environmental science | Sustainability | Ecology

CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
58

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and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. universities and other institutions of higher education. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. The world has turned into a global village. R&D organizations. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. D773/76-JEA (cur. It also aimed to give a basic. PROF. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. It is. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. the Federal Government vide notification No. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. Lahore. DR. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. degree awarding institutions.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses.). For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. therefore. 63. dated December 4th 1976.ALTAF ALI G. and 36. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge.

EXP. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. OF CURRI. OF NCRC. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. OF FINAL CURRI. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. REC. COL. UNI. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. PREP. Preparation 5 . R&D. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC.

Rawalpindi Dr. Member 4. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Member 5. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Dr. 7. Rawalpindi Dr. Dr. Karachi from 28-30. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Following attended the meeting:1. Lahore Member 6. Member 6 .Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Dr. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Member 3. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University.

Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Member 15. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof.8. Member 10. Member 11. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Member 14. Prof. Dr. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. 13. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Dr. Dr. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. 7 . Dr. Member 16. Dr. Dr. Prof. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Karachi Member 12.

Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Secretary Dr. The meeting was opened by Mr. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Mr. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Member 19. Chairman. Member 20. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. Karachi. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Director of HEC Regional Center. Dr.17. Dr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. 1. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. Faisalabad Member 18. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. 2. Mr. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. At first. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. 8 . Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr.

6. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. 2. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. 3. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. 5. The committee thanked Mr. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop.3. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. 4. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. In last few centuries. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. 1. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment.

discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. This committee. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. regional and global contexts. Apply theoretical understanding. skills and behaviour patterns. in its preliminary meeting. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. 5. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. ii. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today.

The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. eight semesters in the semester system. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles.. 2. Integrating natural sciences. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. that: 1. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. A. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. Sc. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i.e. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. with consensus. 4. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. The 11 . pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. 5. 3. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. 1. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. The medium of instruction. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. 6.

Introduction to Earth Science 8. Basic Chemistry* 4. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. English-I 6. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Biology –I* 3. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. English-III 18. Biology –II* 9. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Climatology* 23. English-II 12.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Introduction to Computer 14. Introductory Economics* 17. Environmental Pollution 22. Environmental Microbiology 21. Environmental Chemistry 15. Environmental Physics 16. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Psychology* . Introduction to Environmental Science 2.

Climate Change 38. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. 46. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. Environmental Biotechnology 32. 44. ELECTIVE-III 42. Environmental Economics 29. Natural Resource Management 40. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25.24. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. Opt. Environmental toxicology 27. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. Environmental Monitoring 36. English-IV/ Univ. Environmental Management Systems 34. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. 45. Applied Ecology 26.

• Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical.

COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . L. development in industry and agriculture. M.T. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. ethical. urbanization. McKinney. Botkin. G. Schoch. its importance in human life. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. B.A. biological and social. poverty and resource depletion. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. & Nebel.. Wright. 10th Ed. Recommended Books: 1. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. 4th Ed.B & Keller. 15 . R. D. 2007 3. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. environmental pollution. 2002. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Environmental Science: systems and solutions.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. Pearson Educational. John Wiley & Sons. 2007. 4. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth.M. E. socio-economic.L.. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. 2007. Thomson Learning. 2. and their relationships with various environmental factors. lipids. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. regional. 6th Ed.J. current global. R.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. Miller. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. national. ecological. Human environment and its problems: global. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. philosophical. & Yonavjak. history. Different aspects of environment: physical. proteins and nucleic acids.

R. M. USA. USA. E. origin of metabolism. 3. 2. Canada. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. carbohydrates. 2007. USA. Cells. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. 4. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. 1996. phospholipids in membrane systems. C. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. A. 2007. and Whitelaw.. esters.. covalent. chemical basis of life. L. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. Cassimeris. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. Aromatic compounds. B. Shier. amines). Introduction to cell biology. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. Lingappa. 5th Edetion. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. Lewis.. proteins. 5. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. Ionic. Plopper. Australia . Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. and Lewis. Molecular Biology through Questions. 2008. coordinate covalent bond. Biology: a Human Emphasis. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. the molecule of genetic information and replication. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning.. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. N. New York. Wadsworth Group. J. lipids. Starr. Ltd. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. Nucleic acids. carbonyls. Self Assessment and Revie. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. polypeptides in protein diversity. V. lipids. D. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. R. protobionts. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. Origin of life: chemical evolution.. Structure and the basis of function. 16 . Bulter. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. 2003. 1. G. chemical diversity. 8th Ed. Cell division. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding.Hill International Edition.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. Crossley. carboxylic acids. McGraw.

2. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Solution chemistry. UK. Girard. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. B. Surface chemistry.. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Algebra of matrices. P. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). J.. geometric and harmonic sequence. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. determinants.. minor and cofactor of a matrix. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. and Holler. USA. J. and Reid. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). USA. Blackwell Science. double angle formulas. values of trigonometric functions. Understanding Environmental Pollution. molal. P. 2003.J. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. real line.D..A. Brimblecombe. graphs. Measurement of pH. West.. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences.Special Products (Binomial Expression). F. Jickells. Osmosis and Dialysis. Hill. Skoog. expansion of determinants. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. equations of lines (linear equations). 8th Edition. Lab Work Preparation of molar. law of Cosines. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. 1st Ed. Photochemical reactions. Canada. series and means. 2004. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. Cambridge University Press.M. straight line and related concepts. T. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. angle-sum formula. Jones and Barlett.K. Freeman and Company. 2004.. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. W. D. 3. Andrews. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. Harris. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). M. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry.ions.J.. simultaneous equations and their solutions. 2005. D.E. 6th Edition.E..C. 2nd Edition. EC and TDS in waste water. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. Column chromatography. 2004.H. radicals.S. normal solutions/buffers. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. 4. UK. 2nd Edition. 17 . D. Thin layer chromatography. Liss. 5. Thomson and Brooks. Recommended Books: 1.. Colloids chemistry.

Jr. Introduction to rocks and minerals. its origin. L. Introduction to sedimentary. California.B. Trignometry for College students. Recommended Books: 1. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . Calculus and Analytical Geometry. difference. Addission. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. lineation and unconformities. nonrepeated linear factors. erosion and related landforms. foliation. theorems on differentiation (sum. plate tectonics.Cramer’s Rule. J. cleavages. theorem of integration. 4. Narosa Publishing House. K. 2. Chain rule. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. faults. weathering and erosion. D. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. composition and its internal structure. Smith. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. earthquakes and volcanoes. 1999. New Delhi. Fossils and their significance. Scott Foresman and Company.. G. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals.Wesley. S. 10th Ed. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. Earth as a member of solar system.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. by parts integration (simple applications).A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . 3. mountain building. 4th Ed. earthquakes. product and quotient rules without derivations). Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. R. Introduction to folds. Abraham.. 18 . and Finney. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. igneous and metamorphic rocks. joints. Integration: Formulas of integration. age. different earth processes like mountain buildings. Analytical Geometry. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. Chatterjee. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. Pacific Grove. the processes of their formation. Weathering. irreducible quadratic factors. Thomas.

protocell formation. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. 2004. Physical Geology and Process of Science.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. E..Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. D. Lamarckism. Prentice Hall. Lutgens. Use of brunton compass and GPS. population loss and decline. 4. 2007 3. Foundations of Structural Biology. invasion of life on land. Biodiversity of hilly areas. Park. Prentice Hall: 2006. multicellularity. Tarbuck.Identification of rocks and minerals. E. J. biodiversity crises. Smith. G. D. J. 9th Edition. Field Study tour.. Biodiversity of deserts. and Tasa. Routledge. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. K. Brooks/Cole. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. 2005. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. Wicander. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. measuring biodiversity. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. R. and Tasa. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories... 19 . 5th Edition. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity.. Prentice Hall. Darwinism.. 11th Edition. A. unicellularity. Recommended Books: 1. F. interactions among diversified life. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. Geological time chart with biodiversity. modern concepts. K. Biodiversity of canal. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . F. causes of extinction. 5.. Tarbuck. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. and Monroe. Earth Science. consequences of losing biodiversity. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. Life in sea. How Does Earth Work.. molecular basis of biodiversity. 3rd Edition. and Pun. animals). G. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. different classification systems. Lutgens. examples of adjustments in varied environment. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time.. 2007 2. J. R. crucial for organisms’ sustainability.

New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. Contemporary environmental status. CA: AltaMira Press. Inc. 2000. 2009. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. Bradbury. and Spicer. and concerns. Allan & Carter. 3. The Biosphere. 20 . J. Perspective of human-environment evolution. C. 4. Consumption. Prospect Heights. Culture. culture and society.. Goals and expectations.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. Routledge. 2006. 5th Edition. Use of environment for vested interest.. Walnut Creek. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. I. Wadsworth Group. Contemporary environment issues and debate. 2nd Edition. The Ecology of global consumer culture. 3. globalization and environmental issues. Starr. Gaston. L. power & hegemony. 2. Blackwell Science Ltd. and Sustainable Living. (editor). USA.K. K. John Wiley and Sons. Nora and Wilk. Crumley.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. I. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . Townsend. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. 2009. K. a Human Emphasis. Understanding the environment-human relationship. Environmental Risks and the Media. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. C. UK. 2001. Scope and application. Adam. Biodiversity (An Introduction). J. Inc. P. R. Recommended Books: 1. Chronological. IL:WavelandPress. 2003. 2. Tripartite nature of environment. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. UK. Biology. Conceptualizing environment. Hannen. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. New York: New York University Press. 2005. UK. (editors).

London 1996. Selin.1999.Microsoft office 2000. Courter.. processing hardware. Ms-Excel. 21 .6th Ed. Recommended Books: 1. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure .BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. Milton.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. Marquis A. Hardware: Input Hardware.. internet. Ms-Access. as are their effects on the biosphere. G. Long l. system software. Software: Application software. Introduction to MS-Word.5. software packages. K. 6. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . Operating system (Windows). Fundamentals of computer. Types and classification of computers. Rutledge. Storage hardware. 2. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. Kluwer Academic Publishers. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. Long N. Course Outlines Definition. Local Area Network. computer programs and basic applications. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. output hardware. Ms-Power Point. e-mail. 2003.H. Ed. Configurations.

Environmental Chemistry. Solids. J. Andrews. UK. Brimblecombe. Sound and Noise.. Isotopes and radioactive decay.S. Jones and Barlett. 2004. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Chemical reactions.. Turbulent jets and plumes. and Singh. Fate of pollutants in environment. Miller. Gaussian plumes in the air. Jickells. 1st Edition. Conversion of mass. Fundamentals of aquatic. Global climate and climatic change. Thomson-Brooks.. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Basic acoustics. and Reid. Measurement and comparison of the 22 .E.G. their sources and toxic actions. its causes and adverse effects on environment. P. Ibanez. 2008. Samir. Turbulence. Electromagnetic radiation.D. B.. interaction of light with matter. 2nd Edition. Transport of pollutants. K.. Heat radiation and heat transfer. T. USA. 2005. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer..M. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. J. Turbulent diffusion. Girard. Recommended Books: 1. India. Nuclear energy. Germany.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. Canada.. 5. Environmental Science. M. Ozone chemistry. Active control of sound. 4. 2004. trophic level. Environmental Chemistry. 1999. Springer. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. Hernandez-Esparza. M.. Solar spectrum..E. 3. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. Reducing the transmission of sound. Ozone and UV light. photosynthesis. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. G. Particle physics. A. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. DoriaSerrano.. C. Human perceptions and noise criteria. Blackwell Science. Energy. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Energy conversion.J. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. Equations of fluid dynamics. Diffusion.. Liss. Environmental impact of various industries. atmospheric and soil chemistry. J. 2. P.T. Fregoso-Infante. Entropy. Liquids and Gasses. Radioactivity and nuclear physics.

scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. Economic Development. Routledge. Physics of the Environment and Climate. Todaro. USA. USA. Guyot. and Pandis. J. poverty. interaction between ecology and economic management. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. Measures for sustainable development. Wesely Publishers. E. C. economic progress. H.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. producer and community point of view. Impact of economic activity on environment. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. 2008. population and environmental quality.Economic development. economic growth and its measurement. Smith. 2006. Sustainable development. Producer behavior. Environmental Physics. 3. 2. Yusuf. Economic functions of environment. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. USA. World Bank Publications. 2001.. Praxis publishing. 2001. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. UK. R. and Resource allocation. concepts and measurement. Man environmental relationship. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. Seinfeld. 2008. Economic management and environmental quality. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. Growth and development. New York. economic growth. John Wiley and Sons Inc. M.1998. 7th Ed. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Boeker. Pakistan economic context: National income. G. N. S. Kentucky USA. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. economic welfare and difference among all. Introductory Environmental Physics. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. 23 . Field visit. Recommended Books: 1. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. USA. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. 2. S. Recommended Books: 1. Growth and Environment. and Van Grondelle. Environmental economics. P. Natural resources and the economy. 4.

2. 4. and systems ecology.A. N. Russell. R. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. 2007. London. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . USA. 2002. DeVeer. role of light. World Bank Publications. community and ecosystem. concepts and approaches. its fundamental concepts. Palgrave Macmillan. Frodeman. biogeography. LLC. England. B. levels of ecological organization. USA. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. Environmental Critics of agriculture. WCIV7AA. B. ethics and ecology. J.. M. Swift.V. Touchstone Books. Shogren. 24 .A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems.. A History of Western Philosophy. temperature. 2009. Ecosystem and its types. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. 2008.. Recommended Books: 1. branches of ecology. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. 2008. the ethics of soil. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. Ecology.3. Natural philosophy. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. Portland 1967. 4. community. population. C. B. D. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy.. water. Environmental philosophy and ethics. International Thomson Publishing. soil. Introduction to ethical theory. species. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. Farmington Hills. Economics. Kessinger Publishing. Hanley. & Pierce. Course Outlines Introduction. and White. 3. J. Callicott. description of population.

M C J 1st ed. students will be able to understand the significance. habitat and niche. New Delhi. 1st Ed. New York. and More. After completion of this course. Biomes of the world. Lab Work 25 . Thomson Brooks/Cole. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). plant geography and animal distribution. population dynamics. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. C. WCB/McGraw-Hill. Dash. C. 1992. UK. Ecosystem: structure and function. and Barett. 5th Ed. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. Concepts of Limiting factors. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. Odum. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea.topography and air as ecological factors. ecological modeling. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. Ecology (concepts and applications. and S. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. Populations. 1999 4. Fundamentals of Ecology. productivity of different ecosystems. Population distribution and abundance.Cox. 6th Ed. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. community dynamics. King’s College London. 2000.L and Reiss. characteristics of urban. 2. E P. aquatic microbiology. Chapman. J. B.W. N. M.) Moles. Biogeochemical cycles of C. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. Recommended Books 1. 3. bacteria and eukarya. landscape ecology. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. Fundamentals of Ecology. M J. biotic factors. 2004. Tata McGraw-Hill. Cambridge University Press. various concepts of community. P. UK. 2001 5. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. J. Microbial metabolism. Systems ecology. distribution limits. G. landscape changes and their importance. Ecology (principles and applications).

USA. 2005. 2005. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. Maier.J. R. 1995. W. Microbiology. isolation. A. 5. P.L. peppor.J. L. Prescott.Gerba. M. Crawford. Marine & Industrial pollution. D. Pollution Control Strategies.L. purification and preservation. 3.P. McInernery. Noise. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Cambridge University Press. 2007. G.. and Jeffery. C.. Academic Press. Environmental Microbiology. Mean plate count.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. P. Recommended Books 1. New Jersey. Collection. Environmental Pollution and Control.. its sources and their effects.. L. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. J. J. Human & other living organisms.D. D. 26 . nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution.G. Types of Environmental pollution: Air.I. USA. 2 Edition. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. USA. Hurrst. Sylvia. 2005. Academic Press. J.J. Solid Waste generation. Cambridge UK.F. Prentice Hall. 2. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. and Zuberer. Peiece. 2002. and Gerba.R. (Elsevier) USA.M. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. transportation & treatments.A. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. 3.W. London. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally..K.and Vesilaind.. Hill. Hartel. USA. Weiner. USA.M.A. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal.and Brendecke. I. Fuhrmann. 2009..L. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. Effects of Pollutants.V. Academic Press. Pepper.C. Knudsen. 2nd Edition.P. Harley. Case Studies.J. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. 4...P.. Soil. D. 2. and Klein.. Butterworth-Heinemann. Recommended Books: 1. F. C.. and Stetzenbach.. M. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. Washington DC. Water. McGraw Hill Inc. American Society for Microbiology.A. UK.B. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic.J.1998. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). Dilution plate technique. R.M. 4th Edition.

Lawrance K. Royal book company. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. Four Spheres of the Earth..From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld.W. Climatology. 5. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. Shamshad. The Hydrologic cycle. 2.4. condensation and cloud Formation. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. The Physics of Atmospheres. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. local winds. Recommended Books: 1. Pandis. climatic zones of Pakistan. The climate of Pakistan. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . 2002. 2006 5. Surface winds. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. Austin Miller. 2003. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. Sadder. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. The Atmosphere.J.2nd Editions. 6th Edition. global circulation. Mechanism of heat transfer. Cloud Classification. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. Methods of psychology.. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Weather and Climate. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. air pressure. Lutgens. Tarbuck. 27 . John Wiley and Sons. Environmental psychology. Solar radiations. John H. Radiation and climate.F.K. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. Spyros.E... Marcel Dekkar. Factors affecting air Pressure. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. Cambridge University Press. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). Houghton J. A. 1988. 3. American Public Health Association (APHA). 1992.M. . Karachi. K. 4. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. N.

Sustainable agricultural practices. threats and mitigation.W. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. London. soil erosion and conservation. High population density and psychological impacts. 2. techniques and methods of restoration. carbon dioxide and global climate change. Environmental perception and cognition. Water resources of the world and Pakistan.. P.C. Routledge. Soil as a natural resource.A. 5th Edition. Course Outline Introduction. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. Eysenck. soil salinity and water logging. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. species response to pollutants. energy and carbon balance. Greene. sustainable agriculture. Fundamental of Psychology. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. Water as an ecological resource. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. and Baum A. Fisher J. Future water scenario of Pakistan. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. CRC Press. solar radiation and primary production. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Restoration of derelict lands. Environmental Psychology. Routledge.D. Bell. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. 2001. T. Ecology of food production. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. Water and distribution of species. their management and ecological restoration. rivers. 28 . M. Recommended Books: 1. Pollution control through Ecology. 1992. CRC Press. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. limitation of irrigated agriculture. Sustainable livestock management practices.. Background and scope. soil resources of Pakistan. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. concepts. Ecological restoration. London. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan.characteristics and research methods. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine.

. University of Peshawar. 2000 2. Oxford. Shirkat Gah. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. 2006. Lahore. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. Immunological considerations in toxicology. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. and Memon. 1989. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. in vivo & in vitro assays. Thomson Brooks/Cole. soil and air samples. 3. R.A. and Barett. 2nd ed. J. Israr-ud-Din. Odum E. D. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. K and Habib. Pakistan’s Environment. E. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. Peshawar. B. Islamabad. Determination of Interaction of chemicals.I.1998. 1996.W. Soil Science. Organs.. biological effects.. 4. toxicology of chemicals.. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. 5. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. Zedler. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. toxins & toxicants. toxicity screening using microbial systems. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. K. water and soil. Newman. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. terminologies: Poisons.S. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. Margaret A. Falk. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. Blackwell Scientific Publications. 29 . dose response relationship in living organisms. Island Press. Studies in Pakistan Geography. USA.Recommended Books: 1. A. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. 2004. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. on human and other living organisms. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. 5th Edition. Mumtaz. from natural and anthropogenic sources. J. Potentiation and Addition. Fundamentals of Ecology. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. Rashid. Synergism. Chemical interactions and their types.P.National Book Foundation. toxins vs toxicants. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. and Hobbs. A. P. their containment and control strategies. G.

. economic aspects of different environmental problems. 3. Klassen. Williams. Hughes. 1st Edition. Macmillan Press Ltd. USA. State of the Environment-Pakistan . measuring environmental benefits. 1993. USA. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. culture. 1992.1 & 2. people. Government of Pakistan. Recommended Books 1. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. health. B. 1996. topographic zones. education. 5th Edition. General and Applied Toxicology. 3. Ballantyne. 2005 2. clean development mechanism. industry. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development.2005 2. USA. geography. international trade and the environment. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. P. Course Outlines Introduction. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. Recommended Books: 30 . 1st Edition. (ed. land.M. urbanization and pollution. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. Course Outlines Introduction to history.Recommended Books 1. economic development and the environment.). 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. W. M. Vol.D.Science of Poisons . Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. Ecological: ecological zones. pollution control-a general model. W. T and Turner. water resources. McGrawhill. Economic: agriculture. CRC Press Llc. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. major ecosystems. the economy and the environment.

Australia. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. Analytical techniques for soil. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. Standard solutions and standard curves. Gravimetery. 2.R. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. B.K. L. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. 4.. Conductivitymetry. 1999.2004. USA. 3. and F. CSIRO Publ.A. Kolstad.I.. K. Collingwood. Lab Work S. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). and Batemen.. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. BOD. Harris. Freeman & Co. 8th Edition. I. M. Environmental Economics.. Fluoride.L. preparation and storage. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. Thomson and Brooks.. D. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. C. 2000. water and plant analysis. Biomarkers in environmental assessment.K.and Field. 3. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. Oxford University Press. New York. Data interpretation for quality control. Sparrow and D. Reuter.C. Gravimetery. Sample collection.2002.. NO3–N & NH4-N). Skoog. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Titrimetery. 2. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. and derived S. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. Peverill. units. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. handling. COD. C. A. precision and accuracy. 2005. D.D. Recommended Books: 1. 6th Edition. West. J.UK. All Solids. M.J. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. Conductivitymetry. 2003.I. Turner. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Pearce. Use of Potentiometery. Titrimetery. Field. Johns Hopkins University Press. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. 31 . Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. Oxford. D. Sample preservation methods.1. 1993. salinity & sodicity). D. Holler.W.

Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. 2. After completion of this course. Biomarkers. Tools in environmental biotechnology. 2009. Introduction to microbial kinetics. 3. Wiley-VCH Verlag. New York.D. Smith. and Josef. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . Cambridge University Press. 2001. Hans- Joachim. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. Government of Pakistan. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques.1999.W. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. USA. Sambrook. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. Oxford University Press. Chichoster. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. Recombinant DNA technology. J. Germany.. and Russel. 2007. students will be able to understand the significance.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. Isolation. 4. National Biosafety Guidelines.E. Biosensor. National Biotechnology Commission. W. Environmental Biotechnology. Course Outlines Introduction. and application of biotechnology in the environment. J.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. Derbre. PCR. purification and preservation of DNA. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. USA. 5th Ed.. England. J. Biotechnology. Bioreactors.). Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. New York. 2005. 2005. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. (ed. Scragg. 2nd Ed. A. D.P. Recommended Books 1. USA.

Data entry and output. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Using and reading GPS in field. integration of information from many sources. John Wiley and Sons. map projection and coordinate systems. Aerial photography. Inc. Different types of maps. Dessinov. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). 4. John Wiley and Sons. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. Energy Sources. 3. 2008. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. Inc. Mc Graw Hill Education. V. eradication of the duplicated data. analysis and output.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. History and data collection. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. R. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. K and L. Inc. Preparation of thematic maps. 2000. advantages and limitations of process. F. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. 2. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Agriculture. Satellite Imageries. Types of data used in GIS. Pearsons Education. A. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Forestry. 2009. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). Cartography. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. Image Processing. Harvey. Rancez. Data acquisition. Interpretation. Campbell. Introduction to Photogrammetry. Jensen. history and platforms. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Active and Passive remote sensing. 2000. Introduction to GIS. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. 1999. Lulla. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. Fishery and wildlife. Z. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . 5. Guilfoud press New York.

C. Environmental Management Systems Principles. Environmental Management tools. Sheldon. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. M. F. and Yoxon. American Society for Quality. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. Conservation of biodiversity. Related Environmental legislation. WWF Pakistan. Systems and Support Techniques. 1998. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. types of biodiversity. Environment and sustainable development. principles of Cleaner production. economic. M. cleaner technologies. International Organization for Standardization. Khan. Environmental Economy. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. plant. etc.. 2005. B. Course Outlines Introduction. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. 3.2nd Ed.). Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. Methods of environmental protection. threats to biodiversity. 2. Certification of EMS. 4. 2006. ecological. Michigan.. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. 34 . need and approach.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. American Society for Quality. alpha and beta diversity. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance.. social and ethical values of biodiversity. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. and Qasim. hot spots of biodiversity.3rd Edition . eco-design. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). standards and guidelines. philosophical. A. 2001. Environmental aspects and impacts. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles.

3. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water.R.e. Legal protection of species. and Morre. Publ. design and types of samples.D. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. Cox. Kings College. international agreements. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. national and international laws and regulations. presampling requirements/information. Quality assurance and quality control. 2. plants. Lahore). conservation strategies. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. protected areas. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. Z. community and ecosystem level. 2000. field custody. Mirza. quality control sampling. quality assessment. P.. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. London. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. their categories.. refrigeration and freezing methods. conservation in man-made ecosystems. A Primer for Conservation Biology. population. habitats. Sinauer. conservation and livelihood.B. Course Outlines Introduction. P. Preservation methods including pH control. water. NOC for plant operation. Considerations. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring.conservation at species.. laboratory custody. croplands. air. Recommended Books: 1. soil and living organisms. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. forests. EIA requirement. chemical addition. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. management. Sunderland. Associates Inc. 2ndEd. sampling and design purposes. cities. Biogeography. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. Saad Printers. 1998. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. Conservation of wildlife.B. Rawalpindi.B. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. ecotourism. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. 35 . Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. 2000. C.

Korte. Physical. 2. 2008. 8. New York. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. L. Energy and Temperature. USA. S. Murai. 2002. E. I. Remote Sensing Note. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. The Measurement of Climate Change. 6. McKlivie. N. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. E. . Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. F. USA. 2002.) McGraw-Hill. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. agriculture. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. Human responses to potential climate change. altered community structure. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. biological. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. regional. Environmental Chemistry. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. Chapman and Hall. Burden. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. 1992. Lewis Publisher London. H. Peakall. 2000.. D. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. Keith.Recommended Books: 1. chemical. Moisture in the Atmosphere. 5.. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. D. human health. Chuviero. 2nd Edition. Earth Observation of Global Change. and Guethner. 3. (ed) Springer. Ozone depletion. USA. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. Tokyo. Manahan. R. Precipitation. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. (eds. phenological changes. its causes and effects. extinctions.1996. 2008. Recent Climate Change Indicators. Forstner U. S. Regional droughts and 36 .1999. UK. Environmental Monitoring Handbook.USA. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. 7. Japan Association on Remote Sensing.

Effects. 1994. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). 4. Harrop. Glasson. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. J.. law. Hardy. London. Oxford.Causes. Islamabad. project implementation and follow up. D. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. 5.T. T. Effects. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. 2003. Recommended Books: 1.cataclysmic climate change.. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. John Wiley & Sons. J. Islamabad. Hardy. R. 1999. 1st Edition. Cost and benefits of EIA. Sringer. A. 37 . J. 2. screening.. mitigation and impact management. Therivel. and Chadwick. 1986. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. Routledge. Recommended Books: 1.A. and Solutions. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. EIA project management. 3. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. 2000. John Wiley & Sons. 2003. overview.O. Main stages in EIA process. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction... role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. Petts.Causes. (ed. J. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. impact analysis. 2005. London. Global Warming and Climate Change. Climate Change . 3. decision-making to implement the project. Ministry of Housing and Works. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. solids. public involvement. 2004. Blackwell. 6. 2005. J. 2. Keith. A. Climate Change . review of EIA quality.).. National Book Foundation. social impact assessment (SIA).. Earthscan Publication Ltd. Global Change and the earth system. & Nixon. scoping. liquid. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. reporting. and Solutions. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. Houghton. and noise. 2005. 4. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels.(ed). Types & Resources to produce Energy.

2002.B and Warren.. effective management. New York. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. management options. management options. national agriculture policy. Evans. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. wind power and nuclear power. 1993. their pros and cons.. existing management approaches. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. & McCabe. Goldsmith. F. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. (ed.5. Asian Development Bank. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. national and provincial legislation. importance.. B. United Nations Environment Programme. B. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. threats. threat and its causes. Rangeland Management: existing status. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. John Willey & Sons. H. forest types and its existing management. Carpenter. J. 6. problem in agriculture. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. wildlife census. R. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. 2nd Edition. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. Sadler. process and contents of the management plan. best available option for future. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. agriculture chemicals. 1997. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. S. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. M. national example. Development of Management Plan: needs. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. USA. Ludwig.. and Tu. agriculture products and their share in GDP. 38 . Lohani. Everitt.. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. requirement. R... methodologies. causes and methods for its improvement. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. their current status and threats.). limitation in the future. Conservation in Progress. Types. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. A. Recommended Books: 1. solar power.

concepts and terminologies. Interviews. Sage CA. R.A pre-requisite for Research. J. S. P. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. Thousand Oaks. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. Objectives. Search Engines. Review of Literature. How to put things together? Introduction. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). 3. 1990. 5. Scientific Research: Science. Review of Literature. Questionnaire. London. 1992. Selecting the Research Method. Research Proposal: its importance . It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem.E. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. 1984. Inference based on findings. 2007. Dasmann.. New York. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. research methods. Hansen. Case Studies. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. Experimental Research. Literature Search: Database. Elsevier. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. 39 . Sampling: the logic of sampling. Material Methods.L. Environmental Conservation. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. GOP and IUCN.E. USA. population and sampling frames.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. W. 4. Scientific Methods. and Jorqensen. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. Research Design & Research Methods. to introduce students to research design. John Wiley & Sons. Islamabad. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. types of sampling design/. Surveys.Amsterdam. V. & Plano Clark. Bibliography. Methodology. Creswell.2.F.

Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. John and sons Ltd. and Arhonditsis. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking.. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. 3rd Edition. National Conservation Strategy 5. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 .. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance.Harrad. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. National Environmental Policy 4. of Chicago Press. 1997. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. 2001 and the rules of business made there under.h. 2008. Survey Research Methods.Batty. 4. G. Booth. England. S. 3. 2000. 1997. Qadar. R. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Government of Pakistan 3. 2003. Sage Publishers. 2nd Edition. Babbie. Chichester.. Law Books House. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. 2003. Moriarty. Wadsworth Publishing Company.. 1989.S. Students project in Environmental Science. Belmont California. Robert Yin. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation.2. USA. 6. Diamon. 2001. 5. Recommended Books: 1. 2. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. Univ. E. regulations made there under. M. USA. Marilyn F.USA.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

Recommended Books: 1. 6.. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). virtual water. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan.. (ed. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. Asia Printer.. hydrological cycle. and Tortajada. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. Islamabad. (eds. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. N..E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan.Varis. 2006. integrated water resources management (IWRM). 4. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. and Malik. I.Lahore. Biswas. recycling and re-use of wastewater. SDPI Oxford University Press. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. pollution aspects. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. 2006. water quality and quantity aspects. Islamabad. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan.).). Ahmed. Ahmed. Indus Water Accord 1991. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. A.K. with drinking water facilities like springs. A. U. watershed/catchment.. K. Mirajuddin Publication . Pakistan. water supply and demand management measures. 1993. Bengali. wetlands resources management. flood and drought management. Oxford University Press Karachi. N. Khan. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. Revised & enlarged edition. J. P. 2005. 44 . and Qamar. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. 5. 2003. Mirajuddin Publication . Oxford University Press New Delhi. Briscoe.1993. O. Pakistan . 2. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. flood and droughts. fisheries management.. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. groundwater exploitation. tubewells.. A. Cheema. C. R. 3. R. Lahore. The Politics of Managing Water. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant.

Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. USA. After completion of this course. Causes of urbanization. future of urban centers. Pakistan. urbanization in Pakistan. Academic Press. hydrological processes. Course Outlines Introduction. Soil degradation. Definition. Miller. Cation and anion exchange. Upper Saddle River. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. Gardiner.C. Urban ecosystem. urban landscapes characteristics. management and green productivity. R. National Book Foundation. 45 . Prentice Hall.T. Types and properties of parent materials. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. urban political ecology. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. R. Urbanization. NJ.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. San Diego. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. 1. E. transport.W.. Soil forming minerals.. USA. humans as components of urban ecosystems. Hillel. Islamabad.R. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. D. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. Bashir. CA. Physical and chemical properties of soil. and Bantel. 11th Edition. urban flora and fauna. NJ. D. 2007. Factors and processes of soil formation. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. Soils in Our Environment. the salient features of urban environments. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. and Weil. 1996. PrenticeHall. soils. urban settlements. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. Soil Science. 2007. Brady. N. Forms of urbanization. Course Outlines Introduction. USA. Process and outcome. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. R. Upper Saddle River. 2008.

C. Principles of planning. Hejny. Hough. S. London. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. I.. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. 2004. V.1990. 2.. UK. SBS academic publishing. Kate. Planning and its relationship with other professions. 3. Smith. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. M.. 5. Planning theories and concepts. The Works: Anatomy of a City. City Design for Sustainable Development.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. Chapman and Hall. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. nature and purpose of urban planning. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. Aims and Objectives of planning. UK. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. Justification for planning for city management. 2006. Sukopp. 1. Types of Urban Plans. UR. Scope. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. S. Elements of urban planning. Hague. Springer.. Ward. A. 1989. SAGE Publications Ltd. CRC Press LLC. D. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. The planning process. New trends in planning and city management. Planning and Urban Change. O. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. Recommended Books: 1. 2. 2007. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. Penguin Group. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level.and Maser. 4. 2009. H. M. London. Gilbert. Levels of planning. USA. Routledge. Routledge.L. nd 2 Edition.and Kowaril. 2000. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. 2004. Silberstein. Alberti. USA. J. UK.S. 46 . Land use planning theories.. New York.

Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. Flooding. Natural Disasters Alexander. 2. Recommended Books: 1. 1986. Longman Group. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. 4.e. Earthquake Management. Different approaches and Indicators. H. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. Landslide. P. and Woodrow.. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. Westview Press. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. Earthquake.. 2nd Edition. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Flood Management: Organizational Role.W. Boulder . Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. Manila. 47 . Natural cycles and their role. Paris. UK. 1993. Islamabad. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. i. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). 1993. Disaster as an opportunity for development. The Environment as Hazard Burton I.. Prediction. R. 1991. The Guilford Press. Political factors.. It discusses a wide range of aspects. 1989. Cultural factors.3. New York. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. Physical factors. Government of Pakistan.W... New York. Kates. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. Disaster Management: Components of management.F. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. and White G.UNESCO. D. Role of Media in Disaster Management. Socio-economic factors. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches.. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. G. Clara. 4. 1993. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies.B.. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. M. International phenomenon. ADB. Ministry of Housing and Works. Chapman & Hall. Hazards. 3. Introducing Town Planning.J. E&UA Div.

6th Edition. energy resources of Pakistan. 2001. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. 2007. 4th Edition. uses. decomposers. A. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. D. Perry R.A. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions.5. Westport. 1984.L. 48 . E.H. Consumer and producer relationship. 1983. Biotic structure. 3.M. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet.C. Schoch. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. consumers. and Yonavjak. USA. Sustainable livestock management. M. biomass resources. R. alternate energy resources. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. New York. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. Paris. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. John Wiley and Sons. types. energy resources. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. 2. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Disasters and Development Cuny. OECD/IEA. Quorum Books. Ecological concept in crop and food production..B and Keller. 1. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. L. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. Agroecology. hydropower. F. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. local. Botkin. primary producers. 6. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources.. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. McKinney. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. sustainable energy management. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. 2007. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. solar.W. and Mushkatel. merits and demerits of wind.

Determination of density and abundance of plant species. CBS Publishers and Distributors. New York.A. E-11 Seminar 49 . Westview Press. USA. Study of index of diversity. New Delhi. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity.M. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. R. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species.. Corol.H. Kapur. Agrocology.P. Experimental Plant Ecology. 3. India. 2. M. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. and Rossel. 2000. Study of stratification and profile diagram. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. C. Yandermeer J. Recommended Books: 1.G. 1990. 1995. Boulder. and Sudha. P. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. Altreri. USA.R.

5. that: 1. 2. 50 . The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. 3. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. availability of the faculty and other facilities. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. 4. the Committee agreed on the following principles.

12. 3. 11. 4. 20. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 2. 11. 15. 7. 13. 5. 7. 12. 19. 16. 26. 3. 25. 10. 9. 6. 21. 4. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 14. 8. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 17. 6. 2. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 5. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 10. 8. 23. 24.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 22. 18. 9. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife.

1994. F.1994. Ball.. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences.T. NCS. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. development of concepts. Draft National Environmental Policy. S. 2. 1987.F. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future.A. Relationship of culture.E. 2nd Edition. Elsevier. S. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Carrying capacity and sustainable development. Recommended Books: 1.1995.S. Khan K.. FURTHER READINGS 1. Environment People and Economy. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. D. Provincial and Local Strategies. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. Islamabad.. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. Mackenzie. 1992.1991.DETAILS OF M. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. Mackenzie J. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. London. and Bell. Geography of Pakistan. status of Terrestrial. Amsterdam. Hansen. P. technology and resource use. Treaties. Regional and International Environmental Issues. 2. Conservation Strategies. GOP and IUCN. 52 . Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. Conventions and Protocols in Global. Instruments and methods. 3. Oxford University Press. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. S. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. Environmental control Policies. Karachi. London Black Stone Press Ltd. Hodder and Stoughton. and Jorqensen. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. 3. Money.E. 1991... Oxford University Press. 4. WCS.

3. Principles of physical.. sampling rules. ecological impact assessment. Longman House. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Longman Scientific and Technical. World Bank. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. C. 1995. FURTHER READINGS 1. Wastewater. ed. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. K. Demographic impact assessment.A. 53 . Government of Pakistan. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. WB. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. Chichester. opportunities and issues. Burnt Hill. Environmental Chemical Analysis. Washington. role and importance. England. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. Environment Department. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. DC. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. Environmental auditing.Vanclay. 2. process. Wood. F & Bronstein. A. 2. 1993. A one Publishers Lahore. economic impact assessment. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. Case Studies and review. Ahmed. procedures and methods of EIA. 1995. Air and Solid Waste. John Wiley & Sons. Ed. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). sample collection and preservation. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. D. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. Ministry of Environment. History. social impact assessment. Recommended Books: 1. Harlow Essex. Assessment of environmental impacts. Cost benefit analysis of projects. UK. Recommended Books: 1. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. Gas Chromatography etc.

T. Lippmann. 1st ed. J.. 1998.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. specific objectives. Need identification. Planning Commission Performas. Prentice Hall International Inc. Oxford University Press New York.. Caeneross.2000. Environmental Health Engineering. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. 2001. Park. L. Accident prevention and safety plans. 2. and Wright. economic evaluation. Occupational Health: problems and issues. 1st Ed. assumptions. Project Management Institute. M/S Banarsid. Public health concept. 1997. B. Project Life Cycle. and Guidotti.. T. T. 2002. Wiley Interscience.. 2. Nebel. 1993. USA. 1st Ed. work breakdown structure. 54 . Resource Mobilization. J. safety techniques. Primary health care services. John Wiley and Sons. principles and practices. Meredith J. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. Project Initiation. Reasons for Project success or failure. A.. Project Planning and Approval Processes.. K. feasibility study. R.. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures.. A Guide to Project Management. M. UK. activities. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. USA. Writing Project Proposal. Yassi. R. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. Explanation of Horizontal Logic.. 5. de Kok. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. means of verification. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. outputs. London. prevention and control. 3. Recommended Books: 1. inputs. S. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Inc. New York. Mantel s. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. development objectives. air borne. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. Government Policies and Programs. 4. 2nd Ed. Kjelllström. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). Ergonomic and Safety. T. indicators. Basic Environmental Health. Defining Project objectives. Project Planning. 1992.

Towards a Sustainable Energy Future.M. sustainable energy management for agriculture. Sources of data. 6th Edition. bio-energy resources.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. Schoch. Recommended Books: 1.B and Keller.A. USA. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). Related Environmental regulations. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. D. 2001. L. gas. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. OECD/IEA. industry and domestic sectors. D. and Yonavjak. energy resources of Pakistan. 2007. Paris. Sayre. Botkin. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. uses. 3. petroleum. 2. 2007. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Environmental Auditing. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. John Wiley and Sons. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. 1990b. 4. merits and demerits of wind. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. Principles of cleaner production.L. 1998. non-renewable and renewable. transport. 2. energy resources. principles and elements of the process of EMS. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Recommended Books: 1. M. Michigan-January 2001. McKinney. hydropower. 3. 4th Edition. R.. ISO Central Secretariat. alternate energy resources. Environmental auditing. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. E. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). data collection and interpretation. Switzerland. solar. nuclear) local. types. 55 . St Luise Press. Paris. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management.

Blackwell Publishing. Maarel. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Oxford. Oxford UK. 2005. E. 56 . Recommended Books: 1. 2004. and Solutions. Springer.Causes. water resources. Climate Change .COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Plant Ecology. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. Hardy. global aspects of plant ecology. Climate Change . K. types of climate change models. Species richness. E & Muller-Hohenstein. plant invasions. and Solutions. UK 1991. ECOPE 29. D. John Wiley & Sons. types and their climatic effects. Chichester.). 2005. B & Jager. 2003. Climate change and food production. J. Earthscan Publication Ltd. D.. resources and plants. survival and extinction. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. Blackwell Publishing.Causes. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. John Wiley & Sons. 5. Plant population dynamics. Life history strategies of plants. J. 1st Edition. Beck. Vegetation Ecology Ed. 4. Climate Change and Ecosystems. Recommended Books: 1. Warrick. ED. London.T. Green House Gases. & Charlesworth. Silvertown. Houghton. The Green House Effect. UK. Hardy.D. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. 3. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. 1. management and restoration. competition and coexistence. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. Effects. Shulze. plant conservation. geographical and temporal patterns. vegetation dynamics. 2003. 2. Berlin. John Wiley & Sons. etc. 2005. T. (Ed. Modeling of climate change. forests. 2. 2005. 3. Effects. J. human activities and vegetation dynamics..

Wildlife of Pakistan. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol.J. their importance. its causes. Publishers Sunderland. II). And Bolen. B.B. deforestation and its control.(2nd Ed. distribution and management. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. Forest plantations. Mcmillan. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. status. London. Recommended Books: 1. Roberts. 3. Cambridge. R. 1984. Status of forests in Pakistan. Weddell. 2002. Consumptive. Participatory forest management. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. habitats and ecosystems. distribution. Sustainable forest management. 1992. Primack. Essentials of Conservation Biology. types. management.L. their types and role in conservation. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. Wetlands. 2. 1973 2. Sinauer Assocaites. Principles of Wildlife Management. Forests. 1986. distribution. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. Bailey. E. 5. Blackwell Publsihing. Protected areas in Pakistan.J. UK. their ecological and economic importance. Roberts. Oxford. Robinson. Global and national biodiversity. Inc. J. Rangeland management. Cambridge University Press. Establishment and management of protected areas. types. John Wiley And Sons.G. & Ripley. Oxford. Oxford University Press. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. Oxford University Press. Loss of biodiversity. Biodiversity: An introduction. Conserving Living Natural Resources. I).A. Wildlife Ecology and Management. kinds. 4. 57 . K. T. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. Recommended Books: 1. problems and solutions.J. Protection and restoration of species. W.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. T. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. threats and conservation. 2002. biological diversity.) Gaston. 2004. Oxford University Press. Cambridge. & Spicer. 3. S. USA. Protected areas. J. UK. Oxford. S. Extinction of species.D. Threatened animals and plants. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity.J. 1998.

COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction.. Islamabad. 3. Recommended Books: 1. Sustainable cities. 4. Penguin Group. S. London. 1993. 2004. future of urban centers. drinking water and solid waste in cities. 2. urbanization in Pakistan. urban political ecology. 58 . Urban land use planning and management. J. sanitation. Introducing Town Planning. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Urban planning and management in Pakistan.. Planning and Urban Change. Clara. USA. Kate. Longman Group. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. SAGE Publications Ltd. UK. C. A.. UK. USA. New York. urban systems and their characteristics. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Forms of urbanization. Ward. Ministry of Housing and Works. management of transport. V. 1986. H. Silberstein. 2000.and Maser. E&UA Div. Government of Pakistan. urban landscape characteristics. CRC Press LLC.. G. Environmental problems of urban life. 2007.

A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. Practical English Grammar by A.Annexure . Third edition. 1997. ISBN 0194313492 59 . clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. Oxford University Press. Exercises 1. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. a) Functional English Grammar 1. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase.J. Thomson and A.V. Martinet.

2. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . 1997. Reading. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Upper Intermediate. Third edition. minutes of meetings. Exercises 2. Oxford Supplementary Skills. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. Third Impression 1992. Oxford University Press. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. Martinet. Writing. and speed reading. Reading/Comprehension 1. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. Fourth Impression 1993. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. b) Practical English Grammar by A. Oxford Supplementary Skills.V. Thomson and A. intensive and extensive. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet.J.

J. Third edition. content. Writing. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet.V. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. form. Oxford University Press 1986. narrative. Fourth Impression 1993. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. discursive. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . introduction to presentations. b) Writing 1. 2. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. clarity. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Fourth Impression 1992. Advanced. Third Impression 1991. Oxford Supplementary Skills.1. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Reading 1. Thomson and A. Practical English Grammar by A. Exercises 2. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. descriptive and argumentative writing). Oxford Supplementary Skills. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Reading. 2. Third Impression 1992. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. Oxford Supplementary Skills. language. Writing. Martinet. Advanced by Ron White. Writing.

St. 2. descriptive. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. A Custom Publication. College Writing Skills by John Langan. argumentative and report writing). Kathleen Shine Cain. Mandell. without taxing the taste of engineering students). General Editiors: Janice Neulib. 62 .(particularly suitable for discursive. Martin’s Press. 2004. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. 3. Kirszner and Stephen R. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. Compiled by norther Illinois University. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education.

Ethnicity d. Historical Perspective a. 1977-88 e. 63 Books Recommended 1.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. Zaidi. 2. Lahore. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. b. S. 1993. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. State & Society in Pakistan. 1971-77 d. 4. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Pakistan Political Roots & Development.M. contemporary Pakistan. 1994. Contemporary Pakistan a. 1988-99 f. 2000. Society and social structure c. politics. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. ideological background of Pakistan. 2. S. 1958-71 c. Study the process of governance. government. 1947-58 b. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Muslim advent iii. Location and geo-physical features. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. Akbar. Mehmood. Indus Civilization ii. Shahid Javed.Annexure . Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. national development. . 1999 onward 3. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. Safdar. Economic institutions and issues b. Course Outline 1. People and Land i. 3.

Washington: American Enterprise. Ansar. 8.5. Party. 13. I. Tahir. M. Pakistan Under Martial Law. 1980. II & III. 9.K. 14. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Safdar. 1972. Haq. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Rafique. K.The Emergence of Banglades. 1993. Enigma of Political Development. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. History & Culture of Sindh. Wayne. Lahore: Vanguard. 1980. 1998. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. Mehmood. 12. The Political System of Pakistan. 1976. 6. 64 . nd. Khalid Bin. Club Road. Muhammad Waseem. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Zahid. Institute of Public Policy Research. 1967. Wilcox. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Sayeed. Ziring. Politics in Pakistan. Afzal.. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. 11. 10. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 7. Vol. Aziz. Lawrence. 1987. Ethno . Political Parties in Pakistan.National Movement in Pakistan. Islamabad. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Amin. Noor ul.

21.A. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.6.40.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.57.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .A.A.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.56.Tadabar (Verse No1.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.58.A.19. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.Annexure .W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.20) Related to thinking.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.

in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.

Pakistan. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. International Islamic University.S. “Emergence of Islam” . Bhatia.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. IRI. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Studies in Islamic Law. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. Ahmad Hasan. Islamabad (2001) 67 . “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi.

equations reducible to quadratic equations. 1978. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. complex numbers. 1986. set operations. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Boston Swokowski EW. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. geometric progression. types of functions. not majoring in mathematics. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. functions. trigonometric identities. Houghton & Mifflin. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. types. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. PWS-Kent Company. determinants. harmonic progression.Annexure . cube roots of unity. College Algebra and Trigonometry. system of linear equations. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. Sharron S. matrix inverse. Beckenback EF.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. introduction to sets. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. Boston 68 . Cramer’s rule. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. 1987. PWS-Kent Company. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Wooton W.

distance between a point and a line. parallel and perpendicular lines. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. left-hand and right-hand limits. intersection of two lines. integration by substitution. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. Reading. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. rational and transcendental functions. Boston Thomas GB. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). Addison-Wesley. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. John Wiley. Calculus (3rd edition). with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. not majoring in mathematics. 1995. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. continuity. distance between two points. equation of a line. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. various forms of equation of a line. Bevens I. derivatives. 69 . 2005. Calculus (11th edition). New York Stewart J. Recommended Books: Anton H. slope of a line. 2005. angle between two lines. not majoring in mathematics. Davis S. functions and their graphs. Finney AR. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines.2. integration by parts. inequalities. PWS-Kent Company. Ma. differentiation of polynomial. continuous functions. solution of equations involving absolute values. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. USA 3. change of variables in indefinite integrals. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. 1983.

Introduction to sets. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. equations reducible to quadratic equations. types of functions. types of matrices. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). Conic Sections: Parabola. PWS-Kent Company. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. nature of roots of quadratic equations. Boston 4. set operations. Cramer’s rule. 1969 Kaufmann JE. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. ellipse. functions. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. 1986. inverse of matrices. Analytic Geometry. locus of a point in various conditions. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. • Contents 1. intersection of lines and circles. Freshman and Company. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. Scott. 1987. determinants. PWS-Kent Company. circles determined by various conditions. College Algebra and Trigonometry.Circle: Equation of a circle. hyperbola. Boston Swokowski EW. 70 . system of linear equations. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations.

discrete and continuous series. PWS-Kent Company. 3. Prentice Hall. tally sheet method. types of frequency series. circle and trigonometric functions. variance. R. R. Boston.. ungrouped and grouped data. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Kaufmann. Latest Edition. 4. J. 2. Walpole. relationship of statistics with social science. Latest Edition. E. 5. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. characteristics of statistics. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. skewness and kurtosis.. array. standard deviation. Measures of dispersion: Range. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. moments. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics.. E. Swokowski. W. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. frequency polygon. Graphs: Graph of straight line. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. quartiles. trigonometric identities. R. Wilcox. Latest Edition. individual. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines.. 71 . cumulative frequency curve. Books Recommended: 1. 2. E. deciles and percentiles. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution.geometric and harmonic progressions. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. bar frequency diagram histogram.

Rational and Transcendental Functions. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. Elliott Mendelson. 1983. applications of integration. Addison Wesley publishing company. special points of a function. Slope of a Line. infinite and improper integrals. Boston. integration using partial fractions. logarithmic differentiation. 1999. Bevens. 2. 11th Edition. the inverse of differentiation. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. I. plane polar coordinates. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. Calculus Single and Multivariable. and Transcendental Functions. Mathews. products. Frank A. 2005. 4th edition. 6. Thomas. 6. E. Swokowski. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . McCallum. substitution method. S. Inc. implicit differentiation. et al. 3. Contents 1. Leibnitz’ theorem. 8th edition. Schaum’s Outline Series. Solution of equations involving absolute values. Davis. Jhon Willey & Sons. John Wiley & Sons. Continuous Functions. 4. John H. Prentice-Hall. H. Calculus. Integration by Parts. the chain rule.Jr. quotients. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. sinusoidal function. Trigonometric Functions. Anton. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. reduction formulae. 2002. W. 2005. Extreme Values of Functions. integration by inspection. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. theorems of differentiation. 2. Second Edition 1992. Gleason. Rational Functions. Recommended Books: 1. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. Inc. • Integration Integration from first principles. Inequalities. 3rd Edition. Calculus.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. Hughes-Hallett. integral inequalities. Least-Squares Line. Equation of a Line. Calculus. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. integration by parts. logarithmic integration. 5. Continuity.

identities of hyperbolic functions. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . solving hyperbolic equations. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. series involving natural numbers. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. arithmetico-geometric series. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. approximation errors in Taylor series. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. inverses of hyperbolic functions. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. geometric series. complex conjugate. modulus and argument. multiplication. the difference method. finding the nth roots of unity.Additions and subtraction.

of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. 6. line to line. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. Hermitian. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. point to plane. centers of mass and centroids. vector product. of a unitary matrix. the inner product. orthogonal. scalar triple product. moments of inertia. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. masses. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line.5. Pappus’ theorems. symmetric and antisymmetric.

div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. combinations of grad. divergence of a vector field. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products.8. spherical polar coordinates 75 .

Pie chart. null and alternative hypothesis. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Types of frequency curves. Unit 3. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Diagrams. Observations. Median and mode. acceptance and rejection regions. Change of origin and scale. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Data. Exercises Unit 6. Unit 5. Bar charts. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Statistical problem. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Probability and Probability Distributions. Exercises. Range. 76 . Measures of Dispersion Introduction. level of significance. Coefficient of variation. The Variance and standard deviation. bias. Constructing of a frequency distribution.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Discrete and continuous variables. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. definition of outliers and their detection. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Standardized variables. Difference of means and proportions. Errors of measurement. Test statistics. Histogram. Stem and Leaf Display. properties of Good Average. Rounding of a Number. Significant digits. Poisson and Normal Distribution.Annexure . Historigram. Moments and Moments ratios. Unit 4. Quantiles. Population. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. The Mode. Sources. Editing of Data. Presentation of Data Introduction. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Collection of primary and secondary data. Exercises. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Box and Whisker Plot. sample design and sampling frame. Type-I and Type-II errors. Different types of Averages. Exercises. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. The semi-Interquartile Range. Unit 7. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Ogive for Discrete Variable. probability and non-probability sampling. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Absolute and relative measures. Empirical Relation between Mean. Exercises. Unit 2. Graphs and their Construction. The Mean Deviation. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. sampling with and without replacement. Exercises. Exercises. sampling and non sampling errors.

“Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. examples. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Exercises Unit 10. Coefficient of linear correlation. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. cause and effect relationships. 77 . New York.Single Population Introduction.. Unit 11. Kitab Markaz. 2 Muhammad. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. Macmillan Publishing Co. 3rd Ed. Correlation. Testing of Hypothesis. Inc. 1982. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. F. simple linear regression. Contingency Tables. 2005. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole.Unit 8. r and R2. Exercises Unit 9. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. E. “Introduction to Statistics”.. Regression and Correlation Introduction. Exercises. R. its estimation and interpretation.

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