CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

2

CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
58

3

D773/76-JEA (cur. therefore. R&D organizations. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. PROF. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. the Federal Government vide notification No. and 36. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. It is. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. Lahore. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30.ALTAF ALI G. 63. It also aimed to give a basic. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. universities and other institutions of higher education. 2007 at HEC Regional Center.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments.). degree awarding institutions. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. DR. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. The world has turned into a global village.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. dated December 4th 1976. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation.

Preparation 5 . QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. REC. R&D. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. COL.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. EXP. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. OF CURRI. PREP. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. UNI. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. OF FINAL CURRI. OF NCRC.

Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Karachi from 28-30. Member 6 . Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Following attended the meeting:1. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Member 5. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Rawalpindi Dr. Dr. Member 4. Lahore Member 6. 7. Member 3. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Dr. Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University.

Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Dr. Member 14. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore.8. Member 10. Prof. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Dr. 13. Member 11. Dr. Dr. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Member 15. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. 7 . Dr. Member 16. Prof. Karachi Member 12. Dr.

17. Member 19. The meeting was opened by Mr. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. Dr. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Member 20. Secretary Dr. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. Chairman. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. At first. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. Mr. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. 1. Mr. Faisalabad Member 18. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. 8 . Karachi. Director of HEC Regional Center. Dr. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. 2. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission.

Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. The committee thanked Mr. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses.3. 4. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. 1. 2. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. 3. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. In last few centuries. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. 5. 6. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development.

Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. 5. This committee. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. Apply theoretical understanding. skills and behaviour patterns. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. in its preliminary meeting. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. regional and global contexts. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. ii. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life.

the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. The 11 . 4. with consensus. Integrating natural sciences. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. that: 1. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2..e. The medium of instruction. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. 6. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. 1. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. Sc. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. 5. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. A. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. 2. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. eight semesters in the semester system. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. 3. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English.

Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Biology –II* 9. Environmental Physics 16. Basic Chemistry* 4. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Environmental Pollution 22. Environmental Chemistry 15. Introduction to Earth Science 8. Climatology* 23. English-III 18. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Psychology* . The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. English-I 6. Biology –I* 3. Environmental Microbiology 21. Introductory Economics* 17. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. English-II 12. Introduction to Computer 14.

Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. Applied Ecology 26. Environmental toxicology 27. Environmental Monitoring 36. Opt. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. Natural Resource Management 40. ELECTIVE-III 42. Environmental Economics 29. Environmental Management Systems 34. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. Climate Change 38. 45. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. 44.24. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . Environmental Biotechnology 32. 46. English-IV/ Univ.

• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical. • Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .

DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. R. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. philosophical. socio-economic. Human environment and its problems: global.. 2007. regional. 4th Ed. history. 4. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. lipids. 2007 3. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. M. R. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. & Nebel. ecological. its importance in human life.J. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . L. urbanization. poverty and resource depletion. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. biological and social. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Botkin. E.T. 6th Ed. McKinney. Recommended Books: 1. John Wiley & Sons. Wright. national. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts.. Different aspects of environment: physical. and their relationships with various environmental factors. 15 . D. 2002. B. current global.L. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. Pearson Educational. development in industry and agriculture.B & Keller. 10th Ed.A. environmental pollution. G.M.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. proteins and nucleic acids. 2007. Schoch. & Yonavjak. Miller. ethical. 2. Thomson Learning.

carboxylic acids. Ltd. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. esters. R. Plopper.. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding.Hill International Edition. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. B. USA. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. carbonyls. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. 3. lipids. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. 2003. New York. 2007. E.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. Introduction to cell biology. Molecular Biology through Questions. Aromatic compounds. USA. V. M. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations.. 1996. chemical diversity. 4. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. Wadsworth Group. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. N. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. protobionts. USA. Ionic. L. Lewis. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. origin of metabolism. proteins. phospholipids in membrane systems. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. lipids. Bulter. Biology: a Human Emphasis. 16 . A. 2008. Cells. Cassimeris. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. amines). R. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. Australia . and Whitelaw. 5th Edetion. Cell division. Lingappa.. covalent. J. 8th Ed.. 1. Shier. chemical basis of life. the molecule of genetic information and replication. Canada. 2. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. McGraw. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. and Lewis. 5. carbohydrates. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. Starr. C. Nucleic acids. Origin of life: chemical evolution. polypeptides in protein diversity.. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. G. 2007. Self Assessment and Revie. D. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. coordinate covalent bond. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. Crossley. Structure and the basis of function. overview of structure and function of cell organelles.

E. 6th Edition. Brimblecombe. 2004. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations).Special Products (Binomial Expression).. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. Cambridge University Press. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. D. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. Andrews.K. 2nd Edition. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. Liss. J. molal. normal solutions/buffers. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers.. Jones and Barlett. Principles of Environmental Chemistry..J. and Holler.. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). Harris. Surface chemistry. 1st Ed.M. F.C. expansion of determinants. Thin layer chromatography. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. Column chromatography. Blackwell Science. real line. equations of lines (linear equations).E. J. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. T. determinants. 8th Edition. EC and TDS in waste water. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. Canada. West. 2nd Edition. 17 . Osmosis and Dialysis. 2004. Colloids chemistry. Algebra of matrices. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. Jickells.J.H.S.. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. UK. 2004. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Binomial theorem (Simple applications)..D. 3. M. Lab Work Preparation of molar. angle-sum formula. 4.. 2005. P. 2. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. Solution chemistry. radicals. 2003. P. W. law of Cosines. 5. minor and cofactor of a matrix.. Recommended Books: 1.. D. Measurement of pH. graphs. and Reid. simultaneous equations and their solutions. Freeman and Company. straight line and related concepts. USA.A. D. B. double angle formulas. Skoog. values of trigonometric functions. Girard. Hill. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. geometric and harmonic sequence. Photochemical reactions. Thomson and Brooks. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis.ions. series and means. Understanding Environmental Pollution. UK. USA.

earthquakes and volcanoes. irreducible quadratic factors. Recommended Books: 1. and Finney. mountain building. Analytical Geometry. 4. faults. Introduction to sedimentary.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. age. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. Pacific Grove. Fossils and their significance. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. Geological time scale and life through geological ages.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. 18 . Chatterjee. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. Narosa Publishing House. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. S.. theorems on differentiation (sum. R.Wesley. erosion and related landforms. Chain rule. joints. Trignometry for College students. Addission.Cramer’s Rule. K. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. Jr. Smith. California. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Earth as a member of solar system. 2. Weathering. igneous and metamorphic rocks. lineation and unconformities. nonrepeated linear factors. cleavages. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . Abraham. 10th Ed. Introduction to folds. composition and its internal structure.. 3. product and quotient rules without derivations). D. L. its origin.B. 4th Ed. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. the processes of their formation. New Delhi. by parts integration (simple applications). G. Integration: Formulas of integration. J. plate tectonics. foliation. difference. 1999. earthquakes. Introduction to rocks and minerals. Scott Foresman and Company. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. different earth processes like mountain buildings. Thomas. theorem of integration. weathering and erosion.

Wicander. Darwinism. F. J. How Does Earth Work. 2005. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. multicellularity.. Physical Geology and Process of Science.. Prentice Hall. Foundations of Structural Biology. Routledge. 2007 3. D.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. 2007 2.. Prentice Hall. Park. animals). 5. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. consequences of losing biodiversity. invasion of life on land. Biodiversity of canal. F.. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants.. Lutgens. crucial for organisms’ sustainability.. 11th Edition. D. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. different classification systems. examples of adjustments in varied environment. protocell formation. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. Geological time chart with biodiversity. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. 3rd Edition. 19 . COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life.. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. Biodiversity of deserts. and Tasa. Field Study tour. A. J. 2004. and Monroe. Smith. Biodiversity of hilly areas. 4.. R. Tarbuck.. causes of extinction. E. E. 9th Edition. population loss and decline. measuring biodiversity. interactions among diversified life. R. G. Brooks/Cole. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. J. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. Lutgens. and Pun. K.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. molecular basis of biodiversity. Tarbuck. Life in sea. Lamarckism. Prentice Hall: 2006. unicellularity. modern concepts. Earth Science. G. Use of brunton compass and GPS. and Tasa. K. Recommended Books: 1.Identification of rocks and minerals. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. 5th Edition. biodiversity crises.

. 2009. Wadsworth Group. Starr. (editor). Contemporary environmental status. Scope and application. 2003. Crumley. a Human Emphasis. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . USA. 3. Biodiversity (An Introduction). Gaston. Prospect Heights.K. Tripartite nature of environment. 2. and Sustainable Living. 2006. IL:WavelandPress. John Wiley and Sons. Environmental Risks and the Media. C. Consumption. Inc. globalization and environmental issues. C. power & hegemony. I.. Culture. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. 3. 2000. Recommended Books: 1. The Biosphere. Routledge. and concerns. CA: AltaMira Press. Nora and Wilk. (editors). Use of environment for vested interest. 5th Edition.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. L. Allan & Carter. I. Understanding the environment-human relationship. The Ecology of global consumer culture. Inc.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. 2005. UK. UK. Chronological. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. Hannen. 20 . Perspective of human-environment evolution. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. Adam. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. 2nd Edition. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. 2. Walnut Creek. Blackwell Science Ltd. Contemporary environment issues and debate. Conceptualizing environment. P. 2001. K. J. and Spicer. Biology. 4. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. K. Townsend. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. Goals and expectations. culture and society. Bradbury. R. J. UK. 2009. New York: New York University Press.

Hardware: Input Hardware.. 2003. Rutledge. Long l. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. output hardware. internet. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. Introduction to MS-Word. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. as are their effects on the biosphere. Marquis A. Ed.5. Fundamentals of computer. system software. Courter. Milton. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . Storage hardware. Ms-Access. Operating system (Windows). processing hardware.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. 6. software packages. e-mail.London 1996.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components.6th Ed. Course Outlines Definition. Configurations. G.1999. computer programs and basic applications. K. Selin.H. 21 .Microsoft office 2000. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Ms-Excel. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . Local Area Network. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. Ms-Power Point. Types and classification of computers. Recommended Books: 1. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion.. Software: Application software. 2. Long N.

2004. Fregoso-Infante. photosynthesis. Environmental Chemistry. P. Global climate and climatic change. Germany. DoriaSerrano..T. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. Samir. Environmental impact of various industries.G. 2nd Edition. Brimblecombe. their sources and toxic actions. M. Fate of pollutants in environment. Environmental Chemistry. 1st Edition. Heat radiation and heat transfer. Conversion of mass. 3. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. and Singh. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. A. Canada. Ozone chemistry. Particle physics. Miller. M. 2..D. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. Liss. atmospheric and soil chemistry. Turbulence. Entropy.. Hernandez-Esparza. trophic level. C. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics..E. Jones and Barlett. Equations of fluid dynamics. Solar spectrum. Blackwell Science. G. Diffusion. P.. Turbulent jets and plumes.. Turbulent diffusion.E. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. Fundamentals of aquatic. Gaussian plumes in the air. UK.M. Active control of sound.J.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. Solids. 5. interaction of light with matter. its causes and adverse effects on environment.. Measurement and comparison of the 22 .. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry.. Ozone and UV light. B. Energy. J. India. Girard. Springer. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Nuclear energy. 2005. 1999. Basic acoustics. Human perceptions and noise criteria. Ibanez.. Andrews. Transport of pollutants.. Jickells. J. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. 4. T. and Reid. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. Liquids and Gasses. USA. 2004. Sound and Noise. Electromagnetic radiation. Thomson-Brooks. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Energy conversion. Reducing the transmission of sound. K. Environmental Science. 2008.S. Chemical reactions. J. Isotopes and radioactive decay. Recommended Books: 1.

2001. USA. Physics of the Environment and Climate. USA. 2001. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. concepts and measurement. 2008. John Wiley and Sons Inc.1998. poverty. Field visit. 2006. S. Producer behavior. Environmental economics. Yusuf. Natural resources and the economy. John Wiley and Sons Inc. producer and community point of view. Economic Development. E. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. economic progress. Pakistan economic context: National income. interaction between ecology and economic management. Man environmental relationship. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. World Bank Publications. 23 . P. Environmental Physics. 2. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. USA. New York. Guyot. 4. C. and Resource allocation. G. Measures for sustainable development. population and environmental quality. economic welfare and difference among all. Impact of economic activity on environment. Routledge. Economic management and environmental quality. H.Economic development. 7th Ed. Wesely Publishers. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. J. economic growth. Growth and development. Smith. R. Sustainable development. Growth and Environment. 2008. Seinfeld. UK. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. Boeker. and Van Grondelle. 2. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. Recommended Books: 1. M. Introductory Environmental Physics.. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. N. Recommended Books: 1. economic growth and its measurement. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. Todaro. and Pandis. Economic functions of environment. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. Praxis publishing. S. USA. 3. Kentucky USA.

branches of ecology. Callicott. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. ethics and ecology. 4. and White. Hanley. Recommended Books: 1.. M. World Bank Publications. Ecology.A. its fundamental concepts. Introduction to ethical theory. 2009. London. 2. concepts and approaches. C. B. levels of ecological organization. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. B. community and ecosystem. 4. Swift. and systems ecology. 24 . USA. Ecosystem and its types. LLC. 2008. biogeography. water. WCIV7AA.V.. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. USA. A History of Western Philosophy. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. Palgrave Macmillan. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . England. R. Course Outlines Introduction.3. role of light.. the ethics of soil. species. temperature.. B. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. soil. International Thomson Publishing. Farmington Hills. Natural philosophy. Environmental philosophy and ethics. description of population. community. Kessinger Publishing. Frodeman. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. N.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. J. DeVeer. population. 3. J. 2002. & Pierce. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. Shogren. 2007. D. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. Touchstone Books. Russell. Economics. 2008. Portland 1967. Environmental Critics of agriculture.

5th Ed. 2. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). Concepts of Limiting factors. 1st Ed. J. and S. Ecosystem: structure and function. Systems ecology. New Delhi.L and Reiss. Ecology (principles and applications). COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. habitat and niche. M J. Population distribution and abundance. 6th Ed. community dynamics. P. landscape ecology. 1992. Odum. landscape changes and their importance. Lab Work 25 . E P. 2000. bacteria and eukarya. N. plant geography and animal distribution. Cambridge University Press. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. population dynamics. Chapman. New York. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. UK. ecological modeling.) Moles. Microbial metabolism. 2001 5. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. G. various concepts of community. C. After completion of this course. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. Fundamentals of Ecology. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. Populations. Biogeochemical cycles of C. Recommended Books 1. C. M C J 1st ed. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. 3.W. M. Fundamentals of Ecology. and More. productivity of different ecosystems. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. Tata McGraw-Hill. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. biotic factors. J. King’s College London. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. Biomes of the world. Thomson Brooks/Cole. 2004.topography and air as ecological factors. Dash. B. characteristics of urban. and Barett. Ecology (concepts and applications. WCB/McGraw-Hill. UK. 1999 4.Cox. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. aquatic microbiology. distribution limits. students will be able to understand the significance.

Recommended Books 1. L. J. 2. USA.D.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection. Knudsen.. 2007. and Gerba. London..F. Cambridge UK. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. Academic Press. P.R.C. Mean plate count.and Brendecke. Microbiology.. peppor. Pollution Control Strategies. Harley. I. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. C. 2005. and Klein. Environmental Pollution and Control. 3. Hartel. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents.V.P. USA. J.W. J.. M.B.K. and Zuberer.1998.. 5. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. McGraw Hill Inc. C. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. and Jeffery.P. Maier. Environmental Microbiology.J. isolation. Marine & Industrial pollution. (Elsevier) USA. Pepper. Crawford.M. Hurrst. Soil.Gerba. USA. 2 Edition. McInernery.I.. transportation & treatments. W. 4. D.. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. 3.L.A. Cambridge University Press. Academic Press. 2009. Dilution plate technique.J.A. 4th Edition. P. 2005. 2nd Edition. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Fuhrmann.. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally.. 2002. Water.J. Academic Press. and Stetzenbach. Solid Waste generation.M.P. USA. R. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic.. 2. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. American Society for Microbiology. Human & other living organisms.. Hill. Recommended Books: 1. Prentice Hall. Butterworth-Heinemann. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. Effects of Pollutants. Weiner. Noise. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. 2005. M. Sylvia. UK. USA. A. G. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. Collection. Peiece. 26 .J. 1995. L..L.J.M.L.and Vesilaind..A. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. R. Prescott. F. Case Studies. Washington DC. D.G. New Jersey. purification and preservation. D. its sources and their effects.

The Atmosphere. Lawrance K. The climate of Pakistan. local winds. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. K. global circulation. Methods of psychology. Factors affecting air Pressure.2nd Editions. Marcel Dekkar. 6th Edition. 2006 5.. Spyros.W. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. 2002. 3. . John H. Environmental psychology. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. Tarbuck. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). Houghton J. Recommended Books: 1. Solar radiations. Weather and Climate. climatic zones of Pakistan.. Cambridge University Press. 4. 2003. Mechanism of heat transfer. American Public Health Association (APHA)..4. Austin Miller. Royal book company. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. A. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. air pressure. Radiation and climate. Karachi. The Hydrologic cycle. 2.M. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. John Wiley and Sons. Four Spheres of the Earth..J. Surface winds.F. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. 27 .From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. The Physics of Atmospheres. 1988. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. Lutgens. condensation and cloud Formation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics .K. Cloud Classification. 1992.E. 5. Shamshad. Pandis. Sadder. Climatology. N.

Routledge. 2. London. Ecological restoration. sustainable agriculture. T. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. soil resources of Pakistan. soil erosion and conservation. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. limitation of irrigated agriculture. CRC Press. Environmental perception and cognition. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. energy and carbon balance.W. Recommended Books: 1. Routledge. Environmental Psychology. P. Sustainable livestock management practices. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship.characteristics and research methods. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. techniques and methods of restoration. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. 1992. species response to pollutants. rivers. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. London. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. soil salinity and water logging. solar radiation and primary production. Greene. Pollution control through Ecology. CRC Press. Background and scope. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher.. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. and Baum A.A.D. Water and distribution of species. carbon dioxide and global climate change. 2001. M. Soil as a natural resource. 5th Edition. Fundamental of Psychology. Future water scenario of Pakistan. their management and ecological restoration. Course Outline Introduction. Restoration of derelict lands. Sustainable agricultural practices. Bell. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture.. Ecology of food production. Eysenck. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. Water as an ecological resource. concepts. High population density and psychological impacts. threats and mitigation. 28 . COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. Fisher J.C. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher.

Determination of chemicals in biological samples. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. 1989.. 1996. toxins vs toxicants. and Hobbs.I.. Soil Science. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. toxicology of chemicals. 2004. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways.. J. Rashid. Zedler. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. Blackwell Scientific Publications.S. J. in vivo & in vitro assays.A. 29 . Synergism. B. A. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. Mumtaz. 4.Recommended Books: 1. water and soil. soil and air samples. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. from natural and anthropogenic sources. Immunological considerations in toxicology. and Memon. 5th Edition. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system.W. 2000 2. 5. dose response relationship in living organisms. Peshawar. Newman. USA. Organs. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. K and Habib. 2nd ed. Falk. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. their containment and control strategies. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. Studies in Pakistan Geography. and Barett.National Book Foundation. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. Pakistan’s Environment. Israr-ud-Din. terminologies: Poisons. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. biological effects. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. D. toxins & toxicants. Margaret A. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. Islamabad. Fundamentals of Ecology.P. Island Press.. Shirkat Gah. Potentiation and Addition. Oxford. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. University of Peshawar. P. A. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. toxicity screening using microbial systems. Odum E. K. 2006. 3.1998. Chemical interactions and their types. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. E. R. Lahore. G. on human and other living organisms.

State of the Environment-Pakistan . Recommended Books 1. 3. M. W. land. (ed. Government of Pakistan. 1993.Science of Poisons . the economy and the environment. Ecological: ecological zones.D. clean development mechanism. T and Turner.Recommended Books 1. urbanization and pollution. culture. Ballantyne. Economic: agriculture. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. Hughes. 5th Edition. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. P. 2005 2.2005 2. water resources. education. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. Vol.). CRC Press Llc. USA. measuring environmental benefits. topographic zones. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. 1996. economic development and the environment. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York.1 & 2. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. McGrawhill.M. industry. 1st Edition. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. Recommended Books: 30 . Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. Klassen. international trade and the environment. 1st Edition. economic aspects of different environmental problems.. 1992. health. USA. Course Outlines Introduction. USA. people. geography. Macmillan Press Ltd. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. W. pollution control-a general model. B. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. major ecosystems. General and Applied Toxicology. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. Course Outlines Introduction to history. 3. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. Williams.

Gravimetery. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. I. Gravimetery. precision and accuracy. 8th Edition. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association).D.I. 4. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. 3. Sparrow and D. 2005. 1999.L. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. Analytical techniques for soil. Conductivitymetry. D. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin.C. Australia. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. New York. Sample collection.A. NO3–N & NH4-N). All Solids. D. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Lab Work S. L.. Oxford. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. Oxford University Press. C. water and plant analysis. Harris.R. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. 1993.J. 3. Titrimetery. West.UK.I. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. handling. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Data interpretation for quality control. Freeman & Co.. Kolstad. salinity & sodicity). Use of Potentiometery. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. Peverill. J.. USA. and Batemen. D. A. Skoog. M. 6th Edition.2002. COD. Field. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. units. Sample preservation methods.K. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. and derived S. 2003. 2000.K. Turner. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. 31 . Thomson and Brooks. Holler. and F. D. Recommended Books: 1..2004. CSIRO Publ. BOD. C. Johns Hopkins University Press. Standard solutions and standard curves.. Collingwood. Titrimetery. soil (NPK and organic matter contents.. B. 2. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. 2.W.1. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. preparation and storage. Reuter. K. M. Environmental Economics. Conductivitymetry. Pearce. Fluoride.and Field.

COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. D. A. After completion of this course. 3. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. and Russel. Oxford University Press.E. Bioreactors.. Tools in environmental biotechnology. 2007. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems.D. Government of Pakistan. W. Biosensor.. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. 2001. 2. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. and application of biotechnology in the environment. Derbre. USA. USA. (ed. purification and preservation of DNA. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . National Biosafety Guidelines. New York. Scragg. 2nd Ed. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. Chichoster. Cambridge University Press. 2005. J. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. students will be able to understand the significance.1999. Biomarkers. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. J. Isolation.W. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. New York. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. USA. Environmental Biotechnology.P.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. England. Hans- Joachim. Germany. Wiley-VCH Verlag. 2009. Smith. 4. 2005. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. Introduction to microbial kinetics. Biotechnology. J. Sambrook. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. PCR. Recommended Books 1. Recombinant DNA technology. and Josef. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. Course Outlines Introduction. National Biotechnology Commission.). 5th Ed.

Introduction to Photogrammetry. Types of data used in GIS. Using and reading GPS in field. Forestry. Introduction to GIS. advantages and limitations of process. Image Processing. 2009. A. Energy Sources. Pearsons Education.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. history and platforms. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. Mc Graw Hill Education. eradication of the duplicated data. Preparation of thematic maps. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). 1999. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . Fishery and wildlife. Aerial photography. 5. Interpretation. V. Inc. Rancez. Dessinov. Guilfoud press New York. Agriculture. 2000. Active and Passive remote sensing. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Inc. K and L. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. 2. Harvey. 2008. Cartography. map projection and coordinate systems. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. Data acquisition. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Different types of maps. History and data collection. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. John Wiley and Sons. Jensen. R. Inc. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. F. 3. Satellite Imageries. 2000. 4. integration of information from many sources. Z. John Wiley and Sons. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Lulla. analysis and output. Data entry and output. Campbell.

Systems and Support Techniques. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. 1998.). Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. types of biodiversity. Environmental Economy. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. Conservation of biodiversity. M. 2001. Related Environmental legislation. B. Certification of EMS. threats to biodiversity. 2006. Sheldon. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). threats to biodiversity and its conservation. American Society for Quality. ecological.. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. WWF Pakistan. eco-design. Michigan. principles of Cleaner production.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. Environmental Management Systems Principles. Course Outlines Introduction. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label.C. 4.. A. cleaner technologies. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production.2nd Ed. American Society for Quality. social and ethical values of biodiversity. philosophical. M. 3. 2. F. alpha and beta diversity. economic.3rd Edition . Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. 2005. hot spots of biodiversity. need and approach. etc. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. International Organization for Standardization. and Yoxon. Khan. Methods of environmental protection. 34 .. standards and guidelines. Environment and sustainable development. and Qasim. Environmental aspects and impacts. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. plant. Environmental Management tools.

P.R. Sinauer. international agreements.B. laboratory custody.D. and Morre. quality control sampling. water.e. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. Considerations. chemical addition. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. Course Outlines Introduction. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. 35 . their categories. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. Cox. croplands. Quality assurance and quality control. Recommended Books: 1. Publ. sampling and design purposes. 2000.B. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. Z. protected areas. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. in-situ and ex-situ conservation.. forests. Conservation of wildlife. air. habitats. NOC for plant operation. 3. conservation in man-made ecosystems. P. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. Legal protection of species. Saad Printers. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. 2ndEd. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. EIA requirement. population. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. cities. C. ecotourism. London. A Primer for Conservation Biology. presampling requirements/information. Mirza. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. Biogeography. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. 2. plants. design and types of samples. 1998. community and ecosystem level... soil and living organisms. conservation and livelihood.B. field custody. 2000. conservation strategies. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment.conservation at species. management. refrigeration and freezing methods. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. Kings College. Rawalpindi. Sunderland. Associates Inc. Lahore). the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. national and international laws and regulations. quality assessment. Preservation methods including pH control.

Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. N. 2nd Edition. H. Murai. Korte.USA. Regional droughts and 36 . Recent Climate Change Indicators. New York. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. Keith. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. altered community structure. Ozone depletion. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course.1999. Forstner U.. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. S. extinctions. Earth Observation of Global Change. I. agriculture.. F. 6. biological. chemical. L. Technomic Publishing Company Inc.1996. its causes and effects. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. (ed) Springer. USA. Environmental Chemistry. UK. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. 3. 2002. Manahan. 2008. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. 8. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. Lewis Publisher London. 2. 7. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. Remote Sensing Note. E. D. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. R. regional. McKlivie. 2000. 2002. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. Human responses to potential climate change. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. Moisture in the Atmosphere. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. . human health.) McGraw-Hill. D. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. Energy and Temperature. The Measurement of Climate Change. Tokyo. Chuviero. Burden. Chapman and Hall. S. Peakall. USA. 1992. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. USA. phenological changes. 2008. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts.Recommended Books: 1. Physical. Precipitation. and Guethner. (eds. 5. E.

screening. Houghton. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. 1st Edition. J. 6. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. 2. EIA project management. mitigation and impact management. 2005. 1986. 4. reporting. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. 2003. scoping. 4. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. Earthscan Publication Ltd. public involvement. Petts. Global Change and the earth system. overview.(ed). Recommended Books: 1. 2005. liquid.).Causes. social impact assessment (SIA). Types & Resources to produce Energy. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). 1994. Harrop. London. Climate Change . J. T. J. and Solutions. 2005. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University.O. National Environmental Quality Standards for air.. Sringer. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. D. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems.T.. A. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis.A. 1999. Keith. (ed. 2004. 5. Glasson. London. decision-making to implement the project... Ministry of Housing and Works. Recommended Books: 1. National Book Foundation. project implementation and follow up. and noise. Effects. Cost and benefits of EIA. review of EIA quality. 2003. Routledge. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. Hardy. law. A. solids.Causes.. 2000. John Wiley & Sons. 3. & Nixon. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. Islamabad. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Climate Change . 37 .. Therivel. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. impact analysis. 3. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach..cataclysmic climate change. Global Warming and Climate Change. R. and Chadwick. J. Blackwell. John Wiley & Sons. Oxford. Effects. 2. J. and Solutions. Islamabad. Hardy. Main stages in EIA process.

1993.5. Rangeland Management: existing status. their current status and threats.). Sadler. management options. USA. process and contents of the management plan. agriculture products and their share in GDP. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. existing management approaches. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. Everitt. wind power and nuclear power. 6. M. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. their pros and cons. & McCabe. problem in agriculture. causes and methods for its improvement. and Tu. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. 2nd Edition. J. Asian Development Bank. Evans. Recommended Books: 1. Lohani. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. methodologies. wildlife census. John Willey & Sons. Conservation in Progress. solar power. 38 .. R. United Nations Environment Programme.B and Warren. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. requirement. 1997.. importance.. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. Ludwig. 2002. limitation in the future. Carpenter. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. national example.. threat and its causes. agriculture chemicals. management options.. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. F. B. S. forest types and its existing management. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. A. national and provincial legislation. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. best available option for future. (ed. effective management. national agriculture policy. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level... Goldsmith. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. Types. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. R. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. Development of Management Plan: needs. B. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. H. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. New York. threats.

Material Methods. Interviews. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. W. 5.2.L. Experimental Research. Review of Literature. London.Amsterdam. 4. V. Research Design & Research Methods. Environmental Conservation. Elsevier. Methodology. Scientific Methods. Creswell. P. 1992. to introduce students to research design. Bibliography. Hansen. & Plano Clark. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Surveys. Islamabad. 3. New York. concepts and terminologies. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. 1984. Objectives. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. Literature Search: Database. 39 . USA. R. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. Thousand Oaks.E. Sage CA.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. Dasmann. Sampling: the logic of sampling. Selecting the Research Method. Inference based on findings.F. Case Studies.E. research methods. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison).A pre-requisite for Research. John Wiley & Sons. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. Questionnaire. Research Proposal: its importance . Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. S. population and sampling frames. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). How to put things together? Introduction.. 1990. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. 2007. Scientific Research: Science. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. GOP and IUCN. Search Engines. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. and Jorqensen. types of sampling design/. J. Review of Literature.

Wadsworth Publishing Company. Qadar. 2nd Edition. 3rd Edition. of Chicago Press. Babbie. Marilyn F.2. 4. 5.Batty. 1997. Survey Research Methods. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. USA. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Law Books House. S. 3. 2000. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. G. Booth. Diamon. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . Recommended Books: 1. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. John and sons Ltd. USA. and Arhonditsis.. E. Univ. regulations made there under. 1989.. Sage Publishers. 2008. 6. National Environmental Policy 4.Harrad. Belmont California. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. 2003. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development.USA. Students project in Environmental Science. Chichester. 2003. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. Robert Yin. 2001. Government of Pakistan 3.h.S. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. 2. M. 1997. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. R. National Conservation Strategy 5. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. England.. Moriarty..

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

U. Oxford University Press Karachi. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. hydrological cycle. groundwater exploitation. Lahore. (eds. pollution aspects.. 3. tubewells. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. A. Indus Water Accord 1991. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. water quality and quantity aspects. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. Ahmed. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. Revised & enlarged edition.. Islamabad.K. Bengali. 2006. 2005. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. Mirajuddin Publication . Cheema. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. 44 . Islamabad. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. virtual water.1993. Mirajuddin Publication . integrated water resources management (IWRM). P.). N. flood and drought management. 5. Recommended Books: 1. Pakistan. A. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. R. 2006. (ed. fisheries management. Biswas.. wetlands resources management. SDPI Oxford University Press. O. A. K. water supply and demand management measures. 1993. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. Asia Printer. watershed/catchment. 6. recycling and re-use of wastewater.. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. Oxford University Press New Delhi. N. 2003.. 2. and Qamar. Ahmed. with drinking water facilities like springs. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. Khan. flood and droughts. C. and Malik. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. Pakistan . R. I. J.).. and Tortajada. 4.Lahore. Briscoe.. The Politics of Managing Water.Varis. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency.

Process and outcome. and Weil. Bashir. 2007. Cation and anion exchange. soils. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. urban political ecology. the salient features of urban environments. Hillel. USA. USA. Gardiner. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. urban flora and fauna. Course Outlines Introduction. transport. R. urban landscapes characteristics. D.R. R. Soil forming minerals. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. 2008. Definition. NJ.. Urbanization. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. Upper Saddle River.W. CA. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. Physical and chemical properties of soil. N.. NJ. 11th Edition. E. Forms of urbanization. and Bantel. 1. urban settlements. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. Prentice Hall. Urban ecosystem. Upper Saddle River. R. Pakistan. D. urbanization in Pakistan. humans as components of urban ecosystems. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. Factors and processes of soil formation. Soil degradation. future of urban centers. 2007. Academic Press. Types and properties of parent materials. hydrological processes. management and green productivity. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. Soil Science. Brady. Causes of urbanization.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment.T. After completion of this course. National Book Foundation. Course Outlines Introduction. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. Soils in Our Environment. Miller. 1996. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life.C. USA. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. San Diego. 45 . Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. PrenticeHall. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. Islamabad.

L. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. A. Routledge. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. Planning and its relationship with other professions. Recommended Books: 1. 1. D. UK. Springer. Hague.. V. nd 2 Edition. 1989. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. New York. USA. CRC Press LLC. 2.S. Scope. S. Land use planning theories. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. Silberstein.and Kowaril. Alberti. Gilbert. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. 46 . New trends in planning and city management. 5. 2004. 3. SAGE Publications Ltd. Sukopp.. J. Hejny. Aims and Objectives of planning. Principles of planning. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. 2. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. Planning and Urban Change. S.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. UR. USA. Justification for planning for city management. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Ward. UK. Planning theories and concepts. 2000. The planning process. M. Chapman and Hall.and Maser. 2006. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. 2004. London. O. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. Levels of planning. Elements of urban planning. Penguin Group. H.. nature and purpose of urban planning. Hough. Routledge. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. City Design for Sustainable Development. C. 2007. Smith. SBS academic publishing. Kate. 4. Types of Urban Plans.1990.. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. M. 2009. I. London.. UK.

Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Socio-economic factors. Prediction. 47 . 1991. Kates. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. i. R. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. D.B. Boulder . Hazards. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. Natural cycles and their role. Clara. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. Landslide. Introducing Town Planning. UK. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. and Woodrow. 3. H. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. M. International phenomenon. Disaster as an opportunity for development.. Islamabad. Earthquake Management. The Environment as Hazard Burton I..UNESCO. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson.J. 1993. Flooding. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. Earthquake. P. 4.. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. 1986.e..F. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation.. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. and White G. 2nd Edition. It discusses a wide range of aspects. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. E&UA Div. Longman Group.. Westview Press. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. 1993. 2. 1989. Role of Media in Disaster Management. Political factors.3. Flood Management: Organizational Role. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. Ministry of Housing and Works. Cultural factors. New York.. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization.W. ADB. 1993. Natural Disasters Alexander. Manila.. Recommended Books: 1. The Guilford Press. New York.W. Government of Pakistan. Physical factors. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Chapman & Hall. Different approaches and Indicators. 4. Paris. G. Disaster Management: Components of management.

Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources.L. 2. biomass resources. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. energy resources. Ecological concept in crop and food production. alternate energy resources. OECD/IEA. and Yonavjak. 1983. energy resources of Pakistan. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. Quorum Books. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. John Wiley and Sons. Sustainable livestock management. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation..A..H. 6. McKinney. Agroecology. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. 6th Edition. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. R. solar. 4th Edition. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. 2001. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. USA. consumers.C. local. 48 . E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. and Mushkatel. L.M. uses.. F. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. Schoch. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. D. 2007. Westport. sustainable energy management.B and Keller.W. 1984.5. 2007. Paris. A. Disasters and Development Cuny. Biotic structure. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. 3. primary producers. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. Botkin. types. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. hydropower. merits and demerits of wind. E. decomposers. M. Consumer and producer relationship. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. 1. Perry R. New York.

3. 1990. Westview Press. 2. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. Corol. P. E-11 Seminar 49 . Experimental Plant Ecology. Recommended Books: 1. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. Study of stratification and profile diagram. Boulder..A. New Delhi. R. USA.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. Agrocology. Yandermeer J.G. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. Kapur. Altreri.R. C. India. Study of index of diversity. CBS Publishers and Distributors.P.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. M. USA.M. and Rossel. New York.H. 1995. 2000. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. and Sudha.

The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. 2. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. 5. 4. 3. that: 1. the Committee agreed on the following principles. 50 . To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. availability of the faculty and other facilities. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme.

22. 15. 17. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 19. 2. 3. 3. 23. 4. 7. 6. 20. 6. 2. 9. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 14. 5. 21. 13. 26. 16. 11. 24. 8. 10. 4. 25. 18. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 12. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 7. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 9. 8. 12. 11. 10. 5.

Carrying capacity and sustainable development..1994. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. technology and resource use.T. Khan K. London Black Stone Press Ltd. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental control Policies. Mackenzie.1991. Oxford University Press. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. F. Hansen. Geography of Pakistan. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. Elsevier. 1991.F. P. WCS... Islamabad.. S. Ball. Oxford University Press. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). 2. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. Environment People and Economy. S. 4. Conventions and Protocols in Global.1994. 3. Provincial and Local Strategies. status of Terrestrial. Karachi. NCS. Regional and International Environmental Issues. 2. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. Conservation Strategies. and Jorqensen. London. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. Mackenzie J. Money. and Bell. 52 .DETAILS OF M. 1992. Treaties. D. Draft National Environmental Policy. Hodder and Stoughton. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan.S. 3. 2nd Edition.1995. Amsterdam. Instruments and methods.E. FURTHER READINGS 1.A. Relationship of culture. development of concepts. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. GOP and IUCN.E. 1987. S..

England. Environmental auditing. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. D. History. Ministry of Environment.Vanclay. FURTHER READINGS 1. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. 1993. Environmental Chemical Analysis. Wood. Chichester. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Recommended Books: 1. DC. Wastewater. Burnt Hill. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. Longman House. Cost benefit analysis of projects. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). social impact assessment. opportunities and issues. Ahmed. World Bank. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. A. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. 1995. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. F & Bronstein. Ed. 3. procedures and methods of EIA. sample collection and preservation. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). 2. Assessment of environmental impacts. 53 . 2. Government of Pakistan. economic impact assessment. WB. John Wiley & Sons. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. UK. Gas Chromatography etc. K. role and importance. Environment Department.. ed. A one Publishers Lahore. ecological impact assessment. Longman Scientific and Technical. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. Harlow Essex. Principles of physical. Case Studies and review.A. Washington. Demographic impact assessment. Recommended Books: 1. sampling rules. process. C. 1995. Air and Solid Waste. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants.

UK.. Resource Mobilization. T.. 1st Ed. 5. 4.. Ergonomic and Safety. 2. Recommended Books: 1. T. assumptions. activities. indicators. Wiley Interscience. inputs. de Kok. Need identification. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. Oxford University Press New York. Caeneross. J.. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. Basic Environmental Health. Occupational Health: problems and issues. 2002.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. Accident prevention and safety plans. J. Government Policies and Programs. R. 1998. outputs. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. S. Inc. M. 1992. Reasons for Project success or failure. Project Initiation. feasibility study. work breakdown structure. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. Defining Project objectives. Kjelllström. Primary health care services. Environmental Health Engineering. development objectives.. and Wright.2000. Writing Project Proposal. Planning Commission Performas. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. New York. 3. 1997. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. and Guidotti.. Project Planning and Approval Processes. 1st ed. T. Park. specific objectives. A.. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. Public health concept. Yassi. Lippmann. Nebel. means of verification. 1st Ed. Mantel s. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). 1993. air borne. R. safety techniques. principles and practices. A Guide to Project Management.. B.. 2. Project Management Institute. prevention and control. Project Life Cycle. USA. 2nd Ed. K. L. Prentice Hall International Inc. John Wiley and Sons. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. T. M/S Banarsid. economic evaluation. Meredith J. USA. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. 54 . London. 2001. Project Planning. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic.

2007. Related Environmental regulations.L. alternate energy resources. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. M. USA. 1990b. R. Environmental auditing. Sources of data.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. D. 2. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). McKinney. Switzerland. Recommended Books: 1. ISO Central Secretariat. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. 2.A. OECD/IEA. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. D. principles and elements of the process of EMS. and Yonavjak. Sayre. gas. sustainable energy management for agriculture. types. Schoch. Principles of cleaner production.. transport. petroleum. merits and demerits of wind. Michigan-January 2001. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. St Luise Press. 1998.M. 2001. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. data collection and interpretation. Paris. 2007. 3. 3. Paris. 55 . EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. uses. energy resources of Pakistan. 4th Edition. solar.B and Keller. Botkin. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Recommended Books: 1. hydropower. nuclear) local. energy resources. E. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. non-renewable and renewable. 4. bio-energy resources. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. L. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. John Wiley and Sons. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Environmental Auditing. 6th Edition. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. industry and domestic sectors.

survival and extinction. E. Effects. Springer. global aspects of plant ecology. Life history strategies of plants. Hardy. 3. Recommended Books: 1. ECOPE 29. water resources. Climate Change and Ecosystems. 1st Edition. Effects. Modeling of climate change. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. J. 2003. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Green House Gases. geographical and temporal patterns. Shulze. E & Muller-Hohenstein. Plant Ecology. Beck. plant conservation. competition and coexistence. UK 1991.. 3. London. human activities and vegetation dynamics. The Green House Effect. 2005. and Solutions. K. Vegetation Ecology Ed. resources and plants. 2. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. 2005. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. and Solutions. Warrick. John Wiley & Sons. vegetation dynamics. ED. Hardy. 2003. J.Causes. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. Berlin. Plant population dynamics. etc. Climate change and food production. Earthscan Publication Ltd. 1. Climate Change . J.Causes. 2005.T. B & Jager. D. 56 . (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Blackwell Publishing. 5. Oxford UK. D. Recommended Books: 1. Maarel. plant invasions. management and restoration. Silvertown. Climate Change . 2. types and their climatic effects. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. 2004. & Charlesworth.). John Wiley & Sons.D. Chichester. 2005. T. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. John Wiley & Sons. Oxford. UK. Species richness. types of climate change models. 4.. Houghton. forests. (Ed. Blackwell Publishing.

Cambridge. & Spicer. their ecological and economic importance. Oxford. 1986. 1998. Forest plantations. threats and conservation. deforestation and its control. habitats and ecosystems. Publishers Sunderland. UK.D. 2. Weddell. Rangeland management. B.A. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. Loss of biodiversity. Primack. Extinction of species. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. Protected areas in Pakistan. Bailey. types. Threatened animals and plants.J. J. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. Roberts. Biodiversity: An introduction. Roberts. types. Sinauer Assocaites. Oxford. Protection and restoration of species.B. Wetlands. 2002. 1992. 3. distribution. its causes. Conserving Living Natural Resources. W.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction.G. Status of forests in Pakistan. And Bolen. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. J. & Ripley. Principles of Wildlife Management. T. Cambridge. II). Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. 57 . John Wiley And Sons. problems and solutions. management. London. T. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol.) Gaston.J. Sustainable forest management. Recommended Books: 1. 2004. their types and role in conservation. Wildlife Ecology and Management. Protected areas.L. R. Wildlife of Pakistan. Robinson. Blackwell Publsihing. kinds. 1984. distribution.(2nd Ed. K.J. Inc. I). E. 2002. Forests. distribution and management. Oxford. 4. 5. 3. Mcmillan. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. USA.J. Participatory forest management. biological diversity. S. Oxford University Press. S. Consumptive. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. Oxford University Press. Global and national biodiversity. Cambridge University Press. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. Recommended Books: 1. their importance. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. 1973 2. Essentials of Conservation Biology. Establishment and management of protected areas. UK. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. Oxford University Press. status.

A. CRC Press LLC. Ward. 2000. UK. Kate. London. management of transport. Penguin Group. Government of Pakistan. Sustainable cities. UK. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Introducing Town Planning.. S. urban political ecology. 2004. Recommended Books: 1. Clara. USA. Forms of urbanization. Islamabad. New York. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. 1993. Silberstein. H. 58 . 1986. USA.. J. V. Urban land use planning and management.. urban landscape characteristics. G. Longman Group. SAGE Publications Ltd. C. Ministry of Housing and Works. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. urban systems and their characteristics. 2007. 4.and Maser. sanitation. Environmental problems of urban life. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. E&UA Div. The Works: Anatomy of a City.. Planning and Urban Change. urbanization in Pakistan. drinking water and solid waste in cities.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. 2. 3. future of urban centers.

Thomson and A.J.V. Martinet. a) Functional English Grammar 1. Practical English Grammar by A.Annexure . Exercises 1. Third edition.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. ISBN 0194313492 59 . 1997. Oxford University Press.

1997. Upper Intermediate. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. Fourth Impression 1993. intensive and extensive. Thomson and A.J. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. minutes of meetings. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good.2. Martinet. Third edition.V. b) Practical English Grammar by A. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Oxford University Press. Oxford Supplementary Skills. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. Third Impression 1992. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Reading/Comprehension 1. Writing. and speed reading. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. Exercises 2. Reading. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis.

Third Impression 1991. Writing. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. Oxford University Press 1986. 2. Oxford Supplementary Skills. 2. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. content. Writing. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. introduction to presentations.1. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Third Impression 1992. Third edition. form. Practical English Grammar by A. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Reading 1. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky.J. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . b) Writing 1. Advanced. discursive. Thomson and A. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. descriptive and argumentative writing). narrative. Oxford Supplementary Skills. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. Martinet. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Reading.V. Fourth Impression 1993. Advanced by Ron White. clarity. Fourth Impression 1992. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Oxford Supplementary Skills. language. Writing. Exercises 2.

Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. St. 62 . A Custom Publication. Kirszner and Stephen R. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. 3.(particularly suitable for discursive. without taxing the taste of engineering students). Compiled by norther Illinois University. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. Kathleen Shine Cain. argumentative and report writing). descriptive. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. 2. Martin’s Press. College Writing Skills by John Langan. Mandell. 2004.

Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. Society and social structure c. Historical Perspective a. Safdar. contemporary Pakistan. 1999 onward 3. 1994. S. Contemporary Pakistan a. Shahid Javed. People and Land i.Annexure . Karachi: Oxford University Press. Location and geo-physical features.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. government. 2000. Economic institutions and issues b. Mehmood. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. 3. ideological background of Pakistan. 1977-88 e. b. Lahore. politics. S. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. Akbar. State & Society in Pakistan. Course Outline 1. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. . 1947-58 b. Study the process of governance.M. 63 Books Recommended 1. Zaidi. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. 2. 1971-77 d. 1993. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Ethnicity d. 1988-99 f. 1958-71 c. 2. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. national development. Muslim advent iii. 4. Indus Civilization ii.

National Movement in Pakistan. Zahid. The Political System of Pakistan. Noor ul. Safdar. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies.The Emergence of Banglades. Ziring. Haq.. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Club Road. II & III. Wayne. 6. 8. 13.5. Amin. 1980. 9. 1967. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Mehmood. Washington: American Enterprise. I. Ansar.K. 1972. 10. Ethno . Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. History & Culture of Sindh. M. 1993. 12. 64 . 11. 1998. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. nd. Vol. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Muhammad Waseem. 7. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. Lahore: Vanguard. Islamabad. 1987. Politics in Pakistan. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. 14. Rafique. Lawrence. Institute of Public Policy Research. Aziz. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Tahir. Pakistan Under Martial Law. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. Political Parties in Pakistan. Khalid Bin. 1976. Sayeed. Afzal. Enigma of Political Development. Party. Wilcox. 1980. K.

W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.Tadabar (Verse No1.6.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.A.A.57.40.20) Related to thinking.A.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .19.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.Annexure .C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.56. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.A.58.21.

3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt. in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .

“Studies in Islamic Law. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. Pakistan. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. IRI. International Islamic University. Bhatia.S. Islamabad (2001) 67 . Ahmad Hasan.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. “Emergence of Islam” .” Hussain Hamid Hassan.

1986. equations reducible to quadratic equations. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1.Annexure . cube roots of unity. types.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. geometric progression. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Cramer’s rule. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. matrix inverse. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). not majoring in mathematics. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. trigonometric identities. functions. Houghton & Mifflin. PWS-Kent Company. determinants. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. Boston Swokowski EW. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. harmonic progression. types of functions. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. Boston 68 . Beckenback EF. PWS-Kent Company. set operations. Sharron S. Wooton W. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. complex numbers. introduction to sets. 1978. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. system of linear equations. College Algebra and Trigonometry. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. 1987.

various forms of equation of a line. New York Stewart J. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. Ma. PWS-Kent Company. distance between a point and a line. derivatives. change of variables in indefinite integrals. Bevens I. John Wiley. left-hand and right-hand limits. Davis S. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. not majoring in mathematics. Finney AR. USA 3. integration by parts. Reading. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. solution of equations involving absolute values.2. continuity. continuous functions. angle between two lines. distance between two points. Calculus (11th edition). with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. integration by substitution. 2005. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. 2005. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. 1995. slope of a line. Recommended Books: Anton H. Boston Thomas GB. 69 . with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. parallel and perpendicular lines. differentiation of polynomial. 1983. rational and transcendental functions. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. Addison-Wesley. inequalities. not majoring in mathematics. intersection of two lines. Calculus (3rd edition). functions and their graphs. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. equation of a line.

1987. Analytic Geometry. 1986. nature of roots of quadratic equations. intersection of lines and circles. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. equations reducible to quadratic equations. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. types of functions. Introduction to sets. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. set operations. College Algebra and Trigonometry. ellipse. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Scott. Freshman and Company. locus of a point in various conditions. Boston 4. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. hyperbola. system of linear equations. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). PWS-Kent Company. Boston Swokowski EW. Conic Sections: Parabola. PWS-Kent Company. Cramer’s rule.Circle: Equation of a circle. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. determinants. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. circles determined by various conditions. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). 70 . • Contents 1. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. functions. inverse of matrices. 1969 Kaufmann JE. types of matrices. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S.

types of frequency series. PWS-Kent Company. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. E. circle and trigonometric functions.. Swokowski. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Latest Edition. cumulative frequency curve. skewness and kurtosis. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. trigonometric identities. Prentice Hall. W.. Graphs: Graph of straight line. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. E. discrete and continuous series. Books Recommended: 1. Latest Edition. characteristics of statistics. quartiles. 5. R. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes.geometric and harmonic progressions. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. moments. R. relationship of statistics with social science. 71 . Walpole. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. Latest Edition. frequency polygon. array. J. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. ungrouped and grouped data. E. 2. bar frequency diagram histogram. individual. tally sheet method. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. Kaufmann. 4. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Boston. standard deviation. R. 3. 2. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. variance... Wilcox. deciles and percentiles. Measures of dispersion: Range.

5. 2005. 11th Edition. special points of a function. Solution of equations involving absolute values. substitution method. Leibnitz’ theorem. Continuity. reduction formulae. John H. applications of integration. Integration by Parts. integration by parts. Thomas. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. Inc. Trigonometric Functions. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. Recommended Books: 1. Contents 1. 2005. Rational Functions. Hughes-Hallett. Bevens. Mathews. John Wiley & Sons. Davis. 6. S. W. Gleason. Rational and Transcendental Functions. theorems of differentiation. quotients. Elliott Mendelson. Calculus Single and Multivariable. Frank A. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . infinite and improper integrals. Extreme Values of Functions. and Transcendental Functions. 4th edition. integration by inspection. Swokowski. Least-Squares Line. integral inequalities. Calculus. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. Addison Wesley publishing company. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. 6. products. Continuous Functions. Inequalities. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. the chain rule. 1983. plane polar coordinates. H. Jhon Willey & Sons. et al. Anton. logarithmic differentiation. Schaum’s Outline Series. Calculus. Slope of a Line. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. sinusoidal function.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. E. Inc. the inverse of differentiation. Equation of a Line. I. • Integration Integration from first principles. McCallum. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. integration using partial fractions. 8th edition. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering.Jr. Second Edition 1992. Calculus. 3rd Edition. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. 4. logarithmic integration. Boston. Prentice-Hall. 2002. 2. implicit differentiation. 1999. 2. 3.

solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. approximation errors in Taylor series. series involving natural numbers. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. the difference method. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. multiplication. identities of hyperbolic functions. geometric series. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. finding the nth roots of unity. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. modulus and argument. arithmetico-geometric series. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . inverses of hyperbolic functions.Additions and subtraction. complex conjugate. solving hyperbolic equations.

moments of inertia. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. of a unitary matrix. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. orthogonal. scalar triple product. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. point to plane. Hermitian. vector product.5. symmetric and antisymmetric. line to line. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. masses. 6. Pappus’ theorems. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . the inner product. centers of mass and centroids. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix.

divergence of a vector field. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field.8. spherical polar coordinates 75 . curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. combinations of grad. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates.

The Variance and standard deviation. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Discrete and continuous variables. Box and Whisker Plot. Empirical Relation between Mean. Editing of Data. Rounding of a Number. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. 76 . Collection of primary and secondary data. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Unit 7. Poisson and Normal Distribution. definition of outliers and their detection. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Histogram. acceptance and rejection regions. Unit 4. sampling with and without replacement. Historigram. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. The semi-Interquartile Range. Ogive for Discrete Variable. null and alternative hypothesis. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. probability and non-probability sampling.Annexure . Graphs and their Construction. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Bar charts. Standardized variables. Exercises. Unit 3. Exercises Unit 6. Types of frequency curves. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. The Mean Deviation. Sources. bias. Exercises. Exercises. Type-I and Type-II errors. properties of Good Average. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Presentation of Data Introduction. sample design and sampling frame. level of significance. Difference of means and proportions. Significant digits. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Change of origin and scale. Exercises. Range. Test statistics. Median and mode. Pie chart.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Observations. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Unit 5. Data. Probability and Probability Distributions. Constructing of a frequency distribution. Errors of measurement. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Coefficient of variation. The Mode. Diagrams. Quantiles. sampling and non sampling errors. Unit 2. Exercises. Population. Exercises. Moments and Moments ratios. Different types of Averages. Stem and Leaf Display. Statistical problem. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Absolute and relative measures.

. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. cause and effect relationships.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. Correlation. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. 1982. Exercises Unit 9. Macmillan Publishing Co. Coefficient of linear correlation. “Introduction to Statistics”. F. Exercises Unit 10. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. its estimation and interpretation. examples. Inc. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table.Single Population Introduction. Testing of Hypothesis. 77 . simple linear regression. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. Exercises. Contingency Tables.. 3rd Ed. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. Unit 11. Regression and Correlation Introduction. New York. Kitab Markaz. R. 2 Muhammad. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters.Unit 8. 2005. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. E. r and R2.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful