CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
58

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The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. 63. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. R&D organizations. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. therefore. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. and 36.). For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. The world has turned into a global village. degree awarding institutions.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. PROF. It is. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years.ALTAF ALI G. Lahore. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. DR. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. the Federal Government vide notification No. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. It also aimed to give a basic. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. dated December 4th 1976. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . universities and other institutions of higher education. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. D773/76-JEA (cur. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976.

CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. REC. COL. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. EXP. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. UNI. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. PREP. OF CURRI. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. Preparation 5 . R&D. OF NCRC. OF FINAL CURRI.

Dr. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Member 4. 7. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Rawalpindi Dr. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Following attended the meeting:1. Rawalpindi Dr. Member 5. Karachi from 28-30. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Dr. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Member 6 . Member 3. Dr. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Lahore Member 6.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline.

Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Dr. Member 11. Dr. Dr. Member 10. 13. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Dr. Prof. Member 14. 7 . Karachi Member 12. Member 15. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms.8. Member 16. Dr. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Prof. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Dr. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9.

2. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. Faisalabad Member 18.17. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. Member 20. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. At first. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. 1. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. Karachi. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Director of HEC Regional Center. Dr. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. The meeting was opened by Mr. Secretary Dr. Mr. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. Dr. Chairman. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. Mr. Member 19. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. 8 . compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society.

The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities.3. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. 2. 4. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. 5. 6. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. 3. In last few centuries. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. 1. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. The committee thanked Mr. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world.

This committee. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. 5. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. ii. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. skills and behaviour patterns. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. regional and global contexts. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. in its preliminary meeting. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. Apply theoretical understanding. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 .

social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. 6.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. Sc. A. 2. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. 3. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. 1..e. eight semesters in the semester system. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. The medium of instruction. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. The 11 . with consensus. Integrating natural sciences. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. 4. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. 5. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. that: 1. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2.

Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Introduction to Computer 14. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Biology –II* 9. English-III 18. Environmental Microbiology 21. Introductory Economics* 17. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. English-I 6. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Environmental Chemistry 15. Environmental Physics 16.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Climatology* 23. Environmental Pollution 22. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Basic Chemistry* 4. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. English-II 12. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Psychology* . Biology –I* 3. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Introduction to Earth Science 8.

44. ELECTIVE-III 42. Applied Ecology 26. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Opt. Environmental Biotechnology 32. Natural Resource Management 40. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. Environmental toxicology 27.24. 46. 45. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. Environmental Management Systems 34. English-IV/ Univ. Environmental Monitoring 36. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Environmental Economics 29. Climate Change 38. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. Biodiversity & Conservation 35.

• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .

Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. lipids. 2007. its importance in human life. 2. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. R.J.L. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. Human environment and its problems: global. poverty and resource depletion. 4. 2002. proteins and nucleic acids. ecological. urbanization..T. Botkin. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. B. Different aspects of environment: physical. regional..M. 2007. and their relationships with various environmental factors. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. R. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. G. biological and social. 4th Ed. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. John Wiley & Sons. L. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. history. E. 15 . Recommended Books: 1. Thomson Learning. socio-economic. D. Miller. current global. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. 10th Ed. Pearson Educational. 2007 3. M.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. & Nebel. national. environmental pollution. development in industry and agriculture. Schoch. 6th Ed.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. philosophical. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . ethical. & Yonavjak. McKinney.B & Keller. Wright.A.

Aromatic compounds. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. carboxylic acids. chemical diversity. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. Structure and the basis of function. Plopper. carbohydrates. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. C. esters. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. 16 . COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. 2007. chemical basis of life. D. R. overview of structure and function of cell organelles.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Ionic. 2. Wadsworth Group. Canada.. G. E. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. carbonyls. 2003. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. 1996. New York. N. Cells. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. 2007. phospholipids in membrane systems. Self Assessment and Revie. V. Lingappa. Origin of life: chemical evolution. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. 1. origin of metabolism. 5th Edetion. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. 3. protobionts. Australia . A. and Whitelaw. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. lipids. Lewis. R. 4. USA. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization.. the molecule of genetic information and replication. Cell division. Shier. L. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. 2008. Crossley. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. Nucleic acids. Biology: a Human Emphasis. and Lewis. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. covalent. lipids. 8th Ed. Cassimeris. coordinate covalent bond. USA. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. amines). Starr.Hill International Edition. M. B.. proteins. polypeptides in protein diversity. McGraw. Introduction to cell biology. Ltd. J. USA. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells... Molecular Biology through Questions. Bulter. 5.

D. 17 .J. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. 2nd Edition. graphs. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. 4. B. Surface chemistry. angle-sum formula. M. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. P. 2004.J. 2003. Algebra of matrices. P. minor and cofactor of a matrix. Colloids chemistry. 1st Ed. T. 2004.. and Reid. real line. double angle formulas. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. Column chromatography. Girard. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics.. Cambridge University Press.A. EC and TDS in waste water.. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Harris.C. D.Special Products (Binomial Expression). equations of lines (linear equations).E. 2. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. straight line and related concepts. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. values of trigonometric functions. normal solutions/buffers.D.K. F. Andrews. law of Cosines. Osmosis and Dialysis. Liss. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. Measurement of pH. determinants.M. Hill.E.S. West. W.. simultaneous equations and their solutions. Jickells. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. radicals. 3. Photochemical reactions.ions. Jones and Barlett. Thin layer chromatography.. Solution chemistry. D. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. 2nd Edition. 5. Lab Work Preparation of molar. 8th Edition. J. Canada. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. USA. Skoog. Thomson and Brooks. 2004. Freeman and Company. series and means. geometric and harmonic sequence. UK.. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane.. UK. Brimblecombe. molal. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. expansion of determinants.H. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). Recommended Books: 1. and Holler.. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. USA. 2005. Blackwell Science.. J. 6th Edition. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles.

plate tectonics. the processes of their formation. weathering and erosion. erosion and related landforms. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. Jr. faults. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. Chatterjee. California. G. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. Recommended Books: 1.Wesley. earthquakes and volcanoes. nonrepeated linear factors. age. D. Integration: Formulas of integration. Smith. Analytical Geometry. and Finney. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. S. Earth as a member of solar system. Weathering. product and quotient rules without derivations). 4. Introduction to sedimentary. theorem of integration. irreducible quadratic factors. difference. Thomas. 2.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. Abraham. Addission. composition and its internal structure. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. J. foliation. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. K. 18 .. different earth processes like mountain buildings. Fossils and their significance.. earthquakes.Cramer’s Rule. cleavages. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . Trignometry for College students. Chain rule. 3. 4th Ed. joints. Introduction to folds. Pacific Grove. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. its origin. New Delhi. igneous and metamorphic rocks. theorems on differentiation (sum.B. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. lineation and unconformities. 1999. 10th Ed. Introduction to rocks and minerals. by parts integration (simple applications). mountain building. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. Scott Foresman and Company. L. R.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . Narosa Publishing House.

Foundations of Structural Biology. Physical Geology and Process of Science. consequences of losing biodiversity.. Smith. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. and Tasa.. multicellularity. Lamarckism. G. F. Recommended Books: 1. R. How Does Earth Work. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. Wicander. protocell formation. molecular basis of biodiversity. E. Darwinism. measuring biodiversity. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. G.. biodiversity crises. Park. unicellularity. J.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. Prentice Hall. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation.. crucial for organisms’ sustainability.. F. Prentice Hall: 2006. Prentice Hall. A. animals). modern concepts. Lutgens. invasion of life on land. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. 11th Edition.. J. Use of brunton compass and GPS. Tarbuck. 2007 2. and Tasa. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. K. K.. E. Earth Science. 2004... Geological time chart with biodiversity. Routledge. 9th Edition. Biodiversity of canal. R. 2007 3. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. D. 3rd Edition. examples of adjustments in varied environment. and Pun. Biodiversity of hilly areas. Brooks/Cole. 4. population loss and decline. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. Field Study tour. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. 19 . different classification systems. Biodiversity of deserts. interactions among diversified life. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. 2005. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis.Identification of rocks and minerals. 5th Edition. causes of extinction. and Monroe. Tarbuck. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. D. 5. J. Life in sea. Lutgens. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY .

The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. John Wiley and Sons. The Ecology of global consumer culture. K. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. 2. Consumption. 20 . Wadsworth Group. and concerns. power & hegemony. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . Use of environment for vested interest. Biodiversity (An Introduction). Chronological. (editor). 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. Inc. IL:WavelandPress. globalization and environmental issues. Allan & Carter. 2009. 2. R. Walnut Creek. Goals and expectations. UK. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. Environmental Risks and the Media. Recommended Books: 1. P. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. Nora and Wilk. I. Starr. C. L. 5th Edition. Biology. 3.. USA. 2006. and Spicer. I. The Biosphere. Hannen. 2005. Culture. C. Contemporary environment issues and debate. J. K. Blackwell Science Ltd. 2000. Bradbury. Crumley. Adam. Conceptualizing environment. 3. Understanding the environment-human relationship. New York: New York University Press. Perspective of human-environment evolution.. 2003. 2009. UK. 2nd Edition. J. 4. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. Tripartite nature of environment. Prospect Heights.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. Inc. Routledge. and Sustainable Living. Contemporary environmental status. a Human Emphasis. (editors). culture and society.K. Scope and application. Townsend. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. 2001. Gaston. CA: AltaMira Press. UK.

processing hardware. Long l. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. output hardware. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures.. Ms-Access.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. Introduction to MS-Word. as are their effects on the biosphere. Hardware: Input Hardware.Microsoft office 2000. computer programs and basic applications. Configurations. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure .. G. Recommended Books: 1.1999. Long N. e-mail. Fundamentals of computer. Selin. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. system software. 6. 21 . Ms-Excel. Marquis A. Ms-Power Point. Milton.6th Ed. Types and classification of computers. Course Outlines Definition. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure .BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. Local Area Network. Courter. Operating system (Windows). it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion.H. Rutledge. internet. software packages. 2. Ed. K. Software: Application software. Storage hardware.5.London 1996. 2003.

Energy. 1999. A. Ozone chemistry. M. Turbulent diffusion. Canada. Hernandez-Esparza. Heat radiation and heat transfer. Liss. Recommended Books: 1. 2nd Edition. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. Jickells. Fundamentals of aquatic. trophic level. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. C.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. Fregoso-Infante.E. Human perceptions and noise criteria. 5.S. Samir. Conversion of mass.. Isotopes and radioactive decay. Diffusion. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. Turbulence. Active control of sound.J. Girard. Nuclear energy. 1st Edition. photosynthesis. 2008. Andrews. Chemical reactions. and Singh. Environmental Science. Turbulent jets and plumes. Blackwell Science. Brimblecombe. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. Fate of pollutants in environment. M.M. Principles of Environmental Chemistry.G. its causes and adverse effects on environment.. Miller. and Reid. Thomson-Brooks. T. 4. G.T. Entropy. Environmental Chemistry. UK. P.. Jones and Barlett. Transport of pollutants. Ozone and UV light. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. Environmental Chemistry. Germany. J. Sound and Noise. J. Gaussian plumes in the air.. 2005. Springer. DoriaSerrano. 2.. Basic acoustics. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Particle physics. Reducing the transmission of sound. 2004. Energy conversion. their sources and toxic actions. Equations of fluid dynamics.E... B.. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. atmospheric and soil chemistry. J.. interaction of light with matter. K. Liquids and Gasses...D. Ibanez. Environmental impact of various industries. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. 2004. 3. P. India. Electromagnetic radiation. Solar spectrum. Solids. USA. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. Global climate and climatic change. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics.

economic welfare and difference among all. N. 2001. E. interaction between ecology and economic management. Measures for sustainable development. Field visit. Praxis publishing. S. 4. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. and Van Grondelle. 3. Wesely Publishers. Kentucky USA. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. Economic functions of environment. economic growth and its measurement. concepts and measurement. Natural resources and the economy. Recommended Books: 1. Boeker. USA. Todaro. Sustainable development. C. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. 2. and Pandis.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. H. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. 2006. Smith. population and environmental quality. John Wiley and Sons Inc. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. UK. M. 2008. Routledge. Introductory Environmental Physics. Impact of economic activity on environment. Growth and Environment. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. economic growth. 2008.Economic development. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior.1998. 2. 7th Ed. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. USA. Pakistan economic context: National income. Producer behavior. 2001. USA. J. Economic Development. P. New York. and Resource allocation. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. G. Environmental Physics. S. Physics of the Environment and Climate. Seinfeld. economic progress. World Bank Publications. Man environmental relationship. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. 23 . Guyot. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. Growth and development. Recommended Books: 1. Economic management and environmental quality.. USA. poverty. Environmental economics. producer and community point of view. Yusuf. R.

2007. levels of ecological organization. description of population. 2002. Swift. 4. London. Natural philosophy. Introduction to ethical theory. B. D. 24 . 2. 2008. Portland 1967.. USA. Kessinger Publishing. the ethics of soil. B. community. WCIV7AA. J. N. ethics and ecology. Frodeman. and White. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. Callicott. water.3. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. population. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. 4.V. its fundamental concepts. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy.A. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. concepts and approaches. soil. J. and systems ecology. A History of Western Philosophy. role of light. Course Outlines Introduction. Environmental philosophy and ethics. Economics. LLC. M. World Bank Publications. community and ecosystem. & Pierce. Shogren.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. Ecology. 2009. Palgrave Macmillan. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. Russell. Touchstone Books. branches of ecology.. temperature. species. DeVeer. B. Hanley. USA. Environmental Critics of agriculture. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. International Thomson Publishing. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources.. Recommended Books: 1. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . biogeography. Farmington Hills. 3. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. England. R. C. 2008. Ecosystem and its types..

6th Ed. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. landscape changes and their importance. 1999 4. Dash.Cox.W. 3. community dynamics. WCB/McGraw-Hill. Ecosystem: structure and function. Concepts of Limiting factors. various concepts of community. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. and More. bacteria and eukarya. Cambridge University Press. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. Recommended Books 1. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. E P. 2004. Thomson Brooks/Cole. J. Biogeochemical cycles of C. 2. Fundamentals of Ecology. Microbial metabolism. C. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. New Delhi. Fundamentals of Ecology. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. Ecology (concepts and applications. N. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. UK. and Barett. 1992. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). Odum. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. plant geography and animal distribution. 1st Ed. New York. and S. G. J. 2000. Population distribution and abundance. 2001 5. habitat and niche. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. P. ecological modeling. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. King’s College London. Populations.topography and air as ecological factors. M. UK. characteristics of urban. B. M J. landscape ecology. Chapman. aquatic microbiology. population dynamics. Lab Work 25 .) Moles. productivity of different ecosystems. Systems ecology. distribution limits. Biomes of the world. C. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. Tata McGraw-Hill. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. biotic factors.L and Reiss. M C J 1st ed. Ecology (principles and applications). 5th Ed. After completion of this course. students will be able to understand the significance.

nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. Academic Press. G. C.P.I. Understanding Environmental Pollution. L. Dilution plate technique. isolation. Environmental Pollution and Control. Soil. 2009. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. Human & other living organisms. McInernery. its sources and their effects. 2005. Environmental Microbiology. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. Noise. Sylvia.J. USA. Academic Press. and Zuberer. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. 3. USA.M. Butterworth-Heinemann. Maier. Weiner. Solid Waste generation. USA.. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution.J.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. and Jeffery. Recommended Books 1. Academic Press. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual.G. 26 . L. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water..L. and Gerba.D.J. Hartel. International Protocols (BASAL Convention).K. C. Mean plate count. Collection.M... Water. D.. R. Pepper. 2005. Cambridge University Press. A. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. Knudsen. 3. Hill. London. M. D. Crawford. Hurrst. 4. 4th Edition.B.. 2002.and Brendecke. McGraw Hill Inc. Microbiology.A.A.F. transportation & treatments. Washington DC. 1995. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. Case Studies. peppor.. J.L.... and Stetzenbach. USA. P.J. 2005. 2. Manual of Environmental Microbiology.M. J.C.W.R.A. 2007. USA..and Vesilaind. American Society for Microbiology. Harley. New Jersey. 2nd Edition. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. F. W. Marine & Industrial pollution.. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. Pollution Control Strategies. D. Effects of Pollutants.P.L. 2.J. UK. Prescott. I. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. M.1998. purification and preservation. Prentice Hall.V.. (Elsevier) USA. Cambridge UK.P. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. Peiece. R. J. Recommended Books: 1. 2 Edition. Fuhrmann. 5. P. Fate of Environmental Pollutants.Gerba. and Klein.

condensation and cloud Formation. . Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan).W. Pandis. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Cloud Classification. The Atmosphere. Solar radiations.E. Methods of psychology. 2003. Lawrance K. Austin Miller. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan.F. climatic zones of Pakistan. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. Factors affecting air Pressure. 1988. Spyros. 27 .2nd Editions. Four Spheres of the Earth. Marcel Dekkar.. N. The climate of Pakistan. Radiation and climate. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. A.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. global circulation. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . The Hydrologic cycle. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems.J.4. Weather and Climate. 3. Sadder. K. Houghton J. Surface winds. 2. John Wiley and Sons. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere.. Climatology. Karachi. Recommended Books: 1. 1992. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. American Public Health Association (APHA). Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. 2006 5. Lutgens. 6th Edition. Tarbuck. A brief historical background and schools of psychology.. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. John H.. The Physics of Atmospheres. Royal book company. Environmental psychology.K. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. air pressure. 5. local winds. 2002.M. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. 4. Mechanism of heat transfer. Shamshad. Cambridge University Press.

Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. concepts. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. London. Environmental perception and cognition. rivers.. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. carbon dioxide and global climate change. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship.A. Bell. Course Outline Introduction. M. threats and mitigation. energy and carbon balance. species response to pollutants. Pollution control through Ecology. Sustainable agricultural practices. Restoration of derelict lands.characteristics and research methods. and Baum A. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. T. 28 . Ecology of food production. Eysenck.W. London. Routledge. Soil as a natural resource. sustainable agriculture. 2001. Environmental Psychology.D. Fisher J.. their management and ecological restoration. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. Water as an ecological resource. limitation of irrigated agriculture. Ecological restoration. soil erosion and conservation. soil salinity and water logging. techniques and methods of restoration. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. CRC Press.C. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. Water and distribution of species. P. Fundamental of Psychology. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. CRC Press. Sustainable livestock management practices. Greene. Recommended Books: 1. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. Background and scope. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. Future water scenario of Pakistan. 1992. solar radiation and primary production. Routledge. 5th Edition. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. soil resources of Pakistan. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. 2. High population density and psychological impacts.

dose response relationship in living organisms. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. A. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. Immunological considerations in toxicology. Shirkat Gah. water and soil. 29 . Synergism. Margaret A. 1989. 3. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. 2004. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. Rashid. P.Recommended Books: 1. Mumtaz. Falk. terminologies: Poisons. on human and other living organisms.W. in vivo & in vitro assays. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants.P.National Book Foundation. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. 5th Edition. toxicology of chemicals. 2000 2. Islamabad. Blackwell Scientific Publications. USA. their containment and control strategies. Thomson Brooks/Cole.. K and Habib. toxins vs toxicants. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. 4. Island Press. 2006. Studies in Pakistan Geography. and Memon. J. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. toxins & toxicants.A. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. from natural and anthropogenic sources. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. University of Peshawar. Newman. biological effects. Odum E. Oxford. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. and Barett. E. Pakistan’s Environment. soil and air samples. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. J. R. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. K...S. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. G. Israr-ud-Din. Chemical interactions and their types. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. Peshawar. 5.I. B. Soil Science.. toxicity screening using microbial systems. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. and Hobbs. Potentiation and Addition. A. Organs. D. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. 1996. Fundamentals of Ecology.1998. 2nd ed. Zedler. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. Lahore.

). T and Turner. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. land. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. culture.Recommended Books 1. State of the Environment-Pakistan . 1992. McGrawhill. Ballantyne.. USA. W. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. health. Ecological: ecological zones. 1996. W. Economic: agriculture. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. people. (ed. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. education. B. geography. 3. major ecosystems. USA. 3. measuring environmental benefits. 5th Edition. 1993. 1st Edition.D. USA. the economy and the environment. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. Recommended Books 1. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement.2005 2. CRC Press Llc. General and Applied Toxicology. M. Klassen. economic development and the environment. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. 2005 2.M. Macmillan Press Ltd. P.1 & 2. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. international trade and the environment. Vol. Course Outlines Introduction. industry. Hughes. pollution control-a general model. topographic zones. urbanization and pollution. water resources. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. Recommended Books: 30 . 1st Edition. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. Course Outlines Introduction to history. economic aspects of different environmental problems. clean development mechanism. Government of Pakistan. Williams.Science of Poisons .

3. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. Kolstad. Holler. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. All Solids.K.L. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. Reuter. Environmental Economics: An Introduction.. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. M. precision and accuracy. Australia. Spectroscopy and Chromatography..W. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. Harris. 3. units. D.and Field. 8th Edition. 2. 31 . Gravimetery. 4. NO3–N & NH4-N). C. Use of Potentiometery.R. Oxford University Press. Peverill. handling. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. 2. Conductivitymetry. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). I. Skoog..A. 6th Edition. Thomson and Brooks. New York. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. and Batemen. B. D.2002. Collingwood. J. Johns Hopkins University Press. salinity & sodicity). 1999. D. Sample preservation methods. Lab Work S.. soil (NPK and organic matter contents.UK. and F. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. water and plant analysis. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Turner.2004. Titrimetery. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Oxford. Pearce. 2005. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory.D. CSIRO Publ. Sample collection. BOD. Data interpretation for quality control.C.I. Standard solutions and standard curves.I. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater.1. Analytical techniques for soil. C. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry.J. West. and derived S. L..K. A. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. USA. 2003. Conductivitymetry. Fluoride. Sparrow and D. Titrimetery. K. D. Gravimetery. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. Environmental Economics. 2000. preparation and storage. COD.. Field. 1993. M. Freeman & Co. Recommended Books: 1.

USA. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. (ed. students will be able to understand the significance. USA. and application of biotechnology in the environment. Isolation. Sambrook. D. Introduction to microbial kinetics. 2007. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. New York. Recombinant DNA technology. Germany. Environmental Biotechnology. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. 2005. A. Tools in environmental biotechnology. 3. J. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications.W. 4. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures.P. Biomarkers. J. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. New York.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. USA. Biosensor. Smith. purification and preservation of DNA. 2005. 2001.E. 2nd Ed. and Russel. Biotechnology. 2.D. Derbre. 5th Ed. Course Outlines Introduction. National Biotechnology Commission. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. England. National Biosafety Guidelines.. PCR. 2009. Government of Pakistan. Scragg.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. After completion of this course. Recommended Books 1. Oxford University Press.1999. Cambridge University Press. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. Hans- Joachim. W.). J. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . Wiley-VCH Verlag. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. and Josef.. Bioreactors. Chichoster.

Pearsons Education. R. advantages and limitations of process. Lulla. Rancez. History and data collection. Introduction to GIS. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. integration of information from many sources. Z. 4. Agriculture. Data entry and output. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. 3. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. A. Campbell. 2009. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). 2. V. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Inc. Image Processing. Active and Passive remote sensing. K and L. Energy Sources. Types of data used in GIS. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. Forestry. history and platforms. Introduction to Photogrammetry. F. 2000. Jensen. 5. Inc. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. Mc Graw Hill Education. analysis and output. 2000. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Preparation of thematic maps. Inc. Fishery and wildlife. 1999. Harvey. eradication of the duplicated data. Cartography. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Interpretation. Guilfoud press New York. 2008. map projection and coordinate systems. Data acquisition. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Aerial photography. John Wiley and Sons. John Wiley and Sons. Using and reading GPS in field. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Different types of maps. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. Dessinov.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. Satellite Imageries.

International Organization for Standardization. F. 2. Environmental aspects and impacts. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Khan. Related Environmental legislation. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity.C. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. need and approach. and Qasim. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System.. B. standards and guidelines. economic. Environmental Management tools. M. and Yoxon. eco-design. philosophical. Systems and Support Techniques. Course Outlines Introduction. cleaner technologies. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). 34 . Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. threats to biodiversity. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. etc. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. WWF Pakistan. Certification of EMS. Methods of environmental protection. 1998... ecological.).3rd Edition . and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. principles of Cleaner production. 4.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. hot spots of biodiversity. Environmental Economy. A. plant.2nd Ed. alpha and beta diversity. American Society for Quality. 2005. Sheldon. Environmental Management Systems Principles. Environment and sustainable development. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. 2001. 3. types of biodiversity. social and ethical values of biodiversity. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. Michigan. American Society for Quality. 2006. M. Conservation of biodiversity.

C.conservation at species. Legal protection of species. Associates Inc. Lahore). 2000. chemical addition. quality assessment. management. international agreements. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora.B. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. protected areas. P. 2. Quality assurance and quality control. croplands. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. Saad Printers.B. plants. forests.. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city.e. EIA requirement. Kings College. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. their categories.D. quality control sampling. soil and living organisms. Preservation methods including pH control. presampling requirements/information. Sunderland. water. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. cities. air.R. 3. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. 35 . Cox. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. Considerations. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. P.. conservation and livelihood. Recommended Books: 1. habitats. design and types of samples. 2ndEd. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. national and international laws and regulations. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. ecotourism. 1998. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. population. Z. Conservation of wildlife. sampling and design purposes.B. community and ecosystem level. NOC for plant operation. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. laboratory custody. conservation strategies.. Course Outlines Introduction. field custody. Biogeography. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. Publ. Sinauer. Rawalpindi. London. and Morre. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. refrigeration and freezing methods. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. A Primer for Conservation Biology. Mirza. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. 2000. conservation in man-made ecosystems.

Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. Environmental Monitoring Handbook.1999. 2002. 1992. I. S. L. Earth Observation of Global Change. Chapman and Hall. Regional droughts and 36 . phenological changes. Burden. 2nd Edition. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. F. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. regional. (eds. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. chemical. UK. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. Keith.. 2008. D. its causes and effects. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. Precipitation. 2. Manahan. Peakall. extinctions.1996. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. . human health. E. E. Energy and Temperature. Physical. McKlivie. Murai. H. agriculture. R. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. Lewis Publisher London. 5. The Measurement of Climate Change. (ed) Springer. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. Recent Climate Change Indicators. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. N. Tokyo. Environmental Chemistry. Moisture in the Atmosphere. altered community structure. Forstner U. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. Remote Sensing Note. S. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. 7. Chuviero. USA. biological. D. Human responses to potential climate change. USA. 2008.Recommended Books: 1. 3. Ozone depletion. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local.. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention.) McGraw-Hill.USA. Korte. 2000. USA. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. 2002. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. New York. 6. and Guethner. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. 8.

public involvement. National Book Foundation. Sringer. 2. 3. Islamabad. reporting. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. D. Keith. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment.O. J. and noise. Hardy. social impact assessment (SIA). Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. (ed. 1986. liquid. John Wiley & Sons. J. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. mitigation and impact management. project implementation and follow up. overview. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan.. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. EIA project management. Climate Change . 2004.T. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. & Nixon. 2005. 4. London. 2000. Earthscan Publication Ltd. A. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. 6. impact analysis. R. 5. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. 1st Edition. Climate Change . Effects. Recommended Books: 1. 1994. 2003.. review of EIA quality. Routledge. and Solutions. J. 2005. Glasson. Blackwell. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. law.Causes.. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. 3. Effects. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. 2005. Recommended Books: 1. 2. Oxford. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. scoping. John Wiley & Sons.. Hardy. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. Types & Resources to produce Energy. 37 .). Main stages in EIA process.(ed). Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). London. and Chadwick. Ministry of Housing and Works. Islamabad. Global Warming and Climate Change. Therivel.. J. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. Global Change and the earth system. J. Houghton. 1999. T. solids. decision-making to implement the project. 4. A. Harrop. screening. and Solutions.cataclysmic climate change. Petts. 2003.A...Causes. Cost and benefits of EIA.

Asian Development Bank. H. A. threats.. Goldsmith. Lohani. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. 1997. 38 . R. agriculture chemicals. Carpenter. J. national and provincial legislation.. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. Ludwig..5. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. Sadler. effective management. national example. solar power. Evans. 1993. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. Everitt. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. United Nations Environment Programme. process and contents of the management plan.. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. threat and its causes. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. 2nd Edition. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. M. (ed. New York. B. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification.B and Warren. USA. limitation in the future. 2002.. & McCabe..). requirement. their pros and cons. management options. their current status and threats.. R. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. Recommended Books: 1. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. Development of Management Plan: needs. best available option for future. S. Rangeland Management: existing status. Conservation in Progress. importance. and Tu. national agriculture policy. management options. wind power and nuclear power. 6. forest types and its existing management. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. B. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. John Willey & Sons. problem in agriculture. methodologies. Types. causes and methods for its improvement. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. existing management approaches. wildlife census. agriculture products and their share in GDP. F. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources.

Literature Search: Database. Dasmann. Experimental Research. Selecting the Research Method.A pre-requisite for Research. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. Scientific Research: Science. 5. Environmental Conservation. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. and Jorqensen. Questionnaire. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. Objectives. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. S.L. Surveys. W. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. V. P. research methods. Material Methods. Research Design & Research Methods. 39 . Inference based on findings. Bibliography.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. How to put things together? Introduction. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. J. 3.E. concepts and terminologies. Methodology. Elsevier. Sage CA. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Review of Literature. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. John Wiley & Sons. Interviews. 1984. 4.F. Review of Literature. 1990. types of sampling design/. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison).. USA. Case Studies. Hansen. 2007.E. GOP and IUCN. population and sampling frames. Creswell.Amsterdam. London. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. 1992. New York. R. Thousand Oaks. Islamabad. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. to introduce students to research design. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. & Plano Clark. Scientific Methods.2. Research Proposal: its importance . Sampling: the logic of sampling. Search Engines.

R. Robert Yin. Babbie. G. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. 2nd Edition. Survey Research Methods. of Chicago Press. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking.Harrad.. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. 6. 5. 1997. Diamon. John and sons Ltd. 1989. Booth. 2003. Wadsworth Publishing Company. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 3. 2008. 2003. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. Chichester. 2. Belmont California. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. 2000. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. National Environmental Policy 4.S. and Arhonditsis. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. Sage Publishers. E. Moriarty.. England.. S.2. 1997. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. Marilyn F.h. 3rd Edition. M. Government of Pakistan 3. Students project in Environmental Science. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. regulations made there under. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. USA. National Conservation Strategy 5.Batty. 4. Law Books House. 2001. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . Recommended Books: 1.. Univ. USA.USA. Qadar.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

5. R.1993. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. O.. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. virtual water. tubewells. Asia Printer. 44 . Islamabad.). C. and Malik. Oxford University Press New Delhi. Mirajuddin Publication . 2006. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. recycling and re-use of wastewater. 6. 2005. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. N. P. flood and drought management. Mirajuddin Publication . Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). integrated water resources management (IWRM). SDPI Oxford University Press. Khan. 3. A. water quality and quantity aspects. Bengali. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. 2006..E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. 2. Indus Water Accord 1991. 2003. pollution aspects.K.. I. wetlands resources management. hydrological cycle. Recommended Books: 1. Pakistan . how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector.. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. with drinking water facilities like springs.. flood and droughts. watershed/catchment. and Tortajada. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. U. N. (ed. Ahmed. Pakistan. 4.. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. R. and Qamar. K. A. Cheema.Lahore. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. A. (eds. Briscoe. J. Oxford University Press Karachi. fisheries management.Varis. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. The Politics of Managing Water. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. Lahore. Revised & enlarged edition. Ahmed. water supply and demand management measures. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan.). Biswas. 1993.. Islamabad. groundwater exploitation. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan.

the salient features of urban environments. Islamabad. hydrological processes. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. future of urban centers. Urban ecosystem. 1. R. San Diego. and Weil. Hillel. NJ. urban political ecology. Gardiner. 11th Edition. Factors and processes of soil formation. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. D. USA. USA. CA. Brady. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. Prentice Hall. Course Outlines Introduction. Urbanization. PrenticeHall. R. Pakistan. Upper Saddle River. urban flora and fauna.T. D. transport. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. Causes of urbanization. urban patterns and ecosystem functions.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment.R. Forms of urbanization. Soil degradation. Bashir. humans as components of urban ecosystems.. Physical and chemical properties of soil.C. 45 . Course Outlines Introduction. Types and properties of parent materials.W. 1996. NJ. Upper Saddle River. soils. Soil Science. Cation and anion exchange. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. N. After completion of this course. Soils in Our Environment. management and green productivity.. urban settlements. National Book Foundation. Process and outcome. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. urban landscapes characteristics. Miller. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. 2008. 2007. USA. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. Academic Press. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. R. Soil forming minerals. 2007. and Bantel. urbanization in Pakistan. E. Definition.

Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. 1989. 2000. H. USA. Levels of planning. Elements of urban planning. SBS academic publishing. Penguin Group.. Alberti. Planning theories and concepts. 5. CRC Press LLC. 2009. 46 . Hague.1990. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. 3. S. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. UR. 2.L. Sukopp. S. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. M. Silberstein. City Design for Sustainable Development. Planning and Urban Change. UK. A. UK. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. Smith. Land use planning theories.. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. O. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Springer. Scope.and Kowaril. New trends in planning and city management. Principles of planning.S. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. USA. Chapman and Hall. 4. M. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. Hejny. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan.. D. Gilbert. nature and purpose of urban planning. 1. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. I. Routledge.. Recommended Books: 1. Kate. New York. Hough. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. Routledge. Planning and its relationship with other professions. Ward.. 2004. SAGE Publications Ltd. Types of Urban Plans. 2006. London. nd 2 Edition. London.and Maser. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. 2004. J. The planning process. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. Justification for planning for city management.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. 2007. 2. UK. V. C. Aims and Objectives of planning.

. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. 1993. Clara.. 4. E&UA Div. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. Political factors. Natural cycles and their role. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. i. It discusses a wide range of aspects. New York. P.e. Prediction. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. Cultural factors. Disaster as an opportunity for development. Introducing Town Planning. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. G. Earthquake Management. Natural Disasters Alexander. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms.J. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. Disaster Management: Components of management. Government of Pakistan.UNESCO. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. and Woodrow. Westview Press. Socio-economic factors. 1993. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. The Environment as Hazard Burton I.B. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. M. D. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. Role of Media in Disaster Management.W. ADB. 1991. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. 47 . 4. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). and White G. Recommended Books: 1.. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. 3. International phenomenon. The Guilford Press.. New York. 2nd Edition. Physical factors. Flooding. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. Different approaches and Indicators. Kates. Islamabad. 2. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies..3.W. Paris. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies.F. Chapman & Hall. Earthquake. Flood Management: Organizational Role. 1993. Hazards. 1989.. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Boulder . UK. 1986. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. Landslide. Ministry of Housing and Works.. Longman Group. Manila.. R. H.

E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. uses. Consumer and producer relationship. and Yonavjak.. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. R. E. biomass resources. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. A.B and Keller. L.5. Perry R. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. 1. Agroecology. Schoch. 1984. decomposers. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. F.C. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. 2001. consumers. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. solar. types. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. and Mushkatel.A.. Paris. energy resources. hydropower. 48 . M.. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. 2007. McKinney. D. energy resources of Pakistan. primary producers.M. Quorum Books. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. alternate energy resources. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Ecological concept in crop and food production. 6. sustainable energy management. 2.L. Westport. USA. John Wiley and Sons. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Sustainable livestock management.H. 6th Edition.W. 2007. Biotic structure. merits and demerits of wind. 4th Edition. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. local. OECD/IEA. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. New York. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. Disasters and Development Cuny. 1983. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. Botkin. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. 3.

P. Kapur.. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture.G. India. Altreri. Westview Press. and Sudha. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. Recommended Books: 1. 2000. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. USA. Yandermeer J.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. New York. Boulder. USA. R. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. New Delhi.A. C. Study of stratification and profile diagram. 1990.H. M.P. Experimental Plant Ecology.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. Agrocology. E-11 Seminar 49 . 1995. CBS Publishers and Distributors. 2.M. 3. Corol.R. Study of index of diversity. and Rossel.

The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. 5.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. 3. 2. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. 50 . The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. that: 1. availability of the faculty and other facilities. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. 4. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. the Committee agreed on the following principles. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science.

8. 12. 10. 3. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 24. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 14. 2. 11. 5. 15.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 6. 5. 4. 7. 9. 10. 21. 18. 7. 26. 11. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 4. 17. 9. 2. 25. 23. 20. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 3. 12. 16. 19. 22. 6. 8. 13.

Recommended Books: 1. S. 3.1995. Ball.1994.. S. Elsevier. 1991.1994. Islamabad. status of Terrestrial. 3. FURTHER READINGS 1.1991.. P. Amsterdam. Hodder and Stoughton. 2. Geography of Pakistan. 2. Provincial and Local Strategies. Conventions and Protocols in Global.T. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. technology and resource use. Conservation Strategies. GOP and IUCN. F. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. and Bell. Khan K.. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Money. Environmental control Policies. London. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. NCS. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall.S. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management.E. 2nd Edition. Hansen.DETAILS OF M. Treaties. Mackenzie. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. Environment People and Economy.. D. 52 . The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Oxford University Press.A. Karachi.. WCS. S. 4. London Black Stone Press Ltd.F. Regional and International Environmental Issues. Relationship of culture. 1987. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. development of concepts. Oxford University Press. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. 1992. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change.E. Instruments and methods. Mackenzie J. Draft National Environmental Policy. and Jorqensen. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment.

UK. sample collection and preservation. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. History. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). Environmental Chemical Analysis. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. 53 .Vanclay. Gas Chromatography etc. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. John Wiley & Sons. Recommended Books: 1. Washington. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. Case Studies and review. Ahmed. F & Bronstein. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). sampling rules. Cost benefit analysis of projects. economic impact assessment. Burnt Hill. procedures and methods of EIA. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. C. England. role and importance. Harlow Essex. Environment Department. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. Principles of physical. Sectoral guidelines for EIA.. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. 2. Ministry of Environment.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. K. 1995. Wastewater. 2. DC. Wood. 1995. 3. 1993. Ed. WB. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). D. social impact assessment. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. Recommended Books: 1. ed. Demographic impact assessment. Chichester. process. Government of Pakistan. World Bank. Air and Solid Waste. A. FURTHER READINGS 1. opportunities and issues. Longman Scientific and Technical.A. Environmental auditing. Assessment of environmental impacts. ecological impact assessment. Longman House. A one Publishers Lahore.

assumptions. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. 5. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. J. Project Management Institute. 1998. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. work breakdown structure. inputs. Government Policies and Programs. Public health concept. principles and practices. J. K. air borne. Lippmann. 2002.. Prentice Hall International Inc. USA. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. Basic Environmental Health. 1st Ed. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. 1997. outputs. development objectives. activities. L. Nebel. T. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. 2. and Wright. prevention and control. B. Wiley Interscience. Resource Mobilization.. de Kok.. Ergonomic and Safety. Oxford University Press New York. 3. S. 1993. 1992. USA. R. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. 2nd Ed. Planning Commission Performas. Mantel s. T. John Wiley and Sons. 2. Accident prevention and safety plans. Kjelllström.. 2001.. Recommended Books: 1. UK. feasibility study. Writing Project Proposal. means of verification. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. Project Planning. Project Life Cycle. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. indicators. R. Occupational Health: problems and issues. Defining Project objectives. Need identification.2000. and Guidotti. A Guide to Project Management. 4. 1st Ed. Primary health care services. Inc. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). M. London.. economic evaluation. M/S Banarsid. 1st ed.. Meredith J.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. Caeneross. A. 54 . Environmental Health Engineering. Project Initiation. Project Planning and Approval Processes. Reasons for Project success or failure. Park.. T. safety techniques. Yassi.. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). T. specific objectives. New York. Project Management: A Managerial Approach.

3. Switzerland. D. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. 2. 2001. Michigan-January 2001. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management.. Botkin. energy resources of Pakistan. Related Environmental regulations.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. 2007. Principles of cleaner production.L. OECD/IEA.B and Keller. energy resources. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. non-renewable and renewable. 3. hydropower. merits and demerits of wind. 1990b. USA. 2007. Recommended Books: 1. D. bio-energy resources. 4. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. nuclear) local. alternate energy resources. Environmental auditing. 1998. principles and elements of the process of EMS. John Wiley and Sons.M.A. industry and domestic sectors. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. L. gas. ISO Central Secretariat. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. data collection and interpretation. Paris. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. M. Paris. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. uses. Environmental Auditing. St Luise Press. 2. Schoch. 55 . R. Sources of data. petroleum. and Yonavjak. sustainable energy management for agriculture. 6th Edition. McKinney. 4th Edition. solar. transport. Recommended Books: 1. Sayre. E. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). types.

Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Maarel. The Green House Effect. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Recommended Books: 1. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Climate change and food production. John Wiley & Sons. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. competition and coexistence. Berlin. 2005. K. Vegetation Ecology Ed. Green House Gases. Species richness. 2005. 56 . Springer.). types and their climatic effects. 2003. 2003. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. and Solutions. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. Oxford UK.. Hardy. J. types of climate change models. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. Climate Change . plant invasions. 4. Plant population dynamics. global aspects of plant ecology.D. vegetation dynamics. Recommended Books: 1.T. B & Jager. and Solutions. water resources. Effects. Houghton. 2005. human activities and vegetation dynamics. etc. 2. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. E.Causes. Blackwell Publishing. UK. 5.. & Charlesworth. geographical and temporal patterns. Warrick. 1. 2. Blackwell Publishing. D. Climate Change and Ecosystems. John Wiley & Sons. J. John Wiley & Sons. ECOPE 29. Effects. Life history strategies of plants.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. 3. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. survival and extinction. J. (Ed. Shulze. Oxford. Chichester. resources and plants. E & Muller-Hohenstein. Plant Ecology. 2005. forests. 3. plant conservation. D. 1st Edition. Climate Change . management and restoration. ED.Causes. Hardy. Beck. UK 1991. Silvertown. London. T. Modeling of climate change. 2004. Earthscan Publication Ltd.

their importance. Mcmillan. E.B. 1973 2. London. Protected areas. Roberts. its causes. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. Publishers Sunderland. Weddell. Principles of Wildlife Management. Cambridge. Essentials of Conservation Biology. 4. & Spicer. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation.G. Inc. Oxford. habitats and ecosystems. Wildlife Ecology and Management. 2002. Sustainable forest management. & Ripley. Roberts. management. 1992. Bailey. Cambridge University Press. Robinson. II). 1984. John Wiley And Sons. Oxford University Press. Sinauer Assocaites.J.J. 2004. Wildlife of Pakistan. distribution. Biodiversity: An introduction. their types and role in conservation. Protection and restoration of species. 3. T. deforestation and its control. W.(2nd Ed. types. And Bolen. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. 3. I). Wetlands. Threatened animals and plants. 2002. Oxford.J. J. Status of forests in Pakistan. Blackwell Publsihing. Consumptive. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. Cambridge. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. T.D. Rangeland management. 57 . Forests. S. Recommended Books: 1. kinds. types.J. Conserving Living Natural Resources. K. Oxford University Press. status. J. Forest plantations. distribution. Oxford University Press. threats and conservation. Participatory forest management. Primack. S.L. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. 5. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. Recommended Books: 1. Oxford. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. UK. Global and national biodiversity. Protected areas in Pakistan. Loss of biodiversity. 1998. Establishment and management of protected areas. UK. biological diversity. Extinction of species. their ecological and economic importance. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. problems and solutions.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. B. USA. 1986. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity.) Gaston.A. distribution and management. 2. R.

. 2000. Islamabad. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. urbanization in Pakistan. SAGE Publications Ltd. UK. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. 2007. A. 4. Penguin Group. urban systems and their characteristics. UK. 58 .and Maser. London. H. Environmental problems of urban life. urban landscape characteristics. Kate. USA.. C. The Works: Anatomy of a City. New York. Ministry of Housing and Works. USA. Ward. Longman Group. Introducing Town Planning. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Government of Pakistan. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. sanitation. 2004. E&UA Div. J. CRC Press LLC. Clara. future of urban centers. Silberstein. 3.. Urban land use planning and management. Planning and Urban Change. S. Forms of urbanization. 1993. management of transport. 1986. G. drinking water and solid waste in cities.. V. 2. Recommended Books: 1.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. Sustainable cities. urban political ecology.

Annexure . Martinet. Exercises 1. a) Functional English Grammar 1.V. Practical English Grammar by A. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. ISBN 0194313492 59 .J.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. Third edition. Oxford University Press. 1997. Thomson and A. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1.

1997. intensive and extensive. Martinet. Third Impression 1992. Oxford University Press. Third edition. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Reading/Comprehension 1.J.2. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Writing. Fourth Impression 1993. minutes of meetings. Oxford Supplementary Skills. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . b) Practical English Grammar by A. Upper Intermediate. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Oxford Supplementary Skills. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. and speed reading. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs.V. Reading. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. Exercises 2. Thomson and A.

Writing. form. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. clarity. Advanced. Martinet. Writing. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Third Impression 1992. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. content. discursive. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Fourth Impression 1993. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. introduction to presentations. Thomson and A. Fourth Impression 1992. narrative.V. 2. descriptive and argumentative writing). Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. Third edition. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. 2.1.J. Practical English Grammar by A. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Writing. Oxford Supplementary Skills. language. Third Impression 1991. Reading. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . Advanced by Ron White. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Oxford University Press 1986. Reading 1. Exercises 2. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). b) Writing 1. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky.

argumentative and report writing). Compiled by norther Illinois University. without taxing the taste of engineering students). Martin’s Press. 3. Mandell. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. 2004. 62 . (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. Kathleen Shine Cain. St. A Custom Publication. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. Kirszner and Stephen R. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. 2.(particularly suitable for discursive. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. descriptive. College Writing Skills by John Langan. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education.

Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. ideological background of Pakistan. . 2. Study the process of governance. Mehmood. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. government. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. 1977-88 e. 1994. 1958-71 c. Zaidi. Society and social structure c. Course Outline 1. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Shahid Javed. 2. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. State & Society in Pakistan. 1988-99 f. national development. Contemporary Pakistan a. S. Lahore. 1993. Economic institutions and issues b. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Ethnicity d. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. 3. 2000.Annexure . Akbar. Muslim advent iii. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Historical Perspective a. b. People and Land i. 1999 onward 3. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. Location and geo-physical features. Indus Civilization ii. S. 1947-58 b.M. 1971-77 d. 4. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. politics. Safdar. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. contemporary Pakistan. 63 Books Recommended 1.

K. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. 1980. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. 1976. 1972. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. 1980. 12. 14.5. Wayne. Vol. Sayeed. Amin. 6. The Political System of Pakistan. Rafique. Ethno . M. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Mehmood. 64 . Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Muhammad Waseem. II & III. Party. Safdar.K. Lawrence. Enigma of Political Development. Noor ul. Lahore: Vanguard. Club Road. Political Parties in Pakistan. Wilcox. 11. 8. Haq..National Movement in Pakistan. Pakistan Under Martial Law. 1998. Zahid. Islamabad.The Emergence of Banglades. 1993. Institute of Public Policy Research. 10. 13. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Washington: American Enterprise. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Aziz. Ziring. 7. nd. Politics in Pakistan. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Tahir. 9. 1967. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. Khalid Bin. I. 1987. History & Culture of Sindh. Afzal. Ansar.

W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.40. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.A.58.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.20) Related to thinking.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.A.Annexure .W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .57.6. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.Tadabar (Verse No1.21.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.56.A.A.19.

3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt. in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .

Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. International Islamic University. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. IRI. “Emergence of Islam” .S. Pakistan. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. “Studies in Islamic Law. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. Ahmad Hasan. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. Bhatia. Islamabad (2001) 67 . Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah.” Hussain Hamid Hassan.

relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. Beckenback EF. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. trigonometric identities. 1987. 1986. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. types of functions. Houghton & Mifflin. set operations. Sharron S. Boston 68 . PWS-Kent Company. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. Cramer’s rule. geometric progression. Boston Swokowski EW. cube roots of unity. matrix inverse. determinants. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. Wooton W. system of linear equations. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. equations reducible to quadratic equations. introduction to sets. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. complex numbers.Annexure . types. harmonic progression. 1978. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. not majoring in mathematics. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. functions. PWS-Kent Company. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics.

MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Addison-Wesley. equation of a line. Reading. continuous functions. Bevens I. left-hand and right-hand limits. rational and transcendental functions. change of variables in indefinite integrals. 1995. distance between two points. distance between a point and a line. angle between two lines. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. not majoring in mathematics. Calculus (3rd edition). Boston Thomas GB. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. USA 3. derivatives. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. PWS-Kent Company. Recommended Books: Anton H. functions and their graphs. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. solution of equations involving absolute values. New York Stewart J.2. integration by substitution. integration by parts. Ma. slope of a line. not majoring in mathematics. 1983. 69 . parallel and perpendicular lines. Calculus (11th edition). inequalities. 2005. 2005. intersection of two lines. differentiation of polynomial. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. John Wiley. Finney AR. continuity. various forms of equation of a line. Davis S.

Introduction to sets. circles determined by various conditions. PWS-Kent Company. locus of a point in various conditions. 70 . Freshman and Company. ellipse. equations reducible to quadratic equations. inverse of matrices. Cramer’s rule. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). Conic Sections: Parabola. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. College Algebra and Trigonometry. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. functions. intersection of lines and circles. 1986. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). Boston 4. types of matrices. PWS-Kent Company. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. • Contents 1. hyperbola. nature of roots of quadratic equations. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. 1969 Kaufmann JE. 1987. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. Analytic Geometry. types of functions. set operations. system of linear equations. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains.Circle: Equation of a circle. Scott. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Boston Swokowski EW. determinants. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations.

MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. standard deviation. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. Graphs: Graph of straight line. Latest Edition. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. Walpole.. relationship of statistics with social science. E. Kaufmann. R. 5. R. characteristics of statistics. ‘Introduction of Statistics’.. quartiles. 71 . Boston. variance. trigonometric identities. Books Recommended: 1. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. Latest Edition. tally sheet method. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. frequency polygon. skewness and kurtosis. discrete and continuous series. inter quartile deviation mean deviation.geometric and harmonic progressions. W. ungrouped and grouped data. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. individual. Swokowski. Measures of dispersion: Range. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. circle and trigonometric functions. array. PWS-Kent Company. types of frequency series.. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. moments. J. Prentice Hall. 4. E.. 2. 2. E. deciles and percentiles. bar frequency diagram histogram. Latest Edition. R. 3. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. cumulative frequency curve. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. Wilcox.

logarithmic differentiation. 6. integration using partial fractions. substitution method. the chain rule. Second Edition 1992. 2. Continuous Functions. McCallum. I. S. Addison Wesley publishing company. Trigonometric Functions. W. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. 5. sinusoidal function. John H. and Transcendental Functions. Inc. 2005. products. Equation of a Line. 11th Edition. Thomas. special points of a function. 1983. Schaum’s Outline Series. 2. 8th edition. Integration by Parts. Slope of a Line. infinite and improper integrals. Gleason. integration by parts. integral inequalities. 3.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. logarithmic integration. quotients. Rational and Transcendental Functions. H. E. Recommended Books: 1. 6. Calculus Single and Multivariable. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. reduction formulae. • Integration Integration from first principles. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . Jhon Willey & Sons. Davis. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. Frank A. Prentice-Hall. 1999. integration by inspection. plane polar coordinates. Boston. theorems of differentiation. Least-Squares Line. applications of integration. Calculus. Bevens. Extreme Values of Functions. Continuity. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. the inverse of differentiation. 4th edition. 4. Elliott Mendelson. Inc. et al. Inequalities. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. 2002. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. implicit differentiation. Calculus. Anton. Contents 1. Calculus.Jr. Hughes-Hallett. 2005. Rational Functions. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. Mathews. 3rd Edition. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. Swokowski. Leibnitz’ theorem. Solution of equations involving absolute values. John Wiley & Sons. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits.

Additions and subtraction. complex conjugate. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. inverses of hyperbolic functions. multiplication. geometric series. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. approximation errors in Taylor series. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . series involving natural numbers. finding the nth roots of unity. the difference method. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. solving hyperbolic equations. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. modulus and argument. identities of hyperbolic functions. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. arithmetico-geometric series.

vector product. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. Hermitian. line to line.5. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. scalar triple product. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. Pappus’ theorems. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. masses. centers of mass and centroids. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . orthogonal. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. the inner product. moments of inertia. 6. symmetric and antisymmetric. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. of a unitary matrix. point to plane. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix.

combinations of grad.8. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. divergence of a vector field. spherical polar coordinates 75 . div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions.

Properties of variance and standard Deviation. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Exercises. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Exercises Unit 6. Median and mode. Type-I and Type-II errors. level of significance. Sources. Standardized variables. Diagrams. Collection of primary and secondary data. Errors of measurement. The semi-Interquartile Range. Exercises. Constructing of a frequency distribution. Probability and Probability Distributions. Empirical Relation between Mean. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Coefficient of variation. Pie chart. Exercises. definition of outliers and their detection. Exercises. sampling and non sampling errors. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Exercises. Histogram. Data. Moments and Moments ratios. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. sampling with and without replacement. Population. Absolute and relative measures. sample design and sampling frame. Types of frequency curves. Unit 5. Change of origin and scale. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. 76 . Unit 4. Exercises. Hypothesis Testing Introduction.Annexure . Range. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Observations. null and alternative hypothesis. Different types of Averages. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. acceptance and rejection regions. The Variance and standard deviation. probability and non-probability sampling. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Bar charts. The Mean Deviation. Historigram. Unit 7. Editing of Data. The Mode. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Box and Whisker Plot. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Discrete and continuous variables. Difference of means and proportions. Test statistics. Stem and Leaf Display. Rounding of a Number. Quantiles. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Significant digits. Graphs and their Construction. Statistical problem. properties of Good Average. Presentation of Data Introduction. bias. Unit 3. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Unit 2.

New York. Inc. Unit 11. 3rd Ed. 2005. E. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. its estimation and interpretation. R. Macmillan Publishing Co. Exercises Unit 9. Correlation. 1982. r and R2. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. “Introduction to Statistics”.Unit 8. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole.Single Population Introduction. Regression and Correlation Introduction. F. Testing of Hypothesis. 77 .. 2 Muhammad. Contingency Tables. Kitab Markaz. cause and effect relationships. Coefficient of linear correlation. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. examples. Exercises Unit 10. Exercises. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. estimation of parameters and their interpretation.. simple linear regression.

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