CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
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The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. dated December 4th 1976. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. R&D organizations. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. It is. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. therefore. universities and other institutions of higher education. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. degree awarding institutions. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. D773/76-JEA (cur. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. respective accreditation councils and stake holders.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. DR.). PROF. Lahore. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees.ALTAF ALI G. and 36. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . 63. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. The world has turned into a global village. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. the Federal Government vide notification No. It also aimed to give a basic. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic.

INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. OF NCRC. OF FINAL CURRI. UNI. REC. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. Preparation 5 . OF CURRI. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. R&D. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. COL. PREP. EXP. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI.

7. Lahore Member 6. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. Member 5. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Following attended the meeting:1. Member 4. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Dr. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Member 6 . Karachi from 28-30.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Member 3. Dr.

Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Prof. Prof. Member 16. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Member 15. Dr. Dr. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. 13. 7 . Karachi Member 12. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr.8. Member 11. Dr. Dr. Member 10. Dr. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Dr. Member 14.

Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. 8 . Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. 2. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Director of HEC Regional Center. Secretary Dr. The meeting was opened by Mr. At first. Dr. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. 1. Karachi. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. Member 20. Chairman. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr.17. Faisalabad Member 18. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. Member 19. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Mr. Dr. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Mr. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society.

5. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. 6. 1. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. 4. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development.3. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. The committee thanked Mr. 3. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. In last few centuries. 2. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment.

Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. Apply theoretical understanding. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. skills and behaviour patterns. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. ii. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. in its preliminary meeting. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. regional and global contexts. 5. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. This committee. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development.

5. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. that: 1. The medium of instruction. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. Integrating natural sciences. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment.e. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. A. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. 3. 6. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. eight semesters in the semester system. Sc. 2. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes.. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. The 11 . The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. with consensus. 1. 4. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3.

Introduction to Earth Science 8. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Introduction to Computer 14. Basic Chemistry* 4. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Biology –II* 9. English-III 18. Environmental Physics 16. Climatology* 23. English-II 12. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Introductory Economics* 17.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. English-I 6. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Psychology* . Biology –I* 3. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Environmental Pollution 22. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Environmental Microbiology 21. Environmental Chemistry 15. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10.

ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Applied Ecology 26. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. 46. Environmental Economics 29. ELECTIVE-III 42. 44. English-IV/ Univ.24. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . Environmental toxicology 27. Environmental Biotechnology 32. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. 45. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. Climate Change 38. Environmental Management Systems 34. Opt. Natural Resource Management 40. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. Environmental Monitoring 36. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30.

• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .

2.B & Keller. Pearson Educational..A. proteins and nucleic acids. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. history. Human environment and its problems: global. 15 . its importance in human life. Recommended Books: 1. development in industry and agriculture. socio-economic. ethical. Environmental Science: working with the Earth.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. Different aspects of environment: physical. 2007. lipids. E. Botkin.T.. 2007. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. & Yonavjak. Thomson Learning. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. environmental pollution. 2002. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. B. 2007 3. & Nebel.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. biological and social. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. Major components of environment: physico-chemical.M. national. M. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. and their relationships with various environmental factors. ecological. L. 6th Ed. R. Wright.L. regional. 4th Ed. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms.J. McKinney. poverty and resource depletion. philosophical. 4. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. Miller. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. G. John Wiley & Sons. Schoch. D. 10th Ed. R. urbanization. current global.

. D. Cell division. overview of structure and function of cell organelles.. coordinate covalent bond. Canada. amines). and Lewis. covalent. 1996. carbonyls. lipids. chemical diversity. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. Biology: a Human Emphasis. Structure and the basis of function.Hill International Edition. G. Self Assessment and Revie. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. 2. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. V. esters. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. 4. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. C. A. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. M. proteins. USA. Bulter. Aromatic compounds. Cassimeris. 16 . J. Starr. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. Ionic. Molecular Biology through Questions. Wadsworth Group. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. USA. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. the molecule of genetic information and replication. lipids. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. and Whitelaw.. 1. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. New York. Lewis. McGraw. protobionts.. 2007. 2003. Australia . Lingappa. 2008. Nucleic acids. phospholipids in membrane systems. R. 8th Ed. carbohydrates. Origin of life: chemical evolution. L. E. Plopper. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. Crossley. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. Introduction to cell biology.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. polypeptides in protein diversity. Ltd. 3. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. USA. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. 5. R. N. carboxylic acids. Shier. 2007. Cells. chemical basis of life. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin.. B. 5th Edetion. origin of metabolism. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization.

COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. Thin layer chromatography. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis.. graphs. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix.ions. USA. 5..J. minor and cofactor of a matrix.. Jickells. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. Brimblecombe. B. Column chromatography. molal. Understanding Environmental Pollution. USA. Freeman and Company. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. Measurement of pH. W. Jones and Barlett. West. F.Special Products (Binomial Expression). Use of spectrophotometric techniques. Lab Work Preparation of molar. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles... Recommended Books: 1. real line. 2003. Liss. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. M. law of Cosines. expansion of determinants. straight line and related concepts. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). and Reid. 2004. Colloids chemistry. angle-sum formula. and Holler.D. 2004. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). P. Skoog. Girard. series and means.E. T. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. Cambridge University Press.A. Blackwell Science. 2nd Edition. 17 . values of trigonometric functions. Osmosis and Dialysis. Solution chemistry.H. Hill. D. geometric and harmonic sequence. 8th Edition. J. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. double angle formulas. Surface chemistry. 1st Ed. Harris. 2nd Edition. Canada. 2005.E. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. 2004. UK. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra.. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. simultaneous equations and their solutions. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. normal solutions/buffers. Photochemical reactions. J. 6th Edition. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. 4. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field.. radicals. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional).S.. 3. Thomson and Brooks. Algebra of matrices. EC and TDS in waste water. 2.C. P. equations of lines (linear equations). determinants.J. UK. D.M. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry.. D. Andrews.K.

mountain building. Fossils and their significance. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. cleavages. weathering and erosion. earthquakes.Wesley. Pacific Grove. earthquakes and volcanoes. Earth as a member of solar system. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. 1999. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. R. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. Smith. lineation and unconformities.. L. product and quotient rules without derivations). Introduction to folds. Addission.B. Chatterjee. Recommended Books: 1. 3. and Finney. different earth processes like mountain buildings. 18 .B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. composition and its internal structure.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . Scott Foresman and Company. K. theorem of integration. Weathering. Thomas. Analytical Geometry. G. 10th Ed. age.Cramer’s Rule. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. J. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . D. Jr. Abraham. the processes of their formation. joints. plate tectonics. California. its origin. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. Chain rule. difference. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. 2. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. Trignometry for College students.. irreducible quadratic factors. nonrepeated linear factors. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. Integration: Formulas of integration. Introduction to sedimentary. erosion and related landforms. New Delhi. 4. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. Narosa Publishing House. Introduction to rocks and minerals. faults. theorems on differentiation (sum. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. foliation. 4th Ed. igneous and metamorphic rocks. S. by parts integration (simple applications).

Lutgens. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. Biodiversity of canal. Geological time chart with biodiversity. Tarbuck. 2007 2. and Tasa. and Monroe. Park. E. J. measuring biodiversity. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat.. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. 11th Edition. R. population loss and decline. 2005. J. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. A. How Does Earth Work. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. examples of adjustments in varied environment. 3rd Edition. Recommended Books: 1. multicellularity. Use of brunton compass and GPS. invasion of life on land. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. Prentice Hall: 2006. molecular basis of biodiversity.. Prentice Hall. Earth Science. biodiversity crises. Life in sea.. 2004. 9th Edition. animals). Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . Biodiversity of deserts. and Pun. D. modern concepts. 5. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. F. K. Lutgens. protocell formation. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. Field Study tour. unicellularity. Foundations of Structural Biology. K. Tarbuck. F. Lamarckism. Wicander. 2007 3. Smith. G. E.. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. J. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. 5th Edition.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. different classification systems. consequences of losing biodiversity. Biodiversity of hilly areas.. Prentice Hall. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution.. Darwinism. interactions among diversified life. 19 .. Routledge. D. Brooks/Cole. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. G.Identification of rocks and minerals. crucial for organisms’ sustainability.. Physical Geology and Process of Science. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. and Tasa. R.. causes of extinction. 4.

2. (editors). I. Conceptualizing environment. 3. Nora and Wilk.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. P. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. globalization and environmental issues. and concerns.. CA: AltaMira Press. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. 2nd Edition. UK. I. Inc. 2. Perspective of human-environment evolution. 5th Edition. UK. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. K. New York: New York University Press. Gaston. Goals and expectations. Routledge. Culture. J. Allan & Carter. 2005. 2001. USA. 4. Scope and application. 20 . 2009. culture and society. UK. 3. C. power & hegemony. Wadsworth Group. 2003.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. Blackwell Science Ltd. and Spicer. 2009. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. Prospect Heights. Adam. Contemporary environmental status. Biology. (editor). Starr. a Human Emphasis. Chronological. Contemporary environment issues and debate. Tripartite nature of environment. The Biosphere. Use of environment for vested interest. Hannen. Inc. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. K. The Ecology of global consumer culture.K. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. Understanding the environment-human relationship. Bradbury. 2006. Environmental Risks and the Media. John Wiley and Sons. L. Biodiversity (An Introduction). and Sustainable Living. IL:WavelandPress. R. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. C.. Crumley. Consumption. 2000. J. Townsend. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . Recommended Books: 1. Walnut Creek.

Microsoft office 2000. Ed. system software. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. as are their effects on the biosphere. Configurations. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. e-mail. 21 . Local Area Network. Selin. Kluwer Academic Publishers.H. Introduction to MS-Word. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . Fundamentals of computer. G. Ms-Access. 6. Rutledge. software packages. Long l. Milton. internet. Recommended Books: 1.6th Ed.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. Course Outlines Definition. Hardware: Input Hardware. 2. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry.1999. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. Courter. Ms-Excel. Storage hardware. 2003. K. Ms-Power Point.. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse.5. output hardware. Types and classification of computers. Software: Application software.London 1996. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. Long N. Marquis A.. processing hardware. Operating system (Windows).A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . computer programs and basic applications.

Ibanez. Particle physics. G. B. Turbulence. P. Thomson-Brooks. 1999. Human perceptions and noise criteria. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. Entropy. atmospheric and soil chemistry. 3. 2004. M. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. Recommended Books: 1. Equations of fluid dynamics.T. Liquids and Gasses. Basic acoustics.. Transport of pollutants. J.. Germany. Canada.. UK. Heat radiation and heat transfer. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. Chemical reactions. Isotopes and radioactive decay. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts.. DoriaSerrano. Liss. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. J. Diffusion. Conversion of mass. Andrews. India.E. T.S. Ozone chemistry. Samir. 5. Environmental Chemistry. Brimblecombe. P.. J.. interaction of light with matter. Global climate and climatic change. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. 2nd Edition. 2004. Reducing the transmission of sound. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. Nuclear energy. Fundamentals of aquatic. Turbulent jets and plumes.G. 2008. 1st Edition.J. M. Solids. Solar spectrum. Girard.E. and Singh. 2. Environmental impact of various industries. 2005.D. Springer. Hernandez-Esparza. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Active control of sound. Blackwell Science. its causes and adverse effects on environment. C. trophic level. Jickells.. 4. Ozone and UV light. Sound and Noise. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . Fate of pollutants in environment. Energy conversion.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. Energy.M. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Turbulent diffusion. A.. Environmental Chemistry. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. Jones and Barlett. Electromagnetic radiation. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. USA. photosynthesis. Fregoso-Infante. Environmental Science. and Reid. K. their sources and toxic actions. Miller. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Gaussian plumes in the air....

J. 2001. Wesely Publishers. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. USA. Guyot. Kentucky USA. and Van Grondelle. Todaro. S. Measures for sustainable development.1998. Yusuf. 2008. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Environmental Physics. Economic Development. 3. Routledge. concepts and measurement. 4. S. Producer behavior. Natural resources and the economy. Field visit. 2006. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. 23 . Pakistan economic context: National income. Recommended Books: 1. 2. and Resource allocation. G. Recommended Books: 1. economic growth. Physics of the Environment and Climate. economic growth and its measurement. Seinfeld. Growth and Environment. E. C. N.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. Man environmental relationship. USA. H. population and environmental quality. Smith. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. Environmental economics. World Bank Publications. R. John Wiley and Sons Inc. producer and community point of view. 7th Ed. P. Growth and development. Sustainable development. Economic management and environmental quality. Introductory Environmental Physics.Economic development. interaction between ecology and economic management. Praxis publishing. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. 2. Impact of economic activity on environment. UK. and Pandis. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. Economic functions of environment. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. economic welfare and difference among all. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. USA. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. M. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries.. USA. New York. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. 2008. 2001. Boeker. economic progress. poverty.

Russell. DeVeer. Ecosystem and its types. soil. Touchstone Books. C. 2008.. LLC. population. D. the ethics of soil. Economics. USA. London. Introduction to ethical theory. Environmental philosophy and ethics. Portland 1967. World Bank Publications. Hanley. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. M. and systems ecology. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview.A. 4. temperature.3.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems.. 4. Course Outlines Introduction. Ecology. Frodeman. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. concepts and approaches. ethics and ecology. branches of ecology. biogeography.. community. 24 . Palgrave Macmillan. WCIV7AA. its fundamental concepts. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. levels of ecological organization. Environmental Critics of agriculture. B. & Pierce. description of population. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. England. A History of Western Philosophy. species. Recommended Books: 1. J. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . 3. 2. community and ecosystem. J. 2007. Swift. International Thomson Publishing. Kessinger Publishing. R. Farmington Hills.. USA. 2002. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. water. 2008. N. Shogren. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology.V. B. 2009. Natural philosophy. and White. B. role of light. Callicott.

Biomes of the world. 2. productivity of different ecosystems. population dynamics. aquatic microbiology. 1st Ed. 2004. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. J. C. B. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. P. J. landscape changes and their importance. Populations. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment.W. Ecology (concepts and applications. 3. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. UK. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. Biogeochemical cycles of C. plant geography and animal distribution. Ecology (principles and applications). Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). 2001 5. Fundamentals of Ecology. and Barett. G. 5th Ed. Ecosystem: structure and function. Tata McGraw-Hill. characteristics of urban. bacteria and eukarya. Fundamentals of Ecology. UK. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. 1999 4. 1992. distribution limits. N. habitat and niche. E P. 6th Ed. M J. Chapman. M C J 1st ed.) Moles. M.L and Reiss. After completion of this course. Systems ecology. community dynamics. Concepts of Limiting factors. 2000. and More. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. C. New York. Dash.Cox. WCB/McGraw-Hill. Microbial metabolism. ecological modeling. and S. Odum. various concepts of community. New Delhi. Cambridge University Press. Lab Work 25 . Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. students will be able to understand the significance. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Microbiology of terrestrial environments.topography and air as ecological factors. landscape ecology. biotic factors. King’s College London. Recommended Books 1. Population distribution and abundance. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem.

.A. UK. P.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection.. Washington DC. Collection. D.D. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. USA. purification and preservation. 2nd Edition.R. Academic Press. USA. its sources and their effects. D.Gerba. USA. Academic Press.. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. C. Marine & Industrial pollution. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. 3. Fuhrmann. M. Peiece. J.M. Environmental Pollution and Control.P. L.M. isolation. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. Butterworth-Heinemann. R.L.I.A. D. 2005.M.J. Weiner. Water. Prescott.L. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. 2. 2002. Understanding Environmental Pollution.G.. 2. New Jersey. Types of Environmental pollution: Air.J. 5. 3. Hurrst. McGraw Hill Inc. Human & other living organisms. transportation & treatments.F. C. Harley. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution.J. A. Effects of Pollutants. 4. L. W. J. Pepper. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. 2 Edition. McInernery. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. R. Maier.and Brendecke.J. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally.P. Prentice Hall. 2007. Academic Press. USA. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. (Elsevier) USA. 1995. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. and Zuberer. Recommended Books 1.and Vesilaind. Soil.A.L.. USA..C. F.. and Klein. I.W. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. American Society for Microbiology. Mean plate count. 4th Edition.. Recommended Books: 1. and Gerba.K.P. M. Cambridge University Press. London. Knudsen. 2005. and Jeffery. Sylvia. P. Environmental Microbiology. Pollution Control Strategies. and Stetzenbach. Cambridge UK. 2009. G. Case Studies.B.. peppor. Crawford... Chemistry of Environmental Pollution.J. 2005. Hill. 26 . Microbiology. Hartel..V. Solid Waste generation.1998. J. Dilution plate technique. Fate of Environmental Pollutants.. Noise.

Cambridge University Press. 1992. Shamshad. The Physics of Atmospheres. climatic zones of Pakistan. Four Spheres of the Earth. John Wiley and Sons.4. The Atmosphere. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . Climatology. Cloud Classification. A. Tarbuck.K.M.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld.F. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere..J. The Hydrologic cycle. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. Houghton J. Lutgens. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. 5.. Recommended Books: 1. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. 4. . N. condensation and cloud Formation. Royal book company. 6th Edition. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. Marcel Dekkar. 2002. Methods of psychology. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. 27 . Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. global circulation.2nd Editions. 3. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. K. Spyros.E. Pandis. local winds. 1988. The climate of Pakistan. 2006 5. Lawrance K. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. American Public Health Association (APHA). Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan).W. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. John H. 2003. 2. Surface winds. Sadder. Solar radiations. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. Radiation and climate. Karachi. Mechanism of heat transfer. Environmental psychology. Weather and Climate. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. Austin Miller. air pressure. Factors affecting air Pressure. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate...

Water as an ecological resource.W. Routledge. London. 28 .. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. Fundamental of Psychology. 2001. M. rivers. threats and mitigation. limitation of irrigated agriculture. 1992.A. carbon dioxide and global climate change. Water and distribution of species. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. their management and ecological restoration. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. sustainable agriculture. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental Psychology.D.. species response to pollutants. Future water scenario of Pakistan. Ecology of food production. Bell. soil salinity and water logging. Background and scope. energy and carbon balance. Sustainable agricultural practices. Course Outline Introduction. soil resources of Pakistan. Pollution control through Ecology. Soil as a natural resource. High population density and psychological impacts. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. CRC Press. Sustainable livestock management practices. Routledge. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher.C. 2. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. concepts. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. London. Eysenck. Restoration of derelict lands.characteristics and research methods. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. 5th Edition. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Environmental perception and cognition. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. solar radiation and primary production. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. and Baum A. Greene. soil erosion and conservation. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. Fisher J. P. CRC Press. techniques and methods of restoration. Ecological restoration. T.

P. from natural and anthropogenic sources. J. in vivo & in vitro assays. 5. 1989. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. 2000 2. toxicity screening using microbial systems. G.S. 2006. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. Potentiation and Addition. Falk. 1996. on human and other living organisms.National Book Foundation. A. Oxford. P. Immunological considerations in toxicology. Thomson Brooks/Cole. toxicology of chemicals. 3. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. Mumtaz. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. toxins vs toxicants. and Hobbs. Studies in Pakistan Geography. Zedler. K and Habib. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. 5th Edition. Israr-ud-Din.. J. and Memon. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. 29 . terminologies: Poisons. Soil Science. K. Lahore. Shirkat Gah. toxins & toxicants. Island Press.A. Newman. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. 4.W. their containment and control strategies. Rashid. 2nd ed. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. University of Peshawar. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. biological effects. Peshawar. Blackwell Scientific Publications. A. Pakistan’s Environment. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. B. Odum E. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. Islamabad. and Barett. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. water and soil.Recommended Books: 1. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. dose response relationship in living organisms. Chemical interactions and their types. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. 2004.I. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. Synergism.. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. R. soil and air samples. Margaret A. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. D.1998. E. Organs. Fundamentals of Ecology. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management.. USA..

W. Ballantyne. 5th Edition.. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. Klassen. USA. 1st Edition. measuring environmental benefits. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. urbanization and pollution. Economic: agriculture. Macmillan Press Ltd.). 1993. T and Turner. USA.1 & 2. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. P. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. B. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. 3. the economy and the environment. Course Outlines Introduction to history. 1996.Recommended Books 1. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. health.M. pollution control-a general model. Government of Pakistan. industry. Course Outlines Introduction. State of the Environment-Pakistan . international trade and the environment. economic development and the environment. Hughes.Science of Poisons . General and Applied Toxicology. economic aspects of different environmental problems. Williams. geography. topographic zones. clean development mechanism. water resources. Vol. land. people. Recommended Books 1. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. CRC Press Llc. W. education. USA.D.2005 2. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. Recommended Books: 30 . M. 3. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. McGrawhill. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. 2005 2. 1992. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. 1st Edition. Ecological: ecological zones. (ed. culture. major ecosystems.

soil (NPK and organic matter contents. D. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH.I. Skoog.. Analytical techniques for soil. 8th Edition. and Batemen. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. 3. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. Gravimetery. Oxford. Use of Potentiometery. A. units. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. M. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. Freeman & Co. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Holler. Kolstad. Fluoride. USA. Conductivitymetry. D. Peverill. West. New York. C.2002. J. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. B. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. CSIRO Publ. salinity & sodicity). 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Sample preservation methods. Standard solutions and standard curves. Lab Work S. Collingwood.A.K.1. Data interpretation for quality control. Pearce. Gravimetery. Turner. D.R. Titrimetery. handling. Field. L. D. 1999.. 2000. BOD. Reuter. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. M.K. All Solids. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. Sample collection.J. 1993. and derived S. Australia. Sparrow and D. precision and accuracy. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. and F..L. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). 6th Edition.2004.I. preparation and storage. Titrimetery. water and plant analysis. NO3–N & NH4-N). Recommended Books: 1. 4.W. 3.. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. Oxford University Press. Thomson and Brooks. 2. COD. I.and Field.C. C. 2. 2003.UK.D.. 31 . Harris. Environmental Economics. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Conductivitymetry.. 2005. Johns Hopkins University Press. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. K. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory.

Recombinant DNA technology. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. Derbre. England.W.P. Biotechnology. J.E. Tools in environmental biotechnology. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques.. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. A. and Russel. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . (ed. Hans- Joachim.. After completion of this course. Cambridge University Press. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. J. Smith. USA. Course Outlines Introduction. W. D. National Biotechnology Commission. USA. USA. New York. students will be able to understand the significance. 2001. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. Scragg.). 2007. and Josef. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. Germany. Chichoster. 3.1999. Environmental Biotechnology. Introduction to microbial kinetics.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. 2005. and application of biotechnology in the environment. Sambrook. 2009. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. 2005. PCR. 4. Recommended Books 1. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. Biomarkers. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. Wiley-VCH Verlag. Oxford University Press. 2nd Ed.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments.D. National Biosafety Guidelines. Biosensor. New York. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. Government of Pakistan. Isolation. J. purification and preservation of DNA. 2. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. Bioreactors. 5th Ed.

Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). V. John Wiley and Sons. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. R. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. 2000. Rancez. A. 2000. Image Processing. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. Satellite Imageries. Data acquisition. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . Inc. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Z. Introduction to Photogrammetry. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Forestry. F. 2. Dessinov. Fishery and wildlife. Introduction to GIS. Harvey. Preparation of thematic maps. K and L. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. 3. Inc. analysis and output. Jensen. Aerial photography. Lulla. advantages and limitations of process. History and data collection. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. Cartography. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. history and platforms. Campbell. Interpretation. 1999. 2009. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. Data entry and output. Guilfoud press New York. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. eradication of the duplicated data. 4. Mc Graw Hill Education. John Wiley and Sons. Different types of maps. 2008. Agriculture. Energy Sources. Types of data used in GIS. Active and Passive remote sensing. Inc. Pearsons Education. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Using and reading GPS in field. 5. map projection and coordinate systems. integration of information from many sources.

cleaner technologies.. etc. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. 4. Khan. 34 . Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. types of biodiversity.. hot spots of biodiversity. plant. Conservation of biodiversity. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. Environmental Economy. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. eco-design. 2005. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. Environmental Management Systems Principles. Environmental Management tools. Michigan. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label.C. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. M. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). standards and guidelines. 3. American Society for Quality. Related Environmental legislation. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. threats to biodiversity. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. Systems and Support Techniques. WWF Pakistan. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). 2006. need and approach. M. Sheldon. and Yoxon. F. Methods of environmental protection.). Environment and sustainable development. 2001. American Society for Quality. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. and Qasim. A. Course Outlines Introduction. alpha and beta diversity.. Certification of EMS. Environmental aspects and impacts. economic. 1998. principles of Cleaner production. social and ethical values of biodiversity. B.2nd Ed. ecological. philosophical. International Organization for Standardization.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. 2.3rd Edition .

. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. plants. quality control sampling. management. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. conservation strategies. air.R. quality assessment. conservation in man-made ecosystems. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. Mirza. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city.. Conservation of wildlife. 2ndEd. Recommended Books: 1. 35 .B. Legal protection of species. forests. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. Preservation methods including pH control. Kings College. presampling requirements/information. population. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. and Morre. P. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. international agreements.. ecotourism. 2000.B. Sinauer. Publ. water. sampling and design purposes. community and ecosystem level. NOC for plant operation. Saad Printers. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. soil and living organisms. design and types of samples. Sunderland. Considerations. Quality assurance and quality control. EIA requirement. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. C. A Primer for Conservation Biology. Course Outlines Introduction.B. conservation and livelihood. habitats. 2. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water.D. Z. cities. croplands. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. Lahore). chemical addition. national and international laws and regulations. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. Rawalpindi. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. 3. Biogeography. Cox. 2000.e. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. Associates Inc.conservation at species. P. laboratory custody. refrigeration and freezing methods. field custody. 1998. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. protected areas. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. London. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. their categories.

Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. D. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change.. 8. agriculture. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. Precipitation. 6. 2000. . (eds. 1992.. New York. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. phenological changes. Chuviero. Manahan. Burden. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. 2008.1996. biological. R. Korte. Forstner U. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. regional. F. extinctions.1999. Moisture in the Atmosphere. Environmental Chemistry. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. Chapman and Hall.Recommended Books: 1. Physical. its causes and effects. Keith. Air Pollution and Acid Rain.) McGraw-Hill. Murai. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. UK. S. altered community structure. Energy and Temperature. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. E. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. 3. H. Tokyo. 2nd Edition. Ozone depletion. D. E. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. chemical. 2008. S. The Measurement of Climate Change. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. USA. Human responses to potential climate change. L. human health. 5. I. Peakall. 2002. Lewis Publisher London. Earth Observation of Global Change. (ed) Springer. 2. 2002. USA. McKlivie. Remote Sensing Note. Regional droughts and 36 . Technomic Publishing Company Inc. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. N. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. Recent Climate Change Indicators. USA. Environmental Monitoring Handbook.USA. and Guethner. 7. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data.

decision-making to implement the project. law. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society.).. 3. reporting. EIA project management. social impact assessment (SIA). Main stages in EIA process. Climate Change . mitigation and impact management. J.. D. Global Warming and Climate Change. Types & Resources to produce Energy. Glasson. Global Change and the earth system. 1st Edition. review of EIA quality. public involvement. Hardy. Earthscan Publication Ltd. J. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. and Solutions. impact analysis. Hardy. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan.Causes. London. Sringer. National Book Foundation. J. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems.cataclysmic climate change. J. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T.T. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. Islamabad. 37 . 1994. and noise. (ed. T. Harrop. 6. 2000. liquid. project implementation and follow up. J. Blackwell. London. Effects. 2005. Recommended Books: 1. John Wiley & Sons.. 2003. Cost and benefits of EIA. 1986. Houghton. 4. 2004. 2005. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. 2. Oxford.. Therivel.. 2005. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. and Solutions. Petts. A.(ed).A. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Ministry of Housing and Works. & Nixon. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project.Causes. solids.O. 2003. 4.. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. scoping. overview. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. John Wiley & Sons. 5. 1999. 3. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. and Chadwick. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. Keith. Islamabad. Routledge. screening. A. Recommended Books: 1. Effects.. 2. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. Climate Change . R.

agriculture chemicals. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. 6. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. F.. national and provincial legislation.B and Warren. Asian Development Bank. M. (ed. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. R. B. best available option for future. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. Lohani.. Development of Management Plan: needs. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. effective management. solar power. S. methodologies. Rangeland Management: existing status. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. wildlife census. Everitt. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development.. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. Recommended Books: 1. forest types and its existing management. management options. John Willey & Sons. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. 1997. J. their pros and cons. threats. R. United Nations Environment Programme. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. requirement. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. A. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. Types. process and contents of the management plan.5. 38 . COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. Evans. national agriculture policy. Carpenter. wind power and nuclear power. Conservation in Progress. 2nd Edition. threat and its causes. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. Goldsmith.). agriculture products and their share in GDP. & McCabe.. national example. Sadler. USA. existing management approaches. and Tu. H. Ludwig. B.. importance. problem in agriculture. their current status and threats. management options. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. 2002. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. limitation in the future. New York. 1993. causes and methods for its improvement...

1990. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. and Jorqensen. Material Methods. 1984. Research Proposal: its importance . Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison)..F. R. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. Surveys. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Environmental Conservation.A pre-requisite for Research. Literature Search: Database. Sage CA. Hansen. 3.Amsterdam. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research.2. to introduce students to research design. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. Experimental Research. Review of Literature. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. USA. 1992. 5.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. types of sampling design/. Selecting the Research Method. Scientific Research: Science. London. Methodology. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. 2007. Objectives. How to put things together? Introduction. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. J.E. concepts and terminologies. Inference based on findings. 4. Creswell. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. Review of Literature. Interviews. GOP and IUCN. P. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. Case Studies. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. Research Design & Research Methods. 39 . Thousand Oaks. population and sampling frames. Scientific Methods. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. Dasmann. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Questionnaire. Islamabad. & Plano Clark. New York. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. Bibliography. Search Engines.E. Sampling: the logic of sampling. research methods.L. V. John Wiley & Sons. S. W. Elsevier.

. 1997. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . Chichester. 2003. Univ. National Environmental Policy 4. 2. 3. Government of Pakistan 3. Robert Yin.h.Harrad. G. 2000. 1989.. Booth. 2001. Survey Research Methods.S. Marilyn F. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. John and sons Ltd. 2008. Belmont California. Sage Publishers. USA.USA. 2nd Edition. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan.2. 2003. Students project in Environmental Science. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. and Arhonditsis. 6. R. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. 1997. M.Batty. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. 4. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. Recommended Books: 1. 5. England. E. Wadsworth Publishing Company. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. Law Books House. Babbie. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. Diamon. National Conservation Strategy 5. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. S. regulations made there under. of Chicago Press.. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. USA. Qadar.. 3rd Edition. Moriarty.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

6. Lahore.K. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. Briscoe.). Ahmed. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). (eds. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. Mirajuddin Publication . flood and droughts. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. hydrological cycle.. SDPI Oxford University Press. with drinking water facilities like springs. Revised & enlarged edition. A. tubewells. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. Pakistan. Oxford University Press New Delhi.Varis. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. and Tortajada. Indus Water Accord 1991. water quality and quantity aspects. R. 2. Islamabad. wetlands resources management. 4. R. A.. 3. and Qamar. virtual water. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. water supply and demand management measures. Oxford University Press Karachi.. N. recycling and re-use of wastewater.Lahore. Islamabad. K. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. flood and drought management. pollution aspects. Ahmed. Cheema. and Malik. watershed/catchment. 44 . Khan. C. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. P. J. N. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects.. Pakistan . Bengali. precipitation distribution in Pakistan.. integrated water resources management (IWRM).1993. fisheries management. The Politics of Managing Water. O. 2003. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. I. 5.). like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. Mirajuddin Publication . Asia Printer. 1993. 2006. (ed... Recommended Books: 1.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. groundwater exploitation. A. U. 2006. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. 2005. Biswas.

Academic Press. transport. CA. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. USA. urbanization in Pakistan. management and green productivity. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. 1996. Prentice Hall. 45 . Soils in Our Environment. urban settlements. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. Process and outcome. R. Miller. humans as components of urban ecosystems. D. Urban ecosystem. Types and properties of parent materials. After completion of this course. Upper Saddle River. Soil forming minerals. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. R. D. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. Islamabad.C. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. Hillel. NJ. USA.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. Upper Saddle River. Pakistan. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. USA. future of urban centers. 1. Factors and processes of soil formation. Soil Science. PrenticeHall. E. N.. urban political ecology. R. Course Outlines Introduction. Forms of urbanization. the salient features of urban environments. soils. San Diego.T. Soil degradation. urban landscapes characteristics.. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. and Bantel. National Book Foundation. Bashir. urban flora and fauna. hydrological processes. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. 11th Edition. Course Outlines Introduction. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. Causes of urbanization.W.R. Cation and anion exchange. Urbanization. Gardiner. and Weil. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. Brady. 2007. 2007. Physical and chemical properties of soil. NJ. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. Definition. 2008.

The Ecology of Urban Habitats. CRC Press LLC. Sukopp. H. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. 3. nd 2 Edition. Hejny. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. M. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. O. SAGE Publications Ltd. Ward. J. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. 1989. Aims and Objectives of planning. UR. London. 5. D. 2004. Penguin Group. 2007.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. Alberti.1990. A. SBS academic publishing. UK. Springer. Types of Urban Plans. 2009. Recommended Books: 1. 1. Elements of urban planning. 2. Chapman and Hall..S. UK. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. I. Planning and its relationship with other professions. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. USA. 2006. 2004. Scope.. Gilbert. Land use planning theories. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. New trends in planning and city management.. London. Levels of planning. Planning and Urban Change. C. UK. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Planning theories and concepts. Hough. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. Kate. 4. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. USA. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. V. City Design for Sustainable Development. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. The planning process. Hague. nature and purpose of urban planning. 2. Principles of planning. Routledge.and Maser. Justification for planning for city management.L. M. 2000.and Kowaril. Smith. 46 .. Routledge. S. New York.. S. Silberstein. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments.

4. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies.. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. Disaster as an opportunity for development.. Earthquake. Natural Disasters Alexander. 1993. and White G.e. New York. Disaster Management: Components of management.. 1989. R.B. It discusses a wide range of aspects. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. 1993. Socio-economic factors. Earthquake Management. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. 1991. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. P. UK. Role of Media in Disaster Management.W. E&UA Div. D. Prediction. ADB. 1986. Islamabad. Boulder . Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. The Guilford Press. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. 1993.. 47 . The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. Political factors.UNESCO. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. 4.W. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. Physical factors. Government of Pakistan. M. i. Westview Press. Recommended Books: 1..F. Flooding. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation.. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. Manila. Cultural factors. Chapman & Hall. Ministry of Housing and Works. 2. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. Longman Group. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. Hazards. Paris. Different approaches and Indicators. Clara.. Natural cycles and their role. Landslide.J. H. Flood Management: Organizational Role. G. International phenomenon. and Woodrow. New York. The Environment as Hazard Burton I.. Kates. 2nd Edition. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. 3. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Introducing Town Planning. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures.3.

Ecological concept in crop and food production.B and Keller. 6. Westport. local. R. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. E. M. Biotic structure. John Wiley and Sons. merits and demerits of wind. Consumer and producer relationship.. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. 2007.. 2007. 1983. 6th Edition. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals.W. Schoch. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. McKinney. and Yonavjak. D. OECD/IEA. L. 4th Edition.5. energy resources. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. sustainable energy management. consumers. primary producers. 48 . efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. decomposers. biomass resources. 2.. solar. A. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.A. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. Agroecology. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. Quorum Books. F. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. hydropower. 1. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources.H. types.L. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Paris. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Disasters and Development Cuny. energy resources of Pakistan. 1984. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. and Mushkatel. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. Sustainable livestock management. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. Botkin. New York. Deforestation for agricultural purposes.M. USA. uses. 2001.C. 3. Perry R. alternate energy resources.

. Kapur. Boulder. Yandermeer J.A. CBS Publishers and Distributors. Experimental Plant Ecology.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. India. 2000. and Sudha.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. E-11 Seminar 49 .G. New York. 1990. USA. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. New Delhi. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. Westview Press. M. 1995.H. Altreri. 2.P. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. USA. Study of index of diversity. C. 3. Corol. P.R. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. R. Agrocology.M. and Rossel. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. Study of stratification and profile diagram. Recommended Books: 1.

The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. the Committee agreed on the following principles. availability of the faculty and other facilities. 50 . that: 1. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. 4. 2. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. 3.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. 5.

7. 2. 21. 6. 10. 20. 9. 6. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 11. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 7. 2. 12. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 24. 16. 5. 11. 17. 3. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 9. 5. 3. 12. 8. 14. 4. 23. 25.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 13. 15. 4. 26. 22. 19. 18. 10. 8.

Hodder and Stoughton. status of Terrestrial. 52 . 1991. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. Draft National Environmental Policy. London. Recommended Books: 1. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Carrying capacity and sustainable development. Hansen.A. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Regional and International Environmental Issues.F.1994. GOP and IUCN. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. and Bell. D. Oxford University Press. Treaties. Geography of Pakistan. Instruments and methods. S.S. 2nd Edition. Islamabad.1995.. 1992.. Mackenzie. Elsevier.1994. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall.E. Environment People and Economy. Mackenzie J. Money.T. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. Ball. S. Relationship of culture. 3..E. NCS. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. London Black Stone Press Ltd. Conventions and Protocols in Global.. Conservation Strategies. Provincial and Local Strategies. and Jorqensen. FURTHER READINGS 1. 1987. technology and resource use. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. Amsterdam. development of concepts. Environmental control Policies. F. Oxford University Press. 3. S.DETAILS OF M. Khan K. 4. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. Karachi. 2. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. P..1991. 2. WCS. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan.

Environment Department. role and importance. History. 53 . DC. Assessment of environmental impacts. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). Government of Pakistan. A one Publishers Lahore. 1995. 2. Ed. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. Ahmed. opportunities and issues.Vanclay. sample collection and preservation.. economic impact assessment. Washington. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. Demographic impact assessment. FURTHER READINGS 1. Recommended Books: 1. 1993. Cost benefit analysis of projects.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. process. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. ecological impact assessment. John Wiley & Sons. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. procedures and methods of EIA. D. A. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. social impact assessment. 3. Gas Chromatography etc. Burnt Hill. Case Studies and review. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. Environmental Chemical Analysis. K. Recommended Books: 1. ed. sampling rules. Wood. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. Air and Solid Waste. Longman House. 2. Longman Scientific and Technical. Environmental auditing. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. World Bank. Wastewater. Ministry of Environment. 1995. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update.A. Principles of physical. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). England. C. F & Bronstein. WB. Chichester. Harlow Essex. UK. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review).

. Environmental Health Engineering. 1997. de Kok. Reasons for Project success or failure. Project Planning and Approval Processes. Government Policies and Programs.. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. T.. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. 2. Planning Commission Performas. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. Inc. Occupational Health: problems and issues. assumptions. Project Initiation. air borne. Yassi. Kjelllström. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. Basic Environmental Health. Park. K. R. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. 1998. Public health concept. B. 5. development objectives. T. Primary health care services. 2001. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). Need identification. John Wiley and Sons. M. Recommended Books: 1. prevention and control. 1st Ed. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Prentice Hall International Inc.2000. M/S Banarsid. Writing Project Proposal. Meredith J. specific objectives. USA. 54 . Wiley Interscience. 2nd Ed.. UK. 1992. economic evaluation. London.. 3. means of verification. J. activities.. work breakdown structure.. New York. T. Oxford University Press New York. 1st Ed. Project Planning. Mantel s. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. A. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. A Guide to Project Management. 4. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. Nebel. J. Project Life Cycle...COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. Project Management Institute. 1993. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. principles and practices. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. inputs. T. and Wright. 2. Resource Mobilization. Defining Project objectives. outputs. safety techniques. S. indicators. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. Accident prevention and safety plans. USA. Caeneross. Lippmann. L. feasibility study. Ergonomic and Safety. 2002. and Guidotti. R. 1st ed.

hydropower. St Luise Press. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. data collection and interpretation. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. Environmental auditing. types. energy resources of Pakistan. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. E. Schoch. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. L. 2007. energy resources. transport.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. D. 2. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. John Wiley and Sons. 3. Michigan-January 2001. 55 . gas. Sayre. merits and demerits of wind. Paris. 1998. industry and domestic sectors. 2007. USA. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. solar. Botkin. 1990b. ISO Central Secretariat. non-renewable and renewable. petroleum. and Yonavjak. uses. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). 6th Edition. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future.L. 2. Paris. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). nuclear) local. 4. McKinney. alternate energy resources. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. 2001. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Switzerland. OECD/IEA. Related Environmental regulations.A. Environmental Auditing. D. Recommended Books: 1. Sources of data. R.M. Recommended Books: 1. sustainable energy management for agriculture. M. 4th Edition. Principles of cleaner production. principles and elements of the process of EMS.B and Keller. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. 3.. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. bio-energy resources.

John Wiley & Sons. John Wiley & Sons. Houghton. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. Green House Gases. management and restoration.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. Beck. B & Jager. Silvertown. Effects. types of climate change models. 2005. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. Springer. Effects. 2. Plant population dynamics.. 5. The Green House Effect. geographical and temporal patterns.Causes. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. resources and plants. K. Plant Ecology. 3. Blackwell Publishing. survival and extinction. Berlin. 2003. J.D. John Wiley & Sons. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T.. Recommended Books: 1. plant invasions. 1st Edition. competition and coexistence. types and their climatic effects. & Charlesworth. and Solutions. 1. 56 . etc. 2004. Climate Change and Ecosystems. Life history strategies of plants. plant conservation. Hardy. Chichester. 4. Species richness. UK. vegetation dynamics. ECOPE 29. water resources.Causes. 2. and Solutions. D. Earthscan Publication Ltd. forests. Shulze. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants.). Climate Change . Blackwell Publishing. 2003. T. Climate change and food production. London. Vegetation Ecology Ed. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Modeling of climate change. human activities and vegetation dynamics. Warrick. Oxford. (Ed. 2005. E. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. D. Climate Change . 2005. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. UK 1991. Recommended Books: 1. 3. Oxford UK. global aspects of plant ecology. Hardy. 2005. E & Muller-Hohenstein. Maarel. J.T. J. ED.

Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. Inc. Global and national biodiversity.) Gaston. Principles of Wildlife Management. Conserving Living Natural Resources. 2004. R.J. Recommended Books: 1. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. Oxford. T. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. Protection and restoration of species. Wildlife of Pakistan.(2nd Ed. Publishers Sunderland. Loss of biodiversity. habitats and ecosystems. Participatory forest management. 2002. distribution and management. distribution. Wetlands. Forests. threats and conservation. biological diversity. Bailey. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Mcmillan. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. I). 2002. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. Wildlife Ecology and Management. types. 1998. Oxford University Press. Oxford University Press. T. Weddell. Forest plantations. K.J. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. London. Cambridge. Recommended Books: 1. their types and role in conservation. Sinauer Assocaites. 2. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. John Wiley And Sons.J. Robinson. II). 3. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. J. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. Roberts. its causes. status. Cambridge University Press. 1973 2. Cambridge. Oxford. kinds. 4. Extinction of species. 1986. Primack. Roberts. J.D.G. deforestation and its control. Consumptive. Blackwell Publsihing. & Spicer. Threatened animals and plants. W. Rangeland management. B. 3.L. their importance. USA. Status of forests in Pakistan. Oxford University Press. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. Oxford. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. UK. E. 1984. types. S. distribution. Protected areas. Protected areas in Pakistan.A. Biodiversity: An introduction. Sustainable forest management. S.J. their ecological and economic importance. Essentials of Conservation Biology. Establishment and management of protected areas. 57 . management. UK.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. & Ripley.B. 5. 1992. And Bolen. problems and solutions.

Ward. urbanization in Pakistan. Silberstein. C. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Urban land use planning and management. A. 58 .. 2004. Sustainable cities. SAGE Publications Ltd. Recommended Books: 1. management of transport. Planning and Urban Change. New York.. Clara. S. 3. Kate. J. 1986. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. urban political ecology. sanitation. future of urban centers. urban landscape characteristics. 2000. 2007. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. V. Penguin Group. Forms of urbanization. Environmental problems of urban life.. G. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. urban systems and their characteristics. UK. 1993.. Introducing Town Planning. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. USA. 4. CRC Press LLC. Longman Group.and Maser. 2. E&UA Div. Ministry of Housing and Works. drinking water and solid waste in cities. H. London. Government of Pakistan. UK. Islamabad. USA.

J. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. ISBN 0194313492 59 . Exercises 1. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. a) Functional English Grammar 1. Martinet.Annexure . Practical English Grammar by A. 1997.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking.V. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. Oxford University Press. Third edition. Thomson and A.

Writing. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . Thomson and A. b) Practical English Grammar by A. 1997. Fourth Impression 1993. Martinet. minutes of meetings. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Reading/Comprehension 1. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1.J. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. Upper Intermediate. Oxford Supplementary Skills.V. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Exercises 2. Reading. intensive and extensive. and speed reading. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Third edition. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. ISBN 0 19 453402 2.2. Third Impression 1992.

argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style.1. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Reading 1. Martinet. clarity. narrative. descriptive and argumentative writing). ISBN 0 19 453403 0. b) Writing 1. Oxford University Press 1986. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. discursive. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. Third Impression 1992. Fourth Impression 1993. Practical English Grammar by A. Writing.J. introduction to presentations. Writing. Third edition. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. Thomson and A. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Advanced. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Third Impression 1991. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Exercises 2. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet.V. content. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. 2. language. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Oxford Supplementary Skills. Reading. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. form. Advanced by Ron White. Fourth Impression 1992. 2. Writing.

A Custom Publication. argumentative and report writing). 3. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. 2. Mandell. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. Martin’s Press. without taxing the taste of engineering students). St. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. College Writing Skills by John Langan.(particularly suitable for discursive. Compiled by norther Illinois University. Kirszner and Stephen R. descriptive. 2004. 62 . Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. Kathleen Shine Cain.

1977-88 e. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. Course Outline 1. national development. Mehmood. State & Society in Pakistan. 1958-71 c. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. 2000. Muslim advent iii. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Historical Perspective a. Zaidi. 1993. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. Study the process of governance.Annexure . Karachi: Oxford University Press.M. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. government. S. ideological background of Pakistan. Contemporary Pakistan a. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. 63 Books Recommended 1. Shahid Javed. Safdar. 1988-99 f. S. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. 1971-77 d. Location and geo-physical features.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. 1999 onward 3. 2. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. contemporary Pakistan. Indus Civilization ii. 3. 2. b. 1994. Akbar. . Economic institutions and issues b. politics. 4. Lahore. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. Society and social structure c. 1947-58 b. People and Land i. Ethnicity d.

Ziring. Tahir. Politics in Pakistan. 6. Enigma of Political Development. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. 64 . Amin. 1987. Ansar.The Emergence of Banglades. 1993. Haq.. 11. nd. Afzal. Aziz.K. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. 8. 1980. History & Culture of Sindh. Lahore: Vanguard. Washington: American Enterprise. 1967. 13. II & III. 14. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. 12. Wayne.National Movement in Pakistan. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Noor ul.5. Ethno . Institute of Public Policy Research. 1998. Khalid Bin. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Sayeed. 10. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. 1976. 7. Muhammad Waseem. M. Club Road. Safdar. Zahid. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Vol. Lawrence. Political Parties in Pakistan. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Pakistan Under Martial Law. Party. 1972. The Political System of Pakistan. Mehmood. Rafique. Wilcox. 1980. K. Islamabad. I. 9. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd.

W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.56.20) Related to thinking.19.A.6.A.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.57. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.58.21.A.A.Annexure .Tadabar (Verse No1.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.40.

in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.

International Islamic University. Islamabad (2001) 67 . Bhatia. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. IRI. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. Ahmad Hasan. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H.S. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Studies in Islamic Law. “Emergence of Islam” . Pakistan.

Beckenback EF. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. 1978. Wooton W. Boston Swokowski EW. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. introduction to sets. trigonometric identities. geometric progression. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. set operations. PWS-Kent Company. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices.Annexure . types. 1986. Boston 68 .D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. harmonic progression. complex numbers. Sharron S. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. equations reducible to quadratic equations. functions. cube roots of unity. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. 1987. not majoring in mathematics. system of linear equations. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. types of functions. Houghton & Mifflin. Cramer’s rule. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. determinants. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. PWS-Kent Company. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. matrix inverse.

1983. various forms of equation of a line. New York Stewart J. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. 1995. John Wiley. Ma. Addison-Wesley. Davis S. slope of a line. Recommended Books: Anton H. not majoring in mathematics. parallel and perpendicular lines. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. PWS-Kent Company. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. inequalities. Reading. continuity. Finney AR. not majoring in mathematics. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Calculus (11th edition). 69 . equation of a line. distance between a point and a line. change of variables in indefinite integrals. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). functions and their graphs. solution of equations involving absolute values. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. differentiation of polynomial. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. 2005. intersection of two lines. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. left-hand and right-hand limits. angle between two lines.2. Calculus (3rd edition). integration by parts. USA 3. integration by substitution. derivatives. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. Boston Thomas GB. continuous functions. 2005. Bevens I. distance between two points. rational and transcendental functions. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students.

equations reducible to quadratic equations. Boston Swokowski EW. Freshman and Company. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). set operations. hyperbola. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. nature of roots of quadratic equations. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. functions. Conic Sections: Parabola. 70 . determinants. inverse of matrices. College Algebra and Trigonometry. 1987. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. types of matrices. 1969 Kaufmann JE. PWS-Kent Company. intersection of lines and circles. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). Matrices: Introduction to matrices. ellipse. • Contents 1. PWS-Kent Company. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines.Circle: Equation of a circle. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. types of functions. 1986. Introduction to sets. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. circles determined by various conditions. locus of a point in various conditions. Cramer’s rule. system of linear equations. Boston 4. Scott. Analytic Geometry. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations.

E. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. variance. standard deviation. characteristics of statistics. types of frequency series. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem.. R. E. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Books Recommended: 1. quartiles. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. 71 . 5. R. Kaufmann.. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. J. 4. ungrouped and grouped data.geometric and harmonic progressions. Swokowski. Graphs: Graph of straight line. E. trigonometric identities. 3. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution.. 2. Walpole. deciles and percentiles. Latest Edition. cumulative frequency curve. relationship of statistics with social science. bar frequency diagram histogram. array. Boston. frequency polygon. R. 2. tally sheet method. circle and trigonometric functions. Wilcox. Prentice Hall. PWS-Kent Company. discrete and continuous series. ‘Introduction of Statistics’.. Latest Edition. W. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. skewness and kurtosis. individual. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. moments. Measures of dispersion: Range. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. Latest Edition. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’.

products. et al. Least-Squares Line. substitution method. Thomas. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. Jhon Willey & Sons. Continuous Functions. H. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. the chain rule. 5. Rational Functions. Davis. Trigonometric Functions. 4th edition. integral inequalities. Continuity. 11th Edition. I. Frank A.Jr. Bevens. 2002. Boston. Calculus. 4. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. sinusoidal function. 1999. Gleason. 2. S. John H. logarithmic differentiation. special points of a function. Rational and Transcendental Functions. and Transcendental Functions. Addison Wesley publishing company. 2005. Equation of a Line.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. 3. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. 2. E. 3rd Edition. Prentice-Hall. reduction formulae. Leibnitz’ theorem. Schaum’s Outline Series. Contents 1. Elliott Mendelson. quotients. the inverse of differentiation. Second Edition 1992. Inc. theorems of differentiation. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. John Wiley & Sons. integration by parts. applications of integration. Mathews. Anton. Inc. plane polar coordinates. Calculus Single and Multivariable. integration by inspection. 2005. logarithmic integration. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. • Integration Integration from first principles. Extreme Values of Functions. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. 8th edition. Calculus. Calculus. integration using partial fractions. Recommended Books: 1. Inequalities. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. McCallum. Slope of a Line. W. Hughes-Hallett. 6. implicit differentiation. Swokowski. 1983. 6. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. Integration by Parts. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . infinite and improper integrals. Solution of equations involving absolute values.

transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. complex conjugate.Additions and subtraction. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. the difference method. modulus and argument. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. inverses of hyperbolic functions. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . multiplication. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. series involving natural numbers. approximation errors in Taylor series. finding the nth roots of unity. solving hyperbolic equations. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. identities of hyperbolic functions. geometric series. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. arithmetico-geometric series.

line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. of a unitary matrix. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. point to plane. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. moments of inertia. line to line. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. symmetric and antisymmetric. vector product. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. the inner product. Hermitian. masses. orthogonal. Pappus’ theorems. centers of mass and centroids. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. scalar triple product. 6.5.

combinations of grad. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions.8. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. spherical polar coordinates 75 . divergence of a vector field.

bias. Discrete and continuous variables. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. properties of Good Average. Collection of primary and secondary data. Box and Whisker Plot. sample design and sampling frame. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Absolute and relative measures. sampling and non sampling errors. The Variance and standard deviation. Unit 7. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Editing of Data. level of significance. Observations. The semi-Interquartile Range. acceptance and rejection regions. Population. probability and non-probability sampling. Pie chart. Bar charts. Range. Statistical problem. Standardized variables. Exercises. Unit 4. Constructing of a frequency distribution. The Mean Deviation. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Median and mode. Rounding of a Number. Coefficient of variation. Unit 3. Histogram. The Mode. Stem and Leaf Display. Graphs and their Construction. Unit 5. Exercises. Significant digits. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Presentation of Data Introduction. Diagrams. Probability and Probability Distributions. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Exercises Unit 6. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Historigram. Exercises. sampling with and without replacement. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Exercises. Exercises. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Type-I and Type-II errors. Types of frequency curves. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. 76 . Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Empirical Relation between Mean. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. null and alternative hypothesis. Data. Difference of means and proportions. Change of origin and scale. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Different types of Averages. Exercises. Errors of measurement. Unit 2. Test statistics. Moments and Moments ratios.Annexure . Poisson and Normal Distribution. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Quantiles. definition of outliers and their detection. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Sources.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1.

2 Muhammad. 3rd Ed.Unit 8.Single Population Introduction. Regression and Correlation Introduction.. F. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Contingency Tables. 1982. Exercises Unit 9. its estimation and interpretation.. cause and effect relationships. Inc. Coefficient of linear correlation. examples. “Introduction to Statistics”. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. simple linear regression. Exercises Unit 10. R.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. 77 . Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. r and R2. Unit 11. Testing of Hypothesis. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. New York. Correlation. Macmillan Publishing Co. Exercises. Kitab Markaz. 2005. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. E.

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