CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

2

CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
58

3

new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. degree awarding institutions. DR. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. R&D organizations. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges.ALTAF ALI G. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. It also aimed to give a basic. PROF. and 36. It is. Lahore.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education.). imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. therefore. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. 63. D773/76-JEA (cur. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. the Federal Government vide notification No. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . The world has turned into a global village. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. universities and other institutions of higher education. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. dated December 4th 1976. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards.

CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. UNI. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. Preparation 5 . IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. OF FINAL CURRI. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. R&D. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. OF CURRI. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. OF NCRC. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. EXP. REC. COL. PREP.

Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Dr. Dr. Member 4. Karachi from 28-30. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. 7. Lahore Member 6. Dr. Member 6 . Member 5. Following attended the meeting:1. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Rawalpindi Dr. Rawalpindi Dr. Member 3. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline.

Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Member 10. Dr. Dr.8. Prof. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Dr. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. 7 . Prof. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Member 14. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. 13. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Member 11. Member 16. Member 15. Dr. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Karachi Member 12. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Dr. Dr.

Director of HEC Regional Center. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. The meeting was opened by Mr. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. 8 . Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. Dr.17. Member 19. Secretary Dr. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. Mr. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. 1. Member 20. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. Mr. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Karachi. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Dr. 2. At first. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Faisalabad Member 18. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. Chairman. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University.

The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. 1. The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. The committee thanked Mr. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. In last few centuries. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities.3. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. 2. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses. 4. 5. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. 6. 3.

Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. ii. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us. 5. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. This committee. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. skills and behaviour patterns.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. regional and global contexts. in its preliminary meeting. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. Apply theoretical understanding. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development.

4. with consensus. Integrating natural sciences. eight semesters in the semester system. Sc. 2. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. 6. 5. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. 3.. A. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science.e. The 11 . 1. The medium of instruction. that: 1. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science.

The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Biology –II* 9. Environmental Pollution 22. English-II 12. English-III 18. Introduction to Earth Science 8. Environmental Physics 16. Environmental Microbiology 21. Introductory Economics* 17. Psychology* . Introduction to Computer 14.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. Basic Chemistry* 4. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Environmental Chemistry 15. Biology –I* 3. Climatology* 23. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. English-I 6. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Sociology/Anthropology* 11.

Environmental Management Systems 34. 45. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. Climate Change 38. Environmental Monitoring 36.24. 46. Applied Ecology 26. Natural Resource Management 40. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. Opt. Environmental toxicology 27. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . ELECTIVE-III 42. Environmental Economics 29. English-IV/ Univ. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. Environmental Biotechnology 32. 44. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37.

• Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical.

M. 2007. 15 . Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. Wright. 4th Ed.J. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future.B & Keller. Human environment and its problems: global. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development. Recommended Books: 1. ethical. regional. R. and their relationships with various environmental factors. E.M. 2002.. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. its importance in human life. 10th Ed.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. history. urbanization. John Wiley & Sons.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. current global. 6th Ed.L. Botkin. proteins and nucleic acids. Different aspects of environment: physical.T. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. 4. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. lipids. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. development in industry and agriculture. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. 2007. & Yonavjak. philosophical. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. L. socio-economic. biological and social. 2007 3. G. environmental pollution. & Nebel. 2. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. D. national. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. Miller. Schoch. B. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. McKinney. Pearson Educational. R.A. Thomson Learning. poverty and resource depletion.. ecological.

Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. M. chemical basis of life. Cells. C. Crossley. R. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. USA. USA. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. 2008. Lingappa. New York. E. Aromatic compounds. lipids. Canada. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt. 8th Ed. B. V. McGraw. 2007. Structure and the basis of function. carbonyls.. Bulter. Ionic. Shier. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 1996. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. protobionts. 2007.. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. carboxylic acids.. 3. R. Origin of life: chemical evolution. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. phospholipids in membrane systems. 5. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. 5th Edetion. 16 . The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. G. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. 4. chemical diversity. esters.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life.. Cassimeris. Plopper. J. polypeptides in protein diversity. Molecular Biology through Questions. and Lewis. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. lipids. Nucleic acids. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. carbohydrates. Australia . amines).. Starr. N. 2003. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. overview of structure and function of cell organelles. Cell division. Wadsworth Group. A. D.Hill International Edition. 2. the molecule of genetic information and replication. USA. proteins. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. L. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. Self Assessment and Revie. coordinate covalent bond. Study of mitosis in onion root tip. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. origin of metabolism. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. Ltd. Lewis. covalent. and Whitelaw. Introduction to cell biology. Biology: a Human Emphasis. 1.

K.ions. determinants. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. straight line and related concepts. F.M.. 6th Edition. Understanding Environmental Pollution. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. M. Andrews. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). 2004. P.. Photochemical reactions. West. and Holler.. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry.H.. UK. graphs. B.E. minor and cofactor of a matrix. Skoog.J. real line. double angle formulas. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). D. Jickells. Brimblecombe.. W. D. and Reid. 17 . USA. 2. molal. Liss. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Jones and Barlett. J.. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. Osmosis and Dialysis. simultaneous equations and their solutions. Blackwell Science.J.A.D. expansion of determinants. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. geometric and harmonic sequence. Cambridge University Press.. USA. 2004. Hill. 5. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. 1st Ed. 2004. T.C. Girard. Thomson and Brooks.Special Products (Binomial Expression). Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. 8th Edition. 2003. D. 4. series and means. 2nd Edition. Column chromatography.. Use of spectrophotometric techniques. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. 2005. Harris. EC and TDS in waste water. UK. Recommended Books: 1. Measurement of pH. 2nd Edition. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. Thin layer chromatography. 3. angle-sum formula.S. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers. Colloids chemistry. equations of lines (linear equations). Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. Freeman and Company. Solution chemistry. radicals. Surface chemistry.E. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). Algebra of matrices. Lab Work Preparation of molar. law of Cosines. P. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. J. Canada. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field.. normal solutions/buffers. values of trigonometric functions.

18 . Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. Analytical Geometry. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. K. Trignometry for College students. product and quotient rules without derivations). its origin. Fossils and their significance. nonrepeated linear factors. Earth as a member of solar system. foliation. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors. L. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. Integration: Formulas of integration. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. California. Scott Foresman and Company. 4. 10th Ed.Wesley.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. New Delhi. and Finney. S. Introduction to folds. Weathering. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. composition and its internal structure. weathering and erosion. erosion and related landforms. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. 1999. Geological time scale and life through geological ages. Abraham. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. Narosa Publishing House. Smith. lineation and unconformities. R. Jr. cleavages. the processes of their formation.Cramer’s Rule. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. plate tectonics. D.B.. igneous and metamorphic rocks. Addission. theorems on differentiation (sum. earthquakes. J. mountain building. by parts integration (simple applications). Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. different earth processes like mountain buildings. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. earthquakes and volcanoes. Introduction to rocks and minerals. 3. difference. Thomas.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . age. joints. faults. G. Chain rule. 2. Pacific Grove. Recommended Books: 1. Introduction to sedimentary.. theorem of integration. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . 4th Ed. Chatterjee. irreducible quadratic factors.

It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. 19 . environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms.. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. and Pun. Field Study tour.. causes of extinction. interactions among diversified life. measuring biodiversity. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. F. examples of adjustments in varied environment. Park.. Biodiversity of canal. Recommended Books: 1. 2007 2. Foundations of Structural Biology. 2005. invasion of life on land. Darwinism. Geographical aspects of biodiversity. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. F. J. 4.. K. and Tasa. Physical Geology and Process of Science. Routledge. Smith. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat.Identification of rocks and minerals. Life in sea. molecular basis of biodiversity. Earth Science. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. 2007 3. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. 5th Edition. D.. and Tasa. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. Prentice Hall. Tarbuck. 11th Edition.. J. Brooks/Cole.. and Monroe. consequences of losing biodiversity.. different classification systems. Tarbuck. Prentice Hall: 2006. R. 3rd Edition. J. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . 9th Edition. D.II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. Lutgens. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. Biodiversity of hilly areas. 2004. Biodiversity of deserts.. Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. protocell formation. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories. biodiversity crises. multicellularity. unicellularity. Lamarckism. G. G. Wicander. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. Lutgens. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. animals). How Does Earth Work. E. R. Prentice Hall. E. A. K. population loss and decline. 5. Use of brunton compass and GPS. modern concepts. Geological time chart with biodiversity.

Adam. 2009. a Human Emphasis. and concerns. Biodiversity (An Introduction). (editors). Nora and Wilk. The Biosphere. P. J. New York: New York University Press. K. 2000. 2005. Recommended Books: 1. Prospect Heights. Hannen. Biology. 3. 20 . Bradbury. C. Use of environment for vested interest. power & hegemony. 3. Culture.. 2006. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. Starr. Chronological. 4. culture and society. Crumley. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. I. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . UK. Scope and application. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. Tripartite nature of environment.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. L. Perspective of human-environment evolution. C. Conceptualizing environment. John Wiley and Sons. 2003. UK. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. globalization and environmental issues. 5th Edition. I. J. (editor). 2. 2009. Understanding the environment-human relationship. Routledge. The Ecology of global consumer culture. 2.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. Blackwell Science Ltd. Inc. Environmental Risks and the Media. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. K. 2001. and Spicer.K. Inc. Consumption.. IL:WavelandPress. Townsend. Wadsworth Group. Contemporary environment issues and debate. 2nd Edition. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. Allan & Carter. R. Gaston. Walnut Creek. Goals and expectations. USA. UK. and Sustainable Living. Contemporary environmental status. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. CA: AltaMira Press.

processing hardware. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . Configurations. Operating system (Windows).London 1996. Selin.1999. G. Types and classification of computers.6th Ed. software packages. Course Outlines Definition. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Ms-Access. K. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. Long l.Microsoft office 2000. 2. internet. Software: Application software.H. Marquis A. Rutledge.. Local Area Network. output hardware. as are their effects on the biosphere. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry. Long N. Fundamentals of computer. 6.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. 2003. computer programs and basic applications. Hardware: Input Hardware..5. Storage hardware. Ms-Excel. Recommended Books: 1. Courter. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. 21 . Introduction to MS-Word. Milton. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure . Ed. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. Ms-Power Point. system software. e-mail. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures.

Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. USA. DoriaSerrano. Environmental impact of various industries.E.. 2004. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts. J. Diffusion. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Environmental Chemistry. T.. and Singh. UK. Turbulent diffusion. 2. Thomson-Brooks. 1st Edition. Fundamentals of aquatic. 4. photosynthesis. 2005. Electromagnetic radiation. Hernandez-Esparza. Germany. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. Solids. their sources and toxic actions. its causes and adverse effects on environment. P.. P. Liquids and Gasses. 2008. Jickells. India. A.. Turbulence. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. Particle physics. Nuclear energy. Fate of pollutants in environment. K.T..M. Basic acoustics. atmospheric and soil chemistry. Samir.D. Equations of fluid dynamics. B. G. Entropy. trophic level. Miller. 2nd Edition. and Reid. Reducing the transmission of sound. Energy conversion. Environmental Chemistry. Active control of sound. Solar spectrum. Energy. Transport of pollutants. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . J. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light..J.G. Environmental Science. 3.S.E. Ibanez. 1999. Springer. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. Conversion of mass. M. J. Jones and Barlett. 2004.. C. Isotopes and radioactive decay. Recommended Books: 1.. Girard. Heat radiation and heat transfer. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. Ozone and UV light. M. Andrews. Blackwell Science.. Ozone chemistry. Turbulent jets and plumes. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter. Chemical reactions. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. Sound and Noise. Canada. interaction of light with matter. Global climate and climatic change... Liss. Human perceptions and noise criteria. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. Brimblecombe. Gaussian plumes in the air. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Fregoso-Infante. 5.

Growth and development. 2008. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. Introductory Environmental Physics. Smith. Guyot. World Bank Publications. Man environmental relationship. C. economic growth. 2006. 2008. G. S. 2. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. economic growth and its measurement. Economic Development. 7th Ed. Wesely Publishers. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. Environmental economics. UK. Field visit. Economic functions of environment. economic welfare and difference among all. Boeker. 2001. Kentucky USA. population and environmental quality. John Wiley and Sons Inc. E. Recommended Books: 1. and Pandis. Todaro. and Resource allocation.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. and Van Grondelle. producer and community point of view. R. concepts and measurement. USA. 4. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. J. 3. Recommended Books: 1. H. Pakistan economic context: National income.. Growth and Environment. Economic management and environmental quality.Economic development.1998. Seinfeld. USA. Natural resources and the economy. interaction between ecology and economic management. economic progress. Routledge. poverty. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. Praxis publishing. P. Course Outlines Introduction to economics. Sustainable development. Physics of the Environment and Climate. 2. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. Yusuf. 23 . S. USA. New York. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. 2001. USA. Measures for sustainable development. N. Impact of economic activity on environment. Environmental Physics. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. Producer behavior. M.

branches of ecology. 2002. 4. 2. USA. London..V. International Thomson Publishing. USA. and White. community. Kessinger Publishing. biogeography. Russell. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy. temperature. Callicott. 3. Ecology. Palgrave Macmillan. J. C. Touchstone Books. soil. N. population. B. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. Recommended Books: 1.. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy. levels of ecological organization. species. 2007.. description of population.A. Farmington Hills. Frodeman. Economics. the ethics of soil. World Bank Publications. B. LLC. community and ecosystem. Course Outlines Introduction. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. ethics and ecology. its fundamental concepts. role of light. A History of Western Philosophy. Shogren. Natural philosophy.. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . 2008. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. J. Ecosystem and its types. water. DeVeer. England. 2008. 4. Hanley.3. B. M. Environmental philosophy and ethics. & Pierce. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. 2009. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. WCIV7AA. Introduction to ethical theory. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. Swift. D. 24 . and systems ecology. Environmental Critics of agriculture. Portland 1967. concepts and approaches.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. R.

productivity of different ecosystems. 2001 5. Fundamentals of Ecology. UK. N. landscape ecology. habitat and niche. Fundamentals of Ecology. Microbial metabolism. and More. J. 1999 4. 2000. M. 1st Ed. B. Thomson Brooks/Cole. 2.topography and air as ecological factors. M C J 1st ed. Chapman. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). various concepts of community. M J. biotic factors. 2004.W. Population distribution and abundance. Cambridge University Press. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. and Barett. Biomes of the world. Tata McGraw-Hill. Populations. Lab Work 25 . Microbiology of terrestrial environments.) Moles. Biogeochemical cycles of C. Ecosystem: structure and function. ecological modeling. Ecology (concepts and applications. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. agricultural and industrial ecosystems. C. Systems ecology. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. G. Dash. New York. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. aquatic microbiology. aero-microbiology and food microbiology. 5th Ed. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. population dynamics. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. E P. Odum. characteristics of urban.L and Reiss. C. landscape changes and their importance. New Delhi. energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem.Cox. and S. 1992. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. After completion of this course. distribution limits. students will be able to understand the significance. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. Concepts of Limiting factors. 3. Ecology (principles and applications). community dynamics. Recommended Books 1. WCB/McGraw-Hill. bacteria and eukarya. plant geography and animal distribution. J. 6th Ed. P. UK. King’s College London.

I..W. R. and Stetzenbach. Cambridge UK..B.L. D.M. Pepper. Pollution Control Strategies.V.L. Hurrst.D. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution.M. transportation & treatments. Maier. Academic Press. Collection. McInernery.J.P. 2. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. isolation.L. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. Microbiology.. Academic Press. Environmental Microbiology. Academic Press. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. McGraw Hill Inc.F. J.A. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. Fuhrmann. USA. Effects of Pollutants. and Klein. 2002. Understanding Environmental Pollution. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. 5.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection.and Brendecke. 2005.I.. Solid Waste generation. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents. P. 2005. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). Weiner. Knudsen. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal.A.. C. and Gerba.K.... Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. L. Recommended Books 1. Water. C. Crawford. purification and preservation. London. 2007.. and Jeffery. Dilution plate technique. Washington DC. J. Prescott. Cambridge University Press. Butterworth-Heinemann. Fate of Environmental Pollutants.. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution.M.A. Case Studies. M.G. (Elsevier) USA. J. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology.1998. 2009.J. Environmental Pollution and Control. 2. Marine & Industrial pollution. D.P. Human & other living organisms. 2005. peppor. Hartel. D. 3.and Vesilaind. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. American Society for Microbiology. 26 .Gerba. New Jersey.. M. Prentice Hall. 4.J. P.R. Sylvia. Recommended Books: 1. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. Noise. F. 3..C.P. and Zuberer. Mean plate count.J.. R. Soil. L. USA. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. 2nd Edition. Harley. 1995. USA. Hill. A.J. Peiece. 4th Edition. G. W. its sources and their effects. 2 Edition. UK. USA. USA.

Radiation and climate. Karachi. 4. Mechanism of heat transfer. K. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). 1992. 27 . Lutgens. 5. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. Spyros. climatic zones of Pakistan.J. Houghton J. Royal book company. A. 2003.E. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology.4. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. Climatology.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld.. The Atmosphere. global circulation. Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. condensation and cloud Formation. . 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . Lawrance K. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere..2nd Editions. air pressure. Cloud Classification. The Hydrologic cycle. A brief historical background and schools of psychology. local winds. American Public Health Association (APHA). 3. Austin Miller. 2. N. 1988. Methods of psychology. John H. The climate of Pakistan. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. Four Spheres of the Earth. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. Weather and Climate. John Wiley and Sons. Tarbuck. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. 2006 5. Sadder. Shamshad. Cambridge University Press. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Factors affecting air Pressure.M. 6th Edition. Marcel Dekkar. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. Environmental psychology.K.W.F. Surface winds. Recommended Books: 1.. 2002. Solar radiations. The Physics of Atmospheres. Pandis..

forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species. Water resources of the world and Pakistan.D. Ecology of food production. solar radiation and primary production. their management and ecological restoration. soil erosion and conservation. T. Restoration of derelict lands. techniques and methods of restoration. Fundamental of Psychology. Water as an ecological resource. Environmental perception and cognition. London. Fisher J. London. CRC Press. P. 1992. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. energy and carbon balance. 5th Edition.. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. Pollution control through Ecology. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. CRC Press. Ecological restoration. Sustainable agricultural practices. species response to pollutants. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. 2. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. carbon dioxide and global climate change.C. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. Future water scenario of Pakistan. concepts.. M. limitation of irrigated agriculture. rivers. Environmental Psychology. threats and mitigation. High population density and psychological impacts. Soil as a natural resource. Course Outline Introduction. 28 . sustainable agriculture. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. Routledge. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. Bell. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives.W. Routledge. and Baum A. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. 2001. Water and distribution of species. soil salinity and water logging. soil resources of Pakistan.A. Sustainable livestock management practices. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher.characteristics and research methods. Eysenck. Recommended Books: 1. Greene. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. Background and scope.

Odum E. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. Shirkat Gah. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. Chemical interactions and their types. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. D. E. toxins & toxicants. A. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Lahore. 2000 2. 2004.I. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water.A. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. Islamabad. Zedler. 29 . Fundamentals of Ecology. G. Oxford. and Memon. R. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways. 2nd ed. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals. biological effects. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. 1989. from natural and anthropogenic sources. USA. 5.. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. Studies in Pakistan Geography. Organs. Synergism. Island Press.National Book Foundation.S. K and Habib. A. in vivo & in vitro assays. Margaret A. P. University of Peshawar. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. their containment and control strategies. water and soil. terminologies: Poisons. Soil Science. B. toxicology of chemicals. Immunological considerations in toxicology. Israr-ud-Din. 3. and Hobbs. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. toxins vs toxicants. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History.P. on human and other living organisms. K. Rashid. and Barett. toxicity screening using microbial systems. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management. Pakistan’s Environment. 2006.. J. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system.. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system.1998. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications.. 4. dose response relationship in living organisms. Falk. 1996. Blackwell Scientific Publications. 5th Edition. soil and air samples. Peshawar.Recommended Books: 1. Potentiation and Addition. Newman. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic.W. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. Mumtaz. J.

2005 2. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. economic aspects of different environmental problems. Recommended Books 1. economic development and the environment. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. T and Turner. Macmillan Press Ltd. culture. USA.). Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. P. Course Outlines Introduction to history. health. Ballantyne. Williams. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. education. industry. geography. General and Applied Toxicology. water resources. State of the Environment-Pakistan . Recommended Books: 30 . W. Hughes. Course Outlines Introduction. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. international trade and the environment. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann.D. B. 3. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. land. Economic: agriculture. USA. 1993. 1996. M. CRC Press Llc. Klassen. pollution control-a general model. Ecological: ecological zones.Recommended Books 1. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. 1st Edition. Vol.M. 2005 2. 5th Edition. the economy and the environment. measuring environmental benefits. major ecosystems. clean development mechanism. 1992. W. topographic zones. McGrawhill. 1st Edition.1 & 2.Science of Poisons . people. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. (ed. 3. urbanization and pollution. Government of Pakistan. USA..

. Recommended Books: 1.R. CSIRO Publ. Sample collection.2002. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. West. 1993. D. Conductivitymetry. units.. Biomarkers in environmental assessment. Reuter.K. Oxford University Press. 31 .UK. Field. BOD. Titrimetery.. A.. Thomson and Brooks. Conductivitymetry. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. and derived S. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. M. water and plant analysis.J. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. Skoog. Environmental Economics. 3. M. Johns Hopkins University Press. D.K. 4. 6th Edition. Peverill. Freeman & Co. 8th Edition.W. Standard solutions and standard curves. Pearce. Fluoride. 2005. Holler. J. USA. Australia. D. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. 3. K. All Solids. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). B. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. Titrimetery.L. precision and accuracy. NO3–N & NH4-N).C. Sparrow and D. 2000. Sample preservation methods. D. C. Use of Potentiometery.I. C. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve.I.A. Kolstad. I.. Spectroscopy and Chromatography.1. Gravimetery. soil (NPK and organic matter contents.and Field.. Harris. L. salinity & sodicity). Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. COD. preparation and storage. and Batemen. handling.2004. 1999. New York. 2. Collingwood. Turner. Lab Work S. Data interpretation for quality control. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. 2003.D. Oxford. Analytical techniques for soil. 2. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory. Gravimetery. and F.

2009. Hans- Joachim. (ed. 3. 2007. Course Outlines Introduction.E. Biosensor. Tools in environmental biotechnology. students will be able to understand the significance. Environmental Biotechnology. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications.W. Government of Pakistan. Isolation.P. 4. J. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Germany. D. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures. and Russel. New York. Recombinant DNA technology. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. 2. and Josef. After completion of this course. USA. 2005. W. and application of biotechnology in the environment..COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. New York. J. A. J. Scragg. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. USA. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. National Biosafety Guidelines. 5th Ed. Biotechnology. National Biotechnology Commission.). Introduction to microbial kinetics. Sambrook.1999. Derbre.. PCR. Bioreactors. Cambridge University Press. USA. Recommended Books 1.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. Biomarkers.D. Smith. Oxford University Press. England. 2005. 2nd Ed. 2001. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. Chichoster. Wiley-VCH Verlag. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. purification and preservation of DNA.

Guilfoud press New York. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. A. Pearsons Education. Jensen. Rancez. Harvey. Lulla. Inc. Introduction to GIS. Z. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. John Wiley and Sons. map projection and coordinate systems. Introduction to Photogrammetry. R. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). Inc. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. Active and Passive remote sensing. 5. Using and reading GPS in field. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. Aerial photography. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). 2008. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. integration of information from many sources. Data entry and output. 2000. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. eradication of the duplicated data. 3. 2. Campbell. Fishery and wildlife. K and L. Mc Graw Hill Education. Dessinov. Different types of maps. Inc. 2000. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. Types of data used in GIS. V. history and platforms. John Wiley and Sons. Data acquisition. Image Processing. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Energy Sources. analysis and output. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . 4. 2009. A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. History and data collection. Forestry. Satellite Imageries.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. F. Interpretation. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. advantages and limitations of process. 1999. Cartography. Preparation of thematic maps. Agriculture.

Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. American Society for Quality. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. economic. 1998. eco-design. 2. WWF Pakistan. Environmental Management tools. Related Environmental legislation. American Society for Quality. 3. ecological. B. hot spots of biodiversity.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production..3rd Edition . A. M. Systems and Support Techniques. Methods of environmental protection. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. Course Outlines Introduction.. 2005. Michigan. Conservation of biodiversity. and Qasim. types of biodiversity. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Environment and sustainable development. M. and Yoxon. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). philosophical. alpha and beta diversity. social and ethical values of biodiversity. animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan.C. principles of Cleaner production. Khan. 2006. F. 4. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management. 2001. Environmental Management Systems Principles. threats to biodiversity. Environmental aspects and impacts. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. International Organization for Standardization. need and approach. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. plant. etc.2nd Ed. Sheldon.). threats to biodiversity and its conservation. Environmental Economy. 34 . standards and guidelines.. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor. Certification of EMS. cleaner technologies.

A Primer for Conservation Biology. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. Publ. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. community and ecosystem level. 2000. Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. presampling requirements/information. EIA requirement. air.e. Kings College. field custody.. conservation in man-made ecosystems. Sinauer. conservation and livelihood. Rawalpindi. Course Outlines Introduction.R. 1998. international agreements. chemical addition. P. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. water. cities. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. quality control sampling. London. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. national and international laws and regulations. management. 2ndEd. 2. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. Quality assurance and quality control. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. Mirza. Sunderland. Z. forests.B. ecotourism. Saad Printers. conservation strategies. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. Legal protection of species. Associates Inc. P.B. habitats.conservation at species. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. 35 . and Morre. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. Cox. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. Considerations. design and types of samples. NOC for plant operation. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. Biogeography. refrigeration and freezing methods.. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. Conservation of wildlife. sampling and design purposes. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. soil and living organisms. C. quality assessment. croplands. laboratory custody. Lahore). regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. their categories. Preservation methods including pH control.D. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme.. 2000. Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. Recommended Books: 1. plants. protected areas.B. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. 3. population.

) McGraw-Hill. (ed) Springer. 8. 2002. Environmental Monitoring Handbook. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. extinctions. USA. Precipitation. I. Technomic Publishing Company Inc.USA. 2008. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. (eds. 2nd Edition. 2008.1999. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. Murai.. 7. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. human health. Manahan. USA. 3. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. N. Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. 6. F. Earth Observation of Global Change. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. agriculture. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. McKlivie. chemical. 5. regional.1996. S. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention.Recommended Books: 1. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. L. Keith. The Measurement of Climate Change. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. 2. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. . 2002. Peakall. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate. biological. Moisture in the Atmosphere. phenological changes. altered community structure. 1992.. H. Forstner U. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. E. Lewis Publisher London. Chuviero. Environmental Chemistry. Regional droughts and 36 . Physical. R. UK. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. 2000. USA. Burden. Human responses to potential climate change. its causes and effects. New York. and Guethner. Korte. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. Chapman and Hall. D. D. S. Tokyo. Recent Climate Change Indicators. Remote Sensing Note. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. E. Ozone depletion. Energy and Temperature.

principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. 2004. Main stages in EIA process. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan.cataclysmic climate change. Islamabad. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. (ed. scoping. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. London. Keith. 2003. 2005. Global Change and the earth system. Hardy. project implementation and follow up. J. 1st Edition. London. D. public involvement.A. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. Routledge. 2005. Cost and benefits of EIA. screening. Types & Resources to produce Energy.. 3. Climate Change . solids. Glasson. impact analysis. Harrop. Climate Change . 2. reporting. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. 2003.(ed). Blackwell. liquid. social impact assessment (SIA). and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. 1999. Therivel. Ministry of Housing and Works. and Solutions. 6. 4. Houghton. 2005. Islamabad. overview.T. T.. Recommended Books: 1. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). Earthscan Publication Ltd. 1994. Hardy. 3.Causes. Petts. National Book Foundation.. A. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Global Warming and Climate Change. 4. 1986. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts.. mitigation and impact management. decision-making to implement the project. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. and Chadwick. John Wiley & Sons.. EIA project management. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. A. and Solutions. John Wiley & Sons. Effects. Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. 5. J.O. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. review of EIA quality. J. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project. and noise.Causes. Recommended Books: 1. 2000. 2. J. R. law. Sringer. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels..). Effects. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. J. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach.. 37 . Oxford. & Nixon.

agriculture chemicals. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. and Tu. process and contents of the management plan. New York. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. Evans. H. wildlife census. threats. their pros and cons. methodologies. effective management. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. M. agriculture products and their share in GDP. national example. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. Recommended Books: 1. B.. Goldsmith. causes and methods for its improvement. 2002.5.. Asian Development Bank. R. R. 38 . Rangeland Management: existing status. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development. B. importance. John Willey & Sons. management options. Lohani. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. Watershed management: Importance basic principles. Types. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. wind power and nuclear power.. (ed. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. 2nd Edition. A.). limitation in the future. forest types and its existing management. 6. United Nations Environment Programme. Conservation in Progress. Sadler. S. USA.. Ludwig. threat and its causes. national agriculture policy. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. solar power. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. problem in agriculture.. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. existing management approaches. & McCabe. national and provincial legislation. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources..B and Warren. Development of Management Plan: needs. requirement. Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. F. best available option for future. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan. management options. J. 1997. their current status and threats.. 1993. Carpenter. Everitt.

4. & Plano Clark. Hansen. P. and Jorqensen. Scientific Methods. Sage CA. 2007. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. Scientific Research: Science. types of sampling design/. Interviews. Thousand Oaks. Elsevier.Amsterdam. 1984. Research Proposal: its importance . It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice. Research Design & Research Methods. Sampling: the logic of sampling. Search Engines. research methods. London. to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. Methodology.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. R. How to put things together? Introduction. S. Material Methods. Surveys. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research.2. Inference based on findings. J. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. Bibliography. USA. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling. V. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Selecting the Research Method. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. Review of Literature. W. 1990. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. population and sampling frames. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Dasmann. John Wiley & Sons. Literature Search: Database. 3. GOP and IUCN. 1992.F. Environmental Conservation.E.E. Review of Literature.A pre-requisite for Research. 5. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). New York. concepts and terminologies. to introduce students to research design. Questionnaire. Case Studies. Objectives. 39 .L. Creswell. Experimental Research.. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. Islamabad.

3rd Edition. E. John and sons Ltd. National Environmental Policy 4..USA. National Conservation Strategy 5. 2001. S. 2003. Survey Research Methods. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 1989. 2000. Recommended Books: 1. USA. Babbie.h.Harrad. 2nd Edition. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan. Government of Pakistan 3. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act.. 2008. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking.. Robert Yin.Batty. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation. and Arhonditsis. Students project in Environmental Science. of Chicago Press. Univ.S. G. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. USA. Law Books House. Belmont California. 6. 1997. 5. 3. Diamon. R. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. 2003. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . regulations made there under. Booth. 4. M. Chichester. Wadsworth Publishing Company. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. Moriarty. Marilyn F.. Qadar. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan. Sage Publishers. 1997. England. 2.2. Case Study Research: Design and Methods.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
41

Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

43

The Politics of Managing Water. Bengali. Cheema. I. hydrological cycle. 6.Varis. Briscoe. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. (ed. N. and Qamar.). Indus Water Accord 1991. A.).. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. 2006. A. with drinking water facilities like springs. Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia.Lahore. and Malik. Mirajuddin Publication . Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan. Recommended Books: 1. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector.K. 3. 2006. Lahore. and Tortajada. SDPI Oxford University Press. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. J.. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan. O. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. R. recycling and re-use of wastewater. water quality and quantity aspects. fisheries management.. Ahmed.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. U. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. 2005. 5. N. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. pollution aspects. Asia Printer. Pakistan . A. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. integrated water resources management (IWRM).. Oxford University Press Karachi.1993. wetlands resources management. Mirajuddin Publication . improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. 44 . Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. R. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects... 2003. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). Revised & enlarged edition. water supply and demand management measures. virtual water.. 4. Khan. Islamabad. Islamabad. Pakistan. Biswas. tubewells. 1993. 2. Oxford University Press New Delhi. flood and drought management. groundwater exploitation. watershed/catchment. C. (eds. P. K. flood and droughts. Ahmed.

urban flora and fauna. Course Outlines Introduction. Types and properties of parent materials. USA. Brady. and Weil. Cation and anion exchange. R. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. Soil Science. Bashir. R. Urban ecosystem. hydrological processes. 45 . residential mobility and the neighborhood change. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. management and green productivity. humans as components of urban ecosystems. Soil forming minerals. urbanization in Pakistan. Hillel. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. urban landscapes characteristics. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. future of urban centers. 1996. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. USA. Gardiner. transport. Soils in Our Environment. National Book Foundation. D. After completion of this course. CA. Urbanization. Course Outlines Introduction. Physical and chemical properties of soil. D. Definition. 2008. Upper Saddle River. 2007.R. Soil degradation. Academic Press. 1. Causes of urbanization. urban settlements. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils.W. N. NJ. USA. soils. the salient features of urban environments. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. Factors and processes of soil formation. R.C. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. PrenticeHall. San Diego. Islamabad. 11th Edition. Upper Saddle River. and Bantel. 2007. Forms of urbanization.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment.. urban political ecology. Pakistan.T.. Miller. NJ. Prentice Hall. Process and outcome. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. E.

Routledge. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. Silberstein. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments.. 3. O. London. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. CRC Press LLC. nd 2 Edition. Ward. 2004. 5. 2009. Kate. Penguin Group. Sukopp.. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. Routledge. SAGE Publications Ltd. 1.and Maser. Planning and its relationship with other professions.and Kowaril. The planning process.L. V. M. S. London. 2004. UR. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. UK. Justification for planning for city management. Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. 2. Scope.. UK. C.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology. A. UK. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. USA. Hejny. Gilbert. nature and purpose of urban planning. Recommended Books: 1. The Works: Anatomy of a City.. 1989. Types of Urban Plans.S. Planning theories and concepts. 2007. Hague.1990. Principles of planning. M. Springer. USA. I. Smith. Chapman and Hall. 4. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. SBS academic publishing. D. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. Aims and Objectives of planning. 2000. Planning and Urban Change. 2006. 2. J. Land use planning theories. Levels of planning. Alberti. New York. City Design for Sustainable Development. Elements of urban planning.. H. S. Hough. New trends in planning and city management. 46 .

Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. 2nd Edition.e. Manila. 2. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. G.. Earthquake Management.. Role of Media in Disaster Management. Physical factors. 4. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures. 3. Disaster as an opportunity for development. 1986. Kates. 1989. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Hazards. Landslide. 1993. Political factors. Paris.. Cultural factors.3. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. Natural cycles and their role. Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies.. UK. 47 . New York. and White G... Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. ADB.. Flooding. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. Islamabad.. Earthquake. Clara. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. Socio-economic factors. R. E&UA Div. Different approaches and Indicators. P. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. i. Natural Disasters Alexander. Chapman & Hall.J. Government of Pakistan.W. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. International phenomenon. 1993. Longman Group. 1993. 1991. Flood Management: Organizational Role. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms.B. Prediction. The Guilford Press. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. Westview Press. Introducing Town Planning. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. H.UNESCO. Boulder . Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. and Woodrow. New York. Ministry of Housing and Works. M. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. D. Recommended Books: 1. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches.W. It discusses a wide range of aspects. 4. Disaster Management: Components of management.F. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs).

1983. and Yonavjak. Biotic structure. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation.W. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. Sustainable livestock management. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. OECD/IEA.H. E. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. 1. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers. energy resources. 1984.M. Paris. 2007. Quorum Books. F. local. alternate energy resources. solar. Ecological concept in crop and food production. 2. consumers. uses. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. 48 . Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. Disasters and Development Cuny. 3. New York. M. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem.B and Keller. Perry R. sustainable energy management. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. Agroecology. A. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. merits and demerits of wind. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Consumer and producer relationship. L. hydropower.C. Westport. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems.. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. 6. types. R. D. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. 2007.A. Farming practices for pests and weeds control.. 6th Edition. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. energy resources of Pakistan. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Schoch. USA. decomposers. and Mushkatel. 2001.. biomass resources.L. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. Botkin.5. primary producers. McKinney. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. 4th Edition. John Wiley and Sons.

E-11 Seminar 49 .M. C. Study of index of diversity. P. 1990. Altreri. Boulder. Experimental Plant Ecology. 1995. New Delhi.A. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. New York. USA. Corol. and Rossel. 2. Kapur. CBS Publishers and Distributors. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. USA. M. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity.P. Recommended Books: 1. Study of stratification and profile diagram.H.G. India. Yandermeer J.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. R. and Sudha. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. 2000. Agrocology. Westview Press.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity. 3..R.

it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. 3. 2. availability of the faculty and other facilities. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. 5.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. 50 . that: 1. The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science. To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. 4. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. the Committee agreed on the following principles.

5. 6. 26. 8. 9. 15. 12. 23. 11. 25. 20. 13. 10. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 24. 12. 4. transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 18. 14. 6. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 10. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 9. 21. 16. 11. 5. 8. 2. 22. 7. 19. 7. 3. 17. 3. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 2. 4.

development of concepts. Geography of Pakistan. 4. Islamabad.1994. NCS.DETAILS OF M. Conservation Strategies. Oxford University Press. FURTHER READINGS 1. Ball.A.1994. Karachi. London Black Stone Press Ltd.. technology and resource use. P.1991. 52 . D. Elsevier. 3. Treaties. Environmental control Policies. London. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. 1992. S. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. GOP and IUCN.F. Relationship of culture. Environment People and Economy. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. Provincial and Local Strategies.. 1991. 1987.T. S. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment. 2nd Edition. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management.E. Mackenzie J. 2. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan. Khan K. Hodder and Stoughton.S.. and Jorqensen. Hansen. F. Recommended Books: 1. WCS. 2. Money. S. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences.1995.E. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. Instruments and methods. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. Draft National Environmental Policy. Oxford University Press.. 3. status of Terrestrial. and Bell. Regional and International Environmental Issues. Conventions and Protocols in Global. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. Mackenzie. Amsterdam. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management..

Environmental and Social Impact assessment. opportunities and issues. F & Bronstein.. Cost benefit analysis of projects. Environment Department. Gas Chromatography etc. Recommended Books: 1. Wood. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. 1993. 53 . Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. ecological impact assessment. Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. K. 2. 1995. John Wiley & Sons. 3. 1995. A. DC. Demographic impact assessment. Ahmed. ed. Harlow Essex. Assessment of environmental impacts. England. D. Chichester. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. Recommended Books: 1. Government of Pakistan. History. 2. Environmental Chemical Analysis.A. FURTHER READINGS 1. Sectoral guidelines for EIA.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. role and importance. Air and Solid Waste. UK. A one Publishers Lahore. sampling rules. Longman Scientific and Technical. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). economic impact assessment. Wastewater. process. procedures and methods of EIA. World Bank. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. Environmental auditing. sample collection and preservation. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. Burnt Hill. Case Studies and review. C. Principles of physical. Washington. WB. Ministry of Environment. Longman House. social impact assessment. Ed.Vanclay. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools.

Resource Mobilization. 2002. air borne. Park. Project Management Institute. and Wright. inputs. Project Planning and Approval Processes. 1st Ed. USA. outputs. UK. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works)... T. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. Occupational Health: problems and issues. T. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems. 1st Ed. 1998. specific objectives. 4..2000. USA. 1992. K. Caeneross.. 5. T. 1993. S. 1st ed. development objectives. Meredith J. M/S Banarsid. R. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. New York. 2001.. principles and practices. Public health concept. A Guide to Project Management. safety techniques. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. 54 . J.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. T. Wiley Interscience. prevention and control.. Lippmann. Kjelllström. activities. means of verification. Yassi. Writing Project Proposal. Project Planning. Basic Environmental Health. L. Nebel. B. Defining Project objectives. Need identification. work breakdown structure. Project Life Cycle. M. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. Planning Commission Performas. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. economic evaluation.. and Guidotti. R. Oxford University Press New York. Ergonomic and Safety. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. 2. Inc. Recommended Books: 1. John Wiley and Sons. indicators. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. Accident prevention and safety plans. 2nd Ed. Mantel s. Project Initiation. Environmental Health Engineering. London. Reasons for Project success or failure. 2. 3.. assumptions.. A. Prentice Hall International Inc. Primary health care services. de Kok. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. 1997. Government Policies and Programs. feasibility study. J.

and Yonavjak. Paris. M. energy resources of Pakistan. R. ISO Central Secretariat. 2. 55 . Paris. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. 1998. Botkin. John Wiley and Sons. 1990b. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. D. solar. uses. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. bio-energy resources. Related Environmental regulations. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment).L. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. L. Schoch. Principles of cleaner production. 2. sustainable energy management for agriculture. merits and demerits of wind. Switzerland. 2007. industry and domestic sectors. petroleum. non-renewable and renewable. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. E. 2007. Sources of data. principles and elements of the process of EMS. 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. data collection and interpretation. 4th Edition. Michigan-January 2001. Recommended Books: 1. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. 3. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. 4. hydropower. nuclear) local. McKinney. 2001. types. Sayre. St Luise Press. energy resources..B and Keller. gas. alternate energy resources. D.A.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). 6th Edition. USA. Environmental Auditing.M. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. transport. 3. Environmental auditing. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. OECD/IEA.

survival and extinction. Blackwell Publishing.D. plant conservation. climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. Recommended Books: 1. Climate Change . D. management and restoration. Effects. 2. 2003. J. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. forests. types of climate change models. Blackwell Publishing. Green House Gases. (Ed. John Wiley & Sons. Hardy. Climate Change . 2004. Plant population dynamics. 5. Beck. Silvertown. Earthscan Publication Ltd. D.Causes. Houghton. J. Hardy. E. 3. John Wiley & Sons. resources and plants. Chichester. 2005. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. London. 2005.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. Plant Ecology. ECOPE 29. 3. and Solutions. types and their climatic effects.Causes. Vegetation Ecology Ed.. plant invasions. 4. Maarel. UK 1991. K. 2003. fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. vegetation dynamics. 1st Edition. E & Muller-Hohenstein. Modeling of climate change. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press.). ED. Oxford. geographical and temporal patterns. Effects. 2. UK. B & Jager.. Species richness. competition and coexistence. global aspects of plant ecology. 56 . water resources. J. T. John Wiley & Sons.T. Springer. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Climate Change and Ecosystems. etc. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. human activities and vegetation dynamics. Recommended Books: 1. The Green House Effect. 2005. Life history strategies of plants. 1. & Charlesworth. Shulze. Warrick. and Solutions. Berlin. Climate change and food production. Oxford UK. 2005.

status. S. Oxford.G. Conserving Living Natural Resources. Extinction of species. types. Forests. Cambridge. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. 2002. Threatened animals and plants. Primack. J. Roberts. John Wiley And Sons. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. their importance. habitats and ecosystems. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. London. E. W. Protection and restoration of species. S. Wildlife of Pakistan. Wetlands. USA. Robinson. Cambridge University Press. 1992. its causes.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction.D. Protected areas in Pakistan.B. Forest plantations. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. B. J. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan.(2nd Ed.L. T.J. & Ripley. threats and conservation. Weddell. management. T. 3. 2004. Oxford. Bailey. Recommended Books: 1. biological diversity.A. distribution and management. Biodiversity: An introduction. 1973 2. Blackwell Publsihing. Sinauer Assocaites. 3. Status of forests in Pakistan. their ecological and economic importance. K. distribution. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. Wildlife Ecology and Management. Publishers Sunderland. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. Oxford University Press. Recommended Books: 1. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. Protected areas. Loss of biodiversity. R. Rangeland management. Inc. Cambridge. their types and role in conservation. Consumptive. Oxford University Press. 1998. UK. Establishment and management of protected areas. Oxford University Press. kinds. Essentials of Conservation Biology. types. II). UK. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. & Spicer. 1984. 4. Mcmillan.J.J. 2. Global and national biodiversity. I). Sustainable forest management. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. 5. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. And Bolen. problems and solutions. Roberts. Principles of Wildlife Management. 2002. 57 . distribution. Participatory forest management. deforestation and its control. 1986.J. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation.) Gaston. Oxford.

UK. SAGE Publications Ltd. 1993. 3... 58 . Urban planning and management in Pakistan. urban landscape characteristics. Introducing Town Planning. Kate. Ward. Clara. The Works: Anatomy of a City. CRC Press LLC. future of urban centers. J. H. Ministry of Housing and Works. management of transport. Longman Group. E&UA Div. 2. Planning and Urban Change. 4. urban systems and their characteristics.and Maser. A. urban political ecology. G. S. V. Forms of urbanization. urbanization in Pakistan. New York. Environmental problems of urban life. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. drinking water and solid waste in cities. London. 2004. 2000. Silberstein. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development.. Sustainable cities.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction.. USA. Urban land use planning and management. Islamabad. Government of Pakistan. USA. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages. 2007. sanitation. Penguin Group. Recommended Books: 1. 1986. UK. C.

A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. Exercises 1. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1. Practical English Grammar by A.Annexure . a) Functional English Grammar 1.V. ISBN 0194313492 59 . Third edition. 1997.J. Thomson and A. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. Oxford University Press. Martinet. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure.

Oxford Supplementary Skills. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . Oxford Supplementary Skills. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. intensive and extensive.V. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. Reading. 1997.2. Third Impression 1992. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. Martinet. Reading/Comprehension 1. Thomson and A. and speed reading. Upper Intermediate. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Third edition. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. b) Practical English Grammar by A. Exercises 2. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. Fourth Impression 1993. minutes of meetings. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. Oxford University Press. Writing.J.

b) Writing 1. Practical English Grammar by A. discursive. Writing. Third Impression 1991. Third Impression 1992. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. Thomson and A. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. 2. Third edition. Oxford University Press 1986.1. Oxford Supplementary Skills. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Fourth Impression 1992. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. 2. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . language. Oxford Supplementary Skills. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Fourth Impression 1993. Reading. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Martinet. narrative.V. Advanced by Ron White. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Writing. Exercises 2. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. clarity. Advanced.J. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. descriptive and argumentative writing). content. Writing. form. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. introduction to presentations. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Reading 1.

College Writing Skills by John Langan. 3. 2. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. Compiled by norther Illinois University. Kathleen Shine Cain. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. 2004. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. A Custom Publication. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. without taxing the taste of engineering students). Martin’s Press. descriptive.(particularly suitable for discursive. 62 . argumentative and report writing). Mandell. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. St. Kirszner and Stephen R.

1988-99 f. Economic institutions and issues b. S. Lahore. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. 1999 onward 3. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. 1971-77 d. Muslim advent iii. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. Course Outline 1. Karachi: Oxford University Press. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Society and social structure c. 1993. national development. b. 1947-58 b. 1958-71 c. 2000. Akbar. Study the process of governance.Annexure . Location and geo-physical features. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Ethnicity d. 2. S. 3. 2. Shahid Javed. Contemporary Pakistan a. People and Land i. State & Society in Pakistan. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective.M. 63 Books Recommended 1. 4. Safdar. Karachi: Oxford University Press. 1977-88 e. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. ideological background of Pakistan. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. government. Mehmood. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. 1994. politics. Historical Perspective a. . contemporary Pakistan. Zaidi. Indus Civilization ii.

The Political System of Pakistan. Tahir. Lahore: Vanguard. Ziring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 8.K.National Movement in Pakistan. 1993. Rafique. Mehmood.The Emergence of Banglades. Zahid. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. 10. M.. 1976. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. Political Parties in Pakistan. 6. Politics in Pakistan. 9. Karachi: Royal Book Company. 64 . 1967. Khalid Bin. 1980. History & Culture of Sindh. I. Pakistan Under Martial Law. Wayne. Institute of Public Policy Research. 7. 13. Enigma of Political Development. 1987. Vol. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. Haq.5. Islamabad. 11. Lawrence. Wilcox. Washington: American Enterprise. 1972. Amin. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. Afzal. nd. 14. Noor ul. Aziz. II & III. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. 1998. K. Club Road. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Ansar. Ethno . Party. 12. Sayeed. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. Safdar. Muhammad Waseem. 1980.

A.57.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.58.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .56.A.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.A.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.A.21.Annexure .W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.40.Tadabar (Verse No1.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.6. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.19.20) Related to thinking.

in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.

” Hussain Hamid Hassan. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Emergence of Islam” . “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. “Studies in Islamic Law. International Islamic University. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Pakistan. Islamabad (2001) 67 . ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. IRI. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. Bhatia. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad.S. Ahmad Hasan. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute.

Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. types. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. set operations. PWS-Kent Company. Sharron S. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. Boston 68 . 1978. system of linear equations. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Wooton W. equations reducible to quadratic equations. functions. Beckenback EF. matrix inverse. Houghton & Mifflin. introduction to sets. cube roots of unity. not majoring in mathematics. harmonic progression. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). Boston Swokowski EW. trigonometric identities. Cramer’s rule. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. determinants. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. complex numbers. 1987. types of functions. geometric progression.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. 1986. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression.Annexure . PWS-Kent Company.

John Wiley. 1983. Bevens I. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. slope of a line.2. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). distance between a point and a line. Boston Thomas GB. parallel and perpendicular lines. left-hand and right-hand limits. derivatives. continuity. 1995. Finney AR. Addison-Wesley. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. PWS-Kent Company. Calculus (11th edition). New York Stewart J. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. differentiation of polynomial. change of variables in indefinite integrals. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. angle between two lines. 69 . solution of equations involving absolute values. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. Ma. integration by parts. USA 3. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. 2005. Calculus (3rd edition). not majoring in mathematics. Reading. continuous functions. intersection of two lines. Recommended Books: Anton H. functions and their graphs. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Davis S. equation of a line. 2005. distance between two points. integration by substitution. various forms of equation of a line. inequalities. rational and transcendental functions. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. not majoring in mathematics.

hyperbola. • Contents 1. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). Boston 4. Analytic Geometry. 1969 Kaufmann JE. system of linear equations. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. PWS-Kent Company. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). equations reducible to quadratic equations. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. Conic Sections: Parabola. 1987.Circle: Equation of a circle. PWS-Kent Company. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. ellipse. Freshman and Company. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. inverse of matrices. locus of a point in various conditions. types of functions. 70 . : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. types of matrices. Introduction to sets. set operations. determinants. Scott. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. intersection of lines and circles. Cramer’s rule. 1986. nature of roots of quadratic equations. functions. circles determined by various conditions. Boston Swokowski EW. College Algebra and Trigonometry.

Latest Edition. E. E. Latest Edition. standard deviation.. 5. Swokowski. Boston. tally sheet method. cumulative frequency curve.. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. 3. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. R. characteristics of statistics. Walpole. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’.geometric and harmonic progressions. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. R. Kaufmann. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. circle and trigonometric functions.. Prentice Hall. discrete and continuous series. deciles and percentiles. ungrouped and grouped data. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. J. Graphs: Graph of straight line. Books Recommended: 1. relationship of statistics with social science. quartiles. trigonometric identities. Measures of dispersion: Range. variance. moments. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. 71 . ‘Introduction of Statistics’. individual. array. skewness and kurtosis. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. types of frequency series. Latest Edition. E. Wilcox. R. 2. 4. 2. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem.. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. frequency polygon. W. bar frequency diagram histogram. PWS-Kent Company.

applications of integration. Boston. Gleason. Prentice-Hall. quotients. Integration by Parts. Addison Wesley publishing company. Schaum’s Outline Series. the inverse of differentiation. Inc. Frank A. 11th Edition. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. 3. logarithmic integration. sinusoidal function. integral inequalities. 1999. Mathews. Second Edition 1992. Continuity. Elliott Mendelson. W. Rational Functions. et al. 2. Calculus Single and Multivariable. I. logarithmic differentiation. 6. substitution method. implicit differentiation. infinite and improper integrals. integration by parts. 2005. products. Anton. Calculus. Inc. 3rd Edition. 8th edition. Leibnitz’ theorem. McCallum. 4th edition. Continuous Functions. Swokowski. Equation of a Line. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. Rational and Transcendental Functions. 2. Slope of a Line. 2002. Thomas.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. Hughes-Hallett. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. theorems of differentiation. E. Solution of equations involving absolute values. 1983. the chain rule. Contents 1. Calculus. special points of a function. S. plane polar coordinates. Davis. Extreme Values of Functions. Inequalities. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. Least-Squares Line. John H. 6. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . Bevens. Recommended Books: 1. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. 5. • Integration Integration from first principles. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. Jhon Willey & Sons. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. reduction formulae. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. H. Calculus. integration by inspection. 2005. Trigonometric Functions. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. 4. and Transcendental Functions.Jr. John Wiley & Sons. integration using partial fractions.

series involving natural numbers. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. modulus and argument. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. approximation errors in Taylor series. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. inverses of hyperbolic functions. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. multiplication. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . the difference method. arithmetico-geometric series.Additions and subtraction. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. finding the nth roots of unity. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. complex conjugate. solving hyperbolic equations. identities of hyperbolic functions. geometric series.

moments of inertia. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. point to plane. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. Hermitian. Pappus’ theorems. symmetric and antisymmetric. orthogonal. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. masses. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. the inner product. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. vector product. of a unitary matrix. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals.5. centers of mass and centroids. line to line. 6. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. scalar triple product.

divergence of a vector field. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. combinations of grad. curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. spherical polar coordinates 75 . Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions.8.

Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Types of frequency curves. The Variance and standard deviation. Significant digits. Diagrams. Collection of primary and secondary data. Sources. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Observations. Unit 2. null and alternative hypothesis. Exercises. level of significance. Moments and Moments ratios. Errors of measurement. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Range. Unit 4. Quantiles. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. The Mode. Ogive for Discrete Variable. sampling with and without replacement. Histogram. Empirical Relation between Mean. sample design and sampling frame. properties of Good Average. The Mean Deviation. Statistical problem. The semi-Interquartile Range. Median and mode. Test statistics.Annexure . Graphs and their Construction. Absolute and relative measures. Different types of Averages. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Bar charts. Type-I and Type-II errors. Unit 5.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Exercises. Exercises. Historigram. Constructing of a frequency distribution. Editing of Data. Stem and Leaf Display. 76 . Standardized variables. Unit 7. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Discrete and continuous variables. Exercises Unit 6. probability and non-probability sampling. acceptance and rejection regions. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Pie chart. Data. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Difference of means and proportions. Exercises. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Coefficient of variation. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Population. Unit 3. sampling and non sampling errors. Box and Whisker Plot. Rounding of a Number. Presentation of Data Introduction. Probability and Probability Distributions. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. definition of outliers and their detection. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Change of origin and scale. Exercises. Exercises. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. bias.

1982.. Regression and Correlation Introduction. Inc.Unit 8.Single Population Introduction. cause and effect relationships. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. Kitab Markaz. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. “Introduction to Statistics”. r and R2. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. 3rd Ed. E. its estimation and interpretation. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. F. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. Exercises Unit 10.. R. 2005. 2 Muhammad. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. Coefficient of linear correlation. Contingency Tables. Correlation. Exercises. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. Unit 11. 77 . Exercises Unit 9. Testing of Hypothesis. examples. Macmillan Publishing Co. New York. simple linear regression. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful