CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
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The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. Lahore. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . DR. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. The world has turned into a global village. dated December 4th 1976. degree awarding institutions. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee.). It also aimed to give a basic. and 36. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. It is. R&D organizations. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. PROF. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities.ALTAF ALI G. the Federal Government vide notification No. 63. universities and other institutions of higher education. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. D773/76-JEA (cur. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. therefore. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level.

LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. COL. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. OF CURRI. R&D. REC. EXP. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. OF FINAL CURRI. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. PREP. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. OF NCRC. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. UNI. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. Preparation 5 .

Member 3. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Member 5. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Karachi from 28-30. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Dr. Following attended the meeting:1. Rawalpindi Dr. Dr. 7. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Member 4. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Rawalpindi Dr. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Dr. Member 6 . Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Lahore Member 6.

Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Dr. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. 13. Member 11. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Dr. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Prof. Karachi Member 12. Member 16.8. Dr. Member 10. Dr. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Dr. Prof. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Member 14. 7 . Member 15. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Dr.

Chairman. Mr. At first. 1. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. Faisalabad Member 18. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. The meeting was opened by Mr. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Member 20. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. Director of HEC Regional Center. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. Dr. Mr. 8 .17. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. Member 19. 2. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Dr. Karachi. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Secretary Dr. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them.

In last few centuries. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. 6. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. 2. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. 5. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. 3. 4. 1. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. The committee thanked Mr. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society.3. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development.

Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. ii. in its preliminary meeting. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. skills and behaviour patterns. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. This committee. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. 5.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. Apply theoretical understanding. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. regional and global contexts. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 .

A. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. eight semesters in the semester system. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. with consensus. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. Sc. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3.e. 5.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. 6. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. The medium of instruction. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. 4. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. Integrating natural sciences. that: 1. 1.. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. The 11 . 2. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. 3.

Psychology* . Environmental Pollution 22. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. English-III 18. Introductory Economics* 17. Environmental Chemistry 15. Introduction to Earth Science 8. Climatology* 23. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Environmental Microbiology 21. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Biology –I* 3. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Biology –II* 9. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Introduction to Computer 14. Basic Chemistry* 4. English-I 6. Environmental Physics 16. English-II 12. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10.

24. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. 46. Opt. Environmental Biotechnology 32. Environmental toxicology 27. 44. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. Natural Resource Management 40. Environmental Monitoring 36. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. English-IV/ Univ. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. Climate Change 38. Environmental Economics 29. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. Applied Ecology 26. ELECTIVE-III 42. 45. Environmental Management Systems 34. Environmental Impact Assessment 39.

• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .

John Wiley & Sons.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. current global. Pearson Educational. philosophical.. biological and social. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. lipids. D.M. 10th Ed.. R. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. B. national. ecological. Wright. Different aspects of environment: physical. Botkin. 2007 3. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. 2007. proteins and nucleic acids. E.T. Recommended Books: 1. history. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. and their relationships with various environmental factors. its importance in human life. 4. urbanization. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. development in industry and agriculture. socio-economic. 6th Ed. Miller. 2002. 4th Ed. & Nebel.L. M. R.B & Keller. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . ethical. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates.A. & Yonavjak. 2. G. Human environment and its problems: global. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. 15 .J. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. Thomson Learning. regional. 2007. L. poverty and resource depletion.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. Schoch. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. McKinney. environmental pollution.

overview of structure and function of cell organelles. Biology: a Human Emphasis. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. carboxylic acids. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. Lingappa. 4. USA. the molecule of genetic information and replication. Cassimeris. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. E. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Nucleic acids. 5th Edetion. Starr. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. J. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. McGraw. V. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. 8th Ed. USA. Structure and the basis of function. R. Ionic. Lewis.. carbohydrates. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. Bulter.. Self Assessment and Revie. polypeptides in protein diversity. 1996. R. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. lipids. 1. 2007. C. Canada. Plopper. 2008. 16 . Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. Shier. L. Aromatic compounds. amines). 2007.. carbonyls. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. Cell division. Molecular Biology through Questions. 3. Crossley. Ltd. 2. 5.Hill International Edition. B. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. G. proteins. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. covalent. coordinate covalent bond. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. A. Introduction to cell biology. phospholipids in membrane systems. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. D. lipids. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. esters. Wadsworth Group. origin of metabolism. Cells. 2003.. USA. and Whitelaw. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. New York. protobionts. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. and Lewis. Australia . M. chemical diversity. Origin of life: chemical evolution. chemical basis of life.. N. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt.

17 .. geometric and harmonic sequence. UK.E.. Jones and Barlett. Sequence and series: Arithmetic.. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. Osmosis and Dialysis. Liss.Special Products (Binomial Expression). Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. F. Measurement of pH. radicals. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. 2004. 5. West. 1st Ed. Thin layer chromatography. 8th Edition. USA. Qualitative Chemical Analysis.ions. straight line and related concepts. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. and Reid. Harris. molal. Thomson and Brooks. expansion of determinants. Cambridge University Press..J. P. Skoog. 6th Edition. EC and TDS in waste water. Colloids chemistry. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. angle-sum formula. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix.. Canada. 2004.C. and Holler.D.E. law of Cosines.S. Algebra of matrices. simultaneous equations and their solutions. J. values of trigonometric functions.. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. series and means. graphs. D. double angle formulas. Recommended Books: 1.J.. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. Understanding Environmental Pollution. USA. T. B.H. 3. P. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. Freeman and Company. Column chromatography. Blackwell Science. equations of lines (linear equations). Surface chemistry.A. 2nd Edition. real line. J. 2. Andrews. Girard. M.. 4. normal solutions/buffers. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. Lab Work Preparation of molar. Binomial theorem (Simple applications).M. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). Photochemical reactions. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. D. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Jickells. minor and cofactor of a matrix. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. D. Solution chemistry. determinants. Hill.K. 2003. 2005. W. Brimblecombe. UK. 2nd Edition. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. 2004.. Principles of Environmental Chemistry.

Cramer’s Rule. lineation and unconformities. L. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. 4. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. Integration: Formulas of integration. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. Trignometry for College students. Introduction to rocks and minerals. irreducible quadratic factors. cleavages. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. composition and its internal structure. Narosa Publishing House. weathering and erosion. Abraham. different earth processes like mountain buildings. California. igneous and metamorphic rocks. theorem of integration. Addission. its origin. Pacific Grove. product and quotient rules without derivations). erosion and related landforms. R. plate tectonics. Fossils and their significance. Introduction to folds. Analytical Geometry. theorems on differentiation (sum. 1999. Weathering. by parts integration (simple applications). D. foliation. 10th Ed.B. age. J. faults. Chatterjee. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations.Wesley. Thomas. Jr. 3. Scott Foresman and Company. 2. Smith. and Finney. Recommended Books: 1. difference. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. nonrepeated linear factors. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. earthquakes. earthquakes and volcanoes. Introduction to sedimentary. Chain rule. Earth as a member of solar system. 4th Ed. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment... joints. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. the processes of their formation. mountain building. K. New Delhi.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. G.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . S. 18 .

and Tasa. F.. E. J.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. Prentice Hall. J. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. Foundations of Structural Biology. G. F. A. Recommended Books: 1. Field Study tour. Smith. and Tasa. K. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. Lamarckism. multicellularity. Life in sea. molecular basis of biodiversity. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. different classification systems. Earth Science. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. Use of brunton compass and GPS. Tarbuck.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. examples of adjustments in varied environment. Tarbuck. modern concepts. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. population loss and decline. Biodiversity of canal. K. protocell formation. 2004. Prentice Hall: 2006. 11th Edition. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. Geological time chart with biodiversity. 5.. animals). R. Lutgens. Routledge. Biodiversity of deserts. 4. 2007 3. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water.. G. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. invasion of life on land. consequences of losing biodiversity. measuring biodiversity. Physical Geology and Process of Science.. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity.. interactions among diversified life. 2007 2.Identification of rocks and minerals. 9th Edition. Wicander. causes of extinction. 2005... Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species.. 5th Edition. How Does Earth Work. E. Darwinism. 19 . D. Prentice Hall. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . J. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. and Pun. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. R. biodiversity crises. Lutgens. and Monroe. unicellularity. Brooks/Cole. 3rd Edition.. Park. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. D. Biodiversity of hilly areas.

Townsend. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. Chronological. Crumley. 3. Biodiversity (An Introduction).. 2009. and concerns. 2009. globalization and environmental issues. Understanding the environment-human relationship. 20 . Nora and Wilk. New York: New York University Press. Scope and application.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. Contemporary environment issues and debate. culture and society. Starr. CA: AltaMira Press. I. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . 2nd Edition. Allan & Carter. IL:WavelandPress. Biology. Bradbury. John Wiley and Sons. 4. Culture. UK. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. K. USA. Environmental Risks and the Media. Consumption. L. Gaston. J. Goals and expectations. C. Hannen. P. UK.. (editor). Inc. Contemporary environmental status. 2. Adam.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. (editors). 2. Perspective of human-environment evolution. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. I. Blackwell Science Ltd. Inc. 5th Edition. a Human Emphasis. 2005. 2000. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. Recommended Books: 1. 2003. K. J.K. 3. Tripartite nature of environment. R. 2001. and Spicer. power & hegemony. and Sustainable Living. The Biosphere. Routledge. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. Conceptualizing environment. C. Walnut Creek. 2006. Use of environment for vested interest. UK. Prospect Heights. Wadsworth Group. The Ecology of global consumer culture.

Recommended Books: 1. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. Ms-Access. Marquis A. 21 .1999. Rutledge.. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. Local Area Network. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse.H. Ms-Excel. Fundamentals of computer. Software: Application software. output hardware.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. 2. system software. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Configurations. e-mail.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. Hardware: Input Hardware. Course Outlines Definition. Ms-Power Point. K. Operating system (Windows). Introduction to MS-Word. 2003. processing hardware. internet. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. software packages. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . Courter.Microsoft office 2000. Storage hardware. 6. Types and classification of computers. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. as are their effects on the biosphere. Milton. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. G. Long l.6th Ed. Selin.5. computer programs and basic applications. Long N.London 1996.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . Ed..

Miller. Sound and Noise. interaction of light with matter. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. Solids. 2004.D. their sources and toxic actions. 2004. 5. and Singh. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. trophic level. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. Global climate and climatic change. 4. Fregoso-Infante. Equations of fluid dynamics. Nuclear energy. Ozone and UV light. Samir. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. G. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. Entropy. M.. USA. Jones and Barlett. Conversion of mass. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. Particle physics.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. Diffusion.. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . Springer. Reducing the transmission of sound. Recommended Books: 1. photosynthesis. Gaussian plumes in the air.. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. Environmental impact of various industries. 2nd Edition. Jickells.. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. 2. Hernandez-Esparza.G. Energy. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Chemical reactions. DoriaSerrano. Energy conversion. Isotopes and radioactive decay. Blackwell Science.E. India. Heat radiation and heat transfer... Environmental Science. P. Ozone chemistry.. 2005. Transport of pollutants. J. Liquids and Gasses. Turbulent diffusion. Active control of sound.E. Andrews. UK. Germany.. Environmental Chemistry. 2008. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer.J. 1st Edition. Ibanez. Human perceptions and noise criteria.T. Canada.S. Basic acoustics. M. J. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry.M.. K. C. Liss. P. Electromagnetic radiation. its causes and adverse effects on environment. J. Fate of pollutants in environment. Environmental Chemistry. Fundamentals of aquatic. atmospheric and soil chemistry. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Turbulent jets and plumes. Turbulence... A. 3. B. 1999. Girard. and Reid. T. Thomson-Brooks. Brimblecombe. Solar spectrum.

. Economic Development. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. Growth and Environment. economic growth. John Wiley and Sons Inc. N. Man environmental relationship. 3.Economic development. concepts and measurement. Smith. S. Economic functions of environment. Field visit. Kentucky USA. Guyot.1998. 2001. G. E. Growth and development. Recommended Books: 1. USA. Introductory Environmental Physics. S. 2. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. producer and community point of view. 23 . Wesely Publishers. Economic management and environmental quality. economic progress. and Pandis. USA. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. Boeker. Recommended Books: 1. 2008. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. Seinfeld. and Resource allocation. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. economic welfare and difference among all. USA. Yusuf. Impact of economic activity on environment. 7th Ed. 2008. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. Praxis publishing. USA. John Wiley and Sons Inc. R. 2. Measures for sustainable development. population and environmental quality. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. H.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. M. Natural resources and the economy. and Van Grondelle. Environmental economics. UK. interaction between ecology and economic management. 2006. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. 2001. Sustainable development. poverty. World Bank Publications. New York. Environmental Physics. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. Producer behavior. Routledge. Pakistan economic context: National income. P. J. Physics of the Environment and Climate. C. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. economic growth and its measurement. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. 4. Todaro.

England. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. Environmental philosophy and ethics. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . Palgrave Macmillan. 2008. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. Ecosystem and its types. Callicott. LLC. branches of ecology. biogeography.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. Touchstone Books. B. Portland 1967. water. WCIV7AA. and White. N. concepts and approaches.. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. D. & Pierce. 2008. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. World Bank Publications. the ethics of soil. Russell.V. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. population. M. ethics and ecology. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. A History of Western Philosophy. Recommended Books: 1.3. Frodeman. London. B. Kessinger Publishing. species. 2002. DeVeer. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. J.. C. Hanley. temperature. role of light.. Economics. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. USA. 2. Natural philosophy. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. 3. Farmington Hills. its fundamental concepts. Swift.. community and ecosystem. Shogren. 4. Ecology. levels of ecological organization. 24 . B. community. 4. description of population. and systems ecology.A. R. International Thomson Publishing. soil. 2009. 2007. Environmental Critics of agriculture. Introduction to ethical theory. Course Outlines Introduction. USA. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. J.

J. 2000. Dash. Fundamentals of Ecology. population dynamics. J. 2004. various concepts of community. Ecology (concepts and applications. Ecosystem: structure and function. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. Tata McGraw-Hill. distribution limits. 1st Ed. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. bacteria and eukarya. Biomes of the world. Ecology (principles and applications). energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. Microbial metabolism. C. 1999 4.W. landscape ecology. characteristics of urban. Population distribution and abundance. N.Cox.topography and air as ecological factors. Biogeochemical cycles of C. students will be able to understand the significance. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. C. M. Populations. Concepts of Limiting factors. B. New Delhi. community dynamics. 5th Ed. After completion of this course.L and Reiss. and S. aquatic microbiology. New York. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). Odum. Systems ecology. Recommended Books 1. 6th Ed.) Moles. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. G. P. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. biotic factors. 2. UK. 3. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. King’s College London. Chapman. landscape changes and their importance. productivity of different ecosystems. M J. UK. 1992. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. WCB/McGraw-Hill. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. Fundamentals of Ecology. plant geography and animal distribution. E P. habitat and niche. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. and More. M C J 1st ed. Lab Work 25 . Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. Cambridge University Press. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. and Barett. 2001 5. ecological modeling.

Butterworth-Heinemann. I. Harley.. and Klein.L.1998. Academic Press. New Jersey. J. R.. J. Dilution plate technique.R.and Vesilaind.M. 1995. Solid Waste generation. 4. its sources and their effects.F. 4th Edition. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal.Gerba. Academic Press.J.B. Collection. USA.. L. Hartel. P. UK.J. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). Prescott. Types of Environmental pollution: Air.K. Recommended Books 1. and Jeffery. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. Mean plate count. D. Knudsen. Hurrst..M. purification and preservation. Fuhrmann. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. Washington DC. A.. M.. 2.. 2002. transportation & treatments.. Noise. D.J. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. 5. G. Hill. McInernery. W.I. 3.L..P..M.A. Environmental Microbiology. P.. Water. Recommended Books: 1.J. Cambridge UK.C. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. Environmental Pollution and Control. M. F.P. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. USA.and Brendecke.A. 2005. 2nd Edition. American Society for Microbiology. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents.L.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. Case Studies.G. J. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. Human & other living organisms. USA. and Zuberer. R. C. C. Crawford. Weiner. and Stetzenbach. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. 2. USA. Pollution Control Strategies. Marine & Industrial pollution. Pepper. 3. Soil. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic..W. isolation. peppor. USA. 26 . (Elsevier) USA.A. 2005. Sylvia. 2 Edition. Microbiology. Prentice Hall. 2007. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. Academic Press. D. 2009. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution.V. Cambridge University Press. Maier.P. and Gerba. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Peiece. London..J. Effects of Pollutants. McGraw Hill Inc.D. L. 2005.

The Hydrologic cycle. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere.W. Four Spheres of the Earth.E. Environmental psychology. Karachi. K. John Wiley and Sons. . 1992. Lutgens. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. Spyros. condensation and cloud Formation. Austin Miller. A. John H.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld.J. Surface winds. 4. local winds. The Physics of Atmospheres. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Climatology. N. 5.K.M. Radiation and climate. Pandis. The climate of Pakistan. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. 6th Edition.F. 2. Lawrance K. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere.. Sadder. The Atmosphere. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. 2002. climatic zones of Pakistan. 3.2nd Editions. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided.. air pressure. Cambridge University Press. Cloud Classification. 27 . Recommended Books: 1. 2006 5. Royal book company. Weather and Climate. Methods of psychology. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate.4. American Public Health Association (APHA). Mechanism of heat transfer. Solar radiations. Factors affecting air Pressure.. Marcel Dekkar. Houghton J. 2003. Tarbuck. 1988. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History.. Shamshad. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. global circulation. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan).

Course Outline Introduction.C. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship.W. M.. 28 . wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan.characteristics and research methods. carbon dioxide and global climate change. Water and distribution of species. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. 2001. 1992. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. their management and ecological restoration. Soil as a natural resource. Environmental perception and cognition. Recommended Books: 1. species response to pollutants. Fundamental of Psychology. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. Eysenck. soil salinity and water logging. Routledge. Ecological restoration. Sustainable livestock management practices. Water as an ecological resource. High population density and psychological impacts. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. Restoration of derelict lands. 2. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. P. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. soil resources of Pakistan. Environmental Psychology. London. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher.A. techniques and methods of restoration. Fisher J. sustainable agriculture. London.. rivers. concepts. Routledge. Greene. Future water scenario of Pakistan. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. solar radiation and primary production. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. Sustainable agricultural practices. limitation of irrigated agriculture. Bell. Pollution control through Ecology. and Baum A. T. CRC Press.D. soil erosion and conservation. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. Ecology of food production. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. CRC Press. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. 5th Edition. Background and scope. energy and carbon balance. threats and mitigation.

Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. R. terminologies: Poisons. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. Synergism. toxicity screening using microbial systems.P. toxins & toxicants. Pakistan’s Environment.. Blackwell Scientific Publications. B. 2006. Zedler. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. their containment and control strategies. 1996.National Book Foundation. Potentiation and Addition.W. USA. Island Press. Margaret A.Recommended Books: 1. toxicology of chemicals. and Hobbs. 2000 2. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. P. 5. Immunological considerations in toxicology. Shirkat Gah. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. Peshawar. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. Islamabad. soil and air samples. Organs. Israr-ud-Din. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. 2004. 4. Fundamentals of Ecology. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. 29 .1998. 1989. A. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. dose response relationship in living organisms. biological effects. 5th Edition. University of Peshawar.. Soil Science. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways.. Odum E. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. Falk.A. and Barett. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. in vivo & in vitro assays. Oxford. Lahore. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. Chemical interactions and their types. and Memon. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. Mumtaz. D. from natural and anthropogenic sources. toxins vs toxicants. Determination of chemicals in biological samples.I. on human and other living organisms. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. Rashid. J. G. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system.. E. A. K and Habib. K.S. 2nd ed. Newman. J. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. 3. Studies in Pakistan Geography. water and soil.

CRC Press Llc. Klassen. land. B. (ed. Course Outlines Introduction. 1993. P. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. USA. culture.Recommended Books 1. Recommended Books: 30 . 1992. education. industry. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. clean development mechanism. measuring environmental benefits. 5th Edition. W.Science of Poisons . General and Applied Toxicology. Economic: agriculture. the economy and the environment.1 & 2. Macmillan Press Ltd. health. McGrawhill..M. Williams. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. Recommended Books 1.2005 2. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. international trade and the environment. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. Course Outlines Introduction to history. 1996. Government of Pakistan. people. Environmental Profile of Pakistan.). 1st Edition.D. M. Hughes. 2005 2. Ballantyne. water resources. Vol. Ecological: ecological zones. economic aspects of different environmental problems. pollution control-a general model. major ecosystems. economic development and the environment. urbanization and pollution. USA. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. geography. T and Turner. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. USA. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. 1st Edition. State of the Environment-Pakistan . COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. 3. W. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. 3. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. topographic zones.

Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. Thomson and Brooks. BOD. 2003. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. 2.I. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. New York. units. 2000. Field.L.2004. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. B. and Batemen. 4. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive.1. Gravimetery. M. Recommended Books: 1.. 2005. precision and accuracy.R.. Sample collection. 3. Sparrow and D. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. 31 .D. D. Biomarkers in environmental assessment.J. Conductivitymetry..2002. USA. K.K.W.. West. NO3–N & NH4-N). Analytical techniques for soil. 1993. Freeman & Co. Australia. I. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. and F. All Solids. salinity & sodicity). COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. Gravimetery. and derived S. 6th Edition. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). D.UK. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Oxford University Press. 8th Edition. Harris. COD.I. Johns Hopkins University Press. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. D.and Field. 2. Sample preservation methods. Titrimetery. Data interpretation for quality control. A. Collingwood. Skoog. 3. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. D..A. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. Use of Potentiometery. 1999. Kolstad. Pearce. preparation and storage. Peverill. Environmental Economics. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Standard solutions and standard curves. Lab Work S. C. Reuter. water and plant analysis. M. J. handling. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH.K. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Oxford. Turner. C. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. Holler. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. Fluoride. Conductivitymetry. CSIRO Publ.. L.C. Titrimetery.

living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. 4. USA.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments.D. Environmental Biotechnology. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. J. Oxford University Press. 2nd Ed. 5th Ed.1999.P. Recombinant DNA technology.). After completion of this course. and Russel. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Introduction to microbial kinetics. Germany. Biosensor. Isolation. purification and preservation of DNA. National Biotechnology Commission. 2009. Biomarkers. and application of biotechnology in the environment. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. W. New York. Cambridge University Press. New York. J.W. Government of Pakistan. Wiley-VCH Verlag. J. Hans- Joachim. Biotechnology. National Biosafety Guidelines. and Josef. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. 2001. A. Derbre.. (ed. Bioreactors. 2. 2005. USA. students will be able to understand the significance. 2005. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. Smith..E. 2007. Course Outlines Introduction. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. Scragg. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . Tools in environmental biotechnology. USA. England. Recommended Books 1. PCR. D. Chichoster. 3. Sambrook.

Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. Different types of maps. Campbell. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. Inc. Introduction to GIS. 2009. Energy Sources. Preparation of thematic maps. Using and reading GPS in field. K and L. Harvey. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Image Processing. Data acquisition. Rancez. Data entry and output. Agriculture. Pearsons Education. map projection and coordinate systems. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. 1999. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). 5. Interpretation. advantages and limitations of process. integration of information from many sources. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. 4. Lulla. 2000. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Guilfoud press New York. Z. F. Cartography. Introduction to Photogrammetry. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. 2000. A. History and data collection. Types of data used in GIS. 3. Active and Passive remote sensing. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. 2008. Inc. V. Dessinov.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. analysis and output. John Wiley and Sons. Jensen. Forestry. Aerial photography. John Wiley and Sons. 2. history and platforms. Mc Graw Hill Education. Satellite Imageries. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Inc. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. R. eradication of the duplicated data. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Fishery and wildlife.

etc. hot spots of biodiversity. 2005. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. 1998.). COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. Certification of EMS. Michigan. Environmental Management tools.3rd Edition . and Yoxon. Environmental aspects and impacts. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). B. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. plant. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. Environment and sustainable development. M. social and ethical values of biodiversity. and Qasim. alpha and beta diversity. Conservation of biodiversity. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). WWF Pakistan. M. International Organization for Standardization. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. Sheldon. Environmental Management Systems Principles. A. American Society for Quality. F. principles of Cleaner production. Related Environmental legislation.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits.. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. 2001. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System.. American Society for Quality. threats to biodiversity. standards and guidelines. Khan. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. eco-design. Systems and Support Techniques.. 2. ecological. need and approach. Methods of environmental protection. 3. philosophical. economic. threats to biodiversity and its conservation.C. Course Outlines Introduction. types of biodiversity. 34 .2nd Ed. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. 2006. cleaner technologies. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. 4. Environmental Economy.

Preservation methods including pH control. design and types of samples. international agreements. Quality assurance and quality control. Considerations. Legal protection of species. Cox. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. EIA requirement. and Morre. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. Sinauer. A Primer for Conservation Biology. Associates Inc. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. conservation in man-made ecosystems. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. population. protected areas. management. 2000. Conservation of wildlife. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. Z. P.. presampling requirements/information. quality assessment. plants. their categories. Course Outlines Introduction. 2. Kings College. 1998. P.B. 3. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. conservation strategies. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. forests. Saad Printers. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. conservation and livelihood.B. national and international laws and regulations. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. field custody.. ecotourism. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora.e.. refrigeration and freezing methods. quality control sampling. 2ndEd. 2000. Recommended Books: 1.conservation at species. habitats. Biogeography. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. chemical addition. Sunderland. cities. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. C. laboratory custody. Publ. sampling and design purposes. air. NOC for plant operation. 35 .D. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan.R. Lahore). water. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. London. community and ecosystem level. croplands. Mirza. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme.B. soil and living organisms. Rawalpindi. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water.

Remote Sensing Note. Keith. UK. S.1996. E. Patterns in Winds and Pressure.. 3. 1992. 2000. (ed) Springer. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. regional. Chuviero. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. The Measurement of Climate Change. D. Peakall. Burden. USA. Manahan. 5.Recommended Books: 1. USA. (eds.1999. Ozone depletion. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. R. its causes and effects. Forstner U. altered community structure.. H. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. chemical.USA. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. Recent Climate Change Indicators. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. Korte. S. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. Tokyo. Precipitation. extinctions. 2nd Edition. biological. human health. McKlivie. Chapman and Hall. 2002. 2. and Guethner. Physical. Murai. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention.) McGraw-Hill. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. USA. 7. New York. F. Environmental Chemistry. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. Moisture in the Atmosphere. 2008. I. N. 8. 2002. Regional droughts and 36 . phenological changes. Energy and Temperature. Earth Observation of Global Change. Human responses to potential climate change. 6. 2008. . L. Lewis Publisher London. agriculture. D. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. E.

Hardy. review of EIA quality. 2000. 5. J. Petts. 2.(ed). Routledge. Global Change and the earth system. social impact assessment (SIA). screening.A. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. 3. law. Recommended Books: 1. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. EIA project management. John Wiley & Sons. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. project implementation and follow up. (ed. Keith. Main stages in EIA process. T. liquid. public involvement. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. solids. Islamabad. J. J. and Solutions. J. 1994. 2004.. 2005. 2005. National Book Foundation. John Wiley & Sons. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). impact analysis.Causes. reporting. 1986. Glasson. Ministry of Housing and Works. Hardy. Houghton. decision-making to implement the project. Harrop. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. D. 2003. Global Warming and Climate Change. 4... & Nixon..T. London.cataclysmic climate change. and Chadwick. R. Therivel. Islamabad.Causes. Effects. 2005. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University.. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Types & Resources to produce Energy. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. Recommended Books: 1. Blackwell. A. 2003. 6. 37 .. overview. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. mitigation and impact management. Earthscan Publication Ltd. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. London.O. 1999. scoping. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. 1st Edition. Climate Change . and Solutions. J. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. 4.). Effects. A. Oxford. Sringer. 2. 3. Cost and benefits of EIA. Climate Change .. and noise.

B. Evans.5. 1993.. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. Ludwig. forest types and its existing management. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development.B and Warren. (ed. Recommended Books: 1. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. New York. best available option for future. agriculture products and their share in GDP. process and contents of the management plan. S. Development of Management Plan: needs. causes and methods for its improvement. national example. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. John Willey & Sons. existing management approaches. Sadler. Types. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. Goldsmith. USA. threats. national and provincial legislation. limitation in the future. 6. solar power. Rangeland Management: existing status. J. Asian Development Bank. R.. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. F. 1997. M.). Conservation in Progress. threat and its causes. agriculture chemicals. 2nd Edition. R. wind power and nuclear power. 38 .. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia.. management options. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. Everitt. importance. B. national agriculture policy. Carpenter. Lohani. H. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. United Nations Environment Programme. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. effective management... A.. methodologies. problem in agriculture. requirement. 2002. management options. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. their current status and threats. & McCabe. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. wildlife census. their pros and cons. and Tu. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies.

Interviews. W.Amsterdam. to introduce students to research design. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. Dasmann. Material Methods. Scientific Methods. Review of Literature. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. Questionnaire.F. Research Design & Research Methods. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study.L. New York. Hansen.A pre-requisite for Research. Sage CA. 3. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. Creswell. Experimental Research. Elsevier. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. USA. P. concepts and terminologies. 5. Review of Literature. V.E. population and sampling frames. Objectives. 1990. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. R. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. research methods. John Wiley & Sons.. 4. GOP and IUCN. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. 2007. types of sampling design/. Case Studies. Inference based on findings. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. & Plano Clark. 39 . Scientific Research: Science. Environmental Conservation. How to put things together? Introduction. Methodology. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. Research Proposal: its importance . Selecting the Research Method.E. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). Bibliography. 1984. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS).2. Literature Search: Database. Surveys. and Jorqensen. J. 1992. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. London. Search Engines. S. Islamabad. Sampling: the logic of sampling. Thousand Oaks.

Belmont California. E. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. Sage Publishers. National Environmental Policy 4. John and sons Ltd. 1997. 1989. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. S. G. 6. Government of Pakistan 3. 2001. Booth.. Robert Yin. 2nd Edition. Diamon. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. 4. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. Law Books House... 3rd Edition.2. 5. Marilyn F. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. 2000. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan.h.. 1997. USA. and Arhonditsis. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . R. M. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. Recommended Books: 1.Harrad. regulations made there under. England. 3. 2. National Conservation Strategy 5.Batty. Students project in Environmental Science.USA. Moriarty. Univ.S. 2003. 2008. Survey Research Methods. Qadar. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Wadsworth Publishing Company. Babbie. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. Chichester. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. of Chicago Press. USA. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 2003. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
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Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

hydrological cycle. 6.. The Politics of Managing Water. O. fisheries management. Pakistan . Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. 2. 2005. Mirajuddin Publication . Oxford University Press New Delhi. (eds. and Qamar.. A. 2006.. Briscoe. pollution aspects. P. Ahmed. Khan. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. N. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. Indus Water Accord 1991. Bengali. water supply and demand management measures. 3.. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. Ahmed. C. Revised & enlarged edition. Mirajuddin Publication . watershed/catchment. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. R. flood and droughts. virtual water. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. Recommended Books: 1. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. 44 . water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. Pakistan.).. wetlands resources management.Varis.). and Malik. I. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. water quality and quantity aspects.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. tubewells. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. Biswas. flood and drought management. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. A.. 2006.Lahore.1993. Cheema. Lahore. K. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. Islamabad. integrated water resources management (IWRM). Islamabad. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan.. Oxford University Press Karachi. U. SDPI Oxford University Press. 4. 1993. Asia Printer.K. A. groundwater exploitation. with drinking water facilities like springs. R. 2003. J. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. (ed. 5. N. and Tortajada. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. recycling and re-use of wastewater.

Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. Soil forming minerals. CA. and Weil.R. R. Gardiner. Soil Science. 1996. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. NJ. D. 11th Edition. NJ. humans as components of urban ecosystems. San Diego. urban settlements. N. 45 . PrenticeHall. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. management and green productivity. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. Definition. Soil degradation. Miller.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals.T. 1. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. National Book Foundation. Brady. Islamabad. Cation and anion exchange. R. 2007. Upper Saddle River. Causes of urbanization. the salient features of urban environments. Process and outcome. Course Outlines Introduction. Soils in Our Environment.W. USA. and Bantel. Course Outlines Introduction. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. Types and properties of parent materials. urbanization in Pakistan.. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. Academic Press. urban landscapes characteristics. future of urban centers. Hillel. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. Physical and chemical properties of soil. Urbanization. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. Prentice Hall. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. E. USA. hydrological processes. Urban ecosystem. D.. Factors and processes of soil formation.C. Pakistan. urban political ecology. soils. Bashir. 2007. Upper Saddle River. urban flora and fauna. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. transport. Forms of urbanization. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. After completion of this course. USA. 2008. R.

nature and purpose of urban planning. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. Principles of planning. Planning theories and concepts. Gilbert. USA. 2009. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. Aims and Objectives of planning. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. S. Recommended Books: 1. Sukopp. City Design for Sustainable Development. UK. 2007. Routledge.. 5. London. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. Penguin Group. UK. New trends in planning and city management. Elements of urban planning. UR. Chapman and Hall. Ward. 2. I. M.. Hejny..S. 46 . CRC Press LLC. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. Planning and its relationship with other professions. nd 2 Edition. 2. Scope. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. Silberstein. Routledge. Kate. SBS academic publishing. D. 2000. Types of Urban Plans. A. 4. New York. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. Justification for planning for city management. 2004. C.. Land use planning theories. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. M. Hough.L. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. S. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. The planning process. The Works: Anatomy of a City. 1. USA. H. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. Smith. UK. Hague. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. Levels of planning. O. V.1990. Springer.. SAGE Publications Ltd. 3.and Maser. Planning and Urban Change.and Kowaril. J. Alberti. 1989. 2006. London. 2004.

Ministry of Housing and Works. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. Flood Management: Organizational Role. 1993.J. Natural cycles and their role. Prediction. UK. Natural Disasters Alexander. 1989. Cultural factors. H. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. G. Different approaches and Indicators. i. 3.W. Disaster Management: Components of management. Government of Pakistan. R. Westview Press. M..3. Physical factors. ADB. 1993. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum.W. 2nd Edition. Manila. Islamabad. Boulder . Paris. New York. 1986. Clara. Flooding. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). It discusses a wide range of aspects. Disaster as an opportunity for development.B. The Environment as Hazard Burton I.. Earthquake Management.. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. P. 1991. Introducing Town Planning.. Kates. Political factors. The Guilford Press. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. 47 . International phenomenon. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. Longman Group. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms.. 4. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. New York. Role of Media in Disaster Management. E&UA Div. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. Hazards. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. 2.UNESCO. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. Earthquake.e. 1993. D. and White G. Socio-economic factors. 4.. and Woodrow. Recommended Books: 1.F... Chapman & Hall. Landslide.

E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. 48 . John Wiley and Sons. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. and Mushkatel. decomposers. energy resources of Pakistan. Westport. L. consumers. biomass resources. USA.W.C. merits and demerits of wind. primary producers. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. Botkin. Schoch.. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. A. sustainable energy management. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. 6th Edition. solar. Perry R. Agroecology. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources.. energy resources.M.B and Keller. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. 6. local.L. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. R. McKinney. D. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. 2001. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment.5. 1984. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. Quorum Books. 4th Edition. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. Consumer and producer relationship. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. 1983. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. hydropower. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. 2. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. Ecological concept in crop and food production. OECD/IEA.H. 1. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. Disasters and Development Cuny. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity.. New York. 2007. 3. M. E. Biotic structure. F. 2007. uses. types.A. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. alternate energy resources. and Yonavjak. Paris. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Sustainable livestock management.

R.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. Westview Press. P. Recommended Books: 1. Corol. 2. 1995. M. Boulder. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. USA. 2000.. and Rossel. C. New Delhi. Agrocology. Experimental Plant Ecology. USA. 3. India. Altreri. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. and Sudha.A. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture.H. New York. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity.M.P. Study of stratification and profile diagram. 1990.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. Kapur. E-11 Seminar 49 . R.G. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. CBS Publishers and Distributors. Yandermeer J. Study of index of diversity.

5. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. 2. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. 50 . The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. availability of the faculty and other facilities. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. the Committee agreed on the following principles. 3. that: 1. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. 4.

17. 25. 20. 13. 9. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 5. 3. 4. 16. 6. 7. 9. 2. 7. 19. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 10. 2. 12. 11. 22. 15. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 .SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 10. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 24. 26. 11. 21. 4. 6. 8. 8. 12. 18. 5. 14. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 23. 3.

Instruments and methods. S. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. Oxford University Press.E. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. Conventions and Protocols in Global. 1992. WCS. Islamabad. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space.E. development of concepts. D.S. 1991. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. Provincial and Local Strategies.. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. 3.F. Karachi. Hodder and Stoughton. and Jorqensen. GOP and IUCN.. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. Relationship of culture.1995. Draft National Environmental Policy.DETAILS OF M. Environment People and Economy. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. Recommended Books: 1.1994.1994. Money. and Bell. Mackenzie.. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. Mackenzie J. 52 .A.. Treaties. Environmental control Policies. 3. Regional and International Environmental Issues. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). P. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. 1987. London. status of Terrestrial.1991. London Black Stone Press Ltd. Amsterdam.. 4. F. Ball. FURTHER READINGS 1. Hansen. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. S. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. Khan K. Geography of Pakistan. Elsevier. 2nd Edition. 2.T. Conservation Strategies. 2. Oxford University Press. S. NCS. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. technology and resource use.

Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. K. Principles of physical. 53 . Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Environmental Chemical Analysis. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. Longman House. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. World Bank. opportunities and issues. Ed. Environment Department. WB. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. Ahmed. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. John Wiley & Sons. D. Recommended Books: 1. process. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. 1993. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. Cost benefit analysis of projects. Wood. ecological impact assessment.Vanclay. 1995. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. sampling rules. Environmental auditing. England. Case Studies and review. C. ed. Burnt Hill. 2. Ministry of Environment. Government of Pakistan. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). A. Wastewater.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. Washington. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). DC.. economic impact assessment. Gas Chromatography etc. Assessment of environmental impacts. social impact assessment. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. Harlow Essex. FURTHER READINGS 1. Chichester. 2. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. History. F & Bronstein. Longman Scientific and Technical. Air and Solid Waste. Demographic impact assessment. Recommended Books: 1. A one Publishers Lahore.A. procedures and methods of EIA. role and importance. sample collection and preservation. 3. 1995. UK.

COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. Project Management: A Managerial Approach... 1992. Government Policies and Programs. Yassi. assumptions. Project Planning. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). air borne. Wiley Interscience. Explanation of Horizontal Logic.. means of verification. 54 . R. 1997. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. Recommended Books: 1. Ergonomic and Safety. Writing Project Proposal. Lippmann. 4. Primary health care services. New York. activities. Oxford University Press New York. USA. Defining Project objectives. M/S Banarsid. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. Public health concept. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. R. L. 2. Accident prevention and safety plans. Project Life Cycle. and Wright. Park. economic evaluation. 5. Basic Environmental Health. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. J. 1st Ed. Environmental Health Engineering.. Project Planning and Approval Processes. Prentice Hall International Inc.. A. Project Initiation. UK. feasibility study. and Guidotti. development objectives. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. A Guide to Project Management. S. safety techniques.. John Wiley and Sons.. Nebel. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). 2001. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. work breakdown structure. de Kok. Kjelllström. 3. M. Meredith J. prevention and control. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. London. T. 2. inputs. outputs. Planning Commission Performas. B. J. T. K. T. Project Management Institute. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures.. USA.. Mantel s. 1993. Inc. Resource Mobilization. specific objectives. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. Caeneross. T. Need identification. 1st Ed. 2nd Ed. 1998. Occupational Health: problems and issues. Reasons for Project success or failure. principles and practices. 1st ed.2000. 2002. indicators.

D. Schoch. Michigan-January 2001. bio-energy resources. L. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. petroleum.B and Keller. Environmental Auditing. 55 . nuclear) local. 2001. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. D. 6th Edition. 4th Edition. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. Paris. Sources of data. industry and domestic sectors. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Environmental auditing. OECD/IEA. ISO Central Secretariat.L. Related Environmental regulations.A. Recommended Books: 1. hydropower. gas. USA. R. 2007.. 2. McKinney. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). alternate energy resources. principles and elements of the process of EMS. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. transport. Switzerland. Recommended Books: 1. 3. M. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. E. 4. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. Principles of cleaner production. merits and demerits of wind. types. St Luise Press. non-renewable and renewable. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. energy resources. Sayre. Paris. 1998. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. 1990b. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. data collection and interpretation. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. 2.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. sustainable energy management for agriculture. uses.M. and Yonavjak. solar. 3. 2007. Botkin. John Wiley and Sons. energy resources of Pakistan. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan.

2003. 2003. water resources. D. Recommended Books: 1. The Green House Effect. ED. John Wiley & Sons. Recommended Books: 1. 4. Climate change and food production. 1st Edition. J. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. human activities and vegetation dynamics. Green House Gases. 1. Life history strategies of plants. 5. 3. Silvertown. survival and extinction. 2005. D. Vegetation Ecology Ed. Climate Change and Ecosystems. E & Muller-Hohenstein. geographical and temporal patterns. Modeling of climate change.D. Warrick. types of climate change models. B & Jager. J. T. plant conservation. Hardy. Effects. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. Earthscan Publication Ltd. John Wiley & Sons. 2. ECOPE 29. Shulze. Oxford. and Solutions. plant invasions. Effects. global aspects of plant ecology. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. Chichester.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. competition and coexistence. Oxford UK. Blackwell Publishing. forests. & Charlesworth. 2005. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Berlin. Species richness. Maarel.).T. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics.. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. E. Houghton. (Ed. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Springer. and Solutions. Hardy. UK 1991. Blackwell Publishing. 2004. London. Plant Ecology. 2005.Causes. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. 2005. 2. management and restoration. 3.Causes. John Wiley & Sons. UK. types and their climatic effects. Plant population dynamics. etc. 56 . resources and plants. Climate Change . J. K. Beck. vegetation dynamics. Climate Change ..

Blackwell Publsihing. Biodiversity: An introduction. & Spicer.J. T. Forests. E. types. their ecological and economic importance. 2002. UK. Cambridge. problems and solutions.(2nd Ed. W. Recommended Books: 1. Principles of Wildlife Management. John Wiley And Sons. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. & Ripley. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. Wildlife Ecology and Management. Publishers Sunderland. 1973 2. USA. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. Oxford University Press. J. Mcmillan. Wetlands. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. kinds. management. Cambridge University Press. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. 3. Essentials of Conservation Biology. T. their types and role in conservation.G. distribution. Protection and restoration of species. Sustainable forest management. S. Primack.J. distribution. S. 1998. Forest plantations.A. Protected areas in Pakistan. K.D. Oxford. Oxford University Press. Extinction of species. B. Sinauer Assocaites. J. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Robinson. R. UK. Roberts.J. Roberts. threats and conservation. Oxford University Press. Recommended Books: 1. biological diversity. 1992.J. Bailey. Participatory forest management. 1984. types. Oxford. 2004. Threatened animals and plants. Establishment and management of protected areas. Protected areas. 5. Conserving Living Natural Resources. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. 57 .) Gaston. 1986. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. II). Global and national biodiversity.B. Inc. 2. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. I). Loss of biodiversity. Weddell. 4. habitats and ecosystems. Oxford. Status of forests in Pakistan. Wildlife of Pakistan. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. deforestation and its control. their importance. London. status. 2002. Cambridge. Rangeland management. Consumptive. distribution and management.L. 3. its causes. And Bolen.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction.

UK. management of transport. New York. Penguin Group. USA. Kate. Longman Group. Urban land use planning and management. S.. 2004. urban landscape characteristics. 3. 1986. Silberstein. SAGE Publications Ltd. Islamabad. CRC Press LLC. urbanization in Pakistan. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. V. drinking water and solid waste in cities. Recommended Books: 1.and Maser. G. The Works: Anatomy of a City. 2007. H. Clara. C. Environmental problems of urban life. urban political ecology. sanitation.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. Sustainable cities. London. future of urban centers. 2000. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. 4.. A.. Government of Pakistan. UK. USA. E&UA Div. 1993. Ministry of Housing and Works. Planning and Urban Change. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. J. Introducing Town Planning. Ward. urban systems and their characteristics. Forms of urbanization. 58 .. 2. Urban planning and management in Pakistan.

a) Functional English Grammar 1. Martinet.Annexure . Practical English Grammar by A.V. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. ISBN 0194313492 59 . Thomson and A. 1997. Third edition.J. Oxford University Press.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. Exercises 1.

J. intensive and extensive. Writing. Oxford Supplementary Skills. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . Third Impression 1992.V. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. Third edition. Martinet. Reading.2. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Thomson and A. b) Practical English Grammar by A. Exercises 2. Oxford University Press. 1997. Upper Intermediate. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. minutes of meetings. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Fourth Impression 1993. and speed reading. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. Reading/Comprehension 1.

argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. discursive. Oxford University Press 1986.J. narrative. Exercises 2. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Third Impression 1991. Advanced by Ron White. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Writing. Advanced. b) Writing 1. Fourth Impression 1993. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Third Impression 1992. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco.V. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Oxford Supplementary Skills. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. clarity. Fourth Impression 1992. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. content. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. form. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Writing. Practical English Grammar by A. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. Oxford Supplementary Skills. introduction to presentations.1. descriptive and argumentative writing). 2. Third edition. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Reading. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Martinet. 2. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Thomson and A. language. Reading 1. Writing. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin.

b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. 2. College Writing Skills by John Langan. St. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. 62 .(particularly suitable for discursive. without taxing the taste of engineering students). Kirszner and Stephen R. Compiled by norther Illinois University. argumentative and report writing). Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. Martin’s Press. 2004. Kathleen Shine Cain. A Custom Publication. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. descriptive. 3. Mandell.

1958-71 c. S. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. 3. Zaidi. ideological background of Pakistan. Study the process of governance. S. 1977-88 e. State & Society in Pakistan. Indus Civilization ii. 1988-99 f. 2000. Lahore. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. . 1947-58 b. Muslim advent iii. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. Contemporary Pakistan a. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. 63 Books Recommended 1. contemporary Pakistan. 1994. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. Shahid Javed. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. Course Outline 1. 1999 onward 3. Safdar.M. national development. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. 4. Karachi: Oxford University Press. b. 2. Ethnicity d.Annexure . 1993. People and Land i. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. 1971-77 d. politics. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. Society and social structure c. Economic institutions and issues b. Akbar. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. 2. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. government. Mehmood. Historical Perspective a. Location and geo-physical features. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

I. 13. 1980. Tahir.K. 1967. Wilcox. Pakistan Under Martial Law. History & Culture of Sindh. Club Road. M. Lawrence. 1980. Rafique.National Movement in Pakistan. Muhammad Waseem. 1998. Amin. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Ethno . 1972. Ziring. 10. 12. Pakistan Kayyun Toota.5. II & III. Khalid Bin. 1976. The Political System of Pakistan. nd. Political Parties in Pakistan. 11. Afzal. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Sayeed. 14. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Zahid. K. Islamabad. Aziz. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Vol. 8. 9. Noor ul. Enigma of Political Development. Lahore: Vanguard. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. Politics in Pakistan. Mehmood. Haq. 1987. 7. Safdar. 64 . Institute of Public Policy Research. 6. Karachi: Royal Book Company.. 1993. Wayne. Washington: American Enterprise.The Emergence of Banglades. Ansar. Party.

W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .Annexure .W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.58.40.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.19.A.56. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.57.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.20) Related to thinking.A. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.Tadabar (Verse No1.A.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.A.6.21.

in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.

Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Islamabad (2001) 67 .” Hussain Hamid Hassan.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Studies in Islamic Law. Bhatia. “Emergence of Islam” . Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. Ahmad Hasan. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. IRI. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H.S. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. Pakistan. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. International Islamic University. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr.

Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. introduction to sets. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. functions.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. trigonometric identities.Annexure . Beckenback EF. Cramer’s rule. 1986. equations reducible to quadratic equations. types of functions. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. 1987. College Algebra and Trigonometry. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. Boston Swokowski EW. complex numbers. 1978. harmonic progression. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. not majoring in mathematics. Boston 68 . Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. cube roots of unity. types. Wooton W. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). set operations. PWS-Kent Company. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. matrix inverse. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. Sharron S. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. determinants. PWS-Kent Company. geometric progression. Houghton & Mifflin. system of linear equations.

integration by substitution. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Boston Thomas GB. not majoring in mathematics. various forms of equation of a line. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. Ma. 1983. PWS-Kent Company. integration by parts. John Wiley. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. continuous functions. solution of equations involving absolute values. not majoring in mathematics. 2005. New York Stewart J. Calculus (11th edition). Reading. Calculus (3rd edition). left-hand and right-hand limits. continuity. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. functions and their graphs. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). Addison-Wesley. angle between two lines. Bevens I. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. 69 . distance between a point and a line. intersection of two lines. Davis S. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. USA 3. rational and transcendental functions. change of variables in indefinite integrals. distance between two points.2. slope of a line. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. differentiation of polynomial. equation of a line. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. parallel and perpendicular lines. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. Finney AR. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. Recommended Books: Anton H. derivatives. 2005. 1995. inequalities.

70 . COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences).Circle: Equation of a circle. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. inverse of matrices. Analytic Geometry. Boston Swokowski EW. hyperbola. ellipse. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Introduction to sets. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. Scott. equations reducible to quadratic equations. types of functions. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. 1987. set operations. • Contents 1. Conic Sections: Parabola. PWS-Kent Company. Boston 4. determinants. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. functions. locus of a point in various conditions. Freshman and Company. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. intersection of lines and circles. College Algebra and Trigonometry. 1969 Kaufmann JE. PWS-Kent Company. circles determined by various conditions. nature of roots of quadratic equations. system of linear equations. Cramer’s rule. types of matrices. 1986.

Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. Latest Edition. ungrouped and grouped data. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. 71 . skewness and kurtosis.. E. Latest Edition. R. R. 4.. 2. variance. Books Recommended: 1. E. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. 5. relationship of statistics with social science. moments. individual. standard deviation. Wilcox.geometric and harmonic progressions. circle and trigonometric functions. quartiles. E. Latest Edition. Measures of dispersion: Range. cumulative frequency curve. Prentice Hall. R. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. bar frequency diagram histogram. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. discrete and continuous series. Graphs: Graph of straight line. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. array. Kaufmann. 3. trigonometric identities. W. Walpole. PWS-Kent Company. frequency polygon. characteristics of statistics. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. deciles and percentiles. J.. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’.. Boston. types of frequency series. 2. tally sheet method. Swokowski. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem.

Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. logarithmic differentiation. 6. Leibnitz’ theorem. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. applications of integration. substitution method. 1999. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. reduction formulae. 4. S. 5. John H. Gleason. Slope of a Line. infinite and improper integrals. Contents 1. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . 8th edition. 3. Davis. Solution of equations involving absolute values. 4th edition. Elliott Mendelson. 2. quotients. implicit differentiation. Calculus Single and Multivariable. Least-Squares Line. I. 2. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. products. McCallum. integral inequalities. Hughes-Hallett. Prentice-Hall. 6. special points of a function. Inc. integration by parts. Trigonometric Functions. 3rd Edition. W. Thomas. Rational Functions. Calculus. the inverse of differentiation. • Integration Integration from first principles. Integration by Parts. Frank A. Inc. Swokowski. 1983. Equation of a Line. Calculus. integration using partial fractions. H. 2005. Bevens.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. Recommended Books: 1. Boston. 2002. and Transcendental Functions. the chain rule. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. Extreme Values of Functions. Mathews. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. Anton. Continuous Functions. 2005. logarithmic integration. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. plane polar coordinates. Inequalities. Second Edition 1992.Jr. Addison Wesley publishing company. Jhon Willey & Sons. Continuity. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. sinusoidal function. Calculus. Schaum’s Outline Series. Rational and Transcendental Functions. et al. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. 11th Edition. E. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. theorems of differentiation. John Wiley & Sons. integration by inspection.

approximation errors in Taylor series. finding the nth roots of unity. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . modulus and argument. the difference method. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. arithmetico-geometric series. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. complex conjugate. series involving natural numbers. geometric series. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. inverses of hyperbolic functions. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. solving hyperbolic equations. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. identities of hyperbolic functions. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms.Additions and subtraction. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. multiplication. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies.

line to line. scalar triple product. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . 6. vector product. Pappus’ theorems. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. point to plane. moments of inertia. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. the inner product. Hermitian. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. masses. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. of a unitary matrix. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. symmetric and antisymmetric. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. orthogonal. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix.5. centers of mass and centroids.

combinations of grad.8. spherical polar coordinates 75 . divergence of a vector field. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field.

Collection of primary and secondary data. Statistical problem. level of significance. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Editing of Data. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Constructing of a frequency distribution.Annexure . Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Diagrams. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. definition of outliers and their detection. sampling and non sampling errors. Data. bias. Exercises. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. 76 . Moments and Moments ratios. Unit 2. The Mode. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Poisson and Normal Distribution. acceptance and rejection regions. Discrete and continuous variables.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Coefficient of variation. Exercises Unit 6. The Mean Deviation. Stem and Leaf Display. Exercises. Population. Sources. Histogram. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Probability and Probability Distributions. Presentation of Data Introduction. Significant digits. Historigram. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Difference of means and proportions. Exercises. Range. Empirical Relation between Mean. Unit 7. Median and mode. Unit 5. Exercises. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Absolute and relative measures. null and alternative hypothesis. Unit 3. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. sample design and sampling frame. The semi-Interquartile Range. Change of origin and scale. probability and non-probability sampling. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Different types of Averages. sampling with and without replacement. Exercises. Exercises. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Observations. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Type-I and Type-II errors. Pie chart. The Variance and standard deviation. Graphs and their Construction. properties of Good Average. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Standardized variables. Test statistics. Box and Whisker Plot. Unit 4. Quantiles. Bar charts. Errors of measurement. Types of frequency curves. Rounding of a Number.

Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. Exercises. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. 2 Muhammad. Exercises Unit 10. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. Exercises Unit 9. New York.Single Population Introduction. Testing of Hypothesis. “Introduction to Statistics”. Inc. Contingency Tables. 2005. examples. R. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”.Unit 8. simple linear regression. Macmillan Publishing Co. 3rd Ed. r and R2.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. 1982. Regression and Correlation Introduction. E. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. Kitab Markaz. its estimation and interpretation. 77 . Correlation. F. cause and effect relationships... Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. Coefficient of linear correlation. Unit 11. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes.

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