CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
For BS MS
HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD
CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………
6 12 14 50 51
the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. universities and other institutions of higher education.). The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. Lahore. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center.PREFACE
Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation.
PROF. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. degree awarding institutions. 63. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. DR. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. It is.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. R&D organizations. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. The world has turned into a global village.ALTAF ALI G. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. therefore. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. and 36. SHAIKH
Member Academics August 2009
. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. the Federal Government vide notification No. It also aimed to give a basic.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. D773/76-JEA (cur. dated December 4th 1976.
FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC
COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. EXP. COL. HEC
BACK TO STAGE-I
NCRC. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission
ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV
PREP. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS
APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP
PREP. OF DRAFT BY NCRC
IMPLE. IN DRAFT STAGE
COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. UNI. REC. R&D. OF FINAL CURRI.
CONS. UNDER CONSIDERATION
CURRI. OF CURRI. Preparation
Rawalpindi Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener
2. Karachi from 28-30. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Following attended the meeting:1. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof.
Dr. Lahore Member
6. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean.Introduction
The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Dr. Dr.
4. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall.
7. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head.
16. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof.
11. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore
14. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof.
13.8. Dr. Dr. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Dr.
. Islamabad coordinated the meeting.17. 2. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. Karachi. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr.
Dr. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Mr. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Director of HEC Regional Center.
20. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. The meeting was opened by Mr. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. Faisalabad
18. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science.
19. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Dr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. At first. 1. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Mr.
environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development.
1. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment.
The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop.3. 5. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. 4. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. In last few centuries. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution.
These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants.
The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues
. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. The committee thanked Mr. 6. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre.
Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge.
The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population.
The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us.
The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i.
Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. Apply theoretical understanding. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. professional judgment and skills in
mitigation of environmental problems
iii. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the
. regional and global contexts. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge
iv. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable
development. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. This committee. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local.
5. skills and behaviour patterns. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative
structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management
5. in its preliminary meeting.
The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be
comprehensive in their coverage of the contents
2. 1. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. 6. eight semesters in the semester system.
3.. Integrating natural sciences. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in
the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. assessment and evaluation will be English
for degree programmes in Environmental Science. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. that:
1. The medium of instruction. 4. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level.
UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME
BS Environmental Science
Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. with consensus. 2.
5. Sc. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals.e. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes.
A. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental
Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. The
Basic Chemistry* 4.
SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR
Course Titles Semester – 1
1. Environmental Pollution 22. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0)
Semester – 4
19. Environmental Physics 16. Introductory Economics* 17. Psychology*
. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. English-II 12. Biology –II* 9. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17
SECOND YEAR Semester – 3
13. Environmental Chemistry 15. English-III 18. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours
3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17
Semester – 2
7. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Introduction to Computer 14. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Climatology* 23. Introduction to Earth Science 8. English-I 6. Environmental Microbiology 21. The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Biology –I* 3.
Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Natural Resource Management 40. Opt. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. 44. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19
Semester – 6
31. Applied Ecology 26. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. Climate Change 38. ELECTIVE-III 42. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours
FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7
37. English-IV/ Univ. Total Credit Hours
3 (3-0) 18
THIRD YEAR Semester – 5
25. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18
Semester – 8
43. Environmental Management Systems 34. Environmental Economics 29. Environmental toxicology 27. 45.24. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136
Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours
. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Environmental Monitoring 36. 46. Environmental Biotechnology 32. GIS & Remote Sensing 33.
• Universities can choose from the list provided under general category
.• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical.
current global.DETAILS OF COURSES
FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0)
To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. biological and social. regional. environmental pollution.
Introduction: basic concepts. Thomson Learning. 2007. McKinney. G. 2007 3. Botkin. proteins and nucleic acids.L. urbanization. Schoch.
1. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. 4th Ed. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. L.A. M. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. R. ecological. & Yonavjak. Miller. national. 2. 2002. R. 10th Ed. philosophical. and their relationships with various environmental factors. 6th Ed. Different aspects of environment: physical.I
The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. E.M. history..J. development in industry and agriculture. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. its importance in human life.. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. 4. D. 2007. B. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. COURSE 2
BIOLOGY . The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. & Nebel. lipids. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment.T. John Wiley & Sons.B & Keller. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. Pearson Educational. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. Human environment and its problems: global. poverty and resource depletion. socio-economic. Wright. ethical.
McGraw. lipids. origin of metabolism. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. Cells. Shier. Crossley. 3.
1. 5th Edetion. G.. lipids. USA. phospholipids in membrane systems. proteins. 2008. Introduction to cell biology. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. 2003. and Lewis. Self Assessment and Revie. carbohydrates. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. Starr. Canada. Structure and the basis of function. 4. D. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. C. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. chemical basis of life. Ionic.Course Outlines
Introduction: Definition and concept of life. Lingappa. coordinate covalent bond. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. esters. USA. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. L. R. J. Aromatic compounds. and Whitelaw. USA. Cassimeris. Ltd. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. 5. A.. Australia .. covalent.. Nucleic acids. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. 2007. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. Origin of life: chemical evolution.
. Biology: a Human Emphasis.
The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. Molecular Biology through Questions. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. E. Bulter. B. carboxylic acids. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. Lewis. 8th Ed. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. M.. Cell division. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. chemical diversity. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. 2. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. N. Wadsworth Group. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. the molecule of genetic information and replication. R. amines). Plopper.Hill International Edition. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. 2007. 1996.
Chemical Bonding. V. carbonyls.
Biology’ Campbell. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. protobionts. polypeptides in protein diversity. New York.
Liss..J. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional).. normal solutions/buffers. molal. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. expansion of determinants. EC and TDS in waste water. Skoog. USA. angle-sum formula. Use of spectrophotometric techniques.K. 2. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. 3. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. COURSE 4
The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. Brimblecombe.. J. 2004.. 2nd Edition..M. T. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). Measurement of pH. D. Photochemical reactions. determinants. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix.E. Principles of Environmental Chemistry.. double angle formulas. P. straight line and related concepts. 5.. Hill. 2004. West. D. Andrews. geometric and harmonic sequence. Jickells. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. Osmosis and Dialysis. Thin layer chromatography. Solution chemistry. 2003. Arithmetic and Trigonometry
Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. Understanding Environmental Pollution. simultaneous equations and their solutions. M. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. UK.. USA. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. 2nd Edition. equations of lines (linear equations). An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. UK..E.D. B. Algebra of matrices.S. D. minor and cofactor of a matrix. Girard.A. Colloids chemistry. Harris. 8th Edition.H.
1. law of Cosines. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. 4. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. 2004. J. Freeman and Company. radicals. Jones and
Barlett.C. and Holler. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. Canada. W. 1st Ed. real line. Blackwell Science. values of trigonometric functions. graphs.
. P. Lab Work Preparation of molar. F.J. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. Column chromatography. Surface chemistry. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Cambridge University Press. series and means.ions. Thomson and Brooks. 2005. and Reid. Binomial theorem (Simple applications).Special Products (Binomial Expression). 6th Edition.
English-I (Functional English) Annexure .. mountain building. plate tectonics. California. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. Introduction to folds. 4th Ed. by parts integration (simple applications). earthquakes and volcanoes. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. difference.A
Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . G. 3. J. Addission. igneous and metamorphic rocks. 1999.
R. weathering and erosion. Narosa Publishing House. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. composition and its internal structure. earthquakes.
1. theorem of integration. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. faults. Chatterjee. erosion and related landforms.B. S. Introduction to sedimentary. joints. nonrepeated linear factors. irreducible quadratic factors. cleavages. different earth processes like mountain buildings. K.Cramer’s Rule. Abraham. its origin. and Finney. Earth as a member of solar system. Smith. Fossils and their significance.
Introduction and scope of geology and geography. Chain rule. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. Weathering. Pacific Grove.Wesley.B SEMESTER 2
INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives
This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography.
. lineation and unconformities. D. Analytical Geometry. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. 4. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Trignometry for College students. 10th Ed. Thomas. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. theorems on differentiation (sum. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions.. age. the processes of their formation. product and quotient rules without derivations). New Delhi. Integration: Formulas of integration. 2. Introduction to rocks and minerals. Jr. foliation. Scott Foresman and Company. L.
K. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. R. 11th Edition. consequences of losing biodiversity. Biodiversity of hilly areas. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. Darwinism. 2004. 4. Smith.. animals). river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. invasion of life on land. E. 5th Edition. COURSE 8
BIOLOGY . Field Study tour.Identification of rocks and minerals. D. and Tasa. 5.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. and Monroe. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. protocell formation. interactions among diversified life.. J. Geological time chart with biodiversity. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. different classification systems. 2005. Wicander. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. Prentice Hall: 2006. measuring biodiversity. Biodiversity of canal. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. Physical Geology and Process of Science. G. G.. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. 2007 3. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. unicellularity. J.. Earth Science. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. biodiversity crises. 3rd Edition.. Foundations of Structural Biology. multicellularity. Park. Brooks/Cole.
Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. and Pun. population loss and decline. Prentice Hall. How Does Earth Work.. Biodiversity of deserts. E. F. 2007 2. Tarbuck. K. Prentice Hall. D. Use of brunton compass and GPS. Routledge. Lutgens.. causes of extinction. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. J.II
This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. Life in sea.
1. molecular basis of biodiversity. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. Lutgens. modern concepts. F. Lamarckism.. R. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life.. A. 9th Edition. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. and Tasa. examples of adjustments in varied environment.
. L. culture and society. 3. J. New York: New York University Press. Nora and Wilk. USA. Understanding the environment-human relationship. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. Goals and expectations. Environmental Risks and the Media. C.
2009. and concerns. Perspective of human-environment evolution.. K. UK. (editor). Wadsworth Group. C.. Prospect Heights.
Annexure . 2009. Adam. Walnut Creek. 2006. Consumption. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. Contemporary environment issues and debate. R. Inc. 2005.
1. (editors). 2000. UK. Gaston. Hannen.K. 3. Culture.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies)
1. Biology. and Sustainable Living. Inc. CA: AltaMira Press. J. Crumley. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. 3 (3-0)
Relationship between environment. 4. UK. Chronological. Tripartite nature of environment.
The Biosphere. K. Contemporary environmental status. Use of environment for vested interest. Bradbury. Scope and application. Allan & Carter. IL:WavelandPress. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. I. power & hegemony. and Spicer. a Human Emphasis. globalization and environmental issues. Blackwell Science Ltd. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. 2001. 2. Starr. The Ecology of global consumer culture. Biodiversity (An Introduction). I. P. Townsend. 5th Edition. 2nd Edition. Conceptualizing environment.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY
Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. John Wiley and Sons.
Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. Configurations. Long N.London 1996. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere.H. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. as are their effects on the biosphere.6th Ed.
1. 6. Local Area Network. Kluwer Academic Publishers.1999. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. Operating system (Windows). Long l. 2003.. output hardware. K. Ed. computer programs and basic applications.Microsoft office 2000. Types and classification of computers. Introduction to MS-Word. Fundamentals of computer. software packages. Ms-Power Point.. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. Courter.
Definition. Marquis A. 2. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. Storage hardware. internet. Milton. Selin.
. Ms-Access. system software.A
ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . G. COURSE 11
English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . Rutledge.BPB publication
This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. processing hardware.C SEMESTER 3
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER
This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components.5. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. e-mail. Hardware: Input Hardware. Software: Application software. Ms-Excel.
Human perceptions and noise criteria. Reducing the transmission of sound.E. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. Active control of sound. Jickells. 4. its causes and adverse effects on environment. Ibanez.. 2004.. Sound and Noise. and Reid.D. 2nd Edition. Brimblecombe. Solar spectrum. Environmental Chemistry. K. Environmental impact of various industries. Canada. photosynthesis.G. Ozone and UV light. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. M. trophic level. Turbulent diffusion. their sources and toxic actions. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts.. UK. C.. T. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. M. Turbulence. Gaussian plumes in the air.. 1999. Equations of fluid dynamics. A. Energy. Transport of pollutants. and Singh. P. P. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. J. Liquids and Gasses. Particle physics.. USA. Global climate and climatic change. Jones and Barlett. Isotopes and radioactive decay. Andrews. 2005. Environmental Chemistry. Diffusion.. G. Basic acoustics. COURSE 15
The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. Electromagnetic radiation. India.. 2008. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light.S. Chemical reactions. Miller. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants.Course Outlines
Concept and scope of environmental chemistry.
Introduction to environmental physics. Fundamentals of aquatic. Turbulent jets and plumes.T. J. Solids. Liss.M. 1st Edition. Springer. Samir. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Fregoso-Infante. 2. Measurement and comparison of the
. Entropy. DoriaSerrano. interaction of light with matter.E. Environmental Science. Nuclear energy.. Girard. 3. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. Thomson-Brooks. Hernandez-Esparza. Heat radiation and heat transfer. Fate of pollutants in environment. Conversion of mass. Blackwell Science. 2004.
1.. 5. B. Ozone chemistry. Energy conversion.. J. atmospheric and soil chemistry. Germany.J.
N. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. 2. Smith.
1. 2001. Guyot. Seinfeld. interaction between ecology and economic management. Physics of the Environment and Climate. Sustainable development. producer and community point of view. 2008. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. Yusuf. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. H. Economic Development.
2008. Introductory Environmental Physics. COURSE 16
The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Wesely Publishers. M. Environmental Physics. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. and Pandis. 2006. World Bank Publications. poverty. USA. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30
Years of the World Development Repor. Natural resources and the economy. Economic functions of environment. Environmental economics.Economic development. Praxis publishing. Economic management and environmental quality. Todaro. economic growth.
. population and environmental quality. and Resource allocation. USA. 2001. Growth and development. and Van Grondelle. economic growth and its measurement. Field visit. R. 4.
Introduction to economics. Pakistan economic context: National income. P. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. S. economic welfare and difference among all. C. economic progress. Man environmental relationship. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. USA. Producer behavior.. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. G.1998. concepts and measurement. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. Impact of economic activity on environment. E.
1. Boeker. Growth and Environment.
2. New York. Measures for sustainable development. J. 3. USA. S. 7th Ed. UK. Kentucky USA. Routledge.
FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY
To develop an understanding in the about ecology. temperature. London. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. Environmental philosophy and ethics.
. branches of ecology. DeVeer. & Pierce.. Ecology.
Definition of philosophy. B. Economics. ethics and ecology. USA.
World Bank Publications.V. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. B. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. Farmington Hills. Kessinger Publishing. water.
1.. LLC. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. Introduction to ethical theory. International Thomson Publishing. Callicott. C. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy.A. England. A History of Western Philosophy. biogeography. and systems ecology.A
To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. M.
4. Natural philosophy. 2. 2002. role of light. population. R. COURSE 17
English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills)
Annexure . 3. USA. Portland 1967. its fundamental concepts. Russell. Ecosystem and its types. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. concepts and approaches. WCIV7AA. 2007. D. the ethics of soil. community and ecosystem. N. B. species. Touchstone Books. 4.
Introduction. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. levels of ecological organization. Environmental Critics of agriculture. description of population. Palgrave Macmillan. Frodeman. and White. community. Swift. Hanley. 2009. soil. 2008.
L and Reiss.W. Population distribution and abundance. Fundamentals of Ecology. Ecosystem: structure and function.
Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. J.) Moles. P. and S. King’s College London. plant geography and animal distribution. 2. Odum. Tata McGraw-Hill. New York. UK. landscape changes and their importance. New Delhi. bacteria and eukarya. aquatic microbiology. Cambridge University Press. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. COURSE 20
This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. UK. E P. WCB/McGraw-Hill. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. distribution limits.topography and air as ecological factors. M C J 1st ed. B. productivity of different ecosystems. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach).Cox. Systems ecology. G. J. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. biotic factors. and More. Dash. 2004. ecological modeling. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. various concepts of community. Fundamentals of Ecology. Ecology (principles and applications). Biogeochemical cycles of C. 1999 4. population dynamics. Populations. 3.
. 2001 5. students will be able to understand the significance. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. N. C. 5th Ed. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. 2000. Concepts of Limiting factors. Biomes of the world. Chapman. characteristics of urban. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. C. M J. community dynamics. Ecology (concepts and applications. and Barett. Thomson Brooks/Cole. M. 1st
Ed. landscape ecology.
1. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. After completion of this course. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. Microbial metabolism. 1992. habitat and niche. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. 6th Ed.
Effects of Pollutants.Gerba.. R. 2002.. USA.M.L. J.I.. 2. USA. and Klein. M. I. 3. Peiece. Prentice Hall. purification and preservation. Understanding Environmental Pollution. UK.A.
Introduction to Environmental pollution... Water. P.P.
Environmental Microbiology. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. McGraw Hill Inc.P. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. peppor..Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. Sylvia.. 2nd Edition. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines.M.
1. Hill. and Stetzenbach. 4th Edition... USA.
5. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. 2005. American Society for Microbiology.J.P. Academic Press. Dilution plate technique. J..
3.. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. Hurrst. 2005. London. Prescott. Butterworth-Heinemann.L. Solid Waste generation.. transportation & treatments. USA. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. A.
The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. Washington DC. Collection. 2. Crawford. F. C.D. Knudsen.1998.K.F. Pepper. Cambridge UK. Weiner. Maier. Academic Press. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). and Jeffery. D.G.and Vesilaind.
1. Case Studies.A. G. Human & other living organisms.V.W.L. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. Harley.J. and Gerba. 2 Edition. and Zuberer. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. D. USA.and Brendecke. McInernery.M. W. M.J. Fate of Environmental Pollutants.A. L. 1995. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally.. Fuhrmann. L.B.
. 2005. Academic Press. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. its sources and their effects. Hartel.C. (Elsevier) USA. D. 2007. Pollution Control Strategies. Environmental Pollution and Control. New Jersey. isolation. Marine & Industrial pollution. C.J. J. 2009. Microbiology. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. Mean plate count. Soil. P. 4. Noise.J.R. R. Cambridge University Press.
. 2.2nd Editions. Mechanism of heat transfer. 6th Edition. 1992.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. American Public Health Association (APHA). 5. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. local winds.
1.M. 2002. air pressure. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. Radiation and climate. The climate of Pakistan. 2006 5. Factors affecting air Pressure.. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . condensation and cloud Formation. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Weather and Climate.. The Physics of Atmospheres. Environmental psychology.. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. 2003. Karachi. Solar radiations. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere.W. Houghton J.. . global circulation.E.F. Tarbuck. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate.
Introduction to psychology. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. Lutgens. COURSE 23
This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences.K.
Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. Spyros. Royal book company. 1988. John Wiley and Sons. Methods of psychology. K. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. Cambridge University
Press. climatic zones of Pakistan. Climatology. A. N. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. 3. Austin Miller.4. COURSE 22
The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. Four Spheres of the Earth. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. Marcel Dekkar. Shamshad. Cloud Classification. Pandis. 4.J. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). John H. Sadder. The Atmosphere. Surface winds. Lawrance K. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. The Hydrologic cycle.
Soil as a natural resource. 2. 1992. Fisher
J. Water as an ecological resource. Fundamental of Psychology.A. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. 2001. energy and carbon balance. solar radiation and primary production. High population density and psychological impacts.. Sustainable livestock management practices. Routledge. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species.
Introduction. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change.
. Environmental perception and cognition.
1. London.W. Background and scope. Bell. CRC Press. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. Routledge.D. rivers. Greene. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher.C. sustainable agriculture. Restoration of derelict lands. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. CRC Press. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Pollution control through Ecology. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. carbon dioxide and global climate change. techniques and methods of restoration. 5th Edition. Eysenck. Water and distribution of species. threats and mitigation. their management and ecological restoration. Sustainable agricultural practices.. soil erosion and conservation. and Baum A. concepts. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. COURSE 24
ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional )
This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. species response to pollutants. soil resources of Pakistan. Ecology of food production.characteristics and research methods. soil salinity and water logging. Environmental Psychology. London. limitation of irrigated agriculture. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. Future water scenario of Pakistan. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. T. Ecological restoration. P. M.
long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. on human and other living organisms. toxins & toxicants. their containment and control strategies. A.P. biological effects. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Synergism. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. 1996. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management
Determination of chemicals in water. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. Islamabad. Potentiation and Addition. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways.I. toxicity screening using microbial systems.Recommended Books:
1. Shirkat Gah. 1989.1998. Falk. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. 2nd
ed.A. Mumtaz. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. 2006. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. water and soil. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. J.
. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. and Hobbs. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. USA. 2004. Rashid. G. B. J. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. Newman.
Introduction to Toxicology: History. Oxford. University of Peshawar. Lahore. 5. dose response relationship in living organisms. COURSE 26
The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. 2000 2. in vivo & in vitro assays. D. Zedler. Fundamentals of Ecology. K. Pakistan’s Environment. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. R. Studies in Pakistan Geography.W. Immunological considerations in toxicology. 4. Island Press. P. 5th Edition.. 3. terminologies: Poisons. Israr-ud-Din. Organs. and Barett. Soil Science. soil and air samples. Odum E. K and Habib. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. A. Peshawar.National Book Foundation.. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system.S. Chemical interactions and their types. from natural and anthropogenic sources. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. toxicology of chemicals. Margaret A.. and Memon. E. toxins vs toxicants..
P.. CRC Press Llc. clean development mechanism.Recommended Books
1. 3.1 & 2. geography. Williams. Vol.
1. 5th Edition. industry. (ed. 1st Edition. economic aspects of different environmental problems.). Klassen. USA. State of the Environment-Pakistan .
Introduction to history.Science of Poisons . Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann.M. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. 1st Edition. COURSE 27
ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN
To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development.D. culture. topographic zones. B. major ecosystems. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. W. Government of Pakistan. 1992. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. Economic: agriculture. people. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. USA. 3. education. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. Hughes. Macmillan Press Ltd. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. 2005 2. water resources. General and Applied Toxicology. pollution control-a general model. measuring environmental benefits.
Introduction.2005 2. W. health. McGrawhill. international trade and the environment.
. Ballantyne. T and Turner. USA. 1996. urbanization and pollution. 1993. 1989 COURSE 28
This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. land. economic development and the environment. the economy and the environment. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. Ecological: ecological zones. M.
.and Field. and Batemen. Sample preservation methods. Australia. 1999. Pearce. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. J. Standard solutions and standard curves.. USA. West.I. Titrimetery. 1993. B. Collingwood. M. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. 2000. All Solids. Data interpretation for quality control. 4. K. A. BOD. Harris. Thomson and Brooks.W. CSIRO Publ. preparation and storage. 8th Edition. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction.2004. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. I. water and plant analysis. and derived S. D. D. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. Reuter.L. D.R. Analytical techniques for soil. Sample collection. Fluoride. Environmental Economics: An Introduction.K. 2. and F. handling..D. L. Gravimetery. Kolstad. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. Conductivitymetry.1. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry.UK.2002. New York. soil (NPK and organic matter contents.
Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. M. precision and accuracy. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. Freeman & Co. Johns Hopkins University Press. Oxford University Press.. C. Peverill. Environmental Economics. Field. 6th Edition.
S.K. salinity & sodicity). Sparrow and D. 2003. D. Conductivitymetry. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. Skoog.J. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling.C.. Use of Potentiometery. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Titrimetery. COURSE 29
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2)
The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. Oxford. Holler. 2. units. C.. NO3–N & NH4-N).I. COD. Turner. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. 3. Gravimetery.. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). 3. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery.
Bioreactors. USA. Biosensor. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures.
Introduction to basic molecular techniques. USA.D. and Russel. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. and Josef. 2005.E. Biomarkers. PCR. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. purification and preservation of DNA. New York. J. Tools in environmental biotechnology. students will be able to understand the significance. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. 4. Germany. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. Oxford University Press. Sambrook. Isolation. 2001. Smith. 2005. 3. (ed. and application of biotechnology in the environment. 2. National Biosafety Guidelines. COURSE 32
GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1)
. J. Scragg.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. Chichoster.W. 5th Ed. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. J. Recombinant DNA technology.. Biotechnology. National Biotechnology Commission. Environmental Biotechnology. After completion of this course.COURSE 30
ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6
ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY
This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments.
Introduction.P. Cambridge University Press. Derbre. 2007. A.1999. England. New York. Introduction to microbial kinetics. Hans-
Joachim. USA. 2009. D. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd.. 2nd Ed. Wiley-VCH Verlag. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. W.
1.). Government of Pakistan.
R. Aerial photography. Introduction to Photogrammetry. Z. Harvey.
Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. map projection and coordinate systems. 2000. Jensen. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. history and platforms. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Types of data used in GIS. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). Satellite Imageries.
Introduction to ArcView. Active and Passive remote sensing. eradication of the duplicated data. A. 2008. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. 1999. Image Processing. Cartography. John Wiley and Sons. advantages and limitations of process. F. Energy Sources. Pearsons Education. 3. COURSE 33
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
. 2000. Data entry and output. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Mc Graw Hill Education. 2. Using and reading GPS in field. analysis and output. Introduction to GIS. Data acquisition. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. 2009. Guilfoud press New York. Preparation of thematic maps. K and L. Different types of maps. Interpretation. Rancez. A
Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. Campbell. Lulla. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. 4. History and data collection. Agriculture. Reading maps (Maps characteristics)
1. Dessinov. Inc. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. 5. Inc. Fishery and wildlife. V. Forestry. John Wiley and Sons.Objectives
The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. integration of information from many sources. Inc.
. social and ethical values of biodiversity. Environment and sustainable development. 2. American Society for Quality. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. Khan. etc. WWF Pakistan. M. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. cleaner technologies. 1998. 2006. hot spots of biodiversity. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. COURSE 34
BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION
The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. 2001.2nd Ed. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management..
Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Environmental Management tools. alpha and beta diversity. plant.
Industrial Field Trip
1. American Society for Quality. Sheldon. Related Environmental legislation.3rd Edition . Methods of environmental protection. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. and Qasim. 4. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. B. and Yoxon. Certification of EMS. economic. 2005. philosophical.. Systems and Support Techniques. M. Environmental Management Systems Principles. F.
. 3. ecological. threats to biodiversity. principles of Cleaner production.). Conservation of biodiversity. Environmental aspects and impacts.C. Environmental Economy. standards and guidelines. A. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. International Organization for Standardization. need and approach. types of biodiversity.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. Michigan. eco-design.
Rawalpindi..B. water. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. Mirza. forests. air. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. croplands.B. Considerations. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. Z. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance.. 2. P.R. Associates Inc. 2000. A Primer for Conservation Biology. C. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. and Morre.e. Saad Printers. national and international laws and regulations.D. habitats. field custody. sampling and design purposes.. Publ. refrigeration and freezing methods. 3. Sunderland. Cox. Lahore). P. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. Legal protection of species.
. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. plants. community and ecosystem level. management.
Sampling techniques (air. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. 2ndEd. international agreements. population. presampling requirements/information.
1. conservation strategies. COURSE 35
This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. Preservation methods including pH control. chemical addition. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. EIA requirement. 1998. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. Sinauer.conservation at species. quality control sampling. conservation in man-made ecosystems. cities. their categories. NOC for plant operation. 2000. conservation and livelihood. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. design and types of samples. Quality assurance and quality control.B. laboratory custody. soil and living organisms. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. protected areas. Conservation of wildlife. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. quality assessment. ecotourism. London. Biogeography.
Introduction. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. Kings College. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes.
E. phenological changes. Forstner U. Human responses to potential climate change. 2000. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. L. USA. 3. Recent Climate Change Indicators. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. H. N. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. Earth Observation of Global Change. I. Chapman and Hall. 6. S. agriculture. Tokyo.1999. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. 2nd Edition. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. D. 7. and Guethner. D. UK. Korte. Lewis Publisher London. New York. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1.Recommended Books:
1. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. Energy and Temperature. E. (eds. COURSE 36
ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7
The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. altered community structure. 2008. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. human health.. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. Moisture in the Atmosphere. Burden. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect.) McGraw-Hill. regional. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. USA. 2. 1992. The Measurement of Climate Change. 2008. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. Chuviero. Ozone depletion. . S. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. Environmental Chemistry. Peakall. Precipitation. 2002.. Air Pollution and Acid Rain.
Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. R. Manahan. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. Murai. USA. F. 2002. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. 8. extinctions. chemical. Keith. biological. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. (ed) Springer. its causes and effects. Physical. McKlivie.1996. 5. Regional droughts and
. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. Remote Sensing Note.USA.
2005. 2000. (ed.. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. T.O. 6. law. liquid. John Wiley & Sons. Routledge. reporting.
1. J. review of EIA quality. decision-making to implement the project. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. London. 1994. impact analysis.. COURSE 38
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. project implementation and follow up. Global Change and the earth system.Causes. J. and Solutions. Hardy. 2. 2. solids. Hardy. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. 1st Edition. Ministry of Housing and Works. 2004. Effects. and noise. public involvement. scoping. Earthscan Publication Ltd. A. mitigation and impact management. J.T.A. & Nixon. and Solutions. Petts. Sringer. Climate Change . and Chadwick.
. 4. 3. Therivel. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels.. National Book Foundation. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. London. Keith. Climate Change . Effects. Harrop. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society.. overview. Main stages in EIA process. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice.. 2003.cataclysmic climate change. Types & Resources to produce Energy. 5. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. 4. 2005. 3. Oxford. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. 1999. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of
Pakistan.(ed). screening.. Glasson. and the public is informed about the project proposal
Introduction. 1986. social impact assessment (SIA). EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. Cost and benefits of EIA. R. 2005. J. Islamabad.. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis.). Houghton. John Wiley & Sons.
1. Islamabad. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. J. 2003. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T.Causes. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Global Warming and Climate Change. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). Blackwell. EIA project management. A. D.
process and contents of the management plan.. Types. Rangeland Management: existing status. H. and Tu. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations.5. solar power.B and Warren. J. limitation in the future. M.
Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. Lohani. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. importance. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. Everitt. S. requirement. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. F. occurrence and distribution of natural resources.. Carpenter. 1997. Asian Development Bank. best available option for future. Evans. forest types and its existing management. 1993.. 2002. 2nd Edition. B. Ludwig. their current status and threats. A. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies.. Sadler. their pros and cons. management options. R.. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. wind power and nuclear power. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. national and provincial legislation. methodologies. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. effective management. Goldsmith. causes and methods for its improvement.
(ed. United Nations Environment Programme. Conservation in Progress. Development of Management Plan: needs.. B. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning.. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. existing management approaches. threat and its causes. management options. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. national agriculture policy. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources.).
NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
To train students on the identification. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. threats. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. John Willey
6. problem in agriculture.
. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level.
1. R. USA. agriculture chemicals. national example. wildlife census. agriculture products and their share in GDP. & McCabe. New York.
Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Dasmann.
.L. J. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research.
& Plano Clark. P.F. Case Studies. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Review of Literature. Hansen. S.2. Sage CA. population and sampling frames. Review of Literature. Environmental Conservation. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem.Amsterdam. 1990.1991
RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE
The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. Material Methods. How to put things together? Introduction. Methodology. Scientific Research: Science. Thousand Oaks. John Wiley & Sons. research methods. 5. Surveys. Elsevier. concepts and terminologies. 4. R. GOP and IUCN. Objectives. London. Questionnaire. W. and the process of doing research and reporting the results
Introduction to Research.A pre-requisite for Research. Inference based on findings. Sampling: the logic of sampling. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation
1. 3. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. Bibliography. New York. and Jorqensen. Research Proposal: its importance .E. V. to introduce students to research design. Experimental Research. Selecting the Research Method. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Interviews. Research Design & Research Methods. types of sampling design/. USA.E. Scientific Methods. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. Creswell. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. 2007. Pearce &
Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. 1984. 1992. Islamabad. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling.. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. Literature Search: Database. Search Engines.
1. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. Robert Yin.USA. Law Books House. Wadsworth Publishing Company. 2nd
Edition. 2008. USA. Sage Publishers. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act.
ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8
ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives
To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development.h.. S. 3.. Marilyn F. 1997. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. 4. 2003. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. Babbie. Qadar. Government of Pakistan 3. 1989. Moriarty. R. regulations made there under.S. 6. 3rd Edition. England. 2003. 1997. Diamon. E. National Conservation Strategy 5. Booth. 2. and Arhonditsis. John and sons Ltd. G. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. SNBP Local Government Ordinance.Harrad.. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. Survey Research Methods. USA.Batty. 2000. Students project in Environmental Science. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. Univ.2. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. of
Chicago Press. COURSE 44
HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT
National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. 2001. M. 5. National Environmental Policy 4.. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. Belmont California. Chichester.
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45
POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.
Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46
RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,
5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.
Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT).K. 2003.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. P. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan.
. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. groundwater exploitation. Cheema. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. Oxford University Press New Delhi.
1. Asia Printer. Biswas. recycling and re-use of wastewater. 2006.). A. 2006.
Water resource and its management. N. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. R. Islamabad. Khan. virtual water. A. (ed. Ahmed. Pakistan. Islamabad. 5. SDPI Oxford University Press. I.Lahore. Briscoe. N. and Qamar. 3.1993. Revised & enlarged edition..
Mirajuddin Publication .. O. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. with drinking water facilities like springs.). hydrological cycle. watershed/catchment. 2. Ahmed. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. 1993. tubewells.
One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. J. (eds. R. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. 2005.. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. wetlands resources management. water supply and demand management measures. 4. U. A. Bengali.. pollution aspects. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. Mirajuddin Publication . climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. Lahore. Oxford University Press Karachi. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. and Malik. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. 6. Pakistan . Indus Water Accord 1991. flood and drought management. The Politics of Managing Water. K. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. flood and droughts.. integrated water resources management (IWRM). and Tortajada. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc.. fisheries management..Varis. water quality and quantity aspects. C.
future of urban centers. urbanization in Pakistan. PrenticeHall. 2007. CA. 11th Edition. Causes of urbanization. Islamabad. National Book Foundation. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals.W. Urbanization.E-3
SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT
This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. Pakistan.. E-4
This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. Soil Science. Soils in Our Environment. R. Definition. R.
The Nature and Properties of Soils.
Introduction. Hillel. San Diego. Factors and processes of soil formation. soils. Bashir.C. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. Soil forming minerals. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. urban political ecology. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. Process and outcome. R. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. After completion of this course. hydrological processes. USA. Cation and anion exchange. Brady. urban flora and fauna. Upper Saddle River. 1.
. Forms of urbanization. and Bantel. D. NJ. 2007. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions.
Introduction. humans as components of urban ecosystems. and Weil. N. Miller. Prentice Hall. Urban ecosystem. Types and properties of parent materials. the salient features of urban environments. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. Academic Press. management and green productivity.T. D. urban landscapes characteristics. urban settlements. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. NJ. Physical and chemical properties of soil. Gardiner. 1996. Soil degradation. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. USA.R. E. Upper Saddle River. USA. transport.. 2008.
. 1989. 2.
Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. Land use planning theories. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. UK. Penguin Group. M. 2009. 3. Aims and Objectives of planning. Silberstein. CRC Press LLC. The planning process.. Routledge. 2007. Gilbert.
1. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. USA.and Maser. O. Hague. City Design for Sustainable Development. 2. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. Hough. Springer. Alberti. Planning and its relationship with other professions. 2006.
. Chapman and Hall.
Introduction to Urban Planning and Management.L. Planning theories and concepts. Types of Urban Plans.1990. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. nd 2 Edition. New York. UK. A. UR. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. C. SBS academic publishing. V. UK. 4.S. USA. Ward. Hejny. S. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. S. Routledge. Kate. Justification for planning for city management. H. 2000. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation.and Kowaril.. 5. Planning and Urban Change. J. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. Scope. New trends in planning and city management.
URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT
The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. Elements of urban planning. D. M.. 2004. Smith.Recommended Books:
Urban Ecology. Sukopp. nature and purpose of urban planning..
1. 2004. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. Levels of planning. Principles of planning. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. SAGE Publications Ltd.
London. I. London.
Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. and White G. Chapman & Hall. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Boulder .3. Islamabad.B. Flooding. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs).. 4. Clara. UK.. 2nd Edition. 4. Physical factors.
. 2. 1993. Political factors. Role of Media in Disaster Management. 3. Ministry of Housing and Works. Westview Press. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. Longman Group. 1989. R. It discusses a wide range of aspects. Landslide. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. G. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. Manila. E&UA Div.F. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. New York. Natural cycles and their role. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. ADB. i. New York.UNESCO. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. and Woodrow. H. 1993.
This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. Cultural factors. Earthquake Management. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. D. Natural Disasters Alexander. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson.. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. Disaster Management: Components of management.. 1991.W...W.J. Socio-economic factors. Disaster as an opportunity for development. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors.
Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. Introducing Town Planning.. 1986. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. Paris. P. M. International phenomenon. Hazards. Flood Management: Organizational Role.
Government of Pakistan.. 1993. Earthquake. Different approaches and Indicators. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. Prediction. Kates. The Guilford Press.
Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. consumers. F. Westport. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. McKinney. Disasters and Development Cuny. R. L. Botkin. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. M. solar. 4th Edition.H. OECD/IEA. hydropower. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions.W. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. Perry R.5.A. Sustainable livestock management. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. USA. A.
Energy-development and environment. and Mushkatel.L. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. primary producers.
1. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. local. 2007.B and Keller. types. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. New York.. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources.
. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources.
The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. Schoch. Quorum Books. Paris. Ecological concept in crop and food production. uses. energy resources of Pakistan.M. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation.. D. 3. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. 1984. 2001. energy resources. 2007. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. 1983.
Introduction to agro-ecosystem. Biotic structure. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. biomass resources. E. John Wiley and Sons. decomposers. alternate energy resources. 6th Edition. merits and demerits of wind. 6. and Yonavjak. E-9
Energy and Environment
This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. Consumer and producer relationship.C. Farming practices for pests and weeds control.. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. sustainable energy management. 2. Agroecology.
Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram.H. USA. R. Study of stratification and profile diagram. Experimental Plant Ecology. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. New Delhi. USA. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture.M. and Sudha. McGraw Hill Publishing Company.Determination of density and abundance of plant species.R. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. 2000. 2.
1. P.A. 1990.G. Agrocology. Corol. M. Boulder. C. Study of index of diversity. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. CBS Publishers and Distributors. and Rossel. Altreri.P. 3. Yandermeer J. New York. Westview Press. Kapur.
. India. 1995.
To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. that: 1. 5. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. 4. availability of the faculty and other facilities. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”.
2. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. 3. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after
four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. the Committee agreed on the following principles. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor.
.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME
MS in Environmental Science
Regarding MS Degree Programme.
19. 16. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture.
24. 15. 8. 14. 11. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3
1. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 4. 18. 11. 9. 6. 8. 10.
Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 5. 26. 7.
23. 7. 2.
20. 21. 10.
The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 5.
25. 22. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development
. 17. 4. 13. 6. 12.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
CORE COURSES Course Titles
1. 9. 12. 3.
Draft National Environmental Policy. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. Mackenzie J. Hodder and Stoughton. Karachi.1991. S. Khan K. D. 1991.DETAILS OF M. F. Hansen. Environmental control Policies. WCS. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. Conventions and Protocols in Global. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan.
1. Ball.. 2. Treaties..F. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. Instruments and methods. Geography of Pakistan. status of Terrestrial. S.E. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). 1992.1994.1995. Oxford University Press. 1987. technology and resource use. Relationship of culture. P. GOP and IUCN. London Black Stone Press Ltd. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our
Common Future. Regional and International Environmental Issues. Money. and Bell.S. Provincial and Local Strategies.. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of
the Environment. Islamabad. 4. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan.. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. development of concepts.
1. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall.A.E. 3. Amsterdam.
.1994. 3. Oxford University Press. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. 2. NCS. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. S. 2nd Edition. Elsevier.T.. and Jorqensen. Mackenzie. Conservation Strategies. Environment People and Economy. London.
Environmental Chemical Analysis. Washington. UK. 1995.
1. F & Bronstein. WB.
1. D. Burnt Hill. Principles of physical.A. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. Case Studies and review. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. social impact assessment. procedures and methods of EIA. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. economic impact assessment. History. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. World Bank. Wastewater.COURSE 2
ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES
Introduction. Assessment of environmental impacts. A. COURSE 3
ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. 2. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. 3. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. Chichester. Demographic impact assessment. Longman Scientific and Technical.
. 1995. Environmental auditing. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. Air and Solid Waste. sampling rules. A
one Publishers Lahore. ecological impact assessment. Ahmed. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. ed. sample collection and preservation. Wood. role and importance. Longman House. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. C. 2. Ministry of Environment. Ed. K. opportunities and issues. John Wiley & Sons. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. process. Environment Department.. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). England. DC.
1. Cost benefit analysis of projects. 1993. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). Sectoral guidelines for EIA. Government of Pakistan. Gas Chromatography etc. Harlow Essex.Vanclay.
. Defining Project objectives.
1. specific objectives. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. USA. 1992. 2.. and Guidotti. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). Basic Environmental Health. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. R. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. MS Project
1. Project Management Institute. UK. Planning Commission Performas. T. J.. 2nd Ed. assumptions. 1st ed. 1997. Meredith J. M. Primary health care services. Ergonomic and Safety. means of verification. Writing Project Proposal.COURSE 4
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Introduction: What is a Project. Caeneross.. B.. Kjelllström. A Guide to Project Management.
1993. A. 2002. K. Project Planning and Approval Processes. development objectives. safety techniques.. Environmental Health Engineering. Park. Government Policies and Programs. John Wiley and Sons. 1998. prevention and control. London. 3. T. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. Accident prevention and safety plans. Inc. R. 5. Prentice Hall International Inc.. 1st Ed. Reasons for Project success or failure. Mantel s. indicators. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. Wiley Interscience. USA. T. de Kok. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. economic evaluation. J. Need identification. Oxford University Press New York. New York. Lippmann. L. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. 1st Ed. S. work breakdown structure. Occupational Health: problems and issues. Project Planning. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects).. and Wright. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. activities. 4. outputs. 2001.
. 2. inputs. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. Yassi. Project Initiation. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. T. M/S Banarsid. COURSE 5
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT
Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. Project Life Cycle.. Public health concept.2000. air borne. principles and practices. Resource Mobilization. Nebel. feasibility study.
Environmental auditing. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan.
Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. L. merits and demerits of wind. gas. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. 2. and Yonavjak. non-renewable and renewable. data collection and interpretation. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. Environmental Auditing. 3.COURSE 6
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
Introduction to Environmental Management System. sustainable energy management for agriculture. ISO Central Secretariat. Sources of data. 4th Edition. Switzerland. nuclear) local.
1. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. principles and elements of the process of EMS. types. transport. Botkin. E. Sayre. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).B and Keller. energy resources. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. petroleum. 1998. 2001. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet.L. OECD/IEA.
1. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. St Luise Press. 2007.M. Principles of cleaner production. hydropower. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized
Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. Michigan-January 2001. R. uses. alternate energy resources. industry and domestic sectors.
2. D. solar.. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management.
. USA. Related Environmental regulations. Paris. M. D.A. John Wiley and Sons.
Paris. Schoch. 4. 6th Edition. 2007. bio-energy resources. 1997 COURSE 7
ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT
Energy and its forms. McKinney. 1990b. 3. energy resources of Pakistan.
climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. Effects. 1st Edition. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. ECOPE 29. 2005. Green House Gases. Life history strategies of plants.
. & Charlesworth. Chichester. D.). 2003. B & Jager. and Solutions. 2003. Effects. Modeling of climate change. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. and Solutions.
1. Earthscan Publication Ltd. UK 1991. survival and extinction. Hardy. Blackwell Publishing. plant conservation. types of climate change models. Climate Change . Oxford UK. UK. human activities and vegetation dynamics.. etc. Climate Change and Ecosystems. Species richness. competition and coexistence. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. Blackwell Publishing. Berlin. Beck. Vegetation Ecology Ed. D. E. Plant population dynamics. 2. 2004. plant invasions. 1.T. London. Shulze. 2005. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. resources and plants. 3. 5. ED.Causes. Maarel. water resources. Climate Change . Oxford. 2. COURSE 9
ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY
Environmental conditions. global aspects of plant ecology. geographical and temporal patterns. management and restoration.Causes. John Wiley & Sons. Houghton. Warrick. K.COURSE 8
Introduction. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. The Green House Effect. Plant Ecology.D. J. J. Springer. T. forests.
1. John Wiley & Sons. 4. vegetation dynamics. (Ed. 3. E & Muller-Hohenstein. Silvertown. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. Climate change and food production..
2005. types and their climatic effects. Hardy. John Wiley & Sons. 2005. J.
laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. Status of forests in Pakistan.J. kinds. 2.
1. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. UK. habitats and ecosystems. Forest plantations.D. K. Rangeland management. Oxford
University Press. 4. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. their ecological and economic importance.L. Wetlands.(2nd Ed. USA. Robinson. R. Cambridge. J. 1998. distribution. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. Protected areas in Pakistan. management. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT
Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. 3. Primack. problems and solutions.G. Oxford University Press. biological diversity. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. Protected areas. E. & Spicer. UK. Oxford. Conserving Living Natural Resources. Oxford. I).COURSE 10
Introduction. Essentials of Conservation Biology.
1.B. types. their types and role in conservation. Extinction of species. Protection and restoration of species.) Gaston. 1973 2. T. Sinauer Assocaites. distribution and management. Oxford.J. Principles of Wildlife Management.J. 3.
. 5. B. 1984. 2002. status. S. John Wiley And Sons. Cambridge. Biodiversity: An introduction. threats and conservation. Consumptive. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. T. And Bolen. Publishers Sunderland. Roberts. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. COURSE 11
WILDLIFE. deforestation and its control. Bailey. Loss of biodiversity. 2002. J. Sustainable forest management. Threatened animals and plants. Roberts. II). Forests. Mcmillan. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. 2004.
Inc. distribution. & Ripley. Blackwell Publsihing. its causes. W. 1992. Global and national biodiversity. Cambridge University Press. Wildlife of Pakistan. Wildlife Ecology and Management. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol.J.A. types. Oxford University Press. their importance. London. Establishment and management of protected areas. Weddell. Participatory forest management. S. 1986.
and Maser. urbanization in Pakistan. 2004. C. drinking water and solid waste in cities. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. 1993. 1986. 2007. Silberstein. Sustainable cities. UK.
London... Kate. A. urban political ecology. Forms of urbanization. Longman Group. Penguin Group. Introducing Town Planning. H. USA. Clara. Urban land use planning and management. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. V. G. 2000. Planning and Urban Change. 3. USA. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. UK.
.. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Ministry of Housing and Works. CRC Press LLC. sanitation. urban landscape characteristics. SAGE Publications Ltd. E&UA Div. Ward. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. 2. Government of Pakistan. New York.. J. future of urban centers.
1. management of transport. 4. Islamabad. S. urban systems and their characteristics. Environmental problems of urban life.COURSE 12
ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English
Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher
Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building
1. Oxford University Press. Martinet.
Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure.Annexure . Exercises 1. ISBN 0194313492
COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES
English I (Functional English) Objectives:
Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking.J. 1997. Thomson and A. Third edition. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. Practical English Grammar by A. a) Functional English Grammar 1.V.
Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. b)
Practical English Grammar by A. Writing.
Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. Exercises 2. Third edition. Oxford University Press. 1997. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning.J. Reading. Reading/Comprehension 1.2. Martinet. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Speaking
English II (Communication Skills)
Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. Upper Intermediate.V. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. Third Impression 1992. minutes of meetings. style and pronunciation)
Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review
a) Communication Skills Grammar
. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. and speed reading. intensive and extensive. Thomson and A. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Fourth Impression 1993. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing.
ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Oxford Supplementary Skills. Fourth Impression 1992. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. 2. introduction to presentations. form. Reading 1.
Practical English Grammar by A. Oxford Supplementary Skills.1. ISBN 0 19 435407 3
. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. Exercises 2.V. Third edition. Martinet. Third Impression 1992. 2.
English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills)
Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking
Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Oxford Supplementary Skills. language.J. Thomson and A. discursive. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing
Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building
Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Writing. Writing. Oxford University Press 1986. Writing. Fourth Impression 1993.
Writing 1. Advanced by Ron White. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. content. narrative. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Third Impression 1991. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. Advanced. Reading. descriptive and argumentative writing). clarity.
2. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. Mandell.
College Writing Skills by John Langan. 2004. Martin’s Press. St. without taxing the taste of engineering students). Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. Kathleen Shine Cain. Kirszner and Stephen R.
Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader.
descriptive. Compiled by norther Illinois University. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. argumentative and report writing).(particularly suitable for discursive. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature.
. A Custom Publication.
4. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. Safdar. politics. 1999 onward
3. Karachi: Oxford University Press.Annexure . S. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy.
3. Economic institutions and issues b. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. 1988-99 f. 1994. 2. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis.
2. 1947-58 b. Study the process of governance. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
Contemporary Pakistan a. 1958-71 c. Mehmood.B
Pakistan Studies (Compulsory)
• • Develop vision of historical perspective. contemporary Pakistan. Location and geo-physical features. People and Land i. 2000. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. S. Historical Perspective a. Karachi: Oxford University Press. State & Society in Pakistan. Indus Civilization ii. 1977-88 e. Shahid Javed. 1993.M.
Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a.
1. ideological background of Pakistan. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. 1971-77 d. Lahore. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. national development. b.
1. Ethnicity d. government. Zaidi. Akbar. Muslim advent iii. Society and social structure c. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki.
Pakistan Under Martial Law.The Emergence of Banglades. 1976. Aziz.
14. II & III. Muhammad Waseem. Khalid Bin. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. 7. Afzal. Wayne. Amin. 1972. nd. Ansar.
Wilcox. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. Lawrence.K. Politics in Pakistan.
13. Ziring. History & Culture of Sindh. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Zahid. Mehmood.
. Vol. 8.5.. Rafique.National Movement in Pakistan. Enigma of Political Development. Haq. 12. Lahore: Vanguard. I. 1993. M. 1980. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Noor ul. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia.
6. Tahir. 1967. Party. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1987. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Political Parties in Pakistan. 10. Club Road. Institute of Public Policy Research. Islamabad. 9. Washington: American Enterprise. 1980. The Political System of Pakistan. Ethno . Sayeed. K. 1998. Safdar. Pakistan Kayyun Toota.
56.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina
.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.A.21.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.A.6.40. 2 (2-0)
Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran
Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.Tadabar (Verse No1.A.19.58. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory)
This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.57.Annexure .14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.20) Related to thinking.A.
3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt. in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family
S. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. Pakistan. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. International Islamic University.3)
Ethical Values of Islam
2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)
Hameed ullah Muhammad. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. IRI. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. “Emergence of Islam” . “Studies in Islamic Law. Islamabad (2001)
. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. Bhatia. Ahmad Hasan. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad.
Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. types. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. 1987. functions. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). harmonic progression. 1978. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. PWS-Kent Company. equations reducible to quadratic equations. determinants. Cramer’s rule. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Beckenback EF.
Preliminaries: Real-number system. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. Sharron S. PWS-Kent Company. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. set operations.D
Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. introduction to sets. complex numbers. Wooton W.Annexure . 1986. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. trigonometric identities. matrix inverse. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction.
Dolciani MP. system of linear equations. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. Boston Swokowski EW. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations.
COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS)
MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA)
Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0
Specific Objectives of the Course:
To prepare the students. Boston
. geometric progression. College Algebra and Trigonometry. types of functions. Houghton & Mifflin. cube roots of unity. not majoring in mathematics.
Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. 2005. 2005. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. PWS-Kent Company. Finney AR. solution of equations involving absolute values. not majoring in mathematics. integration by parts. Reading. equation of a line.
MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS)
Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0
Specific Objectives of the Course:
To prepare the students.2. change of variables in indefinite integrals. parallel and perpendicular lines. derivatives. differentiation of polynomial. Boston Thomas GB. Calculus (3rd edition).
MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY)
Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours:
Specific Objectives of the Course:
To prepare the students. New York Stewart J.
Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh.
Preliminaries: Real-number line.
. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition).
Anton H. continuity. rational and transcendental functions. angle between two lines. 1995. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. not majoring in mathematics. Davis S. continuous functions. 1983. inequalities. left-hand and right-hand limits. Bevens I. Calculus (11th edition). integration by substitution. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. John Wiley. Ma. intersection of two lines. distance between a point and a line. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. USA 3. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. distance between two points. slope of a line. functions and their graphs. various forms of equation of a line. Addison-Wesley.
1. College Algebra and Trigonometry. locus of a point in various conditions. Introduction to sets. hyperbola.
Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. the general-second-degree equation
Abraham S. equations reducible to quadratic equations. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. system of linear equations. 1986. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). Conic Sections: Parabola. types of functions. nature of roots of quadratic equations. 2008 and onward
Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives
To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. Analytic Geometry. inverse of matrices. circles determined by various conditions. Scott.
. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). functions. PWS-Kent Company. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. set operations. intersection of lines and circles.Circle: Equation of a circle. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. Freshman and Company. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. Boston 4. determinants. 1987. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Cramer’s rule. ellipse. 1969 Kaufmann JE. Boston Swokowski EW. PWS-Kent Company. types of matrices.
R. array. tally sheet method. R. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. Boston. 3.
MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY
3 Mathematics at Secondary level
Credit Hours: Prerequisites:
Specific Objectives of Course:
To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. W. Latest Edition. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes.geometric and harmonic progressions. ungrouped and grouped data. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry.. bar frequency diagram histogram. relationship of statistics with social science. R. J. moments. Swokowski. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. PWS-Kent Company. E.. cumulative frequency curve. Wilcox.
Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’.
2.. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. Latest Edition.
1. variance. 2. 5.
. frequency polygon. circle and trigonometric functions. Prentice Hall. Measures of dispersion: Range. Graphs: Graph of straight line. trigonometric identities. individual.. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. E. types of frequency series. Walpole. skewness and kurtosis. E. characteristics of statistics. 4. standard deviation. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. Kaufmann. discrete and continuous series. deciles and percentiles. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. quartiles.
Elliott Mendelson. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. Hughes-Hallett. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. theorems of differentiation. the chain rule.
2. Continuous Functions. Second Edition 1992. Boston. Gleason. Least-Squares Line. Calculus. E. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. reduction formulae. et al. Prentice-Hall. sinusoidal function. Inequalities. 3rd Edition. 3. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. Equation of a Line.
2005. • Integration Integration from first principles. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. Anton.Course Outline:
Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. logarithmic integration. Inc. Thomas. Integration by Parts. Davis. special points of a function. 5. 11th Edition. W. John H. McCallum. 4th edition. 6. products. Trigonometric Functions. Extreme Values of Functions.
1. Bevens. substitution method. Inc. Leibnitz’ theorem. 2002. Rational and Transcendental Functions. plane polar coordinates. 1983. Calculus. Rational Functions.
MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS
Preliminary calculus. I. H. 1999. the inverse of differentiation. and Transcendental Functions. applications of integration. Solution of equations involving absolute values.
1. 8th edition. 6. integration by parts. quotients. Mathews.Jr. Slope of a Line. Addison Wesley publishing company. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. 2005. Continuity. implicit differentiation. 4. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. integral inequalities. Jhon Willey & Sons. integration by inspection. Frank A. S. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. logarithmic differentiation. Calculus Single and Multivariable. infinite and improper integrals. Swokowski. Schaum’s Outline Series. integration using partial fractions. Calculus. John Wiley & Sons.
Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers
operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. geometric series. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. series involving natural numbers. inverses of hyperbolic functions. finding the nth roots of unity. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints
.Additions and subtraction. arithmetico-geometric series. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. solving hyperbolic equations. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. modulus and argument. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. multiplication. the difference method. identities of hyperbolic functions. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. approximation errors in Taylor series. complex conjugate.
unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. symmetric and antisymmetric. Hermitian. scalar triple product. vector product.5. masses. Pappus’ theorems. moments of inertia. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors
Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values
. orthogonal. point to plane. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal.
6. line to line. of a unitary matrix. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line.
Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. centers of mass and centroids. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. the inner product.
Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors.
differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. spherical polar coordinates
Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. divergence of a vector field.8. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. combinations of grad. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products.
. Exercises. sampling with and without replacement. Type-I and Type-II errors. Exercises Unit 6. Unit 4. Unit 5. Rounding of a Number. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Exercises. Population. Errors of measurement. The Mode. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Exercises. Editing of Data. Moments and Moments ratios. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Presentation of Data Introduction. Difference of means and proportions. Histogram. Exercises. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Unit 3. The semi-Interquartile Range. bias. Unit 7. Historigram. sample design and sampling frame. Constructing of a frequency distribution. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. probability and non-probability sampling. Data.E
INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS
Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. properties of Good Average. The Mean Deviation. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Coefficient of variation. Quantiles. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Empirical Relation between Mean. Significant digits. Types of frequency curves. Range. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Stem and Leaf Display. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Unit 2. Median and mode. sampling and non sampling errors. Bar charts. Change of origin and scale. Sources. Exercises. level of significance. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Probability and Probability Distributions. definition of outliers and their detection. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Diagrams. Box and Whisker Plot. The Variance and standard deviation. Pie chart. acceptance and rejection regions. Different types of Averages. Absolute and relative measures. Standardized variables. Collection of primary and secondary data. Test statistics. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Statistical problem. Graphs and their Construction. Observations. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Discrete and continuous variables. null and alternative hypothesis. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Exercises. Ogive for Discrete Variable.
Exercises Unit 10.. F. r and R2. simple linear regression. E. Examples
1 Walpole.Single Population Introduction. Regression and Correlation Introduction. Kitab Markaz. Correlation.. Macmillan Publishing Co. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table.Unit 8. cause and effect relationships. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. 2 Muhammad. Exercises. “Introduction to Statistics”. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. Coefficient of linear correlation.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction.
. Contingency Tables. New York. Inc. 3rd Ed. Exercises Unit 9. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. its estimation and interpretation. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. Unit 11. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. 2005. R. Testing of Hypothesis. 1982. examples.