CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
58

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certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. dated December 4th 1976. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. degree awarding institutions. It also aimed to give a basic. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. 63. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. therefore.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. The world has turned into a global village. PROF. and 36. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. Lahore. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. the Federal Government vide notification No. It is. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities.ALTAF ALI G. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. R&D organizations. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. universities and other institutions of higher education. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. DR.). D773/76-JEA (cur. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge.

OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. OF FINAL CURRI. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. PREP. Preparation 5 . IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. R&D. OF NCRC. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. OF CURRI. EXP. REC. UNI. COL. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP.

Dr. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Lahore Member 6. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Following attended the meeting:1. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Member 5.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Dr. Member 6 . Member 3. Karachi from 28-30. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. 7. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Rawalpindi Dr. Member 4. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Rawalpindi Dr. Dr.

Dr. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Member 10. Dr. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Dr. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Member 16. Prof. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Dr.8. Dr. Karachi Member 12. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. 7 . Dr. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Member 11. 13. Member 14. Member 15. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Prof. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore.

Karachi. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. At first. 2.17. Director of HEC Regional Center. Mr. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Member 19. Secretary Dr. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. Faisalabad Member 18. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. Member 20. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. Dr. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. Chairman. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. 8 . Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. 1. Mr. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. Dr. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. The meeting was opened by Mr. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah.

1. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population.3. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. 6. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. 4. 3. In last few centuries. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. 2. 5. The committee thanked Mr. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge.

5. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. skills and behaviour patterns. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. Apply theoretical understanding. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 .• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. regional and global contexts. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. This committee. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. in its preliminary meeting. ii. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science.

The medium of instruction.. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. 4. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. 5. Sc. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals.e. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. with consensus. 3. 6. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. The 11 . 1. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. A. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. eight semesters in the semester system. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. 2. Integrating natural sciences. that: 1. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee.

Fundamentals of Ecology 20. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Environmental Pollution 22. Biology –II* 9. Environmental Chemistry 15. English-III 18. Basic Chemistry* 4. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Introduction to Computer 14. Psychology* . Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Environmental Physics 16. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Environmental Microbiology 21. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Introduction to Earth Science 8. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. English-II 12. Climatology* 23. Introductory Economics* 17. Biology –I* 3. English-I 6. Introduction to Environmental Science 2.

Opt. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Climate Change 38. Environmental Economics 29. Applied Ecology 26. Environmental Monitoring 36. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. Environmental Biotechnology 32. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . English-IV/ Univ. 45. GIS & Remote Sensing 33.24. 44. ELECTIVE-III 42. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. Natural Resource Management 40. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Environmental toxicology 27. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. Environmental Management Systems 34. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. 46. Environmental Impact Assessment 39.

• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .

2. Human environment and its problems: global. Schoch. John Wiley & Sons. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. history. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. biological and social. Environmental Science: working with the Earth.J. Thomson Learning. 4th Ed. current global. socio-economic. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. Different aspects of environment: physical.. ecological. & Yonavjak. D.B & Keller. Recommended Books: 1. Botkin.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. ethical. its importance in human life. 2007. L. 6th Ed. M.T. 2007. poverty and resource depletion. Wright. regional. R. development in industry and agriculture. 2002.M. & Nebel. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. urbanization. 2007 3. McKinney.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. G.A. environmental pollution. E. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. national.L. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . R. proteins and nucleic acids. 10th Ed. Miller. 4. and their relationships with various environmental factors. Pearson Educational. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts.. philosophical. B. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. 15 . lipids.

New York. and Whitelaw. Australia . Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. V. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. Structure and the basis of function. 1. USA. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. chemical basis of life. 5. Biology: a Human Emphasis. carbonyls. covalent. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. J. M. 5th Edetion. Self Assessment and Revie.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. Cells.. 1996. Bulter. G. Starr. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. Canada. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. protobionts. carbohydrates. Nucleic acids. Cassimeris. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols.Hill International Edition. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. 2003. origin of metabolism. polypeptides in protein diversity.. McGraw. B. coordinate covalent bond. and Lewis. Origin of life: chemical evolution. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. E. Aromatic compounds. D. Plopper. N. 2007. Lewis. Ionic. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions.. Lingappa. 2007. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. C. esters. USA. Ltd. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. USA. R. Shier. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. 16 . A. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. proteins. carboxylic acids.. 2. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. R. Cell division. lipids. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. Crossley.. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. 4. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. L. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. 2008. Molecular Biology through Questions. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. chemical diversity. the molecule of genetic information and replication. phospholipids in membrane systems. lipids. amines). Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. 3. Introduction to cell biology. Wadsworth Group. 8th Ed. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization.

2004. Photochemical reactions.M. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). values of trigonometric functions.. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. equations of lines (linear equations). Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. W. Brimblecombe. 1st Ed. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. straight line and related concepts.J.. Freeman and Company. Column chromatography. UK. 2004.K. double angle formulas. simultaneous equations and their solutions. Understanding Environmental Pollution. 2nd Edition.. Thomson and Brooks. 5. angle-sum formula.ions.D. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). 3.Special Products (Binomial Expression). An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. and Reid. D. expansion of determinants. law of Cosines.E.J. Skoog. P. F. real line.. Jones and Barlett. Andrews. 17 . Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers.A. Osmosis and Dialysis. West. Thin layer chromatography. determinants. 2005. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). 2003. B. Algebra of matrices. D. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. 6th Edition. EC and TDS in waste water.C. M.S. D. Jickells. J. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. Lab Work Preparation of molar. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. Liss. series and means. J. Hill. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. USA.E. Canada. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. geometric and harmonic sequence. radicals. 8th Edition.. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. 2. T. Harris. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane.. graphs.. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences.. Solution chemistry. Recommended Books: 1. USA.. 2004. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. Cambridge University Press. and Holler. Surface chemistry. minor and cofactor of a matrix.H. Measurement of pH. normal solutions/buffers. UK. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. Blackwell Science. Girard. Colloids chemistry. 2nd Edition. molal. 4. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. P.

L. and Finney. Fossils and their significance. theorem of integration. Pacific Grove.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. Recommended Books: 1. 18 . New Delhi. K. Smith. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. G. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. its origin. the processes of their formation. cleavages. Scott Foresman and Company. R. composition and its internal structure. by parts integration (simple applications). weathering and erosion. Earth as a member of solar system. irreducible quadratic factors.B. J. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . Abraham. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. difference. Addission. 10th Ed.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . theorems on differentiation (sum. 2. different earth processes like mountain buildings. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. lineation and unconformities. igneous and metamorphic rocks.Cramer’s Rule. Narosa Publishing House. age. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. 4th Ed. Thomas. foliation. Introduction to sedimentary. D. S. faults. erosion and related landforms. product and quotient rules without derivations). Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. Introduction to rocks and minerals. Chain rule. Trignometry for College students. joints. earthquakes and volcanoes. Integration: Formulas of integration.. Introduction to folds.. 1999. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. 4. plate tectonics. earthquakes. nonrepeated linear factors. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. Analytical Geometry. Jr. Chatterjee. 3. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system.Wesley. Weathering. California. mountain building.

Physical Geology and Process of Science. invasion of life on land. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. G. 2004. F. 5th Edition. Routledge. Lamarckism. 5.Identification of rocks and minerals. causes of extinction. 4. Life in sea. Field Study tour. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. Geological time chart with biodiversity. Biodiversity of hilly areas. J. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. R.. molecular basis of biodiversity. animals).. and Tasa. Use of brunton compass and GPS. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . Park. Lutgens. measuring biodiversity. Recommended Books: 1. Earth Science. D. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. consequences of losing biodiversity. Foundations of Structural Biology. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. E. Tarbuck. A. How Does Earth Work. modern concepts.. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. protocell formation. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. Prentice Hall. unicellularity. Biodiversity of deserts. Prentice Hall. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. J. interactions among diversified life. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis.. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. Tarbuck.. D. 9th Edition. J. K. 2007 3. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. biodiversity crises. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. 11th Edition. Smith. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. 3rd Edition. F. R. examples of adjustments in varied environment. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species.. Prentice Hall: 2006. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. multicellularity. and Monroe. K.. 19 . population loss and decline. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. Brooks/Cole. Biodiversity of canal. 2007 2. and Pun. E..Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. Lutgens. Darwinism.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. Wicander. different classification systems. 2005. G. and Tasa..

Inc. The Biosphere. Adam. K. UK. Biodiversity (An Introduction). Contemporary environmental status. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. Environmental Risks and the Media. and Spicer. Townsend. UK. Tripartite nature of environment. C. C. Contemporary environment issues and debate. and concerns. Biology. Conceptualizing environment. Routledge. UK. 20 . IL:WavelandPress. Use of environment for vested interest. Consumption. L. 2009. Blackwell Science Ltd. globalization and environmental issues. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . Recommended Books: 1. CA: AltaMira Press. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. Walnut Creek. power & hegemony. Bradbury. J. 2006. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. 3. (editor). Goals and expectations. I. culture and society.. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. Nora and Wilk. Crumley. Gaston. K. 2. J.K. a Human Emphasis. and Sustainable Living. I. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. Prospect Heights.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. Chronological. (editors). 2000. Scope and application. John Wiley and Sons.. USA. Allan & Carter.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. Inc. Starr. Culture. 2005. Hannen. 2003. The Ecology of global consumer culture. 3. 2nd Edition. 5th Edition. 2009. 4. R. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. Perspective of human-environment evolution. Understanding the environment-human relationship. P. New York: New York University Press. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. 2001. Wadsworth Group. 2.

Types and classification of computers. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. 2. output hardware. Recommended Books: 1. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . Long N. K. Courter. software packages. Local Area Network. internet.. Storage hardware. Fundamentals of computer. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. Hardware: Input Hardware.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. 21 . Configurations..C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. Rutledge. Software: Application software.1999. as are their effects on the biosphere. G. Operating system (Windows). e-mail. Selin. Ed. Milton.H.6th Ed. Introduction to MS-Word.London 1996. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. Long l.Microsoft office 2000. computer programs and basic applications. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. Ms-Excel. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. Ms-Power Point. processing hardware. 6. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. 2003.5. Marquis A. Ms-Access. system software. Course Outlines Definition.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure .

Global climate and climatic change.. Ibanez. UK. Fundamentals of aquatic. P. Germany. 2005. Miller. interaction of light with matter. Gaussian plumes in the air. Solar spectrum. Fregoso-Infante. 4. and Singh... Chemical reactions. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light.. Human perceptions and noise criteria. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . C. 3. Ozone and UV light. Liquids and Gasses. J. DoriaSerrano. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. its causes and adverse effects on environment. India. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. Basic acoustics. Jones and Barlett. J. photosynthesis. 2004.M. Ozone chemistry. J. Active control of sound. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Jickells. Turbulence. M. 1999. Sound and Noise. Fate of pollutants in environment. Turbulent diffusion. T. Recommended Books: 1. their sources and toxic actions. Energy conversion. P. Transport of pollutants. Conversion of mass.J.. trophic level. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. 2. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. Blackwell Science. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. A. Thomson-Brooks. Brimblecombe.E. 2nd Edition. Energy. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry.. Reducing the transmission of sound. M. B. Canada. Liss. Environmental Science. Environmental Chemistry. 1st Edition. Heat radiation and heat transfer.. Girard.E. Hernandez-Esparza. 5. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. K. Entropy. Andrews.S. Environmental impact of various industries. Solids.D... USA. Springer. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. Nuclear energy. Electromagnetic radiation. Isotopes and radioactive decay. G.. Turbulent jets and plumes. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. atmospheric and soil chemistry. Diffusion. 2004.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. Equations of fluid dynamics. and Reid..T. Environmental Chemistry. Samir. Particle physics.G. 2008.

economic welfare and difference among all. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. concepts and measurement.1998. and Van Grondelle. 2001. UK. 7th Ed.. and Resource allocation. Economic Development. Economic management and environmental quality. Kentucky USA. J. Wesely Publishers. Smith. 4. Natural resources and the economy. S. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. John Wiley and Sons Inc. producer and community point of view. USA. Economic functions of environment. New York. Routledge. P. Recommended Books: 1. 3. Growth and Environment.Economic development. interaction between ecology and economic management. Growth and development. Environmental economics. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. 23 . 2. population and environmental quality. Yusuf. Introductory Environmental Physics. and Pandis. economic growth and its measurement. Sustainable development. S. G. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. poverty. Field visit. Praxis publishing. Todaro. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. USA. Pakistan economic context: National income. economic progress. Measures for sustainable development. Guyot. 2008. Impact of economic activity on environment. World Bank Publications. E. Environmental Physics. 2. Producer behavior. 2001. USA. 2006. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. 2008. H. John Wiley and Sons Inc. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. Man environmental relationship. N. economic growth. M.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. Physics of the Environment and Climate. Recommended Books: 1. Seinfeld. USA. R. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. C. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. Boeker.

A History of Western Philosophy. 2. Farmington Hills. World Bank Publications. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. England. B. USA.V. Frodeman. ethics and ecology. B. Palgrave Macmillan. branches of ecology. biogeography. J. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . levels of ecological organization. role of light. 2007. D. M. its fundamental concepts. C. LLC. USA. 2002. temperature. Touchstone Books. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. community and ecosystem. Natural philosophy. the ethics of soil. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. Economics. Swift. DeVeer. description of population. species. Portland 1967. J. Callicott. concepts and approaches. Ecosystem and its types. Environmental philosophy and ethics.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. population. International Thomson Publishing. Introduction to ethical theory.. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. N... The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. 2008. soil. London. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. Kessinger Publishing. 3. and White. Recommended Books: 1. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology.3. water. Environmental Critics of agriculture.. R. community. & Pierce. 4. 4. WCIV7AA. Hanley. and systems ecology. 2009. 2008. 24 . Course Outlines Introduction. Ecology. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. Russell. B.A. Shogren.

Populations. E P. C. Chapman.) Moles. WCB/McGraw-Hill. landscape changes and their importance. Ecology (principles and applications). community dynamics. landscape ecology. Lab Work 25 . Systems ecology. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. Tata McGraw-Hill. Ecology (concepts and applications. M C J 1st ed. and S. productivity of different ecosystems. New Delhi. ecological modeling. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. Fundamentals of Ecology.L and Reiss. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. Population distribution and abundance. distribution limits. King’s College London. and More. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. various concepts of community. M J. M. After completion of this course. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. J. New York. Dash. 1999 4. N. Biogeochemical cycles of C. UK. students will be able to understand the significance. 2001 5. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. aquatic microbiology. Biomes of the world. Cambridge University Press. bacteria and eukarya. Recommended Books 1. 2000. Ecosystem: structure and function. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. plant geography and animal distribution. and Barett. 2. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. C. 1st Ed. 1992. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. Odum. Thomson Brooks/Cole. J. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. agricultural and industrial ecosystems.Cox.W. characteristics of urban. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. 3. G. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. population dynamics. 6th Ed. biotic factors. Fundamentals of Ecology. UK.topography and air as ecological factors. B. Concepts of Limiting factors. 5th Ed. 2004. habitat and niche. Microbial metabolism. P.

its sources and their effects. Knudsen. 3. London. F.M. USA...B. Sylvia.. R. G. 2 Edition.L. (Elsevier) USA. Butterworth-Heinemann.W. Solid Waste generation.and Brendecke. L. Hartel. I. Cambridge University Press.P.1998.J.. 1995. 2. 2005. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines.J. Cambridge UK. USA. A.Gerba. Pollution Control Strategies. P. Environmental Microbiology.M.L. 2002.G. M. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents.D. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel.F. USA.. J. purification and preservation. Noise. J. M. Soil. D. McInernery. UK. Academic Press.J. Prentice Hall. R. Effects of Pollutants. D.. 2005.L. and Jeffery. Peiece.K. 2.A. Academic Press. Hurrst. and Klein. USA. 2009. Microbiology.and Vesilaind.P. 5. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). Crawford.A. transportation & treatments.. Human & other living organisms..I.J. Water.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. Collection. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. Fuhrmann. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. Harley.R. Dilution plate technique. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. Marine & Industrial pollution.P. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic.. 26 . 4. Mean plate count. Prescott. Weiner. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. Pepper. Recommended Books 1. L. J.A. Maier. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. W. C. 2nd Edition. Recommended Books: 1. and Stetzenbach. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water.J. P. Hill. American Society for Microbiology. Environmental Pollution and Control. USA. 4th Edition.M. 2007. Case Studies. 2005.V. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution.. 3. C. Academic Press. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. McGraw Hill Inc. and Zuberer.C. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. peppor. Fate of Environmental Pollutants.. Understanding Environmental Pollution... D. New Jersey. isolation. and Gerba. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. Washington DC.

climatic zones of Pakistan. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. Solar radiations. Mechanism of heat transfer. N. 2002. Surface winds. Lawrance K. American Public Health Association (APHA). Houghton J.M. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. Cambridge University Press. 6th Edition. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. 5. condensation and cloud Formation. Methods of psychology. air pressure. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. 2003. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. .W. Weather and Climate. Pandis. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan.J. John Wiley and Sons. Environmental psychology. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. Recommended Books: 1. local winds. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. 4.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). Factors affecting air Pressure. Austin Miller. K. 2006 5. Karachi. Sadder. Cloud Classification. 1988. Tarbuck. John H. The Atmosphere. 2. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. 3. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. 1992. A brief historical background and schools of psychology.. Radiation and climate.F.2nd Editions. The Physics of Atmospheres.K.. Shamshad. Spyros. A. The climate of Pakistan. Lutgens. Climatology. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. global circulation. 27 . Marcel Dekkar. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. The Hydrologic cycle..4. Royal book company.. Four Spheres of the Earth.E.

High population density and psychological impacts.. Eysenck. Course Outline Introduction.D. P. Fisher J. solar radiation and primary production. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. Bell. Greene. threats and mitigation. CRC Press. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. Fundamental of Psychology. Restoration of derelict lands. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. 2001. Sustainable livestock management practices. soil erosion and conservation. Routledge.W. soil salinity and water logging. species response to pollutants. Soil as a natural resource. their management and ecological restoration. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. Recommended Books: 1.A. Pollution control through Ecology. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. Environmental Psychology. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. techniques and methods of restoration. 1992. London. 5th Edition. Future water scenario of Pakistan. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. Water as an ecological resource. M. limitation of irrigated agriculture. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. Environmental perception and cognition. sustainable agriculture. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. energy and carbon balance. Routledge. rivers.characteristics and research methods. 28 . London.. Background and scope. concepts. and Baum A. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. 2. soil resources of Pakistan.C. Sustainable agricultural practices. Ecology of food production. carbon dioxide and global climate change. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. T. Ecological restoration. CRC Press. Water and distribution of species.

J. A. their containment and control strategies. terminologies: Poisons.I. J. 2000 2. water and soil. and Memon.P. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Soil Science. Chemical interactions and their types. D. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. Mumtaz. Pakistan’s Environment. Lahore. G. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications..Recommended Books: 1.S. 2004. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. Zedler. University of Peshawar. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. 4. Newman. 1996. Blackwell Scientific Publications. R.1998. 1989. Toxicity: Types and its measurement.W. toxins vs toxicants. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. Fundamentals of Ecology. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. 29 .. B.. Peshawar. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. Organs.. Rashid. soil and air samples. Islamabad. in vivo & in vitro assays. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. biological effects. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing.A. P. on human and other living organisms. from natural and anthropogenic sources. E. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. Studies in Pakistan Geography. and Barett. 5th Edition. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. Shirkat Gah. 2nd ed.National Book Foundation. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. 3. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. 5. toxicology of chemicals. Odum E. Synergism. toxicity screening using microbial systems. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. K and Habib. Israr-ud-Din. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. Falk. Margaret A. A. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. dose response relationship in living organisms. and Hobbs. Potentiation and Addition. Oxford. 2006. USA. toxins & toxicants. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. K. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. Immunological considerations in toxicology. Island Press. Determination of chemicals in biological samples.

USA. measuring environmental benefits. USA. education. Recommended Books 1. 1st Edition.Recommended Books 1. people. Vol. W. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. culture. 3. W. CRC Press Llc. Williams. Hughes. B. land. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. State of the Environment-Pakistan . 1993. 3. M. (ed. Ballantyne. 1st Edition. water resources. Ecological: ecological zones. the economy and the environment. 1992. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. economic development and the environment. USA.). estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. Macmillan Press Ltd. economic aspects of different environmental problems. Environmental Profile of Pakistan.Science of Poisons . P. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. international trade and the environment. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. Course Outlines Introduction to history. clean development mechanism. 5th Edition. Course Outlines Introduction. General and Applied Toxicology. Economic: agriculture. industry. major ecosystems. T and Turner. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology.D.1 & 2. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. 2005 2. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. Recommended Books: 30 .. geography. urbanization and pollution. Government of Pakistan.M. McGrawhill.2005 2. pollution control-a general model. health. topographic zones. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. Klassen. 1996.

I. Kolstad. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. precision and accuracy. Reuter. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. Oxford. Spectroscopy and Chromatography.2002. 8th Edition. Titrimetery.K. preparation and storage. 2003. All Solids. 6th Edition. B. handling. C. J. 2. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. Data interpretation for quality control.. 3.K. Pearce. Lab Work S. Harris. D. units. and Batemen. 31 . Fluoride. L.I.W. K.D.L. COD. water and plant analysis. Conductivitymetry. Oxford University Press. Collingwood. Analytical techniques for soil.C.UK. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. D. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. Australia. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. M. Standard solutions and standard curves. 2. Gravimetery. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples.2004. C.R. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling.1. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association).and Field. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. Johns Hopkins University Press... Use of Potentiometery. Gravimetery. Holler. 2000. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. Sample collection. Field. 1999. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. D.A. CSIRO Publ. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. salinity & sodicity). Skoog.. Recommended Books: 1. M. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Sparrow and D. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. Freeman & Co.J. BOD. Peverill.I. NO3–N & NH4-N). 4. Thomson and Brooks. Turner. and derived S.. Conductivitymetry. 3. New York.. 2005. Environmental Economics. and F. D. A. Sample preservation methods. USA. West. Titrimetery. 1993.

USA. 3. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. Smith. After completion of this course..E. Cambridge University Press.D. (ed. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . Chichoster. purification and preservation of DNA. students will be able to understand the significance. New York. Bioreactors. 2009. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. 4.W. Scragg. D. National Biosafety Guidelines. Wiley-VCH Verlag. USA. Hans- Joachim. A. Recommended Books 1. Derbre.. Biomarkers. J. 2001. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. Isolation. Germany. England. Biosensor. 5th Ed. USA. Course Outlines Introduction.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. 2005. Introduction to microbial kinetics. National Biotechnology Commission. Sambrook. 2. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. J. New York. Recombinant DNA technology. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. 2007.). Oxford University Press. W. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. and Josef. 2nd Ed.P. and Russel. and application of biotechnology in the environment. Environmental Biotechnology. PCR.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. Government of Pakistan. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd.1999. Biotechnology. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. J. 2005. Tools in environmental biotechnology. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications.

Jensen. Z. 2008. 2000. Agriculture. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Energy Sources. eradication of the duplicated data. Data acquisition. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. Interpretation. Mc Graw Hill Education. Introduction to Photogrammetry. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Active and Passive remote sensing. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. Fishery and wildlife. Dessinov. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Preparation of thematic maps. Inc. advantages and limitations of process. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . provide efficient means for data distribution and handling.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. Cartography. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. 1999. John Wiley and Sons. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. K and L. V. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. R. Guilfoud press New York. Aerial photography. Campbell. history and platforms. Lulla. 3. Image Processing. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). Using and reading GPS in field. Forestry. Different types of maps. map projection and coordinate systems. Rancez. Inc. 2. History and data collection. Types of data used in GIS. F. Satellite Imageries. analysis and output. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Data entry and output. 5. Inc. John Wiley and Sons. 2000. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. 4. Introduction to GIS. integration of information from many sources. 2009. Pearsons Education. Harvey. A.

International Organization for Standardization.). Course Outlines Introduction. Environmental Economy. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. M. Environmental Management tools. plant. M. cleaner technologies. A. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. Sheldon.. social and ethical values of biodiversity. Conservation of biodiversity.2nd Ed. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. standards and guidelines.3rd Edition . types of biodiversity. etc.C. American Society for Quality. 2006. WWF Pakistan. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. threats to biodiversity.. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. 2005. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. alpha and beta diversity. Environment and sustainable development. Khan. 1998. Certification of EMS.. Environmental Management Systems Principles. 2. hot spots of biodiversity. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. ecological. need and approach. and Qasim. and Yoxon. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. Michigan. American Society for Quality. economic. philosophical. eco-design. Related Environmental legislation. principles of Cleaner production. B. 3. Methods of environmental protection. 4. F. Systems and Support Techniques. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). 2001. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. Environmental aspects and impacts. 34 .

objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. and Morre. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. Considerations. Sunderland. 3. international agreements..e. refrigeration and freezing methods. their categories. forests. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. Cox. water. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. soil and living organisms. Rawalpindi. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. A Primer for Conservation Biology. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. P. Associates Inc. population.D. cities.B. croplands. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. air. presampling requirements/information. management. Sinauer. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. protected areas. community and ecosystem level. design and types of samples. 35 . NOC for plant operation. plants. ecotourism. 2ndEd. conservation and livelihood. quality assessment. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. laboratory custody. 2000. Recommended Books: 1. 2.. habitats. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. C. Legal protection of species. Conservation of wildlife. P. Publ. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. Course Outlines Introduction. chemical addition. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. Preservation methods including pH control. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. Kings College. Mirza.R. Lahore). Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. Biogeography. Z. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. Saad Printers. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. EIA requirement. London. conservation in man-made ecosystems. sampling and design purposes.conservation at species. Quality assurance and quality control.B. conservation strategies. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. national and international laws and regulations. 1998.. field custody. 2000. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. quality control sampling.B.

and Guethner. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. 2. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate.. 2000. 7. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. agriculture. UK.1999. N. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. The Measurement of Climate Change. USA. Precipitation. Human responses to potential climate change. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. Recent Climate Change Indicators. its causes and effects. Burden. USA. Manahan. 1992. D. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. (ed) Springer. 2002. L. 5. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. S. Physical. New York. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. S. R. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. McKlivie. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. phenological changes. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. 2008. 8. D. I. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. F. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. human health. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. Keith. Forstner U. H. Ozone depletion. altered community structure. Moisture in the Atmosphere. Murai. extinctions. 2008..USA. (eds. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. Peakall. . 6. Remote Sensing Note. Lewis Publisher London. 2002. E. E. 2nd Edition. chemical. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. Korte.1996. regional. Energy and Temperature. Environmental Chemistry. Chuviero. Chapman and Hall. Tokyo.) McGraw-Hill. Regional droughts and 36 . 3. biological. USA.Recommended Books: 1. Earth Observation of Global Change. Technomic Publishing Company Inc.

Global Change and the earth system. Climate Change . Recommended Books: 1. Glasson. and noise. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. J. National Book Foundation. 2003. 4.O. review of EIA quality.. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. 2003. Harrop. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. D. Sringer. Effects. 1999. John Wiley & Sons. 2005.. J. reporting. Routledge. 2005. law. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Hardy. screening. A. impact analysis. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. J. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. Therivel.Causes.T. A. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. Petts. 4. J.. & Nixon. Main stages in EIA process. London. 5. 37 . scoping.(ed). (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. 6. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. 2. social impact assessment (SIA). Houghton. 2004. 1st Edition.. R.. decision-making to implement the project. overview. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. project implementation and follow up. 2005. 1994. Climate Change . Effects.. and Solutions. Ministry of Housing and Works. Islamabad.cataclysmic climate change. 3.A. liquid.. mitigation and impact management. 3. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. 1986. Oxford. London. EIA project management.Causes. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). Islamabad. Hardy. Global Warming and Climate Change. solids. (ed. Blackwell. 2. 2000.). T. Recommended Books: 1. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. John Wiley & Sons. and Chadwick. public involvement. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. J. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. Earthscan Publication Ltd. Cost and benefits of EIA. and Solutions. Keith. Types & Resources to produce Energy.

management options. importance. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. national agriculture policy. 2002. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. 1997. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. United Nations Environment Programme. R. methodologies... Sadler.. Lohani. process and contents of the management plan. S. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. best available option for future.). 1993. their pros and cons. Everitt. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. national example. Rangeland Management: existing status. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. 38 . & McCabe. Conservation in Progress. A.5. F. wind power and nuclear power. existing management approaches. 2nd Edition. management options. causes and methods for its improvement. Ludwig. 6. John Willey & Sons. H. agriculture products and their share in GDP. problem in agriculture. forest types and its existing management. Development of Management Plan: needs. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level.. B. R. M. and Tu. J. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources.B and Warren. effective management. Evans. B. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. Asian Development Bank. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. USA. agriculture chemicals. wildlife census. Types. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. Carpenter. threat and its causes. solar power.. national and provincial legislation. New York. limitation in the future. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. (ed.. Recommended Books: 1.. their current status and threats. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. Goldsmith. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. requirement. threats. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources.

Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. S. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. V.A pre-requisite for Research. Environmental Conservation. 3. J. Interviews. Scientific Methods. to introduce students to research design. Methodology. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). 5. Review of Literature. types of sampling design/. Hansen. John Wiley & Sons.2. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. Thousand Oaks. 1984. concepts and terminologies. GOP and IUCN. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. research methods. Dasmann. 2007. Experimental Research. Case Studies. Sampling: the logic of sampling. & Plano Clark. Research Proposal: its importance . Surveys.E. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. Scientific Research: Science. Sage CA. Inference based on findings. Creswell. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). W. Islamabad. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. Material Methods. Selecting the Research Method. 1992. 39 . 1990. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice.E. Literature Search: Database. Search Engines. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. Bibliography.Amsterdam. Review of Literature. Research Design & Research Methods. 4. Questionnaire. and Jorqensen.F. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. How to put things together? Introduction. London. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. New York. USA. R. Objectives. population and sampling frames. Elsevier. P.L.. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment.

2001 and the rules of business made there under.Batty. G. 2. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. Chichester.Harrad.h. Qadar. 2003. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. and Arhonditsis. 6. Belmont California.. M. 1997. Marilyn F. National Conservation Strategy 5. Wadsworth Publishing Company. S. National Environmental Policy 4. Government of Pakistan 3. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act.2. E. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . of Chicago Press. 2003. 1997. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan.. 1989. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Recommended Books: 1. 2001. USA. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. 2000. Moriarty.USA. England. Survey Research Methods. 4. John and sons Ltd. Univ. USA. 5. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. 3rd Edition. Booth. R. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. 2nd Edition. Case Study Research: Design and Methods.. Law Books House.S. Babbie.. 2008. Diamon. Sage Publishers. Students project in Environmental Science. Robert Yin. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. regulations made there under. 3. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
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Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

. groundwater exploitation. wetlands resources management. J. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. I. (eds. Recommended Books: 1. N. pollution aspects. 5. 2. O. Pakistan . P. flood and droughts. A. U. and Malik..K. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. A. Ahmed. A. Ahmed.1993. hydrological cycle. and Qamar. water quality and quantity aspects. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. K. SDPI Oxford University Press. Mirajuddin Publication . Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. 4. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. watershed/catchment. Khan. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment.). N. 1993. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). tubewells.. The Politics of Managing Water. Lahore. Revised & enlarged edition. 2005. virtual water. flood and drought management. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc.). water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. 2006. 3. Pakistan. Bengali. C. Islamabad. Asia Printer. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. fisheries management. with drinking water facilities like springs. Islamabad. 2006. Briscoe. Oxford University Press Karachi. (ed. R.Varis. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. recycling and re-use of wastewater. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. Biswas.. 44 . Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. Mirajuddin Publication . and Tortajada.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan.Lahore. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. Oxford University Press New Delhi. 2003. water supply and demand management measures. R. 6.. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. integrated water resources management (IWRM)... Indus Water Accord 1991. Cheema.

Course Outlines Introduction. Physical and chemical properties of soil. the salient features of urban environments. R. urbanization in Pakistan. USA. 1996.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. Brady. Soil forming minerals. R. National Book Foundation. soils. Soils in Our Environment. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. E. Urban ecosystem. urban landscapes characteristics. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. Soil degradation.T. 45 . Factors and processes of soil formation.C. R. Gardiner. urban flora and fauna. and Weil. and Bantel. D. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. NJ. Causes of urbanization. PrenticeHall. Urbanization. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. urban political ecology. Pakistan. D. Islamabad. Prentice Hall. Soil Science. Miller. N. USA. San Diego.. CA.. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. 2008. 1. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. transport. Definition. 2007. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. USA.R. Forms of urbanization. Bashir. Cation and anion exchange. After completion of this course. Process and outcome. urban settlements. Course Outlines Introduction. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. NJ. humans as components of urban ecosystems.W. future of urban centers. Academic Press. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. management and green productivity. Types and properties of parent materials. Upper Saddle River. 2007. Upper Saddle River. 11th Edition. hydrological processes. Hillel.

Planning and Urban Change. Justification for planning for city management. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans.L. UK. 2. nature and purpose of urban planning. 3. 2. 46 . Recommended Books: 1. C. London. 1989.and Maser. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. USA. Hough. Penguin Group. Levels of planning. London. 5. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. SAGE Publications Ltd. S. Planning theories and concepts. Smith. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. Planning and its relationship with other professions. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability.S. The planning process. Gilbert. 1. 4. 2004. J. Springer. Silberstein. I. H. V. nd 2 Edition.. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. USA. 2007. New trends in planning and city management. City Design for Sustainable Development. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe.. 2004.and Kowaril. UR. UK. Hague. Ward. UK. M. SBS academic publishing. Routledge. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. S. The Ecology of Urban Habitats.. Types of Urban Plans. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. Chapman and Hall. Sukopp. M. Alberti.. The Works: Anatomy of a City.1990. Scope. A. O. Kate. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. Land use planning theories..Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. New York. 2000. Hejny. Principles of planning. 2009. CRC Press LLC. Aims and Objectives of planning. Elements of urban planning. 2006. D. Routledge.

The Guilford Press. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. and Woodrow. ADB. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. 4. Recommended Books: 1. Longman Group. Role of Media in Disaster Management. 47 . Earthquake Management. Ministry of Housing and Works. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. 1989. International phenomenon.W... Flood Management: Organizational Role. G.B. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. 2nd Edition. Kates. Manila. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. Landslide. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. 3. Chapman & Hall. Earthquake. Natural Disasters Alexander.J. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. Islamabad.. Introducing Town Planning. Disaster as an opportunity for development. E&UA Div.e.W. Physical factors. Cultural factors. Political factors.F. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. Flooding. H. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. i.. 1993. 4. R. Westview Press. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Government of Pakistan.. Natural cycles and their role. Clara. D. Different approaches and Indicators. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. UK. Hazards. 1993.UNESCO.3.. Socio-economic factors. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. 2. Paris. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. Boulder . 1993. and White G. P. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies.. Disaster Management: Components of management. New York. 1986. 1991.. Prediction. M. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). It discusses a wide range of aspects. New York.

B and Keller. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. Disasters and Development Cuny.C. 1983. 1984. F.W. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. 2.A. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment..H. Perry R. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. 2007. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity.M. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. R. sustainable energy management. M. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. 2007. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. John Wiley and Sons. local. and Yonavjak. Consumer and producer relationship. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. Sustainable livestock management. 48 . Botkin. Paris. types. USA. hydropower. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. Schoch. energy resources.5.L. primary producers. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. 6th Edition. biomass resources. 2001. New York. 4th Edition. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. E. merits and demerits of wind. and Mushkatel. Biotic structure. decomposers. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. L. D. energy resources of Pakistan. McKinney. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. 3. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. consumers. Agroecology.. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. solar. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. uses. OECD/IEA.. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. Ecological concept in crop and food production. 1. A. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. 6. Westport. Quorum Books. alternate energy resources.

3.R. Agrocology. Study of stratification and profile diagram.M. P. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. CBS Publishers and Distributors. Boulder. Experimental Plant Ecology.G. Recommended Books: 1. R. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. M. 1990. USA. Study of index of diversity.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity.H. 1995. India.P. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. Yandermeer J. C. Altreri. Corol. E-11 Seminar 49 . USA. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. 2000. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. Westview Press. New York.A. and Rossel. and Sudha.. 2. New Delhi. Kapur.

The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. 5. 4. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. the Committee agreed on the following principles. that: 1. availability of the faculty and other facilities. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. 2. 50 . To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. 3.

12. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 9. 23. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 10. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 3. 10. 22. 12. 17. 11. 4. 2. 25. 16. 18. 5. 6. 6. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 2. 3. 21. 8. 15. 26. 5. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 4. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 20. 7. 8.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 13. 19. 11. 24. 7. 9. 14.

1994. F. Amsterdam. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. P. NCS.. Khan K.. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management..1995.F. London Black Stone Press Ltd. technology and resource use. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. Oxford University Press. development of concepts. WCS. Mackenzie J.. London. Treaties. S. Environment People and Economy.DETAILS OF M.1991. Oxford University Press. 2. Environmental control Policies. Hodder and Stoughton. Elsevier. Conservation Strategies. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. D. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change.S. S.1994. 2. Regional and International Environmental Issues. Instruments and methods. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Money.. Karachi.A. Relationship of culture. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. and Jorqensen. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. Islamabad. 2nd Edition. S. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. Provincial and Local Strategies. Conventions and Protocols in Global. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. 4. 3. 1992. 52 . Mackenzie. Ball. FURTHER READINGS 1. GOP and IUCN. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. status of Terrestrial.E. 3.E. 1987. Geography of Pakistan.T. and Bell. Recommended Books: 1. Hansen. 1991. Draft National Environmental Policy.

Ministry of Environment. Chichester. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. Cost benefit analysis of projects. 1993. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). Gas Chromatography etc. John Wiley & Sons. Case Studies and review. process. Washington. 1995. UK. Government of Pakistan. Environmental auditing. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. Longman Scientific and Technical. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. sampling rules. 3. England. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. DC. Principles of physical. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. opportunities and issues. Wood. A. social impact assessment. role and importance. F & Bronstein. C. Burnt Hill.. ecological impact assessment. Air and Solid Waste. Environment Department. D. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. Ed.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. 1995. 2. Environmental Chemical Analysis. Recommended Books: 1. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater.Vanclay. Harlow Essex. procedures and methods of EIA. WB. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. History. Assessment of environmental impacts. ed. Longman House. 2. sample collection and preservation. Recommended Books: 1.A. Demographic impact assessment. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. World Bank. economic impact assessment. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. FURTHER READINGS 1. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Ahmed. K. Wastewater. 53 . A one Publishers Lahore. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements.

Reasons for Project success or failure. Inc. L. Defining Project objectives.. Project Planning and Approval Processes. 1998. 2. specific objectives.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. T. R. and Guidotti. K. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. T. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). Government Policies and Programs. Resource Mobilization. Basic Environmental Health. 5. S. Project Life Cycle. UK. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. 2nd Ed. Meredith J. Environmental Health Engineering. 2002. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. Park. de Kok. Mantel s. Need identification. M/S Banarsid. 3. 1993. 1st ed.. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. Yassi. 54 . 2001.. USA. Public health concept. Ergonomic and Safety.. activities. Nebel. T. Planning Commission Performas. Project Management Institute. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. air borne.2000.. T. Primary health care services. B. M. A. 1st Ed. Accident prevention and safety plans. inputs. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. safety techniques. Writing Project Proposal. USA. 2. principles and practices. J. Prentice Hall International Inc. means of verification. 1997. 4. assumptions. London. 1992. Oxford University Press New York. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. Wiley Interscience. Lippmann. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). economic evaluation. J. work breakdown structure. Occupational Health: problems and issues. Project Planning.. Recommended Books: 1. outputs. John Wiley and Sons. Project Initiation. and Wright. prevention and control. feasibility study. New York.. 1st Ed. development objectives. indicators. A Guide to Project Management. Caeneross. Kjelllström. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide... R.

regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. D. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).L. Botkin. energy resources of Pakistan. Michigan-January 2001.M. L. Sources of data. solar. 2. 4. 2. D. industry and domestic sectors. 2007. McKinney. OECD/IEA. nuclear) local. merits and demerits of wind. principles and elements of the process of EMS. alternate energy resources. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. St Luise Press. transport. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. USA. 2001. 4th Edition. hydropower. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. 1990b. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. Switzerland. John Wiley and Sons. energy resources. data collection and interpretation. Principles of cleaner production. non-renewable and renewable. uses. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. E. Paris. 55 . bio-energy resources. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. 6th Edition. gas.B and Keller. ISO Central Secretariat.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Recommended Books: 1.. types. 3. M. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental Auditing. R. 2007. Environmental auditing. Schoch. Sayre.A. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). petroleum. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Related Environmental regulations. sustainable energy management for agriculture. 1998. 3. Paris. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. and Yonavjak.

. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. Plant population dynamics. Life history strategies of plants. D. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. ED. 3. plant conservation. & Charlesworth. 2005. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. 2003. Climate Change and Ecosystems. 56 . Climate Change . E & Muller-Hohenstein. Springer. Shulze. survival and extinction. J. and Solutions. Green House Gases. T. Effects. Beck. Blackwell Publishing. management and restoration. The Green House Effect. 2005. (Ed..Causes. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Silvertown. types and their climatic effects. plant invasions. 2003. forests. Oxford UK.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. competition and coexistence. geographical and temporal patterns. 2004. water resources. 5. Climate Change . London. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. Chichester. 2005. Recommended Books: 1.). Hardy. J. ECOPE 29. Effects. Earthscan Publication Ltd. UK. Species richness.T. John Wiley & Sons. types of climate change models. B & Jager. resources and plants. John Wiley & Sons. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Oxford. 1. UK 1991. John Wiley & Sons. 2. Vegetation Ecology Ed. 1st Edition. J. 4. Blackwell Publishing. Modeling of climate change. vegetation dynamics. K. human activities and vegetation dynamics. D. 2. 3. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. global aspects of plant ecology. etc. Houghton. Plant Ecology. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Climate change and food production. Warrick. E. and Solutions. Berlin. Hardy. Maarel. 2005.Causes.D. Recommended Books: 1.

S. Forest plantations.B. 2. Principles of Wildlife Management. Essentials of Conservation Biology. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. Cambridge University Press. R. Oxford. John Wiley And Sons. Publishers Sunderland. its causes. Sustainable forest management. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. London. 1998. & Ripley. biological diversity. J. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation.L. Oxford University Press.J. Cambridge. 1973 2. J. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. habitats and ecosystems. Wetlands. Protection and restoration of species. Bailey. Participatory forest management. Wildlife of Pakistan.(2nd Ed. UK. distribution. distribution and management. Oxford University Press.) Gaston. Wildlife Ecology and Management. threats and conservation. Consumptive. Extinction of species. Recommended Books: 1. distribution.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. Mcmillan. Oxford. W. T. 4. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. Status of forests in Pakistan. & Spicer. 1992. UK. Roberts. Roberts. their ecological and economic importance. deforestation and its control. Inc. II).J. 2002. Loss of biodiversity. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol.J. B.J. Sinauer Assocaites. Biodiversity: An introduction. their importance. Weddell. types. Global and national biodiversity. I). COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. Blackwell Publsihing. E. K.A. 3. kinds. management. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. 2004. problems and solutions. Establishment and management of protected areas. 1986. 1984. USA. Oxford. Conserving Living Natural Resources. T. Robinson. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. 2002. 3. Rangeland management. their types and role in conservation. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. types.D. 5. Protected areas in Pakistan. status. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. Recommended Books: 1. 57 .G. Oxford University Press. Forests. And Bolen. Threatened animals and plants. S. Protected areas. Cambridge. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. Primack.

Forms of urbanization. Kate. C. Ministry of Housing and Works. future of urban centers. Urban land use planning and management. Environmental problems of urban life. 2. USA. urbanization in Pakistan. E&UA Div. SAGE Publications Ltd. G. Penguin Group.. 3. A. UK. H. V.. drinking water and solid waste in cities. 2007. management of transport. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. 2004. Islamabad.and Maser. J. USA. London. urban political ecology. 1986. urban systems and their characteristics. Recommended Books: 1. Longman Group.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. 4. Planning and Urban Change. Clara. sanitation.. Sustainable cities. The Works: Anatomy of a City. UK. 58 . Government of Pakistan. Silberstein. 1993. S. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. New York. CRC Press LLC. Introducing Town Planning. 2000. Ward. urban landscape characteristics..

Third edition. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure.Annexure . clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. Practical English Grammar by A. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. Martinet. Exercises 1.V.J. Thomson and A. a) Functional English Grammar 1. Oxford University Press. 1997. ISBN 0194313492 59 .

Third edition. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41.2. Martinet. Upper Intermediate. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Exercises 2. and speed reading.J. intensive and extensive. Fourth Impression 1993. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. Oxford University Press.V. Third Impression 1992. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Reading/Comprehension 1. Oxford Supplementary Skills. b) Practical English Grammar by A. minutes of meetings. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Thomson and A. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Reading. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. 1997. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. Writing. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet.

narrative. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . ISBN 0 19 431350 6. Writing. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. 2. Advanced by Ron White. Third Impression 1992. introduction to presentations. Fourth Impression 1992. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Oxford University Press 1986. Writing. Fourth Impression 1993. Writing. Practical English Grammar by A. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Reading 1. content. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. Reading. Oxford Supplementary Skills. b) Writing 1. Advanced. Oxford Supplementary Skills. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. descriptive and argumentative writing). language.1. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. 2.J. form. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Third edition.V. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Third Impression 1991. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). discursive. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Martinet. Thomson and A. Exercises 2. clarity.

Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. A Custom Publication. without taxing the taste of engineering students). argumentative and report writing). Martin’s Press. 3. Kathleen Shine Cain. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. Kirszner and Stephen R. 62 . 2004. College Writing Skills by John Langan. 2. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. Compiled by norther Illinois University. descriptive. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. St.(particularly suitable for discursive. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. Mandell.

Safdar. b. Study the process of governance. 1994. 1988-99 f. Course Outline 1. Karachi: Oxford University Press. national development. S. Location and geo-physical features. 1958-71 c. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. State & Society in Pakistan. politics. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. ideological background of Pakistan. 4. 1971-77 d. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. government. . Historical Perspective a. 2000. 1993. S.Annexure . Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. 3. Indus Civilization ii. Muslim advent iii. Contemporary Pakistan a. 63 Books Recommended 1. 1977-88 e. People and Land i. contemporary Pakistan. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. Lahore.M. 1999 onward 3. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Zaidi.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. Economic institutions and issues b. Karachi: Oxford University Press. 2. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. Ethnicity d. 1947-58 b. Society and social structure c. Shahid Javed. Mehmood. Akbar. 2. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. Pakistan Political Roots & Development.

Ethno . Party. I. Wayne. II & III. Vol. 7. Sayeed. Haq. 9. Rafique. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Club Road. Khalid Bin. 1998. Political Parties in Pakistan. Muhammad Waseem. The Political System of Pakistan. History & Culture of Sindh. Pakistan Under Martial Law. 1976. 14. 8. Wilcox. Ansar.5. 1967. Aziz. Politics in Pakistan. Noor ul. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. nd. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. 64 . 12. 11. Ziring. Islamabad. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Amin. 1993. Zahid. Lawrence. 13. Tahir. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. Mehmood. 1980. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. 1980. K. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Safdar.National Movement in Pakistan. Afzal. 6. M. 1987. Institute of Public Policy Research.K.. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. 1972.The Emergence of Banglades. Lahore: Vanguard. Enigma of Political Development. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. 10. Washington: American Enterprise.

14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.21.Annexure .63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.Tadabar (Verse No1.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.56.58.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.20) Related to thinking.A.57.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.A.6.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .19.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.A.40.A.

in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.

Pakistan. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. Ahmad Hasan.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. Islamabad (2001) 67 . Bhatia. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. “Emergence of Islam” .S. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. “Studies in Islamic Law. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. International Islamic University. IRI.

COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. 1986. Cramer’s rule. not majoring in mathematics. equations reducible to quadratic equations. cube roots of unity. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. Wooton W. types. Houghton & Mifflin. system of linear equations. Beckenback EF. Boston Swokowski EW. 1987. set operations. Boston 68 . PWS-Kent Company. trigonometric identities. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. introduction to sets.Annexure . types of functions. matrix inverse. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. complex numbers. 1978. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. College Algebra and Trigonometry. harmonic progression. determinants. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. functions. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). Sharron S. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. PWS-Kent Company. geometric progression.

Calculus and Analytic Geometry. continuity. derivatives. John Wiley. not majoring in mathematics. intersection of two lines. 2005. Calculus (11th edition).2. distance between a point and a line. 69 . Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. functions and their graphs. not majoring in mathematics. solution of equations involving absolute values. left-hand and right-hand limits. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. angle between two lines. Calculus (3rd edition). Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. equation of a line. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. integration by parts. Recommended Books: Anton H. integration by substitution. 2005. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. 1995. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). Finney AR. USA 3. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. slope of a line. Reading. Boston Thomas GB. parallel and perpendicular lines. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. distance between two points. Addison-Wesley. Bevens I. change of variables in indefinite integrals. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. 1983. rational and transcendental functions. continuous functions. differentiation of polynomial. PWS-Kent Company. Davis S. Ma. inequalities. various forms of equation of a line. New York Stewart J.

70 . Boston 4. types of functions. Freshman and Company. determinants. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. Scott. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. Introduction to sets. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Conic Sections: Parabola. Boston Swokowski EW.Circle: Equation of a circle. 1969 Kaufmann JE. 1987. nature of roots of quadratic equations. Cramer’s rule. • Contents 1. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. equations reducible to quadratic equations. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). hyperbola. College Algebra and Trigonometry. ellipse. circles determined by various conditions. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). PWS-Kent Company. inverse of matrices. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. locus of a point in various conditions. types of matrices. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. system of linear equations. 1986. functions. PWS-Kent Company. set operations. intersection of lines and circles. Analytic Geometry.

skewness and kurtosis. quartiles. ungrouped and grouped data. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. E. moments.. E. Latest Edition. types of frequency series. R. Prentice Hall. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes.geometric and harmonic progressions. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. relationship of statistics with social science. 2. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. cumulative frequency curve. standard deviation. bar frequency diagram histogram. 2. inter quartile deviation mean deviation.. 4. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data.. frequency polygon. PWS-Kent Company. Latest Edition. W. variance. array. Wilcox. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. Books Recommended: 1. J. 5. R. Graphs: Graph of straight line. 71 . Latest Edition. Swokowski. characteristics of statistics. Measures of dispersion: Range. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. deciles and percentiles. 3. circle and trigonometric functions. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. individual. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. tally sheet method. Walpole. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem.. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. R. Boston. E. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. discrete and continuous series. Kaufmann. trigonometric identities.

Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. quotients. Prentice-Hall. Anton. 6. W. John Wiley & Sons. Thomas. 2005. infinite and improper integrals. 2. integration by parts. and Transcendental Functions. Recommended Books: 1. McCallum. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. John H. special points of a function. Addison Wesley publishing company. Leibnitz’ theorem. et al. Frank A. Bevens. Integration by Parts. Contents 1. H. 8th edition. 3rd Edition. reduction formulae. Calculus Single and Multivariable. 2002. E. products. 11th Edition. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . 3. Inc. Equation of a Line. Least-Squares Line. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals.Jr. • Integration Integration from first principles. plane polar coordinates. S. 1999. Davis. theorems of differentiation. sinusoidal function. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. Trigonometric Functions. Rational and Transcendental Functions. Calculus. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. logarithmic differentiation. Calculus. substitution method. Swokowski. implicit differentiation. 2005. Continuous Functions. 2. Inequalities. Hughes-Hallett. Boston. the chain rule. Continuity. logarithmic integration. 4. the inverse of differentiation. Gleason. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. 6. Rational Functions. Second Edition 1992. Mathews. integration by inspection. integral inequalities. Jhon Willey & Sons. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. 4th edition. integration using partial fractions. Elliott Mendelson. applications of integration. 5. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. Inc. 1983. I. Schaum’s Outline Series. Solution of equations involving absolute values. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. Slope of a Line. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. Extreme Values of Functions. Calculus.

series involving natural numbers. the difference method. complex conjugate. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . inverses of hyperbolic functions. solving hyperbolic equations. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. approximation errors in Taylor series. multiplication. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. finding the nth roots of unity. modulus and argument. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. identities of hyperbolic functions. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. geometric series. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series.Additions and subtraction. arithmetico-geometric series. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies.

of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. masses. orthogonal. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. of a unitary matrix. moments of inertia. point to plane. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. line to line. scalar triple product. vector product. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. the inner product. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . Pappus’ theorems. 6. centers of mass and centroids. Hermitian. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. symmetric and antisymmetric. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line.5.

differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. divergence of a vector field. combinations of grad.8. spherical polar coordinates 75 . div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates.

Unit 5. Presentation of Data Introduction. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Exercises Unit 6. Poisson and Normal Distribution. properties of Good Average. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Statistical problem. Median and mode. Pie chart. Range. Historigram. Absolute and relative measures. The semi-Interquartile Range. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Moments and Moments ratios.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Unit 2. Errors of measurement. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. sampling with and without replacement. Constructing of a frequency distribution. Test statistics. Change of origin and scale. sampling and non sampling errors. 76 . Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Rounding of a Number. Quantiles. Significant digits. null and alternative hypothesis. Empirical Relation between Mean.Annexure . The Variance and standard deviation. Collection of primary and secondary data. Types of frequency curves. Unit 7. Graphs and their Construction. definition of outliers and their detection. Stem and Leaf Display. Box and Whisker Plot. Discrete and continuous variables. probability and non-probability sampling. Data. Exercises. The Mode. Population. Sources. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. level of significance. Exercises. Difference of means and proportions. Coefficient of variation. Probability and Probability Distributions. acceptance and rejection regions. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Unit 4. Different types of Averages. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Exercises. Exercises. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Diagrams. Bar charts. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Histogram. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Unit 3. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. The Mean Deviation. sample design and sampling frame. bias. Editing of Data. Standardized variables. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Exercises. Observations. Type-I and Type-II errors. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Exercises.

New York. “Introduction to Statistics”. 3rd Ed. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. estimation of parameters and their interpretation.Unit 8. Exercises Unit 9. Correlation. 1982. Kitab Markaz. F. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes.. Coefficient of linear correlation. 77 . Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. Contingency Tables. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. Inc.Single Population Introduction. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. Exercises. R. Exercises Unit 10. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Regression and Correlation Introduction. simple linear regression. Testing of Hypothesis. r and R2.. 2005. examples. Unit 11. E. its estimation and interpretation. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. cause and effect relationships. 2 Muhammad.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. Macmillan Publishing Co. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole.

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