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For BS MS
HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD
CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………
6 12 14 50 51
certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. and 36. 63. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. universities and other institutions of higher education. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. It is. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. Lahore. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. PROF.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. dated December 4th 1976. therefore. The world has turned into a global village. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. degree awarding institutions. DR.). revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. D773/76-JEA (cur. the Federal Government vide notification No. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. It also aimed to give a basic. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. R&D organizations.ALTAF ALI G.
OF CURRI. R&D. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. COL. PREP. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. UNI. OF NCRC. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. EXP. REC. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. Preparation 5 . OF FINAL CURRI.
Member 5. Member 6 . Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Member 4. Rawalpindi Dr. Lahore Member 6. Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Dr. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. 7. Dr. Following attended the meeting:1. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Karachi from 28-30. Member 3. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University.
Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Dr.8. Dr. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Prof. Dr. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Karachi Member 12. Member 10. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Prof. 13. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Member 11. Dr. Dr. Member 16. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Dr. Member 14. 7 . Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Member 15. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore.
Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Chairman. Karachi. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Member 19. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. At first. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Member 20. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Dr. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. Dr. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. Mr. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Director of HEC Regional Center. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. 2. Mr. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. The meeting was opened by Mr. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University.17. 1. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. Secretary Dr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. 8 . Faisalabad Member 18. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards.
In last few centuries. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. 4. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. The committee thanked Mr.3. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. 2. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. 5. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. 1. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. 3. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. 6. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment.
The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. regional and global contexts. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. 5. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. skills and behaviour patterns. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. This committee. in its preliminary meeting. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. Apply theoretical understanding. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. ii. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii.
eight semesters in the semester system. 4. with consensus. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. 3. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. Integrating natural sciences.. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. that: 1. 6. The 11 . assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. A. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. 1. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. Sc. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. 5. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. The medium of instruction. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles.e. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. 2.
English-III 18. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Environmental Pollution 22. Environmental Chemistry 15. Introduction to Earth Science 8. Psychology* . Basic Chemistry* 4. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Environmental Microbiology 21. Biology –I* 3. Biology –II* 9. English-II 12. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Introductory Economics* 17. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Introduction to Computer 14.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Environmental Physics 16. Climatology* 23. English-I 6. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order.
Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. 45. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. English-IV/ Univ. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. Environmental toxicology 27. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. ELECTIVE-III 42. Natural Resource Management 40. Opt. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. Environmental Management Systems 34. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. Climate Change 38. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Environmental Economics 29. Applied Ecology 26. Environmental Biotechnology 32. 44. 46. Environmental Monitoring 36. Environmental Impact Assessment 39.24.
• Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical.
Major components of environment: physico-chemical. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. 2.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. Wright. regional. ecological. and their relationships with various environmental factors. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. socio-economic..B & Keller. philosophical. G. B. its importance in human life.T. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. M. biological and social. 15 . John Wiley & Sons. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. proteins and nucleic acids. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. 4th Ed. E. Recommended Books: 1. McKinney. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. 2007. Thomson Learning. R. R. Botkin.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. ethical. 2007 3. urbanization. D.M. 4. & Yonavjak.L. Different aspects of environment: physical. environmental pollution. current global. development in industry and agriculture. Schoch. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY .A. Pearson Educational. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. & Nebel. L. Human environment and its problems: global. 6th Ed. 2007. poverty and resource depletion. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment.J. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. lipids. 10th Ed. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts.. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. Miller. national. history. 2002.
. D. carbohydrates. USA. Cell division. phospholipids in membrane systems. covalent. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. origin of metabolism. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. Crossley. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. B. and Lewis. 5th Edetion. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. R. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. 8th Ed. Aromatic compounds. E. 1. Canada. Starr. 2008. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. the molecule of genetic information and replication. Cassimeris. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. Self Assessment and Revie. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. Nucleic acids.Hill International Edition. carboxylic acids. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. USA. lipids. overview of structure and function of cell organelles.. M. carbonyls. 3. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. V. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis.. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. A. G. Plopper. C. coordinate covalent bond. USA. Ionic. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. McGraw. Lingappa. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. esters. Shier. protobionts. 4.. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. Ltd. proteins. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. New York. Origin of life: chemical evolution. J. Introduction to cell biology. 5. polypeptides in protein diversity. 16 . and Whitelaw. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. Biology: a Human Emphasis. N. Structure and the basis of function. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. Lewis. chemical diversity.. Bulter. L. 1996. Australia . 2003. Molecular Biology through Questions. 2. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. lipids. R. chemical basis of life. Wadsworth Group. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 2007. Cells. amines).Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. 2007.
Algebra of matrices. double angle formulas. 2nd Edition.. 2004. graphs. 2004... 8th Edition.C. Harris. EC and TDS in waste water. Recommended Books: 1. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. 2005. P. Measurement of pH.E. 6th Edition. UK. normal solutions/buffers. Jickells. 5. USA.. D. F. angle-sum formula. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. values of trigonometric functions. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. B. law of Cosines.H. Use of spectrophotometric techniques.K. J. and Holler. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). Girard. real line. 4. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. Andrews. P.Special Products (Binomial Expression). 1st Ed..D. W. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Surface chemistry. determinants. Thomson and Brooks. radicals. 2nd Edition. T. Colloids chemistry. molal. Blackwell Science. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. Lab Work Preparation of molar. UK. Jones and Barlett. 2004. equations of lines (linear equations). expansion of determinants.. Canada. series and means.M. Freeman and Company. simultaneous equations and their solutions. geometric and harmonic sequence. Thin layer chromatography. and Reid. Column chromatography.J. straight line and related concepts. Skoog. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. Osmosis and Dialysis. West..A. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. Photochemical reactions. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Cambridge University Press. USA. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. J.S.J.. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix.E. 2. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. Brimblecombe. D. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. 17 . Solution chemistry. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. D. 2003. M. 3. minor and cofactor of a matrix.ions.. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Liss. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). Hill.
Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. Introduction to folds. D. mountain building. Jr. earthquakes and volcanoes.. Analytical Geometry. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. joints. Abraham. theorems on differentiation (sum. Trignometry for College students. J. K. 3. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals.B. New Delhi. Thomas. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. Earth as a member of solar system. its origin. theorem of integration. G. plate tectonics. earthquakes. and Finney. product and quotient rules without derivations). 10th Ed. 2. 4th Ed. cleavages. Pacific Grove. Introduction to sedimentary. 4. age. Chatterjee. the processes of their formation. erosion and related landforms. 1999..Wesley. Integration: Formulas of integration. faults. lineation and unconformities. by parts integration (simple applications). different earth processes like mountain buildings. difference. L. composition and its internal structure. Introduction to rocks and minerals. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. Chain rule. Smith.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure .Cramer’s Rule.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. Fossils and their significance. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. Scott Foresman and Company. California. igneous and metamorphic rocks. Narosa Publishing House. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. Recommended Books: 1. Addission. nonrepeated linear factors. Weathering. 18 . S. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. irreducible quadratic factors. weathering and erosion. R. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. foliation.
Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. Physical Geology and Process of Science. population loss and decline. Prentice Hall.. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. Prentice Hall. 19 . G. Geological time chart with biodiversity. and Monroe. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. How Does Earth Work. K. interactions among diversified life. Earth Science. Darwinism. Biodiversity of hilly areas. biodiversity crises. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. Routledge... Smith. Recommended Books: 1.. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. K. protocell formation. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. Use of brunton compass and GPS. Lamarckism. Park. Foundations of Structural Biology. 2004. causes of extinction. Wicander. Life in sea. J. Biodiversity of canal. modern concepts. F. D. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. invasion of life on land. A. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. R. F. 2007 2. and Pun.. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. consequences of losing biodiversity. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. Tarbuck.Identification of rocks and minerals. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. J. Tarbuck. and Tasa. G. Brooks/Cole. 5. animals). different classification systems. 9th Edition. measuring biodiversity. 2007 3. 4.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. 3rd Edition. Lutgens. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. and Tasa. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity.. Biodiversity of deserts. unicellularity. 2005. 11th Edition. J. Lutgens. Prentice Hall: 2006. multicellularity. D.. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. molecular basis of biodiversity. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. E. Field Study tour. examples of adjustments in varied environment.. R.. 5th Edition. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. E.
Adam. Understanding the environment-human relationship. 2. J. Routledge. Nora and Wilk. 2006. The Biosphere. C. 5th Edition. a Human Emphasis. Tripartite nature of environment.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. Goals and expectations. and Sustainable Living. J. John Wiley and Sons. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. 20 . Blackwell Science Ltd. Use of environment for vested interest. Contemporary environment issues and debate. UK. 2009. 2009. Bradbury. and concerns. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. I. USA. (editor). (editors). The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. IL:WavelandPress. Environmental Risks and the Media. Chronological. The Ecology of global consumer culture. UK.. 2. 2005. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. K. 2000. Prospect Heights. UK. Culture. Consumption. C. Biodiversity (An Introduction). K. Biology. Wadsworth Group. Perspective of human-environment evolution. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . Allan & Carter. 2nd Edition. Starr. Inc. globalization and environmental issues. and Spicer. Hannen. Townsend.K. 3. I. Crumley. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. Scope and application. CA: AltaMira Press. Contemporary environmental status. 2003. L. Walnut Creek. Recommended Books: 1. 3. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. 2001.. New York: New York University Press. 4.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. Inc. Conceptualizing environment. Gaston. culture and society. P. power & hegemony. R.
5. system software. Recommended Books: 1. Ms-Power Point.. 21 . output hardware. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. Fundamentals of computer. Courter. Local Area Network. Selin. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse.Microsoft office 2000.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . G. Configurations. Ms-Access. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. Long N.H. Ed. 2003. Long l. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Storage hardware. Rutledge. as are their effects on the biosphere. processing hardware. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. 6. Hardware: Input Hardware. Operating system (Windows). Software: Application software. Course Outlines Definition. Milton.. Marquis A. internet. Introduction to MS-Word. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. 2. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion.6th Ed. K.1999.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure .BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. Types and classification of computers. software packages. Ms-Excel. computer programs and basic applications.London 1996. e-mail.
P. DoriaSerrano. Andrews.. Ibanez. 2008.. J. Thomson-Brooks. and Singh.. Human perceptions and noise criteria. Heat radiation and heat transfer. P.. Jones and Barlett. Energy. Springer. M. Samir. 1999.T.. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. Entropy. its causes and adverse effects on environment. Turbulent diffusion. Liquids and Gasses.. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. Solids. UK. USA. Transport of pollutants. atmospheric and soil chemistry. Measurement and comparison of the 22 .Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. A. 1st Edition. Jickells. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. G. Fate of pollutants in environment.M. M. and Reid. Environmental Science. Active control of sound. Equations of fluid dynamics. Basic acoustics. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. B. 5. 2. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Hernandez-Esparza. Electromagnetic radiation. trophic level. Environmental impact of various industries. their sources and toxic actions. Brimblecombe..J.. Fundamentals of aquatic.. C.E. Sound and Noise. 4. Energy conversion. J. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems.E. Reducing the transmission of sound. Recommended Books: 1. Liss..S. Conversion of mass. Girard. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. Global climate and climatic change. India. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. Isotopes and radioactive decay. interaction of light with matter. 2nd Edition.G. Nuclear energy. Ozone and UV light. Turbulence.. Turbulent jets and plumes.D. Solar spectrum. Ozone chemistry. Diffusion. Germany. Fregoso-Infante. T. Gaussian plumes in the air. Canada. 2005. Environmental Chemistry. 3. J. 2004. Environmental Chemistry. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. 2004. Chemical reactions. photosynthesis. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Miller. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. K. Particle physics. Blackwell Science.
Natural resources and the economy. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. economic progress. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. Seinfeld. 2001. 2008. Field visit. Economic management and environmental quality. 23 . Economic Development. Recommended Books: 1. interaction between ecology and economic management. Wesely Publishers. G. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. Recommended Books: 1. John Wiley and Sons Inc. concepts and measurement.1998. Man environmental relationship. Todaro. 4. Growth and development. Growth and Environment. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. Kentucky USA. R. S. M. USA. and Resource allocation. economic welfare and difference among all. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. P. USA. UK. N.Economic development. World Bank Publications. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. 3. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. S. Physics of the Environment and Climate. economic growth and its measurement. USA. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. Impact of economic activity on environment. John Wiley and Sons Inc. H. Pakistan economic context: National income. E. Sustainable development. Guyot. Producer behavior. 2. and Pandis. New York. 2001.. Smith. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. 2008. Environmental economics. J. 2006. and Van Grondelle. producer and community point of view. poverty. Yusuf. Environmental Physics. Measures for sustainable development. population and environmental quality.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. economic growth. Economic functions of environment. C. Boeker. Routledge. USA. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. 2. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. 7th Ed. Praxis publishing. Introductory Environmental Physics.
2008. Russell. B. temperature. Course Outlines Introduction. water. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. USA. 2009.3. description of population.. B. 4. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. Introduction to ethical theory.A. Environmental philosophy and ethics. Callicott. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. USA. World Bank Publications. Environmental Critics of agriculture.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. J. Ecosystem and its types. N. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . DeVeer. Economics. 4. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. International Thomson Publishing. concepts and approaches. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. Shogren. 3. Portland 1967. 24 . 2. role of light. A History of Western Philosophy. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy.. 2007. C. ethics and ecology. D. B. Farmington Hills. LLC. Recommended Books: 1. WCIV7AA. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. Frodeman. Natural philosophy. R. London. Palgrave Macmillan. species. Kessinger Publishing. 2002. branches of ecology. soil.V.. Ecology. Swift. Hanley. & Pierce. population. community and ecosystem. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. and White. 2008. community. England. levels of ecological organization. J. M. its fundamental concepts.. Touchstone Books. biogeography. the ethics of soil. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. and systems ecology.
Microbiology of terrestrial environments. and S. bacteria and eukarya. G. Concepts of Limiting factors. Biogeochemical cycles of C. King’s College London.Cox. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. characteristics of urban. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan.topography and air as ecological factors. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. students will be able to understand the significance. P. distribution limits. 5th Ed. 2001 5. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. Fundamentals of Ecology. landscape changes and their importance. Ecology (principles and applications). UK. Ecosystem: structure and function.L and Reiss. Chapman. habitat and niche.) Moles. 2. J.W. C. Cambridge University Press. and More. After completion of this course. biotic factors. Populations. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). Thomson Brooks/Cole. C. various concepts of community. M. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. 1992. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. landscape ecology. 2000. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. plant geography and animal distribution. New York. Tata McGraw-Hill. 1999 4. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. 1st Ed. 6th Ed. 2004. N. E P. WCB/McGraw-Hill. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. Lab Work 25 . aquatic microbiology. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. Ecology (concepts and applications. Microbial metabolism. Recommended Books 1. Dash. and Barett. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. 3. Biomes of the world. M C J 1st ed. Systems ecology. ecological modeling. community dynamics. Fundamentals of Ecology. population dynamics. New Delhi. J. Odum. productivity of different ecosystems. B. M J. Population distribution and abundance. UK.
Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. Knudsen. and Gerba. its sources and their effects. McInernery..and Vesilaind. I. purification and preservation. peppor. American Society for Microbiology. C. 5. Environmental Pollution and Control. New Jersey.K. Case Studies. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution.. Noise.J. Prescott.W.. Peiece.J. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. transportation & treatments. Cambridge University Press.J.J. P. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. McGraw Hill Inc. 2.P. Weiner.. M. Environmental Microbiology. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). 4th Edition.P. Hurrst.G. 3.A. 2007. Mean plate count. (Elsevier) USA.D.I. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. Academic Press. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. Academic Press. 4. Prentice Hall. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. Hill.L. Academic Press. Butterworth-Heinemann. USA. Harley. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. 2. Hartel. Pepper. Dilution plate technique. isolation. P. 2005. 2002. Soil. 2009. R. 3.L.M.. 2005. London. J. USA.J. Recommended Books 1. Manual of Environmental Microbiology.Gerba. and Stetzenbach.F. Washington DC.M. D. Collection. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. L.C. Cambridge UK. 2nd Edition. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. D. Solid Waste generation.M. C. L. 2 Edition. Fuhrmann. USA. J. R. Human & other living organisms. Maier.B.. Water. 2005.. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution... M.. and Jeffery.P.A. Fate of Environmental Pollutants.A. 1995.R.1998. Crawford. W. G. Recommended Books: 1.V. Marine & Industrial pollution. D. 26 . UK. USA. Effects of Pollutants. USA. and Zuberer.. Microbiology.L. A. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual..and Brendecke. Sylvia. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. Pollution Control Strategies.. J. and Klein.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. F.
air pressure. Shamshad. Lutgens. Cloud Classification. Methods of psychology. 1988.. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. The climate of Pakistan.J. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. John H. Radiation and climate. A. Pandis. 1992. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. 2.E. Royal book company. 4. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. Spyros.2nd Editions. 2003. Marcel Dekkar. Factors affecting air Pressure. The Hydrologic cycle.F. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. condensation and cloud Formation.M. 5. N. climatic zones of Pakistan. . 27 .4. 2006 5. Recommended Books: 1. global circulation. 2002. Environmental psychology. Cambridge University Press. 3.W. John Wiley and Sons. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. Weather and Climate. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. Surface winds. Tarbuck. local winds. Solar radiations.K. 6th Edition. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan).. K. Climatology.. Four Spheres of the Earth.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. Austin Miller. Karachi. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. The Physics of Atmospheres. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. Houghton J. The Atmosphere. Sadder. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. Mechanism of heat transfer.. American Public Health Association (APHA). COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. Lawrance K. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment.
Fisher J. carbon dioxide and global climate change. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. Environmental perception and cognition. 1992. Water and distribution of species. Background and scope.characteristics and research methods. and Baum A. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. Ecological restoration. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change.C. Bell. their management and ecological restoration. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. Eysenck. energy and carbon balance. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. rivers. London. Restoration of derelict lands. Routledge. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. techniques and methods of restoration. 2. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. Routledge.A. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. P. 5th Edition. Soil as a natural resource. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. M. High population density and psychological impacts. soil resources of Pakistan.. Ecology of food production. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. solar radiation and primary production. 28 . Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Greene.D.W. limitation of irrigated agriculture. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. CRC Press. Fundamental of Psychology. soil erosion and conservation. Sustainable livestock management practices. Pollution control through Ecology.. sustainable agriculture. Future water scenario of Pakistan. Sustainable agricultural practices. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. 2001. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental Psychology. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. threats and mitigation. T. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. Water as an ecological resource. London. Course Outline Introduction. concepts. species response to pollutants. CRC Press. soil salinity and water logging.
Island Press. Immunological considerations in toxicology. water and soil. 5th Edition. 2000 2. their containment and control strategies. 2004. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. 5.National Book Foundation. Studies in Pakistan Geography. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Rashid. J. J. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents.. toxins vs toxicants. Falk. and Hobbs. terminologies: Poisons. Chemical interactions and their types. A. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History.A. D. USA. toxicology of chemicals. 4. Peshawar. Margaret A. and Memon. Islamabad. 1989. on human and other living organisms. University of Peshawar. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. Newman. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. A. Israr-ud-Din. 3. Thomson Brooks/Cole. 2006. Odum E.I. B. Oxford. Fundamentals of Ecology. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. Synergism. G. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. Shirkat Gah.W.Recommended Books: 1. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. toxins & toxicants.. 29 . Organs. biological effects. 2nd ed. K and Habib.1998. dose response relationship in living organisms. Potentiation and Addition. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing.S. Zedler. E. toxicity screening using microbial systems. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. soil and air samples. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. 1996. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. from natural and anthropogenic sources. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management.. Lahore. Pakistan’s Environment. P. and Barett. R.P. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. Soil Science. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water.. in vivo & in vitro assays. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. K. Mumtaz.
economic aspects of different environmental problems. education. culture. Ecological: ecological zones. Recommended Books: 30 . (ed. the economic benefits of different environmental resources.1 & 2. international trade and the environment.. topographic zones. B. Klassen. McGrawhill. USA. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. T and Turner.Recommended Books 1. pollution control-a general model. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. P. USA. Macmillan Press Ltd. 1996. industry. people. geography. CRC Press Llc. 2005 2. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. 3. 1992. Economic: agriculture.D. Williams. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. water resources. M.M.Science of Poisons . 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. USA. 1st Edition. General and Applied Toxicology.2005 2. health. land. the economy and the environment. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. Government of Pakistan. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. Course Outlines Introduction to history. Hughes. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. W. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. W. 3. measuring environmental benefits. economic development and the environment. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. major ecosystems. Ballantyne. clean development mechanism. Vol. urbanization and pollution.). 5th Edition. 1993. 1st Edition. Course Outlines Introduction. State of the Environment-Pakistan . Recommended Books 1.
water and plant analysis. D.D. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. Johns Hopkins University Press. salinity & sodicity). Peverill. Use of Potentiometery. West. BOD.1. NO3–N & NH4-N). A. 3. and Batemen. CSIRO Publ. handling. 6th Edition. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. Holler. Data interpretation for quality control. Freeman & Co.I.and Field.UK. USA. 2000. Conductivitymetry. COD. and derived S. Australia. precision and accuracy. D. 8th Edition. M..J. 31 .2004. Thomson and Brooks.W. Conductivitymetry. Oxford. J. Kolstad. I. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Standard solutions and standard curves. Collingwood. Fluoride. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. Field. 1993. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. C.R. Lab Work S. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater.I. Analytical techniques for soil. preparation and storage. D. K.A. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. M. Sparrow and D. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. Gravimetery. Environmental Economics. 2005. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH.C. 1999. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. and F. D.L. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. L.. 2003. All Solids. 2. Gravimetery.2002. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve.. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). 2... Oxford University Press. Sample collection. units. Titrimetery. Turner. Reuter. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. 3. New York. Recommended Books: 1. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. B. Sample preservation methods. 4. Skoog. Pearce..K. C. Harris. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive.K. Titrimetery. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions.
living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications.). USA. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. Biosensor. National Biotechnology Commission. After completion of this course.1999. 2005.. USA. Sambrook. students will be able to understand the significance. Government of Pakistan. 2009. Bioreactors. Scragg. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques.P. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. 2001. J. Hans- Joachim. 4. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. Germany. and Russel. Introduction to microbial kinetics. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. (ed. Biotechnology. 3. National Biosafety Guidelines. purification and preservation of DNA. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. New York. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Isolation. A. Cambridge University Press. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . 2007. Environmental Biotechnology.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. 2005. Recombinant DNA technology. Chichoster. 2. Tools in environmental biotechnology. 5th Ed.W. Biomarkers. Course Outlines Introduction. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. J. New York. and application of biotechnology in the environment. USA. Recommended Books 1.. Smith. and Josef. 2nd Ed. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. D. Wiley-VCH Verlag. W. England. Oxford University Press.E. J. PCR. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems.D. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Derbre.
2000. History and data collection. Inc. Introduction to Photogrammetry. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). 2. 1999. Aerial photography. Inc. map projection and coordinate systems. 2008. Fishery and wildlife. Jensen. advantages and limitations of process. eradication of the duplicated data. Active and Passive remote sensing. Data entry and output. Data acquisition. Image Processing. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. Types of data used in GIS. 3. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Forestry. John Wiley and Sons. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. V. A. Energy Sources. Interpretation. John Wiley and Sons. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. 2009. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Rancez. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. history and platforms. 5. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . Inc. Satellite Imageries. Introduction to GIS. Lulla. Using and reading GPS in field. Preparation of thematic maps. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. K and L. Pearsons Education. 2000. Harvey. Dessinov. Guilfoud press New York. Z. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. R. Cartography. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. 4. Agriculture. Campbell. F. integration of information from many sources. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. analysis and output. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Mc Graw Hill Education. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. Different types of maps.
34 . philosophical. American Society for Quality. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. social and ethical values of biodiversity. Sheldon.. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. and Qasim.. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. WWF Pakistan. ecological. Environmental Management tools. Course Outlines Introduction. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. Methods of environmental protection. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. 2005. 1998.. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Related Environmental legislation. International Organization for Standardization.3rd Edition . hot spots of biodiversity. 2006. and Yoxon. Environmental Management Systems Principles.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production.). principles of Cleaner production. 4. plant. standards and guidelines. Conservation of biodiversity. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). M. 3. F. economic. Certification of EMS. Khan. A. Environment and sustainable development. cleaner technologies. B. Environmental aspects and impacts. threats to biodiversity. 2001. etc.C. M. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. alpha and beta diversity. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. Michigan. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. types of biodiversity. Systems and Support Techniques. need and approach. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. 2. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. American Society for Quality.2nd Ed. Environmental Economy. eco-design.
. protected areas. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. 1998.B. Legal protection of species. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. habitats. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. laboratory custody. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. C. NOC for plant operation. community and ecosystem level. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. quality assessment.e. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. Course Outlines Introduction. Sunderland. Associates Inc. Recommended Books: 1. croplands. cities. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. air. sampling and design purposes. presampling requirements/information. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. management. Z. field custody. international agreements. P. A Primer for Conservation Biology. Sinauer. and Morre. Preservation methods including pH control. Publ. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. Biogeography. chemical addition. 2. 2000. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. conservation in man-made ecosystems. population. quality control sampling. refrigeration and freezing methods. ecotourism. 3. Rawalpindi. national and international laws and regulations. 2000. Mirza. Cox. soil and living organisms. 2ndEd.conservation at species. their categories. plants. Considerations. Saad Printers. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. Conservation of wildlife.R. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. water. London. Lahore). Kings College. Quality assurance and quality control. conservation and livelihood. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. conservation strategies.B. forests. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. EIA requirement. P.B. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. design and types of samples.D.. 35 ..
biological. 2008. Tokyo. 2000.) McGraw-Hill.USA. Chuviero. S. 7. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. Murai. USA. R. Moisture in the Atmosphere. The Measurement of Climate Change. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources.1999. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. altered community structure. USA. 2002. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. New York. and Guethner. I. D.. McKlivie. E. 5. Remote Sensing Note.Recommended Books: 1. Korte. . 6. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. (eds. extinctions. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. Physical. D. 2. Human responses to potential climate change. regional. 3. Lewis Publisher London. phenological changes. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. Peakall.1996. agriculture. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. E. Manahan. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. Forstner U. 2008. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. Energy and Temperature. 1992. chemical. S. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. Precipitation. USA. UK. H. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change.. 2nd Edition. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. Regional droughts and 36 . Keith. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. F. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. (ed) Springer. 8. N. Ozone depletion. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. its causes and effects. human health. Environmental Chemistry. Burden. Recent Climate Change Indicators. Chapman and Hall. 2002. L. Earth Observation of Global Change.
and Solutions. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. 2. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. solids.cataclysmic climate change. Climate Change . Earthscan Publication Ltd. John Wiley & Sons. EIA project management. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Ministry of Housing and Works. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. T. Islamabad. Types & Resources to produce Energy. 5. social impact assessment (SIA). & Nixon. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. impact analysis. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. Global Warming and Climate Change.(ed). 2004. and noise. 2005. J. Glasson. Houghton. 3. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. A.A.. decision-making to implement the project.Causes.. Therivel.). reporting. 2005. Hardy. Routledge. public involvement.. Islamabad. 1994. Petts. 2003. 3. London. Climate Change . Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. 4. 1st Edition. J. J.O. 1999. 4. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. liquid. law. Oxford. National Book Foundation. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. and Solutions.Causes. scoping. screening. mitigation and impact management. Effects. R. 6. J. Effects. Global Change and the earth system. Cost and benefits of EIA. Main stages in EIA process.. J. 37 .T. project implementation and follow up. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Keith. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. and Chadwick. John Wiley & Sons. (ed. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. Blackwell. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). London. 2005. Recommended Books: 1. 2. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. D.. review of EIA quality. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. 2003. A. overview. Recommended Books: 1. 2000. Harrop. Sringer. Hardy... 1986.
field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. B. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. wind power and nuclear power. their pros and cons. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. Sadler.. solar power. requirement. limitation in the future.. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. 2002. threat and its causes. J. existing management approaches. effective management. 6. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. management options... Conservation in Progress. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. Asian Development Bank. agriculture products and their share in GDP. 1997. S. R. causes and methods for its improvement. John Willey & Sons.. national example. 38 . A. management options. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. Everitt. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. M. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. wildlife census. H. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. process and contents of the management plan. Rangeland Management: existing status. best available option for future.. threats. methodologies. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. & McCabe. 1993. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. problem in agriculture. R. agriculture chemicals. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia.5. national agriculture policy. New York.. (ed. Ludwig. USA. Lohani. F. 2nd Edition. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. Development of Management Plan: needs. Carpenter. Goldsmith.B and Warren. their current status and threats. Types. and Tu.). national and provincial legislation. forest types and its existing management. importance. B. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. Recommended Books: 1. Evans. United Nations Environment Programme. occurrence and distribution of natural resources.
Interviews. types of sampling design/. Review of Literature. population and sampling frames. Sage CA.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. Scientific Methods. Experimental Research. V. Research Proposal: its importance . Objectives. Review of Literature. Case Studies. research methods. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. Dasmann.E.L. concepts and terminologies. Surveys. J. Thousand Oaks. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. Creswell. W.2. 2007. Environmental Conservation. London. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. Inference based on findings. 1992. 1990. Search Engines. Scientific Research: Science. Islamabad. Selecting the Research Method. R. Methodology.Amsterdam.. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. 1984. Bibliography. to introduce students to research design. Hansen. How to put things together? Introduction. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. Material Methods. 3. New York. & Plano Clark. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. Questionnaire. 5.A pre-requisite for Research. 4. Sampling: the logic of sampling. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment.E. Literature Search: Database. P. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). 39 .F. and Jorqensen. GOP and IUCN. S. Elsevier. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. USA. Research Design & Research Methods. John Wiley & Sons.
National Conservation Strategy 5. Qadar.. 6. and Arhonditsis. 3rd Edition. 2008. of Chicago Press. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking.Batty.2. 1997. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. Moriarty. 2003. Survey Research Methods. 3.h. 5. Law Books House. Robert Yin. 1989. 2003. E.S. G. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. 2. Government of Pakistan 3. S. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. Marilyn F.Harrad. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. Chichester. M. Belmont California. R.USA. National Environmental Policy 4. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Univ. Recommended Books: 1. Wadsworth Publishing Company. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. 2000. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . Diamon. Sage Publishers. Students project in Environmental Science. John and sons Ltd. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. 4. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act.. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. Babbie. USA.. 2001. 1997. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. Booth. 2nd Edition. regulations made there under. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. USA. England..
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45
POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.
Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46
RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,
5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.
Varis. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. Oxford University Press New Delhi. Pakistan. virtual water. A. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). Asia Printer. Biswas. pollution aspects.. I. and Qamar.. Cheema. flood and droughts. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. integrated water resources management (IWRM).1993. fisheries management. hydrological cycle. Islamabad. 2003. Indus Water Accord 1991. J. and Malik. (ed. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. A.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. 2006. 6. 2005. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. Ahmed. water quality and quantity aspects. 4. The Politics of Managing Water. P. C. R.). how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan.. groundwater exploitation. N. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. 3. wetlands resources management. 2006. Ahmed. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. 5. Khan.. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. 1993.K. A. Briscoe. Mirajuddin Publication . Recommended Books: 1. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. 2. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. tubewells. R. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. and Tortajada. Bengali. Revised & enlarged edition. Mirajuddin Publication .. N. K. recycling and re-use of wastewater. O.Lahore. (eds. Pakistan . water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. with drinking water facilities like springs. 44 . flood and drought management. Lahore.. Islamabad. U.). water supply and demand management measures. SDPI Oxford University Press.. watershed/catchment. Oxford University Press Karachi.
Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. and Bantel. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations.. Islamabad. D. urban settlements. future of urban centers. Soil degradation. Types and properties of parent materials. Brady. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. Academic Press. Urban ecosystem. Upper Saddle River. R. Soils in Our Environment. 1. and Weil. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. Physical and chemical processes of weathering.. Definition. Causes of urbanization. 2008. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. USA. 2007.W. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. Soil Science. 2007. After completion of this course. Hillel. transport. urban political ecology. PrenticeHall. Upper Saddle River. Factors and processes of soil formation. NJ. Soil forming minerals. CA. Cation and anion exchange. the salient features of urban environments. R. 45 . USA. Forms of urbanization. Process and outcome. Course Outlines Introduction. Pakistan. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils.C. Urbanization. 11th Edition. Miller. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. 1996. Prentice Hall. USA. R. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. Gardiner. Bashir. NJ. hydrological processes. D. management and green productivity. E. Physical and chemical properties of soil. soils.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. urban flora and fauna. San Diego. urbanization in Pakistan. N. National Book Foundation. Course Outlines Introduction. humans as components of urban ecosystems.T. urban landscapes characteristics.R. urban patterns and ecosystem functions.
Gilbert. Hague. 2004. 2007. nature and purpose of urban planning. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. Principles of planning. SBS academic publishing. Levels of planning. Planning and its relationship with other professions. London. Chapman and Hall. UK. USA. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development.1990. UK. J. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. O. M. Recommended Books: 1. 1.. Aims and Objectives of planning. New trends in planning and city management. New York. Land use planning theories. H.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. Scope. M. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. S.and Kowaril. CRC Press LLC. Springer. 5. 2. SAGE Publications Ltd. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. Justification for planning for city management. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation.L. The planning process. Penguin Group. Elements of urban planning. 2004. 46 . Planning theories and concepts. A. The Works: Anatomy of a City. 2. V.S. Hejny. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. 1989. Routledge. Silberstein. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. 3. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. Planning and Urban Change. D. C. 4. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. Routledge.. Ward.and Maser. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. USA.. 2000. 2009. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. S. Alberti. Types of Urban Plans. Kate.. UR.. London. Hough. I. nd 2 Edition. Smith. UK. 2006. Sukopp. City Design for Sustainable Development.
Cultural factors. D.. 1986. The Guilford Press. Recommended Books: 1.J. International phenomenon.. Socio-economic factors. Natural Disasters Alexander. Disaster Management: Components of management.. 4. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. i. Physical factors.. Manila. Earthquake. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. 1993. 1991. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Ministry of Housing and Works. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. Flood Management: Organizational Role. Flooding.3. Chapman & Hall. Boulder .UNESCO. Earthquake Management. Kates. New York. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors.W. UK. G. Westview Press. Longman Group.. Islamabad. Different approaches and Indicators. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. Natural cycles and their role. Paris. 3. It discusses a wide range of aspects. M. H. Clara. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. and Woodrow. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. Introducing Town Planning. Government of Pakistan. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms.. Political factors. E&UA Div. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. 2. Hazards.e. Prediction. and White G. Landslide. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation.F. ADB. 2nd Edition. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made.B. Disaster as an opportunity for development. Role of Media in Disaster Management. 4. R.. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. P.W. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. 47 .. 1993. 1993. 1989. New York.
M. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America.. John Wiley and Sons. Quorum Books. 2007. Perry R. uses. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. Westport. merits and demerits of wind. types. 1983. biomass resources. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment.B and Keller. decomposers. 2001. OECD/IEA.. 48 . USA. alternate energy resources. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. and Yonavjak. Agroecology. L. solar. McKinney.C. energy resources. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. 1. D.W. Consumer and producer relationship. 6th Edition. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. Schoch. Biotic structure.H. Paris. consumers.L. 2. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. Ecological concept in crop and food production. primary producers.A. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. 4th Edition. 6. 3. New York. hydropower. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. 2007. Sustainable livestock management. R. F. 1984. local. sustainable energy management.. and Mushkatel. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions.5. Disasters and Development Cuny. M. A. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Botkin. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. E. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. energy resources of Pakistan. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources.
M. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. Agrocology. USA. Study of index of diversity. India. Corol. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species.G. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity.. Study of stratification and profile diagram.P. Yandermeer J. CBS Publishers and Distributors. Experimental Plant Ecology. New York. and Sudha. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. 1995. C. R. 3. P.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. Kapur. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. 1990. New Delhi. Boulder.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. Recommended Books: 1.H. E-11 Seminar 49 . M. USA.A. 2. Westview Press.R. and Rossel. Altreri. 2000.
The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. 3. the Committee agreed on the following principles. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. 2. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. 5. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. that: 1. 4. 50 .POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. availability of the faculty and other facilities.
5. 24. 12. 6. 4. 5. 3. 4. 8. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 11. 10. 9. 23. 2. 17. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 22. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 9. 12. 25. 15. 16. 26. 11. 14. 7. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 6. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 7. 19. 8. 3. 10. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 18. 2. 21.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 20. 13.
. Regional and International Environmental Issues. Oxford University Press.1995.A. 2. S. Oxford University Press.1994. Conservation Strategies. Treaties. 2. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. status of Terrestrial. Hodder and Stoughton.S. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall.E. Environmental control Policies. Geography of Pakistan. Relationship of culture. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. S. Islamabad. London Black Stone Press Ltd. Environment People and Economy. Recommended Books: 1.1991.. FURTHER READINGS 1.. Draft National Environmental Policy. 1987. D. technology and resource use. development of concepts. Karachi. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences.. Instruments and methods.T. Hansen. 52 . NCS. Khan K. and Bell. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. and Jorqensen. F. Conventions and Protocols in Global. 1991. 3.1994. Ball. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. Amsterdam. P. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. London. 3. 1992. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment.E. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. 2nd Edition. Elsevier. GOP and IUCN. WCS. 4. S. Mackenzie J.. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. Provincial and Local Strategies.F. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Money.DETAILS OF M. Mackenzie.
England. Environmental auditing. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. Environment Department. Environmental Chemical Analysis.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. Air and Solid Waste. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). DC. procedures and methods of EIA. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. History. 2. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Harlow Essex. 1995. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. A one Publishers Lahore. Demographic impact assessment. social impact assessment. Recommended Books: 1. Government of Pakistan. Ahmed.A. sample collection and preservation. 1995. process. sampling rules. Longman Scientific and Technical. Longman House. WB. D. Wastewater. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. Gas Chromatography etc. Burnt Hill. Ministry of Environment. Assessment of environmental impacts. 1993. ed. 3. K.Vanclay. 53 . role and importance. Principles of physical. C. Washington. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. A. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Chichester. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). 2. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment.. opportunities and issues. Cost benefit analysis of projects. Recommended Books: 1. World Bank. Case Studies and review. ecological impact assessment. Wood. FURTHER READINGS 1. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. F & Bronstein. economic impact assessment. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. John Wiley & Sons. UK. Ed.
.. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Caeneross. John Wiley and Sons. Meredith J. work breakdown structure. Lippmann. inputs. R. Mantel s. principles and practices. M/S Banarsid. Resource Mobilization. R. Project Planning and Approval Processes. 2.. Basic Environmental Health. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. 54 . 2nd Ed. Occupational Health: problems and issues. Prentice Hall International Inc. and Wright.. Project Planning. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. Government Policies and Programs. feasibility study. development objectives. Project Management Institute.. L. K.. Ergonomic and Safety. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. Reasons for Project success or failure. T. Public health concept. USA. assumptions. Nebel. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. 1997. 1998. UK. Primary health care services. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. 1st Ed. Environmental Health Engineering. Writing Project Proposal. T. Planning Commission Performas. economic evaluation. B. A. J. Oxford University Press New York. 1st ed. Park. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. prevention and control. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. 2. New York. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. J.. Wiley Interscience. USA. Defining Project objectives. air borne. London. 2002. de Kok. Inc.2000. Kjelllström. 3. Recommended Books: 1. means of verification. indicators. 5. 1st Ed.. A Guide to Project Management. 2001. Project Life Cycle. 4. outputs. specific objectives. Project Initiation. Need identification.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. activities.. safety techniques. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. 1993. T. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). Accident prevention and safety plans. T. Yassi. S. and Guidotti. 1992. M.
B and Keller. ISO Central Secretariat. merits and demerits of wind. non-renewable and renewable. 2. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. Sources of data. D. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. principles and elements of the process of EMS. 1990b. nuclear) local. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. uses. Sayre. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. solar. data collection and interpretation. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). and Yonavjak. 4th Edition. energy resources. bio-energy resources. Environmental Auditing. 2007. John Wiley and Sons. 1998. alternate energy resources. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. hydropower.L. Schoch. types. 6th Edition. gas. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. energy resources of Pakistan. St Luise Press. L. sustainable energy management for agriculture. 3. McKinney. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). transport.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System.. E. 2001. D. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Recommended Books: 1. Paris.M. 4. R. M. petroleum. Botkin. USA. 2007. industry and domestic sectors. Environmental auditing. 3. 2. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Paris. Michigan-January 2001. Recommended Books: 1. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. 55 . OECD/IEA. Principles of cleaner production. Switzerland. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Related Environmental regulations. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor.A.
Plant Ecology. B & Jager. John Wiley & Sons. Climate Change and Ecosystems. competition and coexistence. 2003. J. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. John Wiley & Sons. Hardy.D. Houghton. E & Muller-Hohenstein. ED. & Charlesworth. K. human activities and vegetation dynamics. J. Maarel.). John Wiley & Sons. Blackwell Publishing. The Green House Effect. 2003. Climate change and food production. Berlin. Oxford UK. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture.Causes. 3. 5. resources and plants. UK. D. Modeling of climate change. global aspects of plant ecology. Species richness. 2. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. management and restoration. J. types of climate change models. 3. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. E. 4. Silvertown. vegetation dynamics. T. plant invasions. UK 1991. Climate Change . Warrick. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Oxford. Beck. Vegetation Ecology Ed. 2005.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. Climate Change . 56 . survival and extinction. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. (Ed. Springer. water resources. Hardy. London. Recommended Books: 1. Plant population dynamics. Chichester. Green House Gases. 2. forests. D. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press.. 2005. etc. Shulze. Earthscan Publication Ltd. 2005. Life history strategies of plants.. types and their climatic effects. 2004. plant conservation. and Solutions. 1st Edition. 2005. Effects. Recommended Books: 1.Causes. and Solutions. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants.T. Effects. Blackwell Publishing. geographical and temporal patterns. 1. ECOPE 29. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions.
status. B.(2nd Ed. 3. London. Loss of biodiversity. Oxford. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. Oxford University Press. 4. Wetlands. 1984. 2004. Conserving Living Natural Resources. E.) Gaston. & Ripley. Roberts. 1986. Forests. Oxford University Press. distribution. Bailey. Extinction of species. T. 5. 3. Sinauer Assocaites.L. deforestation and its control. Cambridge University Press. Publishers Sunderland. Cambridge. UK. Mcmillan. Protection and restoration of species. Protected areas in Pakistan. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. R. And Bolen. types. Oxford University Press. USA. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Biodiversity: An introduction. Rangeland management. biological diversity. habitats and ecosystems. threats and conservation. their ecological and economic importance. Global and national biodiversity. II). John Wiley And Sons.B. 1973 2. Forest plantations. 2002. their types and role in conservation. Wildlife of Pakistan. Essentials of Conservation Biology. S. Establishment and management of protected areas. 2002. management. Principles of Wildlife Management. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. kinds. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. Oxford. K. types. T. Blackwell Publsihing. I). Oxford. distribution and management. 57 . 1998.J.G. & Spicer.J. Sustainable forest management. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. Threatened animals and plants. Status of forests in Pakistan. Inc. Wildlife Ecology and Management. UK. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. their importance. Consumptive.A. Participatory forest management. J. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan.J. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management.D. Primack. Weddell. Robinson. Recommended Books: 1. S. Cambridge. 1992. J. Recommended Books: 1. Protected areas. Roberts.J. distribution. 2. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. W. its causes. problems and solutions.
various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. Clara. S. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. urban landscape characteristics. The Works: Anatomy of a City. management of transport. 3. sanitation. Islamabad. 4.. Kate. 1986. Penguin Group. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Introducing Town Planning. 2000. H. E&UA Div. Urban land use planning and management. Forms of urbanization. Ministry of Housing and Works. V. J. future of urban centers. New York. CRC Press LLC. Sustainable cities. urban systems and their characteristics. 58 . USA. Planning and Urban Change. urban political ecology..COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. Recommended Books: 1. 2007. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. C. 1993. G. London. Ward. Longman Group. SAGE Publications Ltd. A.and Maser. Silberstein. UK. Government of Pakistan. Environmental problems of urban life. drinking water and solid waste in cities.. UK. 2004. urbanization in Pakistan.. USA. 2.
ISBN 0194313492 59 .V. Oxford University Press.J. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. Practical English Grammar by A.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. Martinet. Thomson and A. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. Third edition.Annexure . a) Functional English Grammar 1. 1997. Exercises 1.
Upper Intermediate. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing.2. Third Impression 1992. Writing. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good.V. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. Exercises 2. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . Oxford Supplementary Skills. 1997. Third edition. Fourth Impression 1993. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. and speed reading. minutes of meetings. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Reading. intensive and extensive. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Reading/Comprehension 1. Martinet. b) Practical English Grammar by A. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. Thomson and A. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. Oxford Supplementary Skills.J.
Third edition. Exercises 2. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. b) Writing 1. Thomson and A. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Fourth Impression 1992. Advanced. Writing. clarity. Writing. discursive. 2. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Martinet. Third Impression 1991. descriptive and argumentative writing). Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis.J. Third Impression 1992. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . introduction to presentations. Fourth Impression 1993. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. content. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. narrative. Reading 1. Oxford University Press 1986. Reading. 2. form. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Writing.1. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin.V. language. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Practical English Grammar by A. Advanced by Ron White.
62 . argumentative and report writing). b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. 2. Mandell. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. A Custom Publication. descriptive. Compiled by norther Illinois University. Kirszner and Stephen R. College Writing Skills by John Langan. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. Kathleen Shine Cain. 3. Martin’s Press. 2004. without taxing the taste of engineering students). Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. St.(particularly suitable for discursive.
Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. 1971-77 d. Muslim advent iii. 2000. Karachi: Oxford University Press. . Economic institutions and issues b. national development. 63 Books Recommended 1. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. 3. 2. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. government. Mehmood. 1977-88 e. Indus Civilization ii. State & Society in Pakistan. Lahore. Ethnicity d. S. Shahid Javed. 1999 onward 3. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Akbar. 1988-99 f.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. b. People and Land i. Location and geo-physical features. 1993. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. S. 1947-58 b. 4. 1994. ideological background of Pakistan. politics. contemporary Pakistan. Society and social structure c.M. Historical Perspective a. Karachi: Oxford University Press.Annexure . 1958-71 c. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. Contemporary Pakistan a. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Study the process of governance. 2. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. Safdar. Zaidi. Course Outline 1.
14. Tahir. nd. 10. Wilcox. II & III. Afzal. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Khalid Bin. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Rafique. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. M. Institute of Public Policy Research. Vol. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Party. 7. Politics in Pakistan. Zahid..National Movement in Pakistan. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. Lawrence. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. I. 6.5. Ansar. 1998. Aziz. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Sayeed. 12. 1972. Wayne. Muhammad Waseem. Islamabad. 9. Lahore: Vanguard. Enigma of Political Development. 1976. History & Culture of Sindh. Political Parties in Pakistan. 1980. Safdar. Ziring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.The Emergence of Banglades. 8. Club Road. Haq. 1980. 64 . Pakistan Under Martial Law. Noor ul. 13. 11.K. 1987. Amin. Washington: American Enterprise. 1993. K. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Mehmood. Ethno . 1967. The Political System of Pakistan.
Annexure . Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.56.A.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.6. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.A.40.19.Tadabar (Verse No1.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.A.21.20) Related to thinking.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.A.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .57.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.58.
in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.
“An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. Ahmad Hasan. Pakistan.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. IRI. “Emergence of Islam” . “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. “Studies in Islamic Law. Islamabad (2001) 67 . Bhatia. International Islamic University. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University.S. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad.
Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). PWS-Kent Company. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. trigonometric identities. functions. 1978. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. equations reducible to quadratic equations. introduction to sets.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. set operations. College Algebra and Trigonometry. system of linear equations. Boston Swokowski EW. not majoring in mathematics. Cramer’s rule. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. matrix inverse.Annexure . types of functions. cube roots of unity. Sharron S. determinants. 1987. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. Wooton W. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. PWS-Kent Company. Boston 68 . Houghton & Mifflin. 1986. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. complex numbers. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. types. geometric progression. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. harmonic progression. Beckenback EF.
Boston Thomas GB. 1983. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. integration by parts. 1995. rational and transcendental functions. Calculus (11th edition). distance between a point and a line. New York Stewart J. Reading. change of variables in indefinite integrals. derivatives. various forms of equation of a line. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. Davis S. PWS-Kent Company. John Wiley. parallel and perpendicular lines. differentiation of polynomial. continuous functions. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. not majoring in mathematics. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. angle between two lines. continuity. not majoring in mathematics. intersection of two lines. integration by substitution. inequalities. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. distance between two points.2. 2005. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. 69 . functions and their graphs. Finney AR. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. solution of equations involving absolute values. Recommended Books: Anton H. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. left-hand and right-hand limits. USA 3. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). equation of a line. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Ma. Addison-Wesley. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. Calculus (3rd edition). slope of a line. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Bevens I. 2005.
College Algebra and Trigonometry. 70 . Boston 4. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). nature of roots of quadratic equations. determinants. • Contents 1. locus of a point in various conditions. Cramer’s rule. Analytic Geometry. inverse of matrices. types of matrices. Scott. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. 1987. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. functions. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Introduction to sets. Boston Swokowski EW. system of linear equations. intersection of lines and circles. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. ellipse. Freshman and Company. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. PWS-Kent Company. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. PWS-Kent Company. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. 1986. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. hyperbola. Conic Sections: Parabola. circles determined by various conditions. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). set operations. equations reducible to quadratic equations.Circle: Equation of a circle. 1969 Kaufmann JE. types of functions.
discrete and continuous series. Latest Edition. relationship of statistics with social science.geometric and harmonic progressions. Graphs: Graph of straight line. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. 2. Books Recommended: 1. standard deviation. Latest Edition. types of frequency series. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. R. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. ungrouped and grouped data.. Walpole. Boston. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. Kaufmann. frequency polygon. quartiles. Latest Edition. array. E. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. Prentice Hall. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. tally sheet method. bar frequency diagram histogram. variance. 71 . Measures of dispersion: Range. E. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. deciles and percentiles.. Swokowski. R. E. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. W. 5. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. skewness and kurtosis. 2. 4. cumulative frequency curve. R. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. 3.. individual. moments. PWS-Kent Company. Wilcox.. circle and trigonometric functions. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. characteristics of statistics. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. trigonometric identities. J.
applications of integration. W. integral inequalities. logarithmic integration. quotients. S. special points of a function. sinusoidal function. integration by parts. Calculus Single and Multivariable. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . Mathews. Least-Squares Line.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. Swokowski. 1999. Bevens. Calculus. Schaum’s Outline Series. Recommended Books: 1. Anton. Continuity. Extreme Values of Functions. theorems of differentiation. 5. Inc. 2005. the inverse of differentiation. John H. 3. Leibnitz’ theorem. Slope of a Line. Equation of a Line. 2. E. Solution of equations involving absolute values. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. Second Edition 1992. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. et al. Continuous Functions. infinite and improper integrals. Elliott Mendelson. Thomas. 4. H. Prentice-Hall. 4th edition. 2002. Jhon Willey & Sons. products. Hughes-Hallett. Frank A. Rational Functions. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. Contents 1. • Integration Integration from first principles. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. Addison Wesley publishing company. integration by inspection. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. logarithmic differentiation. Davis. 6. plane polar coordinates. Boston. Calculus. 3rd Edition. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. and Transcendental Functions. 1983. the chain rule. Inc. 2005. substitution method. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. 2. McCallum. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. 8th edition. integration using partial fractions. reduction formulae. Inequalities. Calculus. Trigonometric Functions. John Wiley & Sons. implicit differentiation. I. Integration by Parts.Jr. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. Rational and Transcendental Functions. Gleason. 6. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. 11th Edition.
alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. finding the nth roots of unity. modulus and argument. multiplication. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. geometric series. series involving natural numbers. complex conjugate.Additions and subtraction. identities of hyperbolic functions. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. inverses of hyperbolic functions. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. solving hyperbolic equations. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. approximation errors in Taylor series. arithmetico-geometric series. the difference method.
centers of mass and centroids. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. moments of inertia. point to plane. scalar triple product.5. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. symmetric and antisymmetric. vector product. masses. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. of a unitary matrix. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . line to line. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. 6. orthogonal. Hermitian. the inner product. Pappus’ theorems.
differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. divergence of a vector field. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. combinations of grad.8. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. spherical polar coordinates 75 .
The Mean Deviation. level of significance. The Mode. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. bias. probability and non-probability sampling. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Population. Bar charts. Pie chart. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Box and Whisker Plot. Exercises. Presentation of Data Introduction. Statistical problem. Exercises. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Different types of Averages. sampling and non sampling errors. Unit 4. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Diagrams. Exercises. 76 . Sources. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Range. The Variance and standard deviation. sampling with and without replacement. Collection of primary and secondary data. Errors of measurement. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Histogram. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Constructing of a frequency distribution. Graphs and their Construction. Change of origin and scale. definition of outliers and their detection. Exercises. Type-I and Type-II errors. Absolute and relative measures. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Types of frequency curves. Observations. Editing of Data. Unit 2. Difference of means and proportions. Quantiles.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Unit 3. Exercises Unit 6. sample design and sampling frame. The semi-Interquartile Range. Significant digits. null and alternative hypothesis. Coefficient of variation. Discrete and continuous variables. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Stem and Leaf Display.Annexure . Rounding of a Number. Exercises. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Standardized variables. Moments and Moments ratios. properties of Good Average. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Unit 5. Historigram. Median and mode. Test statistics. Exercises. Probability and Probability Distributions. Empirical Relation between Mean. acceptance and rejection regions. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Data. Unit 7. Measures of Dispersion Introduction.
2005.Unit 8. its estimation and interpretation. “Introduction to Statistics”. examples. r and R2. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. R. Inc. Coefficient of linear correlation.. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. Exercises. Contingency Tables.. Exercises Unit 9. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. simple linear regression. 2 Muhammad. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction.Single Population Introduction. Testing of Hypothesis. Kitab Markaz. Macmillan Publishing Co. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. Regression and Correlation Introduction. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. Unit 11. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. New York. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. 1982.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. 3rd Ed. Exercises Unit 10. F. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. E. Correlation. cause and effect relationships. 77 .
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