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For BS MS
HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD
CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………
6 12 14 50 51
ALTAF ALI G. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. The world has turned into a global village. It also aimed to give a basic.). SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . D773/76-JEA (cur. Lahore. R&D organizations. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. 63. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. PROF. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. and 36. universities and other institutions of higher education. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. dated December 4th 1976. the Federal Government vide notification No.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. It is. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. DR.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. degree awarding institutions. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. therefore. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic.
OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. UNI. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. OF FINAL CURRI. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. COL. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. OF NCRC. PREP.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. OF CURRI. R&D. Preparation 5 . EXP. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. REC. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI.
April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Dr. Member 5. 7. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Member 6 . Rawalpindi Dr. Member 3. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Member 4. Following attended the meeting:1. Dr. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Lahore Member 6. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Karachi from 28-30. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Rawalpindi Dr. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Dr.
Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Member 16. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Prof. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Prof. Member 15. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Member 10. 7 . Dr. Dr. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. 13. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Member 11. Dr. Dr. Dr. Karachi Member 12. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi.8. Dr. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Member 14.
Shafiq-ur-Rehman. 2. Dr. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Karachi. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Dr. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum.17. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. Member 20. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. The meeting was opened by Mr. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Mr. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. At first. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. Mr. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. 1. 8 . Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. Chairman. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Secretary Dr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Faisalabad Member 18. Member 19. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. Director of HEC Regional Center.
climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. In last few centuries. 4. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. 3. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 .3. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. 2. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. 1. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. The committee thanked Mr. 5. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. 6.
The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. 5. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. Apply theoretical understanding. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. ii. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . regional and global contexts. This committee. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. in its preliminary meeting. skills and behaviour patterns. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems.
Integrating natural sciences. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. 2. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. 5. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. 6. The 11 . with consensus. that: 1. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. Sc. eight semesters in the semester system. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. 1.. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F.e. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. The medium of instruction. A. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. 3. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. 4.
Climatology* 23. Environmental Microbiology 21. Environmental Pollution 22. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Biology –II* 9. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. English-I 6. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Environmental Chemistry 15. Introductory Economics* 17. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Basic Chemistry* 4. Environmental Physics 16. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Biology –I* 3. Introduction to Earth Science 8. Psychology* . Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. English-III 18. English-II 12. Sociology/Anthropology* 11.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Introduction to Computer 14.
Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. Applied Ecology 26. Environmental Management Systems 34. Environmental toxicology 27. Environmental Biotechnology 32.24. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. 46. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . ELECTIVE-III 42. English-IV/ Univ. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Natural Resource Management 40. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. 44. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Environmental Economics 29. Environmental Monitoring 36. Climate Change 38. 45. Opt.
• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .
R.T. Botkin.B & Keller. Wright. 2007. M. Human environment and its problems: global. development in industry and agriculture. John Wiley & Sons. B. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms.L. 15 .. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. biological and social. and their relationships with various environmental factors. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. & Nebel. regional. environmental pollution.M. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. 10th Ed. McKinney. & Yonavjak. lipids. history. G.J.. 2007. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. philosophical. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. Schoch. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. 2. Different aspects of environment: physical. E. L. Recommended Books: 1. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. 2002. Environmental Science: working with the Earth.A. urbanization. socio-economic. Pearson Educational. Miller. proteins and nucleic acids. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. 4th Ed. 6th Ed. 2007 3. current global. its importance in human life. D. national. 4. ethical. Thomson Learning. ecological. R. poverty and resource depletion.
3.. chemical basis of life. G. and Whitelaw. USA.. 4. L.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. proteins. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell.. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. Structure and the basis of function. 5. Lingappa. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. Nucleic acids. Plopper. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. Wadsworth Group. Lewis. origin of metabolism. V. Introduction to cell biology. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions.. the molecule of genetic information and replication. Canada. carbonyls. A. N. covalent. carboxylic acids. 1996. lipids. Ltd. New York. USA. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. Ionic.. Cassimeris. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. polypeptides in protein diversity. 2003. esters. lipids. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. and Lewis. 5th Edetion. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. carbohydrates. 8th Ed. Self Assessment and Revie. Biology: a Human Emphasis. C. E. Shier. Bulter. 2007. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. Molecular Biology through Questions. 2007. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. 2. Cells. B. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Cell division. amines). Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. 1. phospholipids in membrane systems. Australia . Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology.Hill International Edition. USA. Starr. protobionts. chemical diversity. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. McGraw. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. 16 . J. M. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. coordinate covalent bond. 2008. Aromatic compounds. Origin of life: chemical evolution. Crossley. R. D. R.
H. Girard. 1st Ed. Freeman and Company. 2. simultaneous equations and their solutions. and Reid. T. 2nd Edition. double angle formulas. USA. UK. Andrews.E. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra.. P. 8th Edition. 2003. 5. Recommended Books: 1.C. Liss. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. Algebra of matrices. series and means. Colloids chemistry. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. 6th Edition. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. radicals. Solution chemistry. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. 17 . determinants. graphs. Jones and Barlett.. D. Column chromatography. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. B.. 2005. Principles of Environmental Chemistry.A. Surface chemistry. Blackwell Science.J. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. Osmosis and Dialysis. UK. expansion of determinants.. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. equations of lines (linear equations). EC and TDS in waste water. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions.. 2004. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). straight line and related concepts. USA. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. Lab Work Preparation of molar. Photochemical reactions. D.Special Products (Binomial Expression). 2004. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). Thin layer chromatography. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Harris. geometric and harmonic sequence.M. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. West. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. law of Cosines. normal solutions/buffers. 2nd Edition.. Skoog. Canada. J. 2004. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). W. angle-sum formula.. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. J. M. values of trigonometric functions. Jickells. molal. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane.K.D.. Cambridge University Press..ions.S. F. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis.E. real line. Brimblecombe. P. Measurement of pH. 3. D. Hill. 4. Thomson and Brooks. and Holler. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry.J. minor and cofactor of a matrix.
Trignometry for College students. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. erosion and related landforms. weathering and erosion. R. Introduction to rocks and minerals.. Addission. 3. Smith.Wesley. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. Jr. different earth processes like mountain buildings. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment.. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. Pacific Grove. foliation. New Delhi. 2. Fossils and their significance. 4th Ed. igneous and metamorphic rocks. Weathering. California. Chain rule. Earth as a member of solar system. mountain building. Scott Foresman and Company.B. by parts integration (simple applications). composition and its internal structure. Chatterjee. the processes of their formation.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. lineation and unconformities. difference. 1999. faults. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. Introduction to sedimentary.Cramer’s Rule. J. L. Recommended Books: 1. irreducible quadratic factors. age. S. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. Narosa Publishing House. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. its origin. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. 4. D. Integration: Formulas of integration. Analytical Geometry. Introduction to folds.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . 18 . cleavages. and Finney. theorems on differentiation (sum. K. Abraham. earthquakes and volcanoes. theorem of integration. 10th Ed. Thomas. nonrepeated linear factors. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. joints. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . G. product and quotient rules without derivations). Geological time scale and life through geological ages. plate tectonics. earthquakes.
2007 2. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. examples of adjustments in varied environment. Prentice Hall.. different classification systems. Foundations of Structural Biology. Wicander. protocell formation. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. Geological time chart with biodiversity. population loss and decline. How Does Earth Work. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. Biodiversity of deserts. Tarbuck. animals). Routledge. interactions among diversified life.. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources.Identification of rocks and minerals. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. E. multicellularity. Lutgens. 2007 3. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. Field Study tour. R. modern concepts. J. causes of extinction. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. K. Biodiversity of canal... 5. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. Tarbuck. J. and Monroe. F. J. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. Life in sea. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. Earth Science. 4. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. Lamarckism. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. Park. 2004. Darwinism.. biodiversity crises. G. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY .. F. consequences of losing biodiversity. Physical Geology and Process of Science. G. 19 . invasion of life on land. 9th Edition. and Tasa. Prentice Hall: 2006. molecular basis of biodiversity. Lutgens. unicellularity. 3rd Edition. D. and Pun. D.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps.. 2005. 5th Edition. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. Smith. measuring biodiversity.. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. Biodiversity of hilly areas. and Tasa. K. 11th Edition.. R. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. Brooks/Cole. Recommended Books: 1. A. E. Use of brunton compass and GPS. Prentice Hall.
Conceptualizing environment. 2nd Edition. 2.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. power & hegemony. and concerns. 2009. CA: AltaMira Press. 2001. Inc.K. Goals and expectations. 4.. Biology. Walnut Creek. 2005. Starr. Perspective of human-environment evolution. New York: New York University Press. Contemporary environment issues and debate. (editors). Recommended Books: 1. 2009. (editor). UK. Gaston. J. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. Blackwell Science Ltd. Chronological. Prospect Heights. and Spicer. Contemporary environmental status. Use of environment for vested interest. Culture. R. I. Environmental Risks and the Media. Adam. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. C. Crumley. K. P. I. 2003.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. Tripartite nature of environment. UK. Biodiversity (An Introduction). Allan & Carter. 3. USA. and Sustainable Living. Wadsworth Group. K. 3. J. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . UK. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. culture and society. Scope and application. 2006. Hannen. Townsend. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. The Biosphere. a Human Emphasis. 20 . C. L. Inc. John Wiley and Sons. 2. Bradbury. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. Nora and Wilk. 5th Edition. globalization and environmental issues. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. 2000. The Ecology of global consumer culture. Consumption. Understanding the environment-human relationship. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. IL:WavelandPress.. Routledge.
Recommended Books: 1. Ms-Power Point. 6.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. Marquis A. internet. Software: Application software.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. Types and classification of computers. 2003. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. Course Outlines Definition. processing hardware. Fundamentals of computer. Selin. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. as are their effects on the biosphere. Introduction to MS-Word. Courter. Storage hardware. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures.. Rutledge. Ms-Access. output hardware. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. e-mail. Configurations. 21 . Ed. computer programs and basic applications. K.London 1996. Local Area Network..H.1999. Ms-Excel. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry.6th Ed. Long l. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. software packages.5. Hardware: Input Hardware. 2. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . G. Long N. Operating system (Windows).A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . system software.Microsoft office 2000. Milton. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
4. 1999.. Germany. interaction of light with matter.. Turbulent jets and plumes. Transport of pollutants. Human perceptions and noise criteria. Blackwell Science.. Ozone chemistry. Entropy.. P. 2. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts.E. Canada. A. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. UK. 5. Jones and Barlett. Isotopes and radioactive decay. Sound and Noise. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. photosynthesis. Solar spectrum. India. Fregoso-Infante. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Nuclear energy. Energy conversion. Turbulence. M.. Environmental impact of various industries. its causes and adverse effects on environment. G. Solids. Environmental Science. Brimblecombe. Global climate and climatic change. B. atmospheric and soil chemistry. J.J. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. 2004. Conversion of mass.. M. Miller. C. Ibanez.. Reducing the transmission of sound. Girard.. Fundamentals of aquatic. Gaussian plumes in the air. Environmental Chemistry. Heat radiation and heat transfer. Electromagnetic radiation. Jickells. 2008. USA. 2005. Energy.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. Thomson-Brooks. Active control of sound.. and Singh. K. Recommended Books: 1. P. their sources and toxic actions.S. Chemical reactions. 2nd Edition. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter.D. Equations of fluid dynamics. Liquids and Gasses. 2004. Andrews. 1st Edition. Turbulent diffusion. trophic level. T. J. Environmental Chemistry..T. J. Springer. Liss.. DoriaSerrano. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . Samir.E. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Diffusion. 3.M. Ozone and UV light.G. Basic acoustics. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. Fate of pollutants in environment. and Reid. Hernandez-Esparza. Particle physics. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. Banerji Prentice Hall of India.
USA. USA. Seinfeld. Recommended Books: 1. 2001. Todaro. 2008. 2. Sustainable development. Wesely Publishers. 7th Ed. 2008. J. Impact of economic activity on environment. E. 2001. Smith. M. 23 . interaction between ecology and economic management. Man environmental relationship. economic welfare and difference among all. Economic management and environmental quality. R. Economic Development. economic progress. UK. 3. Field visit. Introductory Environmental Physics. Praxis publishing. World Bank Publications. John Wiley and Sons Inc. 4. Guyot. USA. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. C. concepts and measurement.. 2006. producer and community point of view. poverty. N. economic growth. Producer behavior. H. S. Boeker. Yusuf.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. economic growth and its measurement. John Wiley and Sons Inc. P. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. New York. 2. Pakistan economic context: National income. and Pandis. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. Measures for sustainable development. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. Physics of the Environment and Climate. Recommended Books: 1. Growth and development. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. Economic functions of environment. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. Environmental Physics. Routledge. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. Natural resources and the economy.1998. population and environmental quality. and Van Grondelle. S.Economic development. USA. G. Kentucky USA. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. Growth and Environment. Environmental economics. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. and Resource allocation.
2002. J. USA. 4. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . Environmental Critics of agriculture.A. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. the ethics of soil. community. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. B. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy.. Economics. community and ecosystem. 2009. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. WCIV7AA.. R. LLC. levels of ecological organization. Natural philosophy. England. International Thomson Publishing. description of population.. M. Course Outlines Introduction. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. Russell. 4. World Bank Publications. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. water. Recommended Books: 1.V. Introduction to ethical theory. Kessinger Publishing. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. Ecosystem and its types. role of light. ethics and ecology. Callicott. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. Touchstone Books. concepts and approaches. temperature.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. population. 24 . Ecology. and systems ecology. C. 3. London. 2008. N. soil. 2. Frodeman. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. Palgrave Macmillan. Portland 1967. Farmington Hills. & Pierce. Hanley. Shogren. 2007. J.3. and White. biogeography. 2008. branches of ecology. A History of Western Philosophy.. B. its fundamental concepts. DeVeer. Environmental philosophy and ethics. Swift. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. species. D. USA. B.
E P.) Moles. WCB/McGraw-Hill. population dynamics. 2. UK. Fundamentals of Ecology. Cambridge University Press. Ecology (concepts and applications. 1999 4. After completion of this course.W. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. G. Recommended Books 1. N. students will be able to understand the significance. Tata McGraw-Hill. habitat and niche. plant geography and animal distribution. and More. 3. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. 1st Ed. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. King’s College London. Odum. biotic factors. ecological modeling. Ecosystem: structure and function. characteristics of urban. community dynamics. Chapman. UK. 5th Ed. Systems ecology. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. various concepts of community. Biogeochemical cycles of C. Fundamentals of Ecology. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. Populations. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. Microbial metabolism. C. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). and S. landscape changes and their importance. Biomes of the world. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. M C J 1st ed. Lab Work 25 . 2004. Microbiology of terrestrial environments.topography and air as ecological factors. P. Concepts of Limiting factors. C. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. New Delhi. 2000. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. bacteria and eukarya. distribution limits. M. B. Population distribution and abundance. aquatic microbiology. J.Cox. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. Dash. and Barett. New York. Ecology (principles and applications). landscape ecology. 2001 5. 6th Ed. J.L and Reiss. M J. productivity of different ecosystems. 1992. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems.
J. D. Dilution plate technique.. 1995. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. and Jeffery. McGraw Hill Inc. 4th Edition.B. 2009. Prescott. (Elsevier) USA. M. C. W. Human & other living organisms.I. USA. Maier. 2002. 2005. F. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). Collection. Cambridge UK. Solid Waste generation... and Zuberer.. Butterworth-Heinemann. Knudsen. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. peppor. Prentice Hall. Marine & Industrial pollution. Microbiology. 4. purification and preservation. 26 . Recommended Books 1.A.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. Fuhrmann. 2 Edition. isolation. Types of Environmental pollution: Air.F. D.M. C.P.. Washington DC. its sources and their effects.. New Jersey.. McInernery.. M.Gerba. Environmental Pollution and Control. 2005.A.L. Cambridge University Press. Environmental Microbiology. Crawford.and Brendecke. USA.K. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic..J. J. Noise. Hill. Sylvia. and Klein.M. R. USA. I.A. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. Hartel.M.R. 5. L. transportation & treatments. USA. and Gerba. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. J. American Society for Microbiology. L. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. P.. D. Pepper. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. Soil. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution.J.J. A.C. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. Water. J.W. 3.J. R. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water.G.1998..D.L. 2. 2. 2nd Edition. Case Studies. UK.P.L. Academic Press. USA.V. 2005. Hurrst.and Vesilaind. Weiner. G. 2007. Pollution Control Strategies. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. Mean plate count. Recommended Books: 1. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. London. Peiece. Academic Press. Harley. P. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. Academic Press. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. Effects of Pollutants. Understanding Environmental Pollution. 3.. and Stetzenbach.P..
Weather and Climate.. Royal book company.W. Radiation and climate. 5.. global circulation. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. Environmental psychology. Recommended Books: 1.4. condensation and cloud Formation. 27 . 6th Edition. Surface winds. 2. American Public Health Association (APHA). 4.2nd Editions. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. 2003. 1988. John H. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . The Physics of Atmospheres. K.J. Lawrance K. 3. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. Cambridge University Press. A. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. Solar radiations. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). A brief historical background and schools of psychology. Tarbuck.. N. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Shamshad. Austin Miller. 1992. Sadder. Mechanism of heat transfer. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. Spyros. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology.E. Pandis. climatic zones of Pakistan. Factors affecting air Pressure. Karachi.F.K. Houghton J. . processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. Methods of psychology. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. air pressure. The Atmosphere. The climate of Pakistan. Four Spheres of the Earth. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. Climatology. Cloud Classification.. John Wiley and Sons. Marcel Dekkar.M. The Hydrologic cycle. local winds. Lutgens. 2006 5.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. 2002.
Fundamental of Psychology. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. Future water scenario of Pakistan. T. Background and scope.. Sustainable agricultural practices. limitation of irrigated agriculture. Environmental Psychology. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. soil resources of Pakistan. 2001. High population density and psychological impacts. M.. Fisher J. 1992.characteristics and research methods. 5th Edition. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. London. CRC Press. Routledge. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. soil erosion and conservation. London. Ecological restoration. soil salinity and water logging. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. species response to pollutants. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. 2. threats and mitigation. Bell. solar radiation and primary production. Water as an ecological resource. Course Outline Introduction.D. techniques and methods of restoration. energy and carbon balance. sustainable agriculture. P. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. Eysenck. Restoration of derelict lands. CRC Press.C. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. Pollution control through Ecology. carbon dioxide and global climate change. concepts. Water and distribution of species. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. rivers. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. Recommended Books: 1.A. and Baum A. their management and ecological restoration. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. Greene.W. 28 . Routledge. Ecology of food production. Soil as a natural resource. Environmental perception and cognition. Sustainable livestock management practices.
COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. Blackwell Scientific Publications. J. G. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. 3. P. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications.Recommended Books: 1. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. toxins vs toxicants. Shirkat Gah. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Fundamentals of Ecology.National Book Foundation. Mumtaz. A. toxicology of chemicals.1998. Island Press. biological effects. Immunological considerations in toxicology. Organs. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. Odum E. 2nd ed. Chemical interactions and their types. A. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. Synergism..I. soil and air samples. B. Soil Science. 1996. dose response relationship in living organisms. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. Oxford. and Hobbs. on human and other living organisms. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. Israr-ud-Din. R. Newman.. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. from natural and anthropogenic sources. Peshawar. in vivo & in vitro assays. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. E. Lahore. toxicity screening using microbial systems.S. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. and Barett.P. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. USA. toxins & toxicants. 5th Edition. University of Peshawar. Zedler.. and Memon.W. 2004. their containment and control strategies. Pakistan’s Environment. 5.. water and soil. Islamabad. Potentiation and Addition. 4. K. Studies in Pakistan Geography. 29 . Rashid. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. 2006. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. terminologies: Poisons. J.A. 2000 2. 1989. K and Habib. Margaret A. D. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. Falk.
1st Edition. economic development and the environment. major ecosystems. CRC Press Llc.M. Recommended Books: 30 . B. measuring environmental benefits. topographic zones. Course Outlines Introduction to history.2005 2. clean development mechanism. industry. culture. W. General and Applied Toxicology. the economy and the environment. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis.. economic aspects of different environmental problems. P. Hughes. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. people. Economic: agriculture.1 & 2. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. water resources. Klassen. geography. pollution control-a general model. Williams. Course Outlines Introduction. 2005 2. health. T and Turner. 5th Edition. M. (ed. W. Ballantyne. McGrawhill. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology.). urbanization and pollution. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. USA. Macmillan Press Ltd. 3. USA. Government of Pakistan. education.Recommended Books 1. international trade and the environment. land. 1993. Recommended Books 1. 1992. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. 1st Edition.D. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. State of the Environment-Pakistan . 1996. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. Ecological: ecological zones. 3. Vol. First and Second law of Thermodynamics.Science of Poisons . USA. Environmental Profile of Pakistan.
Sample preservation methods.W. and derived S. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. M.K. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. Holler. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. B. NO3–N & NH4-N).. Australia. COD.1. Reuter. C. All Solids.UK. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. 3. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. handling. preparation and storage. 4.I. New York.A. Environmental Economics. L. 1993. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. 3. Pearce. Gravimetery. Sample collection. Titrimetery.K. Titrimetery. Thomson and Brooks. 2000. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. Use of Potentiometery. Peverill.I.. 1999. Field. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. 2005. Standard solutions and standard curves. water and plant analysis. units. D.and Field. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. A. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. D. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. Conductivitymetry. salinity & sodicity). Harris. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. precision and accuracy. and Batemen. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry..2004.C. 6th Edition. Oxford University Press. Sparrow and D. Kolstad. K. J. Gravimetery. 8th Edition. Oxford. CSIRO Publ.J. BOD. Fluoride. Turner.R.. M. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. Collingwood. 31 . Analytical techniques for soil. I. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling... instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. and F. Data interpretation for quality control. USA. Conductivitymetry. Skoog. West. 2. D. 2003.2002. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). 2. Johns Hopkins University Press. Lab Work S. C.D. Freeman & Co. D.L.
J.1999. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Smith. Bioreactors. J. and Russel. 3. 2007. USA. PCR. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. 2005. Scragg.W. Hans- Joachim. Environmental Biotechnology. W.. Biosensor.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. Chichoster. J. National Biotechnology Commission. Isolation. 2001. 2009. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . After completion of this course. 2.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. D. National Biosafety Guidelines. 5th Ed. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. Sambrook. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. USA. New York. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. Wiley-VCH Verlag. purification and preservation of DNA. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. Biomarkers. Biotechnology. Tools in environmental biotechnology. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. and application of biotechnology in the environment. 2005. Cambridge University Press. A.). Course Outlines Introduction. USA. England. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. 4.D. Recommended Books 1. and Josef. Recombinant DNA technology. 2nd Ed.E. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. (ed. Introduction to microbial kinetics. Germany. Oxford University Press. Derbre. New York. students will be able to understand the significance. Government of Pakistan.P..
Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. history and platforms. Energy Sources. Jensen. History and data collection. Forestry. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. Different types of maps. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. 1999. Inc. 2009. eradication of the duplicated data. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. F. 5. Rancez. Lulla. Introduction to Photogrammetry. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Inc. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. 2000. R. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. 2. Mc Graw Hill Education. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. 2000. Harvey. Active and Passive remote sensing. map projection and coordinate systems. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. A. Guilfoud press New York. Agriculture. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Data entry and output. Using and reading GPS in field. Preparation of thematic maps. advantages and limitations of process. integration of information from many sources. Z. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. Types of data used in GIS. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. Aerial photography. 2008. Image Processing. Pearsons Education. Campbell. Introduction to GIS. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. John Wiley and Sons. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Fishery and wildlife. 3. Satellite Imageries. analysis and output. John Wiley and Sons. Data acquisition. V. K and L.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. Inc. Dessinov. Interpretation. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). 4. Cartography.
). standards and guidelines. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). WWF Pakistan. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. Environmental Management Systems Principles. American Society for Quality. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. Environmental aspects and impacts.. and Qasim. types of biodiversity.. and Yoxon. M. 4. Related Environmental legislation. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. 2001. alpha and beta diversity. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. hot spots of biodiversity. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. threats to biodiversity. cleaner technologies. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. Environment and sustainable development. 34 . B.2nd Ed. A. Michigan. 2006. philosophical. M. 1998. etc.. social and ethical values of biodiversity. ecological. need and approach. 2005. plant. F. Certification of EMS.C. Systems and Support Techniques.3rd Edition . principles of Cleaner production. Methods of environmental protection. Course Outlines Introduction. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. International Organization for Standardization. Conservation of biodiversity. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. 2. Environmental Management tools.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. eco-design. Khan. Sheldon. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. American Society for Quality. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. Environmental Economy. 3. economic.
quality assessment. Lahore). Sinauer. sampling and design purposes. 2000. Publ. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. Course Outlines Introduction. Cox.B. water. design and types of samples. Mirza. management. 3. Quality assurance and quality control. Preservation methods including pH control. Z. Sunderland. refrigeration and freezing methods.R. Recommended Books: 1. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. soil and living organisms. Biogeography. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. Saad Printers.. population.D. London. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. their categories. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. ecotourism..conservation at species. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. national and international laws and regulations. international agreements. cities. air. conservation in man-made ecosystems. Legal protection of species. field custody. Associates Inc. Considerations. Kings College. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. P. NOC for plant operation. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. 1998.e. and Morre. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. Conservation of wildlife.B. conservation strategies. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. quality control sampling. C. chemical addition. A Primer for Conservation Biology. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. forests. conservation and livelihood. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. 2000. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air.B. habitats. Rawalpindi. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. protected areas. laboratory custody. plants. EIA requirement. community and ecosystem level. 35 . P. croplands. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. presampling requirements/information. 2ndEd. 2..
Energy and Temperature. H. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention.. Burden. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. 2008. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. (ed) Springer.1996. biological. New York. S. its causes and effects. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. E. 2002. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. D.USA. altered community structure. S. (eds. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. 2008. McKlivie. N. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. Human responses to potential climate change. The Measurement of Climate Change. Manahan. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. phenological changes. 2000. Forstner U. Murai. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. Earth Observation of Global Change. L. 5.Recommended Books: 1. human health. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. 2002. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. and Guethner. Keith. 1992. UK. USA. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. agriculture. Korte. Chapman and Hall. Moisture in the Atmosphere. . F. E. 7. D. Lewis Publisher London. Regional droughts and 36 . The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect.1999. 2nd Edition. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. I. 8.) McGraw-Hill. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. Environmental Chemistry. USA. 2. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. Peakall. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. 3. USA. 6. R. chemical. Recent Climate Change Indicators. Chuviero. Physical. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change.. Ozone depletion. Remote Sensing Note. regional. Tokyo. extinctions. Precipitation. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide.
Therivel. 4. Sringer. Harrop. J. decision-making to implement the project.A. Ministry of Housing and Works. J. EIA project management. D.(ed). solids. and Chadwick. review of EIA quality. J. project implementation and follow up. Main stages in EIA process. Islamabad. and Solutions. 2. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. 37 . Recommended Books: 1. J. Effects. T. London. Global Warming and Climate Change.. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. 2000. overview. 2005. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. 3. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. London. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. Blackwell. Routledge. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. R. 2005. Keith.Causes... 2003. 2. Hardy. & Nixon. law. Hardy. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. 6. Global Change and the earth system. 2004. Glasson. 5. John Wiley & Sons.T. John Wiley & Sons. 1st Edition. 3. J. public involvement. National Book Foundation. Climate Change . and noise. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. impact analysis. Effects. reporting.. 4. 1999. Islamabad. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). Earthscan Publication Ltd.cataclysmic climate change. screening. scoping. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. 2003. Houghton. liquid.. A. 2005. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. mitigation and impact management. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. 1994. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice.O. Climate Change . A.). (ed. Recommended Books: 1.Causes.. and Solutions. Cost and benefits of EIA. social impact assessment (SIA). Oxford.. Petts. 1986. Types & Resources to produce Energy.
Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. best available option for future.). Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. Rangeland Management: existing status. causes and methods for its improvement. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. forest types and its existing management. Goldsmith. 1993. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. (ed. Sadler. threat and its causes. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning.. F. Development of Management Plan: needs. solar power. USA. national and provincial legislation. R. B. threats.. their pros and cons. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. R. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. effective management. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. management options. Carpenter.. occurrence and distribution of natural resources.. M. problem in agriculture. Recommended Books: 1. 2nd Edition. wind power and nuclear power. Asian Development Bank. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. management options. their current status and threats. United Nations Environment Programme. national example. 1997. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. 38 . John Willey & Sons. Ludwig.. and Tu. existing management approaches. limitation in the future. Lohani.B and Warren. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. Conservation in Progress.5. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. process and contents of the management plan. wildlife census. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. 2002. 6. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area.. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. Types. J. national agriculture policy. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. importance. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. agriculture products and their share in GDP. requirement. S. A.. New York. B. Everitt. & McCabe. Evans. methodologies. H. agriculture chemicals.
39 . and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research.E. & Plano Clark. Thousand Oaks. USA. types of sampling design/. Inference based on findings. 1992. Bibliography. population and sampling frames. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Sage CA. Sampling: the logic of sampling. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. and Jorqensen. Environmental Conservation. Review of Literature.F. Selecting the Research Method. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. Material Methods.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. Objectives. John Wiley & Sons. Search Engines. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. Surveys. 4. 1984.2. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem.Amsterdam.. Methodology. Scientific Methods. P.A pre-requisite for Research. Hansen. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data.E. Islamabad. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. W. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). V. 2007. concepts and terminologies. How to put things together? Introduction. Research Design & Research Methods. R. Case Studies. Research Proposal: its importance . J. Interviews. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. Questionnaire. Creswell. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically.L. 1990. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. Scientific Research: Science. S. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. to introduce students to research design. Dasmann. Review of Literature. London. Experimental Research. GOP and IUCN. 5. New York. research methods. 3. Elsevier. Literature Search: Database.
2000. Univ. 2008. of Chicago Press. 1989. 2003. England. Law Books House. S. R. Government of Pakistan 3. 2nd Edition. Chichester. G. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. Wadsworth Publishing Company.USA. Babbie. 1997. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Robert Yin. Sage Publishers. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. 2001. National Conservation Strategy 5. Booth. USA. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . National Environmental Policy 4. Moriarty.h. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. Survey Research Methods. M. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. and Arhonditsis.2. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. regulations made there under. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. Students project in Environmental Science. Diamon.. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. Case Study Research: Design and Methods.. 5. USA... 3rd Edition.S. 4. Belmont California. 2003. 1997. 6. Marilyn F. E. John and sons Ltd.Batty. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. Recommended Books: 1. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. Qadar. 2. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules.Harrad. 3. 2001 and the rules of business made there under.
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45
POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.
Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46
RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,
5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.
Lahore. recycling and re-use of wastewater. SDPI Oxford University Press. The Politics of Managing Water. Mirajuddin Publication . Oxford University Press New Delhi. 4. groundwater exploitation. A. 2. Pakistan . Pakistan. 2003. tubewells.. wetlands resources management. 1993.Lahore. 6. water quality and quantity aspects. K. Briscoe. 3. flood and droughts. Indus Water Accord 1991. C. Islamabad.. 2005. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. Ahmed. Cheema.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. 2006. U. R. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT).Varis. Recommended Books: 1. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. Asia Printer. P.). Mirajuddin Publication . Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization.). Islamabad. 2006... R. flood and drought management. and Qamar. hydrological cycle. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. N. Bengali. Oxford University Press Karachi. 5. with drinking water facilities like springs. Ahmed.1993. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. water supply and demand management measures. watershed/catchment. Biswas. virtual water. 44 . O. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. (ed. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. (eds. and Tortajada. integrated water resources management (IWRM)..K. Revised & enlarged edition. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. I. A.. J. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant.. fisheries management. pollution aspects. and Malik. A. N. Khan.
2008. R. R. CA. 1.R. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. Soils in Our Environment.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. PrenticeHall. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. San Diego. N. 2007.. transport. Urbanization. USA.. Upper Saddle River. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. Soil Science. NJ. hydrological processes.W. Course Outlines Introduction. Prentice Hall. Physical and chemical properties of soil. urban settlements. Soil forming minerals. Cation and anion exchange. Factors and processes of soil formation. and Bantel. NJ. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. Miller. After completion of this course. Course Outlines Introduction. Pakistan. 1996. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. urbanization in Pakistan. R. E. Bashir. Hillel. Types and properties of parent materials. urban landscapes characteristics. Process and outcome. Definition. the salient features of urban environments. humans as components of urban ecosystems. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. D. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. management and green productivity. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. soils.C. USA. Gardiner. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. future of urban centers. 2007. D. Causes of urbanization. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. Brady. Islamabad. 11th Edition. USA. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. urban political ecology. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. Urban ecosystem.T. urban flora and fauna. Upper Saddle River. and Weil. National Book Foundation. Forms of urbanization. Academic Press. 45 . Soil degradation.
C. Hough. Chapman and Hall. 2004. Routledge.. Gilbert. SAGE Publications Ltd. City Design for Sustainable Development. S. Justification for planning for city management. 3. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. Silberstein. SBS academic publishing. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. Kate. London. UK. 2. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. Types of Urban Plans. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. Springer. nd 2 Edition. Hague. 2006. J. H. Aims and Objectives of planning. O.S. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. Hejny. UR. Smith. 1989. CRC Press LLC. USA. Levels of planning. V. Principles of planning. 2009. 2007. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management.1990. 2004. Elements of urban planning. London. M.and Kowaril. New York. Recommended Books: 1. 46 .and Maser.L. Ward. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe.. D. Sukopp. Planning and Urban Change.. M. 5. Alberti. USA. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. New trends in planning and city management. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. UK. A. 1. UK.. 4. 2000. Planning and its relationship with other professions. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. 2. Routledge. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. The planning process. I. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Penguin Group. Scope. Planning theories and concepts.. nature and purpose of urban planning. Land use planning theories. S.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology.
1989.B. Disaster Management: Components of management. Different approaches and Indicators.. 3. Socio-economic factors. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. E&UA Div. M.. Flooding. Role of Media in Disaster Management.. New York.. 4. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. 1993. G. 1986. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. 2. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. Chapman & Hall. Earthquake Management. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies.F. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. Ministry of Housing and Works. D. Physical factors. Natural Disasters Alexander. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. Paris. The Guilford Press. Political factors. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. and White G. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. Clara. 47 . R.3. The Environment as Hazard Burton I.UNESCO. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms.e. UK. Flood Management: Organizational Role. Landslide. International phenomenon.J.W. and Woodrow. Introducing Town Planning. 1991. H. 1993. Earthquake. Natural cycles and their role.. 2nd Edition. ADB. 4. Hazards. Recommended Books: 1.. Cultural factors. Islamabad. Disaster as an opportunity for development. Boulder . Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors.. 1993. New York. Westview Press. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. Techniques and methods to assess hazard.. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. i. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. P. Government of Pakistan. It discusses a wide range of aspects. Longman Group. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs).W. Manila. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. Kates. Prediction.
and Mushkatel.5. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. 6th Edition.M. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems.B and Keller. Consumer and producer relationship. 2007. A. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. merits and demerits of wind. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future.H. hydropower. 48 . decomposers. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. R. energy resources. Schoch. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. energy resources of Pakistan. Botkin. Agroecology.. D. Perry R. 2.W. USA. primary producers. 2007. 2001. local. consumers. biomass resources. 1984.C. 1983. alternate energy resources. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. Disasters and Development Cuny. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. John Wiley and Sons. M. Ecological concept in crop and food production.. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. L. Biotic structure. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. Paris. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America.A. 3.. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. McKinney. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. and Yonavjak. uses. solar. sustainable energy management. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. Sustainable livestock management. E. Westport. OECD/IEA. 4th Edition. 1. New York. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions.L. types. F. 6. Quorum Books.
E-11 Seminar 49 . R. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. 2000. Corol.A. and Sudha.H. Kapur. Agrocology. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. Study of index of diversity. C. Experimental Plant Ecology. Yandermeer J.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity.. 1990. USA. P.P. 3.M.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. M. New Delhi.G. Altreri. CBS Publishers and Distributors. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. 2. India. USA. New York. Boulder.R. Study of stratification and profile diagram. 1995. and Rossel. Recommended Books: 1. Westview Press.
The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. the Committee agreed on the following principles. 2. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. 50 . 5.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. 4. that: 1. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. 3. availability of the faculty and other facilities.
Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 7. 13. 6. 16. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 22. 5.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 12. 17. 12. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 23. 8. 3. 19. 2. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 20. 2. 4. 9. 21. 26. 7. 11. 8. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 9. 4. 6. 25. 11. 15. 18. 5. 10. 14. 3. 10. 24.
S. P. Elsevier. 2. 3. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management.E.S. 2nd Edition. Provincial and Local Strategies. Karachi. Relationship of culture. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. Ball. 1992. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. and Jorqensen. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences.T.. 52 .1994. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. S. 1987. Oxford University Press. technology and resource use. S.. 3. status of Terrestrial. NCS. development of concepts. and Bell. Khan K. London. 2. WCS.1994. Instruments and methods. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall.1991. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems.F. F.A.E.. Oxford University Press. Conventions and Protocols in Global. Draft National Environmental Policy. Conservation Strategies. D.. GOP and IUCN. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. FURTHER READINGS 1. Islamabad. Regional and International Environmental Issues. Hansen. Recommended Books: 1. Geography of Pakistan. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. Environment People and Economy. Mackenzie. Hodder and Stoughton. London Black Stone Press Ltd. Amsterdam. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. 1991. Mackenzie J. Treaties. Environmental control Policies. 4.1995..DETAILS OF M. Money.
England. Ahmed.A. John Wiley & Sons. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Longman House. ed. History. 3. F & Bronstein. C. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. Longman Scientific and Technical. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). 1993. Assessment of environmental impacts. Environmental auditing. procedures and methods of EIA. 53 . Recommended Books: 1. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. economic impact assessment. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. Harlow Essex. Government of Pakistan. A. Ministry of Environment. Gas Chromatography etc. sample collection and preservation. Wood. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). ecological impact assessment. Wastewater. D. FURTHER READINGS 1. A one Publishers Lahore. K. World Bank. Air and Solid Waste. UK.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. Ed. Demographic impact assessment. 1995. Environmental and Social Impact assessment..Vanclay. 1995. 2. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. Recommended Books: 1. process. DC. Chichester. Case Studies and review. WB. Cost benefit analysis of projects. Burnt Hill. role and importance. Principles of physical. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. sampling rules. Environmental Chemical Analysis. Washington. opportunities and issues. social impact assessment. Environment Department. 2.
food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. Project Planning and Approval Processes. Wiley Interscience.. Project Life Cycle.2000. Oxford University Press New York.. T. Project Planning. Accident prevention and safety plans. Kjelllström. economic evaluation. assumptions. safety techniques. and Wright. UK. 1997. J.. Caeneross.. air borne. work breakdown structure. Reasons for Project success or failure. S. Mantel s. R.. Park. Planning Commission Performas. B. M. Inc. Ergonomic and Safety. Government Policies and Programs. Meredith J. K.. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. indicators. 1992.. Recommended Books: 1. specific objectives. Prentice Hall International Inc. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. 1993. Environmental Health Engineering. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). Project Management: A Managerial Approach. USA. USA. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. means of verification. Lippmann. development objectives. Basic Environmental Health. T. and Guidotti. New York. Explanation of Horizontal Logic.. 5. 2. de Kok. Public health concept. A. A Guide to Project Management. Occupational Health: problems and issues. T. 1st ed. R. activities. 1st Ed. principles and practices. feasibility study. outputs. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. Primary health care services. inputs. J. Nebel. 4. 3. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. Project Management Institute. Defining Project objectives.. Project Initiation. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. John Wiley and Sons. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). 1998. prevention and control. 1st Ed. 2002. 2001. 54 . Resource Mobilization. 2nd Ed. M/S Banarsid. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. London. T. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. L. Need identification.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. 2. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. Yassi. Writing Project Proposal.
energy resources of Pakistan. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment).M. St Luise Press. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. bio-energy resources. Sayre. 4. 4th Edition. R. hydropower. principles and elements of the process of EMS. L. 2. 3. M. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Paris. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). nuclear) local. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. Switzerland. non-renewable and renewable. transport. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Recommended Books: 1. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. McKinney. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. Recommended Books: 1. 55 . 2.L. 3. and Yonavjak. Michigan-January 2001. alternate energy resources. Sources of data. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. solar. uses. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. data collection and interpretation. 1990b. Principles of cleaner production.B and Keller. USA. OECD/IEA. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Environmental Auditing. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. ISO Central Secretariat.. energy resources. petroleum. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. 6th Edition. 2007. 2001. 1998. Related Environmental regulations. D. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. gas. Schoch. E. sustainable energy management for agriculture. merits and demerits of wind. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan.A. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. Environmental auditing. types. D. John Wiley and Sons. industry and domestic sectors. Paris. 2007. Botkin.
Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Oxford UK. water resources. Warrick. Vegetation Ecology Ed. Blackwell Publishing. Effects.T.). Effects. ED. 2005. Climate Change . Climate Change and Ecosystems. forests. survival and extinction. Life history strategies of plants. human activities and vegetation dynamics. Berlin.. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. 1st Edition. Climate change and food production. types and their climatic effects. J.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. John Wiley & Sons. 2003. 2003. 2005. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. B & Jager. Shulze. 2.Causes. UK 1991. E. K. resources and plants. J. 3. types of climate change models.. Silvertown. UK. Climate Change . 3. Springer. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. 56 . Introduction to Plant Population Biology. Plant population dynamics. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. John Wiley & Sons. Maarel. 2. Hardy. Modeling of climate change. Plant Ecology. 2004. global aspects of plant ecology. & Charlesworth. plant invasions. Blackwell Publishing.D. competition and coexistence. London. 2005. 2005. Earthscan Publication Ltd. Oxford. Species richness. Beck. etc. D. J. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. T.Causes. Chichester. Houghton. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. and Solutions. (Ed. vegetation dynamics. Recommended Books: 1. Green House Gases. The Green House Effect. geographical and temporal patterns. D. 4. 1. ECOPE 29. John Wiley & Sons. and Solutions. Recommended Books: 1. E & Muller-Hohenstein. Hardy. plant conservation. 5. management and restoration.
Sinauer Assocaites. its causes. Oxford University Press. B. management. problems and solutions. status. 4.J.J. 2002. Loss of biodiversity. Publishers Sunderland. & Ripley. J. 1973 2. W. Weddell. biological diversity. T. Rangeland management. Conserving Living Natural Resources. Oxford. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. 3. kinds. Oxford.A. London. J. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Global and national biodiversity. 2002. S. distribution and management. Essentials of Conservation Biology. Protected areas in Pakistan. Bailey. Cambridge. Roberts. Blackwell Publsihing. Participatory forest management.B. Recommended Books: 1. Forest plantations. 1998. UK. habitats and ecosystems. T. UK.(2nd Ed. E. Wildlife of Pakistan. Threatened animals and plants. Sustainable forest management. Biodiversity: An introduction. Status of forests in Pakistan. their importance. 2.J. R.G.L. distribution. II).COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. 2004. 1986. deforestation and its control. 5. their types and role in conservation. types.) Gaston. Forests. 3. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. threats and conservation. Extinction of species. Oxford University Press. types. K. Primack. Establishment and management of protected areas. And Bolen. Recommended Books: 1. distribution. Cambridge. 57 . 1992. Protected areas. Wildlife Ecology and Management. USA. Oxford. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE.J. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. S. Mcmillan. Principles of Wildlife Management. their ecological and economic importance. Protection and restoration of species. Inc. Roberts. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. Consumptive. Oxford University Press. & Spicer. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation.D. 1984. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. Cambridge University Press. John Wiley And Sons. I). Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. Wetlands. Robinson.
drinking water and solid waste in cities. E&UA Div. 1986. Kate. C. Islamabad. Introducing Town Planning. 1993. London. USA. management of transport. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development.and Maser. J. UK. Forms of urbanization. CRC Press LLC. V. Urban planning and management in Pakistan.. A. Urban land use planning and management. 2004. 58 . USA. urban landscape characteristics. Environmental problems of urban life. The Works: Anatomy of a City. 3.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. Sustainable cities. Ward.. Recommended Books: 1. sanitation. Clara. future of urban centers. 2000. H. Ministry of Housing and Works.. Planning and Urban Change.. SAGE Publications Ltd. Penguin Group. G. Government of Pakistan. 4. urban systems and their characteristics. urbanization in Pakistan. Longman Group. UK. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. urban political ecology. New York. S. 2007. Silberstein. 2.
ISBN 0194313492 59 . active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase.V. 1997. Thomson and A. a) Functional English Grammar 1. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. Oxford University Press.J. Practical English Grammar by A. Third edition. Martinet. Exercises 1.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1.Annexure .
2. Reading/Comprehension 1. Third Impression 1992. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Martinet. Reading. and speed reading. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . Exercises 2. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. minutes of meetings. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. Upper Intermediate. b) Practical English Grammar by A. Thomson and A. intensive and extensive. Third edition. Writing. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Fourth Impression 1993.V. 1997. ISBN 0 19 453402 2.J. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs.
content. Thomson and A. Writing. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. Martinet. Oxford University Press 1986.J. descriptive and argumentative writing). consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Third edition. clarity. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Writing. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . 2. Oxford Supplementary Skills. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Third Impression 1991.1. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. introduction to presentations. Fourth Impression 1992. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Advanced by Ron White. Advanced. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Third Impression 1992. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. Reading 1. Exercises 2. Oxford Supplementary Skills. b) Writing 1. narrative. language.V. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. 2. form. Reading. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Oxford Supplementary Skills. Fourth Impression 1993. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. discursive. Writing. Practical English Grammar by A.
St. descriptive. 62 . 2004. Kirszner and Stephen R. argumentative and report writing). General Editiors: Janice Neulib. A Custom Publication. Mandell. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. Compiled by norther Illinois University. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. without taxing the taste of engineering students). Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. Martin’s Press. 3. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. Kathleen Shine Cain. College Writing Skills by John Langan. 2.(particularly suitable for discursive.
2. . 63 Books Recommended 1. Zaidi.M. Shahid Javed. People and Land i. Akbar. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. Course Outline 1. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Indus Civilization ii. national development. State & Society in Pakistan. b. 1977-88 e. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. S. 1999 onward 3. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. S. 1988-99 f. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Study the process of governance. 4. 2. 1947-58 b.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. Mehmood. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. 1993. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Location and geo-physical features. Contemporary Pakistan a. 3. Safdar. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. government. ideological background of Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press.Annexure . Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. 2000. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. 1958-71 c. Ethnicity d. Society and social structure c. 1994. Historical Perspective a. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. Economic institutions and issues b. politics. 1971-77 d. Muslim advent iii. Lahore. contemporary Pakistan.
5. Noor ul.K. 1998. 1976. Club Road. Lawrence. 7. 1980. Mehmood. 1967. Ethno . The Political System of Pakistan. Politics in Pakistan. Vol. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. Ansar. 13. Washington: American Enterprise. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. 14. Lahore: Vanguard. Khalid Bin. I. 10. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd.National Movement in Pakistan. Political Parties in Pakistan. Safdar. Amin. 1980. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. Haq. 9. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. Afzal. History & Culture of Sindh. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Ziring. 1993. Rafique. Wayne. Aziz. Pakistan Under Martial Law. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Zahid. nd. Wilcox. Tahir.The Emergence of Banglades. Muhammad Waseem.. II & III. 8. 1972. 11. Enigma of Political Development. 64 . Islamabad. 6. M. Sayeed. K. Party. Institute of Public Policy Research. 12. 1987.
) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.A.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.40.20) Related to thinking.57.A.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.6.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.58.56.19. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.Tadabar (Verse No1.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.21.A.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .A.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.Annexure .
in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.
Bhatia. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. International Islamic University. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. Pakistan. Islamabad (2001) 67 . “Studies in Islamic Law.S. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. IRI. “Emergence of Islam” . “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Ahmad Hasan.
complex numbers. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. PWS-Kent Company. matrix inverse. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Sharron S. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). types. Wooton W. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. geometric progression. Beckenback EF. 1986. Houghton & Mifflin. Cramer’s rule. trigonometric identities. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. Boston Swokowski EW. harmonic progression. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. functions. cube roots of unity. equations reducible to quadratic equations. determinants. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. introduction to sets. not majoring in mathematics. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. 1978. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. 1987. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. PWS-Kent Company.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. Boston 68 . binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. system of linear equations.Annexure . set operations. types of functions.
angle between two lines. Calculus (3rd edition). Davis S. Bevens I. not majoring in mathematics. integration by parts. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. USA 3. left-hand and right-hand limits. Ma. 1983. John Wiley. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. change of variables in indefinite integrals. slope of a line. inequalities. distance between two points. 2005. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. Reading. Finney AR. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). 2005. Calculus (11th edition). Boston Thomas GB.2. PWS-Kent Company. solution of equations involving absolute values. differentiation of polynomial. 1995. rational and transcendental functions. not majoring in mathematics. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. integration by substitution. continuity. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. equation of a line. various forms of equation of a line. Addison-Wesley. New York Stewart J. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. derivatives. functions and their graphs. intersection of two lines. Recommended Books: Anton H. parallel and perpendicular lines. distance between a point and a line. continuous functions. 69 . Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh.
types of matrices. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). inverse of matrices. set operations. intersection of lines and circles. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). ellipse. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics.Circle: Equation of a circle. circles determined by various conditions. 1987. nature of roots of quadratic equations. hyperbola. Conic Sections: Parabola. Freshman and Company. 70 . • Contents 1. PWS-Kent Company. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. College Algebra and Trigonometry. functions. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. equations reducible to quadratic equations. 1969 Kaufmann JE. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. PWS-Kent Company. types of functions. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. Introduction to sets. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. Cramer’s rule. Boston 4. Scott. locus of a point in various conditions. system of linear equations. Analytic Geometry. 1986. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. determinants. Boston Swokowski EW.
‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. circle and trigonometric functions. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. Prentice Hall. relationship of statistics with social science. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. tally sheet method. Latest Edition. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. E. types of frequency series. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. discrete and continuous series. Kaufmann. 5. E.geometric and harmonic progressions. 71 . J. Latest Edition.. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. Wilcox.. Swokowski. Graphs: Graph of straight line. Latest Edition. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. 2. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics.. bar frequency diagram histogram. PWS-Kent Company. skewness and kurtosis. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. cumulative frequency curve. R. E. Walpole. standard deviation. array. 2. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. R. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. R. moments. deciles and percentiles.. Measures of dispersion: Range. individual. trigonometric identities. Books Recommended: 1. 3. variance. frequency polygon. quartiles. ungrouped and grouped data. characteristics of statistics. 4. Boston. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. W.
theorems of differentiation. • Integration Integration from first principles. Mathews. W. Extreme Values of Functions. the chain rule. 3rd Edition. Elliott Mendelson. S. Continuity. Frank A. Leibnitz’ theorem.Jr. 6. McCallum. substitution method. 5. 1999. 2. Prentice-Hall. Integration by Parts. reduction formulae. Bevens. Boston. integral inequalities. quotients. infinite and improper integrals. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. Continuous Functions. Calculus. 2005. Trigonometric Functions.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. Rational Functions. 1983. I. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. integration by parts. Inc. Rational and Transcendental Functions. Recommended Books: 1. 2005. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . Anton. Inequalities. Davis. 8th edition. Addison Wesley publishing company. Equation of a Line. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. et al. Gleason. John H. implicit differentiation. H. special points of a function. logarithmic differentiation. 4. sinusoidal function. Jhon Willey & Sons. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. the inverse of differentiation. 2. Solution of equations involving absolute values. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. logarithmic integration. Hughes-Hallett. Calculus. plane polar coordinates. Calculus. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. applications of integration. Second Edition 1992. John Wiley & Sons. integration by inspection. products. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. Thomas. 6. 2002. Calculus Single and Multivariable. E. 11th Edition. Contents 1. and Transcendental Functions. Swokowski. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. Least-Squares Line. Slope of a Line. integration using partial fractions. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. Inc. 3. 4th edition. Schaum’s Outline Series.
convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. modulus and argument. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. multiplication. approximation errors in Taylor series. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. identities of hyperbolic functions. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. arithmetico-geometric series. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. geometric series.Additions and subtraction. finding the nth roots of unity. inverses of hyperbolic functions. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. solving hyperbolic equations. series involving natural numbers. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. complex conjugate. the difference method. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3.
of a unitary matrix. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. vector product. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. centers of mass and centroids. line to line. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. 6. Pappus’ theorems. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. orthogonal. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . the inner product. symmetric and antisymmetric. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. moments of inertia. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. scalar triple product.5. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. Hermitian. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. masses. point to plane.
divergence of a vector field. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field.8. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. combinations of grad. spherical polar coordinates 75 . div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates.
Exercises. Presentation of Data Introduction. level of significance. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Constructing of a frequency distribution. Coefficient of variation. Unit 2. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Empirical Relation between Mean.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Type-I and Type-II errors. Population. properties of Good Average. sampling with and without replacement. The semi-Interquartile Range. Unit 7. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Probability and Probability Distributions. Exercises. Stem and Leaf Display. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Quantiles. definition of outliers and their detection. Observations. Exercises. probability and non-probability sampling. Test statistics. Standardized variables. Graphs and their Construction. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Pie chart. bias. Box and Whisker Plot. Different types of Averages. Unit 3. Exercises. Statistical problem. Unit 5. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Absolute and relative measures. Difference of means and proportions. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Range. The Mode. Types of frequency curves. sample design and sampling frame. The Variance and standard deviation. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Discrete and continuous variables. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. The Mean Deviation. Exercises. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Errors of measurement. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Histogram. Editing of Data. Sources. Data. acceptance and rejection regions. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Significant digits. 76 . Collection of primary and secondary data. sampling and non sampling errors. Diagrams. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Change of origin and scale. Moments and Moments ratios. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. null and alternative hypothesis. Bar charts. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Historigram. Exercises. Unit 4.Annexure . Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Median and mode. Rounding of a Number. Exercises Unit 6.
E. F. simple linear regression. Coefficient of linear correlation. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. 77 . Kitab Markaz. 2005. cause and effect relationships. 1982. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. examples. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. Correlation. its estimation and interpretation. Inc. R. Testing of Hypothesis. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. Exercises Unit 10.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Exercises Unit 9. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. New York. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. 3rd Ed.. Macmillan Publishing Co. 2 Muhammad. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes.Single Population Introduction. Exercises.Unit 8. “Introduction to Statistics”. Contingency Tables. Regression and Correlation Introduction. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies.. r and R2. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. Unit 11.