CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
58

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certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. PROF. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. The world has turned into a global village. 63. the Federal Government vide notification No. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. It is. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. It also aimed to give a basic. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee.ALTAF ALI G. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. Lahore. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. and 36. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. therefore. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. D773/76-JEA (cur. degree awarding institutions.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments.). SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. universities and other institutions of higher education. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. R&D organizations. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. dated December 4th 1976. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. DR. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge.

INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. Preparation 5 . REC. COL. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. UNI. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. OF NCRC. R&D. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. EXP. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. OF FINAL CURRI. OF CURRI. PREP. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE.

Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Rawalpindi Dr. Dr. Lahore Member 6. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Dr.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Member 3. Member 5. Following attended the meeting:1. Karachi from 28-30. Member 4. Dr. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. 7. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Member 6 . Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall.

Member 15. Member 14. 13. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr.8. Prof. 7 . Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Dr. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Dr. Dr. Member 10. Member 11. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Dr. Karachi Member 12. Prof. Dr. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Member 16. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Dr.

Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Dr. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Director of HEC Regional Center. Member 19. Karachi. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr.17. Chairman. Mr. Mr. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. 1. The meeting was opened by Mr. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. 2. At first. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. Faisalabad Member 18. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. 8 . These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Secretary Dr. Dr. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. Member 20.

the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. In last few centuries. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. The committee thanked Mr. 1. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. 2. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. 4. 3. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. 5. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. 6. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses.3. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 .

in its preliminary meeting.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. This committee. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. ii. 5. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. skills and behaviour patterns. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. Apply theoretical understanding. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. regional and global contexts. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development.

1.. eight semesters in the semester system. 2. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. Sc. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. The medium of instruction. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. The 11 . To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. 3. 4. A.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. with consensus. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. 6. 5. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. Integrating natural sciences.e. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. that: 1. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science.

Environmental Physics 16. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Environmental Chemistry 15. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Psychology* . Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Biology –II* 9. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Introduction to Computer 14. Basic Chemistry* 4.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Biology –I* 3. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. English-I 6. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Environmental Pollution 22. Introduction to Earth Science 8. Climatology* 23. English-III 18. English-II 12. Introductory Economics* 17. Environmental Microbiology 21. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5.

Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. Climate Change 38. Environmental toxicology 27. 46. Natural Resource Management 40. English-IV/ Univ. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. Environmental Economics 29. Environmental Management Systems 34. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. Opt. ELECTIVE-III 42. Applied Ecology 26. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Environmental Biotechnology 32. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. 44. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. 45. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. Environmental Monitoring 36. Biodiversity & Conservation 35.24.

• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .

The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. poverty and resource depletion. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society.. 10th Ed. John Wiley & Sons. ethical. M. Botkin. history. current global. proteins and nucleic acids. national. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. its importance in human life. R. Recommended Books: 1. D. socio-economic. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. E. Human environment and its problems: global.T.. development in industry and agriculture. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Miller. 6th Ed. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment.M. lipids. ecological. Wright. philosophical. and their relationships with various environmental factors. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. 2007 3.B & Keller. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. regional. G. 4th Ed. 15 . Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. biological and social. & Nebel.A.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. Thomson Learning.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. 4. Schoch. Pearson Educational. urbanization. & Yonavjak. 2007.J. environmental pollution. 2002. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY .L. 2007. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. R. Different aspects of environment: physical. McKinney. 2. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. B. L.

but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods.. carbohydrates. 3. 2008. Cell division. 16 .. Australia . Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. Cassimeris. B. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. phospholipids in membrane systems.. Canada. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. polypeptides in protein diversity. V. G. carboxylic acids.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. Introduction to cell biology. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. Wadsworth Group. A. 5. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. 2003. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. lipids. M. Ionic. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. J. Starr. N.Hill International Edition. proteins. R. 1. Biology: a Human Emphasis. origin of metabolism. coordinate covalent bond. Crossley. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. Origin of life: chemical evolution. 2007. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. Aromatic compounds. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. chemical basis of life. 8th Ed. L. R. Shier. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. covalent. esters. USA. E. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. Cells. Nucleic acids. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. McGraw. and Whitelaw. lipids. USA. Bulter. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. Lingappa.. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. 1996. C. Self Assessment and Revie. USA. 5th Edetion.. chemical diversity. 4. Lewis. D. amines). Molecular Biology through Questions. New York. Ltd. Structure and the basis of function. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. 2007. the molecule of genetic information and replication. Plopper. and Lewis. protobionts. 2. carbonyls.

basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations).Special Products (Binomial Expression). Skoog. Canada. 17 . Algebra of matrices.. double angle formulas. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Jones and Barlett. J. 2003. USA. B. Brimblecombe. 5. graphs. W..J. and Reid. Lab Work Preparation of molar. normal solutions/buffers.. 2005. equations of lines (linear equations). concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. 4. USA.K. 2. values of trigonometric functions. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. Osmosis and Dialysis. Harris. 2004.J. EC and TDS in waste water. D. Girard. J. 1st Ed. real line. 2004. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. D. simultaneous equations and their solutions. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. angle-sum formula. Qualitative Chemical Analysis.ions. straight line and related concepts. P. 2nd Edition.A. UK. Cambridge University Press. M. 2nd Edition. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane.. 2004. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. Jickells. Recommended Books: 1.M. determinants. F. P.. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. Hill. Freeman and Company.. Solution chemistry. Column chromatography. 3..C.E.. series and means. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. D. Measurement of pH. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. Blackwell Science.E.H. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Thomson and Brooks. T. expansion of determinants. Photochemical reactions. Thin layer chromatography. Surface chemistry.S. law of Cosines. minor and cofactor of a matrix.D. geometric and harmonic sequence. molal.. 6th Edition. radicals. UK. Liss. Andrews. West. and Holler. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). 8th Edition. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). Colloids chemistry.

A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. Analytical Geometry. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. Trignometry for College students. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. difference. Narosa Publishing House. joints. 2..Wesley. Weathering. 18 . Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. Introduction to rocks and minerals. Chatterjee. nonrepeated linear factors. theorems on differentiation (sum. L. G. theorem of integration. irreducible quadratic factors. erosion and related landforms. composition and its internal structure. Chain rule. different earth processes like mountain buildings. Earth as a member of solar system. the processes of their formation. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. and Finney. weathering and erosion. Recommended Books: 1.Cramer’s Rule. Jr. Introduction to folds. 10th Ed. earthquakes and volcanoes. 4th Ed. earthquakes. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. by parts integration (simple applications). Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. R. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. igneous and metamorphic rocks. Thomas. foliation. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. Introduction to sedimentary. S. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. Fossils and their significance. Addission. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . New Delhi. mountain building. plate tectonics. faults. product and quotient rules without derivations). Scott Foresman and Company. Abraham. J. 3. Smith. 1999.B. cleavages.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. 4. age. D. Pacific Grove. California. K. lineation and unconformities.. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. its origin. Integration: Formulas of integration.

How Does Earth Work. Lutgens. unicellularity. Biodiversity of deserts.. causes of extinction. 2004. and Tasa. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. biodiversity crises.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps.. Foundations of Structural Biology. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. 2007 3. Prentice Hall. animals). crucial for organisms’ sustainability. 5th Edition. K. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . different classification systems. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. Biodiversity of canal. D. 9th Edition. examples of adjustments in varied environment. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology.. 19 . Lamarckism. K. Tarbuck. 3rd Edition. G. Routledge. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. Wicander. and Tasa. protocell formation. E. Use of brunton compass and GPS. G. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. Earth Science. interactions among diversified life. Recommended Books: 1. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. J. F. 2005. 2007 2. multicellularity. Lutgens. R. consequences of losing biodiversity. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. 4. Biodiversity of hilly areas. measuring biodiversity. Physical Geology and Process of Science. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. A. molecular basis of biodiversity. Life in sea. and Monroe. Darwinism. Brooks/Cole. F. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. 11th Edition. Prentice Hall: 2006.. Tarbuck.. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. 5. invasion of life on land.Identification of rocks and minerals.. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources.. R.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. Geological time chart with biodiversity. J. population loss and decline.. E. Field Study tour. Park. D. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. Smith. J. Prentice Hall. and Pun.. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. modern concepts.

New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. The Ecology of global consumer culture. Understanding the environment-human relationship. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. 2nd Edition. Contemporary environment issues and debate. New York: New York University Press. 3. 2. John Wiley and Sons. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. and Sustainable Living. Perspective of human-environment evolution. 5th Edition. K. 2006. UK. 2. UK. Allan & Carter. K. Walnut Creek. 4.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. Nora and Wilk. C. USA. Tripartite nature of environment. 2009. and Spicer. 3.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. Gaston. Recommended Books: 1. culture and society. Adam. a Human Emphasis. 20 . Prospect Heights. Townsend. Routledge. Bradbury. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. 2001. L. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. globalization and environmental issues. Biodiversity (An Introduction).. Starr. Goals and expectations. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. power & hegemony. (editor). 2003. Crumley. J. C. (editors). Inc. J. The Biosphere. Culture. Conceptualizing environment. Environmental Risks and the Media. Hannen. 2005. UK. I. Use of environment for vested interest. Wadsworth Group. Biology.. R. IL:WavelandPress. CA: AltaMira Press. Consumption. Inc. Contemporary environmental status. and concerns. Blackwell Science Ltd. 2000. P. Scope and application. 2009. I. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. Chronological. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure .K.

G. as are their effects on the biosphere.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. Ms-Excel. Fundamentals of computer. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. Operating system (Windows).6th Ed. Local Area Network..London 1996. Rutledge. Hardware: Input Hardware. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. 6. Ed. Storage hardware. internet.1999. Introduction to MS-Word. Long l. Course Outlines Definition. Milton.Microsoft office 2000. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry.. software packages.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . Marquis A. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. Kluwer Academic Publishers. computer programs and basic applications. Configurations. e-mail. Types and classification of computers. Long N. 2003. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . Courter. system software. 2. processing hardware. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. output hardware. K.5. Ms-Power Point. Selin. Recommended Books: 1. 21 . Ms-Access.H.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. Software: Application software.

Liquids and Gasses. DoriaSerrano. Samir.. M. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. USA. Miller. 2008..D. Environmental Chemistry. P. Jickells. India. UK. Recommended Books: 1. and Reid. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics.S. Fregoso-Infante. 1999. their sources and toxic actions. P. Jones and Barlett. Energy..M. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Particle physics.E. Equations of fluid dynamics. 5. Turbulent diffusion. 2005. J.E. Environmental Chemistry. Environmental Science. 1st Edition.. Active control of sound. Blackwell Science. Springer. G. 2004. trophic level. M. Human perceptions and noise criteria. K. Heat radiation and heat transfer. Diffusion. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . Environmental impact of various industries. Reducing the transmission of sound. J.. atmospheric and soil chemistry.. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. Chemical reactions. interaction of light with matter. Andrews.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. Ozone and UV light. Fundamentals of aquatic. Energy conversion. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. Canada. 2004. Ozone chemistry. photosynthesis.. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. Turbulence. Isotopes and radioactive decay. 2. 4. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. Liss. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. Electromagnetic radiation.. Global climate and climatic change.. Conversion of mass. Ibanez. Brimblecombe. A.J. Basic acoustics. T.. Solids. 2nd Edition. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Fate of pollutants in environment.. its causes and adverse effects on environment. 3. Gaussian plumes in the air. Turbulent jets and plumes.T. Solar spectrum. Sound and Noise. B. Germany. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. J. Girard. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. Entropy. Hernandez-Esparza.G. Thomson-Brooks. Nuclear energy. and Singh. Transport of pollutants. C.

R. 2001. Measures for sustainable development. and Resource allocation. poverty. Environmental economics. economic growth and its measurement.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. C. Impact of economic activity on environment. Natural resources and the economy. UK. economic growth. USA. 2. and Pandis. Economic functions of environment. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. S. Economic Development. 2001. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. Wesely Publishers. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. H. 3. Seinfeld. producer and community point of view. Environmental Physics. USA. concepts and measurement. population and environmental quality. 4.1998. interaction between ecology and economic management. Field visit. Guyot. M. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. World Bank Publications. Growth and development. P. John Wiley and Sons Inc. 2008. Smith. Physics of the Environment and Climate. Recommended Books: 1. 7th Ed. 2. Todaro. Praxis publishing. Recommended Books: 1. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. Growth and Environment. USA. 23 . J. Pakistan economic context: National income.Economic development. USA. Introductory Environmental Physics. Boeker. E. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. Yusuf. economic progress. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. Kentucky USA. Man environmental relationship. Producer behavior. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor.. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. and Van Grondelle. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. 2006. Economic management and environmental quality. New York. economic welfare and difference among all. N. 2008. S. Sustainable development. G. Routledge.

soil.V. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. Environmental philosophy and ethics. description of population. 2007. Natural philosophy. & Pierce. J. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. Kessinger Publishing. temperature. community. B. 3. USA. World Bank Publications. water. its fundamental concepts. 2. A History of Western Philosophy. Frodeman. 4. M. branches of ecology. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. Shogren. and systems ecology. D. Touchstone Books. Callicott.. Hanley. Economics. B. Recommended Books: 1. ethics and ecology. 4. Course Outlines Introduction. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. 24 . Ecology. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. species. N. England. International Thomson Publishing. biogeography. 2002. B. 2008. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. community and ecosystem. Introduction to ethical theory. Ecosystem and its types. Palgrave Macmillan.A. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. USA. the ethics of soil. WCIV7AA. population.. London. R. DeVeer..3. concepts and approaches. Swift. C. 2008. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. Farmington Hills.. Portland 1967. Environmental Critics of agriculture. LLC. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. 2009. and White. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . role of light. J. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. Russell. levels of ecological organization.

Population distribution and abundance. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. community dynamics. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. Recommended Books 1. and Barett. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. Odum. and More.) Moles. plant geography and animal distribution. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. New York. UK.L and Reiss. Thomson Brooks/Cole. and S. various concepts of community. Concepts of Limiting factors. M C J 1st ed. landscape ecology.topography and air as ecological factors.Cox. UK. 2000. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. productivity of different ecosystems. Populations. C. Fundamentals of Ecology. 1992. G. M. bacteria and eukarya. 5th Ed. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. Ecosystem: structure and function. J. New Delhi. aquatic microbiology. B. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. 1999 4. After completion of this course. 2004. Cambridge University Press. 2001 5. J. C. biotic factors. Chapman. population dynamics. distribution limits. King’s College London. students will be able to understand the significance. 1st Ed. ecological modeling. M J. landscape changes and their importance. P. N.W. Ecology (concepts and applications. Fundamentals of Ecology. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. 3. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. E P. habitat and niche. Lab Work 25 . Dash. Microbial metabolism. WCB/McGraw-Hill. 2. Systems ecology. Ecology (principles and applications). Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). Tata McGraw-Hill. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. characteristics of urban. Biomes of the world. Biogeochemical cycles of C. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. 6th Ed.

2. Fuhrmann. Knudsen. Hartel.I. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual.F. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. R. 4.. Crawford. Solid Waste generation.C. J. Noise. 2nd Edition. (Elsevier) USA. M. Recommended Books 1.W. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. isolation. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. Soil. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. Cambridge University Press. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines.J. P.. 26 . Pollution Control Strategies. Mean plate count.. 3. USA.J.P.P.. F. M.. 2002. Environmental Pollution and Control. USA. Effects of Pollutants.. Maier. 5. L.J.and Brendecke. 2005. London.J. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). R.G.J.. 2007. I. C. G. Harley. C. 2. A. peppor. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. McInernery. Weiner. Marine & Industrial pollution..R. J.. Peiece. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution.M. Academic Press.B. Environmental Microbiology.L. UK.. Sylvia. 2 Edition.V. 3. Prentice Hall. Hurrst.A. and Stetzenbach. Cambridge UK. 2005. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. Hill. Microbiology. and Gerba.L. L. and Zuberer. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. USA.A.A. and Jeffery. D. purification and preservation. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. New Jersey. Prescott.M. American Society for Microbiology. 1995. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution.K. USA. Water. its sources and their effects. J. McGraw Hill Inc.M. Dilution plate technique. USA..P. transportation & treatments. Butterworth-Heinemann.D.1998.and Vesilaind. Pepper. P. 4th Edition. Case Studies. W. 2009. 2005. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel.Gerba. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. Human & other living organisms. Academic Press. Academic Press. D. D. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Collection. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. Washington DC.. and Klein. Recommended Books: 1.L..

The Atmosphere. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. 1988. 2.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . John Wiley and Sons. Austin Miller. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. Sadder. global circulation. Cambridge University Press. . Radiation and climate. K. air pressure. Pandis. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. Environmental psychology. 4. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere.F. Tarbuck.. The climate of Pakistan.2nd Editions. Houghton J.W. Cloud Classification. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. 1992. 27 . The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. Factors affecting air Pressure.. Methods of psychology. 2002. Marcel Dekkar. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. Surface winds. Four Spheres of the Earth. 3. condensation and cloud Formation. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate.. John H. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided.4. N. A. Solar radiations. local winds.E. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). Mechanism of heat transfer.K.. Shamshad. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences.J. Karachi. Royal book company. Lawrance K. The Physics of Atmospheres. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater.M. The Hydrologic cycle. American Public Health Association (APHA). Spyros. 2006 5. 2003. 6th Edition. Lutgens. Recommended Books: 1. Weather and Climate. Climatology. 5. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. climatic zones of Pakistan. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History.

Recommended Books: 1. concepts. Ecology of food production. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. limitation of irrigated agriculture. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. P. Routledge.D. Fundamental of Psychology. Future water scenario of Pakistan. Background and scope. CRC Press.C. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher.characteristics and research methods. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. Water and distribution of species. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. energy and carbon balance. their management and ecological restoration. M. soil salinity and water logging. Sustainable agricultural practices. threats and mitigation. 5th Edition. 2001. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. Water as an ecological resource. Ecological restoration. solar radiation and primary production. Fisher J. 2. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. Bell. Sustainable livestock management practices. Environmental perception and cognition. sustainable agriculture. soil resources of Pakistan. Course Outline Introduction. 1992. T. Water resources of the world and Pakistan..A. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. soil erosion and conservation.W. Greene. Eysenck. and Baum A. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. CRC Press. carbon dioxide and global climate change.. Routledge. London. Restoration of derelict lands. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. rivers. Soil as a natural resource. techniques and methods of restoration. London. Pollution control through Ecology. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. High population density and psychological impacts. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. Environmental Psychology. 28 . Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. species response to pollutants.

Organs. Margaret A. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. Chemical interactions and their types. Shirkat Gah. 2000 2. K. Falk. 2004. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. toxicology of chemicals. Zedler. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. B. Lahore..W. water and soil. J. 4. dose response relationship in living organisms. K and Habib. R. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Immunological considerations in toxicology. soil and air samples. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. E. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. Fundamentals of Ecology. P. Newman. Mumtaz. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways.I. G. on human and other living organisms. Soil Science.Recommended Books: 1.National Book Foundation. Potentiation and Addition. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air.P. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. from natural and anthropogenic sources. toxins vs toxicants. 1996. Rashid. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. 1989. Studies in Pakistan Geography. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. Peshawar. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques.S. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. Oxford. D. A. Blackwell Scientific Publications. 2006. Israr-ud-Din.A. and Hobbs. Pakistan’s Environment. Islamabad. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. toxicity screening using microbial systems. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. USA. biological effects. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. University of Peshawar.. and Memon. in vivo & in vitro assays. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. Determination of chemicals in biological samples.. 5th Edition. 3. 5. A. 29 . their containment and control strategies. terminologies: Poisons. Toxicity: Types and its measurement.. Synergism. toxins & toxicants. Odum E. J.1998. 2nd ed. and Barett. Island Press.

5th Edition. health. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. the economy and the environment. clean development mechanism. General and Applied Toxicology.M. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. urbanization and pollution. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. people. Course Outlines Introduction. 1993. industry.1 & 2. culture. economic aspects of different environmental problems. Ecological: ecological zones. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. (ed. USA. 2005 2. topographic zones. Recommended Books: 30 . Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. international trade and the environment. State of the Environment-Pakistan . economic development and the environment. P. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. measuring environmental benefits. land. USA. Economic: agriculture. McGrawhill.Science of Poisons . 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. geography. 1st Edition. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. M. USA. Government of Pakistan. education.). Ballantyne..2005 2. Vol. 3. 1996. W. 3. Course Outlines Introduction to history. T and Turner. water resources. Macmillan Press Ltd. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. 1st Edition. Recommended Books 1.Recommended Books 1. Hughes. B. Klassen. Williams. pollution control-a general model. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. CRC Press Llc.D. W. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. major ecosystems. 1992.

Lab Work S.I. K. 3. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. BOD. Environmental Economics. preparation and storage. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. and derived S. 4. Reuter. All Solids. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. 1999. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). B. Skoog. Qualitative Chemical Analysis.W.J.and Field. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Oxford.. handling. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. D. 31 . Thomson and Brooks. Gravimetery. 6th Edition. Standard solutions and standard curves. Sample collection. and F. Johns Hopkins University Press. 2000..2002. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. Freeman & Co. USA. Field.D. West. Analytical techniques for soil. 2.I. units. Titrimetery. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. Gravimetery.A. M.. COD. Peverill. Turner. D.R. 2003. J. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. Recommended Books: 1. Australia.C. 2.L.K. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. NO3–N & NH4-N). Pearce.K.1. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. Conductivitymetry. 2005. C. A. Holler.2004.UK. I. D. Use of Potentiometery.. Fluoride. Harris. Data interpretation for quality control. New York. CSIRO Publ. precision and accuracy. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. and Batemen. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. L.. D. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. 1993. 8th Edition. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. water and plant analysis. Oxford University Press. Titrimetery. Environmental Economics: An Introduction.. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. Kolstad. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. M. C. Sample preservation methods. 3. Conductivitymetry. Sparrow and D. salinity & sodicity). Collingwood.

Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. England. Chichoster. Tools in environmental biotechnology. J. National Biosafety Guidelines. National Biotechnology Commission. 2007. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. Hans- Joachim. J. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. Sambrook. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. purification and preservation of DNA. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. W. 2005. USA.P. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns.D..E. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . 3. 2009. and Josef. After completion of this course. students will be able to understand the significance. (ed. D. Government of Pakistan. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures.. Smith. Derbre.1999.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. Environmental Biotechnology. 5th Ed. PCR. and application of biotechnology in the environment. 2005. 2.W. USA. USA. Cambridge University Press.). Germany. 4. New York. Biosensor. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. A. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Oxford University Press. Bioreactors. New York. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. J. Wiley-VCH Verlag. Recommended Books 1. Biotechnology. Course Outlines Introduction. Biomarkers. and Russel. 2001. Introduction to microbial kinetics. Scragg. 2nd Ed. Isolation. Recombinant DNA technology.

Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. Introduction to Photogrammetry. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). 2008. Energy Sources. Agriculture. eradication of the duplicated data. Forestry. Harvey. John Wiley and Sons. Fishery and wildlife. Cartography. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. Dessinov. advantages and limitations of process. F. Image Processing. R. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Different types of maps. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. 2000. John Wiley and Sons. analysis and output. Inc. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. Guilfoud press New York.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. 4. Inc. 5. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Inc. integration of information from many sources. Preparation of thematic maps. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Lulla. Interpretation. Satellite Imageries. History and data collection. Introduction to GIS. Aerial photography. Active and Passive remote sensing. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . 2000. Data acquisition. 2. Data entry and output. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Types of data used in GIS. K and L. Rancez. Z. 1999. history and platforms. Pearsons Education. V. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. 3. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. Mc Graw Hill Education. Jensen. Campbell. map projection and coordinate systems. 2009. A. Using and reading GPS in field. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences.

social and ethical values of biodiversity. Environmental Economy. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. American Society for Quality. 3. plant. International Organization for Standardization. philosophical.. 2001. Khan. threats to biodiversity. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. Systems and Support Techniques. types of biodiversity. eco-design. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor.. hot spots of biodiversity. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. M. Michigan. and Qasim. Methods of environmental protection. Environment and sustainable development. Environmental Management Systems Principles. Environmental Management tools. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. A.C.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label.3rd Edition . Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. and Yoxon. 34 . Course Outlines Introduction. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. 1998. 2005. Related Environmental legislation. 4. Conservation of biodiversity. American Society for Quality. Environmental aspects and impacts. 2006.2nd Ed. ecological. economic. M. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. F. cleaner technologies. need and approach. etc. Sheldon. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).. principles of Cleaner production. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. alpha and beta diversity. B.). 2. WWF Pakistan. standards and guidelines. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). Certification of EMS.

role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. 35 .R. Recommended Books: 1. NOC for plant operation.D. 2.. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. 3.B. Legal protection of species. Course Outlines Introduction. protected areas. P.conservation at species. conservation in man-made ecosystems. cities. croplands.. laboratory custody. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. A Primer for Conservation Biology. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. international agreements. Sunderland. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples.e. plants. national and international laws and regulations. sampling and design purposes. habitats. their categories. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. field custody. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. presampling requirements/information. conservation strategies. Preservation methods including pH control. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. 2000. water. chemical addition. London. 1998. Rawalpindi. community and ecosystem level. P. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. management. Lahore). EIA requirement. Conservation of wildlife. conservation and livelihood. Associates Inc. Z. C. design and types of samples. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. Cox. Saad Printers. Kings College.. air. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. Biogeography. 2000. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. forests. ecotourism. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. and Morre. Publ. Mirza. quality assessment. role of traditional knowledge in conservation.B. Quality assurance and quality control. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. soil and living organisms.B. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. Sinauer. population. refrigeration and freezing methods. quality control sampling. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. Considerations. 2ndEd.

The Measurement of Climate Change. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. R. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. Recent Climate Change Indicators. Lewis Publisher London. 2nd Edition. D. 2002. UK. 2002. USA. McKlivie. S. 7. 2008. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. Chuviero. New York. Tokyo. Regional droughts and 36 . (eds. I. S. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. regional. USA. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. Energy and Temperature. Physical. extinctions. Manahan. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect.1999. agriculture. (ed) Springer. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. Moisture in the Atmosphere. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. Environmental Chemistry.. Korte. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. 6. Human responses to potential climate change. . biological. N. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. F. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. altered community structure. human health. 1992. and Guethner. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change.1996.) McGraw-Hill.. Remote Sensing Note. E. D. USA. Forstner U. phenological changes. chemical. 8. Murai. Burden. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. E. 2000. H. 2008. Ozone depletion. Keith.Recommended Books: 1. Chapman and Hall. 2. 5. Peakall.USA. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. its causes and effects. 3. L. Earth Observation of Global Change. Precipitation.

Effects. project implementation and follow up. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. John Wiley & Sons. 2. 2.. and Solutions. screening. Ministry of Housing and Works. Keith. social impact assessment (SIA). Climate Change . Therivel. & Nixon. 2005. Blackwell. 2005. and noise.A. 6. Global Change and the earth system. Hardy.cataclysmic climate change. John Wiley & Sons.. review of EIA quality. 4.T. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. and Solutions. Recommended Books: 1. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. D. J. Sringer. Global Warming and Climate Change. 2003. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press.. R. National Book Foundation. 2000. mitigation and impact management.).. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. overview. A. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. Glasson. A. London. Recommended Books: 1. reporting. Routledge. 1st Edition. 1994. decision-making to implement the project. 3. Effects. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. Cost and benefits of EIA. solids. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. EIA project management. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. Hardy. Petts. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. 37 .Causes. impact analysis. Climate Change .Causes. 1986.. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. Main stages in EIA process. T. J. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. Islamabad. 2003. scoping. Earthscan Publication Ltd. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. J. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems.O. J. (ed. Houghton.. Types & Resources to produce Energy. Harrop.. 2005. 5. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. 2004. Islamabad. liquid. and Chadwick. Oxford. 4. public involvement. 3. law. 1999.(ed). Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). London. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. J.

. management options. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. Everitt. agriculture chemicals.B and Warren. B. United Nations Environment Programme. process and contents of the management plan. USA. 2002. Ludwig. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. Recommended Books: 1. forest types and its existing management. 1997. limitation in the future. 38 . F. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. 6. R. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. 1993. H. national and provincial legislation. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. Types. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. B. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. causes and methods for its improvement. Carpenter. 2nd Edition. their current status and threats.5. J.. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. best available option for future. effective management. A. importance. & McCabe. Conservation in Progress. methodologies.. Evans. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. management options. threats. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. Rangeland Management: existing status... their pros and cons. problem in agriculture. solar power. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level.). Lohani. threat and its causes. S. national example. agriculture products and their share in GDP. Goldsmith. Development of Management Plan: needs. and Tu. national agriculture policy. requirement. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. M. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. existing management approaches.. (ed. Sadler. R. John Willey & Sons. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. New York.. wildlife census. wind power and nuclear power. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. Asian Development Bank.

How to put things together? Introduction. Research Proposal: its importance . Literature Search: Database. 4. Interviews. Thousand Oaks.Amsterdam. Islamabad. R. Methodology. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. USA. Objectives. & Plano Clark. 1984. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. Bibliography. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. Inference based on findings. 1992. Environmental Conservation. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. London.L. 3. types of sampling design/. John Wiley & Sons. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison).1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. Scientific Research: Science. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. S. J. research methods. Sampling: the logic of sampling. 5. to introduce students to research design. V. Research Design & Research Methods. W. concepts and terminologies. 2007. Experimental Research. Dasmann. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. Review of Literature.2. Case Studies. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. 39 . and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. Elsevier. Creswell.. New York. Scientific Methods. Hansen. 1990. population and sampling frames. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS).E.F.A pre-requisite for Research. Selecting the Research Method. Surveys. Material Methods. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. GOP and IUCN. Sage CA. P. Search Engines. and Jorqensen.E. Questionnaire. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. Review of Literature.

Recommended Books: 1. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. Booth. 2008. regulations made there under. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . Marilyn F. England. M. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. G.. Sage Publishers. R. Univ. National Conservation Strategy 5. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. Babbie. 2003. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. John and sons Ltd. Qadar. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. National Environmental Policy 4. S. Moriarty. USA. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. of Chicago Press.Batty. 5. 1997. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. 1997. 2000. USA. 6.. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. 3rd Edition. Chichester.2. Diamon. 4. Belmont California. and Arhonditsis. 2. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development..S. Students project in Environmental Science.h. Government of Pakistan 3. 1989. Law Books House. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. E. Robert Yin. 2003.. Survey Research Methods. Wadsworth Publishing Company. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. 3.Harrad. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 2001. 2nd Edition.USA.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

R. 2006.. 2003. and Malik. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. Briscoe.Varis. U.. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. 5. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. Indus Water Accord 1991. with drinking water facilities like springs. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. Lahore.). C. SDPI Oxford University Press. I. Mirajuddin Publication . Cheema. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). J. flood and drought management. 2005. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. watershed/catchment. hydrological cycle. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. 2. N. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization.. Recommended Books: 1. A. 4.. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. Ahmed. fisheries management. A. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency.. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. 3. flood and droughts. recycling and re-use of wastewater. integrated water resources management (IWRM). and Tortajada. O. Pakistan. N. 44 . (eds. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. 1993. water quality and quantity aspects. Oxford University Press Karachi.). Revised & enlarged edition.K. Islamabad. R. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. P. Oxford University Press New Delhi. Pakistan . wetlands resources management. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. Khan. Biswas. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc.. (ed.Lahore. A. Ahmed. Mirajuddin Publication . and Qamar. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. K.1993. groundwater exploitation. Islamabad. 6. The Politics of Managing Water. tubewells. water supply and demand management measures. 2006. Asia Printer. virtual water. Bengali. pollution aspects..

1996. Urban ecosystem. soils. Upper Saddle River. 2007. urban settlements. hydrological processes. Islamabad. Process and outcome. Brady. R. R. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. After completion of this course. Soils in Our Environment. urban political ecology.. Soil forming minerals. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. PrenticeHall. and Weil. Urbanization. transport. National Book Foundation. N. San Diego. management and green productivity. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. Prentice Hall. Course Outlines Introduction. Soil degradation. the salient features of urban environments. CA. 11th Edition. Hillel. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. R. Miller. D. Upper Saddle River. Factors and processes of soil formation. Academic Press. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. NJ. urbanization in Pakistan. Pakistan. NJ.. 1.C. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. 2007. Physical and chemical properties of soil. Causes of urbanization. Bashir. future of urban centers. humans as components of urban ecosystems. urban landscapes characteristics. Gardiner. USA.R. USA. 45 . Course Outlines Introduction. D.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. E. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. urban flora and fauna. Forms of urbanization. 2008. USA. Definition.W. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. Types and properties of parent materials. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. Soil Science. Cation and anion exchange.T. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. and Bantel.

S. 2007. Planning and Urban Change. UK. 5. I. 2009. M. 2006. Gilbert.S. SAGE Publications Ltd. CRC Press LLC. UK.L. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. D. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. Principles of planning..and Kowaril. Penguin Group. Hague. H. UR. London.. A. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. Recommended Books: 1. New trends in planning and city management. City Design for Sustainable Development. M. Sukopp.1990. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. 1989. 1.. 46 . S. Ward. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. USA. USA. Hejny.. Silberstein. nature and purpose of urban planning. Aims and Objectives of planning. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. Alberti. 2. Planning and its relationship with other professions. Planning theories and concepts. Springer. Hough. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. Scope. O.. 2000. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. V. SBS academic publishing. Chapman and Hall. The Works: Anatomy of a City. J. Routledge. New York. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. C. 3. 2004. 2004. The planning process. nd 2 Edition. Justification for planning for city management. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. Types of Urban Plans. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. 2. UK. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. 4. Land use planning theories. Kate. Routledge. Levels of planning. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. Elements of urban planning. Smith. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management.and Maser. London.

Different approaches and Indicators. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Clara. Disaster as an opportunity for development...3. Earthquake Management. 1993. ADB. Physical factors. Government of Pakistan. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. New York.UNESCO. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. 2nd Edition. Recommended Books: 1. It discusses a wide range of aspects. 4. 1986. and White G. Kates.. R. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. Chapman & Hall. 47 . G. P. 3. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. Natural Disasters Alexander. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made.W.e. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. 1993. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. Westview Press.. 2. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies.. Cultural factors.F. Disaster Management: Components of management. Socio-economic factors. H. Longman Group. The Guilford Press. Flood Management: Organizational Role. Natural cycles and their role. Political factors. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. and Woodrow. Hazards. i. Role of Media in Disaster Management. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies.W. Introducing Town Planning.. UK. New York. 4. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. E&UA Div. Earthquake. Ministry of Housing and Works. 1991. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. M. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. Landslide.. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). D. Boulder . Prediction.J. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. Paris. International phenomenon. 1989. Manila.B.. 1993. Flooding. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. Islamabad.

Paris. L. Agroecology. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. sustainable energy management.B and Keller. D. Sustainable livestock management. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. consumers. 1. local. USA. F. R. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. energy resources of Pakistan. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. Westport. Biotic structure. 3. John Wiley and Sons. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. merits and demerits of wind. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. hydropower. 2007. 4th Edition. and Yonavjak. Ecological concept in crop and food production. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers.L. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. Quorum Books. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources.A. uses. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. primary producers. biomass resources. 48 .. 2001. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. energy resources. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. New York. Botkin. decomposers. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. 1983. solar. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. M. E. alternate energy resources.. 2007. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem.M. 6th Edition. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. 1984.H. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. 6. OECD/IEA. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Consumer and producer relationship.5. A. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. Disasters and Development Cuny.C. 2. Schoch. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. and Mushkatel. McKinney.W. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. types. Perry R. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems..

Study of index of diversity.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. M. McGraw Hill Publishing Company.Determination of density and abundance of plant species.. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species.M. Boulder. C. 2000.H. P. and Rossel. Altreri. CBS Publishers and Distributors.P. Kapur. New Delhi. 1990. Study of stratification and profile diagram. E-11 Seminar 49 . Corol. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. Yandermeer J. 1995. and Sudha. India.R.G. 3. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. Agrocology. Experimental Plant Ecology. USA. USA. 2.A. Recommended Books: 1. R. Westview Press. New York.

The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. availability of the faculty and other facilities. 4. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. that: 1. 2. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. 50 . 5. the Committee agreed on the following principles. 3. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor.

Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 10.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 3. 17. 23. 14. 11. 7. 13. 8. 21. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 25. 5. 15. 9. 8. 16. 26. 11. 4. 10. 2. 7. 6. 24. 9. 20. 5. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 19. 4. 12. 22. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 12. 6. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 3. 18. 2.

COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. Khan K. P. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. S. development of concepts. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. 2. Mackenzie. F. D. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. WCS. Conventions and Protocols in Global.. Recommended Books: 1. 3. Elsevier.. Money. 1991. London. FURTHER READINGS 1. Geography of Pakistan. S. 4.1991.F. Carrying capacity and sustainable development.E. 3. Hodder and Stoughton..S.. and Bell.DETAILS OF M. 2. Islamabad. 52 . Conservation Strategies. Provincial and Local Strategies. London Black Stone Press Ltd. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. 2nd Edition. Environment People and Economy. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Environmental control Policies.. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. Relationship of culture. Mackenzie J. Oxford University Press. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. Draft National Environmental Policy.T. technology and resource use. Regional and International Environmental Issues.1994. 1987. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. status of Terrestrial. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. Oxford University Press. S. Hansen.E. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. Instruments and methods. Ball. NCS. Karachi.1995. and Jorqensen.A. Treaties. 1992. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. Amsterdam. GOP and IUCN.1994.

Burnt Hill. John Wiley & Sons. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. Ministry of Environment. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment.. 2. D. Assessment of environmental impacts. Government of Pakistan. Wood. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. 1995. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). A. England. sample collection and preservation. Chichester. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. Longman Scientific and Technical. 1993. Longman House. Ahmed. Cost benefit analysis of projects. A one Publishers Lahore. Environmental auditing.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. Environmental Chemical Analysis. ecological impact assessment. Recommended Books: 1. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. sampling rules. K. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. ed. Gas Chromatography etc. Case Studies and review. 1995. C. World Bank. social impact assessment. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). Demographic impact assessment. Environment Department. Harlow Essex. 3. F & Bronstein. procedures and methods of EIA. Recommended Books: 1. process. Ed. FURTHER READINGS 1. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. History. economic impact assessment. Air and Solid Waste. UK.A. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. role and importance. Washington. 2. 53 . opportunities and issues.Vanclay. WB. DC. Wastewater. Principles of physical. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis.

Writing Project Proposal. de Kok. and Wright. J. USA. 1992. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. A. Kjelllström. economic evaluation. Meredith J.. feasibility study. activities. Accident prevention and safety plans.. 1st ed. 2nd Ed. Lippmann. M/S Banarsid. Reasons for Project success or failure. R. L.. indicators. principles and practices.. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation.. Wiley Interscience. M. work breakdown structure. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. prevention and control. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. Nebel. USA. John Wiley and Sons. safety techniques. 2001. outputs. T.. London. Oxford University Press New York. Project Initiation. S. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. Basic Environmental Health. Ergonomic and Safety. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine.. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). Prentice Hall International Inc. Resource Mobilization.2000.. Park. B. Environmental Health Engineering. Primary health care services. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. means of verification. development objectives. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. 4. A Guide to Project Management. 1993. UK. 1st Ed. T. 54 . Recommended Books: 1. Planning Commission Performas. 1997. 2. Public health concept. T. 2002. K. assumptions. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. T. 1998. Yassi. Need identification. 3. R. Project Planning and Approval Processes. Project Planning. Government Policies and Programs. inputs. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Mantel s. 2.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. Caeneross. Occupational Health: problems and issues. 1st Ed.. specific objectives. Inc. Defining Project objectives. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. Project Life Cycle. 5. air borne. and Guidotti. Project Management Institute. J. New York. MS Project Recommended Books: 1.

gas. petroleum. principles and elements of the process of EMS. uses. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. McKinney. 4. M.A. 2. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. transport. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. 2. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. 1990b. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. Related Environmental regulations. solar. Botkin. 55 . St Luise Press. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). sustainable energy management for agriculture. Switzerland. ISO Central Secretariat. Sources of data. 2001..L. 3. data collection and interpretation. 2007.M. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). and Yonavjak. 3. Paris. hydropower. types. Sayre. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Michigan-January 2001. Environmental Auditing. 2007. R. merits and demerits of wind. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. OECD/IEA. Recommended Books: 1. Principles of cleaner production. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. alternate energy resources. John Wiley and Sons. Schoch. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. energy resources of Pakistan. energy resources. 6th Edition. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. E. L. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. USA. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. non-renewable and renewable. Environmental auditing. nuclear) local. 1998. D.B and Keller. Recommended Books: 1. D. bio-energy resources. Paris. industry and domestic sectors. 4th Edition.

Introduction to Plant Population Biology. vegetation dynamics. UK 1991. Effects. J. 2005. 5. plant invasions. 3. 2. Blackwell Publishing. types and their climatic effects. Hardy. Recommended Books: 1. 2003. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. D. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. 2005. John Wiley & Sons. 2005. J. Earthscan Publication Ltd. Vegetation Ecology Ed. B & Jager. and Solutions.Causes. Climate Change . Silvertown. Shulze. Berlin. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. ED. J. Oxford. & Charlesworth. management and restoration. 1. water resources. etc. 1st Edition.. 3. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Plant population dynamics. Climate Change and Ecosystems. Hardy. geographical and temporal patterns. types of climate change models. Maarel. resources and plants. 4. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. competition and coexistence. Springer. Warrick. UK. global aspects of plant ecology.Causes. Houghton. John Wiley & Sons. Chichester. (Ed. T. forests.. 2003. Recommended Books: 1. 2004. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Oxford UK. 56 .).T. Plant Ecology. Green House Gases. London. ECOPE 29. E. Effects. E & Muller-Hohenstein. Modeling of climate change. 2005. plant conservation. Climate change and food production. Blackwell Publishing. D. Beck. 2. Species richness. and Solutions.D. K. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. human activities and vegetation dynamics. Life history strategies of plants. John Wiley & Sons. The Green House Effect. survival and extinction. Climate Change .

Primack. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. 2002. I).J. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Weddell. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. USA. Cambridge University Press.J. 1986. R. their importance. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. Wildlife Ecology and Management. Forest plantations. Inc. 57 . kinds.(2nd Ed. Roberts. Loss of biodiversity. management. Establishment and management of protected areas. Essentials of Conservation Biology. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. Oxford University Press. Robinson. & Spicer.G. 3. John Wiley And Sons. Bailey. Wildlife of Pakistan. deforestation and its control. Status of forests in Pakistan. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. 2. 1998. habitats and ecosystems. Oxford. Threatened animals and plants. Oxford University Press. 1984. Protection and restoration of species. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. Oxford. T. their types and role in conservation. J. Recommended Books: 1. Principles of Wildlife Management. 2002.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. UK. And Bolen. Participatory forest management. threats and conservation. status. Sinauer Assocaites. UK. 2004. London. Mcmillan. Oxford University Press. Conserving Living Natural Resources. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. Cambridge. its causes. Publishers Sunderland. Extinction of species.) Gaston.B. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. Sustainable forest management. their ecological and economic importance. II). Forests. distribution and management. & Ripley.A. Protected areas in Pakistan. 3. Oxford. Cambridge. Rangeland management. B. Biodiversity: An introduction. 1992. Roberts. distribution. 1973 2. Wetlands. T. distribution.J. Protected areas. Recommended Books: 1. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. S. K. types. types. 4. Global and national biodiversity. problems and solutions. Blackwell Publsihing.D. E.L.J. Consumptive. S. 5. J. biological diversity. W.

Silberstein. Sustainable cities. urban political ecology. urban landscape characteristics. E&UA Div. J. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. New York. Ward. 2007. future of urban centers.. Recommended Books: 1. Longman Group. Ministry of Housing and Works. Government of Pakistan. London. 1993. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. urbanization in Pakistan. Kate. management of transport. Forms of urbanization. Urban land use planning and management. C. sanitation. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. CRC Press LLC.and Maser. S. SAGE Publications Ltd. V. The Works: Anatomy of a City. 2000. USA.. UK. 58 . G. Islamabad. USA. 2004. Planning and Urban Change. 1986. 4. 2. A. drinking water and solid waste in cities. H. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. 3. urban systems and their characteristics. UK... Penguin Group. Environmental problems of urban life.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. Clara. Introducing Town Planning.

active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. ISBN 0194313492 59 . Oxford University Press. Third edition. Exercises 1. Martinet.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking.V. Practical English Grammar by A. 1997. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. Thomson and A. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure.Annexure .J. a) Functional English Grammar 1.

style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . Oxford Supplementary Skills. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41.V. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. and speed reading. Reading/Comprehension 1. Upper Intermediate. intensive and extensive. Writing. Exercises 2. Fourth Impression 1993. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Thomson and A. Oxford Supplementary Skills. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. minutes of meetings. Third Impression 1992. Third edition. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. Reading. b) Practical English Grammar by A. Oxford University Press.2. Martinet. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. 1997. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs.J. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. ISBN 0 19 453402 2.

Writing. Advanced by Ron White. narrative. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. b) Writing 1. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. form. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Martinet. Third Impression 1991. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. content. Oxford Supplementary Skills. introduction to presentations. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Reading 1. Advanced. Writing. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Practical English Grammar by A. descriptive and argumentative writing).V. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. 2. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. 2. Fourth Impression 1992. Third edition. discursive.1. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . language. Exercises 2. Reading. Oxford University Press 1986. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Oxford Supplementary Skills. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet.J. Fourth Impression 1993. Third Impression 1992. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. clarity. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Thomson and A. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Writing.

Martin’s Press. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. Mandell. 62 . Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. Kathleen Shine Cain. St. Kirszner and Stephen R. descriptive. 2. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. without taxing the taste of engineering students). Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. argumentative and report writing). A Custom Publication. 2004. College Writing Skills by John Langan. 3.(particularly suitable for discursive. Compiled by norther Illinois University.

Annexure . S. . Contemporary Pakistan a. 2. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Ethnicity d. Mehmood. Burke and Lawrence Ziring.M. Muslim advent iii.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. 1999 onward 3. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. Karachi: Oxford University Press. 63 Books Recommended 1. 1993. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. Location and geo-physical features. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. national development. Historical Perspective a. 2. politics. Zaidi. b. 1971-77 d. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. ideological background of Pakistan. Course Outline 1. Society and social structure c. 1977-88 e. Safdar. State & Society in Pakistan. government. 3. Akbar. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. Indus Civilization ii. S. 1958-71 c. Lahore. Economic institutions and issues b. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. contemporary Pakistan. 4. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. People and Land i. 2000. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. 1947-58 b. Shahid Javed. 1988-99 f. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. Study the process of governance. 1994.

Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1993.. Noor ul. Vol. 14. 1987. Zahid. Wilcox. 1980. Islamabad. Tahir. 11. 10. 13. Enigma of Political Development. Khalid Bin. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd.The Emergence of Banglades.5. Amin. Mehmood. 6. The Political System of Pakistan. 1972. Afzal. Lawrence. 8. 9. 12.K. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Institute of Public Policy Research. Safdar. Washington: American Enterprise. Politics in Pakistan. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Muhammad Waseem. Haq. Pakistan Under Martial Law. Aziz. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. 1976. Ziring. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Party. Ansar. Rafique. 1967. 1998. M. Sayeed. 64 . History & Culture of Sindh. Political Parties in Pakistan. 1980. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research.National Movement in Pakistan. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Wayne. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. Club Road. K. Ethno . 7. nd. Lahore: Vanguard. II & III. I.

A.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.A.6.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.A.56.Tadabar (Verse No1.19.Annexure .W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.57.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.21.A.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .58.40. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.20) Related to thinking. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.

in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.

“An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad.S. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. “Emergence of Islam” . “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. International Islamic University. Islamabad (2001) 67 . Bhatia. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. IRI. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. “Studies in Islamic Law. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. Ahmad Hasan. Pakistan.

1986. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. set operations. geometric progression. Beckenback EF. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Cramer’s rule. Wooton W. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. equations reducible to quadratic equations. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. types of functions. Houghton & Mifflin. not majoring in mathematics. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. harmonic progression. introduction to sets. types.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. trigonometric identities. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. College Algebra and Trigonometry. determinants. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). Boston Swokowski EW. matrix inverse. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. cube roots of unity. system of linear equations. PWS-Kent Company. Boston 68 . 1978. 1987. PWS-Kent Company. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry.Annexure . Sharron S. complex numbers. functions.

PWS-Kent Company. Ma. various forms of equation of a line. USA 3. Calculus (3rd edition). left-hand and right-hand limits. equation of a line. Boston Thomas GB. Addison-Wesley. not majoring in mathematics. 2005. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Davis S. change of variables in indefinite integrals. 1983. slope of a line. functions and their graphs. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. New York Stewart J. Bevens I. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. parallel and perpendicular lines. 1995. Recommended Books: Anton H. angle between two lines. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. 69 . integration by substitution. rational and transcendental functions. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. intersection of two lines. continuous functions. continuity. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students.2. 2005. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. John Wiley. Finney AR. inequalities. distance between a point and a line. differentiation of polynomial. Calculus (11th edition). not majoring in mathematics. distance between two points. Reading. derivatives. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. solution of equations involving absolute values. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. integration by parts. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students.

circles determined by various conditions. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. locus of a point in various conditions. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. 70 . • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. PWS-Kent Company. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. Conic Sections: Parabola. Scott. • Contents 1. determinants. inverse of matrices. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). intersection of lines and circles. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. Boston 4. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers.Circle: Equation of a circle. Cramer’s rule. Boston Swokowski EW. 1987. ellipse. types of matrices. system of linear equations. 1969 Kaufmann JE. hyperbola. Freshman and Company. set operations. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. Introduction to sets. functions. types of functions. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. PWS-Kent Company. equations reducible to quadratic equations. nature of roots of quadratic equations. 1986. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. Analytic Geometry. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences).

discrete and continuous series. types of frequency series. J. skewness and kurtosis. 71 . Prentice Hall. R. Graphs: Graph of straight line. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. deciles and percentiles. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. trigonometric identities. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. E. bar frequency diagram histogram. Latest Edition. ‘Introduction of Statistics’.. ungrouped and grouped data. circle and trigonometric functions. Kaufmann. Latest Edition. Latest Edition. quartiles. individual. Boston.. characteristics of statistics. E. Wilcox. cumulative frequency curve. tally sheet method. 4. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. frequency polygon. 2. R. Books Recommended: 1. variance. 3. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Swokowski. relationship of statistics with social science. moments. W. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data.. array. 2. Walpole. 5.geometric and harmonic progressions. standard deviation. PWS-Kent Company. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. Measures of dispersion: Range. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. E.. R.

Schaum’s Outline Series. infinite and improper integrals. W. 2005. S. substitution method. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. Davis. Elliott Mendelson. 1983. 3rd Edition. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. implicit differentiation. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . logarithmic differentiation. Thomas. McCallum. 4. Continuity. Rational and Transcendental Functions. Addison Wesley publishing company. 4th edition. Boston. Hughes-Hallett. reduction formulae. integration using partial fractions. Calculus Single and Multivariable. 2. logarithmic integration. Bevens. 2002. Integration by Parts. 5. Calculus. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. the inverse of differentiation. 6. Solution of equations involving absolute values. 3. the chain rule. Slope of a Line. Frank A. Inc. theorems of differentiation. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. Calculus. John H. 6. H. special points of a function. Second Edition 1992. Swokowski. Jhon Willey & Sons. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. 2. and Transcendental Functions.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. Recommended Books: 1.Jr. integration by inspection. et al. Leibnitz’ theorem. • Integration Integration from first principles. 1999. Continuous Functions. Rational Functions. 11th Edition. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. Mathews. Inequalities. Least-Squares Line. Trigonometric Functions. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. Extreme Values of Functions. Calculus. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. 2005. Anton. I. Inc. Gleason. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. integration by parts. integral inequalities. Contents 1. products. quotients. Equation of a Line. 8th edition. E. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. John Wiley & Sons. sinusoidal function. Prentice-Hall. applications of integration. plane polar coordinates.

solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. series involving natural numbers. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . identities of hyperbolic functions. approximation errors in Taylor series. arithmetico-geometric series.Additions and subtraction. solving hyperbolic equations. multiplication. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. geometric series. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. the difference method. complex conjugate. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. modulus and argument. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. inverses of hyperbolic functions. finding the nth roots of unity. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms.

orthogonal. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. centers of mass and centroids. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 .5. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. point to plane. Pappus’ theorems. 6. the inner product. Hermitian. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. of a unitary matrix. masses. scalar triple product. moments of inertia. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. vector product. symmetric and antisymmetric. line to line.

combinations of grad. spherical polar coordinates 75 . div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. divergence of a vector field. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field.8. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products.

Median and mode. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. 76 . Historigram. Histogram. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Ogive for Discrete Variable.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Sources. The semi-Interquartile Range. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Types of frequency curves. Quantiles. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Range. Absolute and relative measures. Exercises. bias. Significant digits. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Diagrams. Unit 3. Standardized variables. acceptance and rejection regions. Bar charts. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Errors of measurement. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Empirical Relation between Mean. properties of Good Average. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Exercises Unit 6. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Data. definition of outliers and their detection. Presentation of Data Introduction. Unit 4. The Mean Deviation. Constructing of a frequency distribution. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. level of significance. Discrete and continuous variables. sampling and non sampling errors. Exercises. Difference of means and proportions. Probability and Probability Distributions. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Change of origin and scale. Graphs and their Construction. probability and non-probability sampling. Coefficient of variation. Population. Exercises. Editing of Data. Different types of Averages. The Variance and standard deviation. Observations. sampling with and without replacement. The Mode. Moments and Moments ratios. Unit 2. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Unit 5. Test statistics.Annexure . Box and Whisker Plot. Exercises. Unit 7. sample design and sampling frame. Type-I and Type-II errors. Exercises. Stem and Leaf Display. Collection of primary and secondary data. Statistical problem. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Pie chart. Exercises. Rounding of a Number. null and alternative hypothesis. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics.

Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction.. Regression and Correlation Introduction. 1982. 77 . examples. Contingency Tables. Inc. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Kitab Markaz.. F. r and R2. its estimation and interpretation. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. Testing of Hypothesis. Coefficient of linear correlation. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. Exercises Unit 9. R. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. Exercises. simple linear regression. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. “Introduction to Statistics”. 2 Muhammad. E. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. 2005. Unit 11.Single Population Introduction. New York. 3rd Ed. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. Macmillan Publishing Co. Exercises Unit 10. cause and effect relationships. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole.Unit 8. Correlation.

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