CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
58

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For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. Lahore.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. 63. The world has turned into a global village. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. the Federal Government vide notification No. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 .). A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. DR. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. PROF. It also aimed to give a basic. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. D773/76-JEA (cur. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. R&D organizations. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. dated December 4th 1976.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. universities and other institutions of higher education. degree awarding institutions.ALTAF ALI G. It is. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. and 36. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. therefore.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments.

COL. Preparation 5 . OF CURRI. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. OF NCRC.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. REC. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. PREP. UNI. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. OF FINAL CURRI. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. EXP. R&D. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI.

Rawalpindi Dr. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Following attended the meeting:1. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. Dr. 7. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Member 3. Member 5. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Dr. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. Member 4. Member 6 . Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Karachi from 28-30. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Lahore Member 6. Dr.

13. Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Member 10. Dr. 7 . Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Karachi Member 12. Member 16. Dr. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Dr. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Dr. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr.8. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Member 15. Prof. Dr. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Prof. Member 14. Member 11. Dr.

Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. At first. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. Member 19. Secretary Dr. Dr. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. 1. Faisalabad Member 18.17. 8 . Mr. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Member 20. Director of HEC Regional Center. The meeting was opened by Mr. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. Karachi. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. 2. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Mr. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. Dr. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Chairman.

The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. 6. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. The committee thanked Mr. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. 1. 3. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. 4. In last few centuries. 2. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. 5.3. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities.

skills and behaviour patterns. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. in its preliminary meeting. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . regional and global contexts. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. ii. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. Apply theoretical understanding. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. This committee. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. 5.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially.

as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. 1. 2. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. with consensus. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. Sc. A. 4. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes. Integrating natural sciences.e. 3. The medium of instruction. The 11 . that: 1.. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. 6. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. eight semesters in the semester system. 5. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment.

Biology –I* 3. English-I 6. Environmental Physics 16. Climatology* 23. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Introductory Economics* 17. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Psychology* . The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Environmental Pollution 22. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. English-II 12. English-III 18. Basic Chemistry* 4. Introduction to Computer 14. Introduction to Earth Science 8. Environmental Chemistry 15.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Environmental Microbiology 21. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Biology –II* 9.

Opt. ELECTIVE-III 42. 45. Environmental Economics 29. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. Climate Change 38. Environmental toxicology 27. 44. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. Environmental Biotechnology 32. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. Natural Resource Management 40. Environmental Management Systems 34. Environmental Monitoring 36.24. English-IV/ Univ. Applied Ecology 26. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. 46. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37.

• Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical.

4th Ed. and their relationships with various environmental factors. Wright. 2002. Schoch. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . philosophical. & Nebel. Pearson Educational. 2.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. R. its importance in human life. 2007 3. R. socio-economic. B.T.L. McKinney. John Wiley & Sons. current global. poverty and resource depletion. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. G. 2007. national. & Yonavjak. Different aspects of environment: physical. M. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts.M. E.B & Keller. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. lipids. Recommended Books: 1. history. 6th Ed. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. 2007. regional. biological and social.. L. 4. environmental pollution. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. Thomson Learning.. development in industry and agriculture. Human environment and its problems: global. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. D. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. 15 . Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates.A.J. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. Botkin. ecological. 10th Ed. ethical. Miller. proteins and nucleic acids. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. urbanization. Major components of environment: physico-chemical.

R. chemical basis of life. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. 2007. Structure and the basis of function. USA. Self Assessment and Revie. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. and Lewis. Crossley. M. USA. Canada. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. J. Wadsworth Group. D.. amines). Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. Aromatic compounds. G. Lingappa. lipids. Bulter. L. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. 4... 1. Lewis. 2. B. Starr. Introduction to cell biology. carbohydrates. carboxylic acids. V. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials.. McGraw. 5th Edetion. origin of metabolism. and Whitelaw. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. esters. Biology: a Human Emphasis. Shier. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. 8th Ed.Hill International Edition. 16 . Australia . Cell division. Ltd. C. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. lipids. Nucleic acids. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. New York. 5. R. Cells. carbonyls. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. Ionic. 1996. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. covalent. proteins. protobionts.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. coordinate covalent bond. USA. Molecular Biology through Questions. Plopper. A. N.. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. phospholipids in membrane systems. chemical diversity. polypeptides in protein diversity. 2003. Cassimeris. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. 2008. E. 2007. 3. Origin of life: chemical evolution. the molecule of genetic information and replication. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell.

Surface chemistry. Jones and Barlett. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. series and means. values of trigonometric functions. and Holler. normal solutions/buffers. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. D. P. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. Jickells.A. Hill. double angle formulas. T. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. Freeman and Company. 1st Ed.. UK. EC and TDS in waste water. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. expansion of determinants. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers..J. Liss. Colloids chemistry. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). increment in variable and distance between two points in plane.. radicals. Blackwell Science. Girard.S.D. D. molal. 6th Edition. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis... F. Photochemical reactions. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). Measurement of pH. law of Cosines. and Reid. 3. 5. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. W. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. Understanding Environmental Pollution. 2nd Edition. Recommended Books: 1. minor and cofactor of a matrix. geometric and harmonic sequence. 2005.E. Canada. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. 2004. Thomson and Brooks. 2004. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. Brimblecombe.J. simultaneous equations and their solutions. J. M.ions. Lab Work Preparation of molar. 17 . An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. D.. 8th Edition.K. B. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. Column chromatography. Algebra of matrices. 2nd Edition. angle-sum formula.C. West. 2. real line. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. UK..H. Cambridge University Press.E. 2003. Thin layer chromatography. determinants. 2004.Special Products (Binomial Expression). graphs.. 4. USA. straight line and related concepts. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional).. Andrews. Osmosis and Dialysis. USA.M. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. P. Harris. Skoog. J. equations of lines (linear equations). Solution chemistry.

the processes of their formation. weathering and erosion. Pacific Grove. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. Smith. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. Introduction to rocks and minerals. product and quotient rules without derivations). Earth as a member of solar system. D. difference. 10th Ed. California.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . Recommended Books: 1. Narosa Publishing House. R.B. Trignometry for College students. Geological time scale and life through geological ages.. by parts integration (simple applications). and Finney. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. G. composition and its internal structure. theorems on differentiation (sum. 3. Thomas. irreducible quadratic factors. nonrepeated linear factors. Scott Foresman and Company. Weathering. 2.Cramer’s Rule. 4. foliation. plate tectonics. Introduction to folds. different earth processes like mountain buildings. Fossils and their significance. Integration: Formulas of integration. Chatterjee.Wesley. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. 4th Ed. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. erosion and related landforms. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . 18 . joints. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. its origin. Introduction to sedimentary. cleavages. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. New Delhi. Addission. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. earthquakes and volcanoes. earthquakes. faults.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. Abraham. mountain building. theorem of integration. Chain rule. S. L. igneous and metamorphic rocks.. 1999. Jr. age. Analytical Geometry. J. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. K. lineation and unconformities.

F.. Prentice Hall: 2006.. E. molecular basis of biodiversity. R. K. and Tasa. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. biodiversity crises. Brooks/Cole. J. different classification systems. Physical Geology and Process of Science. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. Lutgens... Use of brunton compass and GPS. multicellularity. K. population loss and decline.. 4. Park. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. animals). Geographical aspects of biodiversity.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. 9th Edition. 19 ..Identification of rocks and minerals. Prentice Hall. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. E.. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. D. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. examples of adjustments in varied environment. G. 2007 3. Biodiversity of deserts. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. 5th Edition. J. Lamarckism. Darwinism. Life in sea. protocell formation. 2004. J. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. interactions among diversified life. 2007 2. Foundations of Structural Biology. 3rd Edition. 11th Edition. 5. Smith. modern concepts. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. Biodiversity of canal. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. Wicander. Prentice Hall. and Monroe. Routledge. Recommended Books: 1. 2005.. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. unicellularity. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water. G. and Pun. consequences of losing biodiversity. Earth Science. Biodiversity of hilly areas. Field Study tour.. measuring biodiversity. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. causes of extinction. invasion of life on land. Lutgens.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. Tarbuck. F. Geological time chart with biodiversity. R. and Tasa. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . How Does Earth Work. Tarbuck. A. D.

K. Hannen. 2009. Prospect Heights. Inc. (editors). K. (editor). CA: AltaMira Press. culture and society. Townsend. Blackwell Science Ltd. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. 2003. Chronological. 2. Contemporary environment issues and debate. I. Gaston. 2001. 5th Edition. R. Biodiversity (An Introduction). Environmental Risks and the Media. Wadsworth Group. Routledge. power & hegemony. Tripartite nature of environment. globalization and environmental issues. New York: New York University Press. P. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. Scope and application. and concerns. 2000. USA. John Wiley and Sons. Goals and expectations. and Spicer.. L. Walnut Creek. The Ecology of global consumer culture. J. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. UK. 2005. Contemporary environmental status.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. Recommended Books: 1. 2. Consumption. UK. a Human Emphasis. Adam. Culture. Crumley. 2006.. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. C. and Sustainable Living. 3. Starr. UK. 3. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology.K. Biology. 20 . Use of environment for vested interest. Inc. Perspective of human-environment evolution. 2009. C. IL:WavelandPress. J. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . 4.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. Conceptualizing environment. 2nd Edition. I. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. The Biosphere. Understanding the environment-human relationship. Bradbury. Allan & Carter. Nora and Wilk.

A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . Ms-Excel. Kluwer Academic Publishers.London 1996. 2. Ms-Access. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. Milton. Rutledge. Long N.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. Software: Application software. Course Outlines Definition. computer programs and basic applications. Ed. processing hardware. Ms-Power Point. Fundamentals of computer. as are their effects on the biosphere. Selin. Storage hardware. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. Introduction to MS-Word. system software. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure .6th Ed. Long l. internet. 2003. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. 6. Marquis A.H.5.. 21 .BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. Courter.Microsoft office 2000.. Operating system (Windows). Recommended Books: 1. output hardware. e-mail. software packages. Configurations. G. Local Area Network. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry.1999. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures. Types and classification of computers. K. Hardware: Input Hardware.

Energy conversion. Ozone and UV light. T. Electromagnetic radiation. B. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. G.G.. Turbulent diffusion.E.. 2nd Edition. Entropy. Environmental Chemistry.. Basic acoustics. K. Turbulence. Particle physics. Hernandez-Esparza. Andrews. J. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. 2004. J. Fundamentals of aquatic. Diffusion. India... Radioactivity and nuclear physics. Germany. Miller. 2. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . Brimblecombe. and Singh. Liss. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light.M. Active control of sound. their sources and toxic actions. M.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry.S. trophic level. Energy. DoriaSerrano. 5. Liquids and Gasses. Thomson-Brooks. its causes and adverse effects on environment. Chemical reactions..D. Ozone chemistry. Isotopes and radioactive decay. 2004. Environmental impact of various industries. Solar spectrum. Global climate and climatic change.. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. atmospheric and soil chemistry. Girard. 2005. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry..E. P. C. interaction of light with matter. P. Samir. Canada. Reducing the transmission of sound. UK. and Reid. Conversion of mass. Nuclear energy. Heat radiation and heat transfer. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Solids.T.J. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. Transport of pollutants. 3. 1999. J. Gaussian plumes in the air. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. Fate of pollutants in environment. Ibanez. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. Recommended Books: 1.. 4. Fregoso-Infante. M. photosynthesis. 1st Edition. Jones and Barlett. A. Jickells. Blackwell Science. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. Environmental Science.. 2008. Sound and Noise. Turbulent jets and plumes. Springer. Equations of fluid dynamics. USA.. Human perceptions and noise criteria. Environmental Chemistry. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter.

Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. 7th Ed. Recommended Books: 1. USA.Economic development. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. Todaro. Yusuf. concepts and measurement. Kentucky USA. G. Environmental Physics. Wesely Publishers. N. USA. economic welfare and difference among all. Natural resources and the economy. poverty. Guyot. 4. P. population and environmental quality. Economic Development. John Wiley and Sons Inc. 2008. Impact of economic activity on environment. E. Smith. M. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. Boeker. Environmental economics. 23 . Measures for sustainable development. and Resource allocation. Introductory Environmental Physics. Pakistan economic context: National income. 2006. Economic functions of environment. Course Outlines Introduction to economics.. 2. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. World Bank Publications. 2008. Physics of the Environment and Climate.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. USA. Routledge. economic growth and its measurement. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. Field visit. S. S. C. New York. Growth and Environment. J. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. H. 2001. and Pandis. economic progress. Recommended Books: 1. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. Growth and development. economic growth. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. Economic management and environmental quality. Praxis publishing. Producer behavior. Seinfeld. producer and community point of view. USA.1998. Man environmental relationship. Sustainable development. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. R. 3. 2001. 2. UK. interaction between ecology and economic management. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. and Van Grondelle. John Wiley and Sons Inc.

and systems ecology. Environmental Critics of agriculture. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. Kessinger Publishing. A History of Western Philosophy. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. C. World Bank Publications.. 4. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. 2002. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. 2008.A. Frodeman. LLC. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. soil. 4. USA. population. M. B.3. & Pierce. 2008. USA. branches of ecology. B. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview.. J. Hanley. Callicott. R. Recommended Books: 1. Touchstone Books. the ethics of soil. water. Introduction to ethical theory. Ecology. species. 2009. 24 .. description of population. Russell. community. levels of ecological organization. Shogren. Swift. community and ecosystem. Natural philosophy. B. J. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. Environmental philosophy and ethics. 2007. biogeography. role of light. and White. Course Outlines Introduction. Ecosystem and its types.V. England. Economics. WCIV7AA. concepts and approaches. D. 3.. 2.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. N. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. Farmington Hills. DeVeer. temperature. Portland 1967. its fundamental concepts. International Thomson Publishing. London. ethics and ecology. Palgrave Macmillan.

King’s College London. After completion of this course. community dynamics. characteristics of urban.) Moles. 6th Ed. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. UK. landscape changes and their importance. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. 2004. G. E P.Cox.topography and air as ecological factors. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. and More. 1st Ed. and Barett. ecological modeling. C. C. 1999 4. Ecology (principles and applications). Tata McGraw-Hill. P. Cambridge University Press. M C J 1st ed. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. 2000. Lab Work 25 . population dynamics. various concepts of community. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. M. Fundamentals of Ecology.W. bacteria and eukarya. B. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. J. plant geography and animal distribution. N. students will be able to understand the significance. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. UK. 1992. distribution limits. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. Ecosystem: structure and function. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). 3. Recommended Books 1. Fundamentals of Ecology. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. Ecology (concepts and applications. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. Populations. 5th Ed.L and Reiss. WCB/McGraw-Hill. 2. Systems ecology. New York. Population distribution and abundance. and S. New Delhi. landscape ecology. Chapman. biotic factors. M J. Biogeochemical cycles of C. habitat and niche. Thomson Brooks/Cole. productivity of different ecosystems. Concepts of Limiting factors. J. Odum. aquatic microbiology. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. Microbial metabolism. Dash. Biomes of the world. 2001 5.

W. R. 2. Hartel.V. and Zuberer. Noise. J. 2005. and Klein.. Soil.L. McInernery.M. Pollution Control Strategies. purification and preservation. Marine & Industrial pollution. transportation & treatments.M.A.P.K. R.. and Jeffery. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. I. C. Maier.P. 3.P. Cambridge UK. Crawford.G. Water. G.I. Knudsen. 4. McGraw Hill Inc. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual.D. Academic Press. A. Washington DC. 1995.J. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. Sylvia. 4th Edition. Weiner. P.. Solid Waste generation.F.and Brendecke. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. Environmental Pollution and Control.J.. Academic Press. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. J. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. Dilution plate technique. Butterworth-Heinemann. J. P.B. D.. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. Peiece.. 2009. its sources and their effects. 2002. 26 . C. F.A. Prescott.C. New Jersey.. Fuhrmann. Recommended Books: 1. USA. 2 Edition. American Society for Microbiology. Mean plate count. W.1998. London. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. M. USA. Microbiology.. Academic Press. D. Pepper. (Elsevier) USA. 2005. D. peppor. 5.J.. Harley. L... Cambridge University Press. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal. 2nd Edition. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally.A. Recommended Books 1. USA.L.M. 2007. Fate of Environmental Pollutants. Prentice Hall. L. 2. Collection.J.. M.Gerba. Effects of Pollutants. 2005. Environmental Microbiology.L. USA. USA. Hurrst.J. and Stetzenbach.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection.and Vesilaind. isolation.. UK. and Gerba. 3.R. Hill. Case Studies. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. Human & other living organisms.

Solar radiations. Pandis. Marcel Dekkar. John Wiley and Sons. Lawrance K. global circulation. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan.. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. 4. climatic zones of Pakistan. 6th Edition. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. Radiation and climate.E.K. Lutgens. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. 1988. K. 2003. 2. . The Atmosphere. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. Shamshad. A. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment.2nd Editions.J. Sadder. Climatology.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. Cloud Classification. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History.W.. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology. Methods of psychology. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. The Hydrologic cycle. Mechanism of heat transfer. Four Spheres of the Earth. N. condensation and cloud Formation. Karachi. Factors affecting air Pressure. 1992.. Royal book company. Austin Miller. Tarbuck.F. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . Recommended Books: 1. Environmental psychology. air pressure. 2006 5. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. 27 . Cambridge University Press. Spyros. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. 2002. 3. Surface winds.4. American Public Health Association (APHA). 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. John H. local winds. The climate of Pakistan.. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. Weather and Climate.M. The Physics of Atmospheres. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. 5. Houghton J.

CRC Press. Future water scenario of Pakistan. Environmental Psychology. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. London. Soil as a natural resource. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. soil resources of Pakistan. soil salinity and water logging. techniques and methods of restoration. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. Sustainable livestock management practices. solar radiation and primary production. 2. Water and distribution of species.W. 28 . 2001. energy and carbon balance. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. 5th Edition. Restoration of derelict lands. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. Ecology of food production. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. limitation of irrigated agriculture. Ecological restoration.characteristics and research methods. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. Routledge.A. Greene. Environmental perception and cognition. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. rivers.. sustainable agriculture.D. Fisher J. Fundamental of Psychology. their management and ecological restoration. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. T. concepts. species response to pollutants.. threats and mitigation. M. Bell.C. Sustainable agricultural practices. Routledge. Water as an ecological resource. Eysenck. and Baum A. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives. P. Pollution control through Ecology. Course Outline Introduction. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. soil erosion and conservation. 1992. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. Background and scope. CRC Press. carbon dioxide and global climate change. London. Recommended Books: 1. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. High population density and psychological impacts.

K. toxins & toxicants. 4.P. dose response relationship in living organisms. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. and Memon. in vivo & in vitro assays. 1989. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. Synergism. A. Newman. Blackwell Scientific Publications. 29 . toxicity screening using microbial systems. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. Organs. USA.Recommended Books: 1. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. Immunological considerations in toxicology.. 5th Edition. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. toxicology of chemicals. Israr-ud-Din. terminologies: Poisons.A. J. E. 2006. Islamabad. Lahore.. J. Rashid. 2000 2. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. 2004.. soil and air samples. Potentiation and Addition. on human and other living organisms.1998. Falk. Peshawar. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. University of Peshawar. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. B. G. biological effects.. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic. K and Habib. from natural and anthropogenic sources. Studies in Pakistan Geography. their containment and control strategies. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water.I. Chemical interactions and their types. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. and Barett. Mumtaz. 1996. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. toxins vs toxicants. and Hobbs. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. Margaret A. Fundamentals of Ecology. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. Soil Science. P. Shirkat Gah. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. R. Determination of chemicals in biological samples.National Book Foundation. Pakistan’s Environment. Zedler. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants.S. water and soil.W. Island Press. Odum E. Oxford. A. D. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. 5. 2nd ed. 3. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. Thomson Brooks/Cole.

W.2005 2.M. health. USA. Course Outlines Introduction. pollution control-a general model. W.D. topographic zones. B. Ecological: ecological zones. Recommended Books 1. 5th Edition. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann.Science of Poisons . Government of Pakistan. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. 1996. measuring environmental benefits. Hughes. 1992. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. the economy and the environment. clean development mechanism. McGrawhill.Recommended Books 1. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. 1st Edition. Recommended Books: 30 .). CRC Press Llc. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. 3. 2005 2. culture. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. General and Applied Toxicology. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. economic development and the environment. major ecosystems. industry. T and Turner. Williams. USA. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. education. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. 1993. people. State of the Environment-Pakistan . Economic: agriculture. geography.. Ballantyne. economic aspects of different environmental problems. water resources. international trade and the environment. P. Klassen. Macmillan Press Ltd. 3. (ed. Course Outlines Introduction to history. USA. urbanization and pollution. land.1 & 2. M. Vol. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. 1st Edition.

K. and derived S.2004. BOD. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. NO3–N & NH4-N).2002. Pearce.K. M.. 2.L. preparation and storage. Analytical techniques for soil. 2005. D. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin.J. units. L. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater.A.R. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. Turner. Use of Potentiometery. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. C. Reuter. Holler. I. New York.C. D. Freeman & Co. Oxford. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. 1999. West. A. 31 . Harris. and Batemen. precision and accuracy.I. All Solids.. COD. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. CSIRO Publ. Standard solutions and standard curves. Thomson and Brooks.W. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. 3.I. M. 4. Kolstad. Conductivitymetry.. 2003. B. Spectroscopy and Chromatography.. 1993. Sample preservation methods.. Data interpretation for quality control. Skoog. Qualitative Chemical Analysis.. C.and Field. salinity & sodicity). Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. 8th Edition. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. Sample collection. Oxford University Press.K. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. Recommended Books: 1. water and plant analysis. Titrimetery. handling. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. Johns Hopkins University Press. J. 2. Conductivitymetry. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. D.D. Field. Fluoride. Peverill. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual.1. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. and F.UK. Gravimetery. 3. D. Gravimetery. USA. Lab Work S. Environmental Economics. Titrimetery. 6th Edition. Sparrow and D. Australia. 2000. Collingwood.

USA. England. (ed. Biomarkers. 2001. Oxford University Press.. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . Biosensor. Scragg. 2nd Ed. Isolation. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment.W. J.. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. Chichoster. PCR. USA. J. and Russel. Wiley-VCH Verlag. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. Introduction to microbial kinetics. Environmental Biotechnology. National Biotechnology Commission. 2. 3. Course Outlines Introduction. 2005. New York. National Biosafety Guidelines. A. students will be able to understand the significance. D.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. W. Hans- Joachim. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. 2009. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems.1999. Sambrook. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. Recommended Books 1.P.D. 4.). 5th Ed. Biotechnology.E. Government of Pakistan. 2007. USA. J. and application of biotechnology in the environment. and Josef. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Germany. Bioreactors. New York. purification and preservation of DNA. Smith. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. Tools in environmental biotechnology. Derbre. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. Recombinant DNA technology. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. After completion of this course. 2005. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. Cambridge University Press.

analysis and output. John Wiley and Sons. Interpretation. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. 4. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. A. Preparation of thematic maps. eradication of the duplicated data. Forestry. Energy Sources. History and data collection. Types of data used in GIS. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Data acquisition. Campbell. Introduction to GIS. Dessinov. Harvey. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. map projection and coordinate systems. Guilfoud press New York. Mc Graw Hill Education. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. 2008. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Satellite Imageries. Image Processing. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. Inc. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. Lulla. Inc. 2. F. 5. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. 2000. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Rancez. V. 2000. John Wiley and Sons. Active and Passive remote sensing. Data entry and output. history and platforms. Agriculture. Z. Jensen. advantages and limitations of process. 1999. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. Fishery and wildlife. Inc. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . 2009. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. K and L. Using and reading GPS in field. Pearsons Education. Cartography. Aerial photography. Different types of maps. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. integration of information from many sources. 3. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Introduction to Photogrammetry. R.

ecological. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. 2005.. eco-design.. International Organization for Standardization. and Qasim. Environment and sustainable development. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. Course Outlines Introduction. WWF Pakistan. 3. Methods of environmental protection. plant. alpha and beta diversity.2nd Ed. principles of Cleaner production. Sheldon. types of biodiversity. cleaner technologies. American Society for Quality. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. economic. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. 2. social and ethical values of biodiversity. F. Environmental Economy. Michigan. American Society for Quality.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. 1998. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). Conservation of biodiversity. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System.. etc. Systems and Support Techniques. Related Environmental legislation. 4. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. Environmental Management tools.3rd Edition . Khan. need and approach. Environmental Management Systems Principles. B. M. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. philosophical. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles.C. 2006.). M. hot spots of biodiversity. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. 2001. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. Certification of EMS. standards and guidelines. and Yoxon. threats to biodiversity. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. 34 . Environmental aspects and impacts. A.

sampling and design purposes. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. laboratory custody. P. Z. community and ecosystem level. their categories. 2. forests. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. conservation and livelihood..D. cities. presampling requirements/information. Legal protection of species. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. 35 . 1998. Sunderland. EIA requirement. Sinauer. Lahore). and Morre. 3. management. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. 2000. croplands. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. Rawalpindi. refrigeration and freezing methods. Associates Inc. A Primer for Conservation Biology. Recommended Books: 1. ecotourism.e. NOC for plant operation. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. C. 2ndEd. Kings College. protected areas. plants. water. Saad Printers. London. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan.. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora.R. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. air. Considerations. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. Preservation methods including pH control. field custody. Mirza. Cox. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. population. 2000. soil and living organisms.B. conservation in man-made ecosystems.. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation.B. design and types of samples. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. conservation strategies.B. quality assessment. Publ. international agreements. Biogeography. P. Course Outlines Introduction. national and international laws and regulations. quality control sampling.conservation at species. chemical addition. habitats. Conservation of wildlife. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. Quality assurance and quality control. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques.

New York. 2000. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. Chapman and Hall. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. McKlivie. altered community structure. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. Tokyo. S. E.. (ed) Springer. Earth Observation of Global Change. Environmental Monitoring Handbook.1999. regional. Korte. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. its causes and effects. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. 6. Ozone depletion. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. F. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. 2002. E. Keith. extinctions. Moisture in the Atmosphere. Environmental Chemistry. 7. (eds. Manahan. 8. human health. Burden. Human responses to potential climate change. 2nd Edition. Lewis Publisher London. . Air Pollution and Acid Rain. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. S. Recent Climate Change Indicators. Chuviero. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. 1992.Recommended Books: 1. biological. and Guethner. 2002. chemical. N. 2. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. UK. Peakall. Energy and Temperature. phenological changes. 5. Precipitation.) McGraw-Hill. D. I. USA. Physical. agriculture. The Measurement of Climate Change. R. 2008.. Japan Association on Remote Sensing.1996. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. Regional droughts and 36 . USA. Remote Sensing Note.USA. USA. 2008. H. Technomic Publishing Company Inc. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. L. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. D. Forstner U. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. 3. Murai.

T. 2003. overview. 2003.Causes. 1986. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. Petts. London. and Solutions. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. 1st Edition. law. J. Glasson. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment.. screening. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. 2005. decision-making to implement the project. 37 . J. impact analysis. 4. Recommended Books: 1. scoping.O. Global Warming and Climate Change. project implementation and follow up. 2000.. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. Cost and benefits of EIA. J. 4. social impact assessment (SIA). National Book Foundation. & Nixon.. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2).. 2005. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. and noise. 2004. EIA project management. 6. Therivel. Oxford.Causes. liquid. Climate Change . A.cataclysmic climate change. 1999. Effects. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. Global Change and the earth system. Hardy. Houghton.. solids. reporting.(ed). J. Harrop. 2. J. 3. 5. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. Routledge. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. public involvement. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Types & Resources to produce Energy. John Wiley & Sons. A. Climate Change . 2005. R. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. mitigation and impact management. 3. (ed. Blackwell. 1994. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. Sringer. Islamabad. Islamabad. D. Effects. John Wiley & Sons. Recommended Books: 1. review of EIA quality. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. and Solutions. Earthscan Publication Ltd. 2.).A. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. Main stages in EIA process. T. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. Keith. London.. Ministry of Housing and Works. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Hardy.. and Chadwick.

. Carpenter. process and contents of the management plan. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. Rangeland Management: existing status. B.. best available option for future. & McCabe. agriculture products and their share in GDP.. effective management. their current status and threats. Conservation in Progress. requirement. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. R. John Willey & Sons. New York. 1997. Goldsmith. Recommended Books: 1. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. Asian Development Bank. Development of Management Plan: needs. Everitt. agriculture chemicals. national and provincial legislation. existing management approaches. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. and Tu. wildlife census.. national agriculture policy. Types. Ludwig. Lohani. limitation in the future. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. B. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. their pros and cons. solar power. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. (ed. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. 2nd Edition. 38 . F. causes and methods for its improvement. Sadler. threat and its causes.B and Warren. threats. wind power and nuclear power. S. M. R. USA.. forest types and its existing management. Evans. management options.. 6. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. J. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources.). Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. H.5. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. 2002. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. A. national example.. management options. United Nations Environment Programme. importance. methodologies. 1993. problem in agriculture.

W. Material Methods. 5. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. and Jorqensen. Thousand Oaks. Islamabad. Creswell. J. & Plano Clark. 1990. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. 2007. Elsevier. John Wiley & Sons. to introduce students to research design. USA. Questionnaire. population and sampling frames.E.F. 1992. S. V. London.Amsterdam. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). concepts and terminologies. New York. 1984. Scientific Research: Science. Literature Search: Database.. Review of Literature. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. P. Dasmann. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. types of sampling design/. Inference based on findings. Search Engines. research methods. Hansen. Scientific Methods. 3. Surveys. 4. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. 39 . The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Interviews. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. Research Proposal: its importance . How to put things together? Introduction.2. Bibliography. R.A pre-requisite for Research. Objectives.E. Case Studies. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. Review of Literature.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. Environmental Conservation. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. Experimental Research. Methodology.L. Sampling: the logic of sampling. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. Sage CA. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. Selecting the Research Method. GOP and IUCN. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Research Design & Research Methods.

Marilyn F. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. 2008. SNBP Local Government Ordinance.. 2nd Edition. E. USA. 6. England. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. of Chicago Press.Batty. Chichester. 2003. Diamon. Law Books House. National Environmental Policy 4. 4. Belmont California. Government of Pakistan 3. Moriarty. 3. Qadar. John and sons Ltd. Booth. M. and Arhonditsis.h. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking.S. 5. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance.USA. 2000. R.. National Conservation Strategy 5. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. USA. Survey Research Methods. 2001. Sage Publishers. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Students project in Environmental Science. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. S. 3rd Edition. 2003. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. 2. Robert Yin. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . Babbie.. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. 1997. 1997. regulations made there under. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers.2.Harrad. Univ. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. 1989. G. Wadsworth Publishing Company.. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. Recommended Books: 1.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). Mirajuddin Publication . and Malik. pollution aspects. flood and droughts. Recommended Books: 1. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. A. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. K. 6.. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. Biswas. P. Pakistan. A. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. Bengali. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. wetlands resources management.). N.1993. and Qamar. O.. flood and drought management. virtual water. recycling and re-use of wastewater. I. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. groundwater exploitation.K.. Khan. 1993. Ahmed. U. Pakistan . Indus Water Accord 1991.. Cheema. Ahmed. 5. 2003. The Politics of Managing Water.. R. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. 3. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. Revised & enlarged edition. N. C. with drinking water facilities like springs. 2006.). how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan.. (ed. water quality and quantity aspects. Oxford University Press Karachi. Islamabad.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. Islamabad. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects. 44 . A. Asia Printer. 2005.. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. and Tortajada. SDPI Oxford University Press. R. tubewells. hydrological cycle. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. 2006. Mirajuddin Publication . 4. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment.Varis.Lahore. (eds. integrated water resources management (IWRM). 2. Briscoe. fisheries management. Oxford University Press New Delhi. water supply and demand management measures. J. Lahore. watershed/catchment.

11th Edition. and Weil. Islamabad. 1. After completion of this course. E. urban flora and fauna. USA. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. Physical and chemical properties of soil. CA.C.. Upper Saddle River. Urban ecosystem. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. soils.R. Course Outlines Introduction. Cation and anion exchange. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. D. USA. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. Soil degradation. hydrological processes. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. Types and properties of parent materials. PrenticeHall. Factors and processes of soil formation.. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. transport. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. 2007. R. Pakistan. Soil forming minerals. Urbanization. Soils in Our Environment. Process and outcome. Bashir. Gardiner. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. future of urban centers. Course Outlines Introduction. the salient features of urban environments. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. management and green productivity. R. urban landscapes characteristics. urban political ecology. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. urban settlements. Upper Saddle River. San Diego. urbanization in Pakistan.T. 2008. and Bantel. USA.W. 1996. 45 . NJ. NJ. 2007. Soil Science. Forms of urbanization. Academic Press. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. D. Prentice Hall. Causes of urbanization. Definition. Hillel. humans as components of urban ecosystems. N. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. National Book Foundation. Brady. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. R. Miller.

46 . 2.. J.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. C. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. 2006. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. Elements of urban planning. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. The Works: Anatomy of a City. CRC Press LLC. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. Hough. nd 2 Edition. Chapman and Hall. Sukopp. 2007. 3. The planning process. 2004. D.1990. Ward. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments.. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. Silberstein.and Kowaril. Planning and Urban Change. Smith. S. O. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. I.L.. Alberti. H. Aims and Objectives of planning. 1. 2009. Justification for planning for city management. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. Hague. UR. UK. 5. City Design for Sustainable Development. Hejny. Routledge. Levels of planning. 4. Springer. Routledge. Penguin Group. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. SBS academic publishing. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. Scope. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. M. UK. V.S.. 2.and Maser. nature and purpose of urban planning. New trends in planning and city management. London. Planning theories and concepts.. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. 1989. UK. Gilbert. M. Types of Urban Plans. Planning and its relationship with other professions. New York. Kate. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. London. S. USA. A. 2004. USA. 2000. Principles of planning. Land use planning theories. Recommended Books: 1. SAGE Publications Ltd.

2nd Edition. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. New York. 1993. Flooding. H. Disaster Management: Components of management.UNESCO. and Woodrow. G.W. 1993. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. 1989. Earthquake Management. i. Recommended Books: 1. D.B. Kates. Political factors. P..W. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. 4..J. International phenomenon. 1991. and White G. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. 2. Government of Pakistan. Natural Disasters Alexander. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. Manila. Clara. Chapman & Hall. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. Physical factors. Landslide. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. Cultural factors. Paris. It discusses a wide range of aspects. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. Earthquake. Role of Media in Disaster Management. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. UK.3. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. Different approaches and Indicators. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Ministry of Housing and Works. 1986. Prediction.e. Introducing Town Planning.F. Flood Management: Organizational Role.. 3. ADB. Longman Group. Socio-economic factors.. 47 . E&UA Div. New York. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. Disaster as an opportunity for development.... Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. Natural cycles and their role. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. R. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. 4.. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. Boulder . The Guilford Press. 1993. Westview Press. Hazards. M. Islamabad.

Farming practices for pests and weeds control. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. sustainable energy management. OECD/IEA. D. 1984. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Agroecology. 2. Schoch. Quorum Books. Consumer and producer relationship. Sustainable livestock management. Ecological concept in crop and food production.W. R. Westport. Paris. New York. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. 6th Edition. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources.L. F. merits and demerits of wind. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. 2007. solar. biomass resources. energy resources of Pakistan. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity.M. Botkin. Perry R. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. 2001. M. and Yonavjak. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. E. decomposers.A. types. USA. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment.. A. Biotic structure. 6. uses.5. 4th Edition. L. 3. and Mushkatel. alternate energy resources. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. 2007. 1.. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. 48 .. consumers. John Wiley and Sons. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. Disasters and Development Cuny.H. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. energy resources.B and Keller. local. primary producers. hydropower. McKinney. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Deforestation for agricultural purposes.C. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. 1983.

C. and Sudha.. E-11 Seminar 49 . Westview Press. India. Kapur. 2. New Delhi.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. McGraw Hill Publishing Company.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity.P.A.G. R. Corol. Recommended Books: 1.H. M. Experimental Plant Ecology. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. 3. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. 1990. 2000. Agrocology. USA.M. 1995. and Rossel. New York. Yandermeer J. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. Altreri. P.R. USA. CBS Publishers and Distributors. Study of stratification and profile diagram. Study of index of diversity. Boulder.

the Committee agreed on the following principles. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. 50 . To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. 3. availability of the faculty and other facilities.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. 5. 4. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. 2. that: 1.

10. 25. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 11. 12. 5. 6. 23. 7. 19. 3. 14. 15. 8. 3. 2. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 11. 17. 9. 8. 20. 16. 24. 9. 22. 26. 4. 6. 18. 13. 4. 5. 10. 21. 7.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 2. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 12. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 .

development of concepts. Conservation Strategies.E. Islamabad.. Oxford University Press. S. Draft National Environmental Policy. Geography of Pakistan. 2. NCS. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. S. 3. S.DETAILS OF M. P. Money. Ball. 2nd Edition. Hansen. Conventions and Protocols in Global. GOP and IUCN. FURTHER READINGS 1. Amsterdam.1994. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. 1991. Khan K. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). 1992. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future.1995. status of Terrestrial. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. 1987. D. WCS. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. Hodder and Stoughton. Instruments and methods. and Jorqensen. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change.A. F... Relationship of culture.E. Oxford University Press. Recommended Books: 1. Provincial and Local Strategies. Regional and International Environmental Issues. 4. Karachi. technology and resource use. Treaties.. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. and Bell.T.1991. 2.S. 3. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan.F.1994. London. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. Environment People and Economy. Mackenzie J. Elsevier. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. London Black Stone Press Ltd. 52 . Mackenzie. Environmental control Policies..

FURTHER READINGS 1. Cost benefit analysis of projects. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. opportunities and issues. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Recommended Books: 1. John Wiley & Sons.. Harlow Essex. 1995. Ministry of Environment.A. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. 1993. World Bank.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. England. F & Bronstein. Principles of physical. role and importance. social impact assessment. Wastewater. Sectoral guidelines for EIA. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. Demographic impact assessment. D. process. 1995. Environmental Chemical Analysis. economic impact assessment. History. Case Studies and review. 53 . 2. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. K. Washington. A. C. 3. ecological impact assessment. ed. Wood. 2. sampling rules. Air and Solid Waste. procedures and methods of EIA. UK. Chichester. WB. Ahmed. sample collection and preservation.Vanclay. Environment Department. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental auditing. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. Gas Chromatography etc. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. Longman House. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. Ed. A one Publishers Lahore. DC. Longman Scientific and Technical. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. Assessment of environmental impacts. Burnt Hill. Government of Pakistan. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition).

Project Planning. Mantel s. 1st ed. Need identification. 2nd Ed. B. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. 4. 2. Oxford University Press New York. Ergonomic and Safety. air borne. Wiley Interscience. R. 2002. M/S Banarsid. Resource Mobilization. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). T. and Wright. inputs. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. principles and practices.2000. Accident prevention and safety plans. Project Management Institute. T. Project Initiation. outputs.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. Inc. de Kok. USA. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. economic evaluation. R.. Yassi. 1998. Park. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects)... means of verification. A. Government Policies and Programs. prevention and control. 2. T. Prentice Hall International Inc. T. Occupational Health: problems and issues. 1st Ed. Planning Commission Performas. Environmental Health Engineering.. Recommended Books: 1. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. M. 1992. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. Defining Project objectives. feasibility study.. 5. work breakdown structure. 1993. J. J. New York. Lippmann. activities. specific objectives.. A Guide to Project Management. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. Kjelllström. 3. S.. development objectives. 54 . Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. Public health concept. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. USA. Project Life Cycle. John Wiley and Sons. Writing Project Proposal. Basic Environmental Health. L. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. 1997.. and Guidotti. Reasons for Project success or failure. indicators. Nebel. Primary health care services. Caeneross. safety techniques.. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. 2001. London. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. UK. Meredith J. Project Planning and Approval Processes. assumptions. K. 1st Ed.

alternate energy resources. M. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. D. 2007. sustainable energy management for agriculture. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. bio-energy resources. ISO Central Secretariat. R. 2. 2001. non-renewable and renewable. USA. E. 2007. 2. energy resources. 1990b. Principles of cleaner production. Switzerland. Recommended Books: 1. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. 4th Edition. types. industry and domestic sectors. Michigan-January 2001. John Wiley and Sons. Recommended Books: 1. Paris. Environmental Auditing. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment).B and Keller. 1998. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. solar. 3. 6th Edition. Paris. St Luise Press. D. Sayre. nuclear) local. Related Environmental regulations. and Yonavjak. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet.. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. uses.A. transport. 4. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. merits and demerits of wind. hydropower. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. petroleum. energy resources of Pakistan. OECD/IEA. gas. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. principles and elements of the process of EMS. Sources of data. Schoch. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. Environmental auditing. Botkin.L.M. L. 55 . Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. 3. data collection and interpretation. McKinney. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management.

Shulze.. Climate Change . etc. John Wiley & Sons. Climate change and food production. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. Hardy.). T. J. J. Plant Ecology. Recommended Books: 1. K. 2004. 1st Edition.Causes. Silvertown. B & Jager. and Solutions. UK. Effects. types of climate change models. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. The Green House Effect. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. types and their climatic effects. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. ED. & Charlesworth. 5. Berlin.T. 2. Oxford. E. geographical and temporal patterns. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. Life history strategies of plants. 4. 56 . Maarel. global aspects of plant ecology. forests. plant invasions. vegetation dynamics. London. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Blackwell Publishing. water resources. 2005. Effects. competition and coexistence. UK 1991. Warrick. Earthscan Publication Ltd. human activities and vegetation dynamics. 3. resources and plants. 2005. Hardy.D. E & Muller-Hohenstein. Blackwell Publishing. Climate Change and Ecosystems. Vegetation Ecology Ed. Springer. Beck. 2. D. Climate Change . Chichester. D. 3.Causes. management and restoration.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. 2005. John Wiley & Sons. Modeling of climate change. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. 2005. 2003. Green House Gases. survival and extinction. ECOPE 29. Recommended Books: 1. 2003. Plant population dynamics. plant conservation. 1. Species richness. and Solutions. J. Houghton.. (Ed. John Wiley & Sons. Oxford UK.

S. Principles of Wildlife Management. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. status. USA. W. Wetlands. Oxford. London. Weddell.(2nd Ed. Participatory forest management. 3. Consumptive.B. 2002. Essentials of Conservation Biology. 3.A. Wildlife of Pakistan. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. Cambridge.J. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. Publishers Sunderland. threats and conservation. Blackwell Publsihing. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. J. types. Primack.) Gaston. Oxford University Press. 2004. Establishment and management of protected areas. 1986. 2. Threatened animals and plants.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction. Robinson. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. And Bolen. Loss of biodiversity. & Ripley. distribution. Conserving Living Natural Resources.D.J.L. UK. 1998. Oxford. 2002. Roberts. deforestation and its control. B. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. 1992. Cambridge University Press. Inc. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan. habitats and ecosystems. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. 57 . Forests. & Spicer. Wildlife Ecology and Management. Recommended Books: 1. distribution. K. Protection and restoration of species. 4. their types and role in conservation. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. 1984. 5. Mcmillan. kinds. problems and solutions. John Wiley And Sons. Recommended Books: 1. management. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. their importance. J. Oxford. R.J. Biodiversity: An introduction. II). S. distribution and management. Sinauer Assocaites. Bailey. types. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol.G. biological diversity. UK. Forest plantations. Protected areas in Pakistan. Oxford University Press.J. Cambridge. their ecological and economic importance. Roberts. Status of forests in Pakistan. its causes. I). T. T. Extinction of species. Rangeland management. Sustainable forest management. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. Oxford University Press. 1973 2. E. Protected areas. Global and national biodiversity.

E&UA Div. London. UK. Ministry of Housing and Works. S. 2. A. G. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. C. 1986.. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. New York.and Maser. Penguin Group. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. drinking water and solid waste in cities. Government of Pakistan. Environmental problems of urban life. 2004. Kate. urban systems and their characteristics. USA. urban landscape characteristics. Sustainable cities. V. urban political ecology. USA. Forms of urbanization. SAGE Publications Ltd. Ward..COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. UK. 58 . Recommended Books: 1. 4. management of transport. sanitation. urbanization in Pakistan. 3. H. 1993. future of urban centers... Silberstein. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. 2000. Longman Group. Urban land use planning and management. Planning and Urban Change. The Works: Anatomy of a City. 2007. Islamabad. Clara. J. Introducing Town Planning. CRC Press LLC.

Annexure . clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. Thomson and A.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. Martinet. 1997.J. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. Oxford University Press.V. ISBN 0194313492 59 . Practical English Grammar by A. Exercises 1. Third edition. a) Functional English Grammar 1.

Martinet. b) Practical English Grammar by A. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. Thomson and A. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Oxford University Press.V. and speed reading. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Third Impression 1992. Exercises 2. Fourth Impression 1993. 1997. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin.J. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. Upper Intermediate. Reading/Comprehension 1. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. minutes of meetings. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . Reading. Third edition. Writing. intensive and extensive. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Oxford Supplementary Skills.2.

Third edition. Writing. Advanced. Writing. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. 2. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Oxford Supplementary Skills. content. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. language. Oxford University Press 1986. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Third Impression 1992. Exercises 2. Oxford Supplementary Skills. introduction to presentations. Writing. form. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Thomson and A.1. narrative. 2. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Advanced by Ron White. Fourth Impression 1993. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Third Impression 1991. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. descriptive and argumentative writing). b) Writing 1.V. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. discursive. Martinet. Reading 1. Reading. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Fourth Impression 1992.J. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . clarity. Practical English Grammar by A.

St. descriptive. Martin’s Press. Compiled by norther Illinois University. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. 2004. 3. College Writing Skills by John Langan. 2. Mandell. Kirszner and Stephen R. argumentative and report writing). Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. A Custom Publication. 62 . without taxing the taste of engineering students). Kathleen Shine Cain. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader.(particularly suitable for discursive. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G.

Historical Perspective a. 1994. government. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. Contemporary Pakistan a. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Economic institutions and issues b. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. 2. contemporary Pakistan.M. Zaidi. 63 Books Recommended 1. Shahid Javed. . Lahore.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Society and social structure c. b. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. 2000. S. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. Location and geo-physical features. ideological background of Pakistan. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. Course Outline 1. S. 1988-99 f. 1947-58 b. 1993. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Indus Civilization ii. 2.Annexure . 1971-77 d. Study the process of governance. 1977-88 e. People and Land i. State & Society in Pakistan. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. national development. 3. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. Muslim advent iii. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. 1958-71 c. Safdar. 4. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. 1999 onward 3. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Mehmood. Ethnicity d. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Akbar. politics.

Lahore: Vanguard. Wayne. I. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Ansar. 10. Pakistan Under Martial Law.National Movement in Pakistan. M. Institute of Public Policy Research. Party. Safdar. 11. Zahid. Tahir. II & III. 14. 1972. 1980.. The Political System of Pakistan. Afzal. 13. Vol. 64 . History & Culture of Sindh. Islamabad. 9. 12. 1998. Mehmood.5. Political Parties in Pakistan. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Noor ul. Wilcox. Washington: American Enterprise. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Khalid Bin. 8. Club Road. Ethno .K. Lawrence. nd. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. 1980. Enigma of Political Development. Rafique.The Emergence of Banglades. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. 1987. Politics in Pakistan. Sayeed. Aziz. Muhammad Waseem. K. Amin. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. 1976. 1967. Haq. 7. Ziring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. 6. 1993.

C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.20) Related to thinking.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.58. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.21.A.57.19.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.56.40.A.A.Tadabar (Verse No1.6. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.Annexure .63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.A.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .

in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.

International Islamic University. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. IRI. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. “Studies in Islamic Law. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Pakistan.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. Bhatia.S. Islamabad (2001) 67 . “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. Ahmad Hasan. ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. “Emergence of Islam” .

introduction to sets. matrix inverse. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. determinants. system of linear equations. 1986. 1987. equations reducible to quadratic equations. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. harmonic progression. Houghton & Mifflin. not majoring in mathematics. Boston 68 . qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. Cramer’s rule. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. PWS-Kent Company. trigonometric identities. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. Sharron S. Boston Swokowski EW. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Wooton W. Beckenback EF. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. PWS-Kent Company.Annexure . Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. geometric progression. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. functions. set operations. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. 1978.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). College Algebra and Trigonometry. cube roots of unity. types. complex numbers. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. types of functions.

with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. Calculus (3rd edition). slope of a line. equation of a line. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. various forms of equation of a line. 2005. not majoring in mathematics. 69 . parallel and perpendicular lines. integration by substitution. Boston Thomas GB. integration by parts. rational and transcendental functions. Recommended Books: Anton H. Finney AR. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). inequalities. left-hand and right-hand limits. Davis S.2. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. solution of equations involving absolute values. change of variables in indefinite integrals. New York Stewart J. continuous functions. USA 3. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. differentiation of polynomial. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. Ma. Bevens I. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. intersection of two lines. distance between two points. distance between a point and a line. Reading. Addison-Wesley. 1983. John Wiley. Calculus (11th edition). not majoring in mathematics. derivatives. 1995. angle between two lines. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. PWS-Kent Company. 2005. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. continuity. functions and their graphs.

set operations. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). Boston Swokowski EW. Conic Sections: Parabola. Analytic Geometry. PWS-Kent Company. circles determined by various conditions. nature of roots of quadratic equations. Cramer’s rule. 1969 Kaufmann JE. Scott. 1987. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. functions. • Contents 1. hyperbola. system of linear equations. Introduction to sets. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. intersection of lines and circles. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. determinants. inverse of matrices. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. types of functions. PWS-Kent Company. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. College Algebra and Trigonometry. types of matrices.Circle: Equation of a circle. equations reducible to quadratic equations. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. ellipse. locus of a point in various conditions. Freshman and Company. 1986. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. Boston 4. 70 . • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Matrices: Introduction to matrices.

Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes... Walpole.. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. Prentice Hall. standard deviation. PWS-Kent Company. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. trigonometric identities. characteristics of statistics. variance. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. discrete and continuous series. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. Measures of dispersion: Range. Latest Edition. cumulative frequency curve. Boston. skewness and kurtosis. moments. 4. R. bar frequency diagram histogram. Latest Edition. Kaufmann. ungrouped and grouped data. array. 71 . ‘Introduction of Statistics’. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. 5. Latest Edition.. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. Wilcox. tally sheet method. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. quartiles. Swokowski. Books Recommended: 1. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. E. 3. relationship of statistics with social science. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. R. circle and trigonometric functions. types of frequency series. W. 2. individual. E. 2. E. Graphs: Graph of straight line. frequency polygon. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. R. J.geometric and harmonic progressions. deciles and percentiles.

Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . Gleason. Calculus. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. theorems of differentiation. Least-Squares Line. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. 6. implicit differentiation. Prentice-Hall. 8th edition. the chain rule. Jhon Willey & Sons. Davis. and Transcendental Functions. Bevens. logarithmic integration. Trigonometric Functions. Solution of equations involving absolute values. et al. John Wiley & Sons. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. special points of a function. Integration by Parts. 2. sinusoidal function. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. applications of integration. Calculus. Contents 1. Leibnitz’ theorem. integral inequalities. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. integration using partial fractions. 1999. 4th edition. 3. logarithmic differentiation. Inc. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. 6. Extreme Values of Functions. Inc. 2. Thomas. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. integration by inspection. Swokowski. Mathews. S. infinite and improper integrals. McCallum. John H. Hughes-Hallett. reduction formulae. substitution method. H. 1983. Addison Wesley publishing company. • Integration Integration from first principles. 2005. Schaum’s Outline Series. Recommended Books: 1. Second Edition 1992. the inverse of differentiation. Slope of a Line.Jr. Continuous Functions. 3rd Edition. Calculus Single and Multivariable. plane polar coordinates. Equation of a Line. Rational Functions. Inequalities. Anton. integration by parts. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. 11th Edition. 2005. I. Boston. Calculus. quotients. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. 4. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. Rational and Transcendental Functions. 5. Elliott Mendelson. W. Frank A. 2002. products. Continuity. E.

modulus and argument. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. identities of hyperbolic functions. solving hyperbolic equations. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms.Additions and subtraction. finding the nth roots of unity. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. complex conjugate. geometric series. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. multiplication. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. the difference method. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. series involving natural numbers. inverses of hyperbolic functions. approximation errors in Taylor series. arithmetico-geometric series.

masses. line to line. Pappus’ theorems. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. point to plane. centers of mass and centroids. 6. Hermitian. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. scalar triple product. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. orthogonal. of a unitary matrix. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. moments of inertia. the inner product. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. symmetric and antisymmetric.5. vector product.

Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. divergence of a vector field. combinations of grad. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates.8. spherical polar coordinates 75 . differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field.

76 . Stem and Leaf Display. Editing of Data. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Exercises. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Standardized variables. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. null and alternative hypothesis.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Exercises. Errors of measurement. Change of origin and scale. Coefficient of variation. Range. Presentation of Data Introduction. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Statistical problem. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Sources. Constructing of a frequency distribution. Exercises. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Median and mode. Poisson and Normal Distribution. level of significance. sampling and non sampling errors. The Mode. Exercises. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. definition of outliers and their detection. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Exercises Unit 6. Difference of means and proportions. Quantiles. Ogive for Discrete Variable. sample design and sampling frame. properties of Good Average. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Test statistics. Unit 3. Discrete and continuous variables. Empirical Relation between Mean. Graphs and their Construction. Exercises. Population. Bar charts.Annexure . Historigram. Histogram. Unit 4. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Absolute and relative measures. Rounding of a Number. Unit 2. The Variance and standard deviation. Types of frequency curves. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. acceptance and rejection regions. bias. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Probability and Probability Distributions. Unit 7. Moments and Moments ratios. Data. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Observations. Pie chart. The Mean Deviation. Different types of Averages. Exercises. probability and non-probability sampling. Box and Whisker Plot. Type-I and Type-II errors. Significant digits. Unit 5. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. sampling with and without replacement. Diagrams. The semi-Interquartile Range. Collection of primary and secondary data.

“Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. examples. Exercises Unit 10. 1982. Exercises Unit 9. 2005. F. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. cause and effect relationships.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. Exercises. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. simple linear regression. R. Kitab Markaz. Contingency Tables... 77 . 3rd Ed. Coefficient of linear correlation. E. Macmillan Publishing Co. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. its estimation and interpretation. 2 Muhammad.Unit 8. Regression and Correlation Introduction. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. Inc. Testing of Hypothesis. “Introduction to Statistics”. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. Correlation. Unit 11. New York. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. estimation of parameters and their interpretation.Single Population Introduction. r and R2.

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