CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
58

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Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. universities and other institutions of higher education. Lahore. It is. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. and 36. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. DR. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 .ALTAF ALI G. therefore. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. It also aimed to give a basic.). Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. 63. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. The world has turned into a global village. dated December 4th 1976. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. R&D organizations. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. D773/76-JEA (cur. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. PROF. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. degree awarding institutions. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. the Federal Government vide notification No.

UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. OF NCRC.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. OF FINAL CURRI. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. Preparation 5 . OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. UNI. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. REC. OF CURRI. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. PREP. COL. EXP. R&D.

Lahore Member 6. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Karachi from 28-30. Rawalpindi Dr. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Dr. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Member 4. Dr. Following attended the meeting:1.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Member 6 . Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Member 3. 7. Member 5.

Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Dr. Dr.8. Member 10. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Member 14. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Member 16. 7 . Karachi Member 12. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Dr. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Dr. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. 13. Prof. Dr. Member 11. Prof. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Dr. Member 15.

These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. 1. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Karachi. Chairman. Dr. Mr. At first. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. Director of HEC Regional Center. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. 2. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. Secretary Dr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah.17. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. 8 . Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. Member 20. Dr. Faisalabad Member 18. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. The meeting was opened by Mr. Mr. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. Member 19. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively.

2. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. 6. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. 3. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. The committee thanked Mr. 4. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses.3. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. 5. In last few centuries. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. 1.

skills and behaviour patterns. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. 5. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. This committee. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. Apply theoretical understanding. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. in its preliminary meeting. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. regional and global contexts. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. ii. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us.

the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. Integrating natural sciences. The medium of instruction.e. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. 5. eight semesters in the semester system. with consensus. 1.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. 6. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. 2. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. that: 1. A. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. 4. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. Sc. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3.. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. 3. The 11 .

proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Environmental Chemistry 15. Introductory Economics* 17. Environmental Physics 16. Environmental Pollution 22. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. English-II 12. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Climatology* 23. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Biology –I* 3. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. English-III 18. Introduction to Computer 14. Basic Chemistry* 4. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Psychology* . SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Biology –II* 9. Environmental Microbiology 21. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Introduction to Earth Science 8. English-I 6.

English-IV/ Univ.24. 46. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Environmental Biotechnology 32. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. ELECTIVE-III 42. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Environmental Economics 29. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. 45. Opt. 44. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . Climate Change 38. Environmental Monitoring 36. Environmental Management Systems 34. Environmental toxicology 27. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. Applied Ecology 26. Natural Resource Management 40. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43.

• Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical.

its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. its importance in human life. Pearson Educational.M. 2002. Human environment and its problems: global. socio-economic. history. 2007 3. B. Botkin. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. biological and social. John Wiley & Sons. 4. and their relationships with various environmental factors. G.J. regional. national. 4th Ed. Schoch. philosophical. & Yonavjak.. 15 . 2007. M. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. D. Wright. McKinney. L. current global. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. ethical.A. Miller. 10th Ed. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. 2. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . Thomson Learning. 2007. lipids. Different aspects of environment: physical. E.B & Keller. urbanization. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. development in industry and agriculture. poverty and resource depletion. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. R. & Nebel.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. ecological.T. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. 6th Ed. proteins and nucleic acids. environmental pollution. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates.. R.L.

Introduction to cell biology. carboxylic acids. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. Australia . and Lewis. origin of metabolism. 2. V. Cells. and Whitelaw. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. carbohydrates. USA. R. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. Biology: a Human Emphasis. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. Aromatic compounds. Wadsworth Group. Canada. 2003. J. A. Ltd.. Bulter. Crossley. chemical diversity. L.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. 1996. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials.Hill International Edition. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. carbonyls. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. Self Assessment and Revie. 1. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. Structure and the basis of function. Cell division. G. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. protobionts. 4. phospholipids in membrane systems. amines). Molecular Biology through Questions. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. proteins. 3. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. USA.. E. lipids. McGraw. Nucleic acids. esters. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. Starr. USA. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. chemical basis of life. 2007. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. 5.. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. New York. 2007. 2008. Origin of life: chemical evolution. polypeptides in protein diversity. Plopper. 8th Ed. the molecule of genetic information and replication. Lewis. Shier. 5th Edetion. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. coordinate covalent bond. B. C. D. 16 . M... Cassimeris. lipids. N. R. Lingappa. Ionic. covalent.

Algebra of matrices.. 2nd Edition. and Reid. 2003. 2nd Edition. Column chromatography. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. Girard. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions.ions. J. USA. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). Principles of Environmental Chemistry.S. 8th Edition.D.J. P. W. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. D. 4. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. Qualitative Chemical Analysis.M. Osmosis and Dialysis. Recommended Books: 1. minor and cofactor of a matrix. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. and Holler. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry.. Liss. 2. D. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. expansion of determinants. Jickells. 6th Edition. 2004. Colloids chemistry. 17 . double angle formulas. Jones and Barlett. normal solutions/buffers. 2004.K. Freeman and Company. 1st Ed. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. Brimblecombe. Photochemical reactions. geometric and harmonic sequence. Surface chemistry. UK. determinants. M. J. B. UK. 3. Blackwell Science. real line. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. Canada. Solution chemistry.. values of trigonometric functions. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. D. Use of spectrophotometric techniques.C. straight line and related concepts. West. 2004.. Thomson and Brooks. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. simultaneous equations and their solutions. Thin layer chromatography. Lab Work Preparation of molar. USA. T.. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Andrews. Cambridge University Press. F. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. EC and TDS in waste water. Binomial theorem (Simple applications).. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. equations of lines (linear equations). molal. Skoog.. 5. graphs. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations).A. Measurement of pH. angle-sum formula. law of Cosines.. 2005.Special Products (Binomial Expression). series and means. Harris. radicals.H.E. Understanding Environmental Pollution.E. Hill.J. P..

Calculus and Analytical Geometry. Weathering. Introduction to sedimentary. Abraham. R. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. theorem of integration. Narosa Publishing House.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . Geological time scale and life through geological ages. 2. Integration: Formulas of integration. Analytical Geometry. by parts integration (simple applications). 3. nonrepeated linear factors. D. its origin. S. Thomas. age. Pacific Grove.B. joints. Smith.Cramer’s Rule. weathering and erosion. Chatterjee. J. California. L. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . lineation and unconformities. 1999. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. composition and its internal structure.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography.. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. earthquakes and volcanoes. Recommended Books: 1. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. Trignometry for College students. 10th Ed. erosion and related landforms. Addission. cleavages. and Finney. difference. faults. 18 . Fossils and their significance. K. the processes of their formation. irreducible quadratic factors. Earth as a member of solar system. different earth processes like mountain buildings. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. theorems on differentiation (sum. mountain building. igneous and metamorphic rocks. 4. Jr. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. plate tectonics. Scott Foresman and Company. foliation. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. earthquakes..Wesley. 4th Ed. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Chain rule. Introduction to folds. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. New Delhi. Introduction to rocks and minerals. G. product and quotient rules without derivations).

. 2007 2. D. J. interactions among diversified life. different classification systems. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. Park. Life in sea.Identification of rocks and minerals. molecular basis of biodiversity. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. and Pun. and Tasa. G. Biodiversity of deserts. F. 3rd Edition. 5th Edition. Biodiversity of canal. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources.. F. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. Routledge.. Tarbuck. Field Study tour. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. D. Smith.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. 2004. Prentice Hall. measuring biodiversity. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. causes of extinction. Foundations of Structural Biology. Physical Geology and Process of Science. E. E. 5. Tarbuck. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. protocell formation. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. unicellularity. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. Lamarckism. population loss and decline. 11th Edition. and Tasa. R. Recommended Books: 1. Geological time chart with biodiversity. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. Prentice Hall. Wicander. R. examples of adjustments in varied environment. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. Darwinism. Brooks/Cole. consequences of losing biodiversity. 2007 3. A. 2005. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . Lutgens.. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. How Does Earth Work. and Monroe. biodiversity crises.. J.. 9th Edition. 4. 19 . Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. invasion of life on land. Lutgens... modern concepts.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. J. Earth Science. Biodiversity of hilly areas.. animals). multicellularity. Prentice Hall: 2006. K. Use of brunton compass and GPS. G. K.

3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. K. Adam. Environmental Risks and the Media. Walnut Creek. P. R. Scope and application. Conceptualizing environment. Hannen.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. C. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. Bradbury. and concerns. 2009. Recommended Books: 1. J. 2001. Townsend. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies.. 2000. UK. Perspective of human-environment evolution.K. Use of environment for vested interest.. Wadsworth Group. Understanding the environment-human relationship. Culture. 2. 5th Edition. a Human Emphasis. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. K. Allan & Carter. C. 2nd Edition. globalization and environmental issues. Prospect Heights. 2005. 2003. John Wiley and Sons. UK. Contemporary environment issues and debate. I. 20 . 3. USA. Inc. New York: New York University Press. (editor). 2009. Contemporary environmental status. Nora and Wilk. J. (editors). 3. 2. Chronological. L. culture and society. Crumley. and Sustainable Living. Consumption. Blackwell Science Ltd. power & hegemony. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. Biodiversity (An Introduction). Inc.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. Tripartite nature of environment. Routledge. Biology. Goals and expectations. Gaston. and Spicer. CA: AltaMira Press. I. 2006. 4. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . Starr. The Ecology of global consumer culture. IL:WavelandPress. UK. The Biosphere. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions.

G. Ms-Power Point.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. Local Area Network. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. as are their effects on the biosphere. Operating system (Windows). 6. Configurations.6th Ed. Rutledge.Microsoft office 2000. computer programs and basic applications. Selin. Types and classification of computers. Hardware: Input Hardware. Storage hardware. 2003. Recommended Books: 1. Long l. 2. Courter. Fundamentals of computer. Software: Application software.1999. Course Outlines Definition.5. Ed. Ms-Excel. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. e-mail. Ms-Access. Introduction to MS-Word. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. Long N.. system software.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . Kluwer Academic Publishers. output hardware.H. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. Milton. K. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. internet. Marquis A. processing hardware.. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures.London 1996.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. 21 . The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. software packages. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure .

.. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. 1999. Andrews. Germany. J. Miller. Liss. Environmental impact of various industries. C. Isotopes and radioactive decay. Solids. 2004. Nuclear energy. USA. 2nd Edition. UK. photosynthesis. Hernandez-Esparza. 4. J. Particle physics. Sound and Noise. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . Liquids and Gasses. M. Turbulent jets and plumes. Turbulence.D. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. 3. Gaussian plumes in the air. Fundamentals of aquatic. 2008. Diffusion.E.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. its causes and adverse effects on environment. Ibanez. 2. 1st Edition. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. and Reid. Jones and Barlett. Heat radiation and heat transfer.. P. 5. India.. and Singh. Thomson-Brooks. M. Chemical reactions. Solar spectrum. DoriaSerrano. Equations of fluid dynamics. Electromagnetic radiation. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. Basic acoustics.J. Recommended Books: 1.. atmospheric and soil chemistry. Samir. trophic level. Girard.M. Conversion of mass. Entropy. Energy. G. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. Human perceptions and noise criteria. Radioactivity and nuclear physics.. A. Canada. 2004. their sources and toxic actions. P. Springer.. 2005. Transport of pollutants. Ozone and UV light. Energy conversion. Ozone chemistry. Environmental Science. Active control of sound.E. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. Reducing the transmission of sound. Jickells. interaction of light with matter. Fregoso-Infante. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer.G.. Turbulent diffusion.T. Environmental Chemistry. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. Environmental Chemistry. Blackwell Science. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Fate of pollutants in environment. Global climate and climatic change.. J.. K. T.. B.S. Brimblecombe.

Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change.1998. population and environmental quality. 23 . Kentucky USA. J. concepts and measurement. 2001. Smith. interaction between ecology and economic management. 2. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. S. G. World Bank Publications. Recommended Books: 1. N. Recommended Books: 1. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. Measures for sustainable development.. Economic Development. 2006. USA. Todaro. R. Environmental Physics. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. economic progress. economic welfare and difference among all. 7th Ed. Wesely Publishers. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Economic functions of environment. E. Yusuf. Growth and development. Producer behavior. Impact of economic activity on environment. poverty. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Guyot. Environmental economics. P. and Resource allocation. USA. 3. USA. Economic management and environmental quality. Physics of the Environment and Climate. Boeker.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. Introductory Environmental Physics. and Pandis. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. S. 2008. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. Seinfeld. Growth and Environment. 2008. Man environmental relationship. Sustainable development. 2001. economic growth and its measurement. UK. H. M. Routledge. Pakistan economic context: National income. economic growth.Economic development. Praxis publishing. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. 2. USA. New York. Field visit. Natural resources and the economy. and Van Grondelle. producer and community point of view. 4. C.

24 . temperature. soil. its fundamental concepts. N. Farmington Hills. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. Hanley. World Bank Publications. ethics and ecology. Touchstone Books. water. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. B. J.3.A. biogeography. LLC. Portland 1967. International Thomson Publishing. Palgrave Macmillan. and systems ecology. B. B. J. Ecology. Frodeman.. England. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. 2008. R. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. Introduction to ethical theory. Economics. A History of Western Philosophy. Natural philosophy. levels of ecological organization. role of light. 2007. 4. community. 2. M. 4. Course Outlines Introduction. the ethics of soil. USA. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. USA. WCIV7AA. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. Environmental philosophy and ethics. 2002. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. Kessinger Publishing. 2008. Russell. branches of ecology. DeVeer. 2009. Environmental Critics of agriculture. D.V. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice.. Swift. Callicott. London. description of population. Recommended Books: 1. community and ecosystem. C. concepts and approaches. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy.. 3. species. & Pierce. Ecosystem and its types. and White.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. population. Shogren..

biotic factors. Biomes of the world. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. landscape changes and their importance. New Delhi. Fundamentals of Ecology. Populations. aquatic microbiology. and More. distribution limits. Recommended Books 1. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. Odum. and S. 2000. King’s College London. New York.W. UK. 1992. bacteria and eukarya. Tata McGraw-Hill. Fundamentals of Ecology. and Barett. landscape ecology. various concepts of community. students will be able to understand the significance. WCB/McGraw-Hill. 6th Ed. Ecosystem: structure and function. E P. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. population dynamics. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. community dynamics. B. Cambridge University Press. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. Lab Work 25 . Dash. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. After completion of this course. C. 1st Ed. 3. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. G.topography and air as ecological factors. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. M C J 1st ed. plant geography and animal distribution. Chapman. P.L and Reiss. Systems ecology. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. Concepts of Limiting factors. C. ecological modeling. aero-microbiology and food microbiology.Cox. 2001 5. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. Thomson Brooks/Cole. N. productivity of different ecosystems. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. Microbial metabolism. J.) Moles. 2. UK. 2004. J. Ecology (principles and applications). Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). characteristics of urban. Population distribution and abundance. 5th Ed. habitat and niche. Ecology (concepts and applications. Biogeochemical cycles of C. M J. M. 1999 4. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem.

D. J. Washington DC.P.. Crawford. M. Mean plate count. USA.L.J.F. 2002. Dilution plate technique. P. USA. Cambridge University Press.L.K. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. 2009. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. 26 . Sylvia. American Society for Microbiology. and Zuberer. Butterworth-Heinemann.Gerba. L. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. London.J.B. McGraw Hill Inc. Knudsen. its sources and their effects.. Solid Waste generation. 2005.J. W. and Jeffery. Academic Press. Effects of Pollutants. D. Prescott. F. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. Marine & Industrial pollution. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. D. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. Peiece. UK. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents.G. C. and Klein..P.R. Microbiology. 2005. Environmental Pollution and Control.. and Stetzenbach. L. USA. Soil. and Gerba. Academic Press...D. (Elsevier) USA.P. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. Maier.A. Cambridge UK. USA. 2007. 4. Fuhrmann. 2nd Edition.J.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. Environmental Microbiology.L.V.C. 3. USA. Pepper.and Vesilaind.M. Prentice Hall. 5. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. Collection. Hartel. I.. A. Recommended Books 1. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution.1998.and Brendecke. purification and preservation. 1995. Academic Press. Recommended Books: 1.M. Harley. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. Pollution Control Strategies. R. transportation & treatments. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. C. Noise. 2.A. 2 Edition. J. 2. R. isolation.J. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). 3.. New Jersey. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. Understanding Environmental Pollution.I. Human & other living organisms.W. Hurrst.. 2005.. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution.. M.M.A.. G. Weiner. Hill. Case Studies. P. McInernery. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. 4th Edition. J. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution.. Water. peppor.

. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. The climate of Pakistan. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. 1988. Marcel Dekkar. air pressure.K. John Wiley and Sons. 4.2nd Editions. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. Lawrance K. 6th Edition. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. John H. Radiation and climate. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate.F. condensation and cloud Formation. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan).J. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. Lutgens. Factors affecting air Pressure. climatic zones of Pakistan. Surface winds. 2003.E.W. Cloud Classification. N. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. Houghton J. . K. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. Weather and Climate.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. 2002. Spyros. American Public Health Association (APHA). Environmental psychology. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. Cambridge University Press. local winds. Shamshad.. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. Austin Miller. The Physics of Atmospheres.M.. Pandis. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. Sadder. 5. The Hydrologic cycle. Methods of psychology. global circulation. 1992. The Atmosphere.. 2006 5. Four Spheres of the Earth. Karachi. 3. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . 27 . 2. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Tarbuck. Solar radiations. Mechanism of heat transfer. Royal book company. Recommended Books: 1. A.4. Climatology.

Greene. sustainable agriculture. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture.. and Baum A. rivers. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. soil salinity and water logging. 28 . Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. Sustainable agricultural practices. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. Fundamental of Psychology. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. 5th Edition. Fisher J. Environmental Psychology. 1992. concepts. carbon dioxide and global climate change. Routledge. Routledge. Restoration of derelict lands. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. Eysenck. energy and carbon balance. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine.. techniques and methods of restoration. Environmental perception and cognition. T. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. threats and mitigation. soil resources of Pakistan. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. Background and scope. soil erosion and conservation. Course Outline Introduction. their management and ecological restoration.C. Water and distribution of species. Bell.characteristics and research methods. species response to pollutants. CRC Press. M. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher.D. Ecological restoration. 2001. Future water scenario of Pakistan. solar radiation and primary production. Water as an ecological resource.W. Ecology of food production. P. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation.A. Sustainable livestock management practices. limitation of irrigated agriculture. London. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. Recommended Books: 1. High population density and psychological impacts. Pollution control through Ecology. 2. CRC Press. London. Soil as a natural resource.

Falk. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. and Barett. 1996. J. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. 29 . terminologies: Poisons.. Foundations of Restoration Ecology.. 5. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. Odum E. Shirkat Gah. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. Margaret A. 4. Oxford.Recommended Books: 1. dose response relationship in living organisms. their containment and control strategies. toxins & toxicants. Israr-ud-Din. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. USA. University of Peshawar. in vivo & in vitro assays. Zedler. Newman. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. Lahore. toxicity screening using microbial systems. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. Synergism. Islamabad. D. Soil Science. Immunological considerations in toxicology. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. Fundamentals of Ecology. Potentiation and Addition. Determination of chemicals in biological samples.S. Organs. and Hobbs. A. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. water and soil. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. toxins vs toxicants. R. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. A.. 5th Edition. Peshawar. Thomson Brooks/Cole.A. from natural and anthropogenic sources. B. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Island Press.National Book Foundation. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. P. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management.I.W. Rashid. E. Pakistan’s Environment. Chemical interactions and their types. K. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. Studies in Pakistan Geography. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. and Memon. K and Habib. 2006. 2nd ed. G. J. soil and air samples. toxicology of chemicals. 3.. 2004. on human and other living organisms. Determination of Interaction of chemicals.P. 2000 2. biological effects. 1989. Mumtaz.1998.

Government of Pakistan. Ecological: ecological zones. major ecosystems. 5th Edition. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. water resources. land. Recommended Books 1. P. 3. Vol.Science of Poisons . culture. 2005 2. M. measuring environmental benefits. the economy and the environment. international trade and the environment. CRC Press Llc. T and Turner. health. USA. (ed. economic development and the environment.2005 2. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. Ballantyne.M. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. W. 1st Edition. economic aspects of different environmental problems.1 & 2. Recommended Books: 30 . Economic: agriculture. Klassen. McGrawhill. B. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. Williams. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. USA. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. 1996.. General and Applied Toxicology. 1993. Course Outlines Introduction. education. 1st Edition. State of the Environment-Pakistan .). urbanization and pollution. USA. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. Macmillan Press Ltd. geography. people. Course Outlines Introduction to history. industry. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. W. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. 3. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. clean development mechanism. pollution control-a general model.D.Recommended Books 1. Hughes. topographic zones. 1992.

Australia.1.and Field. USA. water and plant analysis.2004. Titrimetery. L. handling. 3..A.I. Collingwood. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling.R. units. and Batemen. A. Fluoride. and F. preparation and storage. 1993.2002. J. Oxford. 3. Harris.I. Reuter. Oxford University Press. Sparrow and D. Sample collection. M. NO3–N & NH4-N). Freeman & Co. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Environmental Economics. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. Conductivitymetry. Holler. 2. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Standard solutions and standard curves.W. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. COD. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. 2003. 2. Skoog... Kolstad. 6th Edition. Analytical techniques for soil. I.. D. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. 1999.K. Thomson and Brooks. C. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. Pearce..K.D. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. D. 2000. All Solids. 31 . Johns Hopkins University Press. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. Gravimetery. West. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. D. Titrimetery. Gravimetery.. B. Use of Potentiometery. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. Turner. 4. 2005. Conductivitymetry.C. C. 8th Edition. precision and accuracy. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples.L. M. Field. BOD. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Recommended Books: 1. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. and derived S. K. D.J. Lab Work S. Peverill.UK. salinity & sodicity). CSIRO Publ. New York. Sample preservation methods. Data interpretation for quality control.

J. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. W. Chichoster. D. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. Bioreactors.D. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. 2nd Ed. National Biotechnology Commission. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. 2001. USA. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. 4. USA. England.P. J. Course Outlines Introduction. Environmental Biotechnology. Scragg. J. New York. Recombinant DNA technology.W. Introduction to microbial kinetics. 2005. (ed. Government of Pakistan. Isolation. Biosensor. A. Derbre. 2007. and application of biotechnology in the environment. Cambridge University Press.1999. 2. Hans- Joachim. Tools in environmental biotechnology. 2005. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. USA. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment.. PCR. students will be able to understand the significance. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. and Russel. and Josef. Sambrook.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. purification and preservation of DNA. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. National Biosafety Guidelines. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems.). Biotechnology. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. Germany. 2009.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution.E. 3. Biomarkers. After completion of this course.. Smith. 5th Ed. Wiley-VCH Verlag. Oxford University Press. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . New York. Recommended Books 1.

2000. K and L. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Mc Graw Hill Education. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Agriculture. Aerial photography. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. 4. Jensen. Interpretation. Introduction to GIS. Inc. Introduction to Photogrammetry. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. Dessinov. map projection and coordinate systems. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. John Wiley and Sons. Different types of maps. history and platforms.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. advantages and limitations of process. Lulla. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. Image Processing. Inc. Types of data used in GIS. F. Guilfoud press New York. Data entry and output. Rancez. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. R. Using and reading GPS in field. John Wiley and Sons. Inc. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. Campbell. 3. analysis and output. Cartography. 2. integration of information from many sources. eradication of the duplicated data. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Data acquisition. 2008. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. 2009. Active and Passive remote sensing. Forestry. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. 2000. V. Satellite Imageries. A. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. Z. Energy Sources. 1999. Harvey. Pearsons Education. History and data collection. Preparation of thematic maps. Fishery and wildlife. 5. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective.

COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity.. threats to biodiversity. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. Environmental Economy.. etc. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. hot spots of biodiversity. Sheldon.2nd Ed. and Yoxon. 2005. F. social and ethical values of biodiversity.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. cleaner technologies. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. philosophical. Environmental Management Systems Principles. M. ecological.). Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Systems and Support Techniques. International Organization for Standardization. Methods of environmental protection. 34 . Michigan. Course Outlines Introduction. WWF Pakistan..3rd Edition . principles of Cleaner production. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). types of biodiversity. 1998. 3. American Society for Quality. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. Environmental aspects and impacts. Conservation of biodiversity.C. 2001. Khan. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. plant. 2. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. eco-design. M. Certification of EMS. Environmental Management tools. 4. Related Environmental legislation. B. and Qasim. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. A. need and approach. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. Environment and sustainable development. alpha and beta diversity. standards and guidelines. American Society for Quality. 2006. economic. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System.

B. Legal protection of species. Publ. plants. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. their categories. management. water. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures.. NOC for plant operation. Sunderland. London.D. Biogeography. 35 . air.e. quality control sampling. international agreements. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. design and types of samples. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. national and international laws and regulations. laboratory custody. Course Outlines Introduction. conservation and livelihood. population. soil and living organisms. Saad Printers. P. 2. Sinauer. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. Conservation of wildlife. Recommended Books: 1.conservation at species. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. ecotourism. A Primer for Conservation Biology. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. Z. presampling requirements/information. refrigeration and freezing methods. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. 2000.. Quality assurance and quality control. 1998. Rawalpindi.R. chemical addition. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. community and ecosystem level. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. Lahore). Cox. sampling and design purposes. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. field custody. conservation strategies. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. Mirza. Considerations. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. conservation in man-made ecosystems. protected areas. cities. EIA requirement. Preservation methods including pH control. 2000. P. croplands. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. Associates Inc. Kings College. forests.B. 2ndEd.B. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. C. 3. habitats. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. quality assessment. and Morre..

N. USA. S. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. New York. I. McKlivie.Recommended Books: 1. R. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. D. extinctions. regional. . Remote Sensing Note. 7. S. Chapman and Hall. D. agriculture. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. Precipitation.. L. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. Earth Observation of Global Change. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. Peakall. 2008. Tokyo. Korte. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. 2.USA. UK. 2nd Edition. 5. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. chemical. its causes and effects. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. 8. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. Chuviero. 2002. Burden. 2000.1999. F. H. phenological changes. 2008. Recent Climate Change Indicators. and Guethner. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. (eds. 1992. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. (ed) Springer. USA. Physical. altered community structure. biological. 6. human health. Lewis Publisher London. Murai. Regional droughts and 36 .) McGraw-Hill. USA. The Measurement of Climate Change.. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. E. Environmental Chemistry. 3. E. 2002. Ozone depletion. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. Human responses to potential climate change.1996. Forstner U. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. Moisture in the Atmosphere. Manahan. Keith. Energy and Temperature.

Ministry of Housing and Works. J. Earthscan Publication Ltd. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Routledge.cataclysmic climate change.A. decision-making to implement the project. Recommended Books: 1. Islamabad. Climate Change .Causes. 4. 2003. 3..O. 2000. public involvement. 1986. 2. Keith. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press.. 2005. Hardy. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. 2005. London. A. 4. John Wiley & Sons. J.). Effects. EIA project management. Types & Resources to produce Energy. project implementation and follow up. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. Climate Change . John Wiley & Sons.. impact analysis. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment.. 3. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. liquid. Cost and benefits of EIA. and Chadwick. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. mitigation and impact management. 6. National Book Foundation. 2004. scoping. Harrop. social impact assessment (SIA). J. & Nixon. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. 2. 2005. reporting. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. 1999. Blackwell. Houghton. Global Change and the earth system. R. solids...T. J. Main stages in EIA process. Sringer. Global Warming and Climate Change. A. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. J. Effects. and Solutions. London. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. Islamabad. Hardy. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. and Solutions. 2003.Causes. Therivel.. Petts.(ed). 5. screening. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. and noise. T. D. Oxford. Recommended Books: 1. Glasson. (ed. 37 . overview. 1994. law. 1st Edition. review of EIA quality.

methodologies. 2002. Recommended Books: 1. Rangeland Management: existing status. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. threats. and Tu. 38 . national and provincial legislation. their pros and cons. Asian Development Bank. Conservation in Progress. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. wildlife census. management options. process and contents of the management plan. solar power.. Development of Management Plan: needs. 2nd Edition. 1993. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources.. Sadler. national agriculture policy. R. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. USA.. (ed. agriculture chemicals. H. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. problem in agriculture. Lohani. forest types and its existing management. limitation in the future. management options. importance.. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. New York. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. F. agriculture products and their share in GDP. & McCabe. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. 1997. requirement. wind power and nuclear power. Types. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. effective management. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. J.B and Warren. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. United Nations Environment Programme. Evans. A. M. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. S. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area.).5.. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources.. Ludwig. John Willey & Sons. best available option for future. B. B. Carpenter. Everitt. existing management approaches. national example. causes and methods for its improvement. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. 6. their current status and threats. Goldsmith.. threat and its causes. R.

4.E. Literature Search: Database. S. 1990. W. Search Engines. Methodology.A pre-requisite for Research. Research Proposal: its importance . R. Sampling: the logic of sampling. & Plano Clark. Elsevier. 1992. types of sampling design/. Questionnaire. Scientific Research: Science. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research.L. London. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically.2. New York. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. Review of Literature. Objectives. 5. Experimental Research. Surveys. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. Interviews. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). Inference based on findings. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. concepts and terminologies. Review of Literature. Research Design & Research Methods. Hansen. 2007. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS).1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. to introduce students to research design. Thousand Oaks. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. 1984. J. research methods. 3. Sage CA.Amsterdam. Selecting the Research Method. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. Material Methods. Environmental Conservation. Dasmann. 39 . P. V.E. Islamabad. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. and Jorqensen. Bibliography. Creswell. Scientific Methods. GOP and IUCN.F.. population and sampling frames. USA. How to put things together? Introduction. Case Studies. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. John Wiley & Sons. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem.

5.. Sage Publishers. Students project in Environmental Science. Survey Research Methods. 1997.USA. John and sons Ltd. Belmont California.. 2nd Edition. Diamon. 2000. Booth. Wadsworth Publishing Company. 1997. 1989. 6. Law Books House.Harrad. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act.S. National Environmental Policy 4. M. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. Qadar. S. Marilyn F. 2. England. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. Robert Yin. 2001.Batty. E. Moriarty. G. Recommended Books: 1. 2008. and Arhonditsis.h... Babbie. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. Government of Pakistan 3. regulations made there under. 2003. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. of Chicago Press. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. USA. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans.2. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Univ. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. 4. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. 2003. Chichester. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. 3. R. National Conservation Strategy 5. USA. 3rd Edition.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

fisheries management. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. 2003. Asia Printer. integrated water resources management (IWRM). 2006.. flood and drought management. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization.. Pakistan. Oxford University Press Karachi. 5.). 4. A.).1993.Varis. Oxford University Press New Delhi. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. O. Revised & enlarged edition. Bengali. Recommended Books: 1. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. tubewells. flood and droughts. SDPI Oxford University Press. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. Indus Water Accord 1991. wetlands resources management. R. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency.K. (eds. Lahore. J. U.. C. water quality and quantity aspects. I. hydrological cycle. Ahmed. Mirajuddin Publication . A. Islamabad. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. 1993. pollution aspects. and Tortajada. N. and Qamar.. Pakistan .. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. A. and Malik. The Politics of Managing Water. groundwater exploitation. virtual water. Mirajuddin Publication . 6. 3. Biswas. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. 2006. R. Islamabad.. recycling and re-use of wastewater. Ahmed. 2. Cheema. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. (ed. K. P. 2005. N. water supply and demand management measures. with drinking water facilities like springs. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant.. Khan. 44 . how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. watershed/catchment.Lahore. Briscoe. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). Groundwater Resources of Pakistan.

R. Islamabad. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. Bashir. Prentice Hall. NJ. transport. Course Outlines Introduction. and Weil. Soil degradation. R. Soil buffering capacity and its importance.C.. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. San Diego. urbanization in Pakistan. Pakistan. urban flora and fauna. D. Factors and processes of soil formation. Forms of urbanization. hydrological processes. 2007.T. Soil forming minerals. USA. Upper Saddle River. Soils in Our Environment. Upper Saddle River. 11th Edition. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. management and green productivity. urban political ecology. USA. CA. Definition. Gardiner. 2008. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. urban landscapes characteristics. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. N. Academic Press. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. humans as components of urban ecosystems. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. 45 . Miller. R. soils. Types and properties of parent materials. and Bantel. Process and outcome. future of urban centers.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. PrenticeHall. National Book Foundation.. Urban ecosystem. Cation and anion exchange. USA. 1. Causes of urbanization. Brady. the salient features of urban environments. urban settlements. Soil Science. Course Outlines Introduction. After completion of this course.R. D. Physical and chemical processes of weathering.W. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. 2007. E. Physical and chemical properties of soil. Hillel. 1996. Urbanization. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. NJ.

Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city.and Maser.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. Planning and Urban Change. 4. Elements of urban planning. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development.. 2009. 1. Land use planning theories. Recommended Books: 1. 2007. S. V. Routledge. 2. 2004. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. 1989. Smith. H. UK. Aims and Objectives of planning. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. Justification for planning for city management. UK. S. Principles of planning. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Alberti. SBS academic publishing. Penguin Group. Routledge. Gilbert. 2006. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area.. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. New trends in planning and city management. USA. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels.1990.. I. O. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. 5. D. UR. Planning theories and concepts. nature and purpose of urban planning. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. 2. 2000. nd 2 Edition.L. Kate. UK. Silberstein. New York. City Design for Sustainable Development. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. Scope. Sukopp. Hough. SAGE Publications Ltd. M. Ward. Hejny. Types of Urban Plans. The planning process. Planning and its relationship with other professions. Chapman and Hall. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability... Levels of planning. Springer. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. M.S. London. USA. 2004. Hague. London. CRC Press LLC.and Kowaril. 46 . Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. A. J. 3. C.

J. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. Disaster as an opportunity for development.. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). 3. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. Socio-economic factors. D. New York. Landslide. Flood Management: Organizational Role. Natural cycles and their role. P. Clara. i.W.B. 4.W. Techniques and methods to assess hazard.. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. Government of Pakistan. Recommended Books: 1. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N.. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. Flooding. Disaster Management: Components of management. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. Different approaches and Indicators. ADB. and Woodrow. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Kates.. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. Longman Group.F.. Westview Press.e. Boulder . 1991. 1986. 1989. Introducing Town Planning. It discusses a wide range of aspects. Physical factors. and White G. UK. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. 4. Role of Media in Disaster Management. Cultural factors.. Chapman & Hall. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. Hazards. 2nd Edition. Natural Disasters Alexander. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum.3. E&UA Div. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. Ministry of Housing and Works. Political factors. R.. 1993.UNESCO. M. Manila. Earthquake Management. Paris. Islamabad. G. 2. New York. International phenomenon. H. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Earthquake. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization.. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. 47 . 1993. Prediction. The Guilford Press. 1993.

Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. 1983. A. M... E. uses. and Mushkatel. New York. 48 . Disasters and Development Cuny. Ecological concept in crop and food production. Phytoremediation and bioremediation.C. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. Sustainable livestock management. energy resources.M.. D. Botkin. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. L. 2007. 2001. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. energy resources of Pakistan. biomass resources. OECD/IEA.H. and Yonavjak.A. consumers. R. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. 4th Edition. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. Quorum Books. decomposers.5. local. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Schoch. sustainable energy management. John Wiley and Sons. 3. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. 1. 2007. 6th Edition. Agroecology.W. Westport. Perry R.L. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. Biotic structure.B and Keller. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. Consumer and producer relationship. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. solar. primary producers. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. 6. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. alternate energy resources. 2. USA. hydropower. types. merits and demerits of wind. 1984. Paris. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. F. McKinney.

Kapur. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. New Delhi. P.G. Recommended Books: 1. and Rossel. India. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. 1990.R.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. 2000. New York.P.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. Study of index of diversity. McGraw Hill Publishing Company.A. USA. 2. and Sudha. M. Altreri. USA. CBS Publishers and Distributors. 1995. Experimental Plant Ecology. Corol. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. Study of stratification and profile diagram. C. Agrocology. E-11 Seminar 49 . 3. Boulder.H.. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture.M. R. Westview Press. Yandermeer J.

The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. availability of the faculty and other facilities. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. the Committee agreed on the following principles. 2. 3. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. 50 . 5. that: 1. 4.

Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 20. 5. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 10. 14. 25. 16. 18. 5. 24. 3. 9. 23. 4. 8. 11. 8. 2. 13. 12. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 26. 12. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 2. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 21. 3. 6. 7. 19. 10. 6. 7. 15. 9. 4.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 22. 11. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 17.

Karachi. 2. 2nd Edition. Regional and International Environmental Issues. Provincial and Local Strategies. Geography of Pakistan.F. Draft National Environmental Policy. 3. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. S. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. P. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. WCS. Recommended Books: 1. Islamabad.A. technology and resource use. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. Treaties.. Khan K. Carrying capacity and sustainable development.. Conservation Strategies. Instruments and methods. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment.1994. and Jorqensen. London.1991. 1991. 1987... and Bell. status of Terrestrial.DETAILS OF M. 1992. Elsevier. 3. FURTHER READINGS 1. development of concepts. Hodder and Stoughton. Environment People and Economy. London Black Stone Press Ltd. Oxford University Press. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. S. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems.E. Money. D.T. Conventions and Protocols in Global. Amsterdam. Ball. 4.S. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management.1994. 2. Relationship of culture. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. Hansen. Mackenzie. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS).1995. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. Environmental control Policies. S..E. NCS. F. 52 . Oxford University Press. Mackenzie J. GOP and IUCN.

Environmental auditing. procedures and methods of EIA.. 2. DC. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). economic impact assessment. 1995. Demographic impact assessment. Ministry of Environment. Cost benefit analysis of projects. Case Studies and review. F & Bronstein. England. ed. Recommended Books: 1. opportunities and issues. 2. Longman Scientific and Technical. FURTHER READINGS 1. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. Wood. sample collection and preservation.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. process. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. A. UK. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. Environmental Chemical Analysis. Air and Solid Waste. D. Gas Chromatography etc. social impact assessment. A one Publishers Lahore. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. 1995. Ahmed. role and importance. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. Wastewater. Principles of physical. Washington. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). Chichester. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. ecological impact assessment. Harlow Essex. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Recommended Books: 1. K. WB. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. Ed.Vanclay. Environment Department. sampling rules. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). C. 1993. Assessment of environmental impacts. Government of Pakistan. History. Burnt Hill. Longman House. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. World Bank. 3. John Wiley & Sons. 53 .A.

Ergonomic and Safety. USA. Need identification. USA. 2nd Ed. Yassi. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Resource Mobilization. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. outputs. J. S. A Guide to Project Management. T. Recommended Books: 1.. 2. Meredith J. Primary health care services. 1992. UK. R.. 1st Ed. Writing Project Proposal. 2002.. New York. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. Kjelllström. 1st ed. Project Management: A Managerial Approach.. T. Defining Project objectives. inputs.. London. Reasons for Project success or failure. M. 4. 2. 1998. work breakdown structure. Oxford University Press New York. and Guidotti. 1993. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. Lippmann. 1st Ed. Project Planning.. T.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. activities. Project Management Institute. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. L. Basic Environmental Health. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). economic evaluation. T. prevention and control. Mantel s. 2001. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. Project Initiation. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. Project Planning and Approval Processes. Government Policies and Programs. Wiley Interscience. indicators. M/S Banarsid. safety techniques. 3. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. John Wiley and Sons. Park. assumptions. 54 . MS Project Recommended Books: 1. and Wright. Environmental Health Engineering.. B. Occupational Health: problems and issues. air borne. de Kok. Nebel. principles and practices. R. K. means of verification. Accident prevention and safety plans. Prentice Hall International Inc. A. 5. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. Public health concept. 1997. feasibility study. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. Project Life Cycle.. specific objectives. Planning Commission Performas. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. Caeneross. J. development objectives.2000. Inc..

and Yonavjak. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). Sources of data. Botkin. Schoch. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. 2007. 55 . merits and demerits of wind. 4th Edition. transport. Sayre. USA. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. energy resources. R. industry and domestic sectors.M. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. ISO Central Secretariat. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. 2007. principles and elements of the process of EMS. Related Environmental regulations. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Environmental Auditing. Recommended Books: 1. 2. Paris. alternate energy resources. types. D. hydropower. 2001. John Wiley and Sons. energy resources of Pakistan. 3. St Luise Press. Recommended Books: 1. E. Environmental auditing. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan.A. Switzerland. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. nuclear) local.L. uses. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. 1998. 2. 1990b. 3. sustainable energy management for agriculture. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. bio-energy resources. non-renewable and renewable.. 6th Edition. petroleum. D. L. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. M. data collection and interpretation. Michigan-January 2001. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. gas. OECD/IEA. Paris. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). 4. solar. McKinney. Principles of cleaner production.B and Keller.

2. London. and Solutions. T.T. 2005. 2005. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. 2. Recommended Books: 1. Blackwell Publishing. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. management and restoration. Oxford. 2005. K.D. D. Recommended Books: 1. Vegetation Ecology Ed. UK. Chichester. D. Blackwell Publishing. vegetation dynamics. 1. Climate Change and Ecosystems. 2003. John Wiley & Sons. John Wiley & Sons. Berlin.Causes. survival and extinction. Beck. Green House Gases.. Climate Change . Hardy.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. resources and plants. and Solutions. Climate Change . fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. 56 . Warrick. J. Hardy. Plant Ecology. Effects. 3. E. Plant population dynamics. J. types of climate change models. E & Muller-Hohenstein. global aspects of plant ecology. 4. Springer. John Wiley & Sons. 2003. human activities and vegetation dynamics. Earthscan Publication Ltd. UK 1991. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. 3.). Oxford UK. (Ed. types and their climatic effects. plant invasions. Maarel. Houghton. ECOPE 29.Causes.. 1st Edition. competition and coexistence. J. Effects. Species richness. 2005. Life history strategies of plants. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. Silvertown. 5. & Charlesworth. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. 2004. plant conservation. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. ED. etc. Climate change and food production. Shulze. water resources. geographical and temporal patterns. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. Modeling of climate change. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. forests. The Green House Effect. B & Jager.

S. Consumptive. UK. Weddell. Roberts. London. R. their ecological and economic importance. management. K. Cambridge. Protected areas. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation.L. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. Oxford University Press.G.B. Essentials of Conservation Biology. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. its causes. types. E. their types and role in conservation. UK. Extinction of species. 1992. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. & Spicer. distribution. Global and national biodiversity. II). 3. distribution and management. Inc. B.J. Blackwell Publsihing. I). Oxford. status. biological diversity. Recommended Books: 1. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. kinds. And Bolen. Protection and restoration of species.) Gaston.(2nd Ed. distribution. Robinson. Forests. Oxford University Press. deforestation and its control. threats and conservation. Primack. Loss of biodiversity. Wildlife of Pakistan. 1998. & Ripley. John Wiley And Sons. 3.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. 2002. 1973 2. Cambridge University Press. types.D. Oxford. Rangeland management. Wildlife Ecology and Management. 1986. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. 4. Mcmillan. W.J. 2004. 2. Threatened animals and plants. Protected areas in Pakistan. Oxford.A.J. their importance. J. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. USA. Status of forests in Pakistan. Participatory forest management. Publishers Sunderland. Conserving Living Natural Resources. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. Wetlands. S. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. 5. Roberts. 57 . The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Principles of Wildlife Management. 2002. Biodiversity: An introduction. Bailey. problems and solutions. T. habitats and ecosystems. Recommended Books: 1. J. Sustainable forest management.J. 1984. Cambridge. Sinauer Assocaites. Oxford University Press. Establishment and management of protected areas. Forest plantations. T.

urban political ecology. 3. 2007. urban systems and their characteristics. Ward. Forms of urbanization. 2. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. V. C. SAGE Publications Ltd. Recommended Books: 1. 4.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. 1993. Ministry of Housing and Works. E&UA Div. Government of Pakistan. Clara. 2000.and Maser. G. urban landscape characteristics. Environmental problems of urban life. The Works: Anatomy of a City. S. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development.. Sustainable cities. Introducing Town Planning.. drinking water and solid waste in cities. USA. USA. 1986. urbanization in Pakistan. Silberstein. Kate. UK. A. future of urban centers. H. New York. UK. Longman Group. CRC Press LLC. Penguin Group. Islamabad. sanitation. Planning and Urban Change... 58 . management of transport. Urban land use planning and management. 2004. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. J. London.

Thomson and A. Third edition. Oxford University Press. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1.V. 1997.Annexure . Practical English Grammar by A. Martinet. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. a) Functional English Grammar 1. Exercises 1.J.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. ISBN 0194313492 59 .

Martinet. Thomson and A. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. Exercises 2. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. Third edition. Upper Intermediate. intensive and extensive.J. Fourth Impression 1993. Third Impression 1992. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. Writing. and speed reading. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Reading/Comprehension 1. minutes of meetings. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Reading. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. b) Practical English Grammar by A. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis.2. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. Oxford Supplementary Skills.V. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . 1997.

Oxford University Press 1986. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Advanced by Ron White. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. descriptive and argumentative writing). form. language. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Reading. Thomson and A. Martinet. Fourth Impression 1992. clarity. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. content.V. Writing. Practical English Grammar by A. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Writing. b) Writing 1. Advanced. Third Impression 1992.1. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . narrative. Third Impression 1991. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin.J. 2. 2. Fourth Impression 1993. Reading 1. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Third edition. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Writing. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Exercises 2. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Oxford Supplementary Skills. introduction to presentations. discursive.

b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. descriptive. Kathleen Shine Cain. College Writing Skills by John Langan. Mandell. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. St. 62 . (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. 2004. Compiled by norther Illinois University. Martin’s Press. argumentative and report writing). A Custom Publication. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. Kirszner and Stephen R. 2. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. 3. without taxing the taste of engineering students).(particularly suitable for discursive.

Pakistan Political Roots & Development.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. 1993. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. 4. b.M. Society and social structure c. 2000. ideological background of Pakistan. Ethnicity d. contemporary Pakistan. . government. People and Land i. Study the process of governance. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. State & Society in Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Shahid Javed. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.Annexure . 2. Akbar. Indus Civilization ii. Location and geo-physical features. 3. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. Economic institutions and issues b. 1977-88 e. 1958-71 c. 2. Lahore. national development. Historical Perspective a. Mehmood. Safdar. politics. Contemporary Pakistan a. S. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. 63 Books Recommended 1. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. Course Outline 1. Zaidi. 1988-99 f. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. S. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. Muslim advent iii. 1999 onward 3. 1971-77 d. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. 1947-58 b. 1994. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.

Lahore: Vanguard. 13. 11. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Tahir. Karachi: Royal Book Company. 1998. Pakistan Under Martial Law.National Movement in Pakistan. 1976. Zahid. Islamabad. 6. Noor ul. Muhammad Waseem. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. History & Culture of Sindh. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. 1980. 1993.The Emergence of Banglades. Amin. Political Parties in Pakistan. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. 1980. 9. Ansar. Ziring. 7.5. 1967. Wilcox. 8. Afzal. 64 . Mehmood. Aziz. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. 14. Vol. Wayne. Lawrence. Sayeed. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. 1987. Washington: American Enterprise.K. The Political System of Pakistan.. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. Rafique. Enigma of Political Development. Institute of Public Policy Research. K. Club Road. I. Party. nd. 10. Ethno . Haq. 1972. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. M. Politics in Pakistan. 12. Khalid Bin. Safdar. II & III.

21.A.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.A.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.Annexure .19.Tadabar (Verse No1.56.A.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.6.A.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.57.58.20) Related to thinking.40.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 . Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.

in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.

‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. IRI. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Emergence of Islam” . International Islamic University. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. Ahmad Hasan.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad.S. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. Pakistan. Bhatia. Islamabad (2001) 67 . Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. “Studies in Islamic Law. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute.

introduction to sets. set operations. cube roots of unity. matrix inverse. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. 1987. not majoring in mathematics. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. types. complex numbers. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. harmonic progression. Sharron S. Beckenback EF. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. geometric progression. Matrices: Introduction to matrices.Annexure . Boston 68 . Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. Wooton W. types of functions. equations reducible to quadratic equations. 1986. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. PWS-Kent Company. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. Cramer’s rule. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. functions. Boston Swokowski EW. PWS-Kent Company. trigonometric identities. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. determinants. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Houghton & Mifflin. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition).D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. system of linear equations. 1978.

Recommended Books: Anton H. distance between a point and a line. continuity. functions and their graphs. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Ma. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. USA 3. angle between two lines. rational and transcendental functions. Boston Thomas GB. Reading. slope of a line. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students.2. inequalities. change of variables in indefinite integrals. John Wiley. various forms of equation of a line. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. 2005. Calculus (3rd edition). Davis S. not majoring in mathematics. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. PWS-Kent Company. New York Stewart J. solution of equations involving absolute values. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). Calculus and Analytic Geometry. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. not majoring in mathematics. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. Bevens I. parallel and perpendicular lines. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. intersection of two lines. continuous functions. integration by substitution. 1995. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. equation of a line. 2005. derivatives. left-hand and right-hand limits. 69 . Addison-Wesley. Finney AR. integration by parts. differentiation of polynomial. 1983. Calculus (11th edition). distance between two points.

ellipse. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). functions. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. inverse of matrices. 1986. Boston Swokowski EW. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. 1987.Circle: Equation of a circle. circles determined by various conditions. intersection of lines and circles. system of linear equations. 70 . Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). locus of a point in various conditions. hyperbola. PWS-Kent Company. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Freshman and Company. types of matrices. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. Conic Sections: Parabola. types of functions. equations reducible to quadratic equations. determinants. • Contents 1. Introduction to sets. Scott. nature of roots of quadratic equations. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Boston 4. 1969 Kaufmann JE. Cramer’s rule. set operations. Analytic Geometry. PWS-Kent Company.

4. Boston. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. individual. Latest Edition. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. trigonometric identities. skewness and kurtosis. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. J. Latest Edition. moments. Graphs: Graph of straight line. Wilcox. variance. frequency polygon. Latest Edition. 3. W. quartiles.. Measures of dispersion: Range. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. cumulative frequency curve. R. R.. tally sheet method. Swokowski. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. E. ungrouped and grouped data. characteristics of statistics. Walpole. types of frequency series.. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Books Recommended: 1.geometric and harmonic progressions. E. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. array. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. PWS-Kent Company. standard deviation. 71 . circle and trigonometric functions. discrete and continuous series. Kaufmann. 2. bar frequency diagram histogram. Prentice Hall. deciles and percentiles. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’.. 2. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. 5. E. R. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. relationship of statistics with social science.

John H.Jr. Trigonometric Functions. and Transcendental Functions. products. Inc. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. Rational Functions. Inc. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. • Integration Integration from first principles. 2. the chain rule. theorems of differentiation. reduction formulae. Leibnitz’ theorem. Anton. infinite and improper integrals. Hughes-Hallett. Extreme Values of Functions. Davis. integration using partial fractions. Calculus. Continuous Functions. 2005. I. Recommended Books: 1. Frank A. Gleason. 4. McCallum. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. 1983. Schaum’s Outline Series. Calculus Single and Multivariable. Prentice-Hall. Calculus. 8th edition. Mathews. integration by parts. Rational and Transcendental Functions. 1999. H. the inverse of differentiation. applications of integration. Slope of a Line. Contents 1. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. 11th Edition. 6. Continuity. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. Equation of a Line. 4th edition. sinusoidal function. substitution method. special points of a function. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. 2. John Wiley & Sons.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. 2005. integral inequalities. Second Edition 1992. Integration by Parts. Thomas. et al. Elliott Mendelson. S. logarithmic differentiation. Bevens. Addison Wesley publishing company. plane polar coordinates. 6. E. 3. 3rd Edition. 2002. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. quotients. Boston. W. Solution of equations involving absolute values. Calculus. Inequalities. logarithmic integration. integration by inspection. 5. Least-Squares Line. implicit differentiation. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. Swokowski. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . Jhon Willey & Sons.

Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . arithmetico-geometric series. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions.Additions and subtraction. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. solving hyperbolic equations. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. complex conjugate. series involving natural numbers. modulus and argument. identities of hyperbolic functions. finding the nth roots of unity. approximation errors in Taylor series. the difference method. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. geometric series. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. multiplication. inverses of hyperbolic functions. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem.

line to line. moments of inertia. symmetric and antisymmetric. centers of mass and centroids. of a unitary matrix. masses. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. scalar triple product. the inner product. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. point to plane. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. 6. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. Hermitian. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors.5. Pappus’ theorems. orthogonal. vector product. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 .

div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products.8. divergence of a vector field. spherical polar coordinates 75 . combinations of grad. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field.

definition of outliers and their detection. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Data. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Exercises. Median and mode. Diagrams. Coefficient of variation. Editing of Data. Unit 7. Exercises Unit 6. level of significance. Sources. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. The Mode. Empirical Relation between Mean. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Stem and Leaf Display. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. The semi-Interquartile Range. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Statistical problem. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Unit 2. Exercises. Box and Whisker Plot. Bar charts. Quantiles. Significant digits. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Exercises. properties of Good Average. Rounding of a Number. Histogram. Test statistics. Probability and Probability Distributions. Exercises. probability and non-probability sampling. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Types of frequency curves. Range. acceptance and rejection regions. Discrete and continuous variables. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. sampling with and without replacement. Errors of measurement. Difference of means and proportions. sample design and sampling frame. Historigram. Observations. Exercises. Graphs and their Construction. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Absolute and relative measures. 76 .E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Unit 5. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Change of origin and scale. Unit 3. bias. Unit 4. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Type-I and Type-II errors. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Moments and Moments ratios. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Standardized variables. sampling and non sampling errors. Exercises. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. The Mean Deviation. Pie chart. Constructing of a frequency distribution. The Variance and standard deviation. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Different types of Averages.Annexure . Collection of primary and secondary data. Population. Presentation of Data Introduction. null and alternative hypothesis.

Kitab Markaz. Coefficient of linear correlation. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. Testing of Hypothesis. 2005. 2 Muhammad.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. Exercises Unit 10. Correlation. “Introduction to Statistics”.Single Population Introduction. cause and effect relationships.Unit 8. Exercises. F. 1982. R. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. New York.. its estimation and interpretation. examples. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. E. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. simple linear regression. r and R2. Contingency Tables. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Macmillan Publishing Co. Exercises Unit 9. 77 . Inc. Unit 11. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters.. Regression and Correlation Introduction. 3rd Ed. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes.

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