CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
For BS MS
HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD
CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………
6 12 14 50 51
50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. dated December 4th 1976. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. It also aimed to give a basic. universities and other institutions of higher education. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. the Federal Government vide notification No. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years.). 63.
PROF. D773/76-JEA (cur. The world has turned into a global village. degree awarding institutions. and 36. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees.ALTAF ALI G. SHAIKH
Member Academics August 2009
. It is. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. Lahore. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template.PREFACE
Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. DR. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. therefore. R&D organizations.
National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. UNI. R&D. OF FINAL CURRI. Preparation
. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission
ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS
APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP
PREP. OF NCRC.
STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV
CURRI. OF DRAFT BY NCRC
IMPLE. IN DRAFT STAGE
COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. COL. UNDER CONSIDERATION
CURRI. EXP. HEC
BACK TO STAGE-I
PREP. OF CURRI.
FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC
COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. REC.
Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Lahore Member
6. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Rawalpindi Dr. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University.
. Karachi from 28-30. Dr.
The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Dr. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener
4. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr.
3. Rawalpindi Dr. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Following attended the meeting:1.
14. Dr. Dr. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof.8.
15. Dr. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore
13. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi.
Dr. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor.
. Karachi Member
12. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Dr.
Prof. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Dr.
11. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi.
Director of HEC Regional Center.17. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. Karachi. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. At first. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. Faisalabad
20. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. 1.
. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. 2. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Chairman. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Mr. Dr. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah.
Dr. The meeting was opened by Mr. Mr. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards.
The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues
. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development.
1. 6. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development.
The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. The committee thanked Mr. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses.
Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. 4. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development.3.
3. In last few centuries. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre.
The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. 5.
These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses.
and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable
development. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. This committee. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. professional judgment and skills in
mitigation of environmental problems
iii. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility.
Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially.
ii. Apply theoretical understanding. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge
iv. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. regional and global contexts. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the
.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. skills and behaviour patterns. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative
structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management
5. in its preliminary meeting.
The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems.
pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. that:
1. 4. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. 6. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. eight semesters in the semester system. Sc. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes.
UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME
BS Environmental Science
Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles.
Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental
3. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature.
A.e. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. 1. 2.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. Integrating natural sciences. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. with consensus. The medium of instruction. assessment and evaluation will be English
for degree programmes in Environmental Science.. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in
the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be
comprehensive in their coverage of the contents
2. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English.
Environmental Pollution 22. Introduction to Earth Science 8. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Climatology* 23. Introduction to Computer 14. Environmental Physics 16. Introductory Economics* 17.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours
3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17
Semester – 2
. Biology –I* 3. Basic Chemistry* 4. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0)
Semester – 4
19. Environmental Microbiology 21. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Environmental Chemistry 15. Biology –II* 9. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17
SECOND YEAR Semester – 3
SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR
Course Titles Semester – 1
1. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. English-I 6. English-III 18. English-II 12.
24. Total Credit Hours
3 (3-0) 18
THIRD YEAR Semester – 5
25. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136
Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours
. Environmental Biotechnology 32. 46. ELECTIVE-III 42. Environmental Management Systems 34. 45. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. English-IV/ Univ. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours
FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7
37. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Natural Resource Management 40. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18
Semester – 8
43. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. Environmental toxicology 27. Applied Ecology 26. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19
Semester – 6
31. 44. Climate Change 38. Opt. Environmental Economics 29. Environmental Monitoring 36.
• Universities can choose from the list provided under general category
.• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical.
4th Ed. current global. proteins and nucleic acids. biological and social.A. 10th Ed. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future.
.. John Wiley & Sons. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society.I
The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. its importance in human life. Schoch. McKinney.J.M. M.T. history.B & Keller. urbanization. and their relationships with various environmental factors. socio-economic. B. Pearson Educational. 4. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. philosophical. Wright. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. development in industry and agriculture.
1. national. poverty and resource depletion. 2007. E.
Introduction: basic concepts.. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. D. & Nebel.L. 2002. regional. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. G. environmental pollution. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Human environment and its problems: global. ecological. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. R. & Yonavjak. 2. 6th Ed. Botkin. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. R.DETAILS OF COURSES
FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0)
To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. Thomson Learning. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. ethical. L. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. lipids. 2007. COURSE 2
BIOLOGY . Different aspects of environment: physical. Miller. 2007 3.
Introduction: Definition and concept of life. Origin of life: chemical evolution. Molecular Biology through Questions. and Lewis. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. Nucleic acids. USA. coordinate covalent bond. carbohydrates. Bulter. L.
The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. Ionic. Cells. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals.. V. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. Introduction to cell biology. Wadsworth Group. 8th Ed. Biology: a Human Emphasis. J. 2008. Structure and the basis of function. carbonyls. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods.
Biology’ Campbell. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. Plopper. Australia . D. Self Assessment and Revie. A. the molecule of genetic information and replication. 1996.
. 2007.. N. 2003. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. M. polypeptides in protein diversity. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. 5th Edetion. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. chemical diversity. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. USA. lipids. esters. Crossley. 3. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. Cassimeris. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. 5. E. 4.
Chemical Bonding. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus.Hill International Edition. Lingappa. B. Ltd. phospholipids in membrane systems. 2. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology.. Lewis. USA. lipids. McGraw.. Cell division.
1. 2007. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. Canada. R. protobionts. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. chemical basis of life. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. R. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. amines). covalent.. Shier. proteins. C. G. New York. carboxylic acids. and Whitelaw. Aromatic compounds. origin of metabolism.
Cambridge University Press. double angle formulas. EC and TDS in waste water.E. determinants. graphs... Algebra of matrices.. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. molal. Lab Work Preparation of molar. Thomson and Brooks. J. M. Jickells. Girard. and Reid. Blackwell Science. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. Arithmetic and Trigonometry
Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. Hill..
. Canada. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). COURSE 4
The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. Liss. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. 2004. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. USA. normal solutions/buffers. series and means. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. B. P. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. straight line and related concepts. 5. 1st Ed. F. law of Cosines. radicals.. Brimblecombe.ions. and Holler.Special Products (Binomial Expression)..C. equations of lines (linear equations).J. expansion of determinants. Thin layer chromatography. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. 2004.H.A.D. minor and cofactor of a matrix. D. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics.J. UK. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. D. Surface chemistry. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. 3. values of trigonometric functions. simultaneous equations and their solutions. W. T. J. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. D. geometric and harmonic sequence. 2nd Edition. Photochemical reactions. USA. 6th Edition. Measurement of pH. 8th Edition.. angle-sum formula. Skoog. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). Colloids chemistry. 2.. UK.M. 2005. Column chromatography. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). Harris.
1.K. Solution chemistry. 2003. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. 2nd Edition. 4. Freeman and Company. P. West. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. Andrews.S.E. Osmosis and Dialysis. 2004. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. Jones and
Barlett.. real line.
faults. Introduction to folds. 2. Addission. product and quotient rules without derivations). Jr. 4th Ed. cleavages. nonrepeated linear factors. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. theorems on differentiation (sum.
1. lineation and unconformities. Trignometry for College students. K. Narosa Publishing House. Weathering. earthquakes.B. erosion and related landforms. and Finney. Introduction to rocks and minerals. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. Pacific Grove. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors.
. Earth as a member of solar system. the processes of their formation. Scott Foresman and Company. California. joints.. G. New Delhi. difference. Chatterjee. Calculus and Analytical Geometry.B SEMESTER 2
INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives
This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. Introduction to sedimentary. by parts integration (simple applications). Fossils and their significance. irreducible quadratic factors. 10th Ed. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. COURSE 5
English-I (Functional English) Annexure . D. Abraham. theorem of integration.
R. Analytical Geometry. different earth processes like mountain buildings.A
Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . earthquakes and volcanoes. 3. L. age. 1999. foliation.Wesley.Cramer’s Rule. Chain rule. igneous and metamorphic rocks. 4. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. its origin. mountain building. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension.
Introduction and scope of geology and geography. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. Integration: Formulas of integration.. Thomas. composition and its internal structure. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. S. plate tectonics. J. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. weathering and erosion. Smith.
Life in sea. K.
1. unicellularity. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. 2005. Foundations of Structural Biology. 2007 2. 9th Edition.
. A. 5. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology.
Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. molecular basis of biodiversity. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. J. Geological time chart with biodiversity. Prentice Hall: 2006. causes of extinction. Wicander. measuring biodiversity. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. modern concepts. 3rd Edition. F. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. Park. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. Physical Geology and Process of Science.. D. J. 2007 3. 5th Edition. Smith. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. Earth Science. Use of brunton compass and GPS. Tarbuck. consequences of losing biodiversity. interactions among diversified life. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. Tarbuck. Routledge.II
This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. biodiversity crises. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. Lutgens.
K. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. J. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. and Pun.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. Prentice Hall. Biodiversity of hilly areas. multicellularity. 4. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. and Tasa.. animals). Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. invasion of life on land. Biodiversity of deserts. Biodiversity of canal. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis.Identification of rocks and minerals.. population loss and decline. E.. Lamarckism. Prentice Hall. G. protocell formation.. and Monroe... different classification systems. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. R. R. How Does Earth Work.. G. Field Study tour. 11th Edition. Darwinism. 2004. F. and Tasa. Brooks/Cole. Lutgens. examples of adjustments in varied environment. E.. D. COURSE 8
Gaston. Blackwell Science Ltd. J. 2005.. Starr. Adam.. 5th Edition. Inc. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. C. 2001. 2nd Edition.
1. 2. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. Hannen. 2009. (editors). R. Understanding the environment-human relationship.
2009. Use of environment for vested interest. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. 3. Prospect Heights. Goals and expectations. a Human Emphasis. Wadsworth Group. and Spicer. (editor).
2. Chronological. Inc. Perspective of human-environment evolution. Townsend. CA: AltaMira Press. Bradbury. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. Contemporary environment issues and debate. Allan & Carter. and Sustainable Living. USA. Biodiversity (An Introduction). L. Crumley. culture and society. 2006. 3 (3-0)
Relationship between environment.
The Biosphere. Scope and application.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY
Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. 3. C. UK. Culture. K.
Annexure . 4.K. Contemporary environmental status. power & hegemony. Conceptualizing environment. P. The Ecology of global consumer culture. Environmental Risks and the Media. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. 2003. IL:WavelandPress. globalization and environmental issues. UK. UK. Nora and Wilk.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies)
1. John Wiley and Sons. Routledge. Biology. I. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. 2000. Walnut Creek. Consumption. New York: New York University Press. I. K. J. and concerns.
. Tripartite nature of environment.
Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures.
1. Storage hardware. 6. Rutledge.A
ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . Ms-Excel. Ms-Power Point. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Local Area Network. Long l. Milton. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered.London 1996. Ms-Access. processing hardware.1999. internet. Hardware: Input Hardware.
.6th Ed.5. 2003. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse.. COURSE 11
English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . Courter.Microsoft office 2000. software packages. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. 2. as are their effects on the biosphere. computer programs and basic applications. Configurations. Operating system (Windows). e-mail. Fundamentals of computer.. Marquis A. Types and classification of computers. K. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. Ed. Software: Application software.BPB publication
This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. Introduction to MS-Word.C SEMESTER 3
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER
This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. system software. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. output hardware.
Definition. Selin.H. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. G. Long N.
Environmental impact of various industries.E. C. Andrews. Jones and Barlett. USA. Heat radiation and heat transfer.
1. India. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. its causes and adverse effects on environment. atmospheric and soil chemistry. Reducing the transmission of sound. Entropy. interaction of light with matter. their sources and toxic actions. Basic acoustics. Fregoso-Infante. Conversion of mass. P. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. T. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. G. J. Miller. Fate of pollutants in environment. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants.M. Environmental Chemistry.. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. Environmental Science. J.D.Course Outlines
Concept and scope of environmental chemistry..S.. Diffusion. Gaussian plumes in the air. Ibanez. and Singh. Ozone chemistry. P.E. 4.. 1999. Measurement and comparison of the
. M.T. Hernandez-Esparza. Sound and Noise. Samir. Turbulence. Jickells. Isotopes and radioactive decay. K. 2.G. Fundamentals of aquatic. Global climate and climatic change. Nuclear energy. 2nd Edition. 3. 2004.. Chemical reactions. Equations of fluid dynamics. Turbulent jets and plumes. DoriaSerrano. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light.. Active control of sound. Thomson-Brooks.. Solar spectrum.. photosynthesis. Transport of pollutants. 2008. 2004. Blackwell Science. Turbulent diffusion. Canada. 2005. Human perceptions and noise criteria.. 5. M.J. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. Brimblecombe. Ozone and UV light. Energy. Environmental Chemistry. B.
Introduction to environmental physics. A.. trophic level. Energy conversion. 1st Edition. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. Electromagnetic radiation. Springer. COURSE 15
The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. J. Girard. UK. Particle physics. Liquids and Gasses. Germany. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. and Reid. Solids. Liss..
It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. Economic Development. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. Measures for sustainable development.
Introduction to economics. USA. 2006. Natural resources and the economy. interaction between ecology and economic management. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Wesely Publishers. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. Growth and development. Producer behavior. Pakistan economic context: National income. and Resource allocation. Kentucky USA.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter.
. J. 2001. UK. concepts and measurement. P. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. E. R. 7th Ed.
1. Physics of the Environment and Climate. M. Routledge. USA. H. Yusuf. Sustainable development.1998. 4. USA. economic progress.
2. producer and community point of view. Todaro. poverty. S. 2001. economic welfare and difference among all. Environmental Physics. and Van Grondelle. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. Environmental economics.. USA. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. and Pandis. Growth and Environment.
1. 2008. John Wiley and Sons Inc. population and environmental quality. Introductory Environmental Physics. Impact of economic activity on environment. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30
Years of the World Development Repor. Field visit. Boeker. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. World Bank Publications.Economic development. C. New York. 2.
2008. N. Guyot. Smith. Economic functions of environment. S. COURSE 16
The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. G. economic growth. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. Seinfeld. 3. economic growth and its measurement. Praxis publishing. Economic management and environmental quality. Man environmental relationship.
& Pierce. community and ecosystem. International Thomson Publishing. soil. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. England. branches of ecology. Callicott. A History of Western Philosophy.
World Bank Publications. Environmental philosophy and ethics. Hanley. the ethics of soil. USA.V. and White. D. Palgrave Macmillan. water.A. DeVeer. 2009.
J. Natural philosophy. and systems ecology. Frodeman. Ecosystem and its types. role of light. Touchstone Books.
1. Introduction to ethical theory.A
To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. its fundamental concepts. 2007. population. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. M. Ecology. 2008. London.
Introduction. 2008. R. USA.. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. C. WCIV7AA. Farmington Hills. B.
. J.. Economics.
FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY
To develop an understanding in the about ecology. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. Swift. concepts and approaches. Russell. Kessinger Publishing. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. N.
Definition of philosophy.
4.3.. temperature. LLC. COURSE 17
English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills)
Annexure . levels of ecological organization. B. ethics and ecology. 4. biogeography. 3. description of population. Portland 1967. Environmental Critics of agriculture. B. 2002. community. Shogren.. species. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. 2. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources.
J. Odum. 5th Ed. and Barett. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. 2. M C J 1st ed. Cambridge University Press. Biogeochemical cycles of C. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. 1st
Ed. E P. After completion of this course. New Delhi. landscape ecology. 1999 4. Population distribution and abundance. and S. Ecology (concepts and applications. various concepts of community. COURSE 20
This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment.) Moles. Concepts of Limiting factors. students will be able to understand the significance. bacteria and eukarya. habitat and niche. characteristics of urban. J. G. Fundamentals of Ecology. ecological modeling. B. Microbial metabolism. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). 2004. 2000. Dash. productivity of different ecosystems. N. WCB/McGraw-Hill.Cox. M J.L and Reiss. Ecology (principles and applications).W. landscape changes and their importance. plant geography and animal distribution. P. biotic factors. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. Systems ecology. 2001 5.
1. 3. distribution limits. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. King’s College London.
. population dynamics. 1992. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. New York. UK. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. Fundamentals of Ecology.topography and air as ecological factors. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. aquatic microbiology. 6th Ed. community dynamics. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. Thomson Brooks/Cole. C. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. Chapman. and More. M. Tata McGraw-Hill. C. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. Ecosystem: structure and function. Populations. UK. Biomes of the world. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea.
Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology.
J.. and Stetzenbach. P. and Gerba. American Society for Microbiology. Environmental Pollution and Control.
1. Prescott. isolation. peppor. Hartel.A. J. G. Solid Waste generation. M.. R. R. McGraw Hill Inc.L. its sources and their effects. C. transportation & treatments. Dilution plate technique. 2005..A. Knudsen. J. Hurrst. I. W.I.
3. and Zuberer. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. Human & other living organisms. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. 1995.. Noise. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. F. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. Washington DC. purification and preservation.M.. and Klein. Water. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. USA. Collection. USA.
1. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. D. 2005. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. Crawford. Academic Press. L. Soil.R.and Vesilaind.J. Academic Press. Sylvia.D. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Weiner. 3. 2 Edition.P. D.
The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). 4th Edition. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. (Elsevier) USA.J. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. USA. Maier. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. Harley. 2007. USA.C. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally.L.
Introduction to Environmental pollution.V..L. Cambridge UK.A. M. J. Butterworth-Heinemann.W. Microbiology. Case Studies.. Prentice Hall.B. 2005. New Jersey.. D. USA.. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. UK..Gerba. Marine & Industrial pollution. Mean plate count.and Brendecke. P. Peiece. Effects of Pollutants. 2.. 2002. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. L. Fuhrmann.1998.M. and Jeffery.. 2nd Edition. C. 2.P. Pollution Control Strategies.G. 2009. Cambridge University Press.
Environmental Microbiology. London..M. Pepper. A. Hill.F.P. 4. Academic Press.K. McInernery.
From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. condensation and cloud Formation. local winds.
Introduction to psychology. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Four Spheres of the Earth.. Radiation and climate. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. Lawrance K. 4. COURSE 23
This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. K. Pandis. 3. . Karachi. 2002. Lutgens. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. 2003. Tarbuck.K. 6th Edition. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications.4. N..
Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. Methods of psychology. COURSE 22
The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. air pressure. Sadder. 5. Mechanism of heat transfer.
1. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. 2. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided.. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. American Public Health Association (APHA).2nd Editions.M.
. Surface winds. Climatology. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment.. The Hydrologic cycle. Austin Miller.E. Spyros. climatic zones of Pakistan. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. Environmental psychology. Weather and Climate. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. 1988. Cambridge University
Press. The Atmosphere. A brief historical background and schools of psychology.W. The climate of Pakistan. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . Factors affecting air Pressure. John Wiley and Sons. John H. 1992. Cloud Classification. Shamshad. Royal book company.F. Solar radiations. global circulation. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). A. Houghton J.J. 2006 5. Marcel Dekkar. The Physics of Atmospheres.
limitation of irrigated agriculture. energy and carbon balance. T. Soil as a natural resource. Fundamental of Psychology. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. Ecology of food production. Environmental perception and cognition. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. CRC Press. Future water scenario of Pakistan. 2. Greene. Fisher
J. Water and distribution of species.
. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. CRC Press. carbon dioxide and global climate change. P. Bell. M. Ecological restoration. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts.
Introduction. threats and mitigation. London.. concepts. Pollution control through Ecology.C.A. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. sustainable agriculture.. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. 1992. soil erosion and conservation. London. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. Background and scope. Routledge. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. Water as an ecological resource. Eysenck. Sustainable livestock management practices. species response to pollutants. soil resources of Pakistan. solar radiation and primary production. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. COURSE 24
ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional )
This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. their management and ecological restoration.
1.characteristics and research methods. rivers. and Baum A. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. 2001. Restoration of derelict lands. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. High population density and psychological impacts. 5th Edition. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. techniques and methods of restoration. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. soil salinity and water logging. Routledge. Sustainable agricultural practices. Environmental Psychology.W.D. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture.
Soil Science.1998.. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. on human and other living organisms. toxicity screening using microbial systems. 5th Edition. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. COURSE 26
The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. A. Odum E. Newman. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. and Barett. R. biological effects. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management
Determination of chemicals in water. toxicology of chemicals. dose response relationship in living organisms. 2006. USA. in vivo & in vitro assays..S. Rashid. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. Toxicity: Types and its measurement.A. J. B. 1989.. G. terminologies: Poisons. from natural and anthropogenic sources. 1996. E. Studies in Pakistan Geography.. 2000 2. 5. Organs. Chemical interactions and their types. Zedler. Immunological considerations in toxicology. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. toxins vs toxicants. 4.
Introduction to Toxicology: History. K and Habib. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. Determination of Interaction of chemicals.P. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. soil and air samples. Margaret A. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. their containment and control strategies. K. and Memon.W. water and soil. Shirkat Gah. Pakistan’s Environment. Fundamentals of Ecology. 2nd
ed. Synergism. Oxford. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. 3. Peshawar.Recommended Books:
1. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. Thomson Brooks/Cole. and Hobbs. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. Islamabad. Lahore. Island Press. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. P. D. Blackwell Scientific Publications.I. University of Peshawar. Israr-ud-Din. Falk.National Book Foundation. J. Mumtaz. toxins & toxicants. Potentiation and Addition.
. 2004. A.
).D. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. economic development and the environment. Hughes. 3. 5th Edition. 1996. pollution control-a general model. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. people. Economic: agriculture. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. P. land. B. T and Turner. State of the Environment-Pakistan . 2005 2. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. USA. economic aspects of different environmental problems. Ballantyne. 1st Edition. measuring environmental benefits. USA. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. (ed..Science of Poisons . Ecological: ecological zones. 1992.1 & 2. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. Klassen. Williams. urbanization and pollution. USA. water resources.
Introduction to history. Government of Pakistan. health.2005 2. Vol. 1989 COURSE 28
This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. the economy and the environment. McGrawhill. M. industry. 3. First and Second law of Thermodynamics.M.
Introduction. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. W. CRC Press Llc. culture.Recommended Books
1. Macmillan Press Ltd. 1993. General and Applied Toxicology. W. topographic zones. COURSE 27
ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN
To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. clean development mechanism. geography. international trade and the environment.
1. 1st Edition.
. education. major ecosystems.
Gravimetery.K..I. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling.R. USA. J. A. Data interpretation for quality control. Harris. 6th Edition. Holler.1. Conductivitymetry.UK. Sample collection. M. precision and accuracy. 3.
Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. NO3–N & NH4-N). New York. 1993. Field. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery.and Field. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Freeman & Co. L. M.
. 3. salinity & sodicity).
S. Collingwood. Conductivitymetry. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. Pearce.. 4. Peverill. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. Thomson and Brooks. 2000. Oxford University Press. 2005.
1. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. Johns Hopkins University Press. Reuter. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. B. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin.2004.C. Turner. K. D. D. Standard solutions and standard curves.. Environmental Economics. Use of Potentiometery. CSIRO Publ. Kolstad.I. COURSE 29
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2)
The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. Gravimetery. units. Sample preservation methods. 8th Edition. BOD. water and plant analysis.D. Skoog. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. Titrimetery. Sparrow and D. West. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. 2003... D. 1999. and derived S. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. Analytical techniques for soil.A. handling.K. preparation and storage.W. Australia. 2.J. I. Oxford. D. Titrimetery.. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. C. and F. C. Qualitative Chemical Analysis.2002. All Solids. Fluoride. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater.L. COD. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. 2. and Batemen.
W. students will be able to understand the significance. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. New York. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. Derbre.COURSE 30
ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6
ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY
This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. Biosensor. 2001. Tools in environmental biotechnology. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. Environmental Biotechnology. (ed. J. Recombinant DNA technology.D. National Biotechnology Commission. COURSE 32
GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1)
. D. England. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. Biomarkers. 2. 3. Smith. Sambrook. Wiley-VCH Verlag.. 2007. USA. 2005. USA. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. Government of Pakistan. Germany. Bioreactors. J. Cambridge University Press. New York. USA. National Biosafety Guidelines. 2009. 4. PCR.E.. J. After completion of this course.
1. 5th Ed. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. 2nd Ed.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. purification and preservation of DNA.1999. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. Oxford University Press. A. 2005.
Introduction.). and Josef. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques.P. Scragg. Chichoster. Biotechnology. and application of biotechnology in the environment. Isolation. Hans-
Joachim. Introduction to microbial kinetics.W. and Russel.
Introduction to basic molecular techniques.
Dessinov. eradication of the duplicated data. Cartography. 3. Energy Sources. 2009. Lulla. Preparation of thematic maps. John Wiley and Sons. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Inc. Image Processing. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. 2000. Jensen. Using and reading GPS in field. 5. Types of data used in GIS. Introduction to Photogrammetry. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. analysis and output. Interpretation. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. Mc Graw Hill Education. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. COURSE 33
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences.
Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. R. history and platforms.
Introduction to ArcView. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere.Objectives
The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. Different types of maps. advantages and limitations of process. Satellite Imageries. 2000. Harvey. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. K and L. A. 1999. Inc. Forestry. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. Pearsons Education. 2008. Inc. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). 2. Active and Passive remote sensing. Aerial photography. Campbell. Introduction to GIS. Data acquisition. Z. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. map projection and coordinate systems. integration of information from many sources. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). V. F. History and data collection. Data entry and output. A
Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Fishery and wildlife. Agriculture. 4. Rancez. John Wiley and Sons. Reading maps (Maps characteristics)
1. Guilfoud press New York.
ecological. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. need and approach. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. M. COURSE 34
BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION
The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. hot spots of biodiversity. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. Michigan.. Environmental Economy. cleaner technologies. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. and Qasim.2nd Ed. Environmental Management tools. etc. American Society for Quality. economic.
. social and ethical values of biodiversity. Certification of EMS. Environment and sustainable development. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. Sheldon.C. Conservation of biodiversity. principles of Cleaner production.3rd Edition . animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan.. 4.
Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). 2001.). standards and guidelines. Khan. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. B. threats to biodiversity. and Yoxon. F. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. 2. philosophical. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. 1998. eco-design. Environmental aspects and impacts. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Related Environmental legislation. American Society for Quality. alpha and beta diversity. International Organization for Standardization. types of biodiversity. WWF Pakistan.
Industrial Field Trip
1. A. 3. Methods of environmental protection. Environmental Management Systems Principles. plant.
Introduction. Systems and Support Techniques. 2005.. M. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. 2006.
presampling requirements/information. quality assessment.B. and Morre. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. Z. habitats. Mirza. Biogeography.B. population. conservation in man-made ecosystems. Sunderland. Preservation methods including pH control. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme.R. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. 2000. plants. NOC for plant operation.. community and ecosystem level. EIA requirement. design and types of samples. Cox. chemical addition. refrigeration and freezing methods. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. laboratory custody.conservation at species. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. 2000.
. croplands. Legal protection of species. sampling and design purposes. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. Quality assurance and quality control. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. C. P.
1. 2ndEd. 2. management.B.
Sampling techniques (air. Publ. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation.. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. field custody.e. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. Sinauer. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. their categories. forests. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. 3. cities. soil and living organisms. protected areas. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. COURSE 35
This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. national and international laws and regulations.. water. P. quality control sampling. Saad Printers. Rawalpindi. air. 1998. A Primer for Conservation Biology. London. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. conservation and livelihood. Associates Inc. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. Lahore).D. international agreements.
Introduction. Kings College. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. Conservation of wildlife. Considerations. ecotourism. conservation strategies. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water.
L. Earth Observation of Global Change. Murai. N. 2000. 2002.. its causes and effects. New York. (eds. phenological changes. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. Physical. Remote Sensing Note. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. S. extinctions. Regional droughts and
. regional. R. 2. Lewis Publisher London.USA. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. and Guethner. UK. 8. Forstner U. 2008. 3. E. Chapman and Hall. Burden. Tokyo. S. Recent Climate Change Indicators. Environmental Chemistry. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. (ed) Springer. McKlivie. Peakall. USA. . Ozone depletion. 7. I. Japan Association on Remote Sensing.) McGraw-Hill. USA. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. F. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. Moisture in the Atmosphere. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. D. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. 2nd Edition. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. altered community structure. 2002. Human responses to potential climate change. Manahan..Recommended Books:
1. biological. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. D. Keith. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. 1992. Precipitation. Korte. chemical.1999. The Measurement of Climate Change. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. 2008.1996. agriculture. H. Chuviero. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change.
Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. 5. 6. Energy and Temperature. E. COURSE 36
ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7
The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. human health. USA. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course.
John Wiley & Sons. 2005. Petts. J. 1999.. and the public is informed about the project proposal
Introduction. scoping. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems.cataclysmic climate change. A. screening. Cost and benefits of EIA. Types & Resources to produce Energy. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. mitigation and impact management. and noise. 2003. impact analysis. 2004. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University.
1. & Nixon. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. 3.Causes. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. Earthscan Publication Ltd. London.T. solids.. project implementation and follow up. Climate Change . role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. (ed. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of
. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). Therivel.). Sringer. Glasson. Global Change and the earth system. 1994. review of EIA quality. Global Warming and Climate Change. Routledge. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. overview. and Chadwick. J. J. liquid. Main stages in EIA process. 1st Edition. R. Effects. J. 2005. Houghton.(ed). public involvement.. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Climate Change . J. and Solutions. 2003.
1. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. 6. EIA project management.. Keith. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. COURSE 38
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. 2.Causes. 4. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. Islamabad. reporting. A.. Ministry of Housing and Works. Islamabad. social impact assessment (SIA). decision-making to implement the project. Blackwell. 3. 2000. 2005. John Wiley & Sons.. Hardy.A.O. Hardy. 2. and Solutions. 1986. D. Effects. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. 4. T.. law. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Harrop. National Book Foundation. Oxford. London.
national example. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. and Tu. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. threat and its causes. Types. management options. national and provincial legislation... John Willey
& Sons. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. Asian Development Bank. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual.
1. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. agriculture chemicals. H.
Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. J. B. Rangeland Management: existing status. 1997.
6. agriculture products and their share in GDP. 2002.. process and contents of the management plan. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. causes and methods for its improvement. R. M. solar power. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. Development of Management Plan: needs. USA. threats. R.
NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
To train students on the identification. national agriculture policy. & McCabe. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. Ludwig. forest types and its existing management. 1993. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. Goldsmith. limitation in the future.
. Evans.. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. existing management approaches. management options. F. Sadler.). Everitt. New York. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. B..
(ed. Carpenter. their current status and threats. Conservation in Progress.5. methodologies. United Nations Environment Programme. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. their pros and cons. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources.. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. Lohani. effective management. requirement.. wildlife census. problem in agriculture. importance.B and Warren. 2nd Edition. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. A. S. wind power and nuclear power. best available option for future.
research methods. John Wiley & Sons. 1990. How to put things together? Introduction. Methodology. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation
1. Thousand Oaks. Inference based on findings.1991
RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE
The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study.L. Experimental Research.E. 2007. Interviews. Sage CA.
& Plano Clark. Pearce &
Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. Environmental Conservation. and Jorqensen. Research Proposal: its importance . Hansen. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. V. Elsevier.F. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. Scientific Research: Science. Scientific Methods. 1984. 3. W. R.
. New York. Selecting the Research Method. Sampling: the logic of sampling. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. Review of Literature. Questionnaire. Bibliography. Search Engines. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). population and sampling frames.Amsterdam.A pre-requisite for Research. Review of Literature. Objectives. P. London. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. J. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. to introduce students to research design. GOP and IUCN.. 5. and the process of doing research and reporting the results
Introduction to Research. types of sampling design/. Research Design & Research Methods. Dasmann.2. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). Surveys. Material Methods. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Case Studies. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. concepts and terminologies. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. 4. Literature Search: Database. USA. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. Islamabad. Creswell. S.E. 1992.
Chicago Press. M. USA. 2008. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking.
National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. 2003. Belmont California. National Environmental Policy 4. Chichester. Law Books House.Batty.. Case Study Research: Design and Methods.USA. COURSE 44
HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT
. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. Wadsworth Publishing Company. Students project in Environmental Science. E. 4. 2. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. USA. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. G.S. 1997.2. and Arhonditsis. 2003. 1989.
1. regulations made there under. National Conservation Strategy 5.. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Robert Yin. John and sons Ltd. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. Moriarty. 3.. Sage Publishers. 2nd
Edition. England. Government of Pakistan 3. 1997.
ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8
ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives
To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. 5. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. Booth. Survey Research Methods. Babbie. 3rd Edition. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules.h. S. 2000. Univ.Harrad. 6. R. Diamon. Qadar. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. Marilyn F.. 2001.
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45
POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.
Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46
RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,
5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.
E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. C. wetlands resources management. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. Revised & enlarged edition.. O. 2003.
Mirajuddin Publication . flood and drought management.1993. (ed.
One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. P. R. N.Varis. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources.. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency.Lahore. water supply and demand management measures. flood and droughts. groundwater exploitation. watershed/catchment.. pollution aspects. Bengali. Asia Printer. Islamabad. and Malik. Oxford University Press Karachi. integrated water resources management (IWRM). Cheema. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan.). Briscoe. virtual water. N. water quality and quantity aspects. Mirajuddin Publication . 3. Biswas. recycling and re-use of wastewater. Lahore. 2. fisheries management. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. and Tortajada. 2005. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. U. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. Khan. Ahmed. A. tubewells. 2006.. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan.
Water resource and its management. 4..).K. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. A. Islamabad. Pakistan . hydrological cycle. 5. The Politics of Managing Water.. R. 2006. SDPI Oxford University Press. with drinking water facilities like springs. (eds.
. Ahmed.. Oxford University Press New Delhi. and Qamar. Pakistan. 6. 1993. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. J.
1. I. K. A. Indus Water Accord 1991.
urban flora and fauna. E. NJ. PrenticeHall. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. Urbanization..
Introduction. After completion of this course. Soil Science. N. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. R. 2007. NJ. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. urbanization in Pakistan. 2008. urban political ecology. Soil degradation.W. and Weil.C. soils. Soil forming minerals. E-4
This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. D. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. 2007. humans as components of urban ecosystems. transport. future of urban centers. Urban ecosystem.T. National Book Foundation. Upper Saddle River. USA. D. Bashir. Brady.
. Definition. 11th Edition. Gardiner. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. management and green productivity. USA. Cation and anion exchange. and Bantel. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. Academic Press. hydrological processes. Miller.. the salient features of urban environments. Pakistan. urban landscapes characteristics. USA. Causes of urbanization. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. Process and outcome. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. CA. R. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. Forms of urbanization. Physical and chemical properties of soil. Hillel.
The Nature and Properties of Soils. Types and properties of parent materials. Upper Saddle River. R. Islamabad.
Introduction. 1996. urban settlements. Soils in Our Environment. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. San Diego. Prentice Hall.R. 1.E-3
SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT
This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. Factors and processes of soil formation.
M. UK. USA. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. New trends in planning and city management. Scope. Routledge.. Types of Urban Plans. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability.
. City Design for Sustainable Development. nd 2 Edition.S. 5. Hague.
Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans.and Maser. Planning and its relationship with other professions. Planning and Urban Change. The planning process. The Works: Anatomy of a City. 1989. Justification for planning for city management. London. H. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation.L. S.and Kowaril. Chapman and Hall. 2. Smith. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. Aims and Objectives of planning.
1. I. Principles of planning. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. Hejny. Land use planning theories. 3. 2009. Springer. Levels of planning. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. 2006.Recommended Books:
Urban Ecology. S. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. Routledge. Gilbert. Hough. 2000.
URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT
The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. Sukopp. Alberti. SBS academic publishing. UK. V. UR. Elements of urban planning. C.. A. D. 2004. 2004. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. SAGE Publications Ltd. M. 2007.
Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. UK. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city.
1.. Penguin Group. New York. Kate.. O. Silberstein. 2. 4. Ward.. CRC Press LLC. Planning theories and concepts. USA. nature and purpose of urban planning.1990. J.
and White G.. Role of Media in Disaster Management. Earthquake. i. Flood Management: Organizational Role. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. Manila. UK. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures.. Disaster as an opportunity for development. International phenomenon. R. G. E&UA Div. ADB. Physical factors. Kates. Paris. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. Introducing Town Planning. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. Cultural factors. Islamabad.3. Clara. New York. Disaster Management: Components of management. New York. Natural Disasters Alexander.J. E-7
This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies.W. H. Ministry of Housing and Works.. Hazards. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. Prediction. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization...
. Different approaches and Indicators. Political factors. 1986. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. Longman Group. M. The Environment as Hazard Burton I.
Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. Natural cycles and their role. 1993. It discusses a wide range of aspects. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. Boulder . 1993. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. 2. P. and Woodrow.. 1991. 4.e. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N.
1. Socio-economic factors. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Earthquake Management. 2nd Edition. Chapman & Hall. Flooding.F.W. 1993. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Westview Press.. D.. Landslide. 4.B. The Guilford Press. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies.UNESCO. 1989. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors.
Government of Pakistan. 3.
3. and Yonavjak.
1. OECD/IEA. 2007. Consumer and producer relationship. 2001. Botkin. Sustainable livestock management.M. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem.. E-9
Energy and Environment
This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. L. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. D. Agroecology. Quorum Books. decomposers. Perry R.W. New York. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. E. F. alternate energy resources. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources.
. Ecological concept in crop and food production. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. 1983. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. M. 6th Edition. energy resources of Pakistan.. types.5. consumers.B and Keller. McKinney.C. primary producers.
The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. 2007. A. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. hydropower.A. 6. R. Disasters and Development Cuny. Westport. Schoch. John Wiley and Sons. local.
Energy-development and environment. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Introduction to agro-ecosystem. Paris.
Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. sustainable energy management. 1984. biomass resources.H.L. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. USA. and Mushkatel. merits and demerits of wind. uses.. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. 4th Edition. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. solar. 2. energy resources. Biotic structure.
1. Yandermeer J. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. New York. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species.Lab Work
Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. India. Kapur. R. 1995.R.Determination of density and abundance of plant species..
. Experimental Plant Ecology. 3. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. Altreri. C. Westview Press.G. 2. and Rossel. Study of stratification and profile diagram. USA.P.H.M. Agrocology. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. M. Corol. New Delhi. USA. Boulder. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. 1990. CBS Publishers and Distributors. Study of index of diversity. and Sudha. P. McGraw Hill Publishing Company.A. 2000.
To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. 4. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. 3. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after
four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. 5.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME
MS in Environmental Science
Regarding MS Degree Programme.
. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. that: 1.
2. availability of the faculty and other facilities. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. the Committee agreed on the following principles. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines.
10. 7. 4. 2. 5. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development
.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
CORE COURSES Course Titles
1. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture.
23. 26. 11. 6. 8. 13. 21. 14. 17. 11. 5.
20. 8. 19.
Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife.
3. 9. 22. 12. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3
1. 18. 7. 9. 15. 3. 6.
24. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife.
25. 16. 10. 4.
The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 12.
Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of
the Environment. 3. Mackenzie J. Oxford University Press. 1992.. Amsterdam. S.F.
1. Ball. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. technology and resource use. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. Environmental control Policies. 2.E. Draft National Environmental Policy.
1. London. D. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan.. Oxford University Press. Provincial and Local Strategies. and Jorqensen. NCS. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. GOP and IUCN. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management.
. Hodder and Stoughton. S. Khan K. development of concepts. 1987. Mackenzie. Geography of Pakistan.A.DETAILS OF M. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. Conservation Strategies. Hansen. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. Money. Elsevier.1994. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall..T.S.. Instruments and methods. 2nd Edition. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. Relationship of culture.1991. 3. Treaties. S. and Bell.E. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). 1991. 2. P. status of Terrestrial.1994. Islamabad. Regional and International Environmental Issues. London Black Stone Press Ltd. Environment People and Economy.. Conventions and Protocols in Global.1995. 4. WCS. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. F. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our
Common Future. Karachi.
Cost benefit analysis of projects. 1995. Assessment of environmental impacts. History. K. ed.. Ed.
one Publishers Lahore. F & Bronstein. social impact assessment. role and importance. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Burnt Hill. England. Air and Solid Waste. Case Studies and review.COURSE 2
ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES
Introduction. Environmental auditing. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. WB. Principles of physical. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. COURSE 3
ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. 2. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. Washington. Wood. ecological impact assessment. sample collection and preservation. Longman Scientific and Technical. Gas Chromatography etc. Environmental Chemical Analysis. John Wiley & Sons. UK. Environment Department.
1. economic impact assessment. C. DC. opportunities and issues. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. process.
1. Ministry of Environment. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. Chichester. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). Harlow Essex.
1. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. 3. procedures and methods of EIA. Wastewater. Government of Pakistan. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery.Vanclay. 1995. D. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. A. Demographic impact assessment. Longman House. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. sampling rules. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition).A. Ahmed. 2. 1993. World Bank.
1. and Wright. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). Occupational Health: problems and issues. air borne. Lippmann. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. Project Initiation. Prentice Hall International Inc. R. UK. T. Planning Commission Performas. 1998. 1st Ed. outputs.. 1992. Writing Project Proposal. Yassi.. Project Life Cycle. M/S Banarsid.. feasibility study. Public health concept. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. Project Planning and Approval Processes. Project Planning. 1st Ed. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. B. assumptions. USA. Basic Environmental Health. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. 2. Nebel. 5. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. principles and practices.2000. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). M. J. Park. Defining Project objectives. 1st ed.
1. New York. T. J. 4. and Guidotti. USA. Mantel s. John Wiley and Sons. A. Government Policies and Programs. Accident prevention and safety plans. activities. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. Environmental Health Engineering. Resource Mobilization.. Inc. 2001.. Oxford University Press New York. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. Project Management Institute. Reasons for Project success or failure. development objectives. 2nd Ed.
. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. safety techniques. means of verification. S. Need identification. economic evaluation. Ergonomic and Safety. prevention and control. Wiley Interscience. K. Meredith J.. 1997. 2. inputs. T.. L. de Kok.
1993. specific objectives.COURSE 4
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Introduction: What is a Project. Primary health care services. indicators. 2002.. R. Kjelllström. work breakdown structure. 3. T. Caeneross.. COURSE 5
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT
Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. London. A Guide to Project Management.
Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. 4. St Luise Press. alternate energy resources. 2. McKinney. 4th Edition.COURSE 6
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
Introduction to Environmental Management System. Environmental Auditing.
. solar. energy resources of Pakistan. uses. types.B and Keller. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. Environmental auditing.
1.L. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. energy resources. Paris. 2001.
Paris. merits and demerits of wind. Schoch.
2. non-renewable and renewable. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized
Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. Sources of data. E. L. nuclear) local. ISO Central Secretariat.A. principles and elements of the process of EMS. M. sustainable energy management for agriculture. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. D. bio-energy resources. gas.. John Wiley and Sons. 3. 6th Edition. transport. 2007. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. data collection and interpretation.M. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). Botkin. 3. Sayre. Principles of cleaner production. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). industry and domestic sectors. Michigan-January 2001. and Yonavjak. Related Environmental regulations. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. D.
1. petroleum. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. hydropower. Switzerland. 1997 COURSE 7
ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT
Energy and its forms. USA. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. R. OECD/IEA. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. 1998. 2007. 1990b.
Oxford UK. Climate Change . Vegetation Ecology Ed.
1. Green House Gases. The Green House Effect. Plant Ecology. 3. J. John Wiley & Sons. Climate Change and Ecosystems. Shulze. Silvertown. Warrick. Houghton. types of climate change models. Species richness. etc. Berlin. plant invasions. forests. Springer. human activities and vegetation dynamics. 2005. 2.. Climate change and food production. Hardy.
.. global aspects of plant ecology. Effects. competition and coexistence. geographical and temporal patterns. ED. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. 2004. London. Climate Change . Blackwell Publishing. Blackwell Publishing. K. 1. management and restoration. UK 1991. John Wiley & Sons. Oxford. UK. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. (Ed. T. Chichester. plant conservation. water resources.Causes. Modeling of climate change. 3. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. 2. 2005.
1.). J. types and their climatic effects. and Solutions. vegetation dynamics. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. D.
2005. survival and extinction. E. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. John Wiley & Sons. Maarel. Effects. resources and plants. J. and Solutions. Earthscan Publication Ltd. E & Muller-Hohenstein. & Charlesworth. 4.T.Causes. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. ECOPE 29. Plant population dynamics. COURSE 9
ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY
Environmental conditions. Hardy. Life history strategies of plants.D. Beck. 2003. 1st Edition. 2005. 5. 2003. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach.COURSE 8
Introduction. D. B & Jager.
types. Protected areas. 4. threats and conservation. T. 1998. 1973 2. And Bolen. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity.B. John Wiley And Sons. kinds. UK. its causes.D. 3.J. & Spicer. Oxford.
Inc. Status of forests in Pakistan. UK. Sustainable forest management. K. I). 5. Establishment and management of protected areas. Essentials of Conservation Biology. their importance.) Gaston.(2nd Ed. status. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. London. their types and role in conservation. Wildlife Ecology and Management. Roberts. S. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan.L. distribution and management. 1992. Oxford University Press.J. Oxford. Sinauer Assocaites. T.
. Global and national biodiversity. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. Consumptive. Publishers Sunderland. Roberts. E. Forests. Primack. distribution. II). Weddell. Blackwell Publsihing. 2004. Protection and restoration of species.COURSE 10
Introduction. S. types. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. Participatory forest management. Oxford. J. Forest plantations. distribution. W. COURSE 11
1. Extinction of species. Conserving Living Natural Resources. Cambridge University Press. Protected areas in Pakistan. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT
Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. Biodiversity: An introduction. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. Oxford
University Press. 2. deforestation and its control. 3. management. Wildlife of Pakistan. 1986. & Ripley.J. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. problems and solutions. 2002. 2002. Threatened animals and plants.
1. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. Principles of Wildlife Management. B. Robinson. Loss of biodiversity. Bailey. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol.G. R. their ecological and economic importance. Wetlands. J.A. Cambridge. USA.J. Mcmillan. Cambridge. Rangeland management. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. biological diversity. Oxford University Press. 1984. habitats and ecosystems.
London. C. 2. UK.. New York. 1986. Islamabad. Introducing Town Planning. Clara. G. CRC Press LLC. SAGE Publications Ltd. 1993. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. J.
. S. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. 2004. urban political ecology. Longman Group. urbanization in Pakistan. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Sustainable cities. Environmental problems of urban life. H. sanitation. USA. Silberstein. urban landscape characteristics.COURSE 12
ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
Introduction. E&UA Div. 2000. Forms of urbanization. Planning and Urban Change.
1. 2007. Penguin Group.and Maser. 3... UK. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Kate. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Ministry of Housing and Works. urban systems and their characteristics. Government of Pakistan. V. drinking water and solid waste in cities. USA.. management of transport. Urban land use planning and management. 4. future of urban centers.
COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES
English I (Functional English) Objectives:
Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. Practical English Grammar by A. Martinet.V.J. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English
Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher
Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building
Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. Oxford University Press. 1997. Thomson and A. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. Third edition. Exercises 1. ISBN 0194313492
.Annexure . a) Functional English Grammar 1.
Oxford Supplementary Skills. style and pronunciation)
Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review
a) Communication Skills Grammar
.J.V. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Martinet. Upper Intermediate. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. Writing. minutes of meetings. Oxford University Press.2. b)
Practical English Grammar by A. Fourth Impression 1993. Third Impression 1992. Reading/Comprehension 1. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. 1997. and speed reading. Exercises 2. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. intensive and extensive. Speaking
English II (Communication Skills)
Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. Oxford Supplementary Skills.
Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. Third edition. Thomson and A. Reading.
Martinet. discursive. Oxford University Press 1986. Thomson and A. 2. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. narrative.1.
Practical English Grammar by A. Advanced. content. Oxford Supplementary Skills.V. introduction to presentations. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Writing. Reading 1.J. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Writing. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. clarity. Third Impression 1991. Third edition. Exercises 2. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing
Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building
Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. descriptive and argumentative writing). Writing. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. Fourth Impression 1992.
Writing 1. Fourth Impression 1993. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). 2. Advanced by Ron White. form. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. Third Impression 1992. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. ISBN 0 19 435407 3
. Reading. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. language.
English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills)
Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking
Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Oxford Supplementary Skills. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style.
College Writing Skills by John Langan. without taxing the taste of engineering students). Compiled by norther Illinois University.
3. Kirszner and Stephen R. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. 2.(particularly suitable for discursive. Martin’s Press. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton.
descriptive. Kathleen Shine Cain. St. 2004. A Custom Publication. argumentative and report writing). Mandell.
Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education.
Shahid Javed. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
3. Karachi: Oxford University Press. 1977-88 e.
Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. 1988-99 f. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. 1971-77 d. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. 1958-71 c.M.B
Pakistan Studies (Compulsory)
• • Develop vision of historical perspective. S. People and Land i. S. State & Society in Pakistan. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980.
1. ideological background of Pakistan. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. 2. Society and social structure c. Historical Perspective a. Economic institutions and issues b. Safdar. 1947-58 b. Study the process of governance. 1993. Indus Civilization ii. Lahore.Annexure .
4. Akbar. b. Mehmood.
. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Location and geo-physical features. government. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.
1. Zaidi. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. 1994. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. 1999 onward
3. Ethnicity d. politics. contemporary Pakistan. national development.
Contemporary Pakistan a. Muslim advent iii.
Political Parties in Pakistan. 9.5. II & III. 1967. Politics in Pakistan. 1980. Zahid. Pakistan Under Martial Law. K. 10. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd.The Emergence of Banglades. Tahir. M. nd.
13. Club Road. Rafique. 1972.
. Wayne. 7. 1998. I.
Wilcox. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. Islamabad. Pakistan Kayyun Toota.K. Muhammad Waseem. Lahore: Vanguard.National Movement in Pakistan. 1980. Afzal. The Political System of Pakistan..
6. 8. Noor ul. Institute of Public Policy Research. Washington: American Enterprise.
14. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Party. Lawrence. 1987. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Ansar. Mehmood. Ethno . Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Sayeed. 1976. 12. Enigma of Political Development. Aziz. Amin. 1993. Haq. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. History & Culture of Sindh. Ziring. Vol. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. Khalid Bin.
A.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory)
This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life. 2 (2-0)
Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran
Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.57.Annexure .6.20) Related to thinking.56.58.A.21.19.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.A.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina
.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.Tadabar (Verse No1.40.A.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.
in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family
.3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.
“Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. “Emergence of Islam” . Islamabad (2001)
. International Islamic University. Ahmad Hasan. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. IRI.S. Bhatia. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. “Studies in Islamic Law.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. Pakistan.3)
Ethical Values of Islam
2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)
Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad.
Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. set operations. cube roots of unity. Beckenback EF.
MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA)
Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0
Specific Objectives of the Course:
To prepare the students. trigonometric identities.
Preliminaries: Real-number system. not majoring in mathematics. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). Wooton W. types of functions. Sharron S. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. functions. introduction to sets. equations reducible to quadratic equations.D
Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. Boston
. 1987. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. 1986. harmonic progression. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. system of linear equations. determinants. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry.Annexure . Matrices: Introduction to matrices. matrix inverse. Cramer’s rule. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. types.
Dolciani MP. geometric progression. complex numbers. PWS-Kent Company. Boston Swokowski EW.
COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS)
1. PWS-Kent Company. Houghton & Mifflin. 1978. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression.
Calculus (3rd edition). inequalities. Addison-Wesley. USA 3. Ma. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. solution of equations involving absolute values. continuity. parallel and perpendicular lines. PWS-Kent Company. intersection of two lines. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). derivatives. integration by substitution. distance between a point and a line.
MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY)
Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours:
Specific Objectives of the Course:
To prepare the students. John Wiley. 1995. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. Bevens I. change of variables in indefinite integrals. 1983.
Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. functions and their graphs. Reading. 2005. not majoring in mathematics.2. New York Stewart J. Davis S. integration by parts. equation of a line. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. not majoring in mathematics. rational and transcendental functions. differentiation of polynomial.
Anton H. continuous functions. 2005. angle between two lines. Finney AR. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines.
MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS)
Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0
Specific Objectives of the Course:
To prepare the students. distance between two points. left-hand and right-hand limits.
Preliminaries: Real-number line. Calculus (11th edition). various forms of equation of a line. slope of a line.
. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. Boston Thomas GB.
• Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). types of matrices. Conic Sections: Parabola. types of functions. Introduction to sets. ellipse. Boston Swokowski EW. Cramer’s rule. Boston 4. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Freshman and Company.
Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. intersection of lines and circles. hyperbola. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. 1986. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. set operations. locus of a point in various conditions. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). Analytic Geometry. system of linear equations. 2008 and onward
Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives
To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics.
1.Circle: Equation of a circle. circles determined by various conditions. determinants. 1969 Kaufmann JE. functions. nature of roots of quadratic equations. PWS-Kent Company. equations reducible to quadratic equations. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. PWS-Kent Company. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. the general-second-degree equation
Abraham S. inverse of matrices. Scott. 1987.
2. E. J. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. bar frequency diagram histogram. characteristics of statistics.. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. frequency polygon. R. discrete and continuous series. E. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations.. quartiles. Walpole.
MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY
3 Mathematics at Secondary level
Credit Hours: Prerequisites:
Specific Objectives of Course:
To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines.. E. Graphs: Graph of straight line. skewness and kurtosis. Prentice Hall. Kaufmann. PWS-Kent Company. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. tally sheet method.
Latest Edition. variance. circle and trigonometric functions. relationship of statistics with social science. trigonometric identities. standard deviation.
1. W. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. 5. individual. R. 4.
Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics.geometric and harmonic progressions. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’.
. R. Boston. array. 3. deciles and percentiles. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. types of frequency series. cumulative frequency curve. Wilcox. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics.
2. ungrouped and grouped data. Latest Edition. ‘Introduction of Statistics’.. Measures of dispersion: Range. moments. Swokowski. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. Latest Edition. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry.
Swokowski. Hughes-Hallett. McCallum. Continuity. Rational and Transcendental Functions. Frank A. Inc. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. 11th Edition. Inequalities. the inverse of differentiation. W. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. 1999. Second Edition 1992.
Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers
. H. theorems of differentiation. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers.
MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS
Preliminary calculus. special points of a function. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. 2002. Inc. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. Gleason. quotients. Rational Functions. Bevens.
2. I. Addison Wesley publishing company. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. sinusoidal function. John Wiley & Sons. Mathews. 3. Leibnitz’ theorem. Thomas. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. infinite and improper integrals. Continuous Functions. Calculus. 6. integration using partial fractions. applications of integration. • Integration Integration from first principles. plane polar coordinates. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. 8th edition. Calculus. 4th edition. Schaum’s Outline Series. integral inequalities. John H. Prentice-Hall. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. Integration by Parts. Calculus Single and Multivariable. reduction formulae. Trigonometric Functions. Boston.
1. E. Elliott Mendelson. S. 4. products. 2. implicit differentiation. Calculus. et al. 2005.
1. Jhon Willey & Sons.
2005. Equation of a Line. 1983. Anton.Jr.Course Outline:
Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. Davis. 5. Least-Squares Line. Solution of equations involving absolute values. Extreme Values of Functions. 6. substitution method. logarithmic differentiation. Slope of a Line. integration by parts. and Transcendental Functions. 3rd Edition. logarithmic integration. the chain rule. integration by inspection.
Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints
. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. series involving natural numbers. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. geometric series. modulus and argument. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. identities of hyperbolic functions. inverses of hyperbolic functions. approximation errors in Taylor series. solving hyperbolic equations. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. complex conjugate.Additions and subtraction. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. arithmetico-geometric series. finding the nth roots of unity. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. multiplication. the difference method.
of a unitary matrix. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. orthogonal. masses. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. symmetric and antisymmetric. vector product.5. Hermitian. line to line.
Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. centers of mass and centroids. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors
7. moments of inertia. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values
Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. scalar triple product. the inner product. Pappus’ theorems. point to plane. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line.
Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors.
differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. spherical polar coordinates
. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates.
Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. divergence of a vector field. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products.8. combinations of grad.
Unit 3. Median and mode. Exercises. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Exercises. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Observations.E
INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS
Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Histogram. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Moments and Moments ratios. null and alternative hypothesis. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. The Mean Deviation. Standardized variables. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. sampling with and without replacement. definition of outliers and their detection. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Bar charts. The Variance and standard deviation. Probability and Probability Distributions. acceptance and rejection regions. Presentation of Data Introduction. Statistical problem. Unit 2. properties of Good Average. Sources. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Exercises. Exercises Unit 6. Exercises. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Exercises. Quantiles. Absolute and relative measures. Rounding of a Number. Collection of primary and secondary data. Data. sample design and sampling frame. Difference of means and proportions. Different types of Averages. Box and Whisker Plot.Annexure . Range. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Empirical Relation between Mean.
. Diagrams. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Stem and Leaf Display. Exercises. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. bias. Coefficient of variation. Unit 4. Population. The Mode. Constructing of a frequency distribution. Editing of Data. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Type-I and Type-II errors. sampling and non sampling errors. Graphs and their Construction. Errors of measurement. Significant digits. level of significance. Discrete and continuous variables. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Pie chart. Change of origin and scale. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Types of frequency curves. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Unit 5. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Unit 7. probability and non-probability sampling. The semi-Interquartile Range. Historigram. Test statistics.
its estimation and interpretation. R.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction.Single Population Introduction. cause and effect relationships. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. Exercises Unit 9. 1982. Macmillan Publishing Co. 3rd Ed. simple linear regression. r and R2. Exercises Unit 10. F. Contingency Tables. Unit 11. Exercises. Examples
1 Walpole. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. Regression and Correlation Introduction. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. Testing of Hypothesis.
.Unit 8. 2 Muhammad. E. Kitab Markaz. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. “Introduction to Statistics”. 2005.. examples. Inc. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. Coefficient of linear correlation. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. Correlation.. New York.