CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
For BS MS
HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD
CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………
6 12 14 50 51
imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. DR. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. the Federal Government vide notification No. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments.PREFACE
Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. It is. Lahore. R&D organizations. and 36. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template.). For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. D773/76-JEA (cur. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. The world has turned into a global village. SHAIKH
Member Academics August 2009
. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities.
PROF. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. It also aimed to give a basic. degree awarding institutions. dated December 4th 1976. therefore. universities and other institutions of higher education. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. 63. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges.ALTAF ALI G. 2007 at HEC Regional Center.
IN DRAFT STAGE
COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. R&D. OF DRAFT BY NCRC
IMPLE. OF CURRI.
FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC
COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. REC.
BACK TO STAGE-I
PREP. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC.
. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission
ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. OF NCRC. OF FINAL CURRI. UNDER CONSIDERATION
CURRI. EXP.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV
CURRI. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS
APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP
Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head.
3. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener
2. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Rawalpindi Dr. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Dr.
Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. Karachi from 28-30. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University.
4. Following attended the meeting:1. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Dr. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall.
. Lahore Member
6. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University.
The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre.
Prof.8. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Dr.
15. Dr. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Dr.
. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Dr. Karachi Member
12. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore
Dr. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Dr.
Director of HEC Regional Center. Faisalabad
18. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society.
Dr. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. 2. Mr. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science.
Dr. Karachi. Dr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum.17. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement.
. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. At first. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. Mr. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. Chairman. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. 1. The meeting was opened by Mr.
The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution.
1. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants.
The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development.
These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities.
3. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity.3. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development.
The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues
. The committee thanked Mr.
The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. 5. In last few centuries. 6. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development.
Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment.
This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. Apply theoretical understanding.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems.
5. This committee. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today.
ii. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. regional and global contexts. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable
development. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative
structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management
Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes.
The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. in its preliminary meeting. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the
. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. professional judgment and skills in
mitigation of environmental problems
iii. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. skills and behaviour patterns. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge
The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. 6. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in
the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. The medium of instruction. The
. Integrating natural sciences. 1. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be
comprehensive in their coverage of the contents
2. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes.
3..e. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level.
UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME
BS Environmental Science
Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. that:
1. eight semesters in the semester system.
Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English.
A. with consensus. 2. 4. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental
Science.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft.
5. assessment and evaluation will be English
for degree programmes in Environmental Science. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. Sc.
Fundamentals of Ecology 20.
SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR
Course Titles Semester – 1
1. Environmental Microbiology 21. Psychology*
. Climatology* 23. English-II 12. Biology –I* 3. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17
SECOND YEAR Semester – 3
13. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0)
Semester – 4
19. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Introductory Economics* 17. Environmental Pollution 22. English-III 18. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours
3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17
Semester – 2
7. Biology –II* 9. Introduction to Earth Science 8. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Introduction to Computer 14. Environmental Chemistry 15. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Basic Chemistry* 4. English-I 6. Environmental Physics 16.
24. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19
Semester – 6
31. 45. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136
Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours
. Environmental Monitoring 36. 44. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. Environmental Economics 29. Climate Change 38. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours
FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7
37. English-IV/ Univ. Applied Ecology 26. ELECTIVE-III 42. Environmental Management Systems 34. Natural Resource Management 40. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18
Semester – 8
43. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Opt. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. 46. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Environmental toxicology 27. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. Total Credit Hours
3 (3-0) 18
THIRD YEAR Semester – 5
25. Environmental Biotechnology 32.
• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category
Thomson Learning. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. B. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. 2007. current global. lipids. socio-economic. E. regional.A. John Wiley & Sons. proteins and nucleic acids. & Nebel. 2. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. poverty and resource depletion.J.DETAILS OF COURSES
FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0)
To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. Different aspects of environment: physical. ecological. 4. R. McKinney. COURSE 2
BIOLOGY . Major components of environment: physico-chemical. 2007.M. 10th Ed. 4th Ed. Schoch. biological and social.
1. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. national.L. Human environment and its problems: global. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. environmental pollution. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development.. history. urbanization. G. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. & Yonavjak. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. R.
Introduction: basic concepts. L.T.. philosophical. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. Miller.I
The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. 6th Ed. its importance in human life. 2007 3. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. development in industry and agriculture. D. M. Pearson Educational. Botkin. ethical. and their relationships with various environmental factors.B & Keller. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. 2002.
Ltd. Study of mitosis in onion root tip.
Biology’ Campbell. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. E.Hill International Edition. and Lewis. Molecular Biology through Questions. 2007. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. N. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. D. Cells. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. 2003. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. and Whitelaw. USA. A.
.. Australia . Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. Canada. Cassimeris. esters. Shier. chemical basis of life. 2007.. carbohydrates.Course Outlines
Introduction: Definition and concept of life. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. New York. 2008. carbonyls. chemical diversity. Crossley. 5th Edetion. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells.. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. Wadsworth Group. Cell division. Plopper. Aromatic compounds. 5. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. Self Assessment and Revie. covalent.. Nucleic acids. Structure and the basis of function. McGraw.
Chemical Bonding. amines). Origin of life: chemical evolution. coordinate covalent bond. V. lipids. Introduction to cell biology. 1996. the molecule of genetic information and replication. USA. origin of metabolism. carboxylic acids. polypeptides in protein diversity. R. Ionic.. B. J. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis.
1. 2. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. G. Biology: a Human Emphasis. Lewis. R. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. USA. C. L. proteins. protobionts. 4. Starr. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. lipids. Bulter.
The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. M. phospholipids in membrane systems. Lingappa. 3. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. 8th Ed.
2004. Freeman and Company. real line.J. 2nd Edition. 1st Ed. Algebra of matrices. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. Brimblecombe.. Thin layer chromatography. F. geometric and harmonic sequence. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). Osmosis and Dialysis. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. 4.. expansion of determinants. Lab Work Preparation of molar. molal. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. 2nd Edition. UK. Thomson and Brooks. P. graphs. equations of lines (linear equations). Skoog.A. P. D.H.
1. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. determinants. 2.Special Products (Binomial Expression). Understanding Environmental Pollution. minor and cofactor of a matrix. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. angle-sum formula.ions. simultaneous equations and their solutions. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. and Holler. Arithmetic and Trigonometry
Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. J. Jones and
Barlett. EC and TDS in waste water. 2004. USA.E. series and means. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Principles of Environmental Chemistry.C. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. 5. radicals. UK. 2004. 2003. 2005. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. values of trigonometric functions. Measurement of pH. Colloids chemistry. Liss. normal solutions/buffers.
.S. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). 8th Edition. W.E. 3. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. Solution chemistry. USA.D.K. Blackwell Science. Hill. B. law of Cosines. Jickells. Surface chemistry. Canada. Cambridge University Press. double angle formulas. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). D.J. T. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Girard.. 6th Edition. J. D. COURSE 4
The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences.M. Andrews.. Harris. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. Photochemical reactions.. straight line and related concepts.. M.. and Reid. Column chromatography. West. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane...
erosion and related landforms. lineation and unconformities. L. J. earthquakes and volcanoes. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. G. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension.B. Chain rule. its origin. joints. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. plate tectonics. composition and its internal structure. 3. Abraham. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. Introduction to sedimentary. weathering and erosion. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. age.Wesley. California. Integration: Formulas of integration.B SEMESTER 2
INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives
This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. by parts integration (simple applications).
. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. nonrepeated linear factors. difference. Earth as a member of solar system. cleavages. different earth processes like mountain buildings. Introduction to folds.
R. 2. Geological time scale and life through geological ages.
Introduction and scope of geology and geography. S. Fossils and their significance. Pacific Grove.. the processes of their formation. igneous and metamorphic rocks. faults. mountain building. irreducible quadratic factors. Weathering. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors.Cramer’s Rule. Analytical Geometry. COURSE 5
English-I (Functional English) Annexure .. D. Chatterjee. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals.
1. 4. Trignometry for College students. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. 1999. K. earthquakes. 4th Ed. Thomas. New Delhi. Smith. Jr. and Finney. Narosa Publishing House. Introduction to rocks and minerals. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. product and quotient rules without derivations). Scott Foresman and Company. 10th Ed. foliation. theorem of integration. Addission.A
Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . theorems on differentiation (sum.
Geological time chart with biodiversity. 2004. Tarbuck. invasion of life on land. 4. 2007 3.. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. Prentice Hall: 2006. multicellularity. 11th Edition. F. Smith. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. R. K. G. biodiversity crises. D. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water.. and Monroe. 3rd Edition. E. Park.. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. population loss and decline. animals). Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. Brooks/Cole... different classification systems. Biodiversity of canal. 5.
.. Use of brunton compass and GPS. Field Study tour. G. Lutgens. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. unicellularity. Wicander. Lutgens.II
This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. Darwinism. protocell formation.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. Prentice Hall. J. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. measuring biodiversity. consequences of losing biodiversity. Earth Science. and Pun. and Tasa. J. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. A. 2005.
Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources.
K. COURSE 8
BIOLOGY . Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time.. examples of adjustments in varied environment. Biodiversity of deserts. J. Routledge. Foundations of Structural Biology. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. Physical Geology and Process of Science. Biodiversity of hilly areas. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. 5th Edition. 9th Edition. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. 2007 2. Prentice Hall. interactions among diversified life. modern concepts. E. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. How Does Earth Work. and Tasa.Identification of rocks and minerals. Lamarckism.
1.. R. causes of extinction. F. molecular basis of biodiversity. Life in sea.. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. Tarbuck. D. Geographical aspects of biodiversity.
2.. K. Starr. J. Scope and application. Inc. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. Allan & Carter. K. Culture. Wadsworth Group. Use of environment for vested interest. 3. UK. Townsend. and Sustainable Living. Tripartite nature of environment. R.
1. Walnut Creek. power & hegemony. Prospect Heights. and concerns. Crumley. Biodiversity (An Introduction). The Ecology of global consumer culture. New York: New York University Press. 4. USA. Hannen. 2009. globalization and environmental issues. a Human Emphasis. C.
The Biosphere. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY
Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. 5th Edition. Gaston.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies)
1. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. P. 2001. 2006. (editors).. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. Conceptualizing environment.K. and Spicer. UK. Nora and Wilk. 3. (editor).
Annexure . 3 (3-0)
Relationship between environment. Biology. J. 2003. Contemporary environmental status. Adam. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. 2000. 2nd Edition. Blackwell Science Ltd. Understanding the environment-human relationship. Routledge.
2. Perspective of human-environment evolution. Contemporary environment issues and debate. Goals and expectations. culture and society. Environmental Risks and the Media. I. I. IL:WavelandPress. CA: AltaMira Press. L. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. Chronological. C. UK. Consumption. John Wiley and Sons. 2005. Bradbury.
computer programs and basic applications. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. Local Area Network. internet.6th Ed.1999. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. processing hardware. Selin. Marquis A.H. Ms-Excel. Software: Application software. Ms-Power Point.C SEMESTER 3
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER
This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components.
. K. Courter. Ed. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. as are their effects on the biosphere. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry.5. Introduction to MS-Word. software packages. 2003. Long l. G.
Definition. Kluwer Academic Publishers. COURSE 11
English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . 6. Configurations..BPB publication
This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. Hardware: Input Hardware.Microsoft office 2000. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. Fundamentals of computer.London 1996.A
ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . Ms-Access. output hardware. Types and classification of computers.
1. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. e-mail. system software. Long N. Rutledge. Operating system (Windows). 2.. Storage hardware. Milton.
Turbulent jets and plumes. Heat radiation and heat transfer. Gaussian plumes in the air. COURSE 15
The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. Hernandez-Esparza. Equations of fluid dynamics. Springer. Solids. and Singh. interaction of light with matter.Course Outlines
Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. Electromagnetic radiation. T.. Particle physics.J. Jones and Barlett. 2005. Germany. Girard. Entropy. Active control of sound. Environmental Chemistry.. Fate of pollutants in environment. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. its causes and adverse effects on environment.D.E. Diffusion.M. DoriaSerrano. and Reid.
1. 4. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Ibanez. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. M. 5. Thomson-Brooks. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. J. USA. K. Jickells.. Transport of pollutants. A. Sound and Noise. Human perceptions and noise criteria. G. 1999. Samir.. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. Measurement and comparison of the
. J. C. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. Global climate and climatic change. Reducing the transmission of sound. Turbulence.. 2008. Andrews. Fundamentals of aquatic. Ozone and UV light. Isotopes and radioactive decay. Ozone chemistry. J.. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. 2004.. 2004. Principles of Environmental Chemistry.. Liquids and Gasses. P. Environmental Science. Energy. Nuclear energy. 3... Liss. Energy conversion. Environmental Chemistry. India. atmospheric and soil chemistry. Solar spectrum.
Introduction to environmental physics.T. UK. B. Miller. Fregoso-Infante. 2nd Edition.E.S.. their sources and toxic actions. Conversion of mass. 1st Edition. trophic level. Blackwell Science. P. 2. photosynthesis.G. Turbulent diffusion. Environmental impact of various industries. Chemical reactions. M. Basic acoustics. Canada. Brimblecombe.
Praxis publishing. 3. USA. interaction between ecology and economic management. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. economic welfare and difference among all. 2.
1. 2001. 7th Ed. E. producer and community point of view. economic progress. C. economic growth and its measurement. Boeker. concepts and measurement. Pakistan economic context: National income. 2006. USA. population and environmental quality. S. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. Smith. and Pandis. 4. and Resource allocation. Economic management and environmental quality. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. World Bank Publications.Economic development.
. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. 2008. Physics of the Environment and Climate. COURSE 16
The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth.
2008. 2001. Economic Development. R. poverty. Natural resources and the economy. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. Wesely Publishers. Economic functions of environment.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. Measures for sustainable development. S. Introductory Environmental Physics. Sustainable development. Growth and Environment. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. N. Producer behavior. Seinfeld. economic growth. Todaro. Routledge. H. P. New York.
2. USA. John Wiley and Sons Inc. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. Environmental Physics. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. M. Kentucky USA. and Van Grondelle. UK. Environmental economics. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30
Years of the World Development Repor. Guyot.. Growth and development.
Introduction to economics.1998. USA. Man environmental relationship. Yusuf. John Wiley and Sons Inc. J. Impact of economic activity on environment. G. Field visit.
its fundamental concepts. Environmental philosophy and ethics. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. and systems ecology. COURSE 17
English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills)
Annexure . Touchstone Books. USA. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. levels of ecological organization. biogeography. 2008. 4. M.
Definition of philosophy. Palgrave Macmillan. C. 2007. Introduction to ethical theory. Shogren. concepts and approaches. Natural philosophy. Economics.. Russell. Portland 1967.
World Bank Publications. England. N. Frodeman. Hanley. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. and White. LLC.
FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY
To develop an understanding in the about ecology. Kessinger Publishing. A History of Western Philosophy.A
To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems.3.V. London. Callicott. species. International Thomson Publishing. B. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. Ecosystem and its types. & Pierce. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. 3. B. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. 2009.
. water. the ethics of soil. Ecology. USA.. temperature. Swift. population. Environmental Critics of agriculture. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. description of population. soil. 2. community. DeVeer. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. R.
4.. 2002. Farmington Hills. D.
Introduction. ethics and ecology. role of light.
1. community and ecosystem. J. B.A. 2008. WCIV7AA. branches of ecology.
. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. plant geography and animal distribution. habitat and niche. Population distribution and abundance. Microbial metabolism. Cambridge University Press. 2001 5. M. J. 5th Ed. various concepts of community. and Barett. community dynamics. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. bacteria and eukarya. and More. UK. After completion of this course. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. distribution limits. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan.topography and air as ecological factors. and S. Chapman. 6th Ed.
1. B. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. productivity of different ecosystems. 2004. C.W. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. Dash. M J. 2000. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. Systems ecology. 2. Thomson Brooks/Cole. 1st
Ed. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. J.) Moles. UK. N. G. Fundamentals of Ecology. Concepts of Limiting factors. landscape changes and their importance. population dynamics. Biogeochemical cycles of C. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. Odum. 3.
Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology.Cox. 1992. COURSE 20
This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. Biomes of the world. Fundamentals of Ecology. Ecology (principles and applications).L and Reiss. aquatic microbiology. E P. Ecosystem: structure and function. P. New York. Populations. New Delhi. C. ecological modeling. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. characteristics of urban. landscape ecology. King’s College London. Tata McGraw-Hill. M C J 1st ed. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. Ecology (concepts and applications. biotic factors. students will be able to understand the significance. WCB/McGraw-Hill.
transportation & treatments.and Vesilaind. 2007. J.J. D. Hill. USA.
. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. L.. Pepper. Peiece.. Marine & Industrial pollution. Mean plate count. P. purification and preservation. Academic Press. London. J. R. J. 2 Edition.I. and Gerba..M.V. A.J.. 2005. Harley.. Soil.
1. Academic Press. and Jeffery.M. Noise. UK. Collection. 4.J.
The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. Microbiology.C.A. Human & other living organisms. 2009.J. M. 2nd Edition. Environmental Pollution and Control. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution. its sources and their effects. McGraw Hill Inc. Case Studies. New Jersey. Weiner..and Brendecke. Hartel. Fuhrmann. C.
5.L.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection..L. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. Cambridge UK.. 1995.P. I. Cambridge University Press. isolation.
3. Water. 3.R.J. 4th Edition. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. peppor.D. M. P.B.F. D. Butterworth-Heinemann. Dilution plate technique. R. F. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines.G.A.P. Pollution Control Strategies.
1.Gerba. Sylvia. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution.P. American Society for Microbiology. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. McInernery. USA. C.. USA. and Klein.. and Zuberer. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). (Elsevier) USA. 2005. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally.1998. Prentice Hall.. USA.A. Maier. W. G. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology..L.K. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. D. USA. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. Knudsen. Hurrst.M. 2005. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. Solid Waste generation.W. Academic Press.
Introduction to Environmental pollution. Effects of Pollutants. and Stetzenbach. 2002. Washington DC.. 2. Prescott. L. Crawford. Manual of Environmental Microbiology.
Lawrance K.E. climatic zones of Pakistan. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics .4. Cambridge University
Press. Tarbuck. Sadder. 6th Edition. Solar radiations. Factors affecting air Pressure. 2006 5. N.
Introduction to Climatology and a brief History.2nd Editions.J.
. Shamshad. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld.F. COURSE 22
The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). The Atmosphere. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. 2002. John Wiley and Sons. 2003. Methods of psychology.
Introduction to psychology... Marcel Dekkar. Houghton J. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Environmental psychology.M.K. K. Radiation and climate. Four Spheres of the Earth. COURSE 23
This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. Pandis. The Hydrologic cycle. . Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. local winds. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. Karachi. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. Austin Miller. The climate of Pakistan. John H. 4.. Spyros. global circulation. Royal book company. A. air pressure. 1988. Cloud Classification. Lutgens. The Physics of Atmospheres. American Public Health Association (APHA).W. 5. 1992. Surface winds. 2.
1. 3. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. condensation and cloud Formation.. Weather and Climate. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. Climatology. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. Mechanism of heat transfer.
1.. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. Background and scope.characteristics and research methods. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. Future water scenario of Pakistan.C. Environmental perception and cognition. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan..W. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. London. and Baum A. CRC Press. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. threats and mitigation. sustainable agriculture. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. soil erosion and conservation. carbon dioxide and global climate change. rivers.
. species response to pollutants. Environmental Psychology. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. Sustainable livestock management practices. 1992. Soil as a natural resource. energy and carbon balance. concepts. COURSE 24
ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional )
This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. Ecological restoration. Water as an ecological resource. 2. London. T. Restoration of derelict lands. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. P. M. 5th Edition. soil resources of Pakistan. Routledge. Bell. Ecology of food production. Eysenck. Sustainable agricultural practices. solar radiation and primary production. Pollution control through Ecology. techniques and methods of restoration. Water and distribution of species. limitation of irrigated agriculture. soil salinity and water logging. CRC Press. Fundamental of Psychology. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. Greene. 2001. their management and ecological restoration. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship.D.A. Routledge. High population density and psychological impacts.
The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. toxins vs toxicants. Israr-ud-Din. Studies in Pakistan Geography. Immunological considerations in toxicology. Shirkat Gah. Synergism. E. 1996. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management
Determination of chemicals in water. Chemical interactions and their types. Lahore. toxicity screening using microbial systems. and Memon.. Odum E. 4. Pakistan’s Environment.
Introduction to Toxicology: History. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. B. Organs. Thomson Brooks/Cole. in vivo & in vitro assays. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. toxicology of chemicals. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. Island Press. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. Falk. Toxicity: Types and its measurement.National Book Foundation. terminologies: Poisons.. soil and air samples. Peshawar. toxins & toxicants. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. Fundamentals of Ecology. biological effects. from natural and anthropogenic sources. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. 5th Edition. dose response relationship in living organisms. J. Mumtaz.P.Recommended Books:
1. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. 2nd
ed. 3. 2006. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. and Hobbs. University of Peshawar. water and soil. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system.S. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. 1989. K. R. 5. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. Zedler. Islamabad. 2000 2. A. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. Potentiation and Addition. USA. P. Newman. D. and Barett.W. J.. Blackwell Scientific Publications.A. Margaret A. K and Habib. Rashid. G. Soil Science. A.I. Oxford. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. 2004.1998. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. on human and other living organisms.. their containment and control strategies.
3. 1st Edition. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. Ballantyne. B. State of the Environment-Pakistan . W.).2005 2. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis.
Introduction to history. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. measuring environmental benefits. economic development and the environment. topographic zones.D. geography. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. Government of Pakistan. pollution control-a general model. culture. major ecosystems. Klassen. USA. 1st Edition. 5th Edition. 1992. health.Recommended Books
1. Hughes. industry. T and Turner. W.
Introduction. COURSE 27
ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN
To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. international trade and the environment. Ecological: ecological zones. the economy and the environment. (ed. 1993. 3. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. 1989 COURSE 28
This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development.
1.M. McGrawhill. education. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology.. people. Economic: agriculture. 2005 2. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. clean development mechanism. USA. M. General and Applied Toxicology. USA. Macmillan Press Ltd. land. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. Williams.Science of Poisons .1 & 2. urbanization and pollution. economic aspects of different environmental problems. 1996. CRC Press Llc.
. water resources. P. Vol.
D. D. Holler. 1999. Collingwood. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling.W. Australia. 2005. New York.R. West. CSIRO Publ. USA. Gravimetery. Titrimetery. Oxford University Press. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Sample collection...
Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve..C. K. B. L. Standard solutions and standard curves. COD. Fluoride. water and plant analysis.L.J. COURSE 29
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2)
The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater.. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery.. salinity & sodicity). 3. Use of Potentiometery. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. I. Environmental Economics.1. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. BOD. M.
S. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. J. 8th Edition. 2. D. and derived S. C. 2003.2002. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. 3. All Solids. Reuter.I. C. units. soil (NPK and organic matter contents.D. preparation and storage. and Batemen.I. Conductivitymetry. Kolstad. 4. Johns Hopkins University Press. and F. Oxford. Harris. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. 2. Pearce. Turner. Conductivitymetry. Skoog.
. precision and accuracy. Field. Thomson and Brooks. Gravimetery. Sparrow and D.and Field..K.K.UK. NO3–N & NH4-N). Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. Titrimetery. handling. 6th Edition. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. Freeman & Co. 2000. A. M. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. D.A. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Data interpretation for quality control. 1993. Sample preservation methods. Analytical techniques for soil.2004. Peverill.
Wiley-VCH Verlag. (ed.). 5th Ed. Tools in environmental biotechnology. New York. and application of biotechnology in the environment. New York. Government of Pakistan. purification and preservation of DNA. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. 2005. USA. 2001. Cambridge University Press. W. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. D. and Russel. USA. PCR. 2nd Ed. National Biosafety Guidelines. and Josef. J.E. 2005.
Introduction to basic molecular techniques. students will be able to understand the significance. Hans-
Joachim. Biotechnology.. Biosensor. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. After completion of this course.
1.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. J. 2009.W. Germany. 4. England.
Introduction. Recombinant DNA technology. Isolation. A.. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. 2. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. COURSE 32
GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1)
. Introduction to microbial kinetics. National Biotechnology Commission. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems.COURSE 30
ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6
ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY
This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments.D. Chichoster. Sambrook. 3. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. Scragg. USA.1999. 2007.P. Derbre. J. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Smith. Bioreactors. Oxford University Press. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. Environmental Biotechnology. Biomarkers.
Preparation of thematic maps. John Wiley and Sons. Interpretation. history and platforms. Forestry.
Introduction to ArcView. 2000.Objectives
The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. 2000. 4. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. analysis and output. Z. A. 2009. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. Lulla. Dessinov. eradication of the duplicated data. Jensen. John Wiley and Sons. Reading maps (Maps characteristics)
1. Rancez. 5. Fishery and wildlife. V. Inc. Harvey. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Guilfoud press New York. F. Data entry and output. Active and Passive remote sensing. Agriculture. Using and reading GPS in field. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Cartography. Types of data used in GIS. 1999. Mc Graw Hill Education. K and L. advantages and limitations of process. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. R. 3. Image Processing. Introduction to GIS. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). A
Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Satellite Imageries. Inc. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Data acquisition. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. 2. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. Energy Sources. Introduction to Photogrammetry.
Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. COURSE 33
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
. 2008. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. Aerial photography. History and data collection. Pearsons Education. Different types of maps. Campbell. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. map projection and coordinate systems. integration of information from many sources. Inc.
2006. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. Environmental Management Systems Principles. philosophical. Environmental aspects and impacts. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan.3rd Edition . need and approach. cleaner technologies. Certification of EMS.
Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). and Qasim. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. threats to biodiversity. plant. etc. threats to biodiversity and its conservation.
Introduction. 2001. Environment and sustainable development.. COURSE 34
BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION
The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System.2nd Ed. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. Conservation of biodiversity. F. 3. B. social and ethical values of biodiversity. and Yoxon. types of biodiversity. economic. alpha and beta diversity. ecological. American Society for Quality. Environmental Management tools. Related Environmental legislation. 2005. A.C. American Society for Quality. 2.). WWF Pakistan. Systems and Support Techniques. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. Environmental Economy. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. principles of Cleaner production. Michigan. hot spots of biodiversity. 4. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. Sheldon.. 1998. Khan. International Organization for Standardization. Methods of environmental protection.
Industrial Field Trip
. eco-design. standards and guidelines. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. M. M..
design and types of samples.e. Rawalpindi. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques.. and Morre. Lahore).
1.. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. Sinauer. 2ndEd. A Primer for Conservation Biology. Mirza. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. quality assessment. national and international laws and regulations. habitats. Biogeography. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. Conservation of wildlife.D.B.
. Saad Printers. 2000. Preservation methods including pH control. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. P. soil and living organisms.
Introduction. Legal protection of species. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. 1998. EIA requirement. 3. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. chemical addition. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. P. quality control sampling. Kings College. 2000. plants. Sunderland. field custody. cities. Associates Inc. international agreements. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. NOC for plant operation. conservation and livelihood. ecotourism. London. conservation strategies. population. air.R.
Sampling techniques (air. water. croplands. conservation in man-made ecosystems. 2. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. COURSE 35
This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. Cox. forests. management. Quality assurance and quality control. Z. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. sampling and design purposes.. refrigeration and freezing methods. their categories. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring.conservation at species. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. C.B. Publ. laboratory custody. community and ecosystem level. Considerations. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation.B. protected areas. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. presampling requirements/information. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment.
8. Physical. Murai. 2nd Edition. USA. regional. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. (ed) Springer. USA. altered community structure.USA. 3. USA. Environmental Chemistry. Peakall. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. phenological changes. Recent Climate Change Indicators. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. 2000. F. H. S. Chuviero. L. chemical. (eds. 2. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. . The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. Precipitation. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. Burden.) McGraw-Hill. D. 2002. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. 2008. Manahan. S. Air Pollution and Acid Rain.
Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. Tokyo. Chapman and Hall.1996.. Remote Sensing Note. its causes and effects. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. 6.1999. 2002. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention.. Ozone depletion. E. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. McKlivie. Regional droughts and
. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. 1992. biological. extinctions. Moisture in the Atmosphere. COURSE 36
ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7
The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. D. Earth Observation of Global Change. I. agriculture. 7. Korte. 2008. N. Human responses to potential climate change. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. Keith. UK. Energy and Temperature. 5. New York. E. and Guethner. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. R. human health. Forstner U. Lewis Publisher London. The Measurement of Climate Change. and social factors contributing to climate and global change.Recommended Books:
1. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts.
3. Harrop. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. review of EIA quality.T. 1999.
1. 2. National Book Foundation. COURSE 38
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. and Chadwick. Routledge. reporting. impact analysis. project implementation and follow up. 3. decision-making to implement the project. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. Climate Change . role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. Types & Resources to produce Energy. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels.Causes. Oxford. law. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). J.cataclysmic climate change. Ministry of Housing and Works. mitigation and impact management. and noise. and the public is informed about the project proposal
Introduction.. Hardy. and Solutions. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts.. 2000. Islamabad. 2005.
1. 6. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. 2003. D. Petts. Hardy. Houghton. (ed..A. Climate Change . 1st Edition. J. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. social impact assessment (SIA). 4. J.
. 2003. Therivel. Effects.Causes. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of
Pakistan. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. London. Global Warming and Climate Change. EIA project management. Earthscan Publication Ltd. screening.. J. Glasson.. R. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. 2. Effects. Sringer. London. and Solutions. 1994. 4. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. scoping. Islamabad. A. liquid. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. Keith. & Nixon. public involvement.(ed). solids.. Blackwell.). 1986. John Wiley & Sons. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Global Change and the earth system.O. 5. Main stages in EIA process. 2005. overview. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. John Wiley & Sons. Cost and benefits of EIA. 2005. A.. T. J. 2004.
effective management. existing management approaches. problem in agriculture. New York. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. Development of Management Plan: needs. Conservation in Progress.
. 2002. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual.. H. and Tu. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. Everitt. wildlife census. 1993. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. limitation in the future. Sadler. USA. Asian Development Bank. M.. threats.. forest types and its existing management. Lohani. R. Ludwig. management options. Types. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. A. national example. F. their pros and cons. agriculture chemicals. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. B. Rangeland Management: existing status. requirement. John Willey
& Sons. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. Goldsmith. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies.
Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. R. Evans. wind power and nuclear power. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. S. management options.. national and provincial legislation. United Nations Environment Programme. & McCabe.B and Warren.
NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
To train students on the identification.
1. importance. process and contents of the management plan. national agriculture policy..
(ed.5. solar power.). their current status and threats. agriculture products and their share in GDP. methodologies. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. 1997. J.. best available option for future. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. Carpenter.. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. causes and methods for its improvement. 2nd Edition.
6. B. threat and its causes. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan.
Hansen. Research Proposal: its importance . Search Engines. Pearce &
Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. London. Review of Literature. Objectives. 3..F. concepts and terminologies. types of sampling design/. Sampling: the logic of sampling. Bibliography. to introduce students to research design. Review of Literature. Creswell. Questionnaire. Methodology. J. R. Selecting the Research Method. Scientific Research: Science. Research Design & Research Methods. Material Methods. Experimental Research. W. P. USA. 5. Thousand Oaks. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). research methods. 1992. and the process of doing research and reporting the results
Introduction to Research. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Elsevier. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design.E. 1990. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). Surveys.2. 4. GOP and IUCN. Sage CA. How to put things together? Introduction. Case Studies. Scientific Methods. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. V.1991
RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE
The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. 1984. Interviews. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation
1. S. Dasmann.
& Plano Clark. Islamabad.Amsterdam.A pre-requisite for Research. Literature Search: Database. New York. population and sampling frames. and Jorqensen. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Inference based on findings. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem.
. 2007.L.E. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. John Wiley & Sons. Environmental Conservation.
Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. Law Books House. Chichester. John and sons Ltd. 1989. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. E.. regulations made there under. Sage Publishers. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. 3. 2008. 5. Government of Pakistan 3. Students project in Environmental Science.Harrad. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. 4. Case Study Research: Design and Methods.Batty. Marilyn F.. USA. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. G. 2003. 6. 3rd Edition. England. Wadsworth Publishing Company.USA.
ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8
ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives
To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. USA. 2. 2000. M. Robert Yin. 2003. Survey Research Methods. COURSE 44
HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT
. 1997. R.. National Environmental Policy 4. Babbie.. Belmont California. and Arhonditsis. Moriarty. National Conservation Strategy 5.
National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. Univ. 2nd
Chicago Press. Booth. Diamon. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Qadar. 2001.2.
1.S. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. 1997.h. S.
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45
POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.
Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46
RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,
5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.
1993.). Khan. watershed/catchment.
. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. 2006. Indus Water Accord 1991. 2. with drinking water facilities like springs. Revised & enlarged edition. Oxford University Press New Delhi. I. Cheema. 5. R. water supply and demand management measures. Lahore. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. pollution aspects. O. Biswas. Asia Printer. groundwater exploitation. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan.. 6. Briscoe. fisheries management. Mirajuddin Publication .. 4. Islamabad. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects... and Tortajada. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. flood and drought management. SDPI Oxford University Press.
1. 2006. Oxford University Press Karachi.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. integrated water resources management (IWRM).K. and Malik. The Politics of Managing Water. Pakistan . Bengali. 2003. water quality and quantity aspects. Islamabad. and Qamar. (eds. hydrological cycle. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. (ed. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment.
Water resource and its management. N. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. virtual water.. A. Ahmed. A. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. recycling and re-use of wastewater. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. J. 3. K.Varis. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry.).. flood and droughts. R. A. U.. Pakistan. 2005. Ahmed. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. wetlands resources management. P.Lahore. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. C.
One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant.
Mirajuddin Publication . Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). N. tubewells.1993.
Urbanization. Hillel. Cation and anion exchange. 1996. D.R. Academic Press. Miller. R. Physical and chemical properties of soil. Soil forming minerals. Gardiner. transport.
. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. Process and outcome.
Introduction.T. Bashir. USA. Upper Saddle River. urban flora and fauna.
Introduction. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. Soil Science. USA. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. D. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. 2008. Prentice Hall.C. Brady. 11th Edition. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. PrenticeHall. urban political ecology. Causes of urbanization. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. and Bantel. E. Soil degradation. urbanization in Pakistan. 2007. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. urban settlements. San Diego. R. urban landscapes characteristics. National Book Foundation. Urban ecosystem. future of urban centers. Types and properties of parent materials..
The Nature and Properties of Soils. USA. Pakistan. Soils in Our Environment. N..W. hydrological processes. the salient features of urban environments. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. humans as components of urban ecosystems. management and green productivity. 2007. Forms of urbanization. NJ. NJ. After completion of this course. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants.E-3
SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT
This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. Factors and processes of soil formation. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. soils. Islamabad. and Weil. 1. E-4
This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. R. Definition. CA. Upper Saddle River.
URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT
The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. Silberstein. Gilbert.. S. Planning and Urban Change. UR. Alberti.1990. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. 2007. I. USA. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. Scope. nature and purpose of urban planning. D. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. Smith. The Works: Anatomy of a City. 5.and Maser. Routledge.. 1989. UK. V. Ward.and Kowaril. Kate. Hague. City Design for Sustainable Development.
Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. A. 2. Routledge. 4. Hejny. New trends in planning and city management.Recommended Books:
Urban Ecology. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. H.
1. Types of Urban Plans. UK. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems.
London. 2. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. Justification for planning for city management. S.L. nd 2 Edition. SAGE Publications Ltd. 2004. Sukopp. UK. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. 2004.S. M. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. Hough. London. New York. 2009. Chapman and Hall. Elements of urban planning. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level.. C..
. Aims and Objectives of planning. Principles of planning.. Springer. 2000. J. Penguin Group.
1. Levels of planning. The planning process. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. USA. Planning theories and concepts. 3. 2006.
Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. Planning and its relationship with other professions. SBS academic publishing. CRC Press LLC. M. Land use planning theories.
4.. Cultural factors. Chapman & Hall. UK. P. 2. Kates. Earthquake Management.W. It discusses a wide range of aspects. Earthquake. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures.. Natural cycles and their role. Socio-economic factors. Flooding. R. and White G. Prediction.. Political factors. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. Natural Disasters Alexander.
1. Ministry of Housing and Works. 1993.UNESCO. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies.. Longman Group. Paris. Landslide. 1989. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. and Woodrow.J. i. Flood Management: Organizational Role. Disaster Management: Components of management. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. Introducing Town Planning. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. Islamabad. H. 2nd Edition.B. Westview Press. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. 1993. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization.
. 1986. New York. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson.3. 1993.. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Hazards. ADB.. The Guilford Press. Physical factors. Disaster as an opportunity for development. 1991. 4. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. G. M. D. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. Role of Media in Disaster Management.
Government of Pakistan. Manila. E-7
This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. New York..W.
Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development.F. 3. Boulder . Different approaches and Indicators.. International phenomenon. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Clara. E&UA Div. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation.e.
Farming practices for pests and weeds control. types. and Yonavjak. 1983. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. USA. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. consumers. merits and demerits of wind.L. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. sustainable energy management. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. energy resources. 1984. Phytoremediation and bioremediation.W. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. M. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. L. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources.
Energy-development and environment. A.
Introduction to agro-ecosystem. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. 2001.A.. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Paris. 6th Edition. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem.. E-9
Energy and Environment
This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. Botkin.
The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. 2.5. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America.B and Keller.H. Perry R. Westport. primary producers. Consumer and producer relationship. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. Quorum Books. 6. hydropower. 2007. OECD/IEA. energy resources of Pakistan.
Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Schoch. biomass resources. F. Agroecology. 2007. E. John Wiley and Sons. Sustainable livestock management.C. D.
. alternate energy resources. New York. and Mushkatel. local. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. Biotic structure. Disasters and Development Cuny. 4th Edition.M. 3. McKinney. uses. solar. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. Ecological concept in crop and food production. decomposers. R.. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources.
Boulder. Altreri.. Corol. 2. M.M. USA. Kapur. 1990. 1995. R.P. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. Experimental Plant Ecology. Study of stratification and profile diagram. USA. Yandermeer J.
1. C. Study of index of diversity. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. CBS Publishers and Distributors.
.H.A. Westview Press. New York. 3.Lab Work
Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. India. New Delhi. Agrocology.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. and Rossel. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. and Sudha.R.G. P. 2000. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture.
To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. 3. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”.
. 5. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. 4.
2. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME
MS in Environmental Science
Regarding MS Degree Programme. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. availability of the faculty and other facilities. the Committee agreed on the following principles. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after
four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. that: 1.
4. 21. 11. 8.
23. 5. 17. 6. 4. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development
. 9. 9. 2.
Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 26. 16. 5. 12. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3
1. 3. 10.
2. 10. 12.
The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 14. 7.
20. 11. 6. 8. 15.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
CORE COURSES Course Titles
25. 13. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 7. 19.
Mackenzie J. development of concepts.DETAILS OF M. S. 3. 2. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of
the Environment. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan..1994. Islamabad. 2. technology and resource use. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). S. D. Environmental control Policies. Hodder and Stoughton. Money. Conventions and Protocols in Global. Karachi.T.1995..E. NCS.E.S.
. Treaties. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. 1992. GOP and IUCN. 1991. Geography of Pakistan. 2nd Edition. Environment People and Economy. Instruments and methods. Amsterdam. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. Regional and International Environmental Issues. Draft National Environmental Policy. 3. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management..1994. F. and Jorqensen.1991. status of Terrestrial.F. London. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. P. S.. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change..A. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. Relationship of culture. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our
Common Future. Ball.
1. Oxford University Press. Khan K.
1. 1987. Conservation Strategies. and Bell. Elsevier. London Black Stone Press Ltd. WCS. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. Provincial and Local Strategies. 4. Oxford University Press. Mackenzie. Hansen.
Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. D. Case Studies and review.COURSE 2
ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES
Introduction. Environmental auditing. Chichester.Vanclay. Wastewater. 2. social impact assessment. sample collection and preservation.
one Publishers Lahore. 1995. process.
1. Washington. WB. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). Sectoral guidelines for EIA. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. 2. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. 1995. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. role and importance. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Longman Scientific and Technical. procedures and methods of EIA. ecological impact assessment.. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). Harlow Essex. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. 1993. F & Bronstein. Wood. Ed. UK. K. Environmental Chemical Analysis. Demographic impact assessment. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. ed. A. Gas Chromatography etc.
1. Principles of physical. economic impact assessment. C. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. Air and Solid Waste. World Bank. Assessment of environmental impacts. COURSE 3
ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. Cost benefit analysis of projects. Ministry of Environment. Environment Department.A. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. John Wiley & Sons. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water.
1. opportunities and issues. 3. Government of Pakistan. History. DC. sampling rules. Longman House. Burnt Hill. England. Ahmed.
Meredith J. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. 1st Ed. Park.2000. Government Policies and Programs. Writing Project Proposal. assumptions. Project Management Institute.
1. 1992. Project Planning.. Caeneross. means of verification. Reasons for Project success or failure. London. 1997. 1st ed. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Kjelllström. and Guidotti. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. Accident prevention and safety plans. air borne. 4. prevention and control. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. A Guide to Project Management. feasibility study. 2. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. 1st Ed. Project Life Cycle. Project Initiation. COURSE 5
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT
Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. de Kok. UK. Prentice Hall International Inc. K. Nebel. development objectives. Planning Commission Performas. 2nd Ed. S. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. Primary health care services.. Mantel s. A. Occupational Health: problems and issues. principles and practices.. specific objectives. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. 3. Basic Environmental Health. inputs. and Wright. economic evaluation. M/S Banarsid. Defining Project objectives.
. T.. 2.COURSE 4
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Introduction: What is a Project. 5. T. Yassi.. Public health concept. Ergonomic and Safety. Lippmann. 2001. indicators. J. Environmental Health Engineering. John Wiley and Sons... Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. outputs. USA. R. M. L. Inc. USA. B.. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. activities.
1993. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. Need identification. 1998. Resource Mobilization. Wiley Interscience. Project Planning and Approval Processes. R. 2002. safety techniques. T. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). work breakdown structure. T. Oxford University Press New York. MS Project
1. New York. J..
Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. 4th Edition. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management.COURSE 6
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
Introduction to Environmental Management System. E. industry and domestic sectors. non-renewable and renewable. Environmental auditing. USA. R.
2. Sources of data. 1990b. 2007. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). 1997 COURSE 7
ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT
Energy and its forms. principles and elements of the process of EMS.
. types. McKinney.
Paris. OECD/IEA. Michigan-January 2001. Environmental Auditing. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. 3.M. Schoch. ISO Central Secretariat. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources.A. D.B and Keller. Related Environmental regulations. M. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). hydropower. 2007. petroleum. 6th Edition.L. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. nuclear) local. energy resources of Pakistan. Switzerland. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. uses. merits and demerits of wind. L.. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. 4. 2001. alternate energy resources. sustainable energy management for agriculture. 3. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized
Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. 1998. bio-energy resources. St Luise Press.
1. Sayre. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. gas. data collection and interpretation. transport. energy resources.
Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. solar. Botkin. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
1. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. and Yonavjak. John Wiley and Sons. Paris. Principles of cleaner production. 2. D.
Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.D. ED. water resources. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. forests. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. (Ed. Blackwell Publishing. Hardy. The Green House Effect. Chichester. COURSE 9
ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY
Environmental conditions. Climate Change and Ecosystems. Earthscan Publication Ltd. John Wiley & Sons. survival and extinction.). ECOPE 29. types of climate change models. Plant population dynamics. Effects. Green House Gases. types and their climatic effects. E. etc.T. management and restoration.
1. global aspects of plant ecology. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. 2004. J. Climate Change . Vegetation Ecology Ed. Warrick. Life history strategies of plants. 4. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. human activities and vegetation dynamics. T. Species richness.
1.. Maarel. Oxford UK. 3. D. plant conservation. plant invasions. 2005. resources and plants. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Blackwell Publishing. Effects. UK 1991.. Shulze.Causes. UK. 2005. 3.Causes. E & Muller-Hohenstein. vegetation dynamics. competition and coexistence. 1st Edition. Modeling of climate change. 2005. Plant Ecology. 2. and Solutions. J. 5. Climate Change . London. Silvertown. K. Houghton. and Solutions. J. 2. Springer.
2005. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. Hardy. Beck. geographical and temporal patterns. D. B & Jager. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press.COURSE 8
Introduction. John Wiley & Sons.
. 2003. Climate change and food production. Oxford. 1. Berlin. & Charlesworth. John Wiley & Sons. 2003.
Wildlife of Pakistan. 2. Sustainable forest management. W.
Inc. Biodiversity: An introduction. threats and conservation. 4. kinds. 3. Cambridge. Conserving Living Natural Resources. Oxford. their importance. And Bolen.A. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Cambridge University Press. Oxford.L. Loss of biodiversity. 3. Essentials of Conservation Biology. & Ripley.) Gaston. 2004. Wildlife Ecology and Management. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. J. Bailey. Extinction of species. Sinauer Assocaites.J. Participatory forest management. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. UK. types. status. Consumptive. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. their types and role in conservation. Oxford University Press. problems and solutions. London. UK. R. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. its causes.
1. & Spicer. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. Roberts. Mcmillan. Protected areas in Pakistan.J. Rangeland management. S. 1984. Threatened animals and plants. 1973 2. Blackwell Publsihing. Primack. Wetlands. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT
Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. J. distribution and management. 5. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. distribution. Global and national biodiversity. Protection and restoration of species. Publishers Sunderland. Forest plantations. management. habitats and ecosystems. Protected areas.
University Press. B.COURSE 10
Introduction.G. E. S. COURSE 11
WILDLIFE.D. II). T. Weddell.J. Robinson. 2002. Oxford University Press. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. Principles of Wildlife Management. types. K. 1986. distribution.J. T. deforestation and its control. 1992. I). Status of forests in Pakistan. Roberts.B. USA.(2nd Ed. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. 2002. biological diversity. Establishment and management of protected areas. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. Forests. Cambridge.
. John Wiley And Sons. their ecological and economic importance. 1998. Oxford.
Environmental problems of urban life. Government of Pakistan. 2007. The Works: Anatomy of a City.
. J. USA. Introducing Town Planning. New York. Kate. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. urban systems and their characteristics.
1. 1993. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. 3. Ward. future of urban centers.. UK. Penguin Group. Silberstein. Planning and Urban Change. S. Longman Group.
London. 2000. Urban planning and management in Pakistan.. E&UA Div. USA. 4. H.COURSE 12
ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
Introduction. SAGE Publications Ltd. urban landscape characteristics. UK.. CRC Press LLC. urban political ecology. drinking water and solid waste in cities.and Maser. A. C. Sustainable cities. Clara. Forms of urbanization. sanitation. G. Islamabad. management of transport.. V. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. 2004. Ministry of Housing and Works. Urban land use planning and management. urbanization in Pakistan. 1986. 2.
Exercises 1. 1997. Third edition.Annexure .
Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure.V. Practical English Grammar by A.A
COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES
English I (Functional English) Objectives:
Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English
Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher
Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building
1. a) Functional English Grammar 1. Martinet. Thomson and A. Oxford University Press.J. ISBN 0194313492
. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase.
style and pronunciation)
Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review
a) Communication Skills Grammar
. Upper Intermediate. Third Impression 1992. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Oxford Supplementary Skills. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. Thomson and A. Third edition. and speed reading. Exercises 2. Reading/Comprehension 1. intensive and extensive. Fourth Impression 1993. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing.
Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. Oxford University Press. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. Speaking
English II (Communication Skills)
Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs.J. Martinet. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin.V.2. b)
Practical English Grammar by A. Oxford Supplementary Skills. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. 1997. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. Reading. Writing. minutes of meetings.
narrative. Fourth Impression 1992. Third edition. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. introduction to presentations. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. discursive. form. Advanced. Reading 1.J. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. Reading. Writing.
English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills)
Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking
Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Writing. language. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Exercises 2. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. 2. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. descriptive and argumentative writing). content. ISBN 0 19 431350 6.V. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Advanced by Ron White. clarity.1. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing
Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building
Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Martinet. Third Impression 1992. Oxford University Press 1986.
Practical English Grammar by A. 2. Oxford Supplementary Skills. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Third Impression 1991. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos.
Writing 1. ISBN 0 19 435407 3
. Fourth Impression 1993. Writing. Thomson and A. Oxford Supplementary Skills.
Compiled by norther Illinois University. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. without taxing the taste of engineering students).
descriptive. Kathleen Shine Cain. argumentative and report writing). Mandell.
3. A Custom Publication. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton.
. St.(particularly suitable for discursive. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education.
Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. Martin’s Press. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. Kirszner and Stephen R. 2004. 2.
College Writing Skills by John Langan. General Editiors: Janice Neulib.
Pakistan Studies (Compulsory)
• • Develop vision of historical perspective.
Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. Shahid Javed.
Contemporary Pakistan a. People and Land i. Lahore.
3. 1994. ideological background of Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press. 1977-88 e.
. S. Ethnicity d. Historical Perspective a. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan.
2. 1988-99 f. Mehmood. b. 1993. Society and social structure c. 1999 onward
3.M. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Safdar. politics. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Muslim advent iii.Annexure . Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki.
1. Study the process of governance. Zaidi. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. government. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Location and geo-physical features. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. State & Society in Pakistan. 1971-77 d. Pakistan Political Roots & Development.
1. Economic institutions and issues b. 1958-71 c. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. 1947-58 b. national development. Akbar. Indus Civilization ii. S. 2.
4. 2000. contemporary Pakistan.
9. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Afzal. Noor ul. 10. Amin.
14. Pakistan Kayyun Toota.. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. 1993.
6. I. Ziring. Haq. Politics in Pakistan. Institute of Public Policy Research. Aziz.
Wilcox. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. Mehmood. M. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research.
13. Enigma of Political Development. Ansar. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research.K.
11. 1972. Vol. Party. Ethno . Washington: American Enterprise. 8.The Emergence of Banglades. Safdar. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia.5. Muhammad Waseem. 1980. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Khalid Bin. Islamabad. II & III. Wayne.National Movement in Pakistan. Lahore: Vanguard. The Political System of Pakistan. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. nd. Political Parties in Pakistan.
. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. K. History & Culture of Sindh. Sayeed. Rafique. Club Road. Lawrence. 1967. Zahid. 12. Pakistan Under Martial Law. 1998. 1976. 1980. Tahir. 1987. 7.
W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.58.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory)
This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.A.Tadabar (Verse No1.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.56.A.19.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.20) Related to thinking.57. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.Annexure .63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.40.6.A.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S. 2 (2-0)
Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran
Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.21.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina
3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt. in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family
International Islamic University. Bhatia.3)
Ethical Values of Islam
2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)
Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Emergence of Islam” . “Studies in Islamic Law. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. IRI. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. Islamabad (2001)
. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. Ahmad Hasan. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. Pakistan.S. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad.
harmonic progression. equations reducible to quadratic equations. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. matrix inverse. types. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. set operations. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression.
MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA)
Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0
Specific Objectives of the Course:
To prepare the students. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. Boston
. not majoring in mathematics.
COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS)
1. PWS-Kent Company. functions. determinants.Annexure . Beckenback EF. Sharron S. Houghton & Mifflin. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). 1986. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. Boston Swokowski EW. 1978.
Preliminaries: Real-number system. complex numbers. PWS-Kent Company. 1987.
Dolciani MP. Wooton W. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. system of linear equations. introduction to sets.D
Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. types of functions. College Algebra and Trigonometry. trigonometric identities. geometric progression. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Cramer’s rule. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. cube roots of unity.
functions and their graphs. Calculus (3rd edition). Finney AR.
MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY)
Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours:
Specific Objectives of the Course:
To prepare the students. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. integration by parts. derivatives. New York Stewart J. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. intersection of two lines. left-hand and right-hand limits. integration by substitution. USA 3. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. slope of a line. Reading. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. differentiation of polynomial.
Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. Addison-Wesley. not majoring in mathematics. distance between a point and a line. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. 1995. continuity. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). 2005. 1983. Ma.2. Bevens I.
MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS)
Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0
Specific Objectives of the Course:
To prepare the students. equation of a line. parallel and perpendicular lines. John Wiley. Calculus (11th edition). Boston Thomas GB. change of variables in indefinite integrals. various forms of equation of a line. rational and transcendental functions. distance between two points. solution of equations involving absolute values. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. Calculus and Analytic Geometry.
Preliminaries: Real-number line. continuous functions. Davis S. angle between two lines. PWS-Kent Company. not majoring in mathematics.
Anton H. 2005. inequalities.
Scott.Circle: Equation of a circle. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). functions. Boston Swokowski EW.
1. PWS-Kent Company. Analytic Geometry. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. the general-second-degree equation
Abraham S. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. 1986. types of matrices. Cramer’s rule. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. nature of roots of quadratic equations.
Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. types of functions. PWS-Kent Company. inverse of matrices. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Boston 4. locus of a point in various conditions. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. system of linear equations. equations reducible to quadratic equations. Conic Sections: Parabola. 1987. 1969 Kaufmann JE. hyperbola. set operations. Introduction to sets. circles determined by various conditions. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. determinants. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. 2008 and onward
Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives
To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. Freshman and Company. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). ellipse. intersection of lines and circles. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations.
Graphs: Graph of straight line. E.
. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’.geometric and harmonic progressions.. R. Latest Edition. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. skewness and kurtosis.
MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY
3 Mathematics at Secondary level
Credit Hours: Prerequisites:
Specific Objectives of Course:
To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Measures of dispersion: Range. Walpole. 3.. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. E. Prentice Hall. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. discrete and continuous series. relationship of statistics with social science. R. variance. ungrouped and grouped data. 4. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations.. W. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. Swokowski. quartiles.
1. 5. deciles and percentiles. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. J. standard deviation. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes.
Latest Edition. characteristics of statistics.. 2. Kaufmann. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. frequency polygon.
Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. E. R. array. circle and trigonometric functions. Latest Edition. Boston. PWS-Kent Company. Wilcox. bar frequency diagram histogram. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. individual. tally sheet method. cumulative frequency curve. moments.
2. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. trigonometric identities. types of frequency series.
Hughes-Hallett. Addison Wesley publishing company. Boston. integration using partial fractions. Inc.
2.Jr. 4th edition. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. Schaum’s Outline Series. the chain rule. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. Extreme Values of Functions. the inverse of differentiation. McCallum. Prentice-Hall. Bevens. H. Inequalities. • Integration Integration from first principles. Anton. applications of integration. 11th Edition. Elliott Mendelson. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. 4. Calculus. Rational Functions. Jhon Willey & Sons. integral inequalities. 2. Integration by Parts. Gleason. Solution of equations involving absolute values.
MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS
Preliminary calculus. E. Calculus. substitution method. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. et al. Mathews. John Wiley & Sons. Second Edition 1992. integration by parts. W. reduction formulae. S. logarithmic integration. Equation of a Line. John H. 2005. special points of a function. plane polar coordinates. 2002. 3. Continuity. 5. products. 1983. I. 6. sinusoidal function. Slope of a Line. 1999. Calculus Single and Multivariable. Least-Squares Line. implicit differentiation.
Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers
. Thomas. infinite and improper integrals. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function.
2005. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. 3rd Edition. Continuous Functions. integration by inspection. quotients. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. Rational and Transcendental Functions. Calculus.
Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. 8th edition. Davis. Swokowski. theorems of differentiation. logarithmic differentiation. Leibnitz’ theorem. and Transcendental Functions.
1. 6. Frank A. Trigonometric Functions. Inc. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles.
Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints
. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. arithmetico-geometric series. the difference method. multiplication. modulus and argument. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. series involving natural numbers. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. approximation errors in Taylor series. identities of hyperbolic functions. solving hyperbolic equations. inverses of hyperbolic functions. finding the nth roots of unity. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence.Additions and subtraction. geometric series. complex conjugate.
vector product. symmetric and antisymmetric. the inner product. moments of inertia.
Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. line to line. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. masses. Pappus’ theorems. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors
Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. centers of mass and centroids. scalar triple product. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. of a unitary matrix. orthogonal. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values
. point to plane. Hermitian.5. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line.
Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product.
differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. spherical polar coordinates
. combinations of grad. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products.
Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. divergence of a vector field.8.
Quantiles. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Diagrams. The Mean Deviation. Bar charts. Exercises. Exercises. Empirical Relation between Mean. Test statistics. Unit 2. Probability and Probability Distributions. Unit 5. Significant digits. Exercises. Sources. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. sample design and sampling frame. Type-I and Type-II errors. Difference of means and proportions. The semi-Interquartile Range. Unit 7. Data. Range. Presentation of Data Introduction. Histogram. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. bias. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Poisson and Normal Distribution. acceptance and rejection regions. Unit 3. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. properties of Good Average. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Unit 4. null and alternative hypothesis. Types of frequency curves. Standardized variables. Median and mode.
. Pie chart. Discrete and continuous variables. Absolute and relative measures. Exercises Unit 6. Population. Change of origin and scale. Statistical problem. The Mode. Different types of Averages. Moments and Moments ratios. Errors of measurement. Historigram. The Variance and standard deviation. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Coefficient of variation. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. sampling with and without replacement. Observations. level of significance. Exercises. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve.Annexure . Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Rounding of a Number. Editing of Data. Constructing of a frequency distribution. sampling and non sampling errors. probability and non-probability sampling. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Exercises.E
INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS
Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Graphs and their Construction. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Collection of primary and secondary data. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Stem and Leaf Display. Ogive for Discrete Variable. definition of outliers and their detection. Exercises. Box and Whisker Plot.
R. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies.Single Population Introduction. Testing of Hypothesis. simple linear regression. Correlation. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction.. 1982.
. Unit 11. Macmillan Publishing Co. Exercises. Inc. E. 3rd Ed.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. Regression and Correlation Introduction.. 2 Muhammad. Coefficient of linear correlation. F. cause and effect relationships. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. New York. 2005. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. examples. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. Exercises Unit 10. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. Exercises Unit 9. its estimation and interpretation. “Introduction to Statistics”. Contingency Tables.Unit 8. Kitab Markaz. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. Examples
1 Walpole. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. r and R2.