their importance. J. M. and More. Odum. Ecology (principles and applications). students will be able to understand the significance. Microbial metabolism. Tata McGraw-Hill. plant geography and animal distribution. Concepts of Limiting factors. B.W. UK. 1992. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. 2001 5. 2000. population dynamics. biotic factors. New York. 2004.L and Reiss. Lab Work 25 . 2. 6th Ed. WCB/McGraw-Hill.topography and air as ecological factors. 3. community dynamics. distribution limits. New Delhi. various concepts of community. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. and Barett. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. M J. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. bacteria and eukarya. C. Thomson Brooks/Cole. G. C. N. Chapman.

J. R. and Stetzenbach. Washington DC. Sylvia. Hill. 2 Edition.and Brendecke.J. (Elsevier) USA.C. G. 4. Cambridge UK.A. Hurrst. Prescott.. Marine & Industrial pollution. Case Studies.D. J.R. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. McGraw Hill Inc. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Academic Press. isolation. and Gerba. 2009. Academic Press. USA. purification and preservation. and Klein.J.. L. C. Prentice Hall. Solid Waste generation..1998. Collection. 2005..P. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. J. Microbiology. USA.L.J. 2002. Environmental Pollution and Control. Crawford. Butterworth-Heinemann. 26 . It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally.W.. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines.A.B. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. Human & other living organisms. its sources and their effects.and Vesilaind. American Society for Microbiology. F. Dilution plate technique. D. A. Environmental Microbiology. Hartel. 2005.. R. D.F. L. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. USA. Maier. 2007. 1995. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. USA.J. Recommended Books 1. UK.K. 4th Edition.. Harley. Soil. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual.M.A. W. 2nd Edition. J. M.. 3. Fuhrmann.M. USA..P.M.L. Pollution Control Strategies. Cambridge University Press. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. Mean plate count.P. 2. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. 5. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. P. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). peppor. P. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. transportation & treatments.. I. London. Peiece.V. 2.. M. Weiner. and Zuberer. C..L. McInernery. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution.G. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology.Gerba. New Jersey. Recommended Books: 1. 3. Noise. Academic Press. Effects of Pollutants. Water.. D. Knudsen.I. Pepper. 2005. and Jeffery.

Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. Environmental psychology. Houghton J. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. K. The climate of Pakistan.2nd Editions. Methods of psychology. American Public Health Association (APHA). John H.W. The Hydrologic cycle. 2003.. 1988. Tarbuck. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. N. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate.K. 3. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. Pandis. Marcel Dekkar. climatic zones of Pakistan. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. condensation and cloud Formation. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. Shamshad. Lutgens. John Wiley and Sons. Recommended Books: 1. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. Mechanism of heat transfer. The Atmosphere. Solar radiations. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. The Physics of Atmospheres.J. 5. Spyros.. Sadder. Lawrance K. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. global circulation. 6th Edition. Austin Miller. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics ..M. Cloud Classification.F..From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. Factors affecting air Pressure. 27 .4. 4. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. Royal book company. 2006 5. Climatology. Karachi. 1992. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. local winds.E. Weather and Climate. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. air pressure. Radiation and climate. Cambridge University Press. 2. 2002. . A. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). Four Spheres of the Earth. Surface winds.

solar radiation and primary production. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. Sustainable livestock management practices. soil erosion and conservation. Pollution control through Ecology. Environmental Psychology. Eysenck. Water and distribution of species. High population density and psychological impacts. 28 . 5th Edition. sustainable agriculture. energy and carbon balance.. CRC Press. CRC Press. limitation of irrigated agriculture. threats and mitigation. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan.W. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. London. Bell. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Routledge. carbon dioxide and global climate change. Fisher J. Future water scenario of Pakistan.. Water as an ecological resource.D. rivers. Water resources of the world and Pakistan.C. M. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. Ecological restoration. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. P. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. T. Routledge. London. Course Outline Introduction. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. soil salinity and water logging. Sustainable agricultural practices.characteristics and research methods. Recommended Books: 1. Ecology of food production. their management and ecological restoration. species response to pollutants. 2001.A. Restoration of derelict lands. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. Environmental perception and cognition. techniques and methods of restoration. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. concepts. soil resources of Pakistan. Background and scope. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. 1992. Fundamental of Psychology. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. and Baum A. Soil as a natural resource. 2. Greene. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship.

and Hobbs. E.W. G.P.1998. K and Habib. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. 2004. Organs. 3. 2006. Mumtaz. USA. Peshawar. dose response relationship in living organisms. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. 29 . Falk.S. R.A.. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. 1989. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. 4. from natural and anthropogenic sources. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. Studies in Pakistan Geography.Recommended Books: 1. Thomson Brooks/Cole. 2000 2. their containment and control strategies. terminologies: Poisons. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. Odum E. Synergism. K. 5th Edition. Potentiation and Addition. biological effects. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. 5. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques.. toxicity screening using microbial systems. P. J. Chemical interactions and their types.I. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. Fundamentals of Ecology. Islamabad. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. toxins vs toxicants. and Memon. and Barett. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. Newman. Oxford. on human and other living organisms. B. J. Lahore. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects.. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. toxicology of chemicals. Island Press. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. Soil Science. toxins & toxicants. Israr-ud-Din.. in vivo & in vitro assays. Immunological considerations in toxicology. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. Rashid. Shirkat Gah. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. A.National Book Foundation. water and soil. D. Margaret A. A. University of Peshawar. 2nd ed. soil and air samples. Zedler. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. Pakistan’s Environment. 1996.

). 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. culture.Science of Poisons . geography. pollution control-a general model. (ed.M. education. measuring environmental benefits. economic aspects of different environmental problems. McGrawhill. Recommended Books: 30 . USA. Hughes. Macmillan Press Ltd. Course Outlines Introduction. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. Williams. topographic zones. 2005 2. 5th Edition. P. 1st Edition. 1993. clean development mechanism. General and Applied Toxicology.. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. land.2005 2.D. Vol.1 & 2. industry. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. health. W. urbanization and pollution. T and Turner.Recommended Books 1. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. W. Course Outlines Introduction to history. Ecological: ecological zones. CRC Press Llc. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. economic development and the environment. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. 1996. Klassen. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. major ecosystems. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. the economy and the environment. 1st Edition. Government of Pakistan. USA. people. 1992. B. Ballantyne. water resources. 3. Recommended Books 1. M. Economic: agriculture. State of the Environment-Pakistan . Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. international trade and the environment. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. USA.

Holler.2004. 1993. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. Reuter. and derived S.2002. Thomson and Brooks. D. 8th Edition. Lab Work S. units. Recommended Books: 1. 4.C. B. D. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. Freeman & Co. 3. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. water and plant analysis. and F. Pearce. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. Fluoride. Use of Potentiometery. K.1. salinity & sodicity). Analytical techniques for soil. Turner.and Field. Skoog. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling.. preparation and storage. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Oxford. Sparrow and D. Gravimetery. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. A. Sample preservation methods.I. Oxford University Press. D. 2. 2005. 1999. Data interpretation for quality control.A. USA. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. C. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery.R. soil (NPK and organic matter contents.. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. 31 . Collingwood. Gravimetery. CSIRO Publ. New York. West. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. NO3–N & NH4-N). Australia.. BOD. M. Titrimetery. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. Sample collection.. Johns Hopkins University Press. J. and Batemen. L. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. Peverill. I. 2.L.W. Conductivitymetry. 6th Edition. Environmental Economics: An Introduction.K.D. COD. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. Field.J. 3. Harris. handling. 2000.I. M.UK. precision and accuracy.. C. 2003. Titrimetery. Kolstad. Standard solutions and standard curves. Environmental Economics.K.. Conductivitymetry. All Solids. D.

Derbre.. Biosensor. Scragg. Wiley-VCH Verlag. New York. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. and Josef. 2005. Oxford University Press. Recommended Books 1. Biotechnology.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. Bioreactors. W. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. 2001. Tools in environmental biotechnology. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. J. 3. Sambrook. J. Recombinant DNA technology. Cambridge University Press.). England.E. 4. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. 2. Course Outlines Introduction. USA. and application of biotechnology in the environment. New York. 2009. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems.W. USA. and Russel.D. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual.1999. Smith. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. 2nd Ed. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . Chichoster. Isolation. students will be able to understand the significance. PCR.P. 5th Ed. 2007. Environmental Biotechnology. 2005. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. USA. National Biosafety Guidelines. National Biotechnology Commission. Hans- Joachim. Introduction to microbial kinetics. Government of Pakistan.. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. J. A. purification and preservation of DNA. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. Germany. D. After completion of this course. (ed. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. Biomarkers.

4. V. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. Fishery and wildlife. Introduction to Photogrammetry. History and data collection. Z. Energy Sources. Inc. integration of information from many sources. Introduction to GIS. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. Pearsons Education. 2008. Agriculture. A. Guilfoud press New York. Campbell. 2000. 3. Lulla. Rancez. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). 2. 2000. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. Aerial photography. Interpretation. Different types of maps. eradication of the duplicated data. Cartography. K and L. John Wiley and Sons. Satellite Imageries. advantages and limitations of process. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. 1999. Forestry. Mc Graw Hill Education. R. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Harvey. analysis and output. Data acquisition.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. Inc. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. Jensen. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. John Wiley and Sons. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. Dessinov. Preparation of thematic maps. 2009. map projection and coordinate systems. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. Inc. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Image Processing. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). 5. Types of data used in GIS. F. Data entry and output. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. history and platforms. Active and Passive remote sensing. Using and reading GPS in field.

Related Environmental legislation. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. Environmental aspects and impacts. ecological. International Organization for Standardization. 34 . Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. 3. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. principles of Cleaner production.. cleaner technologies. hot spots of biodiversity. and Yoxon. 1998..). Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). need and approach. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. WWF Pakistan. plant.. Methods of environmental protection.C. 2006. M. Environmental Management Systems Principles. etc. American Society for Quality. Khan. Environment and sustainable development. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. threats to biodiversity. and Qasim.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. social and ethical values of biodiversity. Environmental Economy. eco-design. Sheldon. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes.2nd Ed. 2. alpha and beta diversity. American Society for Quality. Systems and Support Techniques.3rd Edition . Certification of EMS. 2001. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. economic. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). A. 4. F. Conservation of biodiversity. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. B. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. Michigan. types of biodiversity. M. 2005. Course Outlines Introduction. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. Environmental Management tools. standards and guidelines. philosophical.

water. habitats. London. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. Cox. 1998. cities. Associates Inc. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan.R. Lahore). Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. Z. A Primer for Conservation Biology.conservation at species. international agreements. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance.. Preservation methods including pH control. 2000. quality assessment. presampling requirements/information. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. Legal protection of species. soil and living organisms. 35 . Considerations.. Recommended Books: 1. national and international laws and regulations. design and types of samples. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. sampling and design purposes. plants. Kings College. refrigeration and freezing methods. 2ndEd. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. air. 2. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. conservation strategies. Publ. conservation and livelihood. their categories. NOC for plant operation. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. Biogeography.D. field custody. quality control sampling. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. 3. forests. management. Rawalpindi. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. 2000. Mirza.e. Quality assurance and quality control. P. Course Outlines Introduction. EIA requirement. conservation in man-made ecosystems. chemical addition. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. population. laboratory custody.B. Sinauer. Conservation of wildlife. community and ecosystem level. P. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city.. and Morre.B. protected areas. croplands. Sunderland. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. ecotourism.B. C. Saad Printers. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme.

8. 2nd Edition.. Tokyo. . Burden. Keith. 2008. F. UK. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. 2. I. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. D. H.1999. (eds. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. regional. USA. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. 3. Remote Sensing Note. Precipitation. Peakall. Korte. Chapman and Hall. R.) McGraw-Hill. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. its causes and effects. human health. L. and social factors contributing to climate and global change.USA. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. N. (ed) Springer. 7. extinctions. chemical.1996. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. altered community structure. Physical. 5. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. Regional droughts and 36 .. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. biological. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. USA. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. Earth Observation of Global Change. E. 2008. USA. Chuviero. and Guethner. The Measurement of Climate Change.Recommended Books: 1. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. 2002. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. Lewis Publisher London. McKlivie. Moisture in the Atmosphere. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. Human responses to potential climate change. Murai. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. 2000. S. phenological changes. agriculture. New York. S. Manahan. D. Environmental Chemistry. E. 2002. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. 6. Recent Climate Change Indicators. Ozone depletion. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. Energy and Temperature. 1992. Forstner U. Environmental Monitoring Handbook.

. 2000. Routledge. Cost and benefits of EIA. Therivel. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. Sringer. & Nixon. 37 .. J. 6.. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. public involvement. 2004. Hardy. Global Change and the earth system. London. Ministry of Housing and Works. R.Causes. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. Houghton. Recommended Books: 1. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. and noise. Effects.. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. EIA project management. 2. Types & Resources to produce Energy. law. Blackwell. scoping. decision-making to implement the project. and Chadwick. A. Hardy. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). London. 2. and Solutions. 2005. D. project implementation and follow up. 4. 1999. 2003. Petts. Islamabad.A. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society.(ed). (ed. 3. J. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. Climate Change . Glasson. John Wiley & Sons. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. 2003. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. T.T. review of EIA quality. 2005.. J..Causes. 1st Edition.. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. 1994.). 3. Harrop.O. liquid. Oxford.cataclysmic climate change. National Book Foundation. Effects. John Wiley & Sons. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. A. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. J. J. Main stages in EIA process. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. mitigation and impact management. impact analysis. Keith. solids. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. social impact assessment (SIA). policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. 4. Islamabad. Global Warming and Climate Change. screening. and Solutions. reporting. Earthscan Publication Ltd. 1986. 2005. overview. Recommended Books: 1. 5. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. Climate Change .

. Carpenter. wind power and nuclear power. 2002. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. their current status and threats. Lohani. & McCabe. United Nations Environment Programme. requirement. M. occurrence and distribution of natural resources.B and Warren. (ed. agriculture chemicals. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. New York. existing management approaches.. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. Asian Development Bank. management options. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. Sadler. 2nd Edition. R.. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. threat and its causes. national agriculture policy. John Willey & Sons. causes and methods for its improvement. USA. forest types and its existing management. Recommended Books: 1. Goldsmith.. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. problem in agriculture. effective management. B. Conservation in Progress. F. 38 . Watershed management: Importance basic principles. threats. Evans. H. solar power. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. process and contents of the management plan. limitation in the future. Rangeland Management: existing status. importance. national example.). wildlife census. national and provincial legislation.. Ludwig. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. 1997. 6.. and Tu. Everitt.5. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. R. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. J. B. 1993. S. their pros and cons. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. Development of Management Plan: needs. best available option for future. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. methodologies.. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. agriculture products and their share in GDP. A. management options. Types.

Scientific Methods. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. Hansen. Literature Search: Database. Surveys. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically.L. GOP and IUCN. Selecting the Research Method. 3. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. types of sampling design/. 4. Sage CA.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. concepts and terminologies. 2007. John Wiley & Sons. S. & Plano Clark. J. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. Islamabad. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. Search Engines. Research Proposal: its importance .. Experimental Research. Case Studies. 1992. to introduce students to research design.A pre-requisite for Research. R. 1984. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment.E. USA. Research Design & Research Methods. Environmental Conservation. 5. Review of Literature. New York. 39 . Bibliography. W.Amsterdam. Methodology. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. population and sampling frames.2. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. P. London. Interviews. research methods. V. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. Scientific Research: Science. Questionnaire. Creswell. Material Methods. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. Review of Literature. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. and Jorqensen. How to put things together? Introduction. Thousand Oaks. Objectives. Inference based on findings. Dasmann. 1990.E. Sampling: the logic of sampling.F. Elsevier.

Marilyn F. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers.. USA. 2008. S. 2000. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. Government of Pakistan 3. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Booth. Students project in Environmental Science. M. Babbie. 5. Survey Research Methods. 1997. Wadsworth Publishing Company. Law Books House. 2. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. Sage Publishers. 2001 and the rules of business made there under.2. 3rd Edition. 4.S. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. Moriarty. 6.. 2003. and Arhonditsis. Belmont California.Harrad. Chichester.. 2nd Edition. National Environmental Policy 4. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 .USA. 3. Univ. 2003. USA. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules.Batty.. Qadar.h. E. 2001. Diamon. National Conservation Strategy 5. England. of Chicago Press. 1997. Robert Yin. R. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. 1989. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. Recommended Books: 1. John and sons Ltd. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. G. regulations made there under.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

. I. A.1993. Cheema.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. Oxford University Press New Delhi. C. Mirajuddin Publication . 2003. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. N. 5.. Pakistan. fisheries management. 1993.. tubewells. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT).). Asia Printer. recycling and re-use of wastewater. 2006. (eds. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. watershed/catchment. K. O. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency.. groundwater exploitation. Khan. R. Islamabad. R.. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization.Varis. SDPI Oxford University Press.. and Tortajada. water supply and demand management measures. Oxford University Press Karachi. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. flood and drought management. Course Outlines Water resource and its management.Lahore. and Qamar. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. The Politics of Managing Water. (ed.). Ahmed. and Malik. Bengali. P. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. N. Indus Water Accord 1991.. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. 6. integrated water resources management (IWRM). Mirajuddin Publication . Ahmed. 2005.K. pollution aspects. J. Revised & enlarged edition. Biswas. virtual water. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. hydrological cycle. 2. Briscoe. 2006. U. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. flood and droughts. 44 . Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. Lahore. water quality and quantity aspects. 4. A. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. Recommended Books: 1. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. 3. Pakistan . A. wetlands resources management. Islamabad. with drinking water facilities like springs.

Academic Press. urban political ecology. USA. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. Course Outlines Introduction. Soils in Our Environment. Soil degradation. Cation and anion exchange. D. transport. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. R.. N. urban flora and fauna. the salient features of urban environments. R. Soil Science. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. NJ. Hillel. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. R. Causes of urbanization. Upper Saddle River.C. hydrological processes. Physical and chemical properties of soil. After completion of this course. urban settlements. Brady. Urban ecosystem. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. USA. and Bantel. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. Definition. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. San Diego. PrenticeHall. future of urban centers. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. Types and properties of parent materials.T. Gardiner. National Book Foundation. 45 . Islamabad. Urbanization. 2007. E. management and green productivity. Forms of urbanization. Bashir. Miller.W. Pakistan. Soil forming minerals. CA. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. 1. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. and Weil. Factors and processes of soil formation. 11th Edition. Process and outcome. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. Course Outlines Introduction. NJ. 2008. 2007. humans as components of urban ecosystems. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. urban landscapes characteristics. Upper Saddle River. urbanization in Pakistan. soils.R. 1996. D. Prentice Hall.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment.. USA.

Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. 2007. C. 2009. Alberti. M. SBS academic publishing. USA. CRC Press LLC.L. S. City Design for Sustainable Development. Routledge. Kate. 2006. 2000. SAGE Publications Ltd. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. Penguin Group. Sukopp. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. New trends in planning and city management. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management.and Maser. nd 2 Edition. A. Elements of urban planning. 3. Land use planning theories. Chapman and Hall. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. M. Routledge. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. Hough. Recommended Books: 1. New York. Justification for planning for city management. I. Scope. 2. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. UR. H. Planning theories and concepts. 1989. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. 46 . To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. 2004. Levels of planning. Planning and Urban Change. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. London. O..S.. Silberstein. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. London. Ward. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. 4. Principles of planning. The Works: Anatomy of a City. USA. 2.and Kowaril. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. 1. Aims and Objectives of planning. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. Springer. D.1990.. The planning process. Planning and its relationship with other professions. S. V. Types of Urban Plans. 2004. UK. UK. UK. Smith.. J. 5. Hague. nature and purpose of urban planning.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. Gilbert.. Hejny.

To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development.B. Earthquake Management. 3. H. Earthquake.. and White G. 1991.. Physical factors. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. and Woodrow. Prediction. Government of Pakistan. Natural cycles and their role. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. Boulder . Paris. ADB. Role of Media in Disaster Management.3. 4. P. Westview Press. 1993. 1993. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Landslide. Disaster Management: Components of management. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. New York. Manila. Socio-economic factors. Political factors. D. Natural Disasters Alexander. Clara. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. 4. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches..UNESCO. R..F. Recommended Books: 1.J. i. Islamabad. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies.. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. G.e. Kates. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. E&UA Div.. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. International phenomenon.. Introducing Town Planning. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Hazards. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. 1993. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. 1986. Cultural factors. Different approaches and Indicators. Flooding. Ministry of Housing and Works. Longman Group. It discusses a wide range of aspects. New York. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N.W. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors.. UK. 2. Disaster as an opportunity for development. 47 .W. 1989. Chapman & Hall. 2nd Edition. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. M. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. The Guilford Press. Flood Management: Organizational Role.

McKinney. E. 1983. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources.. Disasters and Development Cuny. consumers. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. Quorum Books. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. R. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. decomposers. 6th Edition. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. energy resources. 2. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. Perry R. 48 . 2007. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. energy resources of Pakistan.. solar. Westport. Paris. M. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. 2001. and Yonavjak. primary producers. sustainable energy management. New York.B and Keller. Ecological concept in crop and food production. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. L. F. 6. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. 4th Edition. local. OECD/IEA.. hydropower. 1. and Mushkatel.L. Consumer and producer relationship. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet.M. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. biomass resources. merits and demerits of wind. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. types.A. 1984. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. A. Schoch. USA. John Wiley and Sons. uses. D. 3. Agroecology.C. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America.H. alternate energy resources. Biotic structure. Sustainable livestock management. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. 2007. Botkin. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions.W. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. Farming practices for pests and weeds control.5.

R. 3.. and Sudha. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. Corol. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity.A. USA. C. India. and Rossel. Recommended Books: 1. Boulder. P.G. Study of index of diversity. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. M. Altreri. Study of stratification and profile diagram.H. Agrocology.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. Kapur. E-11 Seminar 49 . Experimental Plant Ecology.M. USA. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. CBS Publishers and Distributors.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. New Delhi. Westview Press. 2000. 2. 1990. New York. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. 1995.P. R. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. Yandermeer J.

The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. that: 1. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. 3. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. 50 . 5. 4. 2. the Committee agreed on the following principles. availability of the faculty and other facilities.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme.

11. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 7. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 23. 3. 25. 15. 6. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 13. 16. 24. 8. 21. 17. 9. 4. 12. 5. 26. 14. 18. 12. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 11. 8.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 19. 9. 6. 7. 4. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 10. 10. 2. 5. 22. 20. 3. 2.

Environmental control Policies.DETAILS OF M. technology and resource use. Khan K. GOP and IUCN. Provincial and Local Strategies. P. WCS. Relationship of culture. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. 2. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. 3. Recommended Books: 1..1995.1994.. 1992. Mackenzie. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. D. FURTHER READINGS 1. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. Regional and International Environmental Issues. Conventions and Protocols in Global. 3. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. Hodder and Stoughton. Treaties. Draft National Environmental Policy.E.A. NCS.1994. Amsterdam. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. 52 .1991. 1987.S. 1991. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan.. Ball. Conservation Strategies. development of concepts. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. Mackenzie J. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems..E. Oxford University Press.T. S. status of Terrestrial. and Bell. 4. Geography of Pakistan. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. Money. London Black Stone Press Ltd. 2nd Edition. S. Instruments and methods.. and Jorqensen. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. Karachi. Hansen. Oxford University Press.F. Environment People and Economy. Elsevier. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. 2. S. London. F. Islamabad.

Principles of physical. sampling rules. 3. Burnt Hill. A. Assessment of environmental impacts. Longman House. John Wiley & Sons. K. ecological impact assessment. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. sample collection and preservation. process. Chichester. 1993. Ed. World Bank. UK. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. Recommended Books: 1. social impact assessment. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Environmental auditing. Recommended Books: 1. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. Cost benefit analysis of projects. procedures and methods of EIA. role and importance. 2. Environment Department. History. Air and Solid Waste. opportunities and issues. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. Environmental Chemical Analysis. Ahmed. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. Wood.Vanclay. Wastewater. DC. Longman Scientific and Technical. ed. 1995. Harlow Essex. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. Washington. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Ministry of Environment. Case Studies and review.A. England. C.. economic impact assessment. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). Environmental and Social Impact assessment. A one Publishers Lahore. FURTHER READINGS 1. F & Bronstein. Government of Pakistan. D. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). Demographic impact assessment. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. 2. WB. 53 . Gas Chromatography etc. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. 1995. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants.

Project Initiation. A. 1st ed.. Basic Environmental Health. outputs. 2nd Ed. Recommended Books: 1. Occupational Health: problems and issues. T. New York. Public health concept. 2. M/S Banarsid. Environmental Health Engineering.. Oxford University Press New York.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. 1st Ed. means of verification. economic evaluation. and Wright. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. activities. R. development objectives. J. 4. inputs. UK. 1997. 1998. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. Project Life Cycle. Yassi. 5. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Reasons for Project success or failure. 3. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. M. Need identification. 2002. T. London. B. 2001. Kjelllström. Project Planning and Approval Processes. John Wiley and Sons. Meredith J. de Kok.. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. Explanation of Horizontal Logic.2000. air borne. Lippmann. assumptions. Mantel s. principles and practices. L. A Guide to Project Management. Park. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. 1st Ed. Accident prevention and safety plans. Government Policies and Programs. 1993. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. Prentice Hall International Inc. MS Project Recommended Books: 1.... Wiley Interscience. feasibility study. and Guidotti. K. Inc. R. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne.. 2. T. T. specific objectives. Writing Project Proposal. Defining Project objectives. 54 . USA. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). S. Planning Commission Performas. J. Ergonomic and Safety. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. Resource Mobilization.. work breakdown structure. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. prevention and control. indicators. Project Management Institute. safety techniques. Nebel. Caeneross. Primary health care services. Project Planning. USA.. 1992.

Botkin. 2001. data collection and interpretation. McKinney. ISO Central Secretariat. Sources of data. D. Sayre. petroleum. Schoch. sustainable energy management for agriculture. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. Related Environmental regulations. Environmental auditing. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. non-renewable and renewable. R. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. principles and elements of the process of EMS. USA. Paris. industry and domestic sectors. and Yonavjak. solar.A. 2007. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. merits and demerits of wind.B and Keller. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. L. Michigan-January 2001. energy resources. Environmental Auditing. 3. uses. 1990b. energy resources of Pakistan. 2. 6th Edition. Paris. John Wiley and Sons. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management.L. 3. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). 2. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. transport. 4th Edition. 1998.M. 55 . M. D. bio-energy resources.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. gas. hydropower. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. types.. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). 4. St Luise Press. OECD/IEA. nuclear) local. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. Recommended Books: 1. alternate energy resources. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. Principles of cleaner production. E. Switzerland. 2007. Recommended Books: 1.

ED. 5. Life history strategies of plants. 2003. (Ed.Causes. Species richness. Warrick. survival and extinction. Oxford. ECOPE 29. 2005. Climate change and food production. John Wiley & Sons. Chichester.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. Berlin. Oxford UK. K. Plant Ecology.. B & Jager. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. J. Recommended Books: 1.T. D. plant conservation. Earthscan Publication Ltd. J. Blackwell Publishing. Recommended Books: 1. forests. 4. Effects. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. 2004. plant invasions. 3. Green House Gases. resources and plants. Blackwell Publishing. Climate Change and Ecosystems. 2.Causes. John Wiley & Sons. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Houghton. The Green House Effect. vegetation dynamics. Maarel. Shulze. competition and coexistence. Beck. Vegetation Ecology Ed. 2005.D. London. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. and Solutions. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. Hardy. etc. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. geographical and temporal patterns. 2005.. D. Effects. types of climate change models. 2. Climate Change . UK 1991. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. John Wiley & Sons. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. UK. E. Modeling of climate change. types and their climatic effects. & Charlesworth. 1st Edition. human activities and vegetation dynamics. Silvertown. and Solutions. E & Muller-Hohenstein. 3. Springer.). 2003. Plant population dynamics. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. T. Climate Change . global aspects of plant ecology. J. 56 . Hardy. 2005. water resources. 1. management and restoration.

their ecological and economic importance. Global and national biodiversity. I). Conserving Living Natural Resources. Bailey. Protected areas in Pakistan. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. John Wiley And Sons. Recommended Books: 1. Forest plantations. & Ripley. Oxford University Press. Sinauer Assocaites. USA. Biodiversity: An introduction. Cambridge. 1992. Wildlife of Pakistan. status. Forests. threats and conservation. Status of forests in Pakistan. Blackwell Publsihing. And Bolen. distribution and management. Oxford University Press.J. Principles of Wildlife Management. Protected areas. Roberts. Mcmillan. Cambridge. Extinction of species. Primack.) Gaston. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. management. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management.J. Participatory forest management. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. Protection and restoration of species. 1973 2. & Spicer. kinds. types. Publishers Sunderland. Oxford. K. R.B. its causes. Essentials of Conservation Biology. 4. UK.J. Oxford. 3. Oxford University Press. 1986. biological diversity. Weddell. Roberts. Cambridge University Press. problems and solutions. Inc. 2.G. Robinson.D. II). W. B. E. Loss of biodiversity. Sustainable forest management. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. distribution. their importance. habitats and ecosystems. 1984. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. Recommended Books: 1. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Threatened animals and plants. 1998. 5.(2nd Ed. Consumptive.A. 3. types.L. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. Rangeland management. UK. Wildlife Ecology and Management. T. J. 2004. distribution. Wetlands. T. J.J. S. 57 . 2002. Establishment and management of protected areas. London. Oxford. deforestation and its control. S. 2002. their types and role in conservation.

Environmental problems of urban life. H.. Urban land use planning and management. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Clara. sanitation. Recommended Books: 1. 3. Government of Pakistan. V. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. management of transport.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. urban landscape characteristics. 2004. USA. drinking water and solid waste in cities. Longman Group. 2007. A. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Penguin Group. J. S. CRC Press LLC.. UK. Silberstein. C.. urban political ecology. Sustainable cities. 2000. 4. Planning and Urban Change. USA. The Works: Anatomy of a City. G. urbanization in Pakistan. Introducing Town Planning. UK. New York.. 2. London. urban systems and their characteristics. 1993. SAGE Publications Ltd. Ward. future of urban centers. 58 .and Maser. 1986. Forms of urbanization. Kate. Islamabad. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. E&UA Div. Ministry of Housing and Works.

Oxford University Press. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. Third edition.J.V. 1997.Annexure . Martinet. Thomson and A. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. ISBN 0194313492 59 . a) Functional English Grammar 1. Exercises 1. Practical English Grammar by A.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking.

Reading/Comprehension 1. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. Reading. Writing. 1997. Thomson and A. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Martinet. Oxford Supplementary Skills. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. and speed reading. Third Impression 1992. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Oxford University Press. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. Third edition.V.J. Fourth Impression 1993. Oxford Supplementary Skills. minutes of meetings. Upper Intermediate. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . intensive and extensive. b) Practical English Grammar by A. Exercises 2.2. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs.

ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Fourth Impression 1992.1. introduction to presentations.V. clarity.J. form. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. narrative. Third edition. discursive. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Reading 1. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Oxford Supplementary Skills. 2. Martinet. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. content. descriptive and argumentative writing). Oxford Supplementary Skills. language. Thomson and A. b) Writing 1. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Exercises 2. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. Advanced by Ron White. Reading. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Writing. Third Impression 1991. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Third Impression 1992. Oxford University Press 1986. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Advanced. Fourth Impression 1993. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. Writing. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Practical English Grammar by A. Writing. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. 2.

Kirszner and Stephen R. College Writing Skills by John Langan. Mandell. Kathleen Shine Cain. Compiled by norther Illinois University. descriptive. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. without taxing the taste of engineering students). Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. 3. A Custom Publication. Martin’s Press. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. 2004. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. argumentative and report writing).(particularly suitable for discursive. St. 2. 62 .

Karachi: Oxford University Press. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. 4.M. Muslim advent iii.Annexure . 2. Historical Perspective a. 3. ideological background of Pakistan. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Akbar. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. Ethnicity d. government. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. Society and social structure c. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. 2. Study the process of governance. contemporary Pakistan. 63 Books Recommended 1. politics. 1977-88 e. People and Land i. 1971-77 d. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. 2000. Lahore. Zaidi. Location and geo-physical features. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. Karachi: Oxford University Press. b. Economic institutions and issues b. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Shahid Javed.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. 1993. 1999 onward 3. Indus Civilization ii. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. . Mehmood. S. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. Course Outline 1. national development. 1994. State & Society in Pakistan. S. Safdar. 1947-58 b. 1958-71 c. 1988-99 f. Contemporary Pakistan a.

Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Aziz. 9.K. Haq. Enigma of Political Development.. Washington: American Enterprise. Noor ul. Khalid Bin. History & Culture of Sindh. 12. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. nd. 1980. Ziring. 1998. Tahir. 1980. The Political System of Pakistan. Rafique. 13. Wilcox. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. Safdar. 14. 8. Islamabad. M. Politics in Pakistan. 64 . Pakistan Under Martial Law. Ethno . 6. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Muhammad Waseem. Sayeed. Ansar. Afzal. Club Road.5. Wayne. Lawrence. Institute of Public Policy Research. 10.The Emergence of Banglades. 1972. 11. Political Parties in Pakistan. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. Lahore: Vanguard. Amin. 1987. 1967. 1993. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. I. 7. Party. K. Vol. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Zahid. Mehmood. II & III.National Movement in Pakistan. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. 1976.

Annexure .W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.40.A.57.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.A.21.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.56.Tadabar (Verse No1.6.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.19. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.A.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.20) Related to thinking.A.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.58.

3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt. in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .

Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad.S. Bhatia. “Emergence of Islam” . Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. Islamabad (2001) 67 . Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Studies in Islamic Law. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. International Islamic University. Pakistan. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. Ahmad Hasan. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. IRI.

MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Boston 68 . 1987. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. 1978. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. types of functions. trigonometric identities. Wooton W. PWS-Kent Company. system of linear equations. College Algebra and Trigonometry. introduction to sets. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). not majoring in mathematics. functions. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. harmonic progression. geometric progression.Annexure . PWS-Kent Company. cube roots of unity. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. 1986. Sharron S. matrix inverse. Beckenback EF. types. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. Houghton & Mifflin. complex numbers. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. Cramer’s rule. equations reducible to quadratic equations. set operations. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Boston Swokowski EW. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. determinants. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system.

Calculus (3rd edition). 2005. slope of a line. integration by parts. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. Finney AR. New York Stewart J. continuous functions. derivatives. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Recommended Books: Anton H. 69 . Boston Thomas GB. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Addison-Wesley. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. not majoring in mathematics. parallel and perpendicular lines. Bevens I. PWS-Kent Company. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. distance between a point and a line. 1995. not majoring in mathematics. change of variables in indefinite integrals. intersection of two lines. Reading. USA 3. left-hand and right-hand limits. Davis S. inequalities. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). various forms of equation of a line. rational and transcendental functions. 2005. solution of equations involving absolute values. angle between two lines. equation of a line. differentiation of polynomial. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. John Wiley. continuity.2. Ma. integration by substitution. Calculus (11th edition). Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. functions and their graphs. 1983. distance between two points. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines.

College Algebra and Trigonometry. intersection of lines and circles. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. circles determined by various conditions. hyperbola. set operations. PWS-Kent Company. equations reducible to quadratic equations. Boston 4. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. • Contents 1. 1986. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). 1987. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. types of functions. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. system of linear equations. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. Scott. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences).Circle: Equation of a circle. locus of a point in various conditions. Conic Sections: Parabola. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. types of matrices. nature of roots of quadratic equations. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. functions. 70 . • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Boston Swokowski EW. Introduction to sets. 1969 Kaufmann JE. ellipse. Analytic Geometry. Freshman and Company. Cramer’s rule. determinants. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. inverse of matrices. PWS-Kent Company.

characteristics of statistics.. R. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. E. Kaufmann. W. quartiles. 3. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. skewness and kurtosis.. relationship of statistics with social science. 2. Measures of dispersion: Range. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes.. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. Graphs: Graph of straight line. 2. Prentice Hall. frequency polygon. ungrouped and grouped data. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. types of frequency series. Walpole.geometric and harmonic progressions. E. PWS-Kent Company. Books Recommended: 1. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Swokowski. individual. 5. bar frequency diagram histogram. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. Wilcox. moments. Latest Edition. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. circle and trigonometric functions.. 4. deciles and percentiles. 71 . R. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. J. R. cumulative frequency curve. tally sheet method. trigonometric identities. standard deviation. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. Boston. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. E. discrete and continuous series. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. array. Latest Edition. Latest Edition. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. variance.

Gleason. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. theorems of differentiation. S. 5. integration using partial fractions. Calculus. the inverse of differentiation. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. integration by inspection. Second Edition 1992. substitution method. Integration by Parts. Continuity. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. reduction formulae. Hughes-Hallett. Frank A. 3. Extreme Values of Functions. integral inequalities. Anton. Recommended Books: 1. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. Inc. Davis. Rational and Transcendental Functions. H. 8th edition. Solution of equations involving absolute values. Boston. logarithmic differentiation. Leibnitz’ theorem. logarithmic integration. John H. I. Inc. 11th Edition. 2. quotients. sinusoidal function. and Transcendental Functions. John Wiley & Sons.Jr. Elliott Mendelson. 4. Equation of a Line. 2005. Least-Squares Line. 1983. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. Inequalities. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. Trigonometric Functions. Thomas. infinite and improper integrals. Mathews. 2002. the chain rule. 2005. Slope of a Line. Continuous Functions. 4th edition. et al. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. plane polar coordinates. 2. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. implicit differentiation. E. • Integration Integration from first principles. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . Prentice-Hall. applications of integration. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. 3rd Edition. products. Contents 1. Addison Wesley publishing company. 1999. Calculus Single and Multivariable. Rational Functions. Bevens. McCallum. Schaum’s Outline Series. Calculus. Calculus.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. integration by parts. special points of a function. Jhon Willey & Sons. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. 6. W. Swokowski. 6.

geometric series. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. series involving natural numbers. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. complex conjugate. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. multiplication. arithmetico-geometric series.Additions and subtraction. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. identities of hyperbolic functions. the difference method. inverses of hyperbolic functions. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. solving hyperbolic equations. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. approximation errors in Taylor series. finding the nth roots of unity. modulus and argument.

line to line. masses. vector product.5. the inner product. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. moments of inertia. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. of a unitary matrix. centers of mass and centroids. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. point to plane. Pappus’ theorems. orthogonal. Hermitian. symmetric and antisymmetric. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. 6. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. scalar triple product. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals.

curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. spherical polar coordinates 75 .8. combinations of grad. divergence of a vector field. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates.

Annexure . level of significance. Change of origin and scale. Exercises. definition of outliers and their detection. probability and non-probability sampling. Unit 4. Unit 7. Exercises. The Mode. Graphs and their Construction. properties of Good Average. bias. Significant digits. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Empirical Relation between Mean. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Data. Exercises Unit 6. Difference of means and proportions. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. The Mean Deviation. Absolute and relative measures. Moments and Moments ratios. Discrete and continuous variables. Stem and Leaf Display. Standardized variables. sample design and sampling frame. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Test statistics. Bar charts. sampling with and without replacement. Probability and Probability Distributions. sampling and non sampling errors. Sources. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Exercises. Rounding of a Number. Exercises. 76 . Different types of Averages. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. The semi-Interquartile Range. The Variance and standard deviation. Unit 2. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Historigram. Exercises. null and alternative hypothesis. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Population. Quantiles. Box and Whisker Plot. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Collection of primary and secondary data. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Diagrams. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Exercises. Errors of measurement. acceptance and rejection regions. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Types of frequency curves. Constructing of a frequency distribution. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Range. Unit 3. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Presentation of Data Introduction. Statistical problem. Unit 5.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Histogram. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Median and mode. Pie chart. Type-I and Type-II errors. Editing of Data. Observations. Coefficient of variation.

Single Population Introduction. Exercises. Contingency Tables. “Introduction to Statistics”.. Correlation. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. Exercises Unit 10.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. R. Testing of Hypothesis. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. r and R2. 3rd Ed.Unit 8. examples. estimation of parameters and their interpretation.. F. 1982. its estimation and interpretation. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. New York. Exercises Unit 9. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. E. 77 . Kitab Markaz. cause and effect relationships. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. Regression and Correlation Introduction. Coefficient of linear correlation. simple linear regression. 2005. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. Inc. Macmillan Publishing Co. 2 Muhammad. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. Unit 11.

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