CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

2

CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
58

3

50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. therefore. It also aimed to give a basic. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge.).PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. and 36. PROF. The world has turned into a global village. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. dated December 4th 1976. the Federal Government vide notification No. 63. universities and other institutions of higher education. D773/76-JEA (cur. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. Lahore.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template.ALTAF ALI G. degree awarding institutions. DR. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. R&D organizations. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. It is. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30.

OF CURRI. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. EXP. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. Preparation 5 .CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. REC. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. R&D. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. OF NCRC. COL. OF FINAL CURRI. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. PREP. UNI.

Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Member 6 . Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Lahore Member 6. Member 3. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Dr. Member 5. Dr. Karachi from 28-30. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Rawalpindi Dr. Member 4. Following attended the meeting:1. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. Dr. 7. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre.

Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Dr. Member 10. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Dr. Karachi Member 12. Dr. Member 14. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Member 11. Prof. Prof. 7 . Member 16. Member 15. 13. Dr.8. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Dr. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Dr. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms.

Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. Faisalabad Member 18. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Member 19. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. 2. Director of HEC Regional Center. 8 . Shafiq-ur-Rehman. At first. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. Mr. Chairman. Islamabad coordinated the meeting.17. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. Dr. Mr. The meeting was opened by Mr. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Dr. 1. Secretary Dr. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Karachi. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. Member 20. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society.

Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. The committee thanked Mr. 4.3. 1. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. 3. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. 5. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. In last few centuries. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. 6. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. 2. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop.

discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . Apply theoretical understanding. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. in its preliminary meeting. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. ii. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. This committee. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. skills and behaviour patterns. 5. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. regional and global contexts.

To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level.e. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. with consensus. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. Integrating natural sciences. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. eight semesters in the semester system. A. that: 1. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. 2. 1. 6..graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. 5. 3. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. 4. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. Sc. The 11 . Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. The medium of instruction. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals.

proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Environmental Chemistry 15. Introductory Economics* 17. Climatology* 23. English-III 18. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Environmental Microbiology 21. English-I 6. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Biology –II* 9. English-II 12. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Environmental Pollution 22. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Introduction to Computer 14. Biology –I* 3. Basic Chemistry* 4. Introduction to Earth Science 8. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Psychology* . Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Environmental Physics 16. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10.

Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Environmental toxicology 27.24. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Environmental Management Systems 34. 46. Environmental Monitoring 36. Applied Ecology 26. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. English-IV/ Univ. 44. 45. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. Climate Change 38. Opt. Environmental Economics 29. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. Environmental Biotechnology 32. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. ELECTIVE-III 42. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Natural Resource Management 40.

• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .

. proteins and nucleic acids. & Nebel. biological and social.M. 2007. current global. R. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. socio-economic. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society.. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates.B & Keller. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. Schoch. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . 2002. R. Botkin.J.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. Pearson Educational. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. Miller.L. 4. Wright. philosophical. lipids. Recommended Books: 1. environmental pollution. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. 4th Ed. ecological.T. development in industry and agriculture. and their relationships with various environmental factors. regional. poverty and resource depletion. 2. ethical. M.A. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. McKinney. 6th Ed. 2007. urbanization. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. Human environment and its problems: global. B. Thomson Learning. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. national. 10th Ed. G. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. D. & Yonavjak. Major components of environment: physico-chemical.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. history. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. 2007 3. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. its importance in human life. Different aspects of environment: physical. E. L. 15 . John Wiley & Sons.

5. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. 1. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. Cells. D. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. lipids.. Bulter. coordinate covalent bond. Cassimeris. carbohydrates. Cell division. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. 3. origin of metabolism. chemical basis of life. Nucleic acids. M. covalent. G. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals.. Australia . Self Assessment and Revie. and Lewis. Molecular Biology through Questions. 2. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry.Hill International Edition. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. Introduction to cell biology. J. chemical diversity. phospholipids in membrane systems. and Whitelaw. esters. Ionic. 5th Edetion. B. New York. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. USA. amines). E. McGraw. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. 1996. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. lipids. Plopper. 2007. Study of mitosis in onion root tip.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. Crossley. polypeptides in protein diversity. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. L. V. 2007. proteins. Ltd. A. Lewis. 8th Ed. Aromatic compounds.. Canada. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. 2003. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. Starr. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. R. Shier. USA. 2008. Wadsworth Group. Biology: a Human Emphasis. carboxylic acids. C.. protobionts. carbonyls. R. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. N. Origin of life: chemical evolution. USA. Lingappa.. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. 16 . the molecule of genetic information and replication. Structure and the basis of function. 4. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus.

Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field.. Harris. UK. molal. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. J. USA. Lab Work Preparation of molar.A. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. USA. Skoog. minor and cofactor of a matrix. 2. J. 2nd Edition. 4. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. T.H. values of trigonometric functions. Jickells. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. D. West. and Holler. determinants. Blackwell Science. Measurement of pH. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences.ions.D. normal solutions/buffers. Column chromatography. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. 1st Ed. 5. radicals. double angle formulas. Brimblecombe. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). 2004. Understanding Environmental Pollution. straight line and related concepts.... Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. Osmosis and Dialysis. Andrews. D. B. graphs.. Cambridge University Press. Canada. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). Liss. 2003. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Hill. and Reid. 2004. 2nd Edition. 2004. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. P. expansion of determinants. 17 . M. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane.S. Solution chemistry. UK. simultaneous equations and their solutions. law of Cosines.J..Special Products (Binomial Expression). Jones and Barlett. Colloids chemistry. geometric and harmonic sequence. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. Thomson and Brooks. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. angle-sum formula.. D. 3. Algebra of matrices.M. Girard. 2005. EC and TDS in waste water. series and means. F. Use of spectrophotometric techniques.J. Photochemical reactions. equations of lines (linear equations).E..K.E. Surface chemistry. Recommended Books: 1. 8th Edition.C. W. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). Freeman and Company. Thin layer chromatography.. 6th Edition. real line. P.

D. Trignometry for College students. nonrepeated linear factors. 4th Ed. J. Narosa Publishing House. Introduction to sedimentary. by parts integration (simple applications). The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. igneous and metamorphic rocks. weathering and erosion. different earth processes like mountain buildings. difference. composition and its internal structure. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. Chatterjee. Fossils and their significance. 1999. irreducible quadratic factors. foliation. joints. 4. New Delhi. Chain rule. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.Cramer’s Rule. product and quotient rules without derivations). Abraham. cleavages. earthquakes and volcanoes. 18 . S. 10th Ed.. 3.Wesley. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. its origin. Thomas. Analytical Geometry. Earth as a member of solar system. Introduction to rocks and minerals. G. California. plate tectonics. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation.B. Introduction to folds. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. Weathering. Smith. theorem of integration. L. Recommended Books: 1. age. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. and Finney. Pacific Grove. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. faults.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . Geological time scale and life through geological ages. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. Jr. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . erosion and related landforms. Scott Foresman and Company. theorems on differentiation (sum. Addission. R. Integration: Formulas of integration. mountain building. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. earthquakes. 2. lineation and unconformities.. the processes of their formation. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. K.

. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. and Tasa. R. consequences of losing biodiversity. and Pun. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. multicellularity. Foundations of Structural Biology. and Tasa. molecular basis of biodiversity. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. causes of extinction. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. D. A. E. 4. K.. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . Prentice Hall. Life in sea. Lutgens. 11th Edition. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. K. E. Wicander. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. Tarbuck. J. and Monroe. measuring biodiversity. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity.. G. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. unicellularity. 2007 2. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. Geological time chart with biodiversity. examples of adjustments in varied environment. Lamarckism. Recommended Books: 1. G. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. Biodiversity of canal. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. invasion of life on land. Park. Use of brunton compass and GPS. 5th Edition. animals). Biodiversity of hilly areas. population loss and decline. interactions among diversified life. How Does Earth Work. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. Darwinism. 5..Identification of rocks and minerals. protocell formation. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms.. Brooks/Cole. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. D. 2007 3. 2005. R. Physical Geology and Process of Science. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. 19 . Earth Science. Prentice Hall. 3rd Edition. Smith. J. Tarbuck. F. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. Field Study tour. F.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. 2004. 9th Edition. biodiversity crises. modern concepts.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. Prentice Hall: 2006. Lutgens.. Routledge. Biodiversity of deserts... J.. different classification systems.

Use of environment for vested interest. Consumption. culture and society. and Spicer. J. Inc. P. and concerns. 2. Routledge. K. C. 5th Edition. Contemporary environmental status. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. Inc. 3. Contemporary environment issues and debate. Bradbury. UK. Prospect Heights. Adam. Gaston. Goals and expectations. power & hegemony. The Biosphere. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. C. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. J. 2. Recommended Books: 1. 2006. I. UK. Allan & Carter. 2000. Chronological. 3.. R. Townsend. Starr. globalization and environmental issues. IL:WavelandPress. Hannen. Biology. Wadsworth Group. UK. Tripartite nature of environment. Understanding the environment-human relationship. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . 2005. Blackwell Science Ltd. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. 2009. 2009. 20 . K. Environmental Risks and the Media. a Human Emphasis. USA. Scope and application. The Ecology of global consumer culture. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. and Sustainable Living. 2003. (editors).. CA: AltaMira Press. Culture. I. L. Nora and Wilk. Crumley.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. 2001. (editor).E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. Biodiversity (An Introduction). Perspective of human-environment evolution. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. John Wiley and Sons. New York: New York University Press. Walnut Creek. 4.K. 2nd Edition. Conceptualizing environment.

A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . Storage hardware. G.5. as are their effects on the biosphere. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry.1999. Types and classification of computers. 21 . Kluwer Academic Publishers..C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. computer programs and basic applications. Local Area Network. processing hardware. Course Outlines Definition.Microsoft office 2000. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . 2003. Long l.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. Ed. Milton. Ms-Power Point. 2. Introduction to MS-Word. Selin.H. Rutledge. Configurations. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. 6. e-mail.6th Ed.London 1996. Operating system (Windows). Marquis A. Ms-Access. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures.. system software. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. Long N. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. Recommended Books: 1. Software: Application software. K. Hardware: Input Hardware. software packages. Ms-Excel. internet. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. Fundamentals of computer. Courter. output hardware.

. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems..Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. 2004.D. Diffusion. Energy conversion.. Nuclear energy. Fundamentals of aquatic.. its causes and adverse effects on environment. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Germany. their sources and toxic actions.S. Entropy. Human perceptions and noise criteria. Ibanez.T.. Ozone and UV light. Basic acoustics.E. M. Isotopes and radioactive decay. 2004. P. 5. C. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. B. J. Recommended Books: 1. Turbulent diffusion. J. 3. Electromagnetic radiation. T. and Singh. Turbulence. photosynthesis. Transport of pollutants. Environmental impact of various industries. Blackwell Science. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. Jones and Barlett. Solar spectrum. Girard. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . Chemical reactions. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants.. Turbulent jets and plumes. Environmental Chemistry. M. Fate of pollutants in environment. P. and Reid. Particle physics. 1st Edition. Miller. Equations of fluid dynamics. Environmental Science. Brimblecombe... Reducing the transmission of sound. Global climate and climatic change. Liquids and Gasses. Jickells. Thomson-Brooks. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter.M. atmospheric and soil chemistry. Environmental Chemistry. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. UK. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. J. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light.E. Heat radiation and heat transfer. DoriaSerrano. Gaussian plumes in the air. Conversion of mass. Hernandez-Esparza.. K.. Canada. Energy. India. interaction of light with matter. Solids. Samir. G. USA. 4. Active control of sound. Liss. Springer.J. Fregoso-Infante.G. 2. A. Ozone chemistry. 2nd Edition. Sound and Noise. trophic level. 2008. Andrews. 2005. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts.. 1999.

Natural resources and the economy. Producer behavior. producer and community point of view. Recommended Books: 1. 7th Ed. P. John Wiley and Sons Inc. S.Economic development. 2008. Environmental economics. G. 2001. Seinfeld. Praxis publishing. poverty.. 2006. Boeker. Environmental Physics. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. USA. C. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. M. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. Todaro. E. Recommended Books: 1. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. 23 . 2. H. Wesely Publishers. 2001. Smith. Economic Development. Growth and development. World Bank Publications. and Pandis. economic growth and its measurement. Routledge. economic welfare and difference among all. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. Yusuf. Economic management and environmental quality. Introductory Environmental Physics. Physics of the Environment and Climate. 4. Man environmental relationship.1998. Field visit. concepts and measurement. USA. USA. Economic functions of environment. S. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. UK. New York. interaction between ecology and economic management. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. R. 2008. economic progress. Guyot. USA. Kentucky USA. Growth and Environment. Sustainable development. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. Pakistan economic context: National income. Impact of economic activity on environment. 3. 2. John Wiley and Sons Inc. and Resource allocation. and Van Grondelle. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. population and environmental quality. N. Measures for sustainable development. J. economic growth.

concepts and approaches. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. 4. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. Kessinger Publishing. World Bank Publications. B. B. its fundamental concepts. 24 . World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography.. & Pierce. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . R. 2008. Swift. Introduction to ethical theory. Economics. International Thomson Publishing.A. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. USA. J. description of population. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. Recommended Books: 1.. England. soil. 2009. London. 4. Hanley. Palgrave Macmillan. temperature. species. M. Environmental philosophy and ethics. Farmington Hills. WCIV7AA. 3. role of light.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources.3.. Shogren. 2007. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. community and ecosystem. ethics and ecology.V. Callicott. D. and systems ecology. J. 2. levels of ecological organization. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. and White. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. Environmental Critics of agriculture. N. 2002. branches of ecology. LLC. water. Ecosystem and its types. the ethics of soil. Frodeman. population. 2008.. Ecology. biogeography. C. B. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. Portland 1967. Course Outlines Introduction. A History of Western Philosophy. DeVeer. Natural philosophy. Russell. USA. Touchstone Books. community.

Microbial metabolism. and Barett. 2. M. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity.L and Reiss. 2004.) Moles. landscape changes and their importance. Biogeochemical cycles of C. After completion of this course. Ecology (concepts and applications. Fundamentals of Ecology. 2001 5. Tata McGraw-Hill. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). Populations. 2000. Fundamentals of Ecology. C. distribution limits. UK. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. M C J 1st ed. P. 3. Cambridge University Press. students will be able to understand the significance. J. 1st Ed. and S. Thomson Brooks/Cole. 1992. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. Dash. bacteria and eukarya. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. aquatic microbiology. New Delhi. J. UK. Recommended Books 1. WCB/McGraw-Hill. 6th Ed. Concepts of Limiting factors. B. Population distribution and abundance. Odum. community dynamics. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. population dynamics. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. productivity of different ecosystems.topography and air as ecological factors. King’s College London. C. M J. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. G. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. and More.Cox. Biomes of the world. habitat and niche. 1999 4. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. New York. various concepts of community. Ecosystem: structure and function. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. Chapman. Ecology (principles and applications). biotic factors. E P. Systems ecology. Lab Work 25 . Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. characteristics of urban. N. plant geography and animal distribution. ecological modeling. 5th Ed.W. landscape ecology.

Academic Press. USA. 2.P.. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. J. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. isolation.. 2 Edition. Harley. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. 4th Edition. 2007. Pepper.and Brendecke. McInernery. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. Soil.J. Human & other living organisms. Sylvia. M. and Stetzenbach. and Klein.. purification and preservation. D. Cambridge UK.P.J. C. Environmental Pollution and Control. 2002. R. USA. C. 5. D.G. Collection.M. L. 2009.M. Effects of Pollutants. 3. transportation & treatments. New Jersey.. Butterworth-Heinemann. Microbiology. and Jeffery.P. Maier.A. J. F. Fuhrmann. G.. 2005. 2nd Edition. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel.J. 2.. A. peppor. M. Environmental Microbiology.L. P.. (Elsevier) USA. 2005. American Society for Microbiology. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution.V.C. Hurrst.J. Academic Press. Pollution Control Strategies. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. P.R. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. Prescott. Mean plate count. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. W. Water. McGraw Hill Inc. Hill.. Case Studies. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Crawford.Gerba. D. Dilution plate technique.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. R. Knudsen. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. USA.1998.A.B.I.... and Zuberer. Hartel. Washington DC.M.L. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. L.. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. Prentice Hall. Recommended Books: 1. Cambridge University Press. USA. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. Weiner. Noise. 2005. I. 4. 3. and Gerba.K. USA.L.. International Protocols (BASAL Convention).A.and Vesilaind.F. Marine & Industrial pollution. its sources and their effects.J. Recommended Books 1.D. UK. 26 . London. Peiece. J.W. 1995. Solid Waste generation. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. Academic Press.

Pandis.. condensation and cloud Formation.. Shamshad.. John H. air pressure. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . local winds. Tarbuck. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. Sadder. Radiation and climate. 6th Edition. Austin Miller. Karachi. Weather and Climate. Royal book company. K. Lawrance K. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. Surface winds. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. Marcel Dekkar. The Atmosphere. 1988. Mechanism of heat transfer. climatic zones of Pakistan. 27 . Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. Factors affecting air Pressure. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. The Hydrologic cycle.M.E. The climate of Pakistan. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. A. 2006 5.2nd Editions. Cambridge University Press. Climatology. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. 4. Methods of psychology. Solar radiations. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere.K.W.4. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. American Public Health Association (APHA). 3. 2. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. Cloud Classification. 1992. 5. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. The Physics of Atmospheres. . COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. Recommended Books: 1.J. Spyros. Houghton J. 2002.F. Four Spheres of the Earth. N.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. Lutgens. 2003.. Environmental psychology. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). John Wiley and Sons. global circulation. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided.

Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. limitation of irrigated agriculture. soil salinity and water logging. CRC Press. 28 . Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. energy and carbon balance. 5th Edition. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. Water and distribution of species. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. Soil as a natural resource. threats and mitigation. species response to pollutants. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. 1992. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. concepts. T. Water as an ecological resource. soil erosion and conservation..C. sustainable agriculture. Ecology of food production. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. M. Background and scope. Recommended Books: 1. rivers. London. Environmental Psychology. Ecological restoration. Routledge. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. 2001.D. carbon dioxide and global climate change. CRC Press. Fundamental of Psychology. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. P. High population density and psychological impacts. Course Outline Introduction. Environmental perception and cognition. London. Pollution control through Ecology.A. 2. Future water scenario of Pakistan. Sustainable livestock management practices. techniques and methods of restoration. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. Bell. and Baum A. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. solar radiation and primary production. soil resources of Pakistan.W. Sustainable agricultural practices. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals.characteristics and research methods. Fisher J. Greene. their management and ecological restoration.. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. Restoration of derelict lands. Eysenck. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. Routledge.

water and soil. 29 . 2000 2. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. Oxford. 3. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. Synergism. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. Mumtaz. B. toxins & toxicants. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. from natural and anthropogenic sources. Potentiation and Addition. Rashid. J. Immunological considerations in toxicology. their containment and control strategies.Recommended Books: 1. Odum E. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. Islamabad. Margaret A. R. terminologies: Poisons.1998. Organs. 5. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. 1996..A. G.W. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. Shirkat Gah. in vivo & in vitro assays. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. Zedler. P. Falk. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. Island Press. Chemical interactions and their types. and Barett. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques.. E. and Memon. Pakistan’s Environment. J. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. on human and other living organisms.P. toxins vs toxicants. Israr-ud-Din. D. Thomson Brooks/Cole. University of Peshawar. soil and air samples. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air.I.S. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. 2004. and Hobbs. 2006. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. Lahore. Peshawar.. A. 4. K. Studies in Pakistan Geography. K and Habib. toxicology of chemicals. Soil Science. Toxicity: Types and its measurement.. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. Newman. USA.National Book Foundation. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. 1989. Fundamentals of Ecology. 5th Edition. A. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. toxicity screening using microbial systems. Blackwell Scientific Publications. dose response relationship in living organisms. 2nd ed. biological effects.

estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. T and Turner. Klassen.Recommended Books 1. Course Outlines Introduction to history. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. water resources. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development.). clean development mechanism.Science of Poisons .M. Macmillan Press Ltd. measuring environmental benefits. Ecological: ecological zones. 3. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. USA. international trade and the environment. education. General and Applied Toxicology. Williams.2005 2.. Course Outlines Introduction. Vol. USA. people.D. Economic: agriculture. 5th Edition. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. the economy and the environment. culture. pollution control-a general model. McGrawhill. 1992. topographic zones. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. CRC Press Llc. State of the Environment-Pakistan . 1st Edition. 1996. P. 1993. W. geography. Recommended Books 1. economic aspects of different environmental problems. 1st Edition. Recommended Books: 30 . M. land. health. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. 3. industry. major ecosystems. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. Hughes. economic development and the environment. USA. urbanization and pollution. (ed. Government of Pakistan. 2005 2. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. W.1 & 2. B. Ballantyne.

J. Holler. I. 8th Edition. Reuter. 2003.R. 2000.C. 1993. Biomarkers in environmental assessment.2004.UK.1. Sparrow and D. Environmental Economics.D. Collingwood. 3. and derived S. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. units.K. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. Sample collection. Gravimetery. BOD. NO3–N & NH4-N). COD.. preparation and storage. 2. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory.. and Batemen. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. 3.and Field. Gravimetery. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. K. Skoog.I.. New York. Australia. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. M. D. Oxford. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. Sample preservation methods.. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. J. Peverill. Thomson and Brooks. and F. Harris. Field. 4. 2.L. D. 6th Edition. Data interpretation for quality control.. Lab Work S. 31 . Johns Hopkins University Press. Conductivitymetry. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. Titrimetery. water and plant analysis.A. salinity & sodicity).W. Conductivitymetry.2002. handling. 2005. Use of Potentiometery. D. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. D.K. Freeman & Co. Analytical techniques for soil. CSIRO Publ. C. Standard solutions and standard curves.. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). precision and accuracy. Oxford University Press. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. West. Fluoride. C. L. A. B. M. 1999. Pearce. USA. Recommended Books: 1. All Solids. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Turner. Kolstad. Titrimetery.I. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples.

4. 2007. Isolation. purification and preservation of DNA.W. Oxford University Press.E. J. New York. Recommended Books 1.1999. New York. USA. Smith. Bioreactors. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. (ed.. Tools in environmental biotechnology. Biotechnology. Environmental Biotechnology. 2nd Ed. D. Scragg. and Russel. After completion of this course. Government of Pakistan. National Biosafety Guidelines. 2. 2001. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. Introduction to microbial kinetics. National Biotechnology Commission.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. J. PCR. and Josef. 2005. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Wiley-VCH Verlag. Course Outlines Introduction. Recombinant DNA technology. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems.D. Chichoster.P. Germany.). 2009. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. 5th Ed. A. W.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. Biomarkers. England. Derbre. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. USA. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. and application of biotechnology in the environment. Sambrook. Hans- Joachim. Cambridge University Press. J.. Biosensor. 3. USA. students will be able to understand the significance. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. 2005. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment.

Inc. Rancez. A. map projection and coordinate systems. advantages and limitations of process. 2009. Fishery and wildlife. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. History and data collection. Using and reading GPS in field. integration of information from many sources. Preparation of thematic maps. 3. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. Satellite Imageries. Campbell. Z. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. Different types of maps. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Mc Graw Hill Education. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Energy Sources. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. John Wiley and Sons. Jensen. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Harvey. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. F. Cartography. Interpretation.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. Inc. Forestry. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. 4. Types of data used in GIS. Pearsons Education. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. 2. 5. Agriculture. Active and Passive remote sensing. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. Data acquisition. 2008. 1999. Data entry and output. Dessinov. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). eradication of the duplicated data. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). Image Processing. Aerial photography. V. Introduction to Photogrammetry. 2000. 2000. Introduction to GIS. Inc. R. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. history and platforms. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. John Wiley and Sons. Lulla. analysis and output. Guilfoud press New York. K and L.

threats to biodiversity and its conservation. American Society for Quality. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. hot spots of biodiversity. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. 2006.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. A. Systems and Support Techniques. 4. Conservation of biodiversity. 2001. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. threats to biodiversity. 34 . M. Michigan.3rd Edition . alpha and beta diversity. Environmental Economy. principles of Cleaner production. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. economic. Environment and sustainable development.C. philosophical. need and approach. F. Course Outlines Introduction. Environmental Management tools.). Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. social and ethical values of biodiversity. and Yoxon. 2. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. Environmental aspects and impacts. Certification of EMS. Environmental Management Systems Principles. types of biodiversity. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. 3. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). Sheldon. WWF Pakistan. Khan. B. ecological. standards and guidelines. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. eco-design. American Society for Quality. Related Environmental legislation. Methods of environmental protection.. M. plant. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).2nd Ed. 2005. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. cleaner technologies. International Organization for Standardization. 1998. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production.. and Qasim. etc..

presampling requirements/information.B.R. Saad Printers.D. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. 3. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. Course Outlines Introduction. laboratory custody. Publ. plants. soil and living organisms. field custody. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan.. quality assessment. Associates Inc. their categories. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. design and types of samples. forests. Quality assurance and quality control. population. habitats. Biogeography. Sinauer. 2000. Conservation of wildlife. conservation and livelihood. Kings College. air. Mirza.B. 2000. EIA requirement. Preservation methods including pH control. NOC for plant operation. chemical addition. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. ecotourism. C. Considerations. 35 . Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. Recommended Books: 1.. management. cities. protected areas. water. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. 1998.. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. Z. A Primer for Conservation Biology. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. quality control sampling. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. community and ecosystem level. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. conservation strategies. 2ndEd. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. P. London.B. international agreements. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. Lahore). croplands. and Morre.conservation at species. P. Legal protection of species. 2. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. Sunderland. sampling and design purposes. Rawalpindi. Cox. refrigeration and freezing methods.e. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. conservation in man-made ecosystems. national and international laws and regulations. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan.

2.. Peakall. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. Korte. S. 2008. The Measurement of Climate Change. Moisture in the Atmosphere. 3. 6. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. phenological changes. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. 2008. Burden. Earth Observation of Global Change. 7. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. 8. Murai. Chuviero. extinctions. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. Remote Sensing Note. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. L. Lewis Publisher London. Energy and Temperature. Keith. UK. 2000. S. 2002. (eds. chemical.1996. Ozone depletion.USA. McKlivie. Precipitation. . E. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. USA. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. regional. D.. Physical. Forstner U. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. H. New York. 2nd Edition. biological. 2002. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. D. Tokyo. Regional droughts and 36 . The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. (ed) Springer. Chapman and Hall. and Guethner. its causes and effects. I. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. altered community structure. N. human health. 5. Human responses to potential climate change.1999. agriculture. R. 1992. Air Pollution and Acid Rain.) McGraw-Hill. F.Recommended Books: 1. Recent Climate Change Indicators. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. Manahan. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. USA. Environmental Chemistry. USA. E.

Main stages in EIA process. Glasson. screening. London. 2000. Global Change and the earth system.. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2).. Hardy. 3. Islamabad. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. 2005. Hardy. 6. impact analysis. Recommended Books: 1. project implementation and follow up. Sringer. John Wiley & Sons. 4. and Solutions.. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. 1994. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. public involvement. EIA project management. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. overview.A.cataclysmic climate change. 2005. and Chadwick. 3. decision-making to implement the project. Climate Change . COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. 2. law.). review of EIA quality.O. Effects. 1st Edition. Global Warming and Climate Change. and Solutions. (ed. J. London. Houghton. scoping.. 1986. Keith. J. John Wiley & Sons. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. J. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. Effects. social impact assessment (SIA). A. 2003. & Nixon. A.Causes.(ed). Climate Change . mitigation and impact management. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. 2004. 4. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. Oxford. Recommended Books: 1.Causes. Harrop. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. Islamabad. Ministry of Housing and Works. 5.T. 2005. Therivel. reporting.. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. 2. liquid. T.. National Book Foundation. Cost and benefits of EIA. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. J.. 2003. solids. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. Petts. Routledge. and noise. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. Blackwell. 1999. R. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. D. Types & Resources to produce Energy. Earthscan Publication Ltd. 37 . J.

Everitt. solar power. their current status and threats. and Tu. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. New York. John Willey & Sons. national agriculture policy. 38 . causes and methods for its improvement. Ludwig. F. management options. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. S.... wind power and nuclear power. problem in agriculture.. 1993. process and contents of the management plan. existing management approaches. (ed. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. best available option for future.B and Warren.. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. Goldsmith.. Lohani. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. USA. threat and its causes. Development of Management Plan: needs. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. A. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. requirement. Asian Development Bank. United Nations Environment Programme. national and provincial legislation. 6. Recommended Books: 1. Types. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. methodologies.). Evans. agriculture chemicals. 2002. Sadler. & McCabe. Conservation in Progress. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. threats. Carpenter. Rangeland Management: existing status. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. national example. R. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. B. occurrence and distribution of natural resources.. 2nd Edition. forest types and its existing management. limitation in the future. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. H. wildlife census. management options. 1997. importance. J. their pros and cons. B. M. R. effective management. agriculture products and their share in GDP.5. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification.

W. Research Design & Research Methods. and Jorqensen. London. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). 1984. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. & Plano Clark. Environmental Conservation. Material Methods. Experimental Research. Inference based on findings. Case Studies. J. Sage CA. 1990. Thousand Oaks. Interviews. R. 39 . Bibliography.2. concepts and terminologies.L.E. Questionnaire.Amsterdam. research methods.. P. John Wiley & Sons. Review of Literature. types of sampling design/. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. V. Sampling: the logic of sampling. Islamabad. How to put things together? Introduction. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. USA. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Hansen.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). Methodology. Search Engines.A pre-requisite for Research. 3. Creswell. Literature Search: Database. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. Review of Literature. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. Scientific Research: Science.F. 2007. Scientific Methods. Selecting the Research Method. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. 4. GOP and IUCN. New York. Elsevier. S. population and sampling frames. 1992. Research Proposal: its importance . Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. to introduce students to research design. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. Surveys. 5. Objectives.E. Dasmann.

Chichester. Diamon. of Chicago Press. regulations made there under. National Conservation Strategy 5.. Wadsworth Publishing Company. G. 3. E. Government of Pakistan 3. 4. National Environmental Policy 4. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Marilyn F. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. 6.USA.. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. 2001. Booth. Survey Research Methods. USA. Babbie. Law Books House.. Qadar. and Arhonditsis. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 .Batty. USA. England. 2003. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. 2. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan.Harrad. 1989. S. 2008. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. 5. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. Sage Publishers. Univ. 1997. Recommended Books: 1. 2003. Robert Yin. 2000. 1997. 2nd Edition. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. Students project in Environmental Science. Belmont California.S. R. Moriarty. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan.h. John and sons Ltd. M. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. 3rd Edition.2. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers..

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

2003. 1993. tubewells. water quality and quantity aspects. Briscoe. groundwater exploitation. K. U. wetlands resources management. Oxford University Press Karachi. Asia Printer. watershed/catchment. 2006. integrated water resources management (IWRM).. Mirajuddin Publication . how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. A. fisheries management.. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization.. N. water supply and demand management measures. R. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. Cheema.). 6. (ed. O. virtual water. Pakistan .K.. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. 4. and Malik. I. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). Ahmed. A. 5. A. Lahore. hydrological cycle. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. Pakistan. 3. P.. (eds. 2005. Khan. Revised & enlarged edition.. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. N. R. 2. 2006. Islamabad. Bengali.1993. Islamabad. pollution aspects. flood and drought management.Varis. 44 . and Qamar.. flood and droughts. recycling and re-use of wastewater.).Lahore. SDPI Oxford University Press. with drinking water facilities like springs. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. Ahmed. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. and Tortajada. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. The Politics of Managing Water. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. Biswas. Recommended Books: 1. C. Oxford University Press New Delhi. J. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. Indus Water Accord 1991. Mirajuddin Publication . precipitation distribution in Pakistan.

Physical and chemical properties of soil. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. Hillel. N. Causes of urbanization.W. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. Brady. USA. USA. Gardiner. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. San Diego. Factors and processes of soil formation. and Weil.. Forms of urbanization. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes.T. D. urban landscapes characteristics. NJ. 2007. After completion of this course. 1. 1996. 11th Edition. Urban ecosystem. Islamabad. Course Outlines Introduction. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. R. PrenticeHall.R. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. urbanization in Pakistan. Course Outlines Introduction. soils. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. future of urban centers. Soil Science. National Book Foundation. Academic Press. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. Cation and anion exchange. NJ. hydrological processes. R. humans as components of urban ecosystems. Soil degradation.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. E. Prentice Hall. 2007. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. Upper Saddle River. Soil forming minerals. transport. 45 . Soils in Our Environment. urban flora and fauna. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. urban political ecology. and Bantel. CA. Pakistan. Types and properties of parent materials. Miller. Urbanization. Upper Saddle River. the salient features of urban environments. 2008. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. Definition. R. urban settlements. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. D. management and green productivity. USA..C. Bashir. Process and outcome.

SAGE Publications Ltd.and Maser. City Design for Sustainable Development. Ward. 2006. J. S. New York. S. 2007. Gilbert. Smith.L. Scope. Types of Urban Plans. Alberti. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. Routledge. London. Routledge. Chapman and Hall. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. UK. nd 2 Edition. UR.. 2. 2004. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. 5. USA. Justification for planning for city management. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. Silberstein. M. London.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. Springer. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. 2. O... Principles of planning. H. C. 46 . Elements of urban planning.1990. Sukopp. USA. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Planning and Urban Change. 3. Planning theories and concepts. UK. Aims and Objectives of planning... nature and purpose of urban planning. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels.S. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Hough.and Kowaril. Recommended Books: 1. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. Hague. New trends in planning and city management. 2009. A. 2004. Land use planning theories. 1. I. V. 4. Penguin Group. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. M. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. Hejny. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. Planning and its relationship with other professions. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. Levels of planning. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. D. SBS academic publishing. UK. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. 2000. Kate. CRC Press LLC. The planning process. 1989.

Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N.J. Kates. Manila. E&UA Div. Paris. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. Disaster Management: Components of management. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). H. Westview Press. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. 4. 47 . assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. 4. Hazards. The Guilford Press. Chapman & Hall. Islamabad. P. International phenomenon. and White G. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies.. i. Disaster as an opportunity for development. 1993. New York. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies.. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors.B. 1993. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. Clara. and Woodrow. G... 3. Recommended Books: 1. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms.. 2nd Edition. Natural cycles and their role. Socio-economic factors. Longman Group. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. M. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. Different approaches and Indicators. Cultural factors.F. Flooding. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. 1993. Natural Disasters Alexander. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. 1986.UNESCO. 1989. R. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization.. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches.3. Government of Pakistan. Landslide. 2.W. Physical factors. It discusses a wide range of aspects. D. Political factors. Ministry of Housing and Works. Earthquake... 1991.W. New York. Prediction. Earthquake Management. Flood Management: Organizational Role. Boulder . Role of Media in Disaster Management. Introducing Town Planning. UK. ADB. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards.e. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies.

. A. John Wiley and Sons. types. Sustainable livestock management. 1984. local. USA.A. McKinney. Schoch. F.. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. uses. 48 . Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions.. solar. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. and Mushkatel.M. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. energy resources of Pakistan. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. primary producers. Agroecology. sustainable energy management. New York. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. Disasters and Development Cuny.C. Perry R. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. 1983. and Yonavjak. alternate energy resources. L. hydropower. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem.L.W. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. Consumer and producer relationship. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. decomposers. Biotic structure. D. Ecological concept in crop and food production. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. consumers. 3. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment.H. 6th Edition. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity.B and Keller. 2007. OECD/IEA. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. 6. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. Westport. E.5. 1. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. Botkin. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. R. merits and demerits of wind. 2001. M. Quorum Books. energy resources. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. 4th Edition. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. 2. biomass resources. 2007. Paris.

M. Corol. India. Study of index of diversity. Experimental Plant Ecology. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. P. USA. E-11 Seminar 49 . New York. and Rossel. CBS Publishers and Distributors. USA. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. 1990. and Sudha.M. 2.G. Boulder. Westview Press. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture.P. Study of stratification and profile diagram.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. C. Kapur.. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. Agrocology.A.H.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. 3.R. R. New Delhi. Yandermeer J. Altreri. 2000. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. Recommended Books: 1. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. 1995.

POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. 3. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. 4. that: 1. the Committee agreed on the following principles. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. 5. availability of the faculty and other facilities. 2. 50 .

10. 24. 11. 7.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 18. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 20. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 6. 17. 7. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 4. 19. 23. 8. 21. 10. 4. 13. 5. 11. 12. 12. 6. 26. 5. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 2. 9. 8. 22. 15. 2. 16. 3. 14. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 3. 9. 25.

NCS. and Bell. Regional and International Environmental Issues. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. P.1994. Islamabad. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. and Jorqensen. 3. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. London Black Stone Press Ltd. Recommended Books: 1. Conventions and Protocols in Global. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. Geography of Pakistan. Relationship of culture. status of Terrestrial. Environment People and Economy. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. Mackenzie. F. Hansen. Environmental control Policies. Instruments and methods. 3. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space.1995...1994. D. 2nd Edition. Karachi.F.DETAILS OF M. Khan K. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS).E. Elsevier. Hodder and Stoughton. 2. Oxford University Press. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. Draft National Environmental Policy. London. Money. S.. Treaties. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. S. 2. 52 .. GOP and IUCN. 1992. Oxford University Press. Amsterdam. 1987. S. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management.. FURTHER READINGS 1. Mackenzie J.T. Conservation Strategies.A.1991. 1991. Provincial and Local Strategies.S. development of concepts. 4. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. technology and resource use. WCS.E. Ball.

Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review).A. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. FURTHER READINGS 1. ecological impact assessment. Assessment of environmental impacts. Demographic impact assessment. Environmental Chemical Analysis. process. ed. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. Chichester. Ahmed. Ed. opportunities and issues. 1993. economic impact assessment. England. Government of Pakistan. Gas Chromatography etc. D. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. Cost benefit analysis of projects. History. A one Publishers Lahore. WB. 2. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. A. role and importance.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. C. Recommended Books: 1. Principles of physical. 3. Longman Scientific and Technical. Recommended Books: 1. 2. Longman House. Ministry of Environment. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. Wood. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. 1995.Vanclay. Wastewater. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update.. 53 . COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. F & Bronstein. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Air and Solid Waste. Environment Department. World Bank. Washington. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. Case Studies and review. procedures and methods of EIA. UK. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. sample collection and preservation. DC. Environmental auditing. K. social impact assessment. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. 1995. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). Harlow Essex. Burnt Hill. sampling rules. John Wiley & Sons.

Government Policies and Programs. and Guidotti. 4.2000. S. A Guide to Project Management. air borne. Planning Commission Performas. M/S Banarsid. Public health concept. inputs. 54 ... 2001. 2nd Ed. Inc. Project Initiation. activities.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. 1st Ed. Need identification. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Reasons for Project success or failure.. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation.. and Wright. J. USA. 1993.. Project Management Institute. L. UK. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. principles and practices. T. Park. Project Planning. assumptions. 1st Ed. feasibility study. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. Recommended Books: 1. 2. M. Writing Project Proposal. Primary health care services. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. Environmental Health Engineering. indicators. 2. Caeneross.. Nebel. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. New York. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. de Kok. 1998. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. R. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. Project Planning and Approval Processes. outputs. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). 1st ed. B. Mantel s. 5. economic evaluation. Kjelllström. J. development objectives. K. 1997. USA. Accident prevention and safety plans. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. Ergonomic and Safety.. Basic Environmental Health. Resource Mobilization. R. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. Defining Project objectives. John Wiley and Sons. Oxford University Press New York. T. safety techniques. T. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. T. means of verification. 1992. Occupational Health: problems and issues.. work breakdown structure. prevention and control. Lippmann. Yassi. 3. Prentice Hall International Inc. 2002.. London. Wiley Interscience. A. specific objectives. Meredith J. Project Life Cycle.

and Yonavjak. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental Auditing. Recommended Books: 1. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). D. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Sources of data. 4. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. Botkin. 2. E. 3. non-renewable and renewable. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. 4th Edition. bio-energy resources. Environmental auditing. data collection and interpretation. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. 2007. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment).COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System.B and Keller. petroleum. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. D. 2007. gas. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Paris. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. OECD/IEA. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. 3. nuclear) local.. Related Environmental regulations. 6th Edition. 2. L. John Wiley and Sons. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. ISO Central Secretariat. principles and elements of the process of EMS. types. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. alternate energy resources. Sayre. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. Schoch. merits and demerits of wind. R. Michigan-January 2001. energy resources of Pakistan. transport.A.L. 1998. industry and domestic sectors. 2001. uses.M. 55 . hydropower. solar. St Luise Press. McKinney. Switzerland. Paris. energy resources. sustainable energy management for agriculture. USA. M. 1990b. Principles of cleaner production. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management.

. ED. 5. and Solutions. Oxford UK. Effects. and Solutions. Hardy. Silvertown. 2003. etc. 2005. water resources. D. 2005.. B & Jager. Recommended Books: 1. Blackwell Publishing. 2.Causes. global aspects of plant ecology.D. Climate Change and Ecosystems. Modeling of climate change. competition and coexistence. Climate Change . 56 . John Wiley & Sons.T. Recommended Books: 1. resources and plants. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Hardy. UK. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. John Wiley & Sons. geographical and temporal patterns. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. types and their climatic effects. ECOPE 29. Climate Change . Beck. 1.Causes. Springer. human activities and vegetation dynamics.). Houghton. (Ed. 4. The Green House Effect. management and restoration. 2003. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. Warrick. Plant Ecology. UK 1991. 3. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. 2. 2005. Plant population dynamics. Vegetation Ecology Ed. J. Oxford. J. 3. Species richness. Blackwell Publishing. 1st Edition. Maarel. plant invasions.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. Life history strategies of plants. Climate change and food production. London. Green House Gases. Earthscan Publication Ltd. Chichester. survival and extinction. E. forests. John Wiley & Sons. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. K. types of climate change models. vegetation dynamics. Shulze. 2005. & Charlesworth. E & Muller-Hohenstein. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. Effects. J. plant conservation. T. D. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. 2004. Berlin.

1992. J. its causes. distribution. Blackwell Publsihing. Robinson. habitats and ecosystems.L. distribution and management. And Bolen. Consumptive. Recommended Books: 1.A. Forest plantations. their types and role in conservation. USA. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. kinds. T. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. II). Wildlife Ecology and Management. Oxford. Protected areas. types. Sustainable forest management. R. types. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. Mcmillan. 1986. Conserving Living Natural Resources. biological diversity. distribution. deforestation and its control.J. Recommended Books: 1. Oxford University Press. Principles of Wildlife Management. their importance. Biodiversity: An introduction. J. S. Essentials of Conservation Biology. Cambridge. Extinction of species. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. & Spicer. B. management. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. 1998. W.(2nd Ed. status. Inc. UK.D.) Gaston. threats and conservation. John Wiley And Sons. 5. Bailey. Participatory forest management. I). Primack. London. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Status of forests in Pakistan. Roberts. Publishers Sunderland. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. their ecological and economic importance.J.B. Protection and restoration of species. Forests. 3. T. 4. & Ripley. Wetlands. Cambridge University Press. 2. K.J. UK. Oxford. Oxford. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. Threatened animals and plants. Oxford University Press. E. Global and national biodiversity. Protected areas in Pakistan. Rangeland management. 1984.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. Establishment and management of protected areas. Loss of biodiversity. Weddell. problems and solutions. 1973 2. 57 . Oxford University Press. Roberts. 3. 2002. S. Cambridge. Wildlife of Pakistan.G.J. 2002. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. 2004. Sinauer Assocaites.

CRC Press LLC. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Planning and Urban Change. Kate.. S. London. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. 2. drinking water and solid waste in cities. 1993.. sanitation. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. urban landscape characteristics. C. Islamabad. Penguin Group. UK. Clara. 2000. 58 . USA. G. 3. Environmental problems of urban life. 2004. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development.and Maser. V.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. future of urban centers. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. USA. 4. urban political ecology. Silberstein. Sustainable cities. Ministry of Housing and Works. Forms of urbanization. Urban land use planning and management.. Introducing Town Planning. urban systems and their characteristics. management of transport. 1986. Government of Pakistan. Ward. New York. UK. E&UA Div. Longman Group. urbanization in Pakistan. SAGE Publications Ltd. 2007. H. Recommended Books: 1. A.. J.

V.J. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1.Annexure . Martinet. Third edition. Exercises 1. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. ISBN 0194313492 59 . a) Functional English Grammar 1. 1997. Practical English Grammar by A. Thomson and A. Oxford University Press.

summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. Third Impression 1992. 1997. minutes of meetings. Oxford University Press. Exercises 2. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. Reading.V. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. Upper Intermediate. Thomson and A. Third edition.2. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. intensive and extensive. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. Martinet. Oxford Supplementary Skills. and speed reading. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . Reading/Comprehension 1.J. Writing. b) Practical English Grammar by A. Fourth Impression 1993. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Oxford Supplementary Skills.

Oxford Supplementary Skills. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking).J. Practical English Grammar by A. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Third Impression 1991. narrative. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. b) Writing 1. discursive. Oxford Supplementary Skills.V. Fourth Impression 1992. language. Martinet. Third Impression 1992. clarity. form. introduction to presentations.1. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Thomson and A. Advanced. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. Advanced by Ron White. 2. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Writing. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Oxford University Press 1986. 2. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Reading 1. Reading. content. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Third edition. descriptive and argumentative writing). Exercises 2. Fourth Impression 1993. Writing. Writing. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . Oxford Supplementary Skills. ISBN 0 19 431350 6.

Compiled by norther Illinois University. St. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. Martin’s Press.(particularly suitable for discursive. 62 . argumentative and report writing). without taxing the taste of engineering students). College Writing Skills by John Langan. descriptive. 2004. 3. Kirszner and Stephen R. Kathleen Shine Cain. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. Mandell. 2. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. A Custom Publication.

1994. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. 63 Books Recommended 1. Historical Perspective a. State & Society in Pakistan. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. . politics.M. ideological background of Pakistan. Indus Civilization ii. Akbar. Contemporary Pakistan a. 2. Shahid Javed. 4. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. 1988-99 f. 1993. 2000. Safdar. b. Mehmood. government. 1947-58 b. S.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. Study the process of governance. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. Muslim advent iii. Ethnicity d. Zaidi. Course Outline 1. contemporary Pakistan. 1977-88 e. Society and social structure c. national development. 3. People and Land i. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. S. Lahore. 1999 onward 3. 2. 1971-77 d. Location and geo-physical features. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. Economic institutions and issues b. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. 1958-71 c. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki.Annexure . Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

K. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. History & Culture of Sindh. Noor ul. Lahore: Vanguard. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. Wayne. 13. 10. nd. 1987. Institute of Public Policy Research. Ziring. 8. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. 64 .5. 1980. 12. Aziz. Ethno .. Amin. Safdar. Ansar. 1980. 1967. 11. Lawrence. 1993. Afzal. Washington: American Enterprise. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. Muhammad Waseem. 7. Enigma of Political Development. 1972. 14. Politics in Pakistan. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Sayeed. 1998. Party.The Emergence of Banglades. M. 1976. Club Road. 9. Islamabad. Political Parties in Pakistan. Wilcox. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Tahir. Zahid. Vol. Mehmood. Haq. Khalid Bin.K.National Movement in Pakistan. Rafique. I. II & III. The Political System of Pakistan. 6. Pakistan Under Martial Law.

2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.A.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .A.A.21.58.57.56.19.20) Related to thinking.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.6.Tadabar (Verse No1. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.Annexure .40.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.A.

3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt. in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .

Islamabad (2001) 67 . “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. “Studies in Islamic Law. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. Ahmad Hasan. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. International Islamic University. “Emergence of Islam” .S. IRI. Bhatia. Pakistan. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H.

Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). geometric progression. system of linear equations. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. equations reducible to quadratic equations. introduction to sets. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. cube roots of unity. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. matrix inverse. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. Cramer’s rule. Boston Swokowski EW. PWS-Kent Company. types. Wooton W. functions. Houghton & Mifflin. Beckenback EF. set operations. trigonometric identities. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. 1987. Boston 68 .Annexure . Sharron S. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. PWS-Kent Company. complex numbers. 1986. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. 1978.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. not majoring in mathematics. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. types of functions. harmonic progression. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. determinants. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. College Algebra and Trigonometry.

Addison-Wesley. Boston Thomas GB. continuity. USA 3. Recommended Books: Anton H. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. rational and transcendental functions. New York Stewart J. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. change of variables in indefinite integrals. left-hand and right-hand limits. not majoring in mathematics. solution of equations involving absolute values. integration by parts. continuous functions. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. integration by substitution. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. derivatives. inequalities. PWS-Kent Company. distance between a point and a line. various forms of equation of a line. Finney AR. Davis S. distance between two points. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. Calculus (11th edition). 1995. 69 . MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. 2005. equation of a line. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. Calculus (3rd edition). Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. John Wiley. Bevens I. 2005. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. Reading. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Ma. differentiation of polynomial.2. parallel and perpendicular lines. slope of a line. angle between two lines. not majoring in mathematics. 1983. intersection of two lines. functions and their graphs.

1986. Boston Swokowski EW. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. • Contents 1. locus of a point in various conditions. functions. Scott. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. 1969 Kaufmann JE. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). hyperbola. nature of roots of quadratic equations. determinants. types of matrices. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. inverse of matrices. circles determined by various conditions. Boston 4. 1987. set operations. Analytic Geometry. Introduction to sets. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Cramer’s rule. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). Matrices: Introduction to matrices. intersection of lines and circles. College Algebra and Trigonometry. equations reducible to quadratic equations. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. types of functions. PWS-Kent Company. PWS-Kent Company. Freshman and Company. system of linear equations. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic.Circle: Equation of a circle. ellipse. 70 . Conic Sections: Parabola. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination.

PWS-Kent Company. Latest Edition.. 2. 71 . 2. ‘Introduction of Statistics’.. J. Graphs: Graph of straight line. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. 5. R. circle and trigonometric functions. Prentice Hall.. frequency polygon. individual. moments. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. R. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. 4. cumulative frequency curve. standard deviation. Kaufmann. types of frequency series. deciles and percentiles. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. trigonometric identities. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. characteristics of statistics. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. quartiles. Boston. Walpole. discrete and continuous series. relationship of statistics with social science. E. W. Latest Edition. Wilcox. bar frequency diagram histogram. variance. E. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. E. 3. skewness and kurtosis. Books Recommended: 1. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. tally sheet method.. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem.geometric and harmonic progressions. array. Latest Edition. Measures of dispersion: Range. Swokowski. ungrouped and grouped data. R.

Calculus Single and Multivariable. 3rd Edition. Least-Squares Line. 3. integration using partial fractions. Addison Wesley publishing company. Recommended Books: 1. Jhon Willey & Sons. quotients. John Wiley & Sons. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. the inverse of differentiation. Schaum’s Outline Series. Inequalities. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. Inc. 2002. 6. Continuity. integration by inspection. implicit differentiation. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. Thomas. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. integral inequalities. 11th Edition. logarithmic differentiation. Rational and Transcendental Functions. Integration by Parts. special points of a function. Leibnitz’ theorem. W. Elliott Mendelson. S. Gleason. 2005. 2. 6. integration by parts. Calculus. 5. Mathews. theorems of differentiation. Equation of a Line. plane polar coordinates. I. Calculus. Anton. John H. Trigonometric Functions. 4th edition. Bevens. 4. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. infinite and improper integrals. 8th edition. 2. Extreme Values of Functions. sinusoidal function. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. Second Edition 1992. Slope of a Line. Frank A. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. Swokowski. logarithmic integration. Contents 1. Prentice-Hall. Hughes-Hallett. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. 2005. the chain rule. Inc. applications of integration.Jr. reduction formulae. • Integration Integration from first principles. E. Solution of equations involving absolute values.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. and Transcendental Functions. Continuous Functions. Rational Functions. 1999. H. substitution method. Davis. McCallum. Boston. Calculus. products. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . 1983. et al. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus.

solving hyperbolic equations. complex conjugate. identities of hyperbolic functions. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. the difference method. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series.Additions and subtraction. multiplication. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. arithmetico-geometric series. geometric series. finding the nth roots of unity. series involving natural numbers. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. modulus and argument. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. inverses of hyperbolic functions. approximation errors in Taylor series.

of a unitary matrix. Pappus’ theorems. the inner product. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. symmetric and antisymmetric. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. orthogonal. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. centers of mass and centroids. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix.5. masses. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. point to plane. Hermitian. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. moments of inertia. line to line. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. vector product. scalar triple product. 6. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal.

curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. divergence of a vector field. combinations of grad. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions.8. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. spherical polar coordinates 75 .

Range. Rounding of a Number. level of significance. Type-I and Type-II errors. Collection of primary and secondary data. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. probability and non-probability sampling. Bar charts. 76 . Test statistics. Standardized variables. The Variance and standard deviation. Quantiles. Observations. Median and mode. Discrete and continuous variables. acceptance and rejection regions. Unit 4. Unit 5. Types of frequency curves. Unit 2. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Histogram. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Sources.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Difference of means and proportions. sample design and sampling frame. null and alternative hypothesis. Exercises. The semi-Interquartile Range. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Constructing of a frequency distribution. definition of outliers and their detection. Graphs and their Construction. Exercises. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Moments and Moments ratios. Exercises. Population. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Data. sampling with and without replacement. Poisson and Normal Distribution. properties of Good Average. Diagrams. Statistical problem. Exercises.Annexure . The Mode. Empirical Relation between Mean. Stem and Leaf Display. Change of origin and scale. sampling and non sampling errors. Probability and Probability Distributions. Historigram. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Box and Whisker Plot. Pie chart. The Mean Deviation. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Different types of Averages. Errors of measurement. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Presentation of Data Introduction. Unit 7. Coefficient of variation. bias. Exercises. Absolute and relative measures. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Unit 3. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Significant digits. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Exercises Unit 6. Exercises. Editing of Data.

Exercises Unit 10. its estimation and interpretation.. 77 . Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. Correlation. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Exercises Unit 9. Unit 11. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. 3rd Ed. r and R2. 2 Muhammad. Kitab Markaz. cause and effect relationships. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. Macmillan Publishing Co. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. 1982.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. R. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples.Single Population Introduction. Coefficient of linear correlation. Inc. E. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. 2005. Contingency Tables. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. New York. Regression and Correlation Introduction.Unit 8. Testing of Hypothesis. examples. “Introduction to Statistics”. Exercises. simple linear regression. F..

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful