CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
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A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. therefore. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. R&D organizations. DR. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. 63. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. and 36. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards.ALTAF ALI G. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . degree awarding institutions. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. the Federal Government vide notification No. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. The world has turned into a global village. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. Lahore. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. universities and other institutions of higher education. D773/76-JEA (cur. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. It also aimed to give a basic. PROF.). appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. respective accreditation councils and stake holders.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. It is. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. dated December 4th 1976. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges.

CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. OF CURRI. REC. EXP. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. Preparation 5 . QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. COL. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. PREP. R&D. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. OF FINAL CURRI. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. UNI. OF NCRC.

Member 6 . April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Rawalpindi Dr. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Member 4. Member 5. Lahore Member 6. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Dr. Dr. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. Karachi from 28-30. 7. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Following attended the meeting:1. Member 3.

Prof. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Dr. Dr. Member 16. Member 15. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi.8. Member 11. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Dr. Dr. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. 7 . Dr. Karachi Member 12. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Prof. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. 13. Member 10. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Member 14. Dr.

Shafiq-ur-Rehman. Karachi. Member 19. Dr. At first. Director of HEC Regional Center. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. 2. Chairman. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. 8 . Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. 1. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society.17. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Member 20. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. The meeting was opened by Mr. Faisalabad Member 18. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. Mr. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Mr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. Secretary Dr. Dr. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr.

In last few centuries. 4. 1. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. 2. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. The committee thanked Mr. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. 6. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. 5. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population.3. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. 3. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge.

Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. 5. regional and global contexts. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. skills and behaviour patterns. Apply theoretical understanding. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. in its preliminary meeting. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. ii. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. This committee. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values.

6. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. Integrating natural sciences. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. 2. eight semesters in the semester system. that: 1. Sc.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. 3.e. 1. 5. The 11 . UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2.. The medium of instruction. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. A. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. 4. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. with consensus.

Introduction to Earth Science 8. Environmental Chemistry 15. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Psychology* . Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Biology –II* 9. English-I 6. Introduction to Computer 14. Introductory Economics* 17. Biology –I* 3. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. English-III 18. Environmental Physics 16. Basic Chemistry* 4. Environmental Pollution 22. Environmental Microbiology 21.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. English-II 12. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Climatology* 23.

ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. Environmental Biotechnology 32. 44. Natural Resource Management 40. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. English-IV/ Univ.24. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . Opt. Applied Ecology 26. Environmental Management Systems 34. Environmental toxicology 27. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. Environmental Economics 29. 45. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. 46. Environmental Monitoring 36. ELECTIVE-III 42. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. Climate Change 38. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37.

• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .

. biological and social. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . Different aspects of environment: physical. Human environment and its problems: global. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. its importance in human life. & Nebel. poverty and resource depletion. history. M. current global. and their relationships with various environmental factors. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. 4. E. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. 4th Ed. B. 6th Ed. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.L. environmental pollution. R. regional. Recommended Books: 1. ethical.. Schoch. 2. McKinney. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. ecological. development in industry and agriculture. G. national. socio-economic.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. urbanization. Botkin. R. Miller. proteins and nucleic acids. John Wiley & Sons.M. 15 . Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates.B & Keller. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development.J. D. lipids. Wright. L. Pearson Educational.T. 2007. 2007. 2002. Thomson Learning.A. 10th Ed. 2007 3. & Yonavjak. philosophical. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future.

G. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. B. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. 2007. origin of metabolism. Cells. covalent. J. 2007. L. esters. carbonyls. 4. 5th Edetion. V. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning.. phospholipids in membrane systems. 2008. and Lewis. coordinate covalent bond. amines). COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. Bulter. Shier. Aromatic compounds. 8th Ed. R. Plopper. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. polypeptides in protein diversity. Self Assessment and Revie. Lewis. USA. R. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. M. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. USA. lipids. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. Structure and the basis of function. C.. New York. 5. McGraw. D.. Cell division. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. 1. proteins. Canada. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. Starr. the molecule of genetic information and replication. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. Origin of life: chemical evolution. 1996. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. Biology: a Human Emphasis. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. Molecular Biology through Questions.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. Crossley. 16 . Australia . chemical basis of life. Wadsworth Group. 2003. protobionts. A. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. N. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. Cassimeris. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus.Hill International Edition. and Whitelaw.. 2. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. carbohydrates. chemical diversity. 3. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins.. USA. Ltd. Introduction to cell biology. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. carboxylic acids. Ionic. E. Nucleic acids. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. Lingappa. lipids. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals.

J. 17 ..H. Freeman and Company. 2004. D.. 2nd Edition. values of trigonometric functions. 2004. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). P. B.. expansion of determinants... double angle formulas. Girard. D. simultaneous equations and their solutions. Thomson and Brooks. F. Thin layer chromatography.ions. real line. Cambridge University Press.J. 2003.C. P. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). and Reid. Photochemical reactions.M. geometric and harmonic sequence. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula.K. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. EC and TDS in waste water. 5. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. Recommended Books: 1. West. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Principles of Environmental Chemistry.D. determinants. 2004. 2.. radicals. Harris. Andrews. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. 8th Edition. 2nd Edition.Special Products (Binomial Expression). 4. Column chromatography. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. Hill. Osmosis and Dialysis. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. W.A. USA. J. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. Algebra of matrices. 1st Ed. angle-sum formula. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. straight line and related concepts. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. graphs. D.. Liss. UK.E. equations of lines (linear equations). Jones and Barlett. 3. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. 2005. 6th Edition. law of Cosines. Skoog. Solution chemistry.E. Brimblecombe. Jickells. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions.J. Understanding Environmental Pollution. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). minor and cofactor of a matrix. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane.. and Holler. series and means. USA. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. M.S. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. UK.. Colloids chemistry. molal. Lab Work Preparation of molar. Measurement of pH. Canada. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. T. normal solutions/buffers. Blackwell Science. Surface chemistry.

theorems on differentiation (sum. California.B. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. Introduction to folds. foliation. theorem of integration. difference. 18 . New Delhi.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . different earth processes like mountain buildings. mountain building. erosion and related landforms. faults. Abraham. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. Earth as a member of solar system. Jr.. D. earthquakes and volcanoes. Recommended Books: 1. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations.. age. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system.Wesley. lineation and unconformities. the processes of their formation. J. Integration: Formulas of integration. its origin. Thomas. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . Fossils and their significance. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. 1999. G. Introduction to rocks and minerals. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. K. composition and its internal structure. earthquakes. R. weathering and erosion.Cramer’s Rule. L. 3. and Finney. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. nonrepeated linear factors. cleavages. 10th Ed. joints. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. S. Chain rule. irreducible quadratic factors.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. Introduction to sedimentary. 4. Addission. plate tectonics. 4th Ed. igneous and metamorphic rocks. Weathering. Trignometry for College students. product and quotient rules without derivations). 2. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. Analytical Geometry. by parts integration (simple applications). Chatterjee. Narosa Publishing House. Scott Foresman and Company. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. Smith. Pacific Grove.

protocell formation. E. Foundations of Structural Biology... COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . population loss and decline. A. Biodiversity of canal. molecular basis of biodiversity. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. Prentice Hall: 2006. Prentice Hall. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity.Identification of rocks and minerals. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. 4. F. 19 . multicellularity. Prentice Hall. Park. Lutgens. Lutgens. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. 5th Edition.. Field Study tour. 11th Edition. E. 5. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. Tarbuck. 2007 2. J. and Tasa. J. and Monroe. R.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. G. K. Earth Science. F. Smith. 2004. and Pun.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. J. D. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. Wicander. measuring biodiversity. interactions among diversified life. Lamarckism. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. Geological time chart with biodiversity. 2005. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. invasion of life on land. G. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water... Tarbuck. 9th Edition. and Tasa. consequences of losing biodiversity. Life in sea. Biodiversity of deserts. K.. examples of adjustments in varied environment. causes of extinction.. 2007 3. Physical Geology and Process of Science. Biodiversity of hilly areas. 3rd Edition. Darwinism. Routledge. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. animals). biodiversity crises. How Does Earth Work. different classification systems. R. unicellularity. Use of brunton compass and GPS. Recommended Books: 1. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species.. modern concepts. Brooks/Cole. D..

. K. New York: New York University Press. Townsend. The Ecology of global consumer culture. 2009. Perspective of human-environment evolution.K. L. Conceptualizing environment. Biodiversity (An Introduction). UK. C. Adam. Allan & Carter. Biology. Environmental Risks and the Media. 2003. Use of environment for vested interest. 2. I.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. 2005. UK. Crumley. 2. K. The Biosphere. Walnut Creek. a Human Emphasis. Goals and expectations. Bradbury. Wadsworth Group. and Sustainable Living. and concerns. power & hegemony. Routledge. Culture. Inc. J. Prospect Heights. 2009. 2nd Edition. C. Starr. 2001. Blackwell Science Ltd. Hannen. 3. Chronological. CA: AltaMira Press. Understanding the environment-human relationship. (editors). USA. (editor). 2006. culture and society. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . Recommended Books: 1. and Spicer. 20 . R. Contemporary environmental status. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. Gaston. John Wiley and Sons.. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. I.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. UK. Nora and Wilk. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. 2000. Inc. 5th Edition. P. globalization and environmental issues. Contemporary environment issues and debate. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. 4. Scope and application. 3. Tripartite nature of environment. IL:WavelandPress. J. Consumption. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse.

Fundamentals of computer. Long N.H. Selin. as are their effects on the biosphere.1999. Marquis A. Software: Application software.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. Milton. Courter. Storage hardware. Long l. K. 21 .5. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. Configurations. Ms-Access.. Ed. system software. e-mail. 2. G. Ms-Excel. internet. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. processing hardware. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. Hardware: Input Hardware. computer programs and basic applications. 6.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . software packages. Course Outlines Definition. Local Area Network. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure .6th Ed. 2003. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Ms-Power Point. Rutledge.. Introduction to MS-Word. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. Recommended Books: 1. Types and classification of computers. output hardware.Microsoft office 2000. Operating system (Windows).London 1996.

Energy conversion. Fundamentals of aquatic. Environmental Chemistry.. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. Gaussian plumes in the air. Reducing the transmission of sound. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. photosynthesis. Thomson-Brooks. and Reid. Solids. J. Fate of pollutants in environment. Fregoso-Infante. Particle physics. Conversion of mass. C... Environmental impact of various industries. Springer. K. Nuclear energy..E.. Global climate and climatic change. 5. 4. Liss. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. Chemical reactions. Transport of pollutants. 1999.M. and Singh. Equations of fluid dynamics. Ozone and UV light. P..E. interaction of light with matter. Solar spectrum. Ozone chemistry. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. 2004. Turbulence. 2nd Edition. Liquids and Gasses. USA. 2004. 2. 2008. Andrews. Environmental Chemistry. UK. Human perceptions and noise criteria. Basic acoustics. Miller. Jones and Barlett.. India.J. Sound and Noise. DoriaSerrano. Energy. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Blackwell Science. Ibanez. Entropy. J.S. M. T. A. Canada. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. 3. J. atmospheric and soil chemistry. Heat radiation and heat transfer. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. G.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. its causes and adverse effects on environment.D.G. Recommended Books: 1. trophic level. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. Isotopes and radioactive decay. Diffusion. B. 2005. 1st Edition.. Girard.. Germany. Brimblecombe. Turbulent diffusion. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. Hernandez-Esparza. Environmental Science. Samir. Active control of sound. P.. their sources and toxic actions. Turbulent jets and plumes. Electromagnetic radiation.T. Measurement and comparison of the 22 .. Jickells. M. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts.

Pakistan economic context: National income. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Recommended Books: 1. economic progress. Economic functions of environment. S. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. World Bank Publications. USA. C. Environmental economics. Sustainable development. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. Physics of the Environment and Climate. 2006. Recommended Books: 1. 2008. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor.Economic development. 2. Guyot. USA. 2. interaction between ecology and economic management. 7th Ed. 2001. Economic Development. J. economic growth and its measurement. economic growth. New York. Kentucky USA. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter.1998.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. E. R. P. Producer behavior. Wesely Publishers. Measures for sustainable development. Field visit. 23 . M. 3. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. UK. and Pandis. poverty. 2008. Impact of economic activity on environment. Smith. economic welfare and difference among all. Seinfeld. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. concepts and measurement. Natural resources and the economy. population and environmental quality. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. Praxis publishing. N. Boeker. and Van Grondelle. Todaro. Yusuf. 4. John Wiley and Sons Inc. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. Growth and development. producer and community point of view. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change.. Introductory Environmental Physics. Routledge. Man environmental relationship. Environmental Physics. USA. H. Economic management and environmental quality. and Resource allocation. S. USA. G. 2001. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. Growth and Environment.

Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. 2008. water. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. LLC. 2. Course Outlines Introduction. WCIV7AA. USA. Economics.. Palgrave Macmillan. role of light. London. and systems ecology. Hanley. Shogren. Portland 1967. its fundamental concepts. community.. 2002.. Kessinger Publishing. England. description of population.3. World Bank Publications. community and ecosystem. DeVeer. 24 . B.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. Farmington Hills. and White. population. N. temperature. Ecology. 2008. concepts and approaches. J. C. M. B.A. J. 4. species. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . biogeography. Environmental philosophy and ethics. International Thomson Publishing. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. Ecosystem and its types. Touchstone Books. Natural philosophy. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. A History of Western Philosophy. 4. & Pierce. 3. Russell. Frodeman. the ethics of soil. D. 2009. branches of ecology. Introduction to ethical theory. levels of ecological organization. USA. B. soil. R. Environmental Critics of agriculture. Callicott. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. Recommended Books: 1. 2007.. ethics and ecology.V. Swift.

B.W. plant geography and animal distribution. UK.topography and air as ecological factors. Odum. N. J. E P. Biogeochemical cycles of C. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. Fundamentals of Ecology. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. and S. Thomson Brooks/Cole. landscape ecology. population dynamics. Dash. Microbial metabolism. 1st Ed. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. biotic factors. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. 2000. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. Ecology (concepts and applications.L and Reiss. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. students will be able to understand the significance. C. Populations. 1992. landscape changes and their importance. Cambridge University Press. Lab Work 25 . M C J 1st ed. productivity of different ecosystems. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach).) Moles. P. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. Fundamentals of Ecology. 2004. community dynamics. New York. After completion of this course. Tata McGraw-Hill. distribution limits. M J. King’s College London. characteristics of urban. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. WCB/McGraw-Hill. Ecology (principles and applications). Recommended Books 1. 6th Ed. Systems ecology. 5th Ed. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. bacteria and eukarya. Concepts of Limiting factors. Population distribution and abundance. J. and More. 2001 5. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. and Barett. M.Cox. G. Biomes of the world. Ecosystem: structure and function. aquatic microbiology. ecological modeling. New Delhi. 3. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. various concepts of community. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. UK. 1999 4. Chapman. habitat and niche. 2. C.

.F. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. USA. P. 3. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. Butterworth-Heinemann.V. 4th Edition.B. transportation & treatments. Mean plate count. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. Cambridge UK. Human & other living organisms. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. W.W. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Fate of Environmental Pollutants.1998. Environmental Microbiology.. J. peppor. Sylvia. A. Washington DC. Noise. American Society for Microbiology. Hartel.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. Academic Press.and Brendecke. Case Studies.L. 1995. 2. L. Hill. Harley. 2002. Weiner.J. Effects of Pollutants.R. J. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. Recommended Books: 1.L. and Stetzenbach. Pepper... Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel..J.P.I.J. I. D. and Zuberer. UK. C.M. Hurrst. 26 . J. Collection. McGraw Hill Inc. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution.. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. Prentice Hall. R. Dilution plate technique...J. Cambridge University Press. Peiece. 2. 2nd Edition. USA. M.K. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. McInernery.D. and Jeffery. F. USA. 5. Solid Waste generation. P.P. Academic Press. 2009.C. Microbiology.A. G. Fuhrmann. Pollution Control Strategies.L. Marine & Industrial pollution... Maier. D. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution.P. L. 2007. and Klein.G. Recommended Books 1. (Elsevier) USA. London. 2 Edition.Gerba. 3. isolation. USA.M.and Vesilaind. 2005. Environmental Pollution and Control. Prescott. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic.. M.. C. 4.A. Academic Press.J.. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. Crawford. its sources and their effects.M. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. D. Soil. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. 2005. New Jersey. USA. 2005. R.A. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. and Gerba. Water. purification and preservation. Knudsen.

Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. . 3. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. Sadder..4. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. A. Recommended Books: 1. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. Lutgens. Karachi. Cloud Classification. The climate of Pakistan. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided.. The Hydrologic cycle. Solar radiations. Radiation and climate. air pressure. Mechanism of heat transfer.M. Tarbuck. 2003. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . American Public Health Association (APHA). The Atmosphere. 1988. 2002.K. Methods of psychology. Shamshad. 2006 5. A brief historical background and schools of psychology.J. Climatology. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). climatic zones of Pakistan. Marcel Dekkar. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. Lawrance K. Pandis... 27 . Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. Factors affecting air Pressure. Spyros. John H.W. 1992. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. local winds. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. Environmental psychology. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate.E. Weather and Climate. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. 5. condensation and cloud Formation. 6th Edition. Royal book company. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology.F. N. Houghton J.2nd Editions. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. 4. Four Spheres of the Earth. global circulation. K. The Physics of Atmospheres. 2. Austin Miller. Surface winds. John Wiley and Sons. Cambridge University Press.

soil erosion and conservation. London. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change... Routledge. 2001. species response to pollutants. Background and scope.W. 5th Edition. CRC Press. techniques and methods of restoration. 28 . Water as an ecological resource. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. and Baum A. Ecology of food production. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine.A. Future water scenario of Pakistan. T. limitation of irrigated agriculture. rivers. Pollution control through Ecology. Greene. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. concepts. sustainable agriculture. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. Environmental Psychology. Routledge. Ecological restoration. Eysenck. carbon dioxide and global climate change. 2. P. their management and ecological restoration. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. Soil as a natural resource.C. M. threats and mitigation. energy and carbon balance. Sustainable livestock management practices. Recommended Books: 1. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Bell. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals.characteristics and research methods. Course Outline Introduction. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. Restoration of derelict lands. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. soil resources of Pakistan. Environmental perception and cognition. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. Fundamental of Psychology. solar radiation and primary production. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. CRC Press. soil salinity and water logging. Fisher J. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. High population density and psychological impacts. London. Water and distribution of species.D. Sustainable agricultural practices. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. 1992.

2004. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. A. Newman. 1989. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. soil and air samples. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. in vivo & in vitro assays. R. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. from natural and anthropogenic sources. A. 3.P. 29 .Recommended Books: 1. Island Press. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system.S. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic.W. 5. Lahore. Potentiation and Addition. biological effects..A. D. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Falk. terminologies: Poisons. and Hobbs. 1996. Margaret A. 2000 2. toxicology of chemicals. Zedler.I.. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. P. and Barett. toxins & toxicants.National Book Foundation. Islamabad. Pakistan’s Environment. 5th Edition. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. Blackwell Scientific Publications. dose response relationship in living organisms. K and Habib. Immunological considerations in toxicology. Organs. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. Studies in Pakistan Geography. USA. J. Mumtaz. Chemical interactions and their types. 4.1998. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. Soil Science. 2006. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. G. on human and other living organisms.. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. E. toxicity screening using microbial systems. Odum E. Rashid. toxins vs toxicants. B. 2nd ed. their containment and control strategies. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. and Memon. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. Synergism. Oxford. water and soil. Peshawar. Shirkat Gah. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. Fundamentals of Ecology. J. Determination of Interaction of chemicals.. K. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. University of Peshawar. Israr-ud-Din.

Ballantyne. international trade and the environment. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. water resources. P. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. M.Recommended Books 1. W. topographic zones. USA. economic aspects of different environmental problems. health. 2005 2. 3. General and Applied Toxicology.D. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. Klassen. B. Course Outlines Introduction. clean development mechanism. W. land. 1992. McGrawhill. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. CRC Press Llc. 1st Edition. 1996. Course Outlines Introduction to history. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. 1993. Ecological: ecological zones.2005 2.). State of the Environment-Pakistan . T and Turner. (ed. Economic: agriculture. culture. 3. geography. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. Hughes.M. economic development and the environment. education. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. USA. Recommended Books: 30 . Recommended Books 1. pollution control-a general model. major ecosystems.. 5th Edition.Science of Poisons . industry. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. 1st Edition. Williams. the economy and the environment. USA. measuring environmental benefits. urbanization and pollution. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. Macmillan Press Ltd. people.1 & 2. Vol. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. Government of Pakistan.

Thomson and Brooks. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. Lab Work S. D. Gravimetery. All Solids. Field.C.1. 2. D.I.. 1999. Recommended Books: 1. Gravimetery.W. Sample collection. J. Fluoride. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. units. and derived S. COD. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. Pearce. A.K. Reuter.. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. 2003. CSIRO Publ. B. D. Data interpretation for quality control. 31 . and F. C. Oxford University Press. Harris. 4.2002. New York. Peverill. 2005.L. USA.J. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. M. Collingwood.A.UK.I. water and plant analysis. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. salinity & sodicity). Oxford. Sample preservation methods. M.2004. 3. D. 3. Conductivitymetry.. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. and Batemen. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. L. Titrimetery.D. Analytical techniques for soil. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Freeman & Co. handling. 2. C. Turner. Sparrow and D. preparation and storage. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. precision and accuracy. Skoog. 1993.R. Environmental Economics. Johns Hopkins University Press. Use of Potentiometery. Holler..K. NO3–N & NH4-N). I. Australia. BOD. Conductivitymetry.. 2000.. K. West. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. Titrimetery. 6th Edition. 8th Edition. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH.and Field. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. Standard solutions and standard curves. Kolstad.

Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. 2. Germany.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. 2005. Derbre. A.P. D. 2001. Course Outlines Introduction. J. and Josef. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques.D. Cambridge University Press. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment.1999. 3.. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. Smith.E.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. Scragg. purification and preservation of DNA. Tools in environmental biotechnology. Biotechnology. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. England. 2007. Biosensor. Introduction to microbial kinetics. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. Isolation. Chichoster. Hans- Joachim. USA.W. Environmental Biotechnology.). New York. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Bioreactors. National Biotechnology Commission.. USA. students will be able to understand the significance. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. 2009. J. Wiley-VCH Verlag. New York. 2005. USA. National Biosafety Guidelines. After completion of this course. Government of Pakistan. and application of biotechnology in the environment. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . PCR. Recommended Books 1. and Russel. (ed. 2nd Ed. Sambrook. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. Oxford University Press. Recombinant DNA technology. Biomarkers. J. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. 5th Ed. 4. W.

Preparation of thematic maps.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. Jensen. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. map projection and coordinate systems. Inc. Cartography. Inc. eradication of the duplicated data. Types of data used in GIS. John Wiley and Sons. History and data collection. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. Dessinov. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. Pearsons Education. 2000. Data entry and output. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. analysis and output. Forestry. Harvey. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. Mc Graw Hill Education. 1999. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Satellite Imageries. Energy Sources. Interpretation. Aerial photography. Fishery and wildlife. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . Image Processing. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Introduction to Photogrammetry. 2008. 3. 4. Introduction to GIS. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. 2009. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Active and Passive remote sensing. Guilfoud press New York. V. Agriculture. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. advantages and limitations of process. A. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. K and L. Using and reading GPS in field. history and platforms. Data acquisition. John Wiley and Sons. Different types of maps. R. integration of information from many sources. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. 2. F. Lulla. 5. Campbell. Rancez. Inc. 2000. Z.

eco-design. Conservation of biodiversity. economic. social and ethical values of biodiversity. Khan. 2005. alpha and beta diversity. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. threats to biodiversity. 34 . principles of Cleaner production. B.. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production.). M. and Qasim. philosophical. Course Outlines Introduction. Environmental aspects and impacts. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS)..This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. Related Environmental legislation. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. need and approach. F. cleaner technologies. International Organization for Standardization. hot spots of biodiversity. Methods of environmental protection. Systems and Support Techniques. 1998. Environmental Economy. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. Sheldon. 2. ecological. Environment and sustainable development. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). WWF Pakistan. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. M. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. A. American Society for Quality. 2001.3rd Edition . types of biodiversity. 3.2nd Ed. Michigan. 4. Environmental Management tools. 2006.. and Yoxon. standards and guidelines. American Society for Quality. Certification of EMS. etc. plant. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management.C. Environmental Management Systems Principles.

Rawalpindi. presampling requirements/information. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. management. conservation strategies. Z. 3. ecotourism. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. EIA requirement. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. Lahore). Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. habitats. Course Outlines Introduction. air.B. Biogeography. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. sampling and design purposes. Conservation of wildlife. national and international laws and regulations. chemical addition. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. Considerations. C. and Morre. conservation in man-made ecosystems.. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. conservation and livelihood. Associates Inc. Legal protection of species. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. refrigeration and freezing methods. design and types of samples. 2000. P. croplands. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. Recommended Books: 1. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. 2. Quality assurance and quality control. 2ndEd. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. quality assessment. Publ. A Primer for Conservation Biology. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. London.R. 2000.. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. Cox. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. protected areas.e. plants.conservation at species. Mirza.B. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. Sunderland. quality control sampling. 35 . forests.. Kings College. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. Saad Printers. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. water. laboratory custody. international agreements. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. cities. population. P. Preservation methods including pH control. 1998.B. Sinauer. community and ecosystem level. NOC for plant operation. field custody.D. soil and living organisms. their categories.

Burden. Environmental Chemistry. Remote Sensing Note. (ed) Springer. N. extinctions. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. USA. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. Air Pollution and Acid Rain.1996. biological. E. its causes and effects. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. 2nd Edition. Korte. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. Forstner U. 7. 2008. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. New York. L.. and Guethner.Recommended Books: 1. Peakall. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course.. E. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. Manahan. Keith. chemical. Human responses to potential climate change. 6. Chapman and Hall. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. altered community structure. UK. agriculture. H.USA. S. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. Earth Observation of Global Change. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. Lewis Publisher London. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. regional. I. Regional droughts and 36 . USA. Moisture in the Atmosphere. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. phenological changes. human health. (eds. USA. Tokyo. Physical. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. 5. 3. McKlivie. Murai. S. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. 2002. 2000. and social factors contributing to climate and global change.1999. Precipitation. 2008. . 2002. 1992. D. Chuviero. Recent Climate Change Indicators. R. Energy and Temperature. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. 2. F. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. Ozone depletion.) McGraw-Hill. The Measurement of Climate Change. 8. D.

O. mitigation and impact management. Routledge. review of EIA quality. liquid. A. and Solutions.T. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems.. T. 2005. Recommended Books: 1. 2003. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Hardy. project implementation and follow up. 1986. J. 3. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. Therivel. 2005.. Glasson. 2003. Petts. R. and Solutions. public involvement. and noise. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. Types & Resources to produce Energy. Keith. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. D. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. (ed. Effects. 5. impact analysis. decision-making to implement the project. 37 . & Nixon. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. law. London. Houghton. 2005. Harrop. Global Warming and Climate Change. 1994. Climate Change . Blackwell. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. Climate Change .. Cost and benefits of EIA.A. 2. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis.Causes.. reporting. J. Islamabad.cataclysmic climate change. John Wiley & Sons. Islamabad. A. scoping. 2000. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). social impact assessment (SIA). Recommended Books: 1. 4.). J. J. solids. J. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. EIA project management. Oxford. overview.. 1st Edition. Effects. National Book Foundation. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. Earthscan Publication Ltd. Sringer. Global Change and the earth system. Ministry of Housing and Works. 4. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice.(ed). and Chadwick. screening. 6. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. 3. Hardy. 2004. Main stages in EIA process. 2. John Wiley & Sons. 1999... London.Causes.

methodologies. threat and its causes. threats. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. 2002. problem in agriculture.. Evans. and Tu. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. 6. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. agriculture products and their share in GDP. Sadler. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. New York. existing management approaches.. Recommended Books: 1. Everitt. A. management options. 38 . management options. Conservation in Progress.. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan.B and Warren. Types. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. national and provincial legislation. Development of Management Plan: needs. & McCabe. 1997. requirement. Carpenter. 1993. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. M. their pros and cons. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. their current status and threats.. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. 2nd Edition. national example. causes and methods for its improvement. J. national agriculture policy. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. Goldsmith. process and contents of the management plan.. United Nations Environment Programme. S. R. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. Lohani. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. wind power and nuclear power.). R. best available option for future. forest types and its existing management. effective management. limitation in the future.5... H. USA. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. F. agriculture chemicals. B. solar power. John Willey & Sons. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. (ed. B. Rangeland Management: existing status. Ludwig. Asian Development Bank. wildlife census. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. importance.

Scientific Research: Science. and Jorqensen.A pre-requisite for Research. London. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. Sampling: the logic of sampling. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. Surveys. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. Review of Literature. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. Hansen. New York. concepts and terminologies. V. Review of Literature. 39 . Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. S.L. USA. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. 1990. Research Design & Research Methods. W. Methodology. Research Proposal: its importance . Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Inference based on findings. GOP and IUCN. Case Studies..E. 3. Search Engines. J. R.Amsterdam. 5.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study.E. to introduce students to research design. population and sampling frames. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. Dasmann. Environmental Conservation. Creswell. 4. Thousand Oaks. Sage CA. Bibliography. John Wiley & Sons. Questionnaire. Interviews. Objectives. Literature Search: Database. Scientific Methods. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research.2. Islamabad. 1984. P. 1992. Material Methods. Elsevier. Selecting the Research Method. Experimental Research. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). How to put things together? Introduction. 2007.F. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. & Plano Clark. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. research methods. types of sampling design/.

National Conservation Strategy 5.Harrad. Robert Yin. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. M. John and sons Ltd. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. G. Diamon. USA. of Chicago Press. E. Babbie. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules.2. Wadsworth Publishing Company. Belmont California.Batty. 2nd Edition. Case Study Research: Design and Methods.. Chichester. Sage Publishers. R. 4. 3rd Edition. Qadar.. Marilyn F. S. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. Law Books House. 2003. 3.S.. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . 1997. Univ. 2000. and Arhonditsis. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. Survey Research Methods. 2001. Booth. 5. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. regulations made there under. England. 6. National Environmental Policy 4.h.USA. 2. 2003. 1997. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. USA. 1989. Moriarty. Recommended Books: 1.. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. 2008. Students project in Environmental Science. Government of Pakistan 3.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

P. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. (ed. 5. recycling and re-use of wastewater. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. Ahmed. Indus Water Accord 1991. A. virtual water.Lahore. 4. Ahmed. watershed/catchment. Islamabad. I. Cheema. 1993. Oxford University Press Karachi. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. with drinking water facilities like springs. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. (eds... O. 2005. A. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. 2003. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. C. N. hydrological cycle. flood and drought management. U. Biswas. Lahore. Islamabad. wetlands resources management. R. The Politics of Managing Water.1993. J. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. 2. Briscoe. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. Pakistan. 2006. groundwater exploitation. SDPI Oxford University Press.. Asia Printer. water quality and quantity aspects. Pakistan . 2006. Oxford University Press New Delhi. water supply and demand management measures. and Tortajada. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. Bengali. pollution aspects. 44 .). Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). A.. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. K. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. N. R. flood and droughts... fisheries management. Mirajuddin Publication . 3. 6. Revised & enlarged edition. Mirajuddin Publication . Khan. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. integrated water resources management (IWRM).)..K. and Qamar. Recommended Books: 1. and Malik.Varis. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. tubewells.

2007. Soils in Our Environment. management and green productivity. San Diego. Bashir. Urban ecosystem. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. NJ. N. R. 1996. and Bantel.C. Brady. Types and properties of parent materials. urban settlements. 11th Edition. Definition. Pakistan.W. Soil degradation. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. Cation and anion exchange. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. E. 1. residential mobility and the neighborhood change.. Gardiner. D. Islamabad. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. future of urban centers. urban political ecology. Prentice Hall. NJ. Soil Science. USA. Upper Saddle River. urbanization in Pakistan.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. transport. urban flora and fauna. Miller. PrenticeHall. After completion of this course. the salient features of urban environments. hydrological processes. 2007. Upper Saddle River. urban landscapes characteristics. soils. Forms of urbanization. R. USA. 45 . Hillel. USA. Course Outlines Introduction. Academic Press. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. and Weil. D. Factors and processes of soil formation. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. National Book Foundation.R. Causes of urbanization. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. Process and outcome. Soil forming minerals. CA. Urbanization. Physical and chemical properties of soil. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. R. Course Outlines Introduction. 2008.. humans as components of urban ecosystems.T.

UK.. Scope. CRC Press LLC. Types of Urban Plans. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. Springer. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. 2007. 2000. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. I. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. nature and purpose of urban planning. H. The planning process. Chapman and Hall. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. M. USA. Land use planning theories. 3.L. 1. Planning and Urban Change.1990. Gilbert. London. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. 5. J. Ward. Planning theories and concepts. The Works: Anatomy of a City. 2. 2006. A. C. M. SAGE Publications Ltd. S. City Design for Sustainable Development. Hejny. New York.S. D. Routledge. Silberstein.and Maser. UR.. Aims and Objectives of planning. 4. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. USA. Recommended Books: 1.. S. New trends in planning and city management. 2009. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe.and Kowaril. Principles of planning. 46 . London. Sukopp. nd 2 Edition. Routledge. SBS academic publishing. 2004. Smith.. 2004. 2. O. 1989.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. Penguin Group. UK. Kate. V. Planning and its relationship with other professions. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans.. Alberti. Hague. Levels of planning. Elements of urban planning. UK. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. Hough. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. Justification for planning for city management. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems.

Role of Media in Disaster Management. Landslide. Boulder . 1991. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. 47 . Cultural factors. Islamabad. 1993. UK. R. It discusses a wide range of aspects. Manila. Longman Group. 4.J. Disaster as an opportunity for development. M. P. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). 1986. Government of Pakistan. E&UA Div. Prediction. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. International phenomenon. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. Earthquake Management. Natural Disasters Alexander. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. D. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made.. G. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. 1989. 3. Introducing Town Planning. 1993. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. 2nd Edition. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. 4. Disaster Management: Components of management. The Guilford Press.e.UNESCO. Earthquake. and Woodrow.. Recommended Books: 1.3. Different approaches and Indicators. i. Flooding. New York. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies.. ADB.B. 1993. H. Political factors. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. Westview Press. Hazards. New York.W.W. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. 2. Chapman & Hall. Socio-economic factors. Ministry of Housing and Works. Flood Management: Organizational Role.F.. and White G.. Physical factors. Kates. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies... Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. Natural cycles and their role. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. Paris. Clara..

Jones & Bartlett Publishers. 2007. F. uses. Agroecology. 2001. solar. Sustainable livestock management. types. 2007. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. 6. decomposers. OECD/IEA. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation.. local. M. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. energy resources. Farming practices for pests and weeds control.C. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. E. 1983. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals.. Phytoremediation and bioremediation.W. John Wiley and Sons. merits and demerits of wind. alternate energy resources.. 48 . Ecological concept in crop and food production. L.M. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. USA. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. 3.B and Keller. and Mushkatel. Botkin. Westport. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. energy resources of Pakistan. D.L. biomass resources. Biotic structure. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. Disasters and Development Cuny. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Perry R. and Yonavjak. sustainable energy management. Consumer and producer relationship.5. consumers.A. McKinney.H. 4th Edition. 1984. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. primary producers. New York. Paris. 2. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. Quorum Books. R. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. 1. Schoch. A. 6th Edition. hydropower.

Recommended Books: 1. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. M. and Sudha. Yandermeer J.A. Experimental Plant Ecology. Study of index of diversity. Corol. 1990.G. 3. C. Altreri. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. CBS Publishers and Distributors. E-11 Seminar 49 .. USA. New York. Kapur.R. Westview Press. 2. India.H.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. 2000. and Rossel. Study of stratification and profile diagram. Boulder. P. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. USA. 1995. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. Agrocology.M. New Delhi. R. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species.P.

5. 3.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. 50 . 2. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. 4. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. availability of the faculty and other facilities. that: 1. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. the Committee agreed on the following principles. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines.

3. 26. 6. 7. 9. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 15. 23. 19. 14. 12. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 13. 11. 9. 24. 11. 25. 8. 2. 10. 3. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 18. 20. 10. 7. 16. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 6. 8. 4. 17. 5. 12. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 2. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 4. 21. 22.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 5.

Treaties.. 1987.. and Jorqensen. Money.E. D.T. 2.DETAILS OF M. and Bell.1995. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. S. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. development of concepts. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. FURTHER READINGS 1. Hodder and Stoughton. Ball. Hansen. London Black Stone Press Ltd. Environment People and Economy.1991. Conventions and Protocols in Global. Environmental control Policies. Regional and International Environmental Issues. 3. 1991. Instruments and methods. Mackenzie J. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space.F.1994. status of Terrestrial. Oxford University Press.S.. Karachi. Provincial and Local Strategies.. Geography of Pakistan.. WCS. GOP and IUCN. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment.1994. 2.E. Relationship of culture. technology and resource use. Recommended Books: 1. 52 . S. 3. 1992. P. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. 2nd Edition. NCS. Amsterdam. Islamabad. S. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. London. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management.A. Mackenzie. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. Elsevier. Draft National Environmental Policy. Conservation Strategies. Oxford University Press. F. Khan K. 4.

Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. Gas Chromatography etc. A. A one Publishers Lahore. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. F & Bronstein. process.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. role and importance.A. Environmental Chemical Analysis. Ed. Longman House. Government of Pakistan. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. Wastewater. C. social impact assessment. UK. ecological impact assessment. Environmental auditing.Vanclay. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. 53 . Recommended Books: 1. opportunities and issues. ed. Wood. Assessment of environmental impacts. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. Air and Solid Waste. 1995. Ahmed. Demographic impact assessment. economic impact assessment. D.. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. Longman Scientific and Technical. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. John Wiley & Sons. Environment Department. Chichester. 2. procedures and methods of EIA. 3. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). Environmental and Social Impact assessment. Harlow Essex. Recommended Books: 1. 1993. sample collection and preservation. DC. Principles of physical. World Bank. Cost benefit analysis of projects. England. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. History. Case Studies and review. WB. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). Burnt Hill. 1995. sampling rules. FURTHER READINGS 1. Washington. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. Ministry of Environment. K. 2.

Recommended Books: 1. 4. outputs. R. Project Planning. assumptions. Kjelllström. and Wright. work breakdown structure. Oxford University Press New York. economic evaluation. Park. 54 . B. safety techniques.. 1st Ed. UK. K. Public health concept.. M. 1993. Accident prevention and safety plans.. Mantel s. 1992. T. 5. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. 2002. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. T. Nebel. means of verification. Inc. Caeneross. air borne. indicators. development objectives. Project Life Cycle. Project Management Institute. Lippmann. Basic Environmental Health. J. Primary health care services.. Project Planning and Approval Processes.. London. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. R. prevention and control. Reasons for Project success or failure.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. Wiley Interscience. USA. Resource Mobilization.. T. 2. feasibility study.. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. Environmental Health Engineering. 2. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. 1997. A Guide to Project Management. Prentice Hall International Inc. 1st ed. Project Initiation. USA. principles and practices. Meredith J. New York. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Planning Commission Performas. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. de Kok. Ergonomic and Safety. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation.2000. John Wiley and Sons. A. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. Writing Project Proposal. 2nd Ed.. 1st Ed. 3. specific objectives. and Guidotti. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. 1998.. Defining Project objectives. J. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. 2001. inputs. L. Need identification. Occupational Health: problems and issues. T. M/S Banarsid. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). Yassi. activities. S. Government Policies and Programs.

uses. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). Recommended Books: 1. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. 2007. 4. 1990b. data collection and interpretation.. Switzerland. 3. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. McKinney.M. D.L. gas. Sayre. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. types. R.A. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. non-renewable and renewable. 2001. Related Environmental regulations. 3. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental auditing. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. Paris. Principles of cleaner production. St Luise Press. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. M. 2007. 2. principles and elements of the process of EMS. 1998. Paris. petroleum. John Wiley and Sons. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. bio-energy resources. 4th Edition. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Schoch. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. L. nuclear) local. transport. Sources of data. OECD/IEA. sustainable energy management for agriculture. and Yonavjak. solar. energy resources. hydropower. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. Michigan-January 2001. 6th Edition. energy resources of Pakistan. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. 55 . E. D. 2. Botkin. USA. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. merits and demerits of wind.B and Keller. Environmental Auditing. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. ISO Central Secretariat. industry and domestic sectors.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. alternate energy resources.

T. Plant Ecology. (Ed. John Wiley & Sons. Blackwell Publishing. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. water resources. forests. human activities and vegetation dynamics. Modeling of climate change. Chichester. 2. 1. survival and extinction. Plant population dynamics. 2005. and Solutions. management and restoration. types and their climatic effects. Hardy. J.. Climate Change . Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. Effects. 5. UK.). Oxford.T. E & Muller-Hohenstein. Springer. 3. Silvertown. Vegetation Ecology Ed. Life history strategies of plants. 3. 2003. Green House Gases. 2004. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. 2005. vegetation dynamics. global aspects of plant ecology. types of climate change models. J. Oxford UK. 4. resources and plants.Causes. and Solutions. Recommended Books: 1. Recommended Books: 1. E. 1st Edition. London. Beck. Earthscan Publication Ltd. The Green House Effect.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. 2005. & Charlesworth. J. etc. Climate change and food production.Causes. Species richness. plant invasions. John Wiley & Sons. 2003. Warrick. D. Berlin. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Climate Change and Ecosystems. Maarel. Blackwell Publishing. competition and coexistence. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. 2005. 2. plant conservation. Houghton. John Wiley & Sons. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. K. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. Climate Change .D. Shulze. Hardy. D. geographical and temporal patterns. 56 . ECOPE 29. B & Jager.. ED. UK 1991. Effects.

COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. Oxford.(2nd Ed. deforestation and its control. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. Oxford. Sustainable forest management. Oxford University Press. W. habitats and ecosystems. Recommended Books: 1. UK. distribution. 3. 1992. B. Threatened animals and plants. T. E. Roberts.A. 3. S. Loss of biodiversity. USA. management. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. distribution and management. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. Consumptive. 2. Status of forests in Pakistan. & Spicer.) Gaston. problems and solutions. status.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. Participatory forest management. its causes. I). 57 . T. Mcmillan. Cambridge. biological diversity. Recommended Books: 1. Establishment and management of protected areas. Extinction of species. UK.J. And Bolen. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. Conserving Living Natural Resources. 2002. their ecological and economic importance.B. Robinson. 4. their types and role in conservation. Essentials of Conservation Biology. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. 2004. Principles of Wildlife Management. London. Protected areas. Wildlife of Pakistan. kinds. types. 2002. Oxford. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. 1973 2. 1986. threats and conservation. 5.G. Cambridge. 1984. Global and national biodiversity. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. Rangeland management. Forest plantations.L. Roberts.J. J.D. J. R. distribution. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. & Ripley. Blackwell Publsihing. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. Oxford University Press. Protected areas in Pakistan. Publishers Sunderland.J. 1998. Biodiversity: An introduction. Bailey. their importance. Wildlife Ecology and Management. John Wiley And Sons. Oxford University Press. Protection and restoration of species. Wetlands. K. Forests. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. II). Sinauer Assocaites. Cambridge University Press. Inc. Weddell. S. Primack. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. types.J.

management of transport. V. Ministry of Housing and Works. UK. Sustainable cities. 4. Introducing Town Planning. C. New York. G. 3. Planning and Urban Change. A.. Ward. Silberstein. drinking water and solid waste in cities. Forms of urbanization. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. UK. 1993. 2004. S. urban systems and their characteristics. 2. H. 2007. urban landscape characteristics. Penguin Group. The Works: Anatomy of a City.. 58 .COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction.. urbanization in Pakistan. future of urban centers. USA. London. urban political ecology. J. Longman Group. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Government of Pakistan. sanitation. SAGE Publications Ltd. E&UA Div. 2000. 1986. CRC Press LLC. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards.and Maser.. USA. Islamabad. Environmental problems of urban life. Clara. Kate. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. Urban land use planning and management. Recommended Books: 1.

Oxford University Press.V. Third edition. Exercises 1. a) Functional English Grammar 1.Annexure . Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. Martinet.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. 1997.J. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. Practical English Grammar by A. ISBN 0194313492 59 . Thomson and A. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1.

Fourth Impression 1993. b) Practical English Grammar by A. Reading. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. Martinet. and speed reading. Upper Intermediate. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. Reading/Comprehension 1. Exercises 2. 1997. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Writing. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content.V. Thomson and A. Third edition. Oxford University Press.J. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 .2. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. intensive and extensive. Third Impression 1992. minutes of meetings. Oxford Supplementary Skills.

Advanced by Ron White. Exercises 2. Oxford University Press 1986. clarity. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. narrative. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Fourth Impression 1993. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. content. Writing. Oxford Supplementary Skills. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). introduction to presentations. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky.J. Oxford Supplementary Skills.V.1. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. Writing. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. language. Third edition. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Thomson and A. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Oxford Supplementary Skills. 2. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. Advanced. descriptive and argumentative writing). Practical English Grammar by A. Third Impression 1992. Martinet. b) Writing 1. 2. Third Impression 1991. Reading. discursive. form. Reading 1. Writing. Fourth Impression 1992.

Kathleen Shine Cain. Compiled by norther Illinois University. St. Mandell.(particularly suitable for discursive. Kirszner and Stephen R. Martin’s Press. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. argumentative and report writing). 3. 2004. College Writing Skills by John Langan. 2. A Custom Publication. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. 62 . b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. without taxing the taste of engineering students). descriptive. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton.

M. Lahore. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. Indus Civilization ii. 1993. Ethnicity d. Location and geo-physical features. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Safdar.Annexure . Pakistan Political Roots & Development. ideological background of Pakistan. government. Mehmood. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. 2. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Study the process of governance. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. . Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. Karachi: Oxford University Press. 2000. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. 2. Course Outline 1. b. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. Contemporary Pakistan a. 1971-77 d. 3. Society and social structure c. 4. Akbar. S. 1958-71 c. State & Society in Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Zaidi.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. S. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. Economic institutions and issues b. politics. 1988-99 f. People and Land i. 1977-88 e. 1947-58 b. contemporary Pakistan. national development. Historical Perspective a. 63 Books Recommended 1. 1999 onward 3. 1994. Shahid Javed. Muslim advent iii. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a.

Lahore: Vanguard. Washington: American Enterprise. Mehmood. Muhammad Waseem. 1967. Zahid. Politics in Pakistan. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Aziz. Islamabad. M. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. 10. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. 64 . K. Amin. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. 1980. Pakistan Under Martial Law. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research.. Enigma of Political Development. 1980. nd. Vol. Wilcox. Noor ul.5. 1998. 12. Haq. 13. Afzal. 8. Ethno . 9. Wayne. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia.National Movement in Pakistan. II & III. Ziring. I. The Political System of Pakistan. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. Ansar. 6. Club Road. Rafique.K. Lawrence. Khalid Bin. 1972. Political Parties in Pakistan.The Emergence of Banglades. Safdar. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Institute of Public Policy Research. Sayeed. Karachi: Royal Book Company. 1976. 7. 1987. Tahir. 1993. 14. Party. History & Culture of Sindh. 11.

Tadabar (Verse No1.57.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .Annexure .W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.40.56.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.58.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.A.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.A.A.21. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.19.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.20) Related to thinking.A.6.

3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt. in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .

“Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. IRI. Pakistan. International Islamic University.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. “Emergence of Islam” .3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. Ahmad Hasan. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi.S. Bhatia. Islamabad (2001) 67 . Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. “Studies in Islamic Law. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah.

harmonic progression. College Algebra and Trigonometry. geometric progression. Boston 68 . qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). equations reducible to quadratic equations. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. Houghton & Mifflin. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. matrix inverse. complex numbers. trigonometric identities. Cramer’s rule. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. system of linear equations. Beckenback EF. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. set operations. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. introduction to sets. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. functions. Wooton W. cube roots of unity. PWS-Kent Company. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. Boston Swokowski EW. not majoring in mathematics. types of functions. 1986. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations.Annexure . Sharron S. types. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. PWS-Kent Company. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. determinants. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. 1987. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. 1978. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines.

distance between two points. John Wiley. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Addison-Wesley. angle between two lines. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. integration by parts. change of variables in indefinite integrals. differentiation of polynomial. Bevens I. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. parallel and perpendicular lines. Davis S. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. slope of a line. derivatives. Ma. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. distance between a point and a line. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. Calculus (11th edition). Finney AR. intersection of two lines. equation of a line. 1983. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. solution of equations involving absolute values. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. Boston Thomas GB. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). PWS-Kent Company. various forms of equation of a line. 69 . continuous functions.2. 1995. inequalities. Recommended Books: Anton H. Reading. New York Stewart J. integration by substitution. 2005. Calculus (3rd edition). with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. not majoring in mathematics. 2005. USA 3. continuity. rational and transcendental functions. left-hand and right-hand limits. functions and their graphs. not majoring in mathematics. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students.

• Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. • Contents 1. ellipse. hyperbola. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. functions. 70 . Matrices: Introduction to matrices. PWS-Kent Company. equations reducible to quadratic equations. intersection of lines and circles. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. nature of roots of quadratic equations. types of matrices.Circle: Equation of a circle. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. Introduction to sets. Cramer’s rule. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. Conic Sections: Parabola. system of linear equations. Boston 4. locus of a point in various conditions. College Algebra and Trigonometry. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. PWS-Kent Company. Boston Swokowski EW. set operations. 1987. 1986. inverse of matrices. Analytic Geometry. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. Scott. Freshman and Company. circles determined by various conditions. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. 1969 Kaufmann JE. determinants. types of functions. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition).

deciles and percentiles.. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. individual. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. Latest Edition. Kaufmann. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry.. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. 5. standard deviation. trigonometric identities. J. 3. moments. variance. R. Wilcox.. Latest Edition. Latest Edition. Boston. PWS-Kent Company. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. 2.. cumulative frequency curve. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. relationship of statistics with social science. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. E. E. quartiles. W. Walpole. characteristics of statistics. skewness and kurtosis. 71 . array. E. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. Measures of dispersion: Range. 4. Graphs: Graph of straight line. circle and trigonometric functions.geometric and harmonic progressions. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. discrete and continuous series. Books Recommended: 1. 2. R. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. Swokowski. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. bar frequency diagram histogram. Prentice Hall. tally sheet method. R. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. frequency polygon. ungrouped and grouped data. types of frequency series.

E. Inc. 3rd Edition. logarithmic integration. H. integration by inspection. Inc. integration by parts. reduction formulae. Trigonometric Functions. John Wiley & Sons. 2002. 1999. Continuity. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. Continuous Functions. Elliott Mendelson. Thomas. 6. implicit differentiation. 8th edition. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. Solution of equations involving absolute values. integral inequalities. plane polar coordinates. Frank A.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. Contents 1. 4th edition. Jhon Willey & Sons. 2005. Rational and Transcendental Functions. applications of integration. Slope of a Line. the inverse of differentiation. Calculus Single and Multivariable. Leibnitz’ theorem. 3. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. W. Swokowski. 11th Edition. Least-Squares Line. and Transcendental Functions. I. Recommended Books: 1. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. substitution method. logarithmic differentiation. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. Bevens. Calculus. Calculus. Addison Wesley publishing company. the chain rule. et al. special points of a function. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. Gleason. infinite and improper integrals.Jr. Rational Functions. Calculus. Anton. McCallum. • Integration Integration from first principles. Equation of a Line. 5. Extreme Values of Functions. sinusoidal function. 1983. products. Second Edition 1992. 4. quotients. Schaum’s Outline Series. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. Boston. Prentice-Hall. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . 2. Inequalities. Integration by Parts. 6. John H. integration using partial fractions. Mathews. theorems of differentiation. Davis. Hughes-Hallett. 2005. S. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. 2.

calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. modulus and argument. the difference method. complex conjugate. solving hyperbolic equations.Additions and subtraction. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. inverses of hyperbolic functions. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. approximation errors in Taylor series. series involving natural numbers. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. identities of hyperbolic functions. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. finding the nth roots of unity. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. arithmetico-geometric series. geometric series. multiplication.

centers of mass and centroids. Pappus’ theorems. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. 6. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. Hermitian. symmetric and antisymmetric. orthogonal. vector product. point to plane. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. the inner product. line to line. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. scalar triple product. masses. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. of a unitary matrix. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. moments of inertia.5. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors.

8. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. divergence of a vector field. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. combinations of grad. spherical polar coordinates 75 .

Moments and Moments ratios. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Exercises. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Errors of measurement. Discrete and continuous variables. Data. The Variance and standard deviation. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Test statistics. Statistical problem. Difference of means and proportions. Quantiles. level of significance. sampling and non sampling errors. 76 . Stem and Leaf Display. Change of origin and scale. Exercises Unit 6. acceptance and rejection regions. Unit 3. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Significant digits. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Empirical Relation between Mean. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. The Mode. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Unit 4. Diagrams. Histogram. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Unit 5. sampling with and without replacement. Exercises. Type-I and Type-II errors. Absolute and relative measures. bias. Unit 7. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Collection of primary and secondary data. properties of Good Average. Types of frequency curves. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. The Mean Deviation. Historigram. Pie chart. Coefficient of variation. Unit 2. Exercises. null and alternative hypothesis. The semi-Interquartile Range. Graphs and their Construction.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Editing of Data. Rounding of a Number. Box and Whisker Plot. Range. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Exercises. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Exercises. Exercises. Constructing of a frequency distribution. definition of outliers and their detection. Probability and Probability Distributions. Sources. Bar charts. Different types of Averages.Annexure . probability and non-probability sampling. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Population. Standardized variables. Presentation of Data Introduction. Observations. Median and mode. sample design and sampling frame.

Inc. simple linear regression. New York. Unit 11. Coefficient of linear correlation. Exercises. cause and effect relationships. its estimation and interpretation.Single Population Introduction.. Contingency Tables. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. Correlation. Macmillan Publishing Co.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. R. 77 . 3rd Ed. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. Exercises Unit 10. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples.Unit 8. E. 1982. 2 Muhammad.. “Introduction to Statistics”. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. F. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. Testing of Hypothesis. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. r and R2. Exercises Unit 9. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. examples. Kitab Markaz. 2005. Regression and Correlation Introduction.

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