CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
58

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comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. It is. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. dated December 4th 1976. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 .50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. degree awarding institutions. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee.ALTAF ALI G. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. universities and other institutions of higher education. 63. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. the Federal Government vide notification No. 2007 at HEC Regional Center.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. PROF. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. The world has turned into a global village. D773/76-JEA (cur. R&D organizations. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities.). In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. therefore. It also aimed to give a basic. Lahore. and 36. DR. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level.

HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. OF CURRI. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. EXP. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. Preparation 5 . IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. COL. PREP. R&D. REC. OF FINAL CURRI. OF NCRC.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. UNI. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI.

Member 5. Member 6 . Karachi from 28-30. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. 7. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Rawalpindi Dr. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Dr. Dr. Member 3.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Following attended the meeting:1. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Dr. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Lahore Member 6. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Member 4. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Rawalpindi Dr.

Prof. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Dr. Dr. Karachi Member 12. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Dr. Member 10. 13. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Member 15. Member 16. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Member 11. Prof. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Dr. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. 7 . Dr. Dr.8. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Member 14.

Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. Secretary Dr. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Dr. Faisalabad Member 18. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. The meeting was opened by Mr. 8 . compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. Karachi. Member 19.17. 2. 1. Chairman. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Director of HEC Regional Center. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. At first. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. Mr. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. Member 20. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Dr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Mr.

3. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. In last few centuries. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. 6. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. 4. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. The committee thanked Mr. 2. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. 1. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. 5. 3. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses.

in its preliminary meeting. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. regional and global contexts. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. Apply theoretical understanding. ii. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. skills and behaviour patterns. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. 5. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. This committee. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii.

e. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i.. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. with consensus. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. that: 1. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. 5. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. Sc. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. Integrating natural sciences. 2. A. 4. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. 3. 6. eight semesters in the semester system. The medium of instruction. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. 1. The 11 . In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes.

Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Environmental Pollution 22. Environmental Chemistry 15. Environmental Microbiology 21. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Biology –I* 3. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. English-I 6. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. English-III 18. Introduction to Computer 14. Basic Chemistry* 4. Biology –II* 9. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Climatology* 23. Environmental Physics 16. Introductory Economics* 17. Psychology* . SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Introduction to Earth Science 8.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. English-II 12.

Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. ELECTIVE-III 42. Environmental Economics 29. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Environmental Biotechnology 32. 46. Applied Ecology 26. Opt. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. English-IV/ Univ. 45. Natural Resource Management 40. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. Environmental Management Systems 34. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. 44. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43.24. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. Environmental Monitoring 36. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. Environmental toxicology 27. Climate Change 38.

• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .

socio-economic. 15 . McKinney.A. development in industry and agriculture.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. John Wiley & Sons. regional. and their relationships with various environmental factors. G. biological and social. national.M. Human environment and its problems: global. its importance in human life. ecological. E. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. 10th Ed. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. proteins and nucleic acids. & Yonavjak. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . 4th Ed. R. Thomson Learning. & Nebel. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. R. D. urbanization. 2.. Schoch. lipids.L. Recommended Books: 1. 4. environmental pollution. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future.T. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. philosophical.B & Keller. 2007.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. Wright. L. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Pearson Educational. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms.. 2007. history. 2007 3. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Botkin. current global. M. ethical. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. B. 6th Ed.J. 2002. poverty and resource depletion. Different aspects of environment: physical. Miller. Major components of environment: physico-chemical.

COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions.. amines). Canada. Molecular Biology through Questions.. Introduction to cell biology. Ltd. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. Cassimeris. C. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis.. Wadsworth Group. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. 2008. USA. Cell division. 2007. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. Crossley. Structure and the basis of function. A. New York. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. esters. 2003. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. 5. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. L. G. McGraw. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. carbohydrates. 8th Ed. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. carboxylic acids. Lewis. Plopper. Shier. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins.. Starr. 3. coordinate covalent bond. 4. 1996. and Whitelaw. polypeptides in protein diversity. covalent. N. 2. chemical diversity. Lingappa. D. and Lewis. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. V.Hill International Edition. R. chemical basis of life.. lipids. Origin of life: chemical evolution. the molecule of genetic information and replication. Ionic. origin of metabolism. B. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. USA. Bulter. USA. Nucleic acids. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. 2007. E. M. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. Self Assessment and Revie. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. phospholipids in membrane systems. Aromatic compounds. R. Australia . lipids. J. Biology: a Human Emphasis. proteins. protobionts. 16 . carbonyls. 5th Edetion. Cells. 1. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Use of spectrophotometric techniques. simultaneous equations and their solutions.C. 2004. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional).. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Measurement of pH. 2003. 6th Edition.. USA. Column chromatography. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). Freeman and Company. 8th Edition. Brimblecombe. Cambridge University Press.D. determinants. double angle formulas. Hill. J. Surface chemistry. graphs. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. 17 . Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. 3. Thin layer chromatography.M.E. Colloids chemistry. D. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. D. radicals. Thomson and Brooks. 2004. real line. 5. series and means. straight line and related concepts.. Osmosis and Dialysis. F. and Reid.A. values of trigonometric functions. Solution chemistry. D. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. equations of lines (linear equations). P. 2nd Edition. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. and Holler. UK.ions.. Understanding Environmental Pollution. expansion of determinants. law of Cosines. 2nd Edition. 4.K.J. minor and cofactor of a matrix. 2005. molal. Canada. Recommended Books: 1.. Jones and Barlett. Lab Work Preparation of molar. Jickells. T... Algebra of matrices.E. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). 2004.J. 2.. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Blackwell Science. W.S.H. angle-sum formula. UK. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. 1st Ed. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. USA. M. Harris. normal solutions/buffers. Girard. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. EC and TDS in waste water. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. Skoog. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. Andrews. B. geometric and harmonic sequence. West.. J. Photochemical reactions. P. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra.Special Products (Binomial Expression). Liss.

Narosa Publishing House. D. Chain rule.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. 4th Ed. Introduction to sedimentary. Abraham. joints. 18 . L. its origin. difference. 1999. Trignometry for College students. Smith. 10th Ed. theorems on differentiation (sum. plate tectonics. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. New Delhi. Chatterjee. nonrepeated linear factors. G. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. Thomas. S. R.Cramer’s Rule. 2.. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. Introduction to folds. earthquakes. Analytical Geometry. Recommended Books: 1. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. lineation and unconformities.B.. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. foliation. Addission. cleavages. irreducible quadratic factors. igneous and metamorphic rocks. 4. weathering and erosion. faults. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. California. composition and its internal structure. product and quotient rules without derivations). K. Fossils and their significance. Jr. Integration: Formulas of integration. J. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. the processes of their formation. Introduction to rocks and minerals. Pacific Grove. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. by parts integration (simple applications). mountain building.Wesley. age. different earth processes like mountain buildings. Scott Foresman and Company. and Finney. Weathering. earthquakes and volcanoes. erosion and related landforms. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. 3. theorem of integration. Earth as a member of solar system.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure .

E. How Does Earth Work. animals). and Pun.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. invasion of life on land. Earth Science. D. Foundations of Structural Biology. F. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. J. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. Lutgens. Field Study tour. F. and Monroe. J. Brooks/Cole. 4. D. multicellularity.. unicellularity. 11th Edition. and Tasa. Darwinism. Prentice Hall: 2006. Life in sea. 2007 2. population loss and decline. Prentice Hall. Tarbuck... measuring biodiversity. Use of brunton compass and GPS. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. Recommended Books: 1. G. Lutgens. causes of extinction. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. G. Smith.. 5. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. Prentice Hall. Routledge. K. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. interactions among diversified life. 2005. 2007 3. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. Park...II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. K. different classification systems. Biodiversity of hilly areas. Lamarckism..Identification of rocks and minerals. biodiversity crises. 5th Edition. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. A. Tarbuck.. Biodiversity of canal. consequences of losing biodiversity. 3rd Edition. 19 . river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. molecular basis of biodiversity. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity.. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. Geological time chart with biodiversity. 2004. Biodiversity of deserts. protocell formation. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. 9th Edition. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. R. R. modern concepts. J. Wicander. examples of adjustments in varied environment. Physical Geology and Process of Science. E. and Tasa.

culture and society. globalization and environmental issues. 2. 2001. 4. and Spicer. (editor). Use of environment for vested interest. New York: New York University Press. Adam. 3. 2003. Blackwell Science Ltd. Allan & Carter. 20 . 2009. John Wiley and Sons. 2. USA. a Human Emphasis. Scope and application. The Biosphere. Townsend. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. Bradbury. R. C. power & hegemony. UK. K. L. Prospect Heights. Starr. 5th Edition. J. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. Walnut Creek. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure .E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. Environmental Risks and the Media. Contemporary environmental status.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. (editors). UK. Routledge. Gaston. I. Recommended Books: 1. Tripartite nature of environment. UK. Chronological. 2nd Edition. Inc. J. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. and Sustainable Living. IL:WavelandPress. The Ecology of global consumer culture. 2005.. C.K. 2009. 3. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. K. Hannen. Biodiversity (An Introduction). Conceptualizing environment.. Inc. Contemporary environment issues and debate. 2000. and concerns. Culture. P. Perspective of human-environment evolution. Crumley. CA: AltaMira Press. Goals and expectations. Biology. Nora and Wilk. Understanding the environment-human relationship. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. I. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. Consumption. 2006. Wadsworth Group.

Local Area Network. Ms-Excel. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. Hardware: Input Hardware.Microsoft office 2000. Ed.H. Ms-Power Point.London 1996. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. 21 . Rutledge. output hardware. Long l. internet. Milton. G.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. Configurations. Selin.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components.1999. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. system software. 2. Software: Application software. e-mail. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Operating system (Windows).. K. computer programs and basic applications. Course Outlines Definition. Types and classification of computers. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. processing hardware.6th Ed. Fundamentals of computer. Ms-Access. 2003. 6. Marquis A. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . Courter. Recommended Books: 1. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry.. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. software packages. Storage hardware. Introduction to MS-Word. Long N. as are their effects on the biosphere.5.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment.

Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. Environmental Chemistry. Recommended Books: 1. Diffusion..J. Canada. UK. G.. Jones and Barlett. 3. USA. Particle physics. Heat radiation and heat transfer. Energy. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Brimblecombe. Turbulence. Solar spectrum. Principles of Environmental Chemistry.E.. Fregoso-Infante. Chemical reactions. interaction of light with matter. Turbulent jets and plumes. Human perceptions and noise criteria. India.. J.E. Springer.S. 2nd Edition. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. Reducing the transmission of sound. Gaussian plumes in the air. 1999. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. 2004. 2008. Global climate and climatic change. M. Isotopes and radioactive decay. DoriaSerrano. and Singh. trophic level. their sources and toxic actions. and Reid. Environmental impact of various industries. Blackwell Science. Environmental Chemistry. Thomson-Brooks. Equations of fluid dynamics. Ozone chemistry. Ibanez.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. Fate of pollutants in environment.. Samir. P. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light.M.. Transport of pollutants. A. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. Hernandez-Esparza. Liquids and Gasses. photosynthesis. Nuclear energy. J. atmospheric and soil chemistry. Energy conversion. P. Fundamentals of aquatic. 1st Edition. Turbulent diffusion. Jickells. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. Germany. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. T. 2005.T..D. Environmental Science.. 2. Solids. J. B.G. Sound and Noise. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter.. Entropy.. C. Active control of sound. Electromagnetic radiation. 2004.. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. Miller. Ozone and UV light. 4. Conversion of mass. K. Basic acoustics. Girard. Liss. Andrews. its causes and adverse effects on environment. 5. M.

S. Measures for sustainable development. concepts and measurement. 3. Pakistan economic context: National income. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Environmental Physics. Wesely Publishers. Man environmental relationship. Economic functions of environment. Praxis publishing. Producer behavior. 2006. Yusuf. 7th Ed. producer and community point of view. J. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. Todaro. Field visit. population and environmental quality. H. economic growth. USA. Recommended Books: 1. 2001.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. Kentucky USA. economic progress. 2008. USA. Smith. Sustainable development. Growth and development. Boeker. G. New York. M. Environmental economics. P. Natural resources and the economy. World Bank Publications. poverty. and Van Grondelle. USA. USA. Growth and Environment. 23 . 2. Economic Development. and Resource allocation. Routledge. Recommended Books: 1. economic growth and its measurement. Seinfeld. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Impact of economic activity on environment. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. E. 2001. economic welfare and difference among all. and Pandis. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. 2. C. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. 2008. UK. Economic management and environmental quality. S.. Introductory Environmental Physics.1998. N. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. Guyot. interaction between ecology and economic management. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. 4. R.Economic development. Physics of the Environment and Climate.

Kessinger Publishing. & Pierce. soil. London. Farmington Hills. the ethics of soil. Palgrave Macmillan. DeVeer. A History of Western Philosophy. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. International Thomson Publishing. biogeography. Ecosystem and its types. role of light. levels of ecological organization. and White. its fundamental concepts. C. Environmental philosophy and ethics. World Bank Publications. and systems ecology. Economics. Shogren. USA. R. Environmental Critics of agriculture. Hanley. ethics and ecology. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . B. J. description of population. community. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. population. Frodeman. 2002. 24 . LLC. temperature. 4. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. M. water. 4.3.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems... branches of ecology. D. 3. species. Callicott. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources... Swift. Course Outlines Introduction. England. USA. Touchstone Books. 2008. 2007. 2009. Natural philosophy. WCIV7AA. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. concepts and approaches. community and ecosystem.V. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. Portland 1967. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. J. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. 2008. Ecology. B.A. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. N. Russell. B. Introduction to ethical theory. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. 2.

energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. community dynamics. Biogeochemical cycles of C. B. J. biotic factors. King’s College London. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. and S. 6th Ed. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. Dash. 1st Ed. Tata McGraw-Hill. E P. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. landscape ecology. Concepts of Limiting factors. 2001 5. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. Fundamentals of Ecology. G. and Barett. Recommended Books 1. productivity of different ecosystems.Cox. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. plant geography and animal distribution. C. Ecology (concepts and applications. landscape changes and their importance. Odum. and More. Biomes of the world. Cambridge University Press.L and Reiss. M. bacteria and eukarya. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). students will be able to understand the significance. Fundamentals of Ecology. UK. WCB/McGraw-Hill.W. M J. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. Lab Work 25 . various concepts of community. Ecosystem: structure and function. New York.) Moles. aquatic microbiology. 1992. Populations. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. 5th Ed. Thomson Brooks/Cole. 2000.topography and air as ecological factors. M C J 1st ed. C. characteristics of urban. distribution limits. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. 3. Microbial metabolism. J. New Delhi. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. After completion of this course. N. ecological modeling. population dynamics. 1999 4. P. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. Population distribution and abundance. Ecology (principles and applications). Chapman. UK. Systems ecology. habitat and niche. 2004. 2. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment.

2002. and Gerba. R. 2.. C. isolation. Environmental Microbiology. Soil. L. R. Manual of Environmental Microbiology.and Vesilaind. Recommended Books: 1. Crawford. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. Hurrst. Weiner. 2 Edition. its sources and their effects. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution.J. D.and Brendecke. USA.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. Washington DC.D. Butterworth-Heinemann. and Klein. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution.. D.. Human & other living organisms. Hill. UK. 1995. New Jersey. McInernery. and Stetzenbach...J. 4. F. I.A.. W.I. P. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. Recommended Books 1. Effects of Pollutants. and Zuberer. Noise. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution.M.. Case Studies. J. P. 2005. Academic Press.. Environmental Pollution and Control. (Elsevier) USA. 2009. 26 .J. D. Understanding Environmental Pollution.R. Peiece.P. J.C. 4th Edition. Water. A. Fuhrmann. 2.B.M. USA. Dilution plate technique. 2007. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. peppor.1998. L. and Jeffery. transportation & treatments.V. C.. Harley.P.G. M. 3.J. Collection. USA.M. American Society for Microbiology.L. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic.. Microbiology. Pepper. Pollution Control Strategies. Marine & Industrial pollution. 5. Maier. M. 3. Academic Press. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. Cambridge UK. USA.J. 2nd Edition. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). Fate of Environmental Pollutants.. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. J. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. Knudsen. Hartel. McGraw Hill Inc.F. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. Types of Environmental pollution: Air.A. Sylvia. London. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. G. 2005. Mean plate count. Cambridge University Press. 2005. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. Academic Press.Gerba. Solid Waste generation. Prescott.L..P. USA.K. Prentice Hall. purification and preservation..A.W.L.

M. 27 . 1992. Spyros. Pandis. 2002. global circulation. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. Four Spheres of the Earth. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate.2nd Editions. Weather and Climate.. . local winds. K..4. 5. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. Houghton J. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater.W. Lawrance K.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. 2003. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. American Public Health Association (APHA). 6th Edition. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. N. Methods of psychology. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. The Hydrologic cycle.F.. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. 4. Sadder. The climate of Pakistan. Marcel Dekkar. Lutgens. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. Cloud Classification. John Wiley and Sons.K. Mechanism of heat transfer. 3.J. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . Factors affecting air Pressure. Environmental psychology. air pressure. Tarbuck. Radiation and climate. A. The Atmosphere. The Physics of Atmospheres. 2. Karachi. Recommended Books: 1. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate.. 2006 5. Austin Miller. 1988. Solar radiations. condensation and cloud Formation. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. Cambridge University Press. climatic zones of Pakistan. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History.E. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). Royal book company. Shamshad. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. Climatology. John H. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. Surface winds.

. their management and ecological restoration. 2001. 2. sustainable agriculture. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. 1992. Course Outline Introduction. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Ecological restoration. Future water scenario of Pakistan. soil resources of Pakistan. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. species response to pollutants. solar radiation and primary production. and Baum A. carbon dioxide and global climate change. Eysenck. CRC Press. Greene. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher.D. T. Environmental perception and cognition. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. Sustainable agricultural practices. limitation of irrigated agriculture. London. London. Water as an ecological resource. 5th Edition. P. Soil as a natural resource.A. Routledge. M. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. Ecology of food production. 28 . Sustainable livestock management practices. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture.C. Background and scope. concepts. soil salinity and water logging. energy and carbon balance.characteristics and research methods. High population density and psychological impacts. Environmental Psychology. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. Bell. techniques and methods of restoration.W. Recommended Books: 1. rivers. Fisher J. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. Fundamental of Psychology. Pollution control through Ecology. threats and mitigation. soil erosion and conservation. CRC Press. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan.. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. Routledge. Restoration of derelict lands. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. Water and distribution of species.

Thomson Brooks/Cole. and Hobbs. their containment and control strategies. toxicity screening using microbial systems. 5. Pakistan’s Environment. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects.A. A. Zedler. E. Studies in Pakistan Geography.W. 2nd ed. D. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. from natural and anthropogenic sources. on human and other living organisms. and Barett.I. and Memon. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. Chemical interactions and their types. J. Rashid. K. biological effects. 1996. K and Habib. 1989. terminologies: Poisons. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. 2000 2. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. 5th Edition. 2006. toxins vs toxicants.. Shirkat Gah. Peshawar.S.P. Soil Science. A. 4. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. Falk. Islamabad. Israr-ud-Din. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. 29 . Foundations of Restoration Ecology. Potentiation and Addition. G. Mumtaz.National Book Foundation. Lahore.. Oxford. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. B. 2004. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants.. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. R. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. 3. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. Fundamentals of Ecology. dose response relationship in living organisms. in vivo & in vitro assays. Island Press. toxins & toxicants. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. Synergism.. University of Peshawar. Organs.1998. water and soil. Newman. Odum E. toxicology of chemicals.Recommended Books: 1. Immunological considerations in toxicology. USA. P. J. Margaret A. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. soil and air samples. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system.

valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. McGrawhill. 3. topographic zones. W. geography. water resources. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. education. (ed. 5th Edition. B. clean development mechanism. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. 1992. major ecosystems. Ballantyne. Klassen. 3. measuring environmental benefits. culture. T and Turner. M. people. Government of Pakistan. economic aspects of different environmental problems. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. USA. land. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. USA. the economy and the environment.Recommended Books 1. CRC Press Llc. the economic benefits of different environmental resources.). Williams. Course Outlines Introduction. State of the Environment-Pakistan . Course Outlines Introduction to history. Recommended Books 1. 1st Edition. industry. economic development and the environment. urbanization and pollution. W.Science of Poisons . the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. Macmillan Press Ltd. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. Hughes. Economic: agriculture. Vol. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. 1st Edition. 1996. P. 2005 2.M. pollution control-a general model. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann.2005 2. USA.1 & 2. 1993.. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. international trade and the environment.D. health. Ecological: ecological zones. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. General and Applied Toxicology. Recommended Books: 30 .

C.A. Conductivitymetry. Titrimetery. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. Harris. Freeman & Co. salinity & sodicity). Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. Kolstad. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery.K. D...L. Lab Work S..D. A. preparation and storage. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. L. 1999. and derived S. Sample preservation methods. D.R. Peverill.W. Data interpretation for quality control. Thomson and Brooks.. Use of Potentiometery. Collingwood. 1993.UK.I.I. USA. B. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. Gravimetery. units.. Recommended Books: 1. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Analytical techniques for soil. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. 31 . and F. 2.and Field. Fluoride. BOD. Johns Hopkins University Press. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Conductivitymetry. Reuter.2002. Spectroscopy and Chromatography.. COD. Australia. NO3–N & NH4-N). Turner. Holler. 8th Edition. 2003. 3. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. Sample collection. Titrimetery. New York. Sparrow and D. Environmental Economics. water and plant analysis. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. Field. K. Standard solutions and standard curves. CSIRO Publ. J. 6th Edition. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. Gravimetery. and Batemen. Oxford. handling. C. D. C. precision and accuracy.J.1. Skoog. Oxford University Press.2004. I. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). 4. West. 2005. 2000. 3. Pearce. D. 2.K. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. All Solids. M. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. M.

students will be able to understand the significance. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures.D. Recommended Books 1. Wiley-VCH Verlag. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. USA. and Josef. Sambrook. 2001. 3.1999. Smith. 4. 2. J. Biosensor.E. Cambridge University Press. Biomarkers. Recombinant DNA technology. After completion of this course. J. (ed. Oxford University Press. and Russel. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. Government of Pakistan.P. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. D. Course Outlines Introduction. Hans- Joachim.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. England. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 .. Environmental Biotechnology. 5th Ed. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. Chichoster. 2005. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. purification and preservation of DNA. Scragg. PCR. 2009. National Biosafety Guidelines. USA. Bioreactors. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. Tools in environmental biotechnology. National Biotechnology Commission. New York.W. J.). and application of biotechnology in the environment. A. 2007. 2005. Germany. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. 2nd Ed. New York. Biotechnology.. Isolation. Derbre. W. USA. Introduction to microbial kinetics.

2000. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. 1999. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. K and L. R. Introduction to Photogrammetry. Types of data used in GIS. Inc. 3. Fishery and wildlife. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). A. 2009. Aerial photography. Lulla. Rancez. analysis and output. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. advantages and limitations of process. John Wiley and Sons. Image Processing. 4. 2008. Harvey. Satellite Imageries. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Guilfoud press New York. Campbell. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Data entry and output. Jensen. 5. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. F. history and platforms. Different types of maps. 2. Energy Sources. V. 2000. map projection and coordinate systems. Using and reading GPS in field. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Active and Passive remote sensing. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . Dessinov. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. Introduction to GIS. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Interpretation. History and data collection. Cartography. eradication of the duplicated data. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Data acquisition. Forestry. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. John Wiley and Sons. Pearsons Education. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. Preparation of thematic maps. Agriculture. Inc. Mc Graw Hill Education. integration of information from many sources.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. Z. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. Inc. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere.

COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. WWF Pakistan. 1998. Environmental Management Systems Principles. Related Environmental legislation. 34 . Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. hot spots of biodiversity. need and approach. Khan. Environment and sustainable development. American Society for Quality. Environmental Management tools. ecological.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. F. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. Methods of environmental protection.C. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. eco-design. types of biodiversity. 2005. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. Certification of EMS. Course Outlines Introduction. and Qasim. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). and Yoxon. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). 2001. social and ethical values of biodiversity. Conservation of biodiversity. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. alpha and beta diversity. B. 2. etc. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan.. International Organization for Standardization. American Society for Quality.3rd Edition . M. 4. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. 3.2nd Ed.. economic. plant. Sheldon.).. philosophical. Environmental Economy. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. principles of Cleaner production. cleaner technologies. threats to biodiversity. standards and guidelines. Michigan. Environmental aspects and impacts. M. A. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. Systems and Support Techniques. 2006.

Considerations. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. refrigeration and freezing methods. habitats. A Primer for Conservation Biology. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. Lahore). Z. Kings College. conservation strategies. Legal protection of species. Conservation of wildlife. 2000.B. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. management.B. and Morre. 1998. EIA requirement. design and types of samples. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. cities. 3. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. Course Outlines Introduction. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. forests. London.B.. Preservation methods including pH control. their categories. Sinauer. Biogeography. 2000. population. 35 . Recommended Books: 1. field custody. water. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. laboratory custody. 2. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan.R.. Associates Inc. national and international laws and regulations. soil and living organisms. Mirza. conservation in man-made ecosystems. presampling requirements/information. air. quality assessment. NOC for plant operation. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. ecotourism. sampling and design purposes. quality control sampling. Cox. plants.conservation at species. C. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. protected areas. croplands. Publ. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. Saad Printers.. Sunderland. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. P. P. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. community and ecosystem level. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. chemical addition. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. international agreements. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i.D. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. Quality assurance and quality control. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. 2ndEd.e. conservation and livelihood. Rawalpindi.

Recommended Books: 1. Lewis Publisher London. 6. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. Tokyo. its causes and effects. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. New York. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. Chapman and Hall. USA. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. E. 5. 2002.USA. N. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. USA. 7. (eds. Human responses to potential climate change. phenological changes. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. E. and Guethner. agriculture. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. . Keith. Murai. Recent Climate Change Indicators. Physical. S. McKlivie. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data.) McGraw-Hill. Energy and Temperature. Peakall. extinctions. (ed) Springer. regional. Regional droughts and 36 . Burden.1996. 2nd Edition. Moisture in the Atmosphere. 2. Remote Sensing Note. R. I. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. D. Ozone depletion. Chuviero. human health. 2008. Forstner U. Precipitation. 1992.1999. 2000. H. Manahan. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. D. altered community structure. Korte. biological.. S. Environmental Chemistry. 2002. L. 2008. UK. F. The Measurement of Climate Change. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. USA. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change.. chemical. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. Earth Observation of Global Change. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. 8. 3.

project implementation and follow up. Global Warming and Climate Change.Causes. 4.. scoping. Recommended Books: 1. Climate Change . J. Climate Change . 2005. 2000.A.. Houghton. National Book Foundation. reporting. J. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project.O. overview. 3. London. 6. EIA project management. D. Global Change and the earth system. solids. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan.. Petts. 2005. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). A. John Wiley & Sons. public involvement. liquid. Effects. 2. & Nixon.. social impact assessment (SIA). London. mitigation and impact management. Cost and benefits of EIA. Effects. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. and noise.). and Solutions. J. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. Islamabad. Routledge. 5. Hardy. impact analysis. Hardy. 37 . review of EIA quality.Causes. Keith. (ed. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. Therivel.. Main stages in EIA process. T. and Chadwick. Harrop. Ministry of Housing and Works. 1994. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. Glasson. John Wiley & Sons. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. 2003. 1999. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. decision-making to implement the project. 2... 1986. Types & Resources to produce Energy. Sringer. Recommended Books: 1. Blackwell. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. 2004.T. Oxford. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. 3. Earthscan Publication Ltd. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. screening. 2005. J. law. 2003. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. Islamabad. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. J.(ed). Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. A. 1st Edition. 4. and Solutions. R.cataclysmic climate change.

importance. Everitt. their current status and threats. best available option for future.. R. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. F. forest types and its existing management. 6. national example. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area.. Evans. existing management approaches. threat and its causes.. United Nations Environment Programme. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly.5. & McCabe.. 38 . review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. New York. Types. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. effective management. Rangeland Management: existing status. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. wildlife census. solar power. Conservation in Progress. management options. their pros and cons. J.. USA. wind power and nuclear power. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. M. Lohani. limitation in the future. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. B. R. 1993. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. management options. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. causes and methods for its improvement. requirement. A. methodologies.. process and contents of the management plan. 2002. S. Ludwig. Goldsmith. agriculture chemicals. Carpenter. Development of Management Plan: needs. B.. (ed. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. Sadler. national agriculture policy. 2nd Edition.B and Warren. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. John Willey & Sons. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. problem in agriculture. threats.). H. national and provincial legislation. Asian Development Bank. agriculture products and their share in GDP. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. Recommended Books: 1. 1997. and Tu.

A pre-requisite for Research. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. John Wiley & Sons. Experimental Research. and Jorqensen. 5. Objectives. & Plano Clark. Thousand Oaks. Elsevier. How to put things together? Introduction. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. Questionnaire. Bibliography. Methodology. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data.F. Hansen. London. J. 1990. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling.2. Research Proposal: its importance .L. Search Engines. types of sampling design/. Review of Literature. New York.E. V. Sage CA. Islamabad. R. Surveys. 1992. S. concepts and terminologies. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. Scientific Research: Science.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. P. Creswell. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. to introduce students to research design. 1984. Case Studies. USA. Material Methods. Dasmann. research methods. 2007. 4. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Sampling: the logic of sampling.. GOP and IUCN. Literature Search: Database. W. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. Inference based on findings.E. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. Interviews. 39 .Amsterdam. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). Selecting the Research Method. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. Review of Literature. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. population and sampling frames. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. 3. Scientific Methods. Research Design & Research Methods. Environmental Conservation.

2. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. Sage Publishers.S. of Chicago Press. 2nd Edition.. G. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. Qadar. 2003. USA. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. Univ. SNBP Local Government Ordinance.Harrad. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. Wadsworth Publishing Company. and Arhonditsis. Moriarty. 2001 and the rules of business made there under.h.. 1989. Robert Yin. Marilyn F. 2003. 4. Government of Pakistan 3. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. England. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. National Conservation Strategy 5. Survey Research Methods. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. regulations made there under. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. E. Law Books House. 1997. M. Diamon. Recommended Books: 1. 6. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. 2. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. National Environmental Policy 4. 3rd Edition. 3. Chichester. 2008..USA. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . Belmont California. 5.. 2001. USA. S.Batty. R. Students project in Environmental Science. 2000. Booth. 1997. Babbie. John and sons Ltd.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

). The Politics of Managing Water. SDPI Oxford University Press. water supply and demand management measures. Pakistan. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. 4. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. 3. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. (ed. 1993. 5. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan.. virtual water. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. P. (eds. Cheema.K. Ahmed. 2006. hydrological cycle. A. Oxford University Press New Delhi. Course Outlines Water resource and its management.1993.. groundwater exploitation. N. R.. Revised & enlarged edition. pollution aspects. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. Islamabad. recycling and re-use of wastewater.. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. and Qamar.. water quality and quantity aspects. U. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). with drinking water facilities like springs. N. Islamabad.Varis. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry.. 2006. and Malik..E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. 2. Lahore. 6. Mirajuddin Publication . flood and drought management.). and Tortajada. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. Mirajuddin Publication . Bengali. R. 44 . fisheries management. Oxford University Press Karachi. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. Recommended Books: 1. C. Briscoe. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. Asia Printer. Biswas. 2005. Pakistan . Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. 2003. Indus Water Accord 1991. wetlands resources management. flood and droughts. A. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. K. Khan. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. Ahmed. tubewells.Lahore. integrated water resources management (IWRM). A. I. O. watershed/catchment. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. J.

11th Edition. urban political ecology. soils. After completion of this course. and Bantel. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. Academic Press.. R. USA. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. San Diego. 1. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. Upper Saddle River. urban landscapes characteristics. Urbanization. Course Outlines Introduction. NJ. NJ. urbanization in Pakistan. 2008. Process and outcome. Islamabad.T. D. Soils in Our Environment. Prentice Hall. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. PrenticeHall. future of urban centers. USA.C. and Weil. Upper Saddle River. hydrological processes. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. Gardiner. D. urban settlements. urban flora and fauna. management and green productivity. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions.. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. 2007. humans as components of urban ecosystems. 2007. transport. Definition. N. R. 1996. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. Bashir. Brady. Hillel. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. Causes of urbanization. National Book Foundation. Soil degradation. Miller. Factors and processes of soil formation. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. Forms of urbanization. Course Outlines Introduction. USA.W.R. Pakistan. Cation and anion exchange. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. R. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. Soil Science. Urban ecosystem. E. CA. 45 . Types and properties of parent materials. Soil forming minerals. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. Physical and chemical properties of soil. the salient features of urban environments.

and Maser. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. City Design for Sustainable Development. 3. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. The planning process. 5. CRC Press LLC. SBS academic publishing. UK.. UK. Hejny. SAGE Publications Ltd. Sukopp. 2006. Springer. S.S. Routledge. Alberti. Ward. D.L. 2000. Justification for planning for city management. Gilbert. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. Land use planning theories. Levels of planning. C. Recommended Books: 1. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. UK. Principles of planning..Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. M. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. UR. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. USA. S. 2009. Kate. J. Aims and Objectives of planning. Hague. 2007. Hough. Planning and its relationship with other professions. New trends in planning and city management. 1. 46 . London. M.. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. Elements of urban planning. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. 2. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. 2. H. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans.. Scope. nature and purpose of urban planning. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation.1990. O. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. Routledge. Planning and Urban Change. Types of Urban Plans. Silberstein. USA. New York. 1989.. I. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. nd 2 Edition. 2004. Planning theories and concepts.and Kowaril. Chapman and Hall. 2004. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. Smith. Penguin Group. V. 4. London. A.

Paris.e. Physical factors. R. Westview Press.J. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. 47 . Prediction. 1989. Flood Management: Organizational Role.3. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. Recommended Books: 1. 2. 1986. 1991.. D.. Political factors..B. 2nd Edition. 1993. Role of Media in Disaster Management. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. 4. Boulder . 4. Socio-economic factors. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. Cultural factors. New York. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. It discusses a wide range of aspects. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Techniques and methods to assess hazard. New York. and White G. M. Ministry of Housing and Works. UK. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Manila. The Guilford Press. E&UA Div.UNESCO.W. 3. Earthquake. Different approaches and Indicators.. Hazards. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. 1993. Clara.. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. Natural cycles and their role. Longman Group.W. Islamabad.. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors.F. Chapman & Hall. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. H. ADB. and Woodrow. Earthquake Management. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. Disaster Management: Components of management. i. Natural Disasters Alexander. Flooding. P. International phenomenon. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. 1993. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. G. Landslide. Disaster as an opportunity for development. Kates... Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. Introducing Town Planning. Government of Pakistan.

Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. E. Sustainable livestock management. 6. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. McKinney.C. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. 2001. Ecological concept in crop and food production. Quorum Books. D. decomposers. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. and Yonavjak. Consumer and producer relationship.5. USA. Disasters and Development Cuny. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. Paris. New York. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. types. 1984. 2. 2007. merits and demerits of wind. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. primary producers. 1. energy resources of Pakistan. R. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources.. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. John Wiley and Sons. and Mushkatel. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. Perry R. energy resources. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. hydropower. 4th Edition. consumers. 2007. sustainable energy management. Westport.M.H.. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. uses. A. Schoch. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. biomass resources. Agroecology. solar. local. Botkin.B and Keller. 6th Edition. Biotic structure. L. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment.W. alternate energy resources. OECD/IEA.A.. F. 3. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. 1983. M.L. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. 48 .

E-11 Seminar 49 .Determination of density and abundance of plant species. Corol. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. and Sudha. and Rossel. 1990. Altreri. 2. 2000. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. Study of index of diversity. New York.M. C. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. USA.P. CBS Publishers and Distributors. Agrocology. Study of stratification and profile diagram. India.A.R. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. Yandermeer J. Recommended Books: 1. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. USA.H. R. Westview Press. P. Boulder.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram.. 1995. Experimental Plant Ecology. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. 3. New Delhi. M. Kapur.G.

4. 3. 50 . 2. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. 5. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. availability of the faculty and other facilities. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. the Committee agreed on the following principles.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. that: 1. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work.

18. 3. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 5. 11. 22. 12. 14. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 15. 12. 25. 17. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 10. 8. 9. 11. 3. 13. 6. 24. 21. 6. 2. 10. 16. 19. 7. 8. 20. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 9. 26. 4. 23. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 5. 4. 7. 2. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1.

Elsevier.E. London.1994. Khan K. 1992. 2. Regional and International Environmental Issues.A. FURTHER READINGS 1. P. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. and Bell. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences.1994. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management.1995. Environmental control Policies. Mackenzie J. Money. Ball. D. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. 1991.DETAILS OF M. Karachi.T. Conservation Strategies. F. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. S. Hansen. London Black Stone Press Ltd. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. 1987. Amsterdam. Geography of Pakistan. technology and resource use.S. WCS. Instruments and methods.. S. Provincial and Local Strategies.. status of Terrestrial.. Environment People and Economy. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. Recommended Books: 1. Hodder and Stoughton. Relationship of culture. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). 3. Oxford University Press. Islamabad. 3. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. Conventions and Protocols in Global. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. and Jorqensen. Mackenzie. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. NCS. GOP and IUCN.E. S. 4. 2. 2nd Edition..F. Draft National Environmental Policy. development of concepts. 52 .1991. Oxford University Press. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Treaties..

economic impact assessment. Air and Solid Waste. DC. ecological impact assessment. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. Wood. 2. social impact assessment. Burnt Hill. A. 3. FURTHER READINGS 1. Recommended Books: 1. Gas Chromatography etc. History. K. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. F & Bronstein. ed. Chichester. A one Publishers Lahore. 1993. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. 2. 1995. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). England. Ed. 1995. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Cost benefit analysis of projects. Longman Scientific and Technical. Harlow Essex. C. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. Principles of physical. UK. opportunities and issues. Ministry of Environment. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. 53 . sampling rules. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. process. Government of Pakistan. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. Longman House. Recommended Books: 1. Case Studies and review.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Wastewater. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. World Bank. D. Assessment of environmental impacts. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. Washington. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. Environmental Chemical Analysis. Ahmed. Demographic impact assessment.Vanclay. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). procedures and methods of EIA. role and importance. Environmental auditing.A. Environment Department. sample collection and preservation.. WB. John Wiley & Sons.

Basic Environmental Health. feasibility study. Project Initiation. development objectives. London. Writing Project Proposal. Need identification. Occupational Health: problems and issues. R. T. Project Management Institute. economic evaluation. 2001.. specific objectives. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems.. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. 1st ed. UK. 2. indicators. T. 1992. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. Recommended Books: 1. A. work breakdown structure. 1st Ed. M/S Banarsid. Government Policies and Programs. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). Primary health care services. Project Planning and Approval Processes. T. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. L. Caeneross. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation.. principles and practices. Project Planning. 1997. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. Ergonomic and Safety. Environmental Health Engineering. air borne.. inputs. de Kok. and Guidotti. Meredith J.. J. 5. USA. 2. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. 4. 3. Kjelllström. Accident prevention and safety plans.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. T. safety techniques. Yassi. activities. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. means of verification. prevention and control. 54 . Planning Commission Performas. S. 2nd Ed. B. Prentice Hall International Inc.. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. K. Mantel s. Public health concept. USA. Nebel. Lippmann. Defining Project objectives. Oxford University Press New York. New York. 2002. Van Nostrand and Reinhold.. Resource Mobilization. Wiley Interscience. 1998.2000. and Wright. Inc. 1st Ed. R. A Guide to Project Management. M.. outputs. Park. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. J. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Project Life Cycle. John Wiley and Sons. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. 1993. Reasons for Project success or failure. assumptions..

data collection and interpretation. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. Schoch.L. petroleum. L. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. industry and domestic sectors. principles and elements of the process of EMS. 2. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. John Wiley and Sons. 3. alternate energy resources. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). solar. sustainable energy management for agriculture. 2007. Related Environmental regulations. R. Switzerland. Paris. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. 3. St Luise Press. 2001. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor.M. Paris. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. nuclear) local. Environmental auditing. energy resources. Environmental Auditing. merits and demerits of wind. gas. Recommended Books: 1. Botkin. 1990b. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). Principles of cleaner production. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. hydropower.. 1998. USA. OECD/IEA.B and Keller. 55 . transport. D. bio-energy resources. 2. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. McKinney. ISO Central Secretariat.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. types. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. D. M. Recommended Books: 1. 2007. Sources of data. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Michigan-January 2001.A. Sayre. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. non-renewable and renewable. 6th Edition. 4th Edition. and Yonavjak. E. uses. 4. energy resources of Pakistan.

Vegetation Ecology Ed. 2. John Wiley & Sons. J. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Springer. Beck. Recommended Books: 1. Blackwell Publishing.D. 2005. 2005. etc. 3. J. and Solutions. 2003. John Wiley & Sons. 1. Oxford UK. Oxford. Modeling of climate change. 5. Effects. vegetation dynamics. resources and plants. Hardy. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. Blackwell Publishing. 56 . types of climate change models. plant invasions. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. plant conservation.Causes. Climate Change .T. K. UK. types and their climatic effects. John Wiley & Sons. forests. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. and Solutions. Recommended Books: 1. Houghton. global aspects of plant ecology.Causes. 2003. 4. Hardy. Life history strategies of plants. B & Jager. T. Berlin. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. ED. (Ed.. Effects. & Charlesworth. Species richness. management and restoration. E. Plant Ecology. Climate change and food production. human activities and vegetation dynamics. water resources. 3. Warrick. J. London. The Green House Effect. Climate Change and Ecosystems. UK 1991. Shulze. ECOPE 29. Silvertown. 2004. 1st Edition. Chichester. competition and coexistence. 2. Earthscan Publication Ltd. D. Maarel. survival and extinction. 2005. 2005. geographical and temporal patterns. D. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Green House Gases. Climate Change .. E & Muller-Hohenstein.). Plant population dynamics.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction.

Wetlands. Status of forests in Pakistan. Oxford University Press. types. 2002. Oxford. 1992.J. deforestation and its control. 3. & Spicer. Oxford University Press. habitats and ecosystems. Weddell. Wildlife of Pakistan. Global and national biodiversity. 2004. Wildlife Ecology and Management.(2nd Ed. distribution and management. biological diversity. Cambridge. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Protection and restoration of species. Extinction of species. J.A. 3.B. 4. S. Primack. Oxford. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. Participatory forest management. Essentials of Conservation Biology. UK. Protected areas. 1986. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. T. Publishers Sunderland.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. Establishment and management of protected areas. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. W. problems and solutions. & Ripley. USA. 1984. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol.) Gaston. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. 1973 2. II). their types and role in conservation. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. Inc.G. Forests. threats and conservation. distribution. S. their ecological and economic importance. 1998. Sinauer Assocaites. B.J. Principles of Wildlife Management. Mcmillan. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity.L. Oxford. Roberts. Sustainable forest management. 2002. distribution. Threatened animals and plants. Biodiversity: An introduction. its causes. John Wiley And Sons. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. Loss of biodiversity.J. Consumptive. T.D. Forest plantations. R. Protected areas in Pakistan. Oxford University Press. Recommended Books: 1. I). UK. their importance. E. types. Rangeland management. status. 5. Roberts. Bailey. Conserving Living Natural Resources. London. J. Recommended Books: 1. And Bolen. Blackwell Publsihing. 2. K. 57 . management. Robinson.J. kinds.

urbanization in Pakistan. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. 2007. G. USA.. CRC Press LLC. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. London. future of urban centers. urban systems and their characteristics. Clara. 58 .and Maser.. 4. urban political ecology. Penguin Group. SAGE Publications Ltd. 2000. USA. 2. sanitation. S. drinking water and solid waste in cities. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. C. H. V. UK. Islamabad. Sustainable cities. Planning and Urban Change. Environmental problems of urban life. Recommended Books: 1. Ward. New York. UK. Forms of urbanization.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. Longman Group. Urban land use planning and management. A. 2004. Government of Pakistan.. Introducing Town Planning. 3. J. Ministry of Housing and Works. 1986. Kate. 1993.. urban landscape characteristics. management of transport. Silberstein. E&UA Div. The Works: Anatomy of a City.

clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. 1997. Exercises 1. Practical English Grammar by A. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0194313492 59 .Annexure . active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. Martinet. a) Functional English Grammar 1. Thomson and A.J.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. Third edition. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure.V.

Oxford Supplementary Skills. b) Practical English Grammar by A. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Reading. Writing. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. intensive and extensive. 1997. and speed reading. Fourth Impression 1993. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. Thomson and A. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet.2. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Upper Intermediate. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. Martinet.V. Third Impression 1992.J. Third edition. Exercises 2. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. minutes of meetings. Reading/Comprehension 1.

Practical English Grammar by A. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Third Impression 1992. discursive. Fourth Impression 1992. Writing.1. narrative. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Third edition. b) Writing 1. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Exercises 2. Advanced by Ron White. Reading. Fourth Impression 1993. 2. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Writing. Oxford Supplementary Skills. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Oxford Supplementary Skills. content. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). ISBN 0 19 431350 6.V. form. introduction to presentations. language. Reading 1.J. descriptive and argumentative writing). ISBN 0 19 453403 0. Oxford University Press 1986. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. Third Impression 1991. clarity. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. 2. Advanced. Thomson and A. Writing. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Martinet.

General Editiors: Janice Neulib. argumentative and report writing). Mandell. A Custom Publication. descriptive. 62 . 2. Compiled by norther Illinois University. College Writing Skills by John Langan.(particularly suitable for discursive. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. St. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. Kirszner and Stephen R. without taxing the taste of engineering students). Martin’s Press. 3. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. Kathleen Shine Cain. 2004. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G.

4. State & Society in Pakistan. Economic institutions and issues b.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. ideological background of Pakistan. Zaidi. Ethnicity d. S. contemporary Pakistan. 1958-71 c. politics. 1993. 63 Books Recommended 1. Indus Civilization ii. Study the process of governance. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. Lahore. b. Contemporary Pakistan a. Shahid Javed. Historical Perspective a. national development. Akbar. 1977-88 e. 1988-99 f. Mehmood.Annexure . Location and geo-physical features. Karachi: Oxford University Press. 3. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980.M. Karachi: Oxford University Press. government. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. 2000. Muslim advent iii. 2. Society and social structure c. Safdar. 2. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. 1999 onward 3. 1994. . 1971-77 d. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. S. People and Land i. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. 1947-58 b. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. Course Outline 1.

Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. Party. 1972. History & Culture of Sindh.National Movement in Pakistan. Ziring. I. 1980. K. Aziz. 7. Afzal. Enigma of Political Development. Noor ul. Wilcox.5. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective.K. 8.. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. 13. Club Road. Rafique. 14. M. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Safdar. Ansar. Haq. Lahore: Vanguard. 1987. 9. 12. The Political System of Pakistan. II & III. 1976. Tahir. Vol. 6. 10. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. 1998. 64 . Lawrence. Institute of Public Policy Research.The Emergence of Banglades. 1980. Washington: American Enterprise. Wayne. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Pakistan Under Martial Law. Ethno . Amin. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. Islamabad. Zahid. nd. Sayeed. Political Parties in Pakistan. Khalid Bin. Politics in Pakistan. Mehmood. 11. 1993. Muhammad Waseem. Karachi: Royal Book Company. 1967. Pakistan Kayyun Toota.

Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.21. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.58.20) Related to thinking.A.A.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.19.40.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.Annexure .) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.A.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.57.A.6.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .56.Tadabar (Verse No1.

in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.

“Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah.S. Pakistan. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. IRI. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. Islamabad (2001) 67 . Ahmad Hasan. “Emergence of Islam” . “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Studies in Islamic Law. Bhatia. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. International Islamic University. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad.

relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. Boston 68 . not majoring in mathematics. types. 1978. functions. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. determinants. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. introduction to sets.Annexure . Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. system of linear equations. Beckenback EF. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. trigonometric identities. 1987. Wooton W. matrix inverse. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. harmonic progression. PWS-Kent Company. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Sharron S. 1986. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). types of functions. geometric progression. set operations. complex numbers. Boston Swokowski EW. PWS-Kent Company. Cramer’s rule. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. Houghton & Mifflin. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. equations reducible to quadratic equations. cube roots of unity.

parallel and perpendicular lines. PWS-Kent Company. 69 . distance between a point and a line. New York Stewart J. Calculus (3rd edition). with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. 2005. Reading. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. 1983. not majoring in mathematics. Finney AR. solution of equations involving absolute values. integration by substitution. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. Ma. 2005. John Wiley. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. 1995. Recommended Books: Anton H. intersection of two lines. continuous functions. rational and transcendental functions. continuity. Calculus (11th edition). angle between two lines. Bevens I. differentiation of polynomial. slope of a line. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition).2. USA 3. not majoring in mathematics. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. Boston Thomas GB. left-hand and right-hand limits. various forms of equation of a line. derivatives. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. Addison-Wesley. inequalities. change of variables in indefinite integrals. functions and their graphs. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. equation of a line. distance between two points. integration by parts. Davis S. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students.

hyperbola. Boston 4. 1986.Circle: Equation of a circle. Conic Sections: Parabola. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). types of functions. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. ellipse. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. Boston Swokowski EW. functions. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. Introduction to sets. College Algebra and Trigonometry. nature of roots of quadratic equations. inverse of matrices. intersection of lines and circles. Freshman and Company. Analytic Geometry. circles determined by various conditions. 1969 Kaufmann JE. Cramer’s rule. PWS-Kent Company. Scott. equations reducible to quadratic equations. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. system of linear equations. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. 1987. 70 . • Contents 1. set operations. types of matrices. locus of a point in various conditions. PWS-Kent Company. determinants. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations.

standard deviation.. relationship of statistics with social science. Wilcox.. cumulative frequency curve. R. 2. R. circle and trigonometric functions. Walpole. variance. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. bar frequency diagram histogram. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. J. R. Prentice Hall. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. deciles and percentiles. characteristics of statistics. Latest Edition. Boston. Swokowski. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. PWS-Kent Company. Books Recommended: 1. frequency polygon. tally sheet method. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. E. individual. 4. W. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. trigonometric identities. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. skewness and kurtosis. Measures of dispersion: Range. 5. ungrouped and grouped data.geometric and harmonic progressions. 2. E. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. types of frequency series. E.. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. Graphs: Graph of straight line.. quartiles. discrete and continuous series. array. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. moments. Latest Edition. 71 . Kaufmann. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. 3. Latest Edition.

Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . Jhon Willey & Sons. Hughes-Hallett. 5. Integration by Parts. 3. Extreme Values of Functions. Calculus. Mathews. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. 6. Calculus. Slope of a Line. theorems of differentiation. Frank A. John H.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. McCallum. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. • Integration Integration from first principles. H. Schaum’s Outline Series. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. integration using partial fractions. integration by parts. Trigonometric Functions. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. Continuous Functions. logarithmic differentiation. Contents 1. Bevens. 2002. Least-Squares Line. Inc. integration by inspection. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. E. Recommended Books: 1. Solution of equations involving absolute values. 8th edition. Calculus. quotients. 6. 1999. W. 3rd Edition. Thomas.Jr. Leibnitz’ theorem. I. Inc. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. substitution method. products. applications of integration. the inverse of differentiation. Equation of a Line. integral inequalities. 2. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. the chain rule. Boston. Inequalities. Calculus Single and Multivariable. Continuity. Elliott Mendelson. 2005. 4. Anton. Swokowski. plane polar coordinates. 4th edition. Rational Functions. logarithmic integration. special points of a function. reduction formulae. Gleason. implicit differentiation. infinite and improper integrals. sinusoidal function. Davis. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. 1983. Prentice-Hall. and Transcendental Functions. 11th Edition. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. et al. John Wiley & Sons. S. Addison Wesley publishing company. Rational and Transcendental Functions. 2. Second Edition 1992. 2005.

arithmetico-geometric series. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. series involving natural numbers. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. approximation errors in Taylor series. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. finding the nth roots of unity. complex conjugate. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. inverses of hyperbolic functions. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. the difference method.Additions and subtraction. identities of hyperbolic functions. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. multiplication. geometric series. modulus and argument. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. solving hyperbolic equations.

Hermitian. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. Pappus’ theorems. the inner product. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. centers of mass and centroids. of a unitary matrix. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. scalar triple product. 6. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. symmetric and antisymmetric. masses. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. line to line.5. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. orthogonal. point to plane. moments of inertia. vector product.

differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. spherical polar coordinates 75 . Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. divergence of a vector field.8. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. combinations of grad.

general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Population. Unit 5. Exercises Unit 6. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Exercises. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Range. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Observations. Box and Whisker Plot. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Discrete and continuous variables. Moments and Moments ratios. Exercises. bias. Collection of primary and secondary data. Type-I and Type-II errors. Sources. Bar charts. Significant digits. Errors of measurement. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Different types of Averages. probability and non-probability sampling. Unit 3. Empirical Relation between Mean. Exercises. Rounding of a Number. The semi-Interquartile Range. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Quantiles. level of significance.Annexure . Median and mode. Historigram. Data. Difference of means and proportions. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Types of frequency curves. Absolute and relative measures. The Mode. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Unit 7. sample design and sampling frame. Change of origin and scale. sampling with and without replacement. definition of outliers and their detection. 76 . Unit 2. Probability and Probability Distributions. Unit 4. Diagrams. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Standardized variables. Exercises. The Mean Deviation. sampling and non sampling errors. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Constructing of a frequency distribution. Coefficient of variation. acceptance and rejection regions. Editing of Data. Exercises. properties of Good Average. Histogram. Graphs and their Construction. Exercises. Test statistics. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Presentation of Data Introduction. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Statistical problem. Stem and Leaf Display. The Variance and standard deviation. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Pie chart. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. null and alternative hypothesis. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1.

Contingency Tables. New York. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. 2005. Exercises Unit 10. R. Macmillan Publishing Co. Exercises Unit 9. Correlation. Kitab Markaz. E. Unit 11. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table.Single Population Introduction. cause and effect relationships. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. 3rd Ed. its estimation and interpretation. “Introduction to Statistics”. r and R2. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. estimation of parameters and their interpretation.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. Regression and Correlation Introduction..Unit 8. 2 Muhammad. F. Testing of Hypothesis. simple linear regression. 77 . 1982. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Exercises. Inc. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. examples. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. Coefficient of linear correlation.. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole.

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