CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
58

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DR. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. degree awarding institutions. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. dated December 4th 1976. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17.). broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. It also aimed to give a basic. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976.ALTAF ALI G. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. 63. Lahore.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. It is. PROF. D773/76-JEA (cur. universities and other institutions of higher education. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. The world has turned into a global village. the Federal Government vide notification No. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. R&D organizations. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. and 36. therefore. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation.

Abbreviations Used: NCRC. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. PREP. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. EXP. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. UNI. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. COL. R&D. REC. Preparation 5 . QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. OF FINAL CURRI. OF CURRI. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. OF NCRC.

Member 6 . 7. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Member 5. Karachi from 28-30. Lahore Member 6. Dr. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Member 3.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Following attended the meeting:1. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Member 4. Dr. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Rawalpindi Dr.

Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Member 16. Dr. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms.8. Dr. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Member 11. Dr. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Member 10. 13. Dr. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Karachi Member 12. Dr. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Member 14. Member 15. Dr. Prof. 7 . Prof. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore.

2. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Dr. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. The meeting was opened by Mr. 1. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. Mr. At first. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Dr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Chairman. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Secretary Dr. Mr. Member 19. Member 20. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah.17. 8 . Faisalabad Member 18. Karachi. Director of HEC Regional Center. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum.

The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. 4. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. 5. 6. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities.3. The committee thanked Mr. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. 1. 3. In last few centuries. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. 2. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution.

skills and behaviour patterns.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. Apply theoretical understanding. regional and global contexts. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. in its preliminary meeting. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. This committee. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. ii. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. 5.

2. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. 6. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. Integrating natural sciences. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. eight semesters in the semester system. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. 1. 3. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. 5. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. that: 1. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F.. The 11 . Sc. The medium of instruction. A. with consensus.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. 4. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English.e. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals.

Psychology* . Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. English-II 12. Environmental Pollution 22. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Basic Chemistry* 4. Biology –I* 3. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Biology –II* 9. English-I 6. Environmental Chemistry 15. Introduction to Computer 14. Environmental Physics 16. Climatology* 23. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Introductory Economics* 17.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Environmental Microbiology 21. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. English-III 18. Introduction to Earth Science 8. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13.

44. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . Environmental Economics 29. English-IV/ Univ. Environmental Monitoring 36. 46. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. Environmental Biotechnology 32. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. ELECTIVE-III 42. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Environmental Management Systems 34. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Environmental toxicology 27. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. Natural Resource Management 40. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. Climate Change 38. Applied Ecology 26.24. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. 45. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. Opt. GIS & Remote Sensing 33.

• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .

& Yonavjak. Miller. proteins and nucleic acids. lipids. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates.A.. Wright. 6th Ed. D.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. regional. M. R. socio-economic. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. Recommended Books: 1. 2007. Different aspects of environment: physical. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development.L. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . philosophical. 15 . R. current global. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society.J. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. 2007 3.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. ethical. poverty and resource depletion. 2002. Thomson Learning.. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. Botkin. B. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. and their relationships with various environmental factors. urbanization.M. 10th Ed. Pearson Educational. environmental pollution. 4th Ed. ecological. national. Human environment and its problems: global. Schoch. L. development in industry and agriculture. E. 4. biological and social. 2007. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts.B & Keller. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. McKinney. G. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. history. John Wiley & Sons. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. & Nebel. 2.T. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. its importance in human life.

3. Self Assessment and Revie. 2007. C. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt.Hill International Edition. Origin of life: chemical evolution. Nucleic acids. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. and Whitelaw. the molecule of genetic information and replication. J. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. Aromatic compounds. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. USA. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. carbohydrates. chemical basis of life. R. M. USA. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. 2008. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. proteins. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. Shier. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. Cell division. Ionic. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. Bulter. New York. 2003.. Wadsworth Group. G.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. Canada. protobionts. carboxylic acids. E. Biology: a Human Emphasis. and Lewis. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. 2. esters. Australia . USA.. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. V. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. A. Lingappa. 1996. lipids. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. coordinate covalent bond. Ltd. Introduction to cell biology. McGraw. Cells. N. 5. amines). D. 2007. 4. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. Starr. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells... Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. Lewis. carbonyls. L. 5th Edetion. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. Cassimeris. 1. polypeptides in protein diversity. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. lipids. covalent. R. chemical diversity. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. 16 . relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning.. phospholipids in membrane systems. Structure and the basis of function. 8th Ed. B. Crossley. Molecular Biology through Questions. Plopper. origin of metabolism.

K. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Harris. Jickells. Hill.S.J. Measurement of pH. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. molal. 3. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. 2004. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. Photochemical reactions. series and means. 6th Edition. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry.C. EC and TDS in waste water. M. geometric and harmonic sequence.. USA. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). B. Colloids chemistry. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. W.D. Algebra of matrices. equations of lines (linear equations). They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. Freeman and Company. 2003.J. double angle formulas. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). 17 . Binomial theorem (Simple applications). Jones and Barlett. P. real line. Cambridge University Press. Liss. Thomson and Brooks. Canada. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. Skoog.. D. USA.. values of trigonometric functions. 1st Ed. and Reid. J. West. F. angle-sum formula. D. Surface chemistry. Column chromatography. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. UK.Special Products (Binomial Expression). normal solutions/buffers. Osmosis and Dialysis. Andrews. Understanding Environmental Pollution. expansion of determinants. P. Brimblecombe. Blackwell Science. 5. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. 2nd Edition. Thin layer chromatography. Recommended Books: 1. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Lab Work Preparation of molar. radicals. minor and cofactor of a matrix..M.H. 2. law of Cosines. T. graphs. 2004. 2004.E... and Holler. straight line and related concepts. 8th Edition. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. simultaneous equations and their solutions.A.. 2005. 4. UK. 2nd Edition. Use of spectrophotometric techniques.ions. J. determinants.. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. D.E. Sequence and series: Arithmetic.. Girard. Solution chemistry. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane.

Weathering. 2. Narosa Publishing House. faults. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. 1999. composition and its internal structure. K. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . Smith. 4th Ed. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. 18 . Scott Foresman and Company. Jr. Integration: Formulas of integration. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. cleavages. product and quotient rules without derivations). earthquakes. Chatterjee. Fossils and their significance. earthquakes and volcanoes. California.. L. theorems on differentiation (sum. R. Introduction to sedimentary. J. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. theorem of integration. D. Analytical Geometry. erosion and related landforms. 3. 10th Ed. Abraham. the processes of their formation. difference. foliation.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . mountain building. and Finney. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. Earth as a member of solar system. different earth processes like mountain buildings.B. nonrepeated linear factors. igneous and metamorphic rocks. Trignometry for College students. by parts integration (simple applications). its origin.Cramer’s Rule. 4. joints.Wesley. Introduction to folds. Chain rule.. S. plate tectonics. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. Pacific Grove. New Delhi. G. Recommended Books: 1. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. Introduction to rocks and minerals. weathering and erosion. age. lineation and unconformities. Addission. Thomas. irreducible quadratic factors. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system.

Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. protocell formation. 3rd Edition. J. 4. and Tasa. R. Tarbuck. Prentice Hall: 2006. D. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. F. unicellularity. K. interactions among diversified life. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. biodiversity crises. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. invasion of life on land. Field Study tour.. G. Earth Science. Park. Prentice Hall. 5. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. animals). A. Biodiversity of deserts. Routledge. and Pun.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. E. Prentice Hall. Tarbuck.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. causes of extinction. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . J. 9th Edition. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. examples of adjustments in varied environment. E.Identification of rocks and minerals.. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. 2007 3. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. 11th Edition. D. How Does Earth Work. modern concepts. J. Use of brunton compass and GPS. Foundations of Structural Biology.. Lutgens. different classification systems. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. Biodiversity of canal. Life in sea.. K. Brooks/Cole. population loss and decline.. Biodiversity of hilly areas. 2007 2. multicellularity. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. Physical Geology and Process of Science. and Monroe. Lamarckism. Geological time chart with biodiversity.. Wicander. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. G. Lutgens. 2004. 5th Edition. R. and Tasa.. Smith. molecular basis of biodiversity. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. 2005.. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species.. Recommended Books: 1. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. 19 . F. Darwinism. measuring biodiversity. consequences of losing biodiversity.

Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. Prospect Heights. (editors). C. 2001. CA: AltaMira Press. UK. 3. 2nd Edition. 2. Bradbury. 3. Blackwell Science Ltd. Recommended Books: 1. Routledge. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. R. USA. Biodiversity (An Introduction). Starr. Gaston. Hannen. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. power & hegemony. 2000. Consumption. 2009. Conceptualizing environment. Townsend. 2003. I. Contemporary environmental status. Scope and application. Allan & Carter. a Human Emphasis. The Ecology of global consumer culture. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment.. Perspective of human-environment evolution. Biology. 2009. J. John Wiley and Sons. UK. and Spicer.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. K. Contemporary environment issues and debate. Goals and expectations. The Biosphere. Wadsworth Group. Nora and Wilk. 4.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. IL:WavelandPress. 5th Edition. Tripartite nature of environment. 2. globalization and environmental issues. and concerns. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . Inc. Environmental Risks and the Media. L. Crumley. Use of environment for vested interest. P. J. New York: New York University Press. 20 . Chronological.. culture and society. and Sustainable Living.K. Inc. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. C. Understanding the environment-human relationship. K. I. (editor). Culture. 2005. Walnut Creek. Adam. UK. 2006. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions.

Storage hardware. output hardware. Operating system (Windows).5. 6. Course Outlines Definition.London 1996. Local Area Network. Ms-Excel. 21 . Configurations. Fundamentals of computer.H. Milton. Ms-Power Point. 2003. K.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment.1999. Long N. Selin. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry.. processing hardware. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. Ed.6th Ed. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. Recommended Books: 1. computer programs and basic applications. Hardware: Input Hardware. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure .Microsoft office 2000. Ms-Access. Courter. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. 2. internet. Kluwer Academic Publishers. e-mail. Types and classification of computers. G. Rutledge. Long l. Software: Application software. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. as are their effects on the biosphere.. system software.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. software packages. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. Marquis A. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . Introduction to MS-Word.

Hernandez-Esparza. Global climate and climatic change. Energy.D. Energy conversion. Liss. India. 3.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. Entropy. 2. 2008. USA. Turbulence. G. 2nd Edition. J. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. Canada. P. Environmental impact of various industries. 1st Edition. Miller. C. Fate of pollutants in environment. M. Jones and Barlett. Fregoso-Infante.E. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. Human perceptions and noise criteria. Nuclear energy. atmospheric and soil chemistry.... J. and Reid. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. K. Fundamentals of aquatic. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry.M. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. Gaussian plumes in the air. Turbulent jets and plumes. 4. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. Germany.J. B. interaction of light with matter. photosynthesis.. Electromagnetic radiation. Active control of sound. 1999. Samir. M. Turbulent diffusion. Conversion of mass. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. 2005. UK.. Environmental Chemistry. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light.G. Jickells.. Diffusion. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. Chemical reactions. DoriaSerrano. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. 5. its causes and adverse effects on environment..T. Solar spectrum. trophic level. Equations of fluid dynamics. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Blackwell Science. Brimblecombe. Isotopes and radioactive decay. Particle physics. Sound and Noise. Andrews. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . their sources and toxic actions. T. Transport of pollutants. and Singh. P. 2004. Reducing the transmission of sound. Girard. Environmental Chemistry..E. J. Solids. 2004. Thomson-Brooks. Liquids and Gasses. A. Ozone chemistry.S. Basic acoustics... Ibanez. Ozone and UV light. Environmental Science. Heat radiation and heat transfer. Recommended Books: 1.. Springer.

Todaro. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. Introductory Environmental Physics. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. S. Sustainable development. R. Praxis publishing. P. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. Field visit. 2. H. World Bank Publications. Measures for sustainable development. 2008. concepts and measurement. 2001. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. Natural resources and the economy. Seinfeld. Economic Development. 4. and Pandis. producer and community point of view. 3. Boeker.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. Economic management and environmental quality. Growth and development. USA. N. Growth and Environment. USA. Guyot. Environmental Physics. Yusuf. Recommended Books: 1.Economic development. and Van Grondelle. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. Producer behavior. economic welfare and difference among all. Kentucky USA. population and environmental quality. Environmental economics. Wesely Publishers. C. and Resource allocation. economic growth and its measurement. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. USA. Impact of economic activity on environment.. economic growth. UK. 2006. G. 7th Ed. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. J. E. USA. 23 .1998. John Wiley and Sons Inc. interaction between ecology and economic management. Man environmental relationship. 2. Economic functions of environment. New York. economic progress. M. Smith. poverty. Routledge. Recommended Books: 1. 2008. John Wiley and Sons Inc. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. 2001. Physics of the Environment and Climate. Pakistan economic context: National income. S.

population. species. B. 4. Russell. its fundamental concepts. International Thomson Publishing. B. 4. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. Environmental philosophy and ethics. 3. Swift. C. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources.A. 2007. and White. Palgrave Macmillan. A History of Western Philosophy. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. Recommended Books: 1. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy.V. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . Kessinger Publishing.3. Touchstone Books. USA. J. Portland 1967.. Farmington Hills. DeVeer. World Bank Publications. Frodeman. Ecology. London. 2008. R. biogeography. and systems ecology.. Economics.. J. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. branches of ecology. community and ecosystem.. soil. M. Introduction to ethical theory. England. Hanley. concepts and approaches. water. 2008. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. & Pierce. 2009. description of population. Course Outlines Introduction. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. 2002. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. the ethics of soil. role of light.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. Natural philosophy. community. 2. Ecosystem and its types. WCIV7AA. Callicott. LLC. Shogren. D. 24 . levels of ecological organization. B. N. ethics and ecology. Environmental Critics of agriculture. temperature. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. USA.

Dash. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. Ecology (concepts and applications. habitat and niche. 2000. B. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. Chapman. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). C. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. P. various concepts of community.topography and air as ecological factors. Cambridge University Press. Tata McGraw-Hill. Populations. N. population dynamics. J. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. plant geography and animal distribution. Biogeochemical cycles of C. and S. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. Recommended Books 1. bacteria and eukarya. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. 2004. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. 1st Ed.L and Reiss. Fundamentals of Ecology. distribution limits. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Biomes of the world. Microbial metabolism. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. characteristics of urban. and More. WCB/McGraw-Hill. New Delhi.Cox. Concepts of Limiting factors. landscape changes and their importance. 6th Ed. New York. After completion of this course. Ecology (principles and applications). M. E P. 1999 4. aquatic microbiology. UK. community dynamics. Lab Work 25 . Population distribution and abundance. Ecosystem: structure and function. students will be able to understand the significance.) Moles. J. Fundamentals of Ecology. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. 3. 2. landscape ecology. 5th Ed. C. and Barett. King’s College London. G. ecological modeling.W. UK. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. M J. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. biotic factors. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. M C J 1st ed. Systems ecology. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. 2001 5. Odum. 1992. productivity of different ecosystems.

.M. Harley.. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. J.R.P. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. and Zuberer. Hartel. Recommended Books 1. 2005. isolation.B. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). I.P. London. American Society for Microbiology. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. D. Water. USA. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. Environmental Microbiology.P.F. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. Manual of Environmental Microbiology.. (Elsevier) USA. McGraw Hill Inc. Recommended Books: 1. Human & other living organisms.V. Case Studies.. 2005. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. 2007. 26 . Noise. Sylvia.J. W. 2005. 3. Pepper. L. C. its sources and their effects. Crawford.L..A.J.D.1998. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. 1995.J. and Jeffery.Gerba. G. McInernery.. Academic Press..A. Marine & Industrial pollution. 2009. F. Understanding Environmental Pollution. R.K. Collection.I. Washington DC. Hurrst. 4. Butterworth-Heinemann. 2002. Peiece.and Vesilaind. Solid Waste generation. J. Effects of Pollutants. transportation & treatments. Mean plate count... USA. New Jersey. and Stetzenbach. Soil. P. UK.G. Academic Press. Fuhrmann. Weiner.. Maier. L. 2 Edition. M. M.. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. purification and preservation. Prentice Hall. and Gerba. Cambridge UK.A. USA. D.W. and Klein. P. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. 2.J. Knudsen. USA.. 5. USA.M. 2. Cambridge University Press.C. Pollution Control Strategies.J. C. peppor. 4th Edition. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. D.and Brendecke. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. Microbiology. 2nd Edition.L. Dilution plate technique. A. 3. R. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution..M. Academic Press. Hill. Environmental Pollution and Control. J. Prescott.L.

2002. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. Solar radiations.2nd Editions. 1988. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. climatic zones of Pakistan. 4. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. Mechanism of heat transfer.K. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. 5.. Cambridge University Press. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. 1992. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. The Physics of Atmospheres. American Public Health Association (APHA). Pandis. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . Lawrance K. The Atmosphere. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate.E. . 2. Austin Miller. Surface winds.. The climate of Pakistan. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. Four Spheres of the Earth. 2003. John Wiley and Sons. 2006 5. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate.M. Houghton J. Shamshad. K. The Hydrologic cycle.F. A. Methods of psychology..W. 27 . The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan.. Cloud Classification. N.4. Lutgens. Royal book company. Marcel Dekkar. John H. 6th Edition. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. Weather and Climate. Recommended Books: 1.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. air pressure.J. Spyros. condensation and cloud Formation. 3. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. Climatology. Sadder. Environmental psychology. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. Tarbuck. Factors affecting air Pressure. local winds. Radiation and climate. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). global circulation. Karachi.

Recommended Books: 1. 28 . Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. solar radiation and primary production. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. Routledge. species response to pollutants.D. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. carbon dioxide and global climate change. CRC Press. Bell.. rivers. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. High population density and psychological impacts. sustainable agriculture. 5th Edition. Future water scenario of Pakistan. Environmental Psychology. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. Ecology of food production. Water as an ecological resource. Pollution control through Ecology. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species.characteristics and research methods. Environmental perception and cognition. soil resources of Pakistan. CRC Press. and Baum A. Water and distribution of species. their management and ecological restoration. London. Eysenck. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher.C. Fundamental of Psychology. Greene. Restoration of derelict lands. Course Outline Introduction. Sustainable livestock management practices. 2001.W. soil erosion and conservation. Routledge. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. T. energy and carbon balance. P. limitation of irrigated agriculture. 1992. Fisher J. M. Background and scope.. Ecological restoration. techniques and methods of restoration. London. soil salinity and water logging. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. concepts. Soil as a natural resource. threats and mitigation.A. 2. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. Sustainable agricultural practices.

toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. Toxicity: Types and its measurement.. Peshawar.. R. G. Zedler. from natural and anthropogenic sources. Potentiation and Addition. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. and Hobbs. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. 1989. terminologies: Poisons. their containment and control strategies. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals.. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects.W. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. 4. Chemical interactions and their types.National Book Foundation. 3. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. toxicity screening using microbial systems. 2000 2. soil and air samples. Organs. 2006. toxicology of chemicals. and Memon. Island Press. USA. Blackwell Scientific Publications. water and soil. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. Israr-ud-Din. Odum E. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water.Recommended Books: 1. toxins vs toxicants.P. biological effects. Islamabad. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. 5th Edition. Rashid. Soil Science. Synergism. Immunological considerations in toxicology. A. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. K and Habib. 2nd ed. Shirkat Gah. A. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. Margaret A. toxins & toxicants. E. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Fundamentals of Ecology. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. Pakistan’s Environment. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. K. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. Mumtaz. D. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. dose response relationship in living organisms. J. J. on human and other living organisms.1998. Newman. P.. Studies in Pakistan Geography. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. 2004. in vivo & in vitro assays. 5.A. Falk. B. and Barett. University of Peshawar. Lahore. 1996. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system.I. Oxford.S. 29 .

First and Second law of Thermodynamics. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. M. 1st Edition. Hughes. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. Course Outlines Introduction to history.2005 2. USA. P. W. Klassen.Recommended Books 1. water resources. B. State of the Environment-Pakistan . international trade and the environment. measuring environmental benefits. CRC Press Llc. Williams. Ecological: ecological zones. 1996. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. geography. McGrawhill. Macmillan Press Ltd. economic development and the environment. education. 3. 2005 2. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. topographic zones. USA.). Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology.D. industry. Economic: agriculture. Government of Pakistan. people. urbanization and pollution. Recommended Books: 30 . USA. economic aspects of different environmental problems. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. clean development mechanism. 1st Edition. Ballantyne. 3. land. pollution control-a general model. 1992. W. culture. major ecosystems.. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. Vol.M. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. T and Turner. 1993.Science of Poisons . (ed. the economy and the environment. health. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. General and Applied Toxicology. Recommended Books 1. Course Outlines Introduction. 5th Edition.1 & 2.

3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. 2.. 1999.R. A.. Oxford University Press. C. Conductivitymetry. 2000. Recommended Books: 1. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery.L. D. Skoog. Sample preservation methods.W. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. handling. USA. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. Environmental Economics: An Introduction.. 31 .J.1. 2003. and F. and derived S.. units. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. J.K. Reuter. Titrimetery. Sample collection. preparation and storage. Holler. D. salinity & sodicity). COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions.D. Conductivitymetry. Lab Work S. B. and Batemen. NO3–N & NH4-N). Johns Hopkins University Press. K. 2005. Collingwood. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. All Solids. Fluoride. Australia.UK. Peverill. 4.and Field. West. Use of Potentiometery.A. BOD. M. Thomson and Brooks. CSIRO Publ. 1993. Pearce. Harris. Oxford. Turner. New York. Sparrow and D. I. Gravimetery. Field. M. Data interpretation for quality control. D. Spectroscopy and Chromatography.C. Standard solutions and standard curves.I. water and plant analysis.2004. Titrimetery. D. COD. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. L.. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. Environmental Economics.2002. Freeman & Co. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association).. precision and accuracy. 8th Edition. Analytical techniques for soil. C. Kolstad.I. 3. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Gravimetery. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. 3. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. 2. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH.K. 6th Edition.

Biotechnology. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms.E. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. J. 4. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. National Biosafety Guidelines. and application of biotechnology in the environment. 3. Scragg. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . purification and preservation of DNA. Government of Pakistan. Recombinant DNA technology. Sambrook. Wiley-VCH Verlag. and Josef. A.W. Derbre. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. USA. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. 2. Biosensor. England. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns.. After completion of this course. D. Environmental Biotechnology. 2005. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. 2001. Cambridge University Press. 2007. (ed. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. 2005. 2nd Ed. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. Tools in environmental biotechnology. Germany. Hans- Joachim. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. J. and Russel. New York. USA. National Biotechnology Commission. Biomarkers.D. Course Outlines Introduction. New York. Introduction to microbial kinetics.1999.P. Oxford University Press. PCR. W.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. J.). Smith. 5th Ed. 2009. students will be able to understand the significance. Chichoster. Bioreactors. Isolation.. Recommended Books 1. USA.

energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. map projection and coordinate systems. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. John Wiley and Sons. 2. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Inc. Harvey. Rancez. Interpretation. A. Jensen. Introduction to GIS. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Pearsons Education. Campbell. Introduction to Photogrammetry. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . Different types of maps. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. eradication of the duplicated data. Cartography. F. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. Z. advantages and limitations of process. analysis and output. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. Active and Passive remote sensing. integration of information from many sources. Satellite Imageries. Aerial photography. Image Processing. Data acquisition. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). 3. Fishery and wildlife. 5. Energy Sources. Using and reading GPS in field. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. Inc. 2000. 2008. 2000. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. V. Types of data used in GIS. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. Guilfoud press New York. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Agriculture. History and data collection. Forestry. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. Preparation of thematic maps. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Mc Graw Hill Education. R.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. Inc. Dessinov. Lulla. John Wiley and Sons. 1999. K and L. 2009. 4. Data entry and output. history and platforms.

economic. need and approach.C. Certification of EMS. etc. 34 . animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. Related Environmental legislation. philosophical. 2. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. alpha and beta diversity. American Society for Quality.). American Society for Quality. 2001.. hot spots of biodiversity. social and ethical values of biodiversity. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. 1998.. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. Environment and sustainable development. B. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). Environmental aspects and impacts. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. eco-design.. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. Sheldon. A. and Qasim. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. Methods of environmental protection. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. 2006. Systems and Support Techniques. plant. ecological. 4. principles of Cleaner production. Conservation of biodiversity. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Khan. types of biodiversity. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. standards and guidelines. F. Environmental Management Systems Principles. threats to biodiversity.2nd Ed. and Yoxon. M. Course Outlines Introduction. Environmental Management tools. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. Environmental Economy. 2005. 3. WWF Pakistan. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. Michigan.3rd Edition . M. cleaner technologies. International Organization for Standardization.

Saad Printers. 2ndEd. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. conservation strategies. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. Recommended Books: 1. refrigeration and freezing methods.e. Quality assurance and quality control.B. A Primer for Conservation Biology. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. soil and living organisms. international agreements. protected areas.. management. Z. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. habitats. water. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. 2. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. Conservation of wildlife. NOC for plant operation. quality assessment. Sunderland. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. and Morre. croplands.B. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. EIA requirement. P. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples.R. 2000. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. design and types of samples. 2000. conservation and livelihood. cities. London. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques.. P. Rawalpindi. Publ.. 1998. community and ecosystem level. 35 . Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. their categories. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. quality control sampling. laboratory custody.B. field custody. Associates Inc. plants.conservation at species. national and international laws and regulations. conservation in man-made ecosystems. population. Course Outlines Introduction. Biogeography. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. Considerations. presampling requirements/information. Lahore). Cox.D. Legal protection of species. C. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. chemical addition. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. air. ecotourism. Mirza. Preservation methods including pH control. Sinauer. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. 3. forests. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. Kings College. sampling and design purposes.

extinctions. 7. Tokyo. regional. 2002. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. New York. Manahan. 3. The Measurement of Climate Change. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention.USA. N. .) McGraw-Hill. Forstner U. Peakall. chemical. L. Human responses to potential climate change. Earth Observation of Global Change. its causes and effects. phenological changes. agriculture. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. 2002. McKlivie. Keith. 5.1999. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. and Guethner. Chapman and Hall. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. Korte. D. 1992. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. R. 2000. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. 2008. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. altered community structure. Energy and Temperature. H. 2nd Edition. Remote Sensing Note. S. 2008.. Moisture in the Atmosphere. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. (ed) Springer. Precipitation. 6. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. E. Physical. (eds. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1.1996. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. Murai. Ozone depletion. 2. F. I. Regional droughts and 36 . human health. biological. 8. USA.Recommended Books: 1. Recent Climate Change Indicators. Burden. E. Chuviero. Lewis Publisher London. USA. D. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. Environmental Chemistry. USA. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. UK. S.. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course.

5. liquid. Earthscan Publication Ltd. 2. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. Global Change and the earth system. Effects. Types & Resources to produce Energy. overview. 4. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). project implementation and follow up. Cost and benefits of EIA. Climate Change . National Book Foundation. 2003.. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society.). mitigation and impact management. 4. John Wiley & Sons.T. social impact assessment (SIA).. solids. A.Causes. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. Climate Change . 1st Edition. Hardy. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis.Causes. Houghton. Harrop. and Solutions. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. 37 . John Wiley & Sons. law.cataclysmic climate change. scoping. Effects. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. and Chadwick. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. EIA project management. Ministry of Housing and Works. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. R. 1994. Recommended Books: 1. Glasson. London. 2005. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. and Solutions. A. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. screening. 3.A. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. & Nixon. impact analysis. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized.. London. J. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. 6.. review of EIA quality. 2000. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan.. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice.. 2004. Therivel. J. decision-making to implement the project.. reporting.(ed). J. 1986. public involvement. Oxford. (ed. 3. Main stages in EIA process. Routledge. Recommended Books: 1. J. T. Keith. Petts. Hardy. and noise. 2005.O. Global Warming and Climate Change. 2. 2005. Islamabad. J. Islamabad. 1999. D. 2003. Sringer. Blackwell.

best available option for future. Sadler. Carpenter. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. management options. B. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. J. 2nd Edition. H. threat and its causes. national example. agriculture chemicals. national agriculture policy.). Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. Evans. Asian Development Bank. forest types and its existing management. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level.. wind power and nuclear power. F.. Conservation in Progress. problem in agriculture. 1997. threats.5.. A. USA. M. agriculture products and their share in GDP. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. Rangeland Management: existing status. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. their pros and cons. effective management. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. B. R. methodologies. Types. Goldsmith.. Development of Management Plan: needs. 38 . COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. Recommended Books: 1. R. causes and methods for its improvement. & McCabe. United Nations Environment Programme. management options. wildlife census. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. 6. national and provincial legislation. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. (ed.. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy.B and Warren. process and contents of the management plan. John Willey & Sons. requirement. S. and Tu. Everitt. Lohani. existing management approaches. 2002. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. importance. their current status and threats. limitation in the future. 1993. solar power. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. Ludwig.. New York..

Environmental Conservation. Literature Search: Database. research methods. & Plano Clark. Material Methods. P. 39 . Sampling: the logic of sampling. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. 4. Objectives. John Wiley & Sons. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods.. 5. Dasmann. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. New York. to introduce students to research design. Research Design & Research Methods. and Jorqensen. concepts and terminologies. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). R. 3. Hansen. Inference based on findings. 1990. Bibliography. GOP and IUCN. Surveys. Selecting the Research Method. S.L. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. Case Studies. 2007. 1984. Review of Literature. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. J. Thousand Oaks.F. Scientific Methods. 1992. Methodology.Amsterdam.E. Search Engines. Scientific Research: Science. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. London. Research Proposal: its importance .A pre-requisite for Research. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. Islamabad. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research.E. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. USA. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. How to put things together? Introduction. Creswell. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. Sage CA. V. Review of Literature. types of sampling design/.2. Elsevier. Experimental Research. Questionnaire. population and sampling frames.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. Interviews. W.

Babbie. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. and Arhonditsis. Belmont California. 2008. S. 2001. 2003.Batty. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . 3rd Edition. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. 2001 and the rules of business made there under.USA. National Conservation Strategy 5. Recommended Books: 1.. M. 1989. E. Moriarty. USA. Robert Yin. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance.h. regulations made there under. 4. R. Government of Pakistan 3. Univ. Diamon. 2nd Edition. Marilyn F. Wadsworth Publishing Company. 3. 1997. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. Chichester. 5. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. G. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Sage Publishers. John and sons Ltd. 1997. 6. of Chicago Press. USA. Law Books House. 2. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking.S. 2000..2. England. Booth. Students project in Environmental Science. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. Qadar.. 2003. National Environmental Policy 4. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans.Harrad. Survey Research Methods.. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

pollution aspects.. recycling and re-use of wastewater.Lahore. Indus Water Accord 1991. Ahmed. Pakistan . Oxford University Press New Delhi. watershed/catchment. with drinking water facilities like springs. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. 4.. 2003.1993. and Malik. Khan. 2. (eds. O. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. (ed.. Revised & enlarged edition. Recommended Books: 1. K. 2006. N. 6. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. J. 3. Mirajuddin Publication . like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. fisheries management. Oxford University Press Karachi. C. Briscoe. Lahore. 2006. groundwater exploitation. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). 2005. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. integrated water resources management (IWRM). virtual water. P. A. Pakistan. hydrological cycle.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. Islamabad. N. The Politics of Managing Water. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. R. flood and drought management. Biswas.). flood and droughts.K.Varis. Cheema. SDPI Oxford University Press. I. water quality and quantity aspects.). and Qamar. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. R.. A. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. wetlands resources management. A. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. 44 . tubewells. Mirajuddin Publication . Course Outlines Water resource and its management. 5. water supply and demand management measures. and Tortajada. Asia Printer. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency... how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. U.. Islamabad. 1993. Ahmed. Bengali.

soils. Soils in Our Environment. PrenticeHall. Types and properties of parent materials. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. Soil forming minerals. Soil degradation. Definition. Brady. Academic Press. Hillel. USA. USA. future of urban centers. Gardiner. transport. NJ. Physical and chemical properties of soil. Prentice Hall. urban political ecology. CA. NJ. the salient features of urban environments. urban landscapes characteristics. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. Soil Science. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. Upper Saddle River. 11th Edition. 2008. Miller. Urban ecosystem. management and green productivity. 1996. urban flora and fauna. 2007. Causes of urbanization. Course Outlines Introduction. R. R. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. Urbanization. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. urbanization in Pakistan. Pakistan. San Diego.T. Islamabad. After completion of this course. hydrological processes. E.C. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. Upper Saddle River. 1. Course Outlines Introduction. Factors and processes of soil formation. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. Process and outcome. and Bantel. 45 . Physical and chemical processes of weathering. and Weil. N.W. Forms of urbanization.. USA. National Book Foundation. D. 2007.. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. R. urban settlements.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. Bashir. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. humans as components of urban ecosystems. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. D. Cation and anion exchange.R.

Land use planning theories. Aims and Objectives of planning. Levels of planning. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. UK. UK. 2009. Justification for planning for city management. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development.. Alberti. SBS academic publishing.. Chapman and Hall. 46 . CRC Press LLC. Principles of planning. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Ward. I. USA.. S. 2006. Planning and Urban Change. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation..and Kowaril. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. 2. USA. 1989. Sukopp. Types of Urban Plans. London. Scope. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans.and Maser. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. Planning and its relationship with other professions. Routledge. Gilbert. O. Hejny. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. SAGE Publications Ltd. London. New trends in planning and city management. 1. M. J. nature and purpose of urban planning. Penguin Group.1990. Hough. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. 2004. 2. New York. UR. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. Kate. City Design for Sustainable Development. UK. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. 2007. A. Springer. Planning theories and concepts. The planning process. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. Routledge. Recommended Books: 1.. 4. Silberstein. nd 2 Edition.L.S.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. C. M. 2000. 2004. Hague. V. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. H. 3. Smith. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. D. 5. Elements of urban planning. S. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels.

. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. New York. P. Different approaches and Indicators. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. Hazards. Natural Disasters Alexander. i. Prediction.W. M. Ministry of Housing and Works. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. Earthquake Management. R. 1993.. International phenomenon.. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. Disaster as an opportunity for development. Disaster Management: Components of management.. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. 1993. Manila. 1989. 1991. G. Westview Press. 47 . Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. Socio-economic factors. Kates. Earthquake. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. 4.J. and White G. 1986. The Guilford Press.. Introducing Town Planning. UK.3. 1993. Flood Management: Organizational Role. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made.. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). 4. 3. Role of Media in Disaster Management. New York. and Woodrow. Cultural factors. ADB. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. Physical factors. Government of Pakistan.B. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. Islamabad.W. Flooding. E&UA Div.UNESCO. Longman Group. The Environment as Hazard Burton I.e. D. 2. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures.. It discusses a wide range of aspects. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. Political factors. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Paris. Recommended Books: 1. Boulder . vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. H. 2nd Edition. Landslide. Chapman & Hall.F. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors.. Clara. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. Natural cycles and their role.

3. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. F.M. A. hydropower. types. D. OECD/IEA. solar. L. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Disasters and Development Cuny. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. Agroecology. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. 2. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. Sustainable livestock management. New York. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. Deforestation for agricultural purposes.L. Perry R. sustainable energy management..H. 1984. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. Quorum Books. Schoch. 2007. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. 1. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. local. energy resources of Pakistan. 1983. 6. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment.C. 2007.. primary producers. and Yonavjak. McKinney. Ecological concept in crop and food production. uses. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life.B and Keller. energy resources. 48 . alternate energy resources. 4th Edition. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. and Mushkatel. Paris. Consumer and producer relationship. decomposers. biomass resources. E. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. John Wiley and Sons. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems.. consumers.W. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. merits and demerits of wind. M. USA.5. Biotic structure. 2001. Westport. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. R. Botkin.A. 6th Edition.

Recommended Books: 1. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. R. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. Westview Press.G.R. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. and Rossel.A. C. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. Altreri. USA.H. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. CBS Publishers and Distributors. E-11 Seminar 49 . 2.P. Agrocology. Corol. 2000. and Sudha. New Delhi. India. USA. Kapur. Yandermeer J. Experimental Plant Ecology. Study of stratification and profile diagram. Boulder.M. 1990.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. M. 1995. 3. P.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. Study of index of diversity.. New York.

the Committee agreed on the following principles. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. 5.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. 50 . The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. 2. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. 3. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. availability of the faculty and other facilities. 4. that: 1.

Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 7. 6. 8. 23.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 25. 10. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 26. 18. 9. 11. 5. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 8. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 17. 2. 13. 5. 3. 9. 20. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 22. 11. 19. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 24. 4. 15. 3. 12. 7. 21. 14. 2. 10. 16. 6. 4. 12.

2nd Edition. Geography of Pakistan. Islamabad. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. S. Mackenzie.1994. Environment People and Economy. 2.1991. GOP and IUCN. Hansen. 4. Mackenzie J. 1991. Recommended Books: 1. London.T. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. 2. development of concepts. and Bell. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. Khan K.. Regional and International Environmental Issues. Elsevier. 3.S. Instruments and methods. Conservation Strategies. Amsterdam.DETAILS OF M. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. F. London Black Stone Press Ltd. Draft National Environmental Policy. Oxford University Press. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS).E. WCS. FURTHER READINGS 1. NCS. Oxford University Press. and Jorqensen. technology and resource use.. Relationship of culture. S. Ball.. P.A. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. Conventions and Protocols in Global. Money. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. 1987. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. D. status of Terrestrial. 1992.. Karachi.. Hodder and Stoughton. Environmental control Policies. Carrying capacity and sustainable development.1994.F.E. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. 52 .1995. Treaties. S. 3. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. Provincial and Local Strategies.

2. D. A one Publishers Lahore. History. 3. Washington.. Cost benefit analysis of projects. sampling rules. Environmental auditing. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. A. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). Wastewater. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. Recommended Books: 1. England. 1995. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. C. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Air and Solid Waste. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. Principles of physical. World Bank. ecological impact assessment. Case Studies and review. K. Ed. F & Bronstein. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. Assessment of environmental impacts. role and importance. Burnt Hill. social impact assessment. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis.Vanclay. Chichester. 53 . John Wiley & Sons. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. Demographic impact assessment. 2. opportunities and issues. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review).COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. Gas Chromatography etc. Recommended Books: 1. sample collection and preservation. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. Government of Pakistan. procedures and methods of EIA. Wood.A. 1995. 1993. Harlow Essex. Environment Department. FURTHER READINGS 1. economic impact assessment. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. WB. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. UK. Ministry of Environment. Environmental Chemical Analysis. Longman House. Ahmed. DC. process. Longman Scientific and Technical. ed.

1997. Government Policies and Programs. work breakdown structure. S. Need identification. M/S Banarsid. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. Planning Commission Performas.. indicators. Lippmann. 3. B. John Wiley and Sons. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. M. Project Management Institute. Mantel s. Recommended Books: 1. 1st Ed. USA. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. activities. Occupational Health: problems and issues. Ergonomic and Safety. 4. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. Park. Wiley Interscience. air borne. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). J. 2002. Meredith J. 1998. USA. Prentice Hall International Inc.. inputs. A. Caeneross. 1st Ed. 1st ed. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects).. T. development objectives. means of verification. A Guide to Project Management. Project Initiation. specific objectives. Project Planning. Kjelllström. 54 . K. feasibility study. 1993. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. 2. L. de Kok. 2001. New York. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic...COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. outputs. Primary health care services. R. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. prevention and control. Public health concept. T. Basic Environmental Health.2000. assumptions.. Environmental Health Engineering. Resource Mobilization. Writing Project Proposal. 1992. and Wright. London. safety techniques. 2nd Ed. economic evaluation.. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. principles and practices. 2.. Reasons for Project success or failure. R. J. Project Planning and Approval Processes. Inc. Defining Project objectives. 5. T.. Yassi. Accident prevention and safety plans. Nebel. T. UK. Project Life Cycle. and Guidotti. Oxford University Press New York.

transport. R. 1998. data collection and interpretation. 2007. Principles of cleaner production. 1990b. 55 . bio-energy resources. John Wiley and Sons. petroleum.. solar. Recommended Books: 1. L.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. Michigan-January 2001. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. 2. 2. and Yonavjak. E. ISO Central Secretariat. principles and elements of the process of EMS. M. 3. St Luise Press.M. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. sustainable energy management for agriculture. 6th Edition. Recommended Books: 1. nuclear) local. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. uses. merits and demerits of wind.B and Keller. gas. Sayre. McKinney. D. D. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). types.A. industry and domestic sectors. non-renewable and renewable. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. Sources of data. Switzerland. OECD/IEA. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. alternate energy resources. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. 4th Edition. Related Environmental regulations. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. Paris. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Environmental Auditing. 4. Botkin. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. Paris. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Schoch. 2007. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. 3. USA. Environmental auditing.L. 2001. energy resources. hydropower. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. energy resources of Pakistan. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future.

COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. Berlin. (Ed. Warrick. Silvertown. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. London. Hardy. Houghton.Causes. Effects. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. Plant population dynamics. and Solutions. Climate Change . 2003. E & Muller-Hohenstein.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. Life history strategies of plants. resources and plants. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants.. 2. E. Springer. J. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. 3. Chichester. 2. Oxford UK. types of climate change models.). Beck. Recommended Books: 1. Recommended Books: 1. 1. K. Blackwell Publishing. 2005. competition and coexistence. Climate change and food production. forests. types and their climatic effects. Blackwell Publishing. 5. Modeling of climate change. J. Shulze. Hardy. John Wiley & Sons. 56 . Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. vegetation dynamics. water resources.T. T. Plant Ecology. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Maarel. global aspects of plant ecology. D. John Wiley & Sons. ED. B & Jager. & Charlesworth.. plant invasions. Climate Change and Ecosystems. UK. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. 2005. D. Climate Change . John Wiley & Sons. human activities and vegetation dynamics. 2003. Earthscan Publication Ltd. The Green House Effect. Vegetation Ecology Ed. geographical and temporal patterns. survival and extinction. Green House Gases. Species richness. 4. Oxford.D. and Solutions. J.Causes. management and restoration. 1st Edition. 2005. etc. 3. ECOPE 29. UK 1991. 2004. plant conservation. Effects. 2005.

Inc.J. R. distribution. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. Weddell. Protected areas in Pakistan. And Bolen. Wildlife Ecology and Management. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. problems and solutions. Threatened animals and plants. Establishment and management of protected areas. Bailey. Primack. UK. Participatory forest management. 2. 1973 2. UK. I). London. Status of forests in Pakistan. Cambridge University Press. Global and national biodiversity. B. 1986. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. 2002. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan.G.) Gaston. Protected areas. Robinson. Principles of Wildlife Management. threats and conservation. its causes. Roberts. distribution. Oxford. 1992. T. & Spicer. Oxford. S. II). W. Rangeland management. 1984. Cambridge. types. 3. Protection and restoration of species. deforestation and its control. 1998. Oxford University Press.J. Sinauer Assocaites. biological diversity. distribution and management. John Wiley And Sons. USA.A. E. Roberts. management. K. Forests. J. 3. Recommended Books: 1. their types and role in conservation. Blackwell Publsihing. their importance.L. Mcmillan. types. Essentials of Conservation Biology. Conserving Living Natural Resources. Loss of biodiversity. habitats and ecosystems.(2nd Ed. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol.D.J. Publishers Sunderland. 2004.J. Extinction of species. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. Recommended Books: 1. Oxford University Press. S. 4. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. T. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. J. 2002. Wetlands. Consumptive. Forest plantations. Wildlife of Pakistan. Sustainable forest management.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. status. 5. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. kinds. Biodiversity: An introduction. Cambridge. Oxford University Press. Oxford. 57 . National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. & Ripley.B. their ecological and economic importance.

SAGE Publications Ltd. UK. urban political ecology. Urban land use planning and management. 1993. Forms of urbanization. USA. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. 2007. Ward. 2004.. management of transport. S. 58 . Ministry of Housing and Works. Islamabad. 2. urban landscape characteristics. New York. urban systems and their characteristics. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. 4. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. 1986. J. Penguin Group. Clara. C. Planning and Urban Change. Environmental problems of urban life. 2000. Silberstein. G. Recommended Books: 1. E&UA Div. A.. H.. Introducing Town Planning. future of urban centers.and Maser. USA. 3. UK. Kate. V. The Works: Anatomy of a City. urbanization in Pakistan. sanitation. Longman Group. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. drinking water and solid waste in cities. Sustainable cities. Government of Pakistan. CRC Press LLC. London..

Martinet. 1997.J. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. Third edition. ISBN 0194313492 59 .A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. Oxford University Press. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1.Annexure . active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. a) Functional English Grammar 1. Thomson and A. Practical English Grammar by A. Exercises 1.V.

style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Third Impression 1992. Thomson and A. Reading. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Reading/Comprehension 1. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. Martinet. Oxford University Press. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1.2. and speed reading.J. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. intensive and extensive. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Third edition. Upper Intermediate. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. minutes of meetings.V. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. Exercises 2. Writing. Oxford Supplementary Skills. b) Practical English Grammar by A. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. 1997. Fourth Impression 1993.

ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. clarity. Writing. Third Impression 1992. Practical English Grammar by A. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Oxford Supplementary Skills. b) Writing 1. Oxford Supplementary Skills.1. Reading 1. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Advanced. discursive. Martinet. Oxford University Press 1986. 2. language. Oxford Supplementary Skills. descriptive and argumentative writing). Advanced by Ron White.J. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . form. Exercises 2. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking).V. Third edition. Thomson and A. Writing. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Writing. introduction to presentations. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Fourth Impression 1993. Third Impression 1991. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Reading. narrative. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. 2. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. Fourth Impression 1992. content. ISBN 0 19 453403 0.

Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. A Custom Publication. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. Kirszner and Stephen R. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. without taxing the taste of engineering students). descriptive. 2. St. argumentative and report writing). 3. Martin’s Press. Compiled by norther Illinois University. Mandell. 2004. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. Kathleen Shine Cain. College Writing Skills by John Langan. 62 .(particularly suitable for discursive.

Indus Civilization ii. 3. Course Outline 1. 1977-88 e. ideological background of Pakistan. national development. 2. S. 1994. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Economic institutions and issues b. Mehmood. Zaidi. Safdar. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis.Annexure . 1958-71 c. Karachi: Oxford University Press. 63 Books Recommended 1. S. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Location and geo-physical features. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. People and Land i. Historical Perspective a. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. 2. Shahid Javed. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. 1988-99 f. 1947-58 b. Ethnicity d. politics. Contemporary Pakistan a. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. contemporary Pakistan. 1993. 2000. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. 1971-77 d.M. Study the process of governance. Society and social structure c. Akbar. 4. 1999 onward 3. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. State & Society in Pakistan. Muslim advent iii. Lahore. b. government. Karachi: Oxford University Press. .B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective.

Khalid Bin. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Lawrence. Zahid. 6.K. 1980. 1967. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. Enigma of Political Development. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. Haq. 1993. Sayeed. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Muhammad Waseem. nd. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. Rafique. Wayne. Politics in Pakistan. 1998. Noor ul.The Emergence of Banglades. 9. Ansar.5. Aziz.. The Political System of Pakistan. 7. 13. 8. 11. 64 . I. Political Parties in Pakistan. 1976. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Club Road. 1987. Tahir. Safdar.National Movement in Pakistan. 12. 10. M. 1972. II & III. Party. Lahore: Vanguard. Amin. Ethno . Afzal. 1980. Mehmood. Ziring. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Washington: American Enterprise. Wilcox. History & Culture of Sindh. Vol. Pakistan Under Martial Law. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Islamabad. Institute of Public Policy Research. K. 14.

A.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .Annexure .19.56.40.6. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.Tadabar (Verse No1.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.A.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.57.58.20) Related to thinking.A. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.21.

3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt. in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .

Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi.S. “Studies in Islamic Law. Ahmad Hasan. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. IRI. International Islamic University. “Emergence of Islam” . “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Pakistan. Islamabad (2001) 67 . Bhatia.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad.

Matrices: Introduction to matrices. complex numbers.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. PWS-Kent Company. geometric progression. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. 1986. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Wooton W. functions.Annexure . qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. matrix inverse. not majoring in mathematics. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). equations reducible to quadratic equations. Boston Swokowski EW. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. determinants. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. Beckenback EF. College Algebra and Trigonometry. harmonic progression. Houghton & Mifflin. Sharron S. Cramer’s rule. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. 1978. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. system of linear equations. types of functions. set operations. types. Boston 68 . Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. 1987. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. cube roots of unity. trigonometric identities. PWS-Kent Company. introduction to sets.

derivatives. 2005. 1995. Ma. functions and their graphs. continuity. parallel and perpendicular lines. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. solution of equations involving absolute values. New York Stewart J. not majoring in mathematics. equation of a line. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. Reading. 2005. slope of a line. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). 69 .2. left-hand and right-hand limits. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. change of variables in indefinite integrals. Boston Thomas GB. not majoring in mathematics. John Wiley. integration by parts. intersection of two lines. differentiation of polynomial. USA 3. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Recommended Books: Anton H. Addison-Wesley. integration by substitution. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. Davis S. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. angle between two lines. inequalities. distance between two points. Bevens I. various forms of equation of a line. Calculus (11th edition). Calculus (3rd edition). Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. continuous functions. 1983. rational and transcendental functions. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. distance between a point and a line. Finney AR. PWS-Kent Company.

types of matrices. system of linear equations. PWS-Kent Company. Conic Sections: Parabola. College Algebra and Trigonometry. set operations. locus of a point in various conditions. PWS-Kent Company. Cramer’s rule. intersection of lines and circles. 1987. nature of roots of quadratic equations. Freshman and Company. 70 . : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. 1969 Kaufmann JE. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). Matrices: Introduction to matrices. types of functions. • Contents 1. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). 1986. Boston Swokowski EW. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. Introduction to sets. Scott. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination.Circle: Equation of a circle. circles determined by various conditions. hyperbola. equations reducible to quadratic equations. Analytic Geometry. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. functions. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Boston 4. inverse of matrices. determinants. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. ellipse.

71 . Boston.. Wilcox. discrete and continuous series. variance. quartiles. PWS-Kent Company. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. moments. E.. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. Measures of dispersion: Range. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. Prentice Hall. 2. R. Graphs: Graph of straight line. types of frequency series. ‘Introduction of Statistics’.geometric and harmonic progressions. Books Recommended: 1. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. Walpole. relationship of statistics with social science. Latest Edition. standard deviation. Kaufmann. trigonometric identities. R. 4. E. characteristics of statistics. J. 3. Swokowski. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. skewness and kurtosis. ungrouped and grouped data. frequency polygon. W. cumulative frequency curve. Latest Edition. circle and trigonometric functions. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. individual. E. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. 2. tally sheet method. R. 5. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. array... Latest Edition. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. deciles and percentiles. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. bar frequency diagram histogram. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics.

products. logarithmic differentiation. integration by inspection. integration using partial fractions. Second Edition 1992. Solution of equations involving absolute values. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. Trigonometric Functions.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. Leibnitz’ theorem. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. implicit differentiation. I. infinite and improper integrals. logarithmic integration. Inequalities. 2. Hughes-Hallett. 2. 3rd Edition. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. Addison Wesley publishing company. integration by parts. special points of a function. Slope of a Line. 4. Contents 1. integral inequalities. Recommended Books: 1. Continuity. Jhon Willey & Sons. 8th edition. and Transcendental Functions. Equation of a Line. 4th edition. sinusoidal function. Schaum’s Outline Series. theorems of differentiation. Calculus Single and Multivariable. 5. Continuous Functions. reduction formulae. E. Boston. • Integration Integration from first principles. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. Integration by Parts. 3. 11th Edition. S. 6. the chain rule. Davis. Bevens. Least-Squares Line. John H. quotients. Swokowski. Calculus. Prentice-Hall. plane polar coordinates. Inc. Thomas. Anton.Jr. W. 6. substitution method. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. et al. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. 2002. Inc. Frank A. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . H. 2005. Gleason. McCallum. Rational Functions. Mathews. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. Calculus. applications of integration. Elliott Mendelson. 1999. Rational and Transcendental Functions. 2005. the inverse of differentiation. 1983. Extreme Values of Functions. John Wiley & Sons. Calculus.

hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. complex conjugate. the difference method. modulus and argument. geometric series. series involving natural numbers. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. inverses of hyperbolic functions. solving hyperbolic equations. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. finding the nth roots of unity. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. arithmetico-geometric series. identities of hyperbolic functions. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series.Additions and subtraction. multiplication. approximation errors in Taylor series. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem.

line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. vector product. line to line. Pappus’ theorems. Hermitian. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. centers of mass and centroids. 6. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . moments of inertia. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. the inner product. masses. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. symmetric and antisymmetric. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes.5. of a unitary matrix. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. scalar triple product. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. point to plane. orthogonal.

differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. divergence of a vector field. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions.8. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. spherical polar coordinates 75 . combinations of grad. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products.

What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Moments and Moments ratios. Change of origin and scale. Graphs and their Construction. Poisson and Normal Distribution. bias. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Exercises. null and alternative hypothesis. Discrete and continuous variables. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. sampling with and without replacement. Stem and Leaf Display. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Data. definition of outliers and their detection. Exercises. 76 . Population. Coefficient of variation. The semi-Interquartile Range. Range. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Statistical problem. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Significant digits. Diagrams. acceptance and rejection regions. Sources. Exercises. level of significance. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. probability and non-probability sampling. Exercises. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Absolute and relative measures. Test statistics. sample design and sampling frame. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. sampling and non sampling errors. Empirical Relation between Mean. Unit 3. Editing of Data. Pie chart.Annexure . Constructing of a frequency distribution.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Unit 7. Difference of means and proportions. Unit 2. Collection of primary and secondary data. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. The Mode. Unit 5. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Type-I and Type-II errors. Exercises Unit 6. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Quantiles. Observations. Unit 4. Rounding of a Number. Standardized variables. properties of Good Average. Exercises. The Variance and standard deviation. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Histogram. Probability and Probability Distributions. Exercises. Errors of measurement. Bar charts. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Box and Whisker Plot. Median and mode. Types of frequency curves. The Mean Deviation. Historigram. Presentation of Data Introduction. Different types of Averages.

. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. Testing of Hypothesis. R. its estimation and interpretation. 2 Muhammad. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. Correlation. cause and effect relationships. 77 . examples. F. Coefficient of linear correlation. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. Kitab Markaz. 2005. Unit 11. 3rd Ed. Macmillan Publishing Co. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. “Introduction to Statistics”. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. r and R2.Single Population Introduction. Contingency Tables. New York. simple linear regression. Exercises. E. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole.Unit 8. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. 1982. Regression and Correlation Introduction. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction.. Inc. Exercises Unit 10. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. Exercises Unit 9.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction.

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