CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
58

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The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. DR. It also aimed to give a basic. the Federal Government vide notification No. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. It is.). The world has turned into a global village. therefore. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. D773/76-JEA (cur. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. R&D organizations. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. degree awarding institutions. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge.ALTAF ALI G. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. universities and other institutions of higher education. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. PROF. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. dated December 4th 1976.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. and 36. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . 63. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. Lahore. 2007 at HEC Regional Center.

National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. PREP. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. OF CURRI. Preparation 5 . OF NCRC. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. OF FINAL CURRI. COL. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. R&D. UNI. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. EXP. REC.

Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Lahore Member 6. Dr. Member 3. Member 6 . Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. 7. Rawalpindi Dr. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Dr. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Karachi from 28-30. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Member 5. Rawalpindi Dr. Member 4. Dr. Following attended the meeting:1.

Dr. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Prof. Dr. Dr. Member 14. Karachi Member 12.8. 7 . Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Dr. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Prof. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Dr. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Member 11. Member 15. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Member 10. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Dr. 13. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Member 16.

1. Dr. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. At first. Mr. Faisalabad Member 18. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. Dr. Karachi. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. Secretary Dr. Member 19.17. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. The meeting was opened by Mr. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Chairman. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. 2. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Director of HEC Regional Center. 8 . Mr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. Member 20.

climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. 6. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. 5. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. The committee thanked Mr. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. 4. 3. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. 1.3. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. 2. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. In last few centuries. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated.

Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. ii. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. in its preliminary meeting. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 .• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. skills and behaviour patterns. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. regional and global contexts. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. This committee. Apply theoretical understanding. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. 5. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially.

3. Sc. A. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2.e. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. 4. 5. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. that: 1. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science.. Integrating natural sciences. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. with consensus. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. The medium of instruction. eight semesters in the semester system. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. The 11 . To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. 6. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. 1. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. 2. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee.

Basic Chemistry* 4. Introduction to Computer 14. Introductory Economics* 17. Environmental Microbiology 21. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Introduction to Earth Science 8. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. English-III 18. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Biology –I* 3. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Psychology* . Environmental Physics 16. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. English-I 6. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. English-II 12.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Environmental Chemistry 15. Biology –II* 9. Environmental Pollution 22. Climatology* 23.

Natural Resource Management 40. English-IV/ Univ. Environmental Monitoring 36. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. 46. Environmental Economics 29. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. Opt. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Environmental Biotechnology 32. 44. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. ELECTIVE-III 42. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Climate Change 38.24. 45. Environmental toxicology 27. Applied Ecology 26. Environmental Management Systems 34.

• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .

history. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. John Wiley & Sons. Thomson Learning. 4th Ed. ethical. 4. environmental pollution.A. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. Recommended Books: 1. R. & Yonavjak. 2002. McKinney. Schoch. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. biological and social.J.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms.B & Keller. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.L. 10th Ed. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. D. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. poverty and resource depletion. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet.T.M. 2007 3. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. socio-economic. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . L. 15 . proteins and nucleic acids. national.. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. 2. M. G. and their relationships with various environmental factors. its importance in human life. R. Miller. 2007. 2007. lipids. Different aspects of environment: physical. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. regional. B. Botkin. ecological. development in industry and agriculture. & Nebel. urbanization. Wright. philosophical. Pearson Educational. Human environment and its problems: global. current global. E.. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. 6th Ed.

R. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. USA. R. esters. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. chemical basis of life. 2007. USA. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. Plopper. coordinate covalent bond. C. phospholipids in membrane systems. carboxylic acids. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. G. and Whitelaw. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. and Lewis. Biology: a Human Emphasis. lipids. Nucleic acids. Crossley. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals.. 5th Edetion. covalent. amines). Ionic. Origin of life: chemical evolution. Structure and the basis of function. 2007. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. USA. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. proteins. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. Study of mitosis in onion root tip.. J. Starr. polypeptides in protein diversity. 2008. Introduction to cell biology. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. 3. Ltd.Hill International Edition. 8th Ed. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. 2003. M. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. Australia . Cell division.. D. V. lipids. Molecular Biology through Questions. Cassimeris. Wadsworth Group. Self Assessment and Revie. New York. 1. 1996. L. Lewis. N. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. Bulter. the molecule of genetic information and replication. Cells. protobionts. B. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. 2. 4. 16 . carbonyls. A. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. 5. Aromatic compounds.. chemical diversity. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. Shier. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. E. carbohydrates.. Canada. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. Lingappa. origin of metabolism. McGraw.

law of Cosines. angle-sum formula. Canada. 5. Girard. geometric and harmonic sequence. 6th Edition. graphs.. UK. Cambridge University Press. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. Column chromatography. 2004. B. 8th Edition. Algebra of matrices.. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). 2nd Edition. Jickells. 1st Ed. molal. determinants. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. West. D. expansion of determinants. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers.. Jones and Barlett. series and means. 2. values of trigonometric functions. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field..E. 2nd Edition. 2004. simultaneous equations and their solutions.. Use of spectrophotometric techniques.ions. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). Lab Work Preparation of molar. D. J. Solution chemistry. radicals. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. 2005. Blackwell Science.J. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. Measurement of pH. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry.. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. straight line and related concepts. Hill. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry.M. Colloids chemistry. J. 17 .D. Osmosis and Dialysis. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. Freeman and Company.Special Products (Binomial Expression). USA. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. 2003. Photochemical reactions. Thomson and Brooks.. M. UK. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics.. D.E. Brimblecombe. double angle formulas. 2004. equations of lines (linear equations).A. USA. P. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. Harris. T. normal solutions/buffers. 3.C. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane.S. and Reid. P. W. Skoog.J. 4. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Andrews.H. Recommended Books: 1. EC and TDS in waste water. Thin layer chromatography.. Liss. minor and cofactor of a matrix. Surface chemistry. F. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). and Holler. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. real line.K.

Thomas. Smith. Jr. Scott Foresman and Company. D.Cramer’s Rule. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. Analytical Geometry. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. 2. irreducible quadratic factors. joints. 4. faults. J. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation... Trignometry for College students. theorems on differentiation (sum. different earth processes like mountain buildings. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals.B.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . California. earthquakes. 18 . Introduction to folds. Abraham. S. composition and its internal structure. 1999. difference. Fossils and their significance. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. plate tectonics. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. 10th Ed. weathering and erosion. earthquakes and volcanoes. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. by parts integration (simple applications). Earth as a member of solar system. L. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. theorem of integration. Addission. mountain building. product and quotient rules without derivations). Introduction to rocks and minerals. its origin. Chatterjee. 4th Ed. the processes of their formation. igneous and metamorphic rocks. nonrepeated linear factors. R. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . erosion and related landforms. Integration: Formulas of integration. Pacific Grove.Wesley. age. and Finney. lineation and unconformities. foliation. New Delhi.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. Chain rule. Narosa Publishing House. G. 3. Weathering. Recommended Books: 1. K. cleavages. Introduction to sedimentary. Geological time scale and life through geological ages.

Lamarckism. A. 5th Edition. Biodiversity of canal. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . and Pun. Life in sea.. multicellularity. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. Geological time chart with biodiversity. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. examples of adjustments in varied environment. Geographical aspects of biodiversity.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. and Tasa. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. Prentice Hall. and Monroe. Smith.. Prentice Hall. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. E. R. 19 . 3rd Edition.. Physical Geology and Process of Science. G. D. G.Identification of rocks and minerals. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. population loss and decline. Biodiversity of deserts. R. Earth Science. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. F. different classification systems. Use of brunton compass and GPS. protocell formation. Wicander. interactions among diversified life. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. F. J.. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. Routledge. molecular basis of biodiversity. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. 11th Edition. Lutgens. K. Brooks/Cole. Biodiversity of hilly areas. 2007 3. E. invasion of life on land. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. modern concepts. J. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. Darwinism.. Lutgens. Field Study tour. How Does Earth Work. D. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. 2004. J. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. unicellularity.. and Tasa. 5. Tarbuck. animals)... K. Foundations of Structural Biology. 2005. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. consequences of losing biodiversity. Prentice Hall: 2006. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. 2007 2. causes of extinction. 9th Edition. measuring biodiversity. Recommended Books: 1. Park. 4. biodiversity crises.. Tarbuck.

and Spicer. I. UK. 4. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. Allan & Carter. Biodiversity (An Introduction). Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. Chronological. Blackwell Science Ltd. J. (editors). 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. Walnut Creek. 2000. Routledge. Starr. C.. Bradbury. and Sustainable Living. Environmental Risks and the Media.K. Wadsworth Group.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. 20 .. Hannen. John Wiley and Sons. J. 5th Edition. Tripartite nature of environment. 2009. Inc. 2. Biology. USA. 2001. Perspective of human-environment evolution. L. Use of environment for vested interest. 3. 2009. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. Recommended Books: 1. Townsend. Inc. a Human Emphasis. R. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. and concerns. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. (editor). The Biosphere. Scope and application. 2006. Contemporary environmental status. 2nd Edition. culture and society. Goals and expectations. Prospect Heights.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. I. Gaston. The Ecology of global consumer culture. Adam. CA: AltaMira Press. Contemporary environment issues and debate. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . Nora and Wilk. 2003. Culture. Understanding the environment-human relationship. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. 2005. Crumley. K. New York: New York University Press. K. 2. Conceptualizing environment. UK. Consumption. globalization and environmental issues. power & hegemony. UK. C. 3. IL:WavelandPress. P.

After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. Recommended Books: 1. Ed. Kluwer Academic Publishers. output hardware. Marquis A..6th Ed. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. Software: Application software. Fundamentals of computer. Configurations. K. Long N. 21 .BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. 2003. Rutledge. Ms-Access. Courter.. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . 2. Hardware: Input Hardware. Storage hardware. Introduction to MS-Word.Microsoft office 2000. computer programs and basic applications. as are their effects on the biosphere. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion.H. internet. Long l. processing hardware. 6. Course Outlines Definition. Milton. Ms-Power Point. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures.5.1999. Operating system (Windows).C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. software packages. Selin. e-mail. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere.London 1996. G. Types and classification of computers.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. Ms-Excel. Local Area Network. system software.

Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts.. 5. Basic acoustics. Hernandez-Esparza. Energy. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. Thomson-Brooks. Liquids and Gasses. A. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. interaction of light with matter. Samir. Ozone chemistry. 2005. and Singh. 1999. 3. Girard. Heat radiation and heat transfer. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. UK. Human perceptions and noise criteria.. Environmental Chemistry. Andrews. J. Environmental Science.. Environmental impact of various industries. Gaussian plumes in the air. Reducing the transmission of sound. Turbulent diffusion. Diffusion. Particle physics. J.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. Conversion of mass. Liss. 2008. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Fregoso-Infante. Canada.. Equations of fluid dynamics. Energy conversion. M. photosynthesis. 4. and Reid.J. Blackwell Science.T. Ibanez. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. Isotopes and radioactive decay.S.D. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. Solids. Measurement and comparison of the 22 .M. 1st Edition. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. Sound and Noise. trophic level. Turbulence. DoriaSerrano. B.E. Electromagnetic radiation. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental Chemistry.E. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Miller. Jones and Barlett. USA. Turbulent jets and plumes. atmospheric and soil chemistry. G. T. C. 2004. Global climate and climatic change.. Transport of pollutants. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. Fundamentals of aquatic.. Fate of pollutants in environment. Active control of sound. P.. M.G.. Brimblecombe. Germany. Jickells. K.. Solar spectrum. Springer. 2004. P. 2nd Edition. Entropy. 2. their sources and toxic actions. Nuclear energy. Ozone and UV light.. its causes and adverse effects on environment.. India. J. Chemical reactions.

Introductory Environmental Physics. Environmental Physics. New York. and Pandis. Praxis publishing. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. Recommended Books: 1. population and environmental quality. Man environmental relationship. UK. 3. and Resource allocation.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. Recommended Books: 1. Economic Development. C. Boeker. Yusuf. Guyot. World Bank Publications. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. 2. J. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. R. Seinfeld. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. Kentucky USA. Field visit. poverty. P. 4. Pakistan economic context: National income. Growth and development. 7th Ed. economic welfare and difference among all. Physics of the Environment and Climate. USA. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change.1998. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. concepts and measurement. John Wiley and Sons Inc. economic progress. Economic functions of environment. economic growth. N. 23 . 2001. M. interaction between ecology and economic management. Measures for sustainable development. Growth and Environment.Economic development. USA. Smith. Todaro. John Wiley and Sons Inc. 2006. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. S. E. 2001. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. and Van Grondelle. Impact of economic activity on environment. G. 2008. S. H. Environmental economics. Producer behavior. Wesely Publishers. USA. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. Sustainable development. Natural resources and the economy. 2. Routledge. economic growth and its measurement. producer and community point of view. 2008.. USA. Economic management and environmental quality.

& Pierce. Palgrave Macmillan. Farmington Hills. 2008. its fundamental concepts. population.. Kessinger Publishing. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. DeVeer. J. 3. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. A History of Western Philosophy. water.. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. Economics. soil. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography.3. Swift. 4. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. Frodeman. 2002. B. Touchstone Books.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. Environmental philosophy and ethics. 2009. B. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview.A. branches of ecology. D. ethics and ecology. Course Outlines Introduction. R.. London. Ecosystem and its types. and White. WCIV7AA. Recommended Books: 1. LLC.V. J. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. B. Ecology. USA. England. community. M. USA. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . C. and systems ecology. concepts and approaches. Natural philosophy. Russell. Hanley. Portland 1967. N. Environmental Critics of agriculture. International Thomson Publishing. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. levels of ecological organization.. temperature. role of light. biogeography. 24 . community and ecosystem. 2008. 2. the ethics of soil. Callicott. description of population. species. World Bank Publications. 4. Shogren. 2007. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. Introduction to ethical theory.

1st Ed. Systems ecology. M J. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan.topography and air as ecological factors. community dynamics. Population distribution and abundance. 1992. 2000. B. 6th Ed. E P. Lab Work 25 . Biogeochemical cycles of C. P. J. M. UK. distribution limits. Recommended Books 1. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. and S.Cox. 3. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. plant geography and animal distribution. Microbial metabolism. N. WCB/McGraw-Hill. 1999 4.) Moles.W. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. 2004. and Barett. students will be able to understand the significance. habitat and niche. King’s College London.L and Reiss. bacteria and eukarya. biotic factors. C. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. Dash. J. characteristics of urban. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. Ecology (concepts and applications. productivity of different ecosystems. Tata McGraw-Hill. Ecosystem: structure and function. New Delhi. aquatic microbiology. Ecology (principles and applications). Biomes of the world. G. 5th Ed. Fundamentals of Ecology. C. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. various concepts of community. Populations. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. landscape ecology. M C J 1st ed. and More. Chapman. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. Cambridge University Press. Concepts of Limiting factors. After completion of this course. Odum. landscape changes and their importance. Thomson Brooks/Cole. 2. New York. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. Fundamentals of Ecology. UK. ecological modeling. population dynamics. 2001 5.

Fuhrmann. R. Hartel. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. Environmental Pollution and Control. 2.D.G. Maier.P.A. Effects of Pollutants.. Sylvia. and Stetzenbach. USA. Weiner. Case Studies..Gerba.J.C. F. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. transportation & treatments. UK. M. I. and Jeffery. isolation.F. Academic Press. J..B. Human & other living organisms. 2 Edition. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. L. Knudsen. Butterworth-Heinemann.. 3.J. Prescott. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. Noise. W.I. 1995. Cambridge UK. purification and preservation.W.M. (Elsevier) USA. Academic Press.. Academic Press. C. P. M. 2009. Hurrst. D. 2005. P. USA.. 2.J. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. and Zuberer. 4th Edition.1998. C.. D. J. Soil. Collection. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. Marine & Industrial pollution. Water. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally.. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. Microbiology.P.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. R. USA. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. Washington DC. Manual of Environmental Microbiology.. 2005.L. J. D. USA. G.L. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. Mean plate count. London.J. L. 5.K. Pepper.L.J.M. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). peppor. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. Peiece. Solid Waste generation. 2002.. Pollution Control Strategies.R. A. Crawford. 3. American Society for Microbiology. Harley.V. and Klein. Recommended Books 1. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. its sources and their effects.A..and Vesilaind. 4. Environmental Microbiology. 2005.. McInernery.A. Dilution plate technique.P. McGraw Hill Inc. Cambridge University Press. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. Understanding Environmental Pollution. and Gerba. New Jersey. USA. Hill. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. 2nd Edition. Prentice Hall.. 26 .and Brendecke.M. 2007.

Houghton J. Tarbuck. Surface winds. Marcel Dekkar. 6th Edition. Royal book company. The climate of Pakistan. Weather and Climate. A brief historical background and schools of psychology.M. K. 4.E. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . 5.F. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. N. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. 2003. Radiation and climate. Methods of psychology. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. 1992. John Wiley and Sons. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. condensation and cloud Formation. Cambridge University Press. Four Spheres of the Earth. 2006 5. 2. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. .. climatic zones of Pakistan.. 1988. Environmental psychology. Pandis. Shamshad. Cloud Classification. The Atmosphere. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. Factors affecting air Pressure. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere.. Mechanism of heat transfer. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere.. air pressure.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld.J. 2002. The Hydrologic cycle. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan).W. Sadder. A.2nd Editions.4. local winds. Austin Miller. American Public Health Association (APHA). Lutgens. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Lawrance K. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. The Physics of Atmospheres. Spyros. Solar radiations.K. Climatology. Recommended Books: 1. Karachi. John H. global circulation. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. 27 . 3.

Routledge. High population density and psychological impacts. solar radiation and primary production. Fisher J... soil salinity and water logging. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species.characteristics and research methods. 2001. Pollution control through Ecology. Restoration of derelict lands. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Future water scenario of Pakistan. Environmental Psychology. species response to pollutants. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. concepts. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. sustainable agriculture. soil resources of Pakistan. 5th Edition. Bell. Environmental perception and cognition.C. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. threats and mitigation. CRC Press.D. Ecological restoration. Water and distribution of species. Eysenck. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. carbon dioxide and global climate change. Course Outline Introduction. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. Soil as a natural resource. Sustainable agricultural practices. 1992. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. T. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. M.W. Fundamental of Psychology.A. Recommended Books: 1. their management and ecological restoration. Background and scope. CRC Press. Ecology of food production. 2. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. techniques and methods of restoration. soil erosion and conservation. P. and Baum A. Greene. limitation of irrigated agriculture. energy and carbon balance. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. 28 . London. Water as an ecological resource. Routledge. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. rivers. Sustainable livestock management practices. London.

2000 2. G. Newman. soil and air samples. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. Shirkat Gah. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. 4. Pakistan’s Environment. 2006. their containment and control strategies. Falk. toxins & toxicants. B. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. Margaret A. Determination of Interaction of chemicals.S.. K. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. Soil Science. 1996. University of Peshawar. USA. terminologies: Poisons. Lahore. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. 3. P. R. Immunological considerations in toxicology. and Hobbs.1998. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. toxicology of chemicals. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system.W.. J. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. A. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. dose response relationship in living organisms. Organs. toxins vs toxicants. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. toxicity screening using microbial systems. Islamabad. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. 29 . Thomson Brooks/Cole. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. Determination of chemicals in biological samples.. Fundamentals of Ecology. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. D. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. J. 2nd ed. E. Studies in Pakistan Geography. in vivo & in vitro assays. Mumtaz. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. Odum E. K and Habib. 5th Edition. 2004. water and soil. A.. and Barett. Island Press.A. Oxford. from natural and anthropogenic sources. Israr-ud-Din. Synergism. Rashid.National Book Foundation. Blackwell Scientific Publications.P. 1989. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications.I. Potentiation and Addition. biological effects. Peshawar. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. on human and other living organisms. Zedler. 5.Recommended Books: 1. Chemical interactions and their types. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. and Memon.

Ballantyne. education. General and Applied Toxicology. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. Recommended Books 1.D. people. Macmillan Press Ltd. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. land. USA. Klassen. economic development and the environment. W.M. Course Outlines Introduction to history. 5th Edition. P. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. industry. 1992. 3. culture. geography. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. CRC Press Llc. major ecosystems. McGrawhill. USA. the economy and the environment. Williams. Course Outlines Introduction.). Hughes. topographic zones.2005 2. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. T and Turner. 1st Edition. water resources. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. 2005 2. 1993.1 & 2. 1st Edition. health.. M. Government of Pakistan. Recommended Books: 30 . clean development mechanism. W. USA. international trade and the environment.Recommended Books 1. (ed. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. 1996. 3.Science of Poisons . Ecological: ecological zones. Vol. economic aspects of different environmental problems. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. pollution control-a general model. measuring environmental benefits. urbanization and pollution. State of the Environment-Pakistan . Economic: agriculture. B. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development.

Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. C. New York. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. Data interpretation for quality control.I. precision and accuracy. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. Analytical techniques for soil. preparation and storage. salinity & sodicity). 1999. D. NO3–N & NH4-N). Conductivitymetry. Lab Work S. D. 3. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Titrimetery. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. BOD. Sparrow and D. water and plant analysis. M. 4.A.UK.. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. units. D. 8th Edition.and Field. West. 31 . Standard solutions and standard curves. Gravimetery. COD. Skoog. Harris.D. Pearce. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. 2003..L. 3. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. and derived S. Qualitative Chemical Analysis.. Fluoride. Johns Hopkins University Press. 2. Turner. J. Australia.K. B. 2.2002. Thomson and Brooks. Field.I. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. All Solids. Environmental Economics. 1993. Sample preservation methods. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. M. Conductivitymetry. and F.2004.1. and Batemen. Freeman & Co. USA. Peverill. 2000. Reuter. D... Gravimetery. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. handling. Use of Potentiometery. Sample collection. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction.K. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. Titrimetery. 2005. CSIRO Publ. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples.. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery.R. Collingwood. Oxford.C. 6th Edition.J. A. L. Kolstad. K. Holler. I. Oxford University Press. C.W. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. Recommended Books: 1. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association).

Biotechnology. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . Derbre. 5th Ed.). USA. National Biotechnology Commission. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. 2009.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. Tools in environmental biotechnology. Course Outlines Introduction. Scragg. J. Recommended Books 1. Wiley-VCH Verlag. 4. USA.E. A. students will be able to understand the significance. 3. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques.W.1999. and Josef. New York. and Russel. USA. Smith. Biomarkers. and application of biotechnology in the environment. Hans- Joachim.. Environmental Biotechnology. Cambridge University Press. 2001. purification and preservation of DNA. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. (ed. 2005.D. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. Sambrook. Oxford University Press. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment.. J. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. 2nd Ed. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. J. England. After completion of this course.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. Isolation. Chichoster. Biosensor. W. New York. National Biosafety Guidelines. 2005. D. Bioreactors. Introduction to microbial kinetics.P. Germany. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. 2. PCR. Recombinant DNA technology. Government of Pakistan. 2007.

Different types of maps. advantages and limitations of process. 1999. Rancez. Inc. History and data collection. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . Introduction to GIS. Aerial photography. Inc. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). 2008. 2000. Introduction to Photogrammetry. Inc. John Wiley and Sons. Interpretation. K and L. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. Harvey. 4. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Cartography. map projection and coordinate systems. 2009. Types of data used in GIS. Pearsons Education. history and platforms. Lulla. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. Jensen. Image Processing. Z. Active and Passive remote sensing. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. V. 2. R. Forestry. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. F. Campbell. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). Guilfoud press New York. A. Using and reading GPS in field. Fishery and wildlife. Energy Sources. integration of information from many sources. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. 3. Mc Graw Hill Education. 5.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. John Wiley and Sons. Satellite Imageries. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Preparation of thematic maps. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. 2000. eradication of the duplicated data. Data acquisition. analysis and output. Agriculture. Dessinov. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. Data entry and output.

. etc. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. 3. 2005. Environmental Management tools. 2006.). Environmental Management Systems Principles. philosophical. plant. M. alpha and beta diversity. threats to biodiversity. and Yoxon. Michigan. Environment and sustainable development. ecological. International Organization for Standardization. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. Course Outlines Introduction. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label.. American Society for Quality.C. principles of Cleaner production. Environmental aspects and impacts. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. F. M. Environmental Economy. 2001. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. hot spots of biodiversity. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. Related Environmental legislation.2nd Ed.3rd Edition . social and ethical values of biodiversity. standards and guidelines. need and approach. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. Certification of EMS. Sheldon. 4. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). WWF Pakistan. A. 2. economic. Systems and Support Techniques. cleaner technologies. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. B. Methods of environmental protection. Conservation of biodiversity. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. types of biodiversity. American Society for Quality..This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. eco-design. 1998. 34 . and Qasim. Khan. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS).

3. and Morre. 2. refrigeration and freezing methods. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. 1998. conservation in man-made ecosystems.D. Associates Inc. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. presampling requirements/information. Publ. Quality assurance and quality control. EIA requirement. sampling and design purposes. Preservation methods including pH control. 2000. Z. C.e.. management. Rawalpindi. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. laboratory custody. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. design and types of samples. international agreements. London. conservation and livelihood. P. Kings College. A Primer for Conservation Biology. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. Sinauer. 35 . Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes.B. habitats. air. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. Saad Printers. soil and living organisms. Conservation of wildlife. conservation strategies. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. quality control sampling. forests. Lahore). national and international laws and regulations. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. 2000.B. ecotourism.conservation at species. chemical addition. their categories. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. Cox. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. Considerations. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. population. water.. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. field custody. cities. community and ecosystem level.B. Legal protection of species. croplands. Course Outlines Introduction. quality assessment.R. Sunderland.. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. 2ndEd. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. protected areas. Mirza. plants. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. Recommended Books: 1. Biogeography. P. NOC for plant operation. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance.

2008. (eds.1996. Human responses to potential climate change. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. Physical. and Guethner. agriculture... Keith. I. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. McKlivie. New York. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. . Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. Recent Climate Change Indicators. Forstner U. S. 1992. Precipitation. Korte. Moisture in the Atmosphere. USA. biological. 2000. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. E. 2002. 7. E. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. H. Energy and Temperature. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. 2008. L. 3. N. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. Tokyo. USA. Chuviero. UK.) McGraw-Hill. S. altered community structure. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1.USA. D. Ozone depletion. extinctions. Environmental Chemistry. 8. Regional droughts and 36 . phenological changes. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. D. Earth Observation of Global Change. F. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. human health. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. Lewis Publisher London. chemical. 2. R. Peakall. its causes and effects. Burden. The Measurement of Climate Change. 5. (ed) Springer. USA. Manahan.1999. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. Chapman and Hall. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. 2nd Edition. regional. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. Murai. 6. Remote Sensing Note. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. 2002.Recommended Books: 1.

Recommended Books: 1. 1st Edition. A. Routledge. 1999. John Wiley & Sons. 2004. Recommended Books: 1. 1994. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. Global Warming and Climate Change. and Solutions. Oxford. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. 6.. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan.(ed). (ed. law. 3. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. National Book Foundation. 2003. Climate Change . COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. Effects. screening. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. impact analysis. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. 2005. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. decision-making to implement the project. Earthscan Publication Ltd. Sringer.A.. project implementation and follow up. J. 2005. Climate Change . J. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. J. D. Ministry of Housing and Works. 2. Hardy. and Chadwick. 4. London. Main stages in EIA process. 4. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). 37 . social impact assessment (SIA). National Environmental Quality Standards for air. & Nixon.. solids. 5. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. Glasson. liquid. Petts. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. 3. Islamabad. T. overview.. Effects. 1986. London. Hardy.Causes.Causes. Islamabad. review of EIA quality.. Keith. mitigation and impact management.. 2003. 2. reporting. Cost and benefits of EIA. J. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. Houghton. EIA project management. and Solutions.cataclysmic climate change. Types & Resources to produce Energy. 2005. and noise.). J. A. Harrop. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. Blackwell. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems.O. R.T. John Wiley & Sons.. public involvement. Global Change and the earth system. scoping. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. 2000. Therivel.

New York.. management options. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. limitation in the future. existing management approaches. S. their current status and threats. H.. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. Types. United Nations Environment Programme. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. Rangeland Management: existing status. A. Sadler. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. causes and methods for its improvement. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning.B and Warren. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. R. Carpenter. methodologies. Recommended Books: 1. F. threat and its causes. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. John Willey & Sons. effective management.. wildlife census. 2002. management options. B. solar power. their pros and cons. 2nd Edition. J. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. and Tu. USA. national and provincial legislation. 38 . best available option for future. process and contents of the management plan. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. B. threats. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. (ed. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan... agriculture products and their share in GDP. requirement. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. R. national example. Evans. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. Ludwig. importance. forest types and its existing management. 1997.5. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. Goldsmith.. M. 6. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. problem in agriculture.. 1993. Conservation in Progress. Development of Management Plan: needs. Asian Development Bank. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources.). wind power and nuclear power. Lohani. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. & McCabe. national agriculture policy. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. agriculture chemicals. Everitt.

New York. Literature Search: Database. concepts and terminologies. J. to introduce students to research design. London. research methods. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Sage CA. 5. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. Review of Literature. Islamabad. Scientific Methods. How to put things together? Introduction. Experimental Research. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. Hansen. Inference based on findings. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. and Jorqensen. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. V. types of sampling design/. 1990. Scientific Research: Science. S. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. USA.F. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. 1984. P.Amsterdam. Research Design & Research Methods. Questionnaire. & Plano Clark. Research Proposal: its importance . Environmental Conservation..E.2. 1992.A pre-requisite for Research. R. Bibliography. Review of Literature. population and sampling frames. Material Methods.E. W.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. Sampling: the logic of sampling. Selecting the Research Method. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. John Wiley & Sons. 2007. Interviews. Elsevier.L. Thousand Oaks. 39 . Surveys. Creswell. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. Case Studies. Methodology. Search Engines. 3. 4. GOP and IUCN. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. Objectives. Dasmann.

regulations made there under.h. Marilyn F. USA. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. Law Books House. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. 4. Babbie. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. 1997. USA. John and sons Ltd. Sage Publishers.. Belmont California. of Chicago Press. E.2. 2003. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. and Arhonditsis. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . M. 3.Harrad. Qadar. Diamon. 2. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. Booth. 2001. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan.. Government of Pakistan 3. Students project in Environmental Science. Moriarty. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. National Conservation Strategy 5. G. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. 2003. 5. The Craft of Research by Wayne C.Batty. 2000. 2nd Edition. 1989. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. 6. England. 2008. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. R. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. Survey Research Methods. 3rd Edition. National Environmental Policy 4. S. 1997.S. Wadsworth Publishing Company. Univ. Chichester. Robert Yin.USA. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers... Recommended Books: 1.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

and Qamar. Recommended Books: 1.Lahore. hydrological cycle.).. Mirajuddin Publication . Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. 2005. Mirajuddin Publication . Islamabad. A.. N. Biswas.. 2. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. Cheema. integrated water resources management (IWRM). O. R.1993. Islamabad. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. with drinking water facilities like springs. R.. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. (ed. 44 . flood and droughts. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. C. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. A. flood and drought management. P. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). tubewells. SDPI Oxford University Press. 2006. 5. K.Varis. Oxford University Press New Delhi. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. Ahmed. Lahore. I. The Politics of Managing Water. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. J. virtual water. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. Asia Printer. 3. Ahmed. and Tortajada. water supply and demand management measures. 6. Revised & enlarged edition. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. Khan.). 4. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. Pakistan. Bengali. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. A. U. N.. pollution aspects. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. watershed/catchment. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc... 2003. Indus Water Accord 1991. 2006. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. groundwater exploitation. and Malik. Pakistan .K. water quality and quantity aspects.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. recycling and re-use of wastewater. 1993. Briscoe. Oxford University Press Karachi. fisheries management. wetlands resources management. (eds.

Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. USA. San Diego. 2007. urban settlements. Miller. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. urban political ecology. Definition.. urban landscapes characteristics. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. Soil degradation. USA. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. PrenticeHall. Process and outcome. soils. Course Outlines Introduction. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. 1996. Cation and anion exchange. urban flora and fauna. Pakistan. Upper Saddle River.W. hydrological processes. Bashir. 2008. Upper Saddle River. future of urban centers. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. Soil Science. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. D. Types and properties of parent materials. Gardiner. Urban ecosystem. 11th Edition. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. After completion of this course. Academic Press. R. humans as components of urban ecosystems. and Weil.T. and Bantel. 2007. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. 1.C.R. Soils in Our Environment.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. urban patterns and ecosystem functions.. transport. NJ. D. management and green productivity. NJ. Soil forming minerals. Islamabad. Prentice Hall. Urbanization. Physical and chemical properties of soil. R. National Book Foundation. Forms of urbanization. CA. E. urbanization in Pakistan. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. N. USA. Course Outlines Introduction. Causes of urbanization. the salient features of urban environments. Hillel. 45 . Factors and processes of soil formation. R. Brady.

CRC Press LLC. Kate. 1. Elements of urban planning. 5. Aims and Objectives of planning. Justification for planning for city management. Hague. J. Penguin Group. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans.1990. Levels of planning. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. 1989. UK. V. 2009. 2007. Planning theories and concepts. UK.. Silberstein. UK. Hejny. O. Scope. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. New trends in planning and city management. I.and Maser. Chapman and Hall. 2000. H.. C. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. 2004. The planning process.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. A. Hough. 2004. Ward. Planning and its relationship with other professions.S. USA. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. nd 2 Edition.L. 4. Routledge. Springer. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. 2. Gilbert.. London. 46 . The Ecology of Urban Habitats. London. 2. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. Smith.and Kowaril. Routledge. Principles of planning. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Alberti. SBS academic publishing. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. Land use planning theories. D. USA.. Recommended Books: 1. Sukopp. New York. City Design for Sustainable Development. M. SAGE Publications Ltd. S. Types of Urban Plans. 2006. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. S. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. M. 3. nature and purpose of urban planning.. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. Planning and Urban Change. UR. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability.

W..3. Hazards. Flood Management: Organizational Role. 4. M. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. Longman Group. Socio-economic factors. The Guilford Press.e. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. Clara.B. 2. and White G. It discusses a wide range of aspects. Earthquake Management.F. Role of Media in Disaster Management. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Government of Pakistan. 1991. 1986. Prediction. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors.. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. New York. and Woodrow. 1993. Disaster as an opportunity for development. Natural Disasters Alexander. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. Paris. Natural cycles and their role. Recommended Books: 1. UK.. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. Islamabad. Political factors. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation.UNESCO. Introducing Town Planning. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. Earthquake. Cultural factors. 1993. 2nd Edition. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development.. Manila. P. Disaster Management: Components of management. 1989. H.. Flooding.. Different approaches and Indicators. Ministry of Housing and Works. D. 1993. Boulder . Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. 47 . Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson.. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. R.J. New York. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Chapman & Hall. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. Kates. Landslide. 3. ADB.. 4. International phenomenon. E&UA Div. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Westview Press. i. G. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. Physical factors.W.

3.C. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources.5. decomposers. Disasters and Development Cuny. merits and demerits of wind. USA. 48 . OECD/IEA. 2001. F. L. Biotic structure. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America.. and Yonavjak. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems.A. 1984. Paris.. 6th Edition. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. and Mushkatel. Perry R. sustainable energy management. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. 2.M. consumers. McKinney.W.H. 2007. 6. primary producers. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. Botkin. local. Westport. Sustainable livestock management. Ecological concept in crop and food production. 4th Edition. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. 2007. solar. A. hydropower. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. types.L. Schoch. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future.B and Keller. E. John Wiley and Sons. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. Quorum Books. Agroecology. alternate energy resources. 1983.. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. energy resources of Pakistan. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. D. 1. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. R. energy resources. New York. uses. biomass resources. Consumer and producer relationship. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. M.

A.G. Corol. Kapur. P. E-11 Seminar 49 . New Delhi.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. USA. 2000. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. Yandermeer J. CBS Publishers and Distributors. New York. Recommended Books: 1. Agrocology. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. 2. USA.. 3. Altreri. M.P.R. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. Boulder.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram.H. and Rossel. and Sudha. C. Experimental Plant Ecology.M. 1995. India. Westview Press. Study of stratification and profile diagram. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. R. 1990. Study of index of diversity.

that: 1. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. 4. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. 5. 2. availability of the faculty and other facilities. the Committee agreed on the following principles. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. 50 .POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. 3.

Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 9. 6. 5. 6. 20. 12. 11. 21. 4. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 5. 2.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 11. 4. 2. 17. 16. 3. 7. 7. 14. 8. 24. 15. 22. 12. 19. 13. 26. 10. 23. 25. 3. 18. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 8. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 10. 9.

4. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences.. Treaties. Mackenzie J. Relationship of culture. 1987. 2. 2. WCS. technology and resource use. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment.. Geography of Pakistan. Conventions and Protocols in Global. Environment People and Economy. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. Amsterdam. Islamabad. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Instruments and methods. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. Khan K.F. GOP and IUCN. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). and Bell.DETAILS OF M. Regional and International Environmental Issues..E.. Hodder and Stoughton.A. S. Draft National Environmental Policy. Oxford University Press. P. 1991. S. Recommended Books: 1. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. London. status of Terrestrial.1995. Conservation Strategies..S. Provincial and Local Strategies. and Jorqensen. development of concepts. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. Karachi. NCS. F. 52 . Ball. D.1991. 2nd Edition.T. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. FURTHER READINGS 1. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. 3.1994. Hansen. S. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. Elsevier. Oxford University Press.E. Money. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. Environmental control Policies. 3. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. London Black Stone Press Ltd. 1992. Mackenzie.1994.

COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. 53 . Ed. Cost benefit analysis of projects. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. Burnt Hill. Harlow Essex. Case Studies and review. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. Washington. DC. 1993. K. History. Wastewater. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. D. Chichester. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. WB.Vanclay. Longman Scientific and Technical. Environmental auditing. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. John Wiley & Sons. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. 1995. A one Publishers Lahore. procedures and methods of EIA. 1995. ecological impact assessment. A. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. Environmental Chemical Analysis. Demographic impact assessment. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. World Bank. Government of Pakistan. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review)..A. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. economic impact assessment. UK. Wood. Assessment of environmental impacts. Recommended Books: 1. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. sampling rules. 2. FURTHER READINGS 1. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. Principles of physical. role and importance. Environment Department. Ministry of Environment. Recommended Books: 1. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. Gas Chromatography etc. 2. England. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Air and Solid Waste. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). opportunities and issues. process. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). ed. social impact assessment. 3. Ahmed. C. Longman House. F & Bronstein. sample collection and preservation.

T. USA. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. 1st ed. K. Meredith J. B.. Reasons for Project success or failure. 2. Accident prevention and safety plans. T. 1997. R. 2001. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. specific objectives. London. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. assumptions. economic evaluation. Project Management Institute. Government Policies and Programs. Project Planning. USA. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. indicators. Defining Project objectives. Oxford University Press New York.. 5. Recommended Books: 1.2000. Planning Commission Performas. A Guide to Project Management. Primary health care services. T. 2nd Ed. means of verification. M/S Banarsid. Lippmann. L. Need identification. T. prevention and control. Basic Environmental Health. 4. UK. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. 2002. Prentice Hall International Inc... S. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. Mantel s. de Kok. 1993. A. John Wiley and Sons. work breakdown structure. M. Project Life Cycle. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. 1st Ed. development objectives. Project Planning and Approval Processes. feasibility study. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. MS Project Recommended Books: 1...COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. Ergonomic and Safety. Nebel. 2. inputs. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. 54 . 1992. Resource Mobilization. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. New York. 1998. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). safety techniques. air borne.. and Wright.. Public health concept. activities. Writing Project Proposal. J. R. Park. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). Wiley Interscience. 3. 1st Ed.. Kjelllström. Caeneross. and Guidotti. principles and practices. J. Project Initiation. outputs. Yassi. Environmental Health Engineering. Inc. Occupational Health: problems and issues.

OECD/IEA. hydropower. ISO Central Secretariat. 2007. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Botkin. 4. 55 . Paris. Sayre. petroleum. Sources of data. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). 2. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. 1998. 4th Edition. 3.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. 2001. 2.. data collection and interpretation. nuclear) local.L. Related Environmental regulations. M. energy resources of Pakistan. principles and elements of the process of EMS. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions.A. Switzerland. Environmental Auditing. alternate energy resources. solar. R. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. St Luise Press. Schoch.B and Keller. USA. bio-energy resources. industry and domestic sectors. Environmental auditing. McKinney. and Yonavjak. L. gas. E. types. transport. D. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. 1990b. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. 3. Principles of cleaner production. Michigan-January 2001. Paris. Recommended Books: 1. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. sustainable energy management for agriculture. uses. 6th Edition. energy resources. merits and demerits of wind. D.M. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. Recommended Books: 1. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. non-renewable and renewable. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. 2007. John Wiley and Sons.

Climate change and food production. vegetation dynamics. Hardy. (Ed. Springer. management and restoration.D. J. 1. J. Blackwell Publishing. Chichester. types and their climatic effects. 1st Edition. B & Jager. 5. 2004. human activities and vegetation dynamics. Hardy. and Solutions. Shulze. E. types of climate change models. 4. 2003. Plant population dynamics. Green House Gases.Causes.Causes. geographical and temporal patterns. Climate Change and Ecosystems. 3. resources and plants. The Green House Effect. 2. UK 1991. Houghton. 2005. 56 . 3.T. John Wiley & Sons. Recommended Books: 1. 2003. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. D. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. & Charlesworth. ED. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Modeling of climate change. water resources. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. Beck. London. 2005. ECOPE 29. Oxford UK. John Wiley & Sons. Earthscan Publication Ltd. T. plant conservation. global aspects of plant ecology. Blackwell Publishing. Vegetation Ecology Ed. 2005. J. Climate Change . competition and coexistence. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. UK. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. Warrick. etc. Climate Change . Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. K. plant invasions. and Solutions. Silvertown.. Berlin. E & Muller-Hohenstein. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. 2005. Life history strategies of plants. 2. Effects. Species richness. D. Plant Ecology. survival and extinction.). forests. Oxford. John Wiley & Sons. Maarel.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction.. Effects. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Recommended Books: 1.

Protected areas in Pakistan. Consumptive. Sustainable forest management. Robinson. Oxford University Press. Mcmillan. 5. I). Blackwell Publsihing. Establishment and management of protected areas. Oxford. their importance. Extinction of species. Recommended Books: 1. 3. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. Threatened animals and plants. deforestation and its control. T. Oxford. 2002. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. Forest plantations. UK. Wildlife of Pakistan.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. S.G. Oxford. Publishers Sunderland. II). And Bolen. K. 4. 57 . Global and national biodiversity. Oxford University Press. Biodiversity: An introduction. 1998. USA.D. 1986. Roberts. types. biological diversity. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. Participatory forest management. Protected areas.B. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. Wetlands. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. J. Sinauer Assocaites. habitats and ecosystems.(2nd Ed. Forests. & Ripley. 3. R. status. problems and solutions. kinds. distribution. Cambridge. types. 2004. Wildlife Ecology and Management. W.A. S. their ecological and economic importance. Essentials of Conservation Biology. Primack. Recommended Books: 1. Rangeland management. distribution and management. Cambridge. Bailey. 2. Oxford University Press. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. & Spicer.J.J. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol.L. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. London. B. Conserving Living Natural Resources. UK.) Gaston. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. J. E. Loss of biodiversity. 1973 2. distribution. its causes.J. John Wiley And Sons.J. T. Status of forests in Pakistan. 2002. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. Roberts. Cambridge University Press. management. 1992. Principles of Wildlife Management. Inc. threats and conservation. Protection and restoration of species. Weddell. 1984. their types and role in conservation.

H. Government of Pakistan.. Urban land use planning and management. Silberstein. urbanization in Pakistan. 2004. Introducing Town Planning. Clara.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. UK. C.. future of urban centers. 2007. New York. UK. Ward. Planning and Urban Change. urban political ecology. Ministry of Housing and Works. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. 4. sanitation. London. V. Longman Group. Islamabad. The Works: Anatomy of a City.and Maser. G. drinking water and solid waste in cities. J. 2. A. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. urban systems and their characteristics. Recommended Books: 1. CRC Press LLC. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. 3.. S. Forms of urbanization. Kate. 1986.. SAGE Publications Ltd. 2000. Environmental problems of urban life. E&UA Div. Penguin Group. urban landscape characteristics. USA. Sustainable cities. USA. 58 . management of transport. 1993. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards.

a) Functional English Grammar 1. Practical English Grammar by A. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0194313492 59 . Third edition. 1997. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1.J. Exercises 1.Annexure . Martinet. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking.V. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. Thomson and A.

Writing. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis.J. Reading/Comprehension 1. Oxford University Press. minutes of meetings. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . Upper Intermediate.2. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. 1997. Fourth Impression 1993. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. and speed reading. intensive and extensive. Third Impression 1992. Martinet. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. b) Practical English Grammar by A. Exercises 2.V. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Thomson and A. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. Third edition. Reading.

language. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. form. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Reading 1. Advanced. Oxford University Press 1986. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Writing. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Thomson and A. 2. b) Writing 1. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Third edition. Exercises 2. Fourth Impression 1993. introduction to presentations. narrative. descriptive and argumentative writing). Reading.V. Oxford Supplementary Skills. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Third Impression 1992. content. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. clarity. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. Advanced by Ron White. Writing. Martinet. discursive. Writing. Practical English Grammar by A.J. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Fourth Impression 1992. ISBN 0 19 453403 0.1. 2. Third Impression 1991. ISBN 0 19 431350 6.

Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. 2004. 62 . Mandell. Martin’s Press. 3. Compiled by norther Illinois University. descriptive. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. Kirszner and Stephen R. 2. argumentative and report writing). College Writing Skills by John Langan. A Custom Publication. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. St.(particularly suitable for discursive. without taxing the taste of engineering students). Kathleen Shine Cain. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton.

Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. national development. Mehmood. 4. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. Economic institutions and issues b. 2000. Indus Civilization ii. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. 1971-77 d. State & Society in Pakistan. Location and geo-physical features. Course Outline 1. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. 1994. Contemporary Pakistan a. 63 Books Recommended 1. Zaidi.M. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. Safdar. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. Akbar. 1958-71 c. Study the process of governance. Karachi: Oxford University Press. 2. 1947-58 b.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. 2. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Ethnicity d. Karachi: Oxford University Press. ideological background of Pakistan.Annexure . government. b. Society and social structure c. contemporary Pakistan. 1988-99 f. Historical Perspective a. 1999 onward 3. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. People and Land i. . Shahid Javed. S. 1993. Muslim advent iii. politics. 3. 1977-88 e. Lahore. S. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis.

National Movement in Pakistan. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Ansar.K. Vol. Haq. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. Muhammad Waseem. Politics in Pakistan. 14. Rafique. The Political System of Pakistan. 6. Institute of Public Policy Research. Lahore: Vanguard. 1967. Noor ul. 1993. Khalid Bin. Zahid. 12. 1972.The Emergence of Banglades. 8. Political Parties in Pakistan. M. Islamabad. Wayne. Pakistan Under Martial Law. Party. I. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. History & Culture of Sindh. Safdar. Lawrence. 1980. Ziring. 10. 1998. Mehmood. 11. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Ethno .. 13. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. Washington: American Enterprise. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.5. 64 . Afzal. Aziz. Amin. II & III. nd. Wilcox. K. 9. Sayeed. 1987. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Enigma of Political Development. Tahir. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. 1976. Club Road. 1980. 7.

) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.A. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.19.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.A.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.57.6.Tadabar (Verse No1.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.A.Annexure .58.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.21.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .20) Related to thinking.56.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.40.A.

3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt. in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .

International Islamic University. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University.S. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. IRI. Ahmad Hasan. Islamabad (2001) 67 . “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. Pakistan. Bhatia. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Emergence of Islam” . Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. “Studies in Islamic Law.

Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. system of linear equations. Boston Swokowski EW.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Houghton & Mifflin. types. 1987. trigonometric identities. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. geometric progression. PWS-Kent Company. Boston 68 . Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. Sharron S. introduction to sets. PWS-Kent Company. functions. harmonic progression. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. 1978. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. not majoring in mathematics. Beckenback EF. Wooton W. matrix inverse.Annexure . determinants. set operations. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. complex numbers. Cramer’s rule. types of functions. 1986. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. equations reducible to quadratic equations. cube roots of unity.

Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. left-hand and right-hand limits. intersection of two lines. not majoring in mathematics. inequalities. USA 3. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. differentiation of polynomial. Ma. continuity. rational and transcendental functions. functions and their graphs. Recommended Books: Anton H. parallel and perpendicular lines. Bevens I. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. 69 . John Wiley.2. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. integration by parts. Davis S. New York Stewart J. Calculus (3rd edition). Calculus (11th edition). 1983. various forms of equation of a line. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. 2005. change of variables in indefinite integrals. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. distance between two points. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. slope of a line. Reading. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. derivatives. 1995. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. 2005. PWS-Kent Company. equation of a line. Addison-Wesley. solution of equations involving absolute values. distance between a point and a line. Finney AR. integration by substitution. continuous functions. not majoring in mathematics. angle between two lines. Boston Thomas GB.

types of functions. College Algebra and Trigonometry. inverse of matrices. set operations. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. 1969 Kaufmann JE. functions. 70 . Conic Sections: Parabola. hyperbola. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. determinants. system of linear equations. Cramer’s rule. Scott. Boston 4.Circle: Equation of a circle. PWS-Kent Company. types of matrices. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). Boston Swokowski EW. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. intersection of lines and circles. nature of roots of quadratic equations. locus of a point in various conditions. circles determined by various conditions. • Contents 1. PWS-Kent Company. 1987. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Analytic Geometry. equations reducible to quadratic equations. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. Introduction to sets. 1986. Freshman and Company. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. ellipse.

Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. Latest Edition. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. R. trigonometric identities. circle and trigonometric functions. Prentice Hall. Latest Edition. moments. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. relationship of statistics with social science. quartiles. standard deviation. Wilcox.geometric and harmonic progressions. individual. tally sheet method. Latest Edition.. 71 . R. Books Recommended: 1. bar frequency diagram histogram.. inter quartile deviation mean deviation.. characteristics of statistics. Graphs: Graph of straight line. W. deciles and percentiles. variance. 4. array. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. Kaufmann. skewness and kurtosis. types of frequency series. 2. cumulative frequency curve. J.. 2. discrete and continuous series. Measures of dispersion: Range. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. 5. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. E. frequency polygon. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. Walpole. Swokowski. PWS-Kent Company. R. 3. Boston. E. ungrouped and grouped data. E. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry.

Slope of a Line. Recommended Books: 1. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. 4.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. Calculus Single and Multivariable. Swokowski. logarithmic differentiation. sinusoidal function. Prentice-Hall. 2. John H. 3. the chain rule. Contents 1. implicit differentiation. Calculus. 5. integration by parts. reduction formulae. Davis. 1983. applications of integration. integration using partial fractions. Inequalities. Solution of equations involving absolute values. Continuity. 6. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. plane polar coordinates. quotients. Hughes-Hallett. 6. Inc. • Integration Integration from first principles. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. Elliott Mendelson. infinite and improper integrals. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. 8th edition. 1999. Integration by Parts. 3rd Edition.Jr. the inverse of differentiation. 2. Trigonometric Functions. Equation of a Line. Boston. Addison Wesley publishing company. Anton. Calculus. 11th Edition. products. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . special points of a function. theorems of differentiation. Second Edition 1992. 2002. Schaum’s Outline Series. H. logarithmic integration. S. Gleason. Jhon Willey & Sons. Extreme Values of Functions. McCallum. W. I. 2005. Rational Functions. Bevens. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. Least-Squares Line. and Transcendental Functions. Leibnitz’ theorem. Thomas. Inc. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. 2005. integration by inspection. Rational and Transcendental Functions. substitution method. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. et al. Calculus. Frank A. Mathews. integral inequalities. John Wiley & Sons. Continuous Functions. 4th edition. E.

calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. multiplication. inverses of hyperbolic functions. identities of hyperbolic functions.Additions and subtraction. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. series involving natural numbers. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. geometric series. the difference method. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. finding the nth roots of unity. solving hyperbolic equations. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. complex conjugate. modulus and argument. arithmetico-geometric series. approximation errors in Taylor series. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem.

orthogonal. Hermitian. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. moments of inertia. vector product. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. centers of mass and centroids. Pappus’ theorems. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . symmetric and antisymmetric. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. point to plane. scalar triple product. of a unitary matrix. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. 6. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. line to line.5. the inner product. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. masses. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes.

spherical polar coordinates 75 . curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. divergence of a vector field.8. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. combinations of grad.

Quantiles. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Unit 2. level of significance. The Mode. Data. Unit 7. sampling with and without replacement. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Exercises. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Empirical Relation between Mean. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Absolute and relative measures. Presentation of Data Introduction. Difference of means and proportions. Unit 3. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Errors of measurement. Exercises. Unit 5. The Variance and standard deviation. Diagrams. Rounding of a Number. Moments and Moments ratios. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. 76 . sample design and sampling frame. Population. acceptance and rejection regions. The Mean Deviation. Exercises. Exercises. Type-I and Type-II errors. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Significant digits. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Pie chart.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Editing of Data. Change of origin and scale. Stem and Leaf Display. Types of frequency curves. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. bias. Historigram. Exercises. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Unit 4. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. properties of Good Average. Exercises. Different types of Averages.Annexure . Statistical problem. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Coefficient of variation. The semi-Interquartile Range. Observations. Range. definition of outliers and their detection. Median and mode. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Collection of primary and secondary data. Graphs and their Construction. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Exercises Unit 6. probability and non-probability sampling. Probability and Probability Distributions. sampling and non sampling errors. null and alternative hypothesis. Box and Whisker Plot. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Test statistics. Standardized variables. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Constructing of a frequency distribution. Bar charts. Discrete and continuous variables. Sources. Histogram.

Regression and Correlation Introduction. estimation of parameters and their interpretation.Single Population Introduction. 2 Muhammad. r and R2. Kitab Markaz. 3rd Ed. New York. Exercises Unit 9.. “Introduction to Statistics”. cause and effect relationships. examples. its estimation and interpretation. Inc. 77 . Correlation. 1982. 2005. Macmillan Publishing Co. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction.. Exercises Unit 10. E. simple linear regression.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. Testing of Hypothesis. Coefficient of linear correlation. Contingency Tables. R. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. Unit 11. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. F. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad.Unit 8. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. Exercises.

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