e Flora & Fauna of India The concept of forest and wildlife conservation is very ancient to India.

Since time immemorial, wildlife here has enjoyed a privileged position of protection through religious philosophy. India's flora and fauna are as diverse as its cultural variances. The Indian subcontinent has many fascinating sights for its nature lovers. Only around 10% of the country still has forest cover, and only 4% is protected within national parks and similar reserves. However, in the past few decades the government has taken serious steps towards environmental management and has established numerous parks, sanctuaries and reserves. The melange of India's climate and topography is reflected in its rich flora & fauna. India is world renown for its tigers, elephants and rhinoceroses, but these are just three of the more than 500 species of mammals harbouring in the country. India has for years captivated the attentions of wildlife experts and lovers. The assortment of wildlife you can see in India is truly mind-boggling, no where else you can find such a fascinating variety and numbers it boasts of. Book Flora & Fauna Tour Home to many rare and unique species - the majestic tiger, the Asiatic lion, the one horned rhinoceros, the wild ass, the Asian elephant, many species of deer, bears, leopards, monkeys, antelopes and birds - India's wildlife sanctuaries are a nature lover's paradise. It is exciting and exceptional to be in India and it is far more exciting and entertaining to be in the Indian wildlife biosphere, mainly confined in the Indian wildlife sanctuary or national park. Wildlife heritage of India is as much or more diverse than the cultural heritage of this country. In all India has 80 national parks and 441 sanctuaries, of which 19 fall under the purview of Project Tiger. The total area of India's protected wilderness is approximately 140,000 sq km. This contains 4 % of the country's total land area. Not o nly are these vast patches of forests preserved as natural habitats for wildlife, but are even more unique owing to the fact that they vary from region to region and each has something unique, be it its flora, fauna, avi fauna or aqua-fauna. Many of the species harboured in these areas are rare and endangered. India is blessed with over 2,000 species of birds, over 500 species of reptiles and amphibians and around 30,000 species of insects, including the colorful butterflies. Conservation projects have be established to en preserve them. Floras In India The wide range of climatic conditions helps India boasts of its rich variety of vegetation that no other country in this world can boast of. The vegetation comprises some 15,000 species of plants. Accordin to g the distribution of the flora, India can be classified into, Western Himalayas, Eastern Himalayas, Assam, Indus Plain, Ganga Plain, Deccan, Malabar and the Andamans. Indian flora fluctuates from the Western Himalayan and Assamese, from the species of the Indus Plain to those of the gangetic plain, from the Deccan and Malabari to the vegetation of the Andamans. The floral treasure ranges from the Alpine to the temperate thorn, from the coniferous to the evergreen, from scrubs to deciduous forests, from thick tropical jungles to cool temperate woods. The Western Himalayan biosphere is bouncy with Chirpine and other conifers deodar, blue pine, spruce, silver fir, and junipers. The Eastern Himalayan region consists of oaks, laurels, maples, rhododendrons, alder, and birch and dwarf willows. The Assam region is full of evergreen forests with lots of bamboo and tall grasses. The Indus plain supports very scanty vegetation and the Ganges Plain is under cultivation. The Deccan

region is full of scrubs and mixed deciduous forests. The Malabar region is under commercial crops like coconut, betel, pepper, coffee and tea. Andaman region is plentiful in evergreen and mangrove forests. Book Flora & Fauna Tour Faunas in India Popular mammals include the Elephant, the famous white lions and some common lions, the Royal Bengal Tiger, Rhinos, Wild Bisons some varieties from the cat family, deer, monkeys, wild goats, etc. Elephants are found in the sparsely populated hill areas of Karnataka, Kerala and Orissa. A variety of deer and antelope species can be seen, but these are now mostly confined to the protected areas because of competition with domestic animals and the effects of t heir diseases. They include graceful Indian gazelles (chinkaras); Indian antelopes (blackbucks); diminutive, four homed ante- lopes (chowsinghas); large and ungainly looking blue bulls (nilgais); rare swamp deer (barasinghas); sambars, India's largest deer; beautiful spotted deer (chitals); the larger barking deer (muntjacs); and the tiny mouse deer (chevrotains). Also seen are wild buffaloes, massive Indian bisons (gaurs), shaggy sloth bears, striped hyenas, wild pigs, jackals, Indian foxes, wolves, and Indian wild dogs (dhole), which resembles giant foxes but roam in packs in forests. Lions are found in the rocky hills and forests of the Gir area of Gujarat, Tigers in the Sunderbans and the Brahmaputra valley. The famous Project Tiger is a scheme financed by the government of India to safeguard the tiger in its habitat in nine selected reserves. Indian Fauna also include the wild ass of Rajasthan, Nilgiri Langur, Lion-tailed macaque, Nilgiri mongoose and Malaber civer of the southern hills and the spotted deer. Leopards are found in many forests, Wolves roam the open country. Cheetahs are found in the Deccan

plateau. Avi-faunas In India India is blessed with over 2000 species and sub-species of birds. The diverse birdlife of the forests includes large hornbills, serpent eagles and fishing owls, as well as the elegant national bird, the peacock. Waterbirds, such as herons, ibises, storks, cranes, pelicans and others, are seen not only in parks but at numerous special waterbird sanctuaries. These sanctuarie contain large breeding colonies, and are of great s importance for the countless numbers of migrating birds which visit India annually. Bird-Life in India is rich and colorful. The birds include the beautiful Peacock to the Parrots, and thousands of immigrant birds. Other common Indian birds are pheasants, geese ducks, mynahs, parakeets, pigeons, cranes, and hornbills. India now maintains 80 national parks, 441 wildlife sanctuaries and 35 zoological gardens. Reptiles In India Among the other wildlife are over 500 species of reptiles and amphibians, including magnificent king cobras, pythons, crocodiles, large freshwater tortoises and monitor lizards. There are also 10,000 insect species. including large and colourful butlerflies.

but these are just three of the more than 500 species of mammals harbouring in the country. P rice Quotation. The melange of India's climate and topography is reflected in its rich flora & fauna. Birds. book this tour | more detail South India Wild Life Tour 15 Days Attractions : Tigers.. Scorpions and insects are aplenty in this country. Book Flora & Fauna Tour ¢ ¢¡ Arrival: DD    YY Duration: l ct . no where else you can find such a fascinating variety and numbers it boasts of.Trichy . silkworms and the Lac insect.Madurai . Since time immemorial. Snakes include the deadly King cobras to the equally poisonous Kraits. India is world renown for its tigers. Elephants. The assortment of wildlife you can see in India is truly min d-boggling.. India's flora and fauna are as diverse as its cultural variances. Book Flora & Fauna Tour Wildlife Tour Package 08 Days Attractions : One-horned Rhinos. India has for years captivated the attentions of wildlife experts and lovers. elephants and rhinoceroses.. and only 4% is protected within national parks and similar reserves. Jeep Safari. However.Periyar.. U seful insects include the bees. Jeep Safari. Elephant Safari.Kaziranga .A huge number of snake varieties. in the past few decades the government has taken serious steps towards environmental management and has established numerous parks.Nameri. sanctuaries and reserves. Destinations : Chennai . Destinations : Guwahati .. Disease carrying mosquitoes and destructive locusts are to be found. The Indian subcontinent has many fascinating sights for its nature lovers. Only around 10% of the country still has forest cover. lizards and crocodiles account for the reptile count. Itinerary Suggestions. book this tour | more detail Contact Our Tour Planner [for right Tour Request.. Bookings] People: e Flora & Fauna of India The concept of forest and wildlife conservation is very ancient to India. wildlife here has enjoyed a privileged position of protection through religious philosophy.

the famous white lions and some common lions. the Asiatic lion. many species of deer. Wildlife heritage of India is as much or more diverse than the cultural heritage of this cou ntry. the larger barking deer (muntjacs). the Asian elephant. antelopes and birds .000 species of insects. the Royal Bengal Tiger. In all India has 80 national parks and 441 sanctuaries.Home to many rare and unique species .000 species of birds. from scrubs to deciduous forests. the wild ass. wild goats. The Indus plain supports very scanty vegetation and the Ganges Plain is under cultivation. Ganga Plain.India's wildlife sanctuaries are a nature lover's paradise. Many of the species harboured in these areas are rare and endangered. Deccan. India's largest deer. Not only a re these vast patches of forests preserved as natural habitats for wildlife. monkeys. Malabar and the Andamans. but are even more unique owing to the fact that they vary from region to region and each has something unique. This contains 4 % of the country's total land area. over 500 species of reptiles and amphibians and around 30. Conservation projects have been es tablished to preserve them. laurels. rare swamp deer (barasinghas). Floras In India The wide range of climatic conditions helps India boasts of its rich variety of vegetation that no other country in this world can boast of. four homed ante. Western Himalayas. Rhinos. of which 19 fall under the purview of Project Tiger.000 sq km. Wild Bisons some varieties from the cat family. including the colorful butterflies. The Western Himalayan biosphere is bouncy with Chirpine and other conifers deodar. be it its flora. betel. Eastern Himalayas. spruce. The Deccan region is full of scrubs and mixed deciduous forests. coffee and tea. from the coniferous to the evergreen.lopes (chowsinghas). and birch and dwarf willows. Book Flora & Fauna Tour Faunas in India Popular mammals include the Elephant. diminutive. etc.the majestic tiger. India is blessed with over 2. avi fauna or aqua-fauna. and junipers. It is exciting and exceptional to be in India and it is far more exciting and entertaining to be in the Indian wildlife biosphere. from thick tropical jungles to cool temperate woods. Indus Plain. They include graceful Indian gazelles (chinkaras). mainly confined in the Indian wildlife sanctuary or national park. and the tiny . Indian antelopes (blackbucks). India can be classified into. The total area of India's protected wilderness is approximately 140. silver fir. from the Deccan and Malabari to the vegetation of the Andamans. leopards. deer. bears. maples. sambars. alder. The vegetation comprises some 15. According to the distribution of the flora. The floral treasure ranges from the Alpine to the temperate thorn. Assam. from the species of the Indus Plain to those of the gangetic plain. rhododendrons. A variety of deer and antelope species can be seen. Elephants are found in the sparsely populated hill areas of Karnataka. The Malabar region is under commercial crops like coconut. Indian flora fluctuates from the Western Himalayan and Assamese. The Eastern Himalayan region consists of oaks. The Assam region is full of evergreen forests with lots of bamboo and tall grasses. Kerala and Orissa. Andaman region is plentiful in evergreen and mangrove forests. monkeys. the one horned rhinoceros.000 species of plants. large and ungainly looking blue bulls (nilgais). but these are now mostly confined to the protected areas because of competition with domestic animals and the effects of their diseases. blue pine. beautiful spotted deer (chitals). pepper. fauna.

and Indian wild dogs (dhole). silkworms and the Lac insect. pelicans and others.000 insect species. such as herons. Avi-faunas In India India is blessed with over 2000 species and sub-species of birds.Kaziranga . massive Indian bisons (gaurs). ibises. pythons. large freshwater tortoises and monitor lizards. serpent eagles and fishing owls.Trichy . Leopards are found in many forests. The birds include the beautiful Peacock to the Parrots. Scorpions and insects are aplenty in this country. and thousands of immigrant birds. Indian Fauna also include the wild ass of Rajasthan. The diverse birdlife of the forests includes large hornbills. Book Flora & Fauna Tour Wildlife Tour Package 08 Days Attractions : One-horned Rhinos. India now maintains 80 national parks. The famous Project Tiger is a scheme financed by t e government h of India to safeguard the tiger in its habitat in nine selected reserves. Destinations : Guwahati . Lion-tailed macaque. Lions are found in the rocky hills and forests of the Gir area of Gujarat. crocodiles. which resembles giant foxes but roam in packs in forests. geese ducks. Cheetahs are found in the Deccan plateau. jackals. striped hyenas. wolves. Birds. book this tour | more detail . and are of great importance for the countless numbers of migrating birds which visit India annually. Jeep Safari. Wolves roam the open country. cranes. Indian foxes. parakeets. A huge number of snake varieties. book this tour | more detail South India Wild Life Tour 15 Days Attractions : Tigers. Elephant Safari. Elephants. mynahs. Reptiles In India Among the other wildlife are over 500 species of reptiles and amphibians. Snakes include the deadly King cobras to the equally poisonous Kraits.mouse deer (chevrotains). Destinations : Chennai . These sanctuaries cont ain large breeding colonies. There are also 10.. shaggy sloth bears. Waterbirds. cranes.. Other common Indian birds are pheasants..Madurai . 441 wildlife sanctuaries and 35 zoological gardens. Disease carrying mosquitoes and destructive locusts are to be found. lizards and crocodiles account for the reptile count. and hornbills. Nilgiri Langur. pigeons. Nilgiri mongoose and Malaber civer of the southern hills and the spotted deer... are seen not only in parks but at numerous special waterbird sanctuaries. Useful insects include the bees. Jeep Safari. wild pigs. including magnificent king cobras. Tigers in the Sunderbans and the Brahmaputra valley. Also seen are wild buffaloes. including large and colourful butlerflies..Periyar. the peacock. as well as the elegant national bird. Bird-Life in India is rich and colorful. storks.Nameri.

36 rhododendron species. has acquired its maximum splendor owing to its loaded flora and fauna. Bhoral. Sandpipers. In the alpine zone. Due to the altitudinal shift. 515 extraordinary orchids. 23 bamboo varieties. Himalayan Black Bear. Itinerary Suggestions. some are recognized to be rare and endangered. Marbled Cat. figs. Goral. Woodcock. Sikkim boasts of not less than 550 species of birds and out of them. pine. juniper. firs. Sikkim has acquired a small portion in the domain of India. Babblers and Robins formulate the avifauna of Sikkim. Sikkim is one amongst the three eco-regions of India. Read further to know about flora & fauna of Sikkim« Flora Sikkim has approximately 5. The Fauna The woods provide a favorable abode to the wide-ranging fauna of Sikkim. cypresses and rhododendrons are quite common that happen to come across between the altitudes of 3. Snow Cock. Jungle Cat and Civet Cat. Price Quotation. Pigeons. yet the state boasts of a rich variety of plants and animals. The state treasures a large variety of arthropods too. Located in a natural spot of the lower Himalayas. sal trees and bamboo are traceable enjoying the subtropical climate. oaks.500 meters (in temperate regions). Himalayan Marmot. Tibetan Wolf. chestnuts. In the lower altitudes. Sikkim boasts of a wide range of the species that grows in sub-tropical to alpine regions. one can easily find yaks that are generally nurtured for their milk. 8 tree ferns and more than 424 medicinal plants. The animal kingdom comprises Snow Leopard. Yet another group of fauna is that of butterflies. 60 primula species. Griffon Vultures. Musk Deer. Hog Badger. Leopard Cat. Himalayan Tahr. Clouded Leopard. meat and as a beast to carry burden. Under alpine-affected regions. birches. Kaiser-i-hind. laurel. Crimson Horned Pheasant. 16 conifer species. orchids. Yellow Gorgon and Bhutan Glory are some of the endangered species of butterflies that are found in Sikkim. ¥ ¥¤ Arrival: ££ DD YY Duration: l ct . Perhaps.000 blossoming plants.Contact Our Tour Planner [for right Tour Request. Sikkim possesses an extensive range of plants and foliage. Quail. Wild Dog. while Indian subcontinent has 1438 species on the whole. Bookings] People: ikkim. Langur. Plovers. Red Panda. In Sikkim. bananas. official flower of Sikkim is Orchid Dendrobium Nobile. maples. The Rhododendron is acclaimed to be the state tree. providing a great place to explore for a naturalist. the main reason could be the weather that remains favorable for the vegetation. 362 types of ferns & ferns' allies. Lammergeyer. Barking Deer.500 to 5 000 m. Golden Eagles. Old World Flycatchers. Serow. Snow Partridge. 695 species of butterflies have been recorded. Binturong. 11 oak varieties. Impeyan Pheasant. alders and magnolias are found in large nu mbers. in addition with its mountains and lakes. Above 1.

Report typo or correction Fauna of India Fauna of India view original wikipedia article Please let us know what is wrong with this page: Fauna of India  © © © ¨§ ¦ u it Cancel In this article: Locations I ages Fro the we : I ages Videos .

1927 Protection Act of 1972 Zoos .Part of the Wildlife of India series Portal:Indian wildlife Flora of India Fauna of India Mammals Birds Fish Butterflies Moths Indian natural history Endangered species Conservation Ecoregions Wildlife Institute National parks Biosphere reserves Protected forests Private Protected areas Wildlife sanctuaries Forestry in India Communal forests Ministry of Environment and Forests Indian Forest Service Forest Management Project Tiger Project Elephant Indian Forest Act.

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Game laws are reported from the third century BC. India is home to several well known large mammals including the Asian Elephant. riverine areas as well as island archipelago. Asiatic Lion. swamplands. with the upper reaches of the Himalayas forming part of the Palearctic ecozone. Leopard and Indian Rhinoceros.6% of all mammalian. highlands. Fossil taxa from the Cretaceous show links to the Seychelles and Madagascar chain of islands. The flora and fauna of India have been studied and recorded from early times in folk traditions and later by researchers following more formal sc ientific approaches (See Natural history in India). Bengal Tiger. These taxa include five frog families (including the Myobatrachidae). tropical and temperate forests. The political boundaries of India encompass a wide range of ecozones ²desert. These hotspots have numerous endemic species. India has been suggested as a ship for the movement of several African taxa into Asia. India forms a large part of the Indomalayan biogeographical zone and many of the floral and faunal forms show Malayan affinities with only a few taxa being unique to the Indian region. This theory however was dismissed when continental drift and plate tectonics became well established.0% of all flowering plant species.6% of all avian. [4] A fossil tooth of what is believed to be of from a lemur -like primate from the Bugti Hills of central Pakistan however has led to suggestions that the lemurs may have originated in Asia. lies within the Indomalaya ecozone. These fossils are however from the Oligocene (30 m illion years ago) and have led to controversy. Some of these animals are engrained in . [3] The Cretaceous fauna include reptiles. 12. One of eighteen megadiverse countries. [7] A little under 5% of this total area is formally classified under protected areas. 4. and 6. 11. India displays significant biodiversity.2% of all reptilian. However there are suggestions that the links to Madagascar and Africa were present even at the time when the Indian subcontinent met Eura sia.[1] India. The separation of India and Madagascar is traditionally estimated to have taken place about 88 million years ago. high mountains. for the most part. plains. The unique forms includes the snake family Uropeltidae found only in the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka. It hosts three biodiversity hotspots: the Western Ghats. and the hilly ranges that straddle the India -Myanmar border.[2] The region is also heavily influenced by summer monsoons that cause major seasonal changes in vegetation and habitat.7% of all fish. a lacertid lizard and freshwater snails of the family Potamiopsidae. the Eastern Himalayas. three caecilian families.4% of all amphibian. amphibians and fi shes and an extant species demonstrating this phylogeographical link is the Purple Frog. [5][6] Lemur fossils from India in the past led to theories of a lost continent called Lemuria. 6.India has some of the world's most biodiverse regions. grasslands. the contours of 2000 to 2500m are considered to be the altitu dinal boundary between the Indo -Malayan and Palearctic zones. it is home to 7.

86% of the world species. odonates. Nilgai. Bengal Fox.[11] The World Conservation Monitoring Centre gives an estimate of about 15. Many smaller animals such as the Macaques.4% of the world total) and more than 408 reptile species (6% of the world total) are found in India. [9] Most of India's rhinos today survive in the Kaziranga National Park.000 species of flowering plants in India. Langurs and Mongoose species are especially well known due to their ability to live close to or inside urban areas. [8] Project Elephant. Other well known large Indian mammals include ungulates such as the Water Buffalo. These large mammals are important for wildlife tourism in India and several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries cater to these needs. It is also home to the Striped Hyaena. Some members of the dog family such as the Indian Wolf. The region shows high species diversity . The tiger has been particularly important and Project Tiger started in 1972 was a major effort to conserve the tiger and its habitats. started in 1992 and works for elephant protection. These regions have moist deciduous forest and rain forest.culture. Among these groups the highest levels of endemism are found in the amphibians. Few concerted attempts to document the biodiversity have been made since the publication of the Fauna of British India series. hymenoptera. Golden Jackal and the Dhole or Wild Dogs are also widely distributed. Biodiversity hotspots The Western Ghats Main article: Western Ghats The Western Ghats are a chain of hills that run along the western edge of peninsular India. There are about 2546 species of fishes (about 11% of the world species) found in Indian waters. Diversity There is insufficient information about the invertebrate and lower forms of India with significant work having been done only in a few groups of insects notably the butterflies . There are about 410 species of mammals known from India which is about 8. There are about 1250 species of birds from India with some variations depending on taxonomic treatments accounting for about 12% of the world species [10]. they receive high ra infall. though less known. Gaur and several species of deer and antelope. The popularity of these charismatic animals have helped greatly in conservation efforts in India. often being associated with deities. Their proximity to the ocean and through orographic effect. About 197 species of amphibians (4. the larger coleoptera and heteroptera.

The region is geologically young and shows high altitudinal variation. Nearly 77% of the amphibians and 62% of the reptile species found here are found nowhere else. [16] Numerous floral links to the Madagascan region also exist. [17] An alternate hypothesis that these taxa may have originally evolved out-of-India has also been suggested. [12] More recent phylogeographic studies have attempted to study the problem using molecular approaches. and the Satpura hypothesis proposed by Sunder Lal Hora suggests that the hill chains of Central India may have once formed a connection with the forests of northeastern India and into the Indo -Malayan region. and southern. the Purple frog and Sri Lankan lizard genus Nessia which appears similar to the Madagascan genus Acontias. northeastern I ndia. The region is also home to the Himalayan Newt (Tylototriton verrucosus). [19][20] The Relict Dragonfly (Epiophlebia laidlawi) is an endangered species found here with the only other species in the genus being found in Japan. 3 invertebrate and 36 plant species. 12 amphibians. The Eastern Himalayas The Red Panda or Firefox is native to the Himalayas in India and Nepal and southern China. the only salamander species found within Indian limits.[14] There are also differences in taxa which are dependent on time of divergence and geological history. but it was also suggested to hold for birds. [13] Later studies have suggested that Hora's original model species were a demons tration of convergent evolution rather than speciation by isolation.as well as high levels of endemism. [18] Biogeographical quirks exist with some taxa of Malayan or igin occurring in Sri Lanka but absent in the Western Ghats. central. [21] Indo-Burma Extinct and fossil forms . Hora used torrent stream fishes to support the theory. and eastern Nepal. 17 reptiles. It has nearly 163 globally threatened species including the One -horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis). [15] Along with Sri Lanka this region also shows some faunal similarities with the Madagascan region especially in the reptiles and amphibians. These include insects groups such as the zoraptera and plants such as those of the genus Nepenthes. 50 birds. [12] The region shows biogeographical affinities to the Malayan region. Examples include the Sibynophis snakes. the Wild Asian Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis (Arnee)) and in all 45 mammals. The Eastern Himalayas is the region encompassing Bhutan.

hippopotamus. The movement of the Indian subcontinent into the Asian landmass created the great Himalayan ranges and raised the sea bed into what is today the plains of nort hern India. tigers. Another dinosaur known from India is Rajasaurus narmadensis [27]. giraffe. macaques. chimpanzees. was a large island. During the tertiary period this island was separated from the Asian m ainland by a shallow sea. Sivatherium. The Siwaliks were formed in the last and the largest number of fossils of the Tertiary period are found in these ranges. cheetahs. Prior to becoming an island it was connected to the African region. wolves. baboons. a large fourhorned ruminant. The discovery of Glossopteris fern fossils from India and Antarctica led to the discovery of Gondwanaland and led to the greater understanding of continental drift. rabbits and a host of other mammals. [25][26] Titanosaurus indicus was perhaps the first dinosaur discovered in India by Richard Lydekker in 1877 in the Narmada valley. This area has been one of the most important areas for paleontology in India. rhinoceros. langurs. sloth bear. The Himalayan region and the greater part of Tibet lay under this sea. many species moved into India. a heavy-bodied and stout carnivorous ab elisaurid (theropod) dinosaur that inhabited the area near present-day Narmada river. horses. dholes. leopards. Fossil Cycads[24] are known from India while seven Cycad species continue to survive in India. Sabre-toothed tigers. camels. lions. Some fossil snakes from the Cenozoic era are also known. [22] The Siwalik fossils include Mastodons. Aurochs. deer. [28] . the Indian tableland. Elephas ganesa a fossil elephant from the Siwaliks Once connected to the Asian mainland. what is today peninsular India.During the early Tertiary period. antelope. orangutans. The Himalayas were created in several upheavals.[22] Many fossil tree species have been found in the intertrappean beds [23] including Grewioxylon from the Eocene and Heritieroxylon keralensis from the middle Miocene in Kerala and Heritieroxylon arunachalensis from the Mio-Pliocene of Arunachal Pradesh and at many other places. porcupines. bison. pigs. It was 9 m in length and 3 m in height and somewhat horizontal in posture with a double -crested crown on the skull.

Many species have not been seen since their description. was thought to be extinct but a few were rediscovered near Kolhapur.[34] While some of these large mammal species are confirmed extinct. a species of grass that grew in the spray zone of the Jog Falls prior to the construction of the Linganamakki reservoir. y See also Geology of India Recent extinctions Illustration of a Himalayan Quail from A. [29] [30] Himalayacetus subathuensis the oldest-known whale fossil of the family Protocetidae (Eocene). Bos primegenius nomadicus or the wild zebu. [33] Notable mammals which became or are presumed extinct within the country itself include the Indian / Asiatic Cheetah. Hubbardia heptaneuron . there have been many smaller animal and plant species whose status is harder to determine. Hume's work. about 53.Some scientists have suggested that the Deccan lava flows and the gases produced were responsible for the global extinction of dinosaurs however these have been disputed. Probably the first species to vanish during the time of the Indus Vally civilisation wa s the species of wild cattle. known earlier from a single specimen collected by Allan . Javan Rhinoceros and Sumatran Rhinoceros. This whale may have been capable of living partly on land.5 millio n years old was found in the Simla hills in the foothills of the Himalayas. [31] [32] Other fossil whales from India include Remingtonocetus approximately 43-46 million years old. which vanished from its range in the Indus valley and western India. Several small mammal fossils have been recorded in the intertrap pean beds. Last seen in 1876 The exploitation of land and forest resources by humans along with hunting and trapping for food and sport has led to the extinction of many species in India in recent times. possibly due to inter -breeding with domestic cattle and resultant fragmentation of wild populations due to loss of habitat. Acrocephalus orinus. The only major primate fossils have been from the nearby region of Myanmar. including the Pink-headed Duck (Rhodonessa caryophyllacea) and the Himalayan Quail (Ophrysia superciliosa). O. This area was underwater (in the Tethys sea) during the Tertiary period (when India was an island off Asia). A species of warbler. [35] Some species of birds have gone extinct in recent times. however larger mammals are mostly unknown.

[36][37] Similarly. named after the zoologist Thomas C. Species estimates .Octavian Hume from near Rampur in Himachal Pradesh was rediscovered after 139 years in Thailand. was rediscovered in 1986 by Bharat Bhushan. an ornithologist at the Bombay Natural History Society after being thought to be extinct. Jerdon who discovered it in 1848. the Jerdon's Courser (Rhinoptilus bitorquatus).

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9 2.16 100 162 .33 10 9.08 10.14 7.27 13.24 14. This is based on Alfred.26 6.24 8.67 3.2 3.62 33. 1998.86 6.5 28.62 24.61 1 6.33 2.Glimpses of biodiversity An estimate of the numbers of species by group in India is given below. [38] Taxonomic Group PROTISTA Protozoa Total (Protista) ANIMALIA Mesozoa Porifera Cnidaria Ctenophora Platyhelminthes Nemertinea Rotifera Gastrotricha Kinorhyncha Nematoda Nematomorpha Acanthocephala Sipuncula Mollusca Echiura Annelida Onychophora Arthropoda Crustacea Insecta Arachnida Pycnogonida Pauropoda Chilopoda Diplopoda World species Indian species % in India 31250 31250 71 4562 9916 100 17500 600 2500 3000 100 30000 250 800 145 66535 127 12700 100 987949 35534 73440 600 360 3000 7500 2577 2577 10 486 842 12 1622 330 100 10 2850 229 35 5070 43 840 1 68389 2934 8.9 8.83 7.49 12 9.65 8.

65 11.72 4.33 50 27.42 7.22 5.66 8.25 7.Symphyla Merostomata Phoronida Bryozoa (Ectoprocta) Endoprocta Brachiopoda Pogonophora Praipulida Pentastomida Chaetognatha Tardigrada Echinodermata Hemichordata Chordata Protochordata (Cephalochordata+Urochordata) Pisces Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia Total (Animalia) Grand Total (Protosticta+Animalia) Taxonomic lists and indices 120 4 11 4000 60 300 80 8 70 111 514 6223 120 48451 2106 21723 5150 5817 9026 4629 1196903 1228153 4 2 3 200 10 3 3.66 1 30 30 765 12 4952 119 2546 209 456 1232 390 868741 871318 27.02 5.83 12.27 5 16.29 10 10.84 13.09 A praying mantis Harpegnathos saltator An Idiopid spider endemic to India .06 7.

Animals.Deccan Mahseer Tor khudree This section provides links to lists of species of various taxa found in India. Invertebrates y y y Molluscs o List of non-marine molluscs of India Arachnids o Spiders of India Insects o Coccinellidae Ladybird beetles of India  o Odonata Dragonflies and damselflies of India  o Lepidoptera Butterflies of India   Papilionid butterflies of India Pierid butterflies of India   Nymphalid butterflies of India  Lycaenid butterflies of India Hesperid butterflies of India   Riodinid butterflies of India  Moths of India o Hymenoptera  Ants of India Vertebrates y y y y Fishes of India Amphibians of India Reptiles of India Snakes of India o Birds of South Asia .

[39] Threatened plant species Threat Category (IUCN) Number of species Extinct Extinct/Endangered Endangered Endangered/Vulnerable Vulnerable Rare Indeterminate Insufficiently Known No information Not threatened TOTAL 19 43 149 2 108 256 719 9 1441 374 3120 Threatened Animal species Number of species per group according to IUC N threat categories (1994) .y Mammals of India Plants See Flora of India Threatened species Many plants and animals are threatened or endangered due largely to habitat loss and population pressure apart from hunting and extraction. India stands out as one of the few countries with high human populations as well as a high number of threatened species.

iisc.org/biodiv/hotspot. . http://ces. 2. JC (2003) The biogeographic and tectonic hi story of India.htm Dr S.teriin. Retrieved 2007-06-20. Journal of Biogeography.html . Andaman and Nicobar Islands.Threat categories Source: WCMC See also y y y y y y y y y y y Endemic birds of South Asia Ecoregions in India Indian natural history Flora and fauna of Karnataka List of Indian state birds Endangered Mammals of India Flora of India Fauna of British India Wildlife of India Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve. India References http://www. Briggs. 30:381±388 1.K. 3. "Biodiversity Profile of India (Text Only)".ernet.in/hpg/cesmg/indiabio.Puri. India Endemic birds of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands . Jean-Claude Rage (2003) Relationships of the Malagasy fauna during the Late Cretaceous: Northern or Southern routes? Acta Paleontologica Polonica 48(4):661 -662 PDF 4.

.. but where is the evidence? PDF 5. S.org. Robert Buckler (1999) A brief review of the fossil cycads.1 12. Sydney. (2001) Endemic fishes of the Western Ghats and the Satpura hypothesis. PO (1998).pdf 20.net/xp/cepf/where_we_work/eastern_himalayas/eastern_himalayas_info . 1927 22. (2001) A fossil lemur from the Oligocene of Pakistan. (1949) Avian relicts and double invasions in Peninsular India and 13. 18:342 -347 8. Gardens. with a review of the Pa laeophiidae.M.Desmognathus imitator Dunn. Karanth..cepf.Marivaux L.gov.1 Prater. Rita. 294: 587±591. (2003) Evolution of disjunct distributions among wet -zone species of the Indian subcontinent: Testing various hypotheses using a phylogenetic approach Current Science. Soc. Bajpai S. P. Nameer.html WCMC website 10. R. Thiruvananthapuram 12.org/downloads/final_ehimalayas_ep. & Tiwari B.. Biogeography of Madagascar 18. Antoine P-O. S. Stewart R. Geodiversitas 25 (4) : 695-716 PDF 29. Biosci.rbgsyd. G. http://www. Radha (2006) A new species of Cycas from the Malabar Coast. . Project Elephant Accessed Feb. Singh. affinities 17. J. Karanth. K. Geological Survey of India. 7.0 22.. 28. Baloch I. 31 95 ±113 PDF 16. Science. H. Volume 58(2):119 -123 Rajasaurus and Indian Dinosaur. Current Science 90(6):789-792 [1] 19.-C. Kerala Forest Department. Ceylon. P.. Chaimanee Y. Biswas. Welcomme J. Daniels. R. 21. S. PDF http://plantnet. Amphibian Species of the World . (2006) Phylogenetic tests of distribution patterns in South Asia: towards an integrative approach. (1971) The Book of Indian Animals. Hinsley Notes on fossil wood(Accessed September 2006) 23. Métais G. Evolution 2:150-159 14. P.. N. PDF 27. Krausman. Benammi M. Floodvolcanism is the main cause of mass extinctions: Nice try.. BNHS 22.au/cgi -bin/cycadpg?region=ind Royal Botanical 25. M. 2007 http://www.. Rage J. Australia 26.nsw.uk/igcmc/main. Checklist of Indian mammals.. Current Science 81(3):240 -244 PDF Ripley. 11. Oligocene Lemur fossil hints at Asian origin Accessed February 2007 6. India. 2003. 2007 9. J. Wildl. Project Tiger Accessed Feb. PR & AJT Johnsingh (1990) Conservation and wildlife education in India. 2006 Out-of-India Gondwanan origin of some tropical Asian biota. Western India. and Jaeger J.xml Conservation International 2006 http://assets. and Pawar S. Early Eocene snakes from Kutch. Bull.panda.-L. Dillon S. Western Ghats. Ducrocq S. 85(9): 1276-1283 PDF 15.wcmc. -J.0 12. Thewissen J. 24.

ENVIS Centre. Alfred.30. (1998) Faunal Diversity in India: An Overview: In Faunal Diversity in India. JRB. 31. IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) E-Bulletin . USA 95:15464±15468 PDF 33. Acad. Zoological Survey of India. Alfred. Natl. Wildlife Institute of India (WII) ENVIS Centre: Wildlife & Protected Areas (Secondary Database) .R. IUCN (2004) A Global Species Assessment. March 6. Cetacea) from India and the time of origin of whales Proc. Vivek Menon (2003). and Gingerich P. 2007 37. Calcutta. pp 4. (Editors. 32. J.December 2002 [2] 35. M. Environmental Education Centre is a Cent re of Excellence of the Ministry of Environment and Forests. (1998) A new Eocene archaeocete (Mammalia. Wildlife Institute of India (WII) ENVIS Centre on Conservation of Ecological Heritage and Sacred Sights of India . ENVIS.. Delhi. e t al. Threatened birds of Asia [3] Accessed October 2006 The Nation. Government of India. 38. A field guide to Indian mammals . 34.P. Accessed October 2006 36.B.D. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 0143029983.R. Volcanism Whale fossils Bajpai. i-viii. ISBN 2-8317-0826-5 [4] 39. C. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Fauna of India World Conservation Monitoring Center Tata Energy Research Institute Alliance for Zero extinction The official Indian Environment information site show v ‡ [[|d]] ‡ e y y y y Topics related to Geography of India Climate Geology Climate · Climatic regions Geology · Geological history . 1998). (2001) India's Wildlife History. S. Rangarajan. Sci. ENVIS Centre: Wildlife & Protected Areas (Secondary Database). 1-495. y y y SPECIES CHECKLIST: Species Diversity in India.

autonomies. and also 1 . 2 Officially known as Myanmar.Landforms Mountains · Glaciers · Volcanoes · Valleys · Rivers · Lakes · Desert · Islands · Extreme Points · Waterfalls · Beaches Plains (Gangetic Plains · Eastern Coastal · Western Coastal) North India · North-East India · East India · South India · West India Regions Subdivisions States and territories · Cities · Districts · Autonomous regions · Municipalities Environment v ‡ [[|d]] ‡ e Ecoregions · Sanctuaries · National Parks · Biosphere Reserves · Protected Areas · Wildlife · Fauna · Flora show Fauna of Asia Afghanistan · Armenia1 · Azerbaijan 1 · Bahrain · Bangladesh · Bhutan · Brunei · Burma2 · Cambodia · People's Republic of Chin a · Cyprus1 · East Timor3 · Egypt4 · Georgia4 · India · Indonesia · Iran · Iraq · Israel · Japan · Jordan · Kazakhstan4 · North Korea · South Korea · Kuwait · Kyrgyzstan · Laos · Lebanon · Malaysia · Maldives · Mongolia · Nepal · Oman · Pakistan · Philippines · Qatar · Russia 4 · Saudi Arabia · Singapore · Sri Lanka · Syria · Tajikistan · Republic of China 5 · Thailand · Turkey4 · Turkmenistan · United Arab Emirates · Uzbekistan · Vietnam · Yemen Sovereign states States with limited recognition Abkhazia1 · Nagorno-Karabakh · Northern Cyprus · Palestine · South Ossetia1 · Dependencies. depending on the border definitions . other territories Aceh · Adjara 1 · Akrotiri and Dhekelia · Altai · British Indian Ocean Territory · Buryatia · Christmas Island · Cocos (Keeling) Islands · Guangxi · Hong Kong · Inner Mongolia · Iraqi Kurdistan · Khakassia · Macau · Nakhchivan · Ningxia · Papua · Sakha Republic · Tibet · Tuva · West Papua · Xinjiang · Sometimes included in Europe. 3 Sometimes included in Oceania.

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´ ³unwept´ and ³unsung´ railwaymen who stood like ³boys on the burning deck´ and kept the wheels of Indian Railways turning. It was the pre Sam-Pitroda days and telephone instruments were a luxury. But wait! the Itarsi line was fading.we must light candles and offer prayers for the victims of September. The telephone lines were buzzing from different directions and all the µcontrol boards¶ were busy like the proverbial beehives. ³The Bhopal Gas Tragedy ³ has been lost in the collective consciousness of the nation. Third of December 1984 dawned like any other day at Bhusaval Junction the heart of Central Railway operations. South bound trains towards Mumbai. North bound trains towards Itarsi Junction. Yes. 11 2001 . There were no STD facilities and what was called a ³lighting call´ took a couple of hours to materialise! At first the Bhusaval Control Office shrugged off the lack of communication with Itarsi as routine. Those were the days when railway communication was mainly through the overhead telegraph wires. The railways still had their more than 100 years old MORSE instruments functioning and there was a class of railwaymen which is extinct now called µSignallers¶ who used the DOT -DASH-DOT method to raise Bhopal. The victims of the biggest industrial accident are yet to receive succour. It was a pleasant bracing winter morning and it was ³«business as usual«.´ The 00-00 hours to 08-00 hours shift in the Control Office was busy tying up the loose ends of the previous day¶s operations and gathering information to plan the day¶s work. I am talking of the ³unhonoured. West bound trains towards Surat and East bound trains towards Nagpur marked their progress on the control charts.but do spare a thought for those who lost their lives in their devotion to duty.Bhopal gas tragedy Eighteen years have gone by since the Bhopal Gas tragedy. but when the silence continued it was disquieting. Optic Fibre Cable was still in its infancy. Finally the headquarters control office at Mumbai confirmed . life has to go on .

Communication to Bhopal was via Itarsi. . By about 6-00 a.m it was evident that a disaster had struck Bhopal. died in their cabs dutifully waiting for the signals. Plans were made to send medical aid and manpower to Bhopal to restart the operations. Signalmen and Stationmasters in the busy NISHATPURA yard which was the epicentre of the ga s leak had collapsed with the signal levers still in their hands. Clerks at the booking windows had keeled over with the ticket boxes and the c ash safe wide open. Black 3rd December brought the news that people had been dropping dead like flies in Bhopal and those who could manage were scrambling into trains which were running away from Bhopal. some evil fairy has struck and sleeping sickness has overtaken Bhopal«. No trains were leaving Bhopal and those which entered just seemed to have disappeared into a µblack hole¶ till the yard was full and no more trains could be admitted. The only redeeming feature was that the deadly gas had struck without fear or favour and even thieves dare not enter Bhopal! Back at the Bhusaval Control Office the full impact of the happenings at Bhopal was still sinking in. As the next shift railway workers streamed in at Bhopal they saw the horrifying sight of their colleagues slumped over at the workspot. In the aftermath of the 1984 riots the militant Sikh organisations were blamed for everything. There was a mass exodus with the Government functionaries abandoning Bhopal and commandeering whate ver vehicles were available.that there was something seriously amiss at Bhopal which in those days was an area controlled from the Jhansi Railway Divisional Office.´ Wild rumours started spreading. Since the signals did not turn green the engine drivers. The initial reports were almost flippant ± ³«.

rumours had spread that a secon d wave of poisonous gas. The last civilian to leave Tezpur when the Chinese invaded India in 1962 was the Station Master! Meanwhile. The Special Train carrying a multidisciplinary team of railway employees including doctors and para-medics. covered the distance of 302 kms. When we reached Bhopal we were informed that the Government Administration had finally got their act together .probably shamed into action by the railwaymen who had proceeded from Itarsi. it is ingrained in railwaymen to rush to the scene of the disaster and none will quit his post till the job is done. In retrospect one may say ³Fools rushed where angels feared to tread. had broken loose and the steady exodus further swelled due to the rush of the panic stricken residents. man made or natural. all the stocks of ATROPINE were commandeered along with hundreds of vials of eye drops.´ but at that point of time the Railwaymen and women of Itarsi. On the presumption that only a nerve gas could disable people so rapidly. 90 kms. The ³council of war´ at the Bhusaval control office decided that a relief train should start immediately. coughing and blinded. from Bhusaval to Itarsi in 3 hours flat.In the glorious tradition of Indian Railways not one employee questioned the decision to send people to Bhopal. from Bhopal banded themselves together and set off in a caravan of road vehicles to the illfated city of Bhopal. Unmindful of the people exhorting them to go back. there was one band of railwaymen going towards Bhopal. . wended their way to Bhopal. Whenever there is a disaster. Nobody knew exactly what had happened except that some gas had engulfed Bhopal and as the sun rose the gas diffused and finally dispersed leaving in its wake thousands of humans choking. even deadlier than the first one. While these streams of humanity were going out of Bhopal. the unsung heroes armed with food and medicine.

There was no way for postmortem to be performed and all the death certificates were signed with the words ³Cardiac arrest due to unknown causes´. We found that the ATROPINE vials and ³Visine´ eye drops were useless. Death was a welcome relief to the victims. Faced with their end these poor souls uncomplainingly requested that their next of kin should be informed and their belongings taken care of. their eyeballs swollen red and bursting. I still cannot forget the poor blinded Malayalee boy holding my hands imploring me to convey some important news to his mother in Kerala. I still do not know whether there is an antidote to METHYL ISOCYANATE . The dying wish of a TTE (Travelling Ticket Examiner ) was that his settlement dues should be expedited and his family cared for. . the famous cliché that ³from Kashmir to Kanniyakumari Indian Railways is one´ was poignantly apparent as we tried our best to soothe the victims in whatever language we could speak.We were told to organise relief operations in the Itarsi civil hospital. The sight at Itarsi was something straight out of Dante¶s µInferno. In his delirious death he kept apologising for abandoning his train and pressed the reservation chart into the hands of another railwayman. women and children were writhing in agony and we watched them in horrified helplessness.the poisonous substance which had annihilated everyone near the Union Carbide Factory in Bhopal. His sightless eyes failed to reveal that it was a doctor. every breath bringing agony to their burning lungs.¶ Dozens of men. The screams of the tortured bodies were in different languages. As train after train went past Itarsi discharging the bodies of the victims of t he monstrous gas.

Thus began a long and painful struggle of the victims for compensation. Ex-ADRM/BSL/CR.7 lakh suffered bodily damage. a subsidiary of the US -based Union Carbide Company. let us salute the railwaymen who tenaciously clung to their workspots and rushed to the scene of disaster. Anand. Twenty-five years have passed since that night of terror and death in Bhopal. medical attention and rehabilitation that has spluttered along for a quarter century. making it by far the world¶s worst industr ial disaster ever. They were asked to pay compensation and arrange for medical treatment. V. The matter immediately got embroiled in legal controversies. Those who survived have suffered multiple diseases for 25 years. When I joined the Railways I was asked to make a daily prayer that there should be no fatal railway accidents in my career and I do not have to remove mangled bodies from a train wreck. While we continue to pray for their souls. which saw a cloud of deadly gases explode out of a faulty tank in a pesticide factory and silently spread into the homes of sleeping people. estimates based on hospital and rehabilitation records show that about 20.The railways raced back to normality within 24 hours of the accident. Many who breathed the highly toxic cocktail that night suffered a horrible death with multiple organ failure. I never expected that I would live to see so many dead and dying humans around. Hundreds of railwaymen still bear the physical and mental scars of that black day. there was an international outcry for relief for the victims and punishment to those responsible for the gas leakage. A report of the Gas Tragedy Relief Department of the state says that the morbidity rate (occurrence of ailments) is nearly 20% among gas-affected persons compared to about 5% among the unaffected population. . Following the disaster.000 people died and about 5. The pesticide plant from where the gas leaked belonged to Union Carbide India. Although no official count of casualties has ever been done.

000.´ she says. 6. the court agreed to reopen the criminal cases in 1991. Of the Rs 713 crores. and 5. the Welfare Commissioner rejected their demand. However. the victims approached the apex court. In Bhopal.000 people have died. paid by Union Carbide ² was meant for about 1 lakh persons but has been distributed among nearly 6 lakh people. Various studies have established that the soil.000 kgs of tarry residues and 25. The compensation amount ² Rs 713 crore. nearly 20. in the Uphaar tragedy in Delhi. In reality. vegetables and even breast milk have traces of toxic chemicals.In February 1989. In addition. Another dimension of the ongoing tragedy of Bhopal is the poisonous chemical waste lying around in the abandoned premises of the pesticide plant. Even after 25 years. Medical records are yet not centralized as recommended by the monitoring committee set up by the Supreme Court in 2004. due to intense public shock and anger at letting off the culprits. the HC too dismissed the petition.000 dead. families of those who died got between Rs 15 lakh to Rs 18 lakh e ach.000 kgs of alpha naphthol lying in the open since 1984.´ says Dr Saxena. one in 1994 and the next in 2004. besides being unable to work fully.7 lakh have suffered injuries. N D Jayaprakash of the Bhopal Gas Peedit Sangharsh Sahyog Samiti (BGPSSS). On November 30 this year. . one of the groups fighting for the rights of gas victims.´ says Jayaprakash. They appealed to the MP high court. who has worked among the gas victims since the disaster in 1984 points out that no line of treatment was ever evolved. ground water.000 each ² have been given till now to the injured. the Supreme Court announced that it was approving a settlement for Bhopal victims under which Union Carbide agreed to pay Rs 713 crore for compensation to victims.74 lakh persons works out to about Rs 12. ³We will go back to the Supreme Court. including about 3. Sadhana Pradhan.410 per victim on average. that is. But such distinctions were not maintained and meagre compensation was doled out. Stung by this injustice. which told them to approach the state government. As a result. Rs 113 crores was for loss of livestock and property. ³The government has treated the victims on an ad hoc basis. The government adopted a one-size-fits-all policy for categorisation of injuries ² a person with compromised lungs may ultimately develop other diseases. while the government agreed to drop all criminal cases against it. ³This has led to development of multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB in many cases.000 gasaffected patients visit hospitals in Bhopal every day. about 2 million visits per year. The balance Rs 600 crore distributed among 5. while injured persons got Rs 1 lakh each. gas victims are suffering serious health problems. On an average. doctors have no idea about the patients¶ history. Two installments of compensation ² of up to Rs 25. who spent 11 years in the government¶s TB hospital in Bhopal. Several committees have inspected it and found 44. they got interest at the rate of 9% per annum for the roughly six years that the legal proceedings took. calls this a massive fraud because the number of gas-affected persons was arbitrarily fixed by the government at 105. In contrast.

³There is no piped water supply.´ he says. People still use contaminated groundwater daily. .Abdul Jabbar Khan of the Bhopal Gas Peedith Mahila Udyog Sangathan (BGPMUS) says that actually there is much more poisonous waste. which the company used to routinely bury in the premises since 1969.

Summary of background and causes The UCIL factory was established in 1969 near Bhopal. In 1979 a methyl isocyanate (MIC) production plant was added to the site.[17] The 1985 reports[17][18][19] give a picture of what led to the disaster and how it developed.[14] In December 1985 The New York Times reported that according to UCIL plant managers the hypothesis of this route of entry of water was tested in the presence of the Central Bureau Investigators and was found to be negative. The resulting exothermic reaction increased the temperature inside the tank to over 200 °C (392 °F). The problem was then made worse . large amounts of water entered tank 610. 50. Plant design modified by Indian engineers to abide by government regulations and economic pressures to reduce expenses contributed most to the actual leak[citation needed]. At the time. workers were cleaning out pipes with water. it was possible for the water to leak into tank 610. including public sector financial institutions. Theories of how the water entered the tank differ. Factors leading to this huge gas leak include: y y y y y y The use of hazardous chemicals (MIC) instead of less dangerous ones Storing these chemicals in large tanks instead of over 200 steel drums. raising the pressure to a level the tank was not designed to withstand. and some claim that owing to bad maintenance and leaking valves. MIC. containing 42 tonnes of methyl isocyanate.[3][4] It produced the pesticide carbaryl (trademark Sevin). This forced the emergency venting of pressure from the MIC holding tank. 1984. causing great panic as people woke up with a burning sensation in their lungs.[16] However. Possible corroding material in pipelines Poor maintenance after the plant ceased production in the early 1980s Failure of several safety systems (due to poor maintenance and regulations). and that it was an act of sabotage by a "disgruntled worker" who introduced water directly into the tank. Safety systems being switched off to save money²including the MIC tank refrigeration system which alone would have prevented the disaster. The reaction sped up because of the presence of iron in corroding non-stainless steel pipelines.[15] UCC also maintains that this route was not possible. although they differ in details. was used instead of less hazardous but more expensive materials. A mixture of poisonous gases flooded the city of Bhopal. UCC understood the properties of MIC and its handling requirements. an intermediate in carbaryl manufacture. the company's investigation team found no evidence of the necessary connection.[11][12][13] During the night of December 2±3.1 % by various Indian investors.9 % was owned by Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) and 49. releasing a large volume of toxic gases into the atmosphere. Thousands died immediately from the effects of the gas and many were trampled in the panic.

[4] Other manufacturers. lack of emergency response plans.[4] [edit] Contributing factors y y The deficiencies in the Bhopal plant design can be summarised as: choosing a dangerous method of manufacturing pesticides. Until 1979. Sevin (a trademarked brand name for carbaryl). the Government of Madhya Pradesh. used in the Bhopal plant reacted methylamine with phosgene to form MIC (methyl isocyanate). The initial investigation was conducted entirely by the government agencies . The closing of the plant to outsiders (including UCC) by the Indian government. [4][22] [edit] Plant production process Union Carbide produced the pesticide. which was then reacted with 1-naphthol to form the final product. using MIC as an intermediate. that MIC had no longterm health effects. location close to a densely populated area. when the International Medical Commission on Bhopal met.by the plant's location near a densely populated area. such as Bayer. Union Carbide Corporation and the Government of India.[4][23] .Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) under the directorship of Dr. carbaryl. in which the same raw materials are combined in a different manufacturing order. the demand for pesticides had fallen though production continued. leading to buildup of stores of unused MIC. though at greater manufacturing costs. UCC and the Government of India maintained until 1994. large-scale storage of MIC before processing. dependence on manual operations. reduction of safety management due to reducing the staff. made carbaryl without MIC. The CSIR report[19] was formally released 15 years after the disaster.[23] The chemical process. MIC was imported from the USA.[3][4][20] [edit] Public information Much speculation arose in the aftermath. UCC has still not released their research about the disaster or the effects of the gas on human health. The authors of the ICMR studies[21] on health effects were forbidden to publish their data until after 1994. Analysis shows that the parties responsible for the magnitude of the disaster are the two owners. insufficient maintenance of the plant. under-dimensioning of the safety features. [4] Deficiencies in the management of UCIL can be summarised: lack of skilled operators due to the staffing policy. with phosgene first reacted with the naphthol to form a chloroformate ester. This route differed from MIC-free routes used elsewhere. Soon after the disaster UCC was not allowed to take part in the investigation by the government. or "route". and the failure to make data public contributed to the confusion. non-existent catastrophe plans and shortcomings in health care and socio-economic rehabilitation. and to some extent. In the early 1980s. Varadajan and Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI). which is then reacted with methyl amine.

rather than the previous and required one -hour readings. even though only a few had a grasp of the language.[14][22] [edit] Equipment and safety regulations Union Carbide MIC plant y It emerged in 1998. its Indian subsidiary plants were not prepared for problems. No action plans . that. some observers. such as those writing in the Trade Environmental Database (TED) Case Studies as part of the Mandala Project from American University. seriously affecting employee morale and driving some of the most skilled . y y y y y y Kurzman argues that "cuts . A pipe leaked? Don't replace it.. have pointed to "serious communication problems and management gaps between Union Carbide and its Indian operation". MIC workers needed more training? They could do with less.[14][24] In addition....See also: Carbaryl#Production [edit] Work conditions Attempts to reduce expenses affected the factory's employees and their conditions. elsewhere". during civil action suits in India. [14][25] By 1984..[14][24] Workers made complaints about the cuts through their union but were ignored. employees said they were told . One employee was fired after going on a 15-day hunger strike. meant less stringent quality control and thus looser safety rules. unl ike Union Carbide plants in the USA. [24] Workers were forced to use English manuals. No maintenance supervisor was placed on the night shift and instrument readings were taken every two hours. Promotions were halted. 70% of the plant's employees were fined before the disaster for refusing to deviate from the proper safety regulations under pressure from management.. only six of the original twelve operators were still working with MIC and the number of supervisory personnel was also cut in half. characterised by "the parent companies [sic] handsoff approach to its overseas operation" and "cross-cultural barriers".[26] The personnel management policy led to an exodus of skilled personnel to better and safer jobs.

which might have brought the concentration down to a safe level. 1984. even though they corrode when exposed to acid.[3][4][14][27] The steam boiler.[3][4][14][23] The MIC tank alarms had not worked for 4 years. investigations in the aftermath of the disaster discovered that the maximum pressure it could handle was only one-quarter of that which was present in the accident. The build up in temperature and pressure is believed to have affected the magnitude of the gas release.[3][4][14] Water sprays designed to "knock down" gas leaks were poorly designed ²set to 13 metres and below. It also dispensed with the use of sophisticated instrumentation as not appropriate for the Indian plant. This is supported with original government .[3][4][14][27] Slip-blind plates that would have prevented water from pipes being cleaned from leaking into the MIC tanks through faulty valves were not installed. a leaking carbon steel valve was found. [3][4][14][27] There was only one manual back-up system.y y y y y y y y y y y had been established to cope with incidents of this magnitude.5 degrees advised by the manual. not the four-stage system used in the USA. [27] Even if the scrubber had been working. and some of the coolant was being used elsewhere. fol lowing government guidelines. the refrigeration system. rather than repairing the broken one. Their installation had been omitted from the cleaning checklist. Furthermore. The gas scrubber therefore did not treat escaping gases with sodium hydroxide (caustic soda). [18] Themistocles D'Silva asserts in the latest book²The Black Box of Bhopal²that the design of the MIC plant. had been left idle²the MIC was kept at 20 degrees Celsius (room temperature). which was left to "stew". This included not informing local authorities of the quantities or dangers of c hemicals used and manufactured at Bhopal. designed to inhibit the volatilization of MIC. was out of action for unknown reasons. Other tanks had been used for that week. Because of the unavailability of electronic parts in India. intended to clean the pipes.[3][4][14][27] The flare tower and the vent gas scrubber had been out of service for 5 months before the disaster.[3][4][14][27] Carbon steel valves were used at the factory. the Indian engineers preferred pneumatic instrumentation. the flare tower itself was improperly designed and could only hold one -quarter of the volume of gas that was leaked in 1984. The pipe was not repaired because it was believed it would take too much time and be too expensive.[23] On the night of the disaster. [3][4][14][28] To reduce energy costs.[3][4][14][27] UCC admitted in their own investigation report that most of the safety systems were not functioning on the night of December 3. allowing water to enter the MIC tanks. was "Indianized" by UCIL engineers to maximize the use of indigenous materials and products. not the 4.[3][4][14][27] The MIC tank had been malfunctioning for roughly a week. according to Weir. they could not spray high enough to reduce the concentration of escaping gas.

high temperatures and other factors.documents. monomethylamine. there was a phosgene leak. [4][22] Reports issued months before the incident by scientists within the Union Carbide corporation warned of the possibility of an accident almost identical to that which occurred in Bhopal. much more than safety rules allowed. [4][22] In January 1982. phosgene. releasing a large volume of toxic gases. a worker was splashed with phosgene. This forced the emergency venting of pressure from the MIC holding tank. chlorine. In panic he ripped off his mask. leaks of the following substances regularly took place in the MIC plant: MIC. None of the workers had been ordered to wear protective masks. [4][23] Union Carbide was warned by American experts who visited the plant after 1981 of the potential of a "runaway reaction" in the MIC storage tank. resulting in burns over 30 percent of his body. Many valves and lines were in poor condition. methylcarbaryl chloride. thus inhaling a large amount of phosgene gas. most of the safety systems were not functioning. sometimes in combination. chloroform and hydrochloric acid.[4][22] During 1983 and 1984. a chemical engineer came into contact with liquid MIC. a large amount of water entered tank 610. A runaway reaction started. when 24 workers were exposed and had to be admitted to hospital. the MIC supervisor suffered intensive chemical burns and two other workers were severely exposed to the gases. these warnings were not heeded. The reaction was sped up by the presence of iron from corroding non-stainless steel pipelines. [4][22] In 1981. Tank 610 contained 42 tonnes MIC. The reaction generated a major increase in the temperature inside the tank to over 200°C (400°F). [4][22] In October 1982. In February 1982. The book also discredits the unproven allegations in the CSIR Report.[4][22] In August 1982. he died 72 hours later. Again. an MIC leak affected 18 workers.[29] See also: Carbaryl#Production [edit] Previous warnings and accidents A series of prior warnings and MIC-related accidents had occurred: y y y y y y y y y In 1976. The reports were ignored and never reached senior staff. the two trade unions reacted because of pollution within the plant. local Indian authorities warned the company of problems on several occasions from 1979 onwards.[4][23] [edit] The leakage y y In November 1984. In attempting to stop the leak. there was a leak of MIC. and carbon tetrachloride.which are appended. which was accelerated by contaminants.[4] During the nights of 2±3 December.[4] .

hydrogen chloride. The initial effects of exposure were coughing. 2.00 The first people reached Hamidia hospital. frothing at the mouth. cough. carbon monoxide. Those who y .00 Water enters tank 610.00 A police loudspeaker broadcasts: "Everything is normal".10 The alarm is heard outside the plant. People awakened by these symptoms fled away from the plant. monomethyl amine (MMA) and carbon dioxide. oxides of nitrogen. respiratory difficulties. [4][16] UCC's investigation team found no evidence of the suggested connection.[4][14] UCC maintains that a "disgruntled worker" deliberately connected a hose to a pressure gauge. severe eye irritation and a feeling of suffocation.30 First sensations due to the gases are felt²suffocation.00 The gases are brought under control.00 Water cleaning of pipes starts. either produced in the storage tank or in the atmosphere. Union Carbide director denies any leak.30 Gases are emitted from the vent gas scrubber tower. stayed close to the ground and spread outwards through the surrounding community.00 Police are alerted. burning eyes and vomiting. vomiting. They were not told by the supervisor to add a slip-blind water isolation plate. Symptoms include visual impairment and blindness. 00.50 The siren is heard within the plant area. The workers escape. 22. 2. 00. [4] The gas cloud composed mainly of materials denser than the surrounding air. 22. and vomiting. [17] [edit] Timeline.30 The large siren sounds and is turned off. the gas cloud may have contained phosgene. 1. Outside[4] y y y y y y 22. 6. reaction starts. the workers consider it possible for water to have accidentally entered the MIC tank. [edit] Health effects [edit] Short term health effects y Apart from MIC. summary At the plant[4] y y y y y 21.y y y It is known that workers cleaned pipelines with water. 4. hydrogen cyanide. and of the bad maintenance. Because of this. Residents of the area evacuate.

170.000 buffalo.000 were below 15 years of age. Laboratory replication studies by CSIR and UCC scientists failed to detect any HCN or HCN. Fishing was prohibited as well. ammonia.000 were pregnant women. [32] However. 3 % of the gas is HCN. including food. breathlessness. Independent organizations recorded 8. 3. MIC breaks down to hydrogen cyanide (HCN). 2. Concentrations of 300 ppm can lead to immediate collapse. Supplies. The causes of deaths were choking. Another 100.928 deaths had been certified. and methylamine (also produced in tank 610 during the vigorous reaction with water and choloroform) and also with itself under acidic conditions to form trimers of HCN called triazenes.[30][31] Exposed at higher temperatures.000 people are estimated to have permanent injuries of different degrees. tubular necrosis of the kidneys. [33] MIC when heated in the gas-phase starts breaks down to hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and other products above 400°C. 200.000. Of these.[4] y y [edit] Hydrogen cyanide or not? y y y y Whether hydrogen cyanide was present in the gas mixture is still a controversy. Treatment was suggested . Findings during autopsies revealed changes not only in the lungs but also cerebral oedema. affecting a population of 520.000 and 30. reflexogenic circulatory collapse and pulmonary oedema.000 dead in the first days. became scarce owing to suppliers' safety fears. Other estimations vary between 10. and 3. leaves on trees yellowed and fell off. Within a few days. stomach pains and vomiting. goats.[4] y Thousands of people had succumbed by the morning hours.000 to 200.[4] The acute symptoms were burning in the respiratory tract and eyes. blepharospasm.derived side products. HCN is known to be very reactive with MIC. fatty degeneration of the liver and necrotising enteritis. and other animals were collected and buried. at +200°C.ran inhaled more than those who had a vehicle to ride. According to Kulling & Lorin. [34] HCN is also known to react with hydrochloric acid.[30] The stillbirth rate increased by up to 300% and neonatal mortality rate by 200 %. according to another scientific publication. Owing to their height. There were mass funerals and mass cremations as well as disposal of bodies in the Narmada river. None of the HCN-derived side products were detected in the tank residue. [35] The non-toxic antidote sodium thiosulfate (Na2 S2O3) in intravenous injections increases the rate of conversion from cyanide to non-toxic thiocyanate. [4] A total of 36 wards were marked by the authorities as being "gas affected". Chemically.000. In 1991. which caused further supply shortages.000 people were treated at hospitals and temporary dispensaries. Many people were trampled trying to escape. children and other people of shorter stature inhaled higher concentrations.

000 have died since the accident from gas-related diseases. Other symptoms and diseases are often ascribed to the gas exposure.[4] 2. see Dhara & Dhara (2002). [4] [edit] Long term health effects y It is estimated that 20. the International Medical Commission on Bhopal (IMCB) visited Bhopal to investigate the health status among the survivors as well as the health care system and the socio-economic rehabilitation. cardiac failure secondary to lung injury. Sambhavna is the only clinic that will treat anybody affected by the gas. it was not used on larger scale until June 1985. For a review of the research on the health effects of the Bhopal disaster. [4] There is a clinic established by a group of survivors and activists known as Sambhavna. This led to a second mass evacuation from Bhopal. The reports from Indian Council of Medical Research[21] were not completely released until around 2003.[4] . but because of confusion within the medical establishments.[4] "Operation Faith": On December 16. respiratory difficulties. Within a few days. female reproductive difficulties and birth defects among children born to affected women.[37] y y y y y [edit] Aftermath of the leakage y y y y y Medical staff were unprepared for the thousands of casualties.[4] The gases immediately caused visible damage to the trees. all the leaves fell off. In January. They were told to simply give cough medicine and eye drops to their patients. and has performed extensive research. and treats the condition with a combination of Western and traditional Indian medicines.000 bloated animal carcasses had to be disposed. Another 100. the tanks 611 and 619 were emptied of the remaining MIC. Reported and studied symptoms are eye problems. or the subsequent water poisoning. [4] The quality of the epidemiological and clinical research varies.000 people are estimated to have permanent injuries.early. but there is no good research supporting this.000 to 200. immune and neurological disorders. 1994.[4] Doctors and hospitals were not informed of proper treatment methods for MIC gas inhalation.[36] Union Carbide as well as the Indian Government long denied permanent injuries by MIC and the other gases.

In 1992. plus interest) in a full and final settlement of its civil and criminal liability.[4] Each claimant was to be categorised by a doctor.[4] Immediate relief was decided two days after the tragedy.000." [4] As of 2008.y y y Complaints of a lack of information or misinformation were widespread. water. [4] Effects of interim relief were more children sent to school. it was directed by the Supreme Court to finance a 500-bed hospital for the medical care of the survivors.[4] Formal statements were issued that air. It was obliged to give free care for survivors for eight years.[4] When UCC wanted to sell its shares in UCIL.[4] In 1999. vegetation and foodstuffs were safe within the city. An Indian Government spokesman said that "Carbide is more interested in getting information from us than in helping our relief work. [4] The Government of India claimed US$ 3. improvement of housing conditions.[4] [edit] Economic rehabilitation y y y y y y y y y After the accident. the claimants were expected to prove "beyond reasonable doubt" that death or injury in each case was attributable to exposure.3 billion from UCC. UCC had not released information about the possible composition of the cloud. At the same time. the average sum paid out was Rs 62.000 (US$ 830). Bhopal Memorial Hospital and Research Centre (BMHRC) was inaugurated in 1998. [4] From 1990 interim relief of Rs 200 was paid to everyone in the family who was born before the disaster. The number of children exposed to the gases was at least 200. The Bhopal plant medical doctor did not have proper information about the properties of the gases. [4] One-time ex-gratia payment of Rs 1.500 to families with monthly income Rs 500 or less was decided.000. people were informed that poultry was unaffected.[4] Relief measures commenced in 1985 when food was distributed for a short period and ration cards were distributed. 44 percent of the claimants still had to be medically examined. a settlement was reached under which UCC agreed to pay US$470 million (the insurance sum.[4] Widow pension of the rate of Rs 200/per month (later Rs 750) was provided.[4] The final compensation (including interim relief) for personal injury was for the majority Rs 25. more money spent on treatment. [4] . more money spent on food. but were warned not to consume fish. no one under the age of 18 was registered. [4] UCC offered US$ 350 million. In court.[4] [edit] Compensation from Union Carbide y y y The Government of India passed the Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster Act that gave the government rights to represent all victims in or outside India. For death claim. the insurance sum.

etc. a very large number of private practitioners have opened in Bhopal. In 1994.000 in developing countries.[4] 1986. there were approximately 1. were missing for at least a decade. Eight mini-units (outreach health centres) were started. [4] The Bhopal Memorial Hospital and Research Centre (BMHRC) is a 350-bedded super speciality hospital.[4] The Government of India has focused primarily on increasing the hospital -based services for gas victims.25 beds per 1. Infrastructure like buses. and that less than 100 gas victims have found regular employment under the government's scheme.000. All except one was closed down by 1992. Total compensation awarded was Rs. Free health care for gas victims should be offered until 2006.y y y The management of registration and distribution of relief showed many shortcomings. schools. nearly 70 percent do not appear to be professionally qualified.546.[4] [edit] Health care y y y y y In the immediate aftermath of the disaster. Heart surgery and hemodialysis are done.[40][41][42] . 152 of the planned 200 worksheds were built.and four-story buildings were constructed in the "Widows colony" outside Bhopal. It was not possible to keep cattle.0 beds per 1. compared to the recommendation from the World bank of 1. Within weeks. the State Government established a number of hospitals. [4] [edit] Habitation rehabilitation y 2. In 2000. Major specialities missing are gynaecology. clinics and mobile units in the gas -affected area.[4] [edit] Occupational rehabilitation y y y 33 of the 50 planned worksheds for gas victims started.[4] Radical health groups set up JSK (the People's Health Centre) that was working a few years from 1985.000 persons need alternative jobs.47 crores.[39] Because of the smallness of the sums paid and the denial of interest to the claimants. obstetrics and paediatrics. In the severely affected areas.486 flats in two. 1. Several hospitals have been built after the disaster. a sum as large as Rs 10 billion is expected to be left over after all claims have been settled. the health care system became tremendously overloaded. Number of awarded cases were 574. [4] The management has faced problems with strikes. the MP government invested in the Special Industrial Area Bhopal. and the quality of the health care is disputed. The water did not reach the upper floors. [4] It is estimated that 50. 16 were partially functioning.1.029.517 cases were registered and decided.213.[4] Since the leak. [38] In 2007.304 and number of rejected cases 455.

volatile organochlorine compounds. In 1982 tubewells in the vicinity of the UCC factory had to be abandoned. Once water had accumulated to a . lead. drums and tanks were cleaned and sold. the downstream bleeder lines were partially clogged.y Sambhavna Trust is a charitable trust that registered in 1995. as are storages of different residues. [4] UCC's laboratory tests in 1989 revealed that soil and water samples collected from near the factory and inside the plant were toxic to fish.[4][43] [edit] Environmental rehabilitation y When the factory was closed in 1985±1986. Reported polluting compounds are. Sevin. [44] Several other studies has shown polluted soil and groundwater in the area. [4] In order to provide safe drinking water to the population around the UCC factory. but there is no scientific evidence. there is a scheme for improvement of water supply. pipes. At the time. Isolation material is falling down and spreading. [4] The area around the plant was used as a dumping area for hazardous chemicals. and the tank was not pressurised. may have built up in the pipe. mercury. which was not draining properly through the bleeder valves. rising high enough to pour back down through another series of lines in the MIC storage tank. among others. pesticide HCH and haloorganics [clarification needed ]. the Madhya Pradesh High Court decided that the toxic waste should be incinerated at Ankleshwar in Gujarat. hexachloroethane. tarry residue. naphthalene. many valves were leaking. nickel.[4]. The clinic gives modern and Ayurvedic treatments to gas victims. workers were cleaning out pipes with water. It also stresses that it did all it could to alleviate human suffering following the disaster. The MIC and the Sevin plants are still there. copper. Union Carbide denies allegations against it on its website dedicated to the tragedy. It is plausible that these chemicals have some negative health effects on those exposed. The corporation believes that the accident was the result of sabotage. stating that safety systems were in place and operative.[46] [edit] Investigation into possible sabotage Theories of how the water entered the tank differ.[45] y y y y [edit] Union Carbide's defense Now owned by Dow Chemical Company. hexachlorobutadiene. toxic organochlorines. The water. The workers maintain that entry of water through the plant's piping system during the washing of lines was possible because a slip-bind was not used. free of charge.[39] In December 2008. naphthol. chromium.

Instead. and that the Indian Government impeded its investigation and declined to prosecute the employee responsible.[4][14] However. UCC claims the plant staff falsified numerous records to distance themselves from the incident. Furthermore. According to Carbide. This all-important test failed to support this as a route of water entry.[16] Carbide claims such a large amount of water could not have found its way into the tank by accident.[by whom?] The company cites an investigation conducted by the engineering consulting firm Arthur D. Union Carbide sent material aid and several international medical experts to assist the medical facilities in Bhopal. Carbide states that the safety concerns identified in 1982 were all allayed before 1984 and "none of them had anything to do with the incident". presumably because that would weaken its allegations of negligence by Union Carbide. they claim that "employee sabotage²not faulty design or operation²was the cause of the tragedy". which concluded that a single employee secretly and deliberately introduced a large amount of water into the MIC tank by removing a meter and connecting a water hose directly to the tank through the metering port. the water may have been routed through another standby "jumper line" that had only recently been connected to the system.[citation needed] [edit] Safety and equipment issues The corporation denies the claim that the valves on the tank were malfunctioning. Little Report as well as in the recent book The Black Box of Bhopal state that the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) along with UCIL engineers tried to simulate the water-washing hypothesis as a route of the entry of water into the tank.[47] The company admits that "the safety systems in place could not have prevented a chemical reaction of this magnitude from causing a leak". claiming that "documented evidence gathered after the incident showed that the valve close to the plant's waterwashing operation was closed and leak-tight. Little.height of 6 meters (20 feet). Indian scientists suggested that additional water might have been introduced as a "back-flow" from the defectively designed vent-gas scrubber. the day following the leak. Documents cited in the Arthur D.[47] . Alternatively. it could drain by gravity flow back into the system. none of these possible routes of entry could be duplicated when tested. a chemical reaction of this magnitude was not factored in" because "the tank's gas storage system was designed to automatically prevent such a large amount of water from being inadvertently introduced into the system" and "process safety systems²in place and operational²would have prevented water from entering the tank by accident". and safety systems were not designed to deal with intentional sabotage.[47] [edit] Response The company stresses the "immediate action" taken after the disaster and their continued commitment to helping the victims. On December 4. "in designing the plant's safety systems. process safety systems²in place and operational²would have prevented water from entering the tank by accident".

6 million in humanitarian interim relief available. However.[49] Developing the Responsible Care system with other members of the chemical industry as a response to the Bhopal crisis.[48] In August 1987. The hospital caters for the treatment of heart. the US and Indian governments.[47] The corporation established the Employees' Bhopal Relief Fund in February 1985.[48] Union Carbide also undertook several steps to provide continuing aid to the victims of the Bhopal disaster after the court ruling. which is designed "to help prevent such an event in the future by improving community awareness. the trust had amounted approximately $100 million. including: y y y y The sale of its 50. emergency preparedness and process safety standards". addressed the US Congress. However. Time-line 1984±2004: See "Bhopal Gas Tragedy: Fact Sheet". the Indian Government passed the Bhopal Gas Leak Act in . lung and eye problems. The hospital was begun in October 1995 and was opened in 2001. These include the problems of ongoing contamination. the Chairman and CEO of Union Carbide. [46] Providing "a $2.Carbide put $2 million into the Indian Prime Minister's immediate disaster relief fund on 11 December 1984. but was later closed and leveled by the government". and a 2004 hoax. 2004[50] [edit] Legal action against Union Carbide Legal issues began affecting Union Carbide. criticisms of the clean-up operation undertaken by Union Carbide.9 percent interest in UCIL in April 1992 and establishment of a charitable trust to contribute to the building of a local hospital.2 million grant to Arizona State University to establish a vocationaltechnical center in Bhopal. [edit] Legal proceedings leading to the settlement On 14 December 1984. [49] Donating $5 million to the Indian Red Cross. Dec 3. Carbide made an additional $4. Hindustan Times. which raised more than $5 million for immediate relief. The company provided a fund with around $90 million from sale of its UCIL stock. stressing the company's "commitment to safety" and promising to ensure that a similar accident "cannot happen again". The sale was finalized in November 1994. In 1991. which was constructed and opened.[48] [edit] Long-term fallout Legal action against Union Carbide has dominated the aftermath of the disaster. other issues have also continued to develop. the local authorities in Bhopal and the victims of the disaster immediately after the catastrophe. Warren Anderson.

the Supreme Court upheld the original $470 million. allowing the Government of India to act as the legal representative for victims of the disaster. in October 1991. eight other executives and two company affiliates with homicide charges to appear in Indian court. judging.[48] However. This caused controversy as his trip to Bhopal was conditional on an initial promise by Indian authorities not to arrest him.March 1985. to specifically treat victims of the Bhopal disaster. Anderson has since refused to return to India. out of settlement fund. according to the Bhopal Gas Tragedy Relief and Rehabilitation Department. In 1987. under US federal law. saying the company is not under Indian jurisdiction.310 survivors of those killed. according to the company. managed and operated exclusively by Indian citizens in India". thus moving the case to India. Union Carbide agreed to pay US$ 470 million for damages caused in the Bhopal disaster. The decision set aside a "portion of settlement that quashed criminal prosecutions that were pending at the time of settlement".[52] Union Carbide balked. in an out-of-court settlement reached in 1989. compensation had been awarded to 554. owned. litigation was transferred from the US to Indian courts by US District Court Judge. It also "requests" that Carbide and its subsidiary "voluntarily" fund a hospital in Bhopal. dismissing any other outstanding petitions that challenged the original decision. Warren Anderson. at an estimated $17 million. a group medical insurance policy to cover 100.[51] Throughout 1990.895 people for injuries received and 15. that UCIL was a "separate entity. the International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal notes that the Court also reinstated criminal charges. This meant that. 15% of the original $3 billion claimed in the lawsuit. "generate a fund for Bhopal victims of between $500±600 million over 20 years". Following an appeal of this decision.[48] leading to the beginning of legal wrangling. the Indian government summoned Warren Anderson. 1984. the Indian Supreme Court heard appeals against the settlement from "activist petitions".[4] By the end of October 2003. in January 1987. endorsed by plaintiffs' US attorneys. In May. of $350 million that would. March 1986 saw Union Carbide propose a settlement figure. Nonetheless. Litigation continued in India during 1988.[52] . The company agreed to this.[48] The judge in the US granted Carbide's forum request. [edit] Charges against Warren Anderson and others The Chairman and CEO of Union Carbide. The Court ordered the Indian government "to purchase.000 persons who may later develop symptoms" and cover any shortfall in the settlement fund.[4] The Indian Supreme Court told both sides to come to an agreement and "start with a clean slate" in November 1988.[48] Eventually. the company had to submit to Indian jurisdiction.200. the US Court of Appeals affirmed the transfer. had been arrested and released on bail by the Madhya Pradesh Police in Bhopal on December 7. The Government of India claimed US$ 350 billion from UCC. The average amount to families of the dead was $2.

A plea by India's Central Bureau of Investigation to dilute the charges from culpable homicide to criminal negligence has since been dismissed by the Indian courts.[48] The Rajiv Gandhi government reached an out of court settlement for compensation for the victims which was too meagre and considered a sellout of their interests. with whom India had an extradition treaty in place. effigies of Anderson and politicians are burnt. has also led to strong protests in the past. Anderson has so far avoided an international arrest warrant and a US court summons. and people in the area feel betrayed not only by Union Carbide (and chairman Warren Anderson). Mukund. Supreme Court refused to hear an appeal of the decision of the lower federal courts in October 1993. former works manager J. 1992 for failing to appear at the court hearings in a culpable homicide case in which he was named the chief defendant. the Welfare Commission for Bhopal Gas Victims announced that all original compensation claims and revised petitions had been "cleared". S.P. In the view of Carbide. former Vice-President Functioning In charge. Union Carbide Corporation. Division.Beginning in 1991. and former Production manager A. Choudhury. The deadline for this release was extended by the Indian Supreme Court In April 2005. A seemingly apathetic attitude from the US government. the Indian Supreme Court ordered the Indian government to release any remaining settlement funds to victims.[4] On the anniversary of the tragedy. which has failed to pursue the case. meaning that victims of the Bhopal disaster could not seek damages in a US court. presently Chairman-cum-managing Director Vijay Gokhale.[48] Criminal charges are proceeding against former Union Carbide India Limited employees including: Former UCIL Chairman Keshub Mahindra. In July 2004. most notably by Greenpeace. This move blocked plaintiffs' motions for class certification and claims for property damages and remediation. but also by their own politicians. who had retired in 1986.P. a crime that carries a maximum penalty of 10 years in prison. The fund is believed to amount to $500 million after earning interest "from money remaining after all claims had been paid". Kishor Kamdar. with manslaughter. The U. In September 2006. the local authorities from Bhopal charged Warren Anderson.[48] August 2006 saw the Second Circuit Court of Appeals in New York City uphold the dismissal of remaining claims in the case of Bano v. very little of the money from the settlement reached with Union Carbide went to the survivors. The Bhopal Medical Appeal believe that "neither the American nor the Indian government seem interested in disturbing him with an extradition". "the ruling reaffirms UCC's long-held positions and finally puts to rest ² both procedurally and substantively ² the issues raised in the class action complaint first filed against Union Carbide in 1999 by Haseena Bi and several organizations representing the residents of Bhopal". giving the Indian government until 30 April 2006 after a request from the Welfare Commission for Bhopal Gas Victims. Meanwhile. .S. He was declared a fugitive from justice by the Chief Judicial Magistrate of Bhopal on February 1. Orders were passed to the Government of India to press for an extradition from the United States.

Some Dow stockholders filed suits to stop the acquisition. which had operated the Bhopal plant.3 billion in stock and debt. It is also said that lots of chemicals are buried in the ground. The effluents went to two evaporation ponds. the effluents used to overflow. According to the Bhopal Medical Appeal. and bought by the Indian government after the tragedy took place. to Eveready Industries India Limited.[58] The acquisition has gained criticism from the International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal. Between 1969 and 1977. is presently pending on appeal before the Second Circuit Court of Appeals in New York. Dow has publicly stated several times that the Union Carbide settlement payments have already fulfilled Dow's financial responsibility for the disaster. all effluents were dumped in an open pit. The area around the plant was used as a dumping ground area for hazardous chemicals. [edit] Acquisition of Union Carbide by Dow Chemical Company The Dow Chemical Company purchased Union Carbide in 2001 for $10. Dow did not purchase.[53] The litigation seeks damages for personal injury. In the rainy seasons. In 1991 the municipal authorities declared water from over 100 tubewells to be unfit for drinking. despite ongoing contamination issues.[4] By 1982 tubewells in the vicinity of the UCC factory had to be abandoned. neutralisation with hydrochloric acid was undertaken. Union Carbide et al. as it is apparently "contrary to established merger law" in that "Dow denies any responsibility for Carbide's Bhopal liabilities". however. the Indian Union Carbide. [edit] Changes in corporate identity [edit] Sale of Union Carbide India Limited Union Carbide sold its Indian subsidiary. renamed. but rather from the materials processed at the plant and the conditions under which those materials were processed. That was split up.Federal class action litigation. [4] . medical monitoring[54] and injunctive relief in the form of cleanup[55] of the drinking water supplies [56] for residential areas near the Bhopal plant[57] A related complaint seeking similar relief for property damage claimants is stayed pending the outcome of the Sahu appeal before the federal district court in the Southern District of New York.[58] [edit] Ongoing contamination The contamination in the site itself and the surrounding areas did not arise directly from the Bhopal disaster. in 1994. Carbide "remains liable for the environmental devastation" as environmental damage was not included in the 1989 settlement. noting the outstanding liabilities for the Bhopal disaster. Sahu v. From then on.

and the resulting contamination may lead to decades of slow poisoning.[58] In an investigation broadcast on BBC Radio 5 on November 14. liver and kidneys in humans. at 50 times above safety limits specified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). was found to contain 1000 times the World Health Organization's recommended maximum amount of carbon tetrachloride. known to impair fetal development. and diseases affecting the nervous system.[67] This shows that the ground water has been contaminated due to toxins leaking from the factory site. held in open containers or loose on the ground.5 trichlorobenzene. Environmentalists have warned that the waste is a potential minefield in the heart of the city. naphthalene. hexachlorethane. Many of these contaminants were also found in breast milk. in nursing women's breast milk. released latest tests from a study showing that groundwater in areas even three km from the factory up to 38. including mercury. The sample. including benzene hexachloride and mercury. dichloromethane and chloroform. [66] The BBC took a water sample from a frequently used hand pump.[59][60][61][62][63] Substances found. 1. In 1994 it was reported that 21% of the factory premises were seriously contaminated with chemicals. lead. an inquiry found a number of toxins. pesticide HCH (BHC). 2004. according to the reports. Centre for Science and Environment (CSE). Sevin. organochlorines.[44][59][60] Studies made by Greenpeace and others from soil. a day before the 25th anniversary of the disaster. a Delhi based pollution monitoring lab.000 and 6 million times" higher than expected levels. chromium.Carbide's laboratory tests in 1989 revealed that soil and water samples collected from near the factory were toxic to fish. A sample of drinking water from a well near the site had levels of contamination 500 times higher than the maximum limits recommended by the World Health Organization. volatile organic compounds and halo-organics. lead. copper. hexachlorobutadiene. Chemicals that have been linked to various forms of cancer were also discovered. tested in UK. mercury. heavy metals and organochlorines were present in the soil. located just north of the plant. [64] it was reported that the site is still contaminated with 'thousands' of metric tons of toxic chemicals. tarry residues. alpha napthol. Twenty-one areas inside the plant were reported to be highly polluted. a carcinogenic toxin.3. which has been left untouched. wellwater and vegetables from the residential areas around UCIL and from the UCIL factory area show contamination with a range of toxic heavy metals and chemical compounds. In 2002. Well water and groundwater tests conducted in the surrounding areas in 1999 showed mercury levels to be at "20.6 times more pesticides than Indian standards. are naphthol. . groundwater. nickel.[65] In 2009. [edit] Criticisms of clean-up operations Lack of political willpower has led to a stalemate on the issue of cleaning up the plant and its environs of hundreds of tonnes of toxic waste. as well as trichloroethene.

According to activists, there are studies showing that the rates of cancer and other ailments are high in the region.[68] Activists have demanded that Dow clean up this toxic waste, and have pressed the government of India to demand more money from Dow. Carbide states that "after the incident, UCIL began clean-up work at the site under the direction of Indian central and state government authorities", which was continued after 1994 by the successor to UCIL, Eveready Industries, until 1998, when it was placed under the authority of the Madhya Pradesh Government.[48] Critics of the clean-up undertaken by Carbide, such as the International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal, claim that "several internal studies" by the corporation, which evidenced "severe contamination", were not made public; the Indian authorities were also refused access. They believe that Union Carbide "continued directing operations" in Bhopal until "at least 1995" through Hayaran, the U.S.-trained site manager, even after the sale of its UCIL stock. The successor, Eveready Industries, abruptly relinquished the site lease to one department of the State Government while being supervised by another department on an extensive clean up programme. The Madhya Pradesh authorities have announced that they will "pursue both Dow and Eveready" to conduct the clean-up as joint tortfeasors.[citation needed] The International Campaign view Carbide's sale of UCIL in 1994 as a strategy "to escape the Indian courts, who threatened Carbide's assets due to their non-appearance in the criminal case". The successor, Eveready Industries India, Limited (EIIL), ended its 99-year lease in 1998 and turned over control of the site to the state government of Madhya Pradesh. [46] Currently, the Madhya Pradesh Government is trying to legally force Dow and EIIL to finance clean-up operations. On 7 March 2009, Indian scientists of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) have decided to investigate the longterm health effects of the disaster. Studies will also be conducted to see if the toxic gases caused genetic disorders, low birth weight, growth and development disorders, congenital malformation and biological markers of MIC/toxic gas exposure.[69]

[edit] Settlement fund hoax

Bichlbaum as Finisterra on BBC World News

On December 3, 2004, the twentieth anniversary of the disaster, a man claiming to be a Dow representative named Jude Finisterra was interviewed on BBC World News. He claimed that the company had agreed to clean up the site and compensate those harmed in the incident, by liquidating Union Carbide for $12 billion USD.[70] Immediately afterward, Dow's share price fell 4.2% in 23 minutes, for a loss of $2 billion in market value. Dow quickly issued a statement saying that they had no employee by that name²that he was an impostor, not affiliated with Dow, and that his claims were a hoax. The BBC broadcast a correction and an apology. The statement was widely carried.[71] "Jude Finisterra" was actually Andy Bichlbaum, a member of the activist prankster group The Yes Men. In 2002, The Yes Men issued a fake press release explaining why Dow refused to take responsibility for the disaster and started up a website, at "DowEthics.com", designed to look like the real Dow website but with what they felt was a more accurate cast on the events. In 2004, a producer for the BBC emailed them through the website requesting an interview, which they gladly obliged.[72] Taking credit for the prank in an interview on Democracy Now!, Bichlbaum explains how his fake name was derived: "Jude is the patron saint of impossible causes and Finisterra means the end of the Earth". He explained that he settled on this approach (taking responsibility) because it would show people precisely how Dow could help the situation as well as likely garnering major media attention in the US, which had largely ignored the disaster's anniversaries, when Dow attempted to correct the statement.[73] After the original interview was revealed as a hoax, Bichlbaum appeared in a follow-up interview on the United Kingdom's Channel 4 News.[74] During the interview he was repeatedly asked if he had considered the emotions and reaction of the people of Bhopal when producing the hoax. According to the interviewer, "there were many people in tears" upon having learned of the hoax. Each time, Bichlbaum said that, in comparison, what distress he had caused the people was minimal to that for which Dow was responsible. In the 2009 film The Yes Men Fix the World, the Yes Men travel to Bhopal to assess public opinion on their prank, and are surprised to find that the residents laud their efforts to bring responsibility to the corporate world.

[edit] See also
y y

List of industrial disasters Corporate social responsibility

[edit] Notes
1. ^ http://www.mp.gov.in/bgtrrdmp/relief.htm

2. ^ a b "Industrial Disaster Still Haunts India - South and Central Asia - msnbc.com". http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/34247132/ns/world_news -south_and_central_asia/page/2/. Retrieved December 3, 2009. 3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Eckerman (2001). 4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce Eckerman (2004). 5. ^ "No takers for Bhopal toxic waste". BBC. 2008-09-30. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7569891.stm. Retrieved 2010-01-01. 6. ^ Broughton, Edward (2005). "The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review". Environmental Health 4 (6): 6. doi:10.1186/1476-069X-4-6. http://www.ehjournal.net/content/4/1/6. 7. ^ Chander, J. (2001). "Water contamination: a legacy of the union carbide disaster in Bhopal, India". Int J Occup Environ Health 7 (1): 72±3. PMID 11210017. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11210017 . 8. ^ [1] 9. ^ "Company Defends Chief in Bhopal Disaster". New York Times. http://dealbook.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/08/03/company-defends-chief-in-bhopaldisaster/. 10. ^ "U.S. Exec Arrest Sought in Bhopal Disaster". CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/07/31/world/main5201155.shtml. 11. ^ UCC manual (1976). 12. ^ UCC manual (1978). 13. ^ UCC manual (1979). 14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Chouhan et al. (2004). 15. ^ Steven R. Weisman. "Bhopal a Year Later: An Eerie Silence". The New York Times. p. 5. 16. ^ a b c Kalelkar (1988). 17. ^ a b c Trade Union Report (1985). 18. ^ a b UCC Investigation Report (1985). 19. ^ a b Varadarajan (1985). 20. ^ Eckerman (2005). 21. ^ a b Bhopal Gas Disaster Research Centre (2003?). 22. ^ a b c d e f g h Eckerman (2006). 23. ^ a b c d e f Kovel (2002). 24. ^ a b c Kurzman (1987). 25. ^ Cassels (1983). 26. ^ TED case 233 (1997). 27. ^ a b c d e f g h Lepowski (1994). 28. ^ Weir (1987). 29. ^ D'Silva (2006). 30. ^ a b Sriramachari (2004). 31. ^ Gassert TH, Dhara VR, (2005).

^ "Carbide waste to go: HC". 1988.10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Chronology". vol. ^ a b c d "Frequently Asked Questions". ^ P.. Sambhavna Trust. cms. ^ a b UCC (1989).7.htm. http://www.bhopal.bhopal.UCC. 39. The New York Times. 58. ^ Singh (2008). 40. 38. Toxic Sludge Torments Bhopal. ^ Broughton (2005). ^ Sick Berth Down to Earth (26.bhopal.mp. Kinetics and Mechanism of Thermal Decomposition of Methyl Isocyanate. ^ "The Bhopal Medical appeal". http://query.08. http://timesofindia. 48. ^ http://www. 47. Hindustan Times. ^ Bhopal. http://www.com/chrono. 53.net/pdfs/Sahu%20Opinion%2011. Am. Bhopal Information Center. Dec 3. 2004. http://www. ^ "Bhopal Gas Tragedy: Fact Sheet". 1954.html?res=940DE0D71F3CF934A25756C0A96E948 260. 33.com/irs. ^ Christoph Grundmann. Berichte. http://www.org/whathappened.com/gst/fullpage. 51. ^ a b "Bhopal Gas Tragedy Relief and Rehabilitation Department". 44. The Bhopal Medical Appeal. ^ Kulling & Lorin (1987).ht ml.gov.2008).indiatimes. http://www. Govt wakes up to Bhopal waste but can't find any one to clean it up.G. ^ Dhara & Dhara (2002). 52. 34.htm. International Journal of Chemical Kinetics. ^ a b c "Statement of Union Carbide Corporation Regarding the Bhopal Traged y". p.com/faq. Tschesche. Alfred Kreutzberger. D15. ^ The Truth About Dow : 25 years on. May 17.org. 45.com/India/Carbide_waste_to_go_HC/articleshow/3847412. ^ K.con. Slotta. ^ a b "Incident Response and Settlement". p.14. ^ Oops! You have reached Bhopal. ^ Bhopal Memorial Hospital Trust(2001). Soc. Blake and S. 76.2005. 56.com/ucs. Ijadi-Maghsoodi. ^ The Truth About Dow : Govt handling of Bhopal: Blot on Indian Democracy.1031. 2008-12-05. J.htm. R. vol. . UCC.pdf 54.htm.bhopal. 224 Indian groups tell PM. ^ a b "India Acts in Carbide Case". 50.32. http://www. 55. 41. ^ a b c "What Happened in Bhopal?". Bhopal Information Center. 16 December 2008. 5646±5650.org 37. Bhopal Information Center. Chem. ^ Bhopal Memorial Hospital closed indefinitely The Hindu 4. 49. 43. 35.H. pp. 36. pp. (1982).bhopal.3.bhopal. UCC.nytimes. 1927. Retrieved 2009-01-07.60. 57. ^ The Truth About Dow : Decades Later. 46. vol. 945±952. Bhopal Information Center. November 2006. http://www.in/bgtrrdmp/. 42.bhopal. UCC.htm.

71.stm. ed (PDF).pl?scope=all&tab=av&recipe=all&q=bhopal+faces+risk+of+%27poiso ning%27&x=0&y=0. ^ "Bhopal 'faces risk of poisoning'". 2004-11-14.bbc. [2]Alfred de Grazia: A Cloud over Bhopal. 68. ^ video [edit] References [edit] Books and reports y y y y y Preview of several more books at Google books.stm. ISBN 1-891843-30-3. (1993). http://books. ^ Z-net 72. (2002). . Bhopal. BBC Radio 5 website. J.bbc. Crisis Response: Inside Stories on Managing Image Under Siege.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4010511. The Uncertain Promise Of Law: Lessons From Bhopal. University Of Toronto Press. ^ "Bhopal marks 25 years since gas leak devastation".cseindia. "Union Carbide's former vice-president of health. BBC News. 2004). 67. India: Other India Press ISBN 81-85569-65-7 Main author Chouhan was an operator at the plant.htm. ^ Srishti (2002). BBC Radio 5. ^ video. Contains many technical details. Detroit. 62.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8392206. ^ "Bhopal gas leak survivors still being poisoned: Study" . 63. study on Bhopal gas leak effects. ^ Democracy Now! 74. November 22. Gottschalk. Union Carbide: Disaster at Bhopal. Popular Prak ashan.co. 2009. ChouhanTR and others (1994. 2004-11-14. safety and environmental programs tells how he dealt with the catastrophe from a PR point of view. ^ a b Down to Earth (2003).bbc. 66. http://www. Bhopal: the Inside Story ² Carbide Workers Speak Out on the World's Worst Industrial Disaster.org/AboutUs/press_releases/press-20091201. http://news. The Scotsman. 60.google. ^ India's betrayal of Bhopal .co. 64.59. (2003). ^ 25 years on. 1 December 2009. 65.PAMELA TIMMS AND PRABAL KR DAS. ^ Stringer et al.pdf. 70. ^ "Bhopal faces risk of 'poisoning'".com/pdfs/browning. http://news. http://search. ^ The Yes Men 73.bhopal. 61.uk/cgibin/search/results. Jack A. 69.co. Retrieved 2010-01-01." Cassels. December 3. ^ a b Labunska et al. USA: The Apex Press. ^ Peoples' Science Institute (2001). 2007. http://www. Bombay (1985) Browning. Retrieved 2010-01-01.com/books?q=bhopal&btnG=Search+Books . Jackson (1993).

In Down to Earth Kalelkar AS. Preview Google books Johnson S. systematized and analysed. Sarangi S (2005). written on-site a few weeks after the accident. Disaster. ISBN 1-56751-268-2. ISBN 0-940268-09-9. Sheila ed. Remembering Twenty Years of the World's Worst Industrial Disaster. University of Chicago Press. USA: The Apex Press. 57 pages. . A Cloud over Bhopal ² Causes. D'Silva. 82 references. Eckerman. Preview Google books All known facts 1960s ± 2003.y y y y y y y y y y y Dhara VR (2000). Victoria.eckerman. The Black Box of Bhopal: A Closer Look at the World's Deadliest Industrial Disaster. Investigation of Large-magnitude incidents: Bhopal as a Case Study. A story of how one company's chemical prducts and byproducts have damaged public health and the environment. Trespass Against Us.. Contamination of soil and water inside and outside the Union Carbide India Limited." Hanna B. 283 pages. New Global Orders. Alfred (1985). of Massachusetts Lowell. Bhopal.pdf . A short overview. (1994). Eckerman. ISBN 081221532X. (1998) (PDF). Essay for MPH. http://www. India: Universities Press. Jadon N. ISBN 81-7371-515-7. Risk Management After Bhopal. ISBN 1-891843-32-X USA.html . Reprinting and annotating landmark writing from across the years. Sahu R. Consequences and Constructive Solutions. Jasanoff. 9780812215328 . New Delhi: Centre for Science and Environment. http://www. Includes several original documents including correspondence between UCIL and the Ministries of the Government of India. 291 pages. Themistocles (2006). Preview Google books de Grazia. Ingrid (2004). Advocacy after Bhopal.cfm?page=The%20Bhopal%20Saga. USA: Common Courage Press. http://www. Review Written by a retired former employee of UCC who was a member of the investigation committee that reproduced the tank residue and determined the true cause of the incident.se/_upload/lfm/2006/bhopal%20gas%20disaster. http://webdrive. 81-85569-70-3 India. USA: Univ. "The first book on the Bhopal disaster.C. The Bhopal Gas Leak: Lessons from studying the impact of a disaster in a developing nation.com/index. Dow Chemical & The Toxic Century. The Bhopal Reader. Chemical Industry and Public Health ² Bhopal as an example. Jack (2004).nu/default. Doyle. University of Pennsylvania Press.pdf.edu/users/vdhara/www.com/governing/bhopal/Publishers%20Note.emory. Doctoral thesis. Morehouse W. ISBN 0-226-25720-7. Duca C (2009).php.BhopalPublications/Health%20Eff ects%20&%20Epidemiology/Dhara%20Disseration%20Bhopal%20Disaster. Little AD.dnsy.trespassagainstus.grazianarchive. The Bhopal Saga ² Causes and Consequences of the World's Largest Industrial Disaster. Kim (2001). Ingrid (2001) (PDF). Learning from Disaster. Environmentalism. Fortun. B. over 200 references. 466 pages. ISBN 1-4120-8412-1.: Trafford. http://www.service..

Santillo D. J (2002). Unfolding the Betrayal of Bhopal Gas Tragedy. Delhi: The Other Media. India: B.org/wiki/International_Medical_Commission_on_Bhopal . [edit] Articles and papers y See also "International Medical Commission on Bhopal". New York. Labunska I.emory. Department of Biological Sciences.edu/users/vdhara/www. Chemical Stockpiles at Union Carbide India Limited in Bhopal: An investigation.R. Stockholm: National Defence Research Institute.A.html . Exeter UK Lapierre. London: Zed Books. Toxic present ² toxic future. Weir D (1987).org/raw/content/international/press/reports/chemical-stockpilesat-union-c. New York: McGraw-Hill. Tokyo and New York: United Nations University Press. Mitchel. (1999) (PDF). University of Exeter. Stephenson A. The Toxic Gas Disaster in Bhopal December 2±3. Johnston P. The Trade Union Report on Bhopal. Toxic contaminants at the former Union Carbide factory site. 1984. Switzerland: ICFTU-ICEF.unu.greenpeace. A novel. ISBN 92-808-0926-1. A Killing Wind: Inside Union Carbide and the Bhopal Catastrophe. The Enemy of Nature: The End of Capitalism or the End of the World?. Dominique. Singh. http://webdrive. Publishing Corporation. D.Littlereport. Javier (2001). Stringer R.pdf. Moro. Shrishti (2002). Delhi. Labunska I. (1985). New Delhi: Indian Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. Five Minutes Past Midnight in Bhopal .htm#Contents . Greenpeace Research Laboratories. The Bhopal Legacy. Geneva.Greenpeace Research Laboratories. http://www.wikipedia. http://en.service. Stringer R. The chief coordinator of rescue operations at the district level writes rather critically on how the administration and bureaucracy functioned after the disaster. . ISBN 0-446-53088-3. http://www. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books. Very thrilling. Report on Scientific Studies on the Factors Related to Bhopal Toxic Gas Leakage.bhopal.pdf. The long road to recovery: Community responses to industrial disaster.BhopalPublications/Environmental %20Health/Greenpeace%20Bhopal%20Report.edu/resources/documents/1988ArthurD. The Bhopal Syndrome: Pesticides.net/oldsite/documentlibrary/unionreport1985. James (1996).y y y y y y y y y y y y http://bhopal.bard. that describes the development from the 1960s to the disaster itself. based on facts. London: The Institution of Chemical Engineers Conference on Preventing Major Chemical Accidents Kulling P. Kovel. Santillo D. Moti (2008). India: 15 years after the Bhopal accident. NY: Warner Books.pdf. Brigden K. Lorin H (1987). (1987). (2002) (PDF).edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu21le/uu21le00. Varadarajan S et al.Bhopal. ISBN 8176466220. 1985. http://www. A report on Human and Environmental Chemical Contamination around the Bhopal disaster site. Environment and Health. Brigden K. [In Swedish] Kurzman.

"Debate on cyanide poisoning in Bhopal victims. doi:10. Singhawangcha S.edu/users/vdhara/www.journals.edu/users/vdhara/www.1021/jo00370a007.emory. 2009 Jasanoff.php?id=15485.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TGH-4GWC0T07&_user=99318&_coverDate=11%2F30%2F2005&_alid=1193044136&_rdoc=1&_fmt=h igh&_orig=search&_cdi=5255&_sort=r&_docanchor=&view=c&_ct=1&_acct=C0000076 78&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=99318&md5=34c0e3b6b93cd1 ef9dd2d5f0f6e11 788. Sheila (2007). http://webdrive. Jones RL. Eckerman. Chan JK (1986).edu/users/vdhara/www.pdf.net/content/4/1/6. doi:10. V. "The Bhopal Disaster 1984 . http://webdrive.". Eckerman. doi:10. D'Silva TDJ. Archives of Environmental Health.working conditions and the role of the trade unions.ttl.edu/doi/full/10.service. (Response) Vol 89. Lopes A. http://webdrive. http://webdrive. "The Union Carbide disaster in Bhopal: A review of health effects" (reprint).emory. No 2. Environmental Health 4 (1): 6 pages. Rosaline (Sept/October 2002). http://www.pdf." (PDF). CorpWatch.service. http://www.1186/1476-069X-4-6.emory.edu/users/vdhara/www.48±49 Gassert TH. http://www. "The Bhopal gas leak: Analyses of causes and consequences by three different models. pp. "Bhopal's Trials of Knowledge and Ignorance" . Dhara. http://www. Ingrid (2006).BhopalPublications.fi/NR/rdonlyres/AF130282-A0AB-4439-8E3CAFF55CDEF59F/0/AsianPacific_Nwesletter22006. PMC 1142333.y y y y y y y y y y y "Health and Epidemiology Papers About the Bhopal Disaster". Isis 98: 344±350.213±217. Ingrid (2005). "Bhopal: Generations of Poison" .pdf. Ramana.). 10 May 2005 Dhara.org/article." (PDF). Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 35 (3): 136± . Current Science 89 (6): 923±5.emory.service. Dhara VR. Journal of Loss Prevention in the process industry. Vol 13. Broughton E (2005). nr 6 Jayaraman N. pp.BhopalPublications/Health%20Eff ects%20&%20Epidemiology/Health%20Effects%20Review%20articles/Health%20Effec ts%20Review%20AEH. Khurrum MA.service. J. PMID 15882472. Gassert TH (September 2005). Chem.BhopalPublications/Toxicology/Cu rrent%20Science%20article%20&%20critique/Current%20Science%20critique%20Gas sert%20Dhara%20&%20Sriramachari%20response. Org. 391±404. http://www. December 2.1086/518194 . Dhara VR.sciencedirect.BhopalPublications/Toxicology/Cu rrent%20Science%20article%20&%20critique/Current%20Science%20critique%20Gas sert%20Dhara%20&%20Sriramachari%20response.uchicago. (Sep 2005. "The Bhopal gas tragedy: Evidence for cyanide poisoning not convincing" . 2005:18.ehjournal. "Long term follow up of ocular lesion of methyl-isocyanate gas disaster in Bhopal".pdf. "The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: A review".corpwatch. Current Science. S Hafeez Ahmad S (1987). 51 (20): 3781±3788.1086/518194. Asian Pacific Newsletter on occupational health and safety. "Studies of methyl isocyanate chemistry in the Bhopal incident".

The Independent.volume=32. Chemical and Engineering News. Shah SS. Vol 13.year=1986. Peterson M.uk/news/world/asia/bhopal-the-victims-are-still-being-born1830516. Naik SR.epage=137. Jain A.fi/NR/rdonlyres/AF130282-A0AB-4439-8E3CAFF55CDEF59F/0/AsianPacific_Nwesletter22006.html.asp?issn=00223859. Maudar KK (2009).y y y y y y y y y y 137. "Case study: Bhopal Plant Disaster". http://www. exposure. http://oem. doi:10. "Medical survey of methyl isocyanate gas affected population of Bhopal.ttl. PMID 19295137.bmj. "In utero exposure to methyl isocyanate in the Bhopal gas disaster: evidence of persisting hyperactivation of immune system two decades later". Sarangi S. http://www. ILO (2006).aulast=Khurrum .year=1987. JAMA (14).asp?issn=03014738.spage=136. McTaggart U. Dabadghao S.I. Nazareth HH.jpgmonline.org/cgi/content/full/290/14/1856 Methyl Isocyanate Exposure and Growth Patterns of Adolescents in Bhopal.in/article. Desikan P. Mahashur AA. Mehta AC (1986). Current Science 86: 905±920. Part I. Mehta AC (1986). Chauhan C. "Ten Years Later: Bhopal". No 2.issue=4. 19 December 1994. PMID 0003585790. http://www. Nazareth HH.aulast=Naik .umass. Jain SK.1136/oem. Potnis AV.service.BhopalPublications/ Toxicology/Cu .emory.issue=4. Bhopal: The victims are still being born.com/content/66/4/279. 29 November 2009 Lepowski. Science. Solidarity ATC 106. Shah SS. Lakhani N. General medical observations 15 weeks following exposure".solidarityus.edu/sts/ethics/bhopal. Bhalerao RA. Gupta D. "The Bhopal gas tragedy: An environmental disaster" (PDF). Padmanabhan VT. Rice.volume=32.aulast=Naik.com/article. Holleran S. Kowli SS.year=1986.ama-assn. Part II. Journal of Post-Graduate Medicine 32 (4): 175±84.jpgmonline.epage= 84. W. Ramakrishnan R. "Bhopal Revisited ² the tragedy of lessons ignored" (PDF). Methyl Isocyanate Exposure and Growth Patterns of Adolescents in Bhopal "Methyl Isocyanate Exposure and Growth Patterns of Adolescents in Bhopal Methyl Isocyanate Exposure and Growth Patterns of Adolescents in Bhopal".volume=35. http://jama.pdf. Potnis AV.041517. http://www. Mahashur AA. Pulmonary effects in Bhopal victims as seen 15 weeks after M. Varma DR (2003).". "Medical survey of methyl isocyanate gas affected population of Bhopal. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 66 (4): 279. PMID 3507407.issue=3. http://www.co. Asian Pacific Newsletter on occupational health and safety. Acharya VN.independent. Kowli SS.html. "Dioxin. Acharya VN.2008. University of Massachusetts Amherst Ranjan N.ijo. Journal of Post-Graduate Medicine 32 (4): 185±91. Modi1 GK.spage=185. Mittra I.epage=91.spage=175. http://www.J. Annie.edu/users/vdhara/www. Bhopal and Dow Chemical".com/article.46±47 Sriramachari S (2004). Technology & Society Initiative.extract. Bhalerao RA. September-October 2003 Mishra PK.asp?issn=00223859. http://www. PMID 0003585791.C.org/node/555. http://webdrive. Naik SR.

May 11. Agricultural Products Division (1979). Union Carbide F-41443A . Technical report on Population Based Long Term. [edit] Reports from governmental institutions. Epidemiological Studies (1985± 1994). 2007 [edit] Mixed . UCC and DOW [edit] Governmental institutions y y y Health Effects of the Toxic Gas Leak from the Union Carbide Methyl Isocyanate Plant in Bhopal.com/corpgov/pdf/20070510_voting. May 10.pdf. http://www. CT (1985). Bhopal (2003?) Contains the studies performed by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) An Epidemiological Study of Symptomatic Morbidities in Communities Living Around Solar Evaporation Ponds And Behind Union Carbide Factory.pdf. pp 39±41) Annual Meeting Final Voting Results. Union Carbide India Limited. USA (1989) [edit] Dow Chemicals publications y y y Stockholder Proposal on Bhopal 2006. Bhopal Gas Tragedy Relief & Rehabilitation Department. Bhopal Gas Disaster Research Centre.com/financial/2007prox/161 00662. Agricultural Products Division: Bhopal (1978) Operating Manual Part II.pdf.dow. Methyl Isocyanate Unit.7/76. 2006 (Agenda item 3. Bhopal Methyl Isocyanate Incident.pdf . Union Carbide India Limited. http://www. 2007 (Agenda item 4. Department of Community Medicine. Gandhi Medical College. New York (1976) Carbon monoxide. Union Carbide Corporation. In Notice of the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on Thursday. Bhopal Gas Tragedy Relief & Rehabilitation 1985 ± 2009. Phosgene and Methyl isocyanate.dow. Bhopal. May 10. Union Carbide Corporation. Presence of Toxic Ingredients in Soil/Water Samples Inside Plant Premises. http://www. Bhopal (2009) [edit] Union Carbide Corporation y y y y y Methyl Isocyanate. Union Carbide Corporation. Danbury. Bhopal (2009) At A Glance. Unit Safet y Procedures Manual. Investigation Team Report.dow.rrent%20Science%20article%20&%20critique/Curr%20Science%20Bhopal%20article %20Sriramachari.com/financial/2006prox/161 00639. pp 11±13) Stockholder Proposal on Bhopal 2007. Gandhi Medical College. In Notice of the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on Thursday.

net (14 Nov 2002). This page does helpfully categorize information resources by subject. [edit] Presentations y Eckerman.edu/pulmonary/quick/methyliso. Saint Louis University School of Public Health.downtoearth.pdf. Some seem to have disappeared. http://bioterrorism. http://www. Rajan. Three part series on Horrors of Bhopal Gas Tragedy "Bibliography on Bhopal disaster".net/oldsite/unproventechnology.amnesty.emory. Amnesty International 29 Nov 2004.org/Resources.org/en/library/info/ASA20/015/2004/en. http://webdrive.html . 233. Down to Earth. "Bhopal Papers.alyssaalappen. Trade Environmental Database. "Clouds of injustice. "No more Bhopals". Contains original documents. http://www.htm. http://old. Dehra Doon (2001) Foul Debris. A collection of different articles and papers concerning the Bhopal disaster. Amnesty International.org/legal/catastrope-dilemma.edu/ted/bhopal. reports.htm.bhopal. "Chemical Terrorism Fact Sheet: Methyl Isocyanate. CSB&EI. Ingrid. the trade union and other original material has been scanned and can be found here. Some material seem to have disappeared.in/webexclusives/story1. . "Summary of "Clouds of injustice . Peoples' Science Institute. "Catastrophe and the Dilemma of law" (PDF). USA "Unproven technology". http://www.htm.studentsforbhopal. The UCIL plant is still a health hazard. http://www. Bhopal disaster 20 years".y y y y y y y y y y y y "Bhopal Disaster". "Subterranean Leak".edu/users/vdhara/papers. American University. http://www. London (2004) Report (pdf).amnesty. http://www. The Bhopal Memory Project Material from UCC.american.slu. (2004) A chapter from The Bhopal Reader by Hanna B et al. [edit] Contamination of site y y A Report on Mercury Contamination of Groundwater near the Union Carbide Factory at Bhopal.pdf. TED case studies no. Sharma H. and articles on the Bhopal disaster and related issues. Washington (1 Nov 1997). "The Bhopal Gas Disaster 1984 ± Children's Acute and Chronic Exposure to Toxic Substances" (PDF).org/2002/12/04/bibliography-on-bhopal-disaster/." (PDF).Bhopal disaster 20 years on"". A condensed list of books.org/en/library/info/ASA20/104/2004/en. Dec 15 (2003). http://www. 2009.service.org. Conference Announcement and Call for Papers".htm.icjb. Bhopal. Down to Earth Dec 1.

org/images/stories/dokument/2009/bhopal_gas_tragedy_mar ch_2008." (PDF). BBC News 26 March 2009 "Bhopal faces risk of 'poisoning'".y y http://www. 16 October 2009 The Bhopal Library.pdf. The Apex Press.org/images/stories/LfM_blandat/Bhopal_Bangalore_2010.lakareformiljon. Ingrid. Poster presentation (2007) [edit] Further reading [edit] Websites y y y y y y y y y y y y The Bhopal Europe Bus Tour." (PDF). October±November 2009 End 25 years of injustice.org/images/stories/dokument/2009/epidemiology _lkarstmma n_2007_engelska.The official website of the Government of Madhya Pradesh Dow Ethics. Ingrid. 2003 Bhopal Gas Tragedy Relief & Rehabilitation Department. Union Carbide Statement of The Dow Chemical Company Regarding the Bhopal Tragedy 2005 Toxic Hotspots Greenpeace. http://www. New York International Campaign For Justice in Bhopal Bhopal Medical Appeal and Sambhavna Trust Clinic Students for Bhopal Bhopal Information Center. Power point presentation (2010) Eckerman.lakareformiljon. Amnesty International.lakareformiljon. Power point presentation in easy English (2008) Eckerman. http://www. "The Bhopal Gas Leak ² too late for good epidemiology. "The Bhopal Saga ² Causes and Consequences of the World's Largest Industrial Disaster.pd f.pdf. BBC New . parody website by The Yes Men Bhopal: 25 years on BBC News' website on the Bhopal disaster [edit] News y y Bhopal's health effects probed.

blogspot.jpg hshekhar.jpg mynews.63k .in Find similar images Bhopal gas leak 724 x 471 .87k .org Find similar images Bhopal gas leak 640 x 412 .508k .62k .jpg washingtonpost..jpg amnesty.bhopal. Find similar images Bhopal-Gas 489 x 504 .jpg pulzinponderland.com .No Justice for the 1600 x 1200 ..37k .com Bhopal Gas tragedy: 320 x 240 .ca Find similar images to the Bhopal Gas 901 x 577 .47k .gif legacy.

com Bhopal gas leak 460 x 308 .org Find similar images .28k earthmagazine.msn.74k .com Bhopal gas leak 512 x 346 .in.40k .jpg france24.com Bhopal gas leak 940 x 637 .com Bhopal gas leak 500 x 350 .jpg france24.24k .jpg news.com Benchmarks: Bhopal gas 264 x 400 .49k .87k .bin globalnational.Bhopal gas leak 512 x 341 .jpg feww.wordpress.

List of organisahis is a list of environmental organizations, Organizations that
preserve, analyze or monitor the environment. Environmental organizations can be global, regional, national or local; they can be Governmental or private.

[edit] Intergovernmental Organizations
International organizations and bodies established through international agreements or other commitments to protect the environment:
y y y y

Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) European Environment Agency (EEA) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme)

There are also environmental Intergovernmental Organizations that group governments at the regional and local level, as distinguishable from the national level. Examples are the network of regional governments for sustainable development [1] and the ICLEI-Local governments for sustainability [2]. These organizations use the method of open coordination to share policy best practice and provide assistance and counsel to partners on issues related to environmental development following the UN Millennium Agenda. These networks can be seen as international organisations and have observer status in the different UN environmental organizations.

[edit] Government Organizations
The governments of all Developed countries, as well as the majority of Developing countries have government departments or agencies devoted to monitoring and protecting the environment:

[edit] Australia
y

Information for action

[edit] Brazil
y

IBAMA

[edit] Canada
y y y y

Environment Canada Lake Ontario Waterkeeper Friends of the Earth Canada ECO Canada

[edit] India
y y y

Ministry of Environment and Forests Central Pollution Control Board Gujarat Pollution Control Board

[edit] Ireland
y

Environmental Protection Agency (Ireland)

ECO NEEDS FOUNDATION (M.S)

[edit] Isle of Man
y

Manx National Trust

[edit] Japan
y y

Ministry of Environment National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES)

[edit] New Zealand
y y y

Department of Conservation Ministry for the Environment Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment

[edit] United Kingdom

y y y y

Campaign to Protect Rural England Friends of the Earth The Wildlife Trusts Association for Environment Conscious Building

[edit] England
y y y

English Heritage Natural England Environment Agency (England & Wales)

[edit] Scotland
y y y y

Historic Scotland Scottish Natural Heritage Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) Scottish Environmental Technology Network (SETN) article

[edit] Wales
y y

national Cadw

[edit] Northern Ireland
y

Environment and Heritage Service

[edit] United States
y y

United States Environmental Protection Agency United States Fish and Wildlife Service

[edit] Native American Nations
y

Inter-Tribal Environmental Council
y

All US states have fish and game departments that regulate local hunting and other taking of wild animals.

[edit] Private Organizations (Environmental NGOs)
These organizations are involved in Lobbying, Advocacy, or conservation efforts:

greenawaycontrol.International Association for environmental communication American Indoor Air Quality Council Bellona Foundation Biofuelwatch Biosphere Expeditions BirdLife International Buglife .http://www.com Green Cross International Greenpeace IDEA: Interfaith Dorset Education and Action International Analog Forestry Network International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) News and Commentary Sitescy Foundation NatureServe Nicodemus Wilderness Project Oil Change International Regenesis .dotgreen.com Center for International Environmental Law Conservation Foundation Conservation International Conservation Law Foundation DotGreen Registry Corporation.the Invertebrate Conservation Trust California Compliant . Non-profit .californiacompliant.org Cool Climate Jobs Cool the Earth Environmental Investigation Agency Forests and the European Union Resource Network (FERN) Forest Stewardship Council Friends of Nature Friends of the Earth Gaia Mater (the mother Earth) Global Water Policy Project Global Witness Global Vision International Great Transition Initiative [[Green Away Plant Control .the Global Movement for Environment Sustainability.http://www. Liberty & Social Justice Tellus Institute .http://www.[edit] International y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y African Wild Dog Conservancy Aga Khan Trust for Culture AICA .

y y y y y y y y y y y y y The Nature Conservancy Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) Wetlands International Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society Wildlife Conservation Society World Business Council for Sustainable Development Worldchanging World Conservation Union (IUCN) World Resources Institute (WRI) Worldwatch Institute World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Xerces Society Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative [edit] Regional [edit] Africa y y y y African American Environmentalist Association African Conservation Foundation Environmental Foundation for Africa Global Carbon Exchange [edit] Europe y y y y European Biomass Association European Environmental Bureau (EEB) Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe ECOTRANS European Network for Sustainable Tourism Development [3] [edit] North America y y y American Society of Professional Wetland Engineers Wiki with wetland restoration resources Association of Environmental Professionals North American Native Fishes Association [edit] National [edit] Australia y Australian Conservation Foundation .

y y y y y y y y y Australian Coal Alliance Australian Student Environment Network Australian Wildlife Conservancy Birds Australia Environment Victoria Greening Australia SA Gaia Foundation Landcare Australia Public Transport Users Association See also Category:Environmental organisations based in Australia. [edit] Chile y y Centro de Conservacion Cetacea] Centro Ecoceanos] . [edit] Austria y y y Transitforum Austria Tirol Earthwatch Global 2000 [edit] Canada y y y y y y y y y y y y Canadian Environmental Law Association Canadian Environmental Network Canadian Institute for Environmental Law and Policy Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society o CPAWS Manitoba Chapter David Suzuki Foundation Ecojustice global (ELA) Green Tomorrow International Institute for Sustainable Development Manitoba Eco-Network Nature Canada Sierra Club Canada See also Category:Environmental organizations based in Canada.

[edit] Croatia y Ekolo ko dru tvo Zeleni Osijek [edit] Czech Republic y Hnutí DUHA .Jugendumweltnetzwerk Niedersachsen Robin Wood WikiWoods Grüne Liga NABU DNR [edit] Hong Kong y y Clear the Air (Hong Kong) The Conservancy Association [edit] India y y Project Greenhands ECO Needs Foundation [edit] Iran y global (EWC) [edit] Ireland y Environmental Conservation Organisation .Friends of the Earth Czech Republic [edit] Egypt y Habi Center for Environmental Rights [edit] Germany y y y y y y y y y ARA Bund für Umwelt und Naturschutz Deutschland (BUND) = Friends of the Earth Germany BUNDjugend (BUND's Youth organization) JANUN .

y y Gluaiseacht Irish Peatland Conservation Council (IPCC) [edit] Israel y Israel Union for Environmental Defense (IUED).Friends of the Earth Netherlands [edit] New Zealand y y y y y y Buller Conservation Group Environment and Conservation Organisations of Aotearoa New Zealand (ECO) Greenpeace Kiwis Against Seabed Mining Native Forest Restoration Trust New Zealand Ecological Restoration Network . Adam Teva V'Di [edit] Italy y Lega Italiana Protezione Uccelli [edit] Japan y Japan Center for a Sustainable Environment and Society (JACSES) [edit] Kenya y Green Belt Movement [edit] Macedonia y y Bird Protection Macedonia ++389 70 254 736 [edit] Nepal y ICIMOD [edit] The Netherlands y y y Both ENDS environment and development service ICCO Milieudefensie .

com [edit] Portugal y Quercus (organization) [edit] South Africa y y y y global Koeberg Alert Cape Town Ecology Group Global Carbon Exchange [edit] Taiwan y Wild at Heart (environmental group) [edit] Tanzania y Sand County Foundation .y y y y y y Royal Forest and Bird Protection Society of New Zealand Save Happy Valley Campaign TerraNature Trees for Survival Waipoua Forest Trust Climaction [4] [edit] Norway y y y y y y Bellona Foundation Friends of the Earth (Norges Naturvernforbund) Grønn Hverdag Green Warriors of Norway (Norges Miljøvernforbund) Natur og Ungdom Zero Emission Resource Organisation [edit] Pakistan y y Rehbar Green Pakistan Movement www.greenpakmovement.

[edit] United Kingdom y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Camp for Climate Action Campaign for the Protection of Rural England The Corner House Down to Earth global global (ELF) Forest Peoples Programme Friends of the Earth Friends of the Earth Groundwork The Institution of Environmental Sciences Marine Conservation Society John Muir Trust Plane Stupid Rising Tide UK Town and Country Planning Association Transport 2000 Council for the Protection of Rural England RSPB (Royal Society for the Protection of Birds) Sea Shepherd World Wildlife Fund CECB [edit] United States y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Abalone Alliance (historic) African American Environmentalist Association Alliance for Climate Protection American Bird Conservancy American Farmland Trust American Society of Professional Wetland Engineers Appalachian Voices Arizona Journal of Environmental Law & Policy Association of Environmental Professionals Atlantic CoastWatch (Sustainable Development Institute) Center for a New American Dream Clamshell Alliance Clear the Air (United States) Clearwater Cool the Earth .

y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Cool Climate Jobs Defenders of Wildlife Defense of Place[[5]] Green Earth Corporate Kindness Organization (GECKO)[6] global! global global (ELA) global (ELF) Earth Day Alliance [7] Earth Day Network [8] Ecologyfund.com Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) Environmental Law Institute Environmental Life Force (ELF) Forest Guardians Global Green USA Headwaters Gathering[[9] High Uintas Preservation Council Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology Izaak Walton League Keystone Ecological Urban Center League of Conservation Voters National Audubon Society National Geographic Society National Wildlife Federation Native Forest Council Natural Resources Defense Council Nature's Classroom NatureServe Negative Population Growth Neighborhood Parks Council New Jersey Audubon Society New York City Audubon New York Student Sustainability Coalition Oil Change USA Population Connection Rainforest Action Network Republicans for Environmental Protection Rising Tide North America Sand County Foundation Save the Redwoods League Sea Shepherd .

y y y y y y y y y y y y y Sierra Club Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition Student Conservation Association Student Environmental Action Coalition (SEAC) Texas Campaign for the Environment The Marine Mammal Center The Nature Conservancy The School for Field Studies The Wilderness Society (United States) TreePeople (founded by Andy Lipkis) Union of Concerned Scientists Waterkeeper Alliance Worldchanging [edit] Other (to be categorized) y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y The Resource Foundation True Green Energy Group (TGEG) The Civic Trust GREENGUARD Environmental Institute Groundwork The Town and Country Planning Association Rehbar Environmental Defense Industrial Workers of the World League of Conservation Voters Essential Information Environmental Working Group Bird Protection Quebec Montana Wilderness Association Mothers Organized to Stop Environmental Sin (MOSES) The Earth Organization global global People & Planet Applied Environmental Research Foundation .AERF Association of Environmental and Resource Economists (AERE) Association of Environmental Professionals (AEP) Banksia Environmental Foundation Bonneville Environmental Foundation (BEF) Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management Confederation of European Environmental Engineering Societies .

fraternal.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Creative Environmental Networks (CEN) Federation of Environmental Trade Associations ENFORAC (Environmental Forum for Action) Environment California Environmental and Energy Study Institute (EESI) Environmental Centre ARCTUROS Environmental Design Research Association (EDRA) Environmental groups and resources serving K-12 schools Environmental Justice Foundation Environmental Law Service (ELS) Environmental Protection UK Environmental Services Association Environmental Transport Association European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists (EAERE) Green Camel Bell Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (IEER) National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) National Registry of Environmental Professionals (NREP) New Zealand Institute of Environmental Health (NZIEH) Pacific Environment Palestinian Environmental NGOs Network Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility (PEER) Science & Environmental Policy Project (SEPP) Student Environmental Action Coalition (SEAC) The Environmental Institute (O Instituto Ambiental [OIA]) The Ocean Conservancy Toronto Environmental Alliance (TEA) Toronto Environmental Coalition UK Environmental Law Association (UKELA) West Harlem Environmental Action (WEACT) [edit] See also y y y y y y y y Activism industry Animal rights Environmental agreements List of environmental dates Environmentalism List of civic. service. and professional organizations List of renewable energy organizations Social Media Netwo .

Address: General Secretary Assam Science Society. Website: http://www. wasteland and watershed management. They encourage the use of non-conventional sources of energy. Latsil Lamb Road Guwahati .tion ndian NGOs Working For Saving the Environment India has a number of NGOs that work in the field of environmental conservation and ecology.781 001 Assam BAIF Development Research Foundation Kamdahnu They do consultancy for afforestation.ngoindia. Publications: Science books and journals. Here is a comprehensive list: Assam Science Society They impart environmental education and training through camps for teachers and students and conduct surveys on environment. Publications: The BAIF journal (quarterly).com/baif/ Address: President BAIF Development Research Foundation Kamdhenu Senapati Bapat Marg .

to study wildlife related problems and recommend management plans to conserve wildlife and its habitat. about 2500 environment related activities and 100s . Website: www.411 016 Maharashtra Bombay Natural History Society Aims to disseminate knowledge of flora and fauna by means of lectures. There is also a large computerised database ± the Environment Education bank. Opposite Lion Gate Shaheed Bhagat Singh Marg Mumbai Centre for Environmental Education (CEE) They mainly aim to create environmental awareness in the communities.Pune . other jourals. posters. It conducts field research projects on bird migration and studies on the movement and population structure of Indian avifauna. field trips. Publications: Hornbill (4 issues in a year). educational packages. conduct widespread environmental education and training programmes through a very vast network. Publications and database: They have a vast range of publications ± books. bibliographies and directories. literature and expeditions and. which has a collection of more than 800 environment concepts.bnhs.org/ Address: Honorary Secretary Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS) Hornbill House.

com/cee/index.380 054 Gujarat. etc.org/cse/ Address: Director Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) 41. books. forest.html Address: Director Centre for Environment Education (CEE) Thaltej Tekra Ahmedabad .vsnl.html . awareness campaigns to educate people . Children¶s magazine The Gobar Times. reports. Publications: Down to Earth . Institutional Area Tuglakhabad New Delhi . wildlife. Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) Involved in research.in/cee/cee. investigative and educational work in the field of pollution. computer database. land and water use. Website: education.oneworld.of case studies.110 062 Clean Ahmedabad Abhiyan An NGO that has been working with the Ahmedabad municipal corporation in the area of solid waste and is instrumental for organizing door to door meetings. envfor. Website: www.a fortnightly environment magazine. audio visuals.nic.

about the importance of segregating waste into biodegradable and recyclable waste.Ramaswami Aiyar Foundation) Promotes environmental awareness. Address: Secretary Dasholi Gram Swarajya Mandal (DGSM) Gopeshwar Chamoli District . audio cassettes. It gives a great deal of importance to forest conservation in the Himalayas. Website: www.cpreec.P.org/esa/earthsummit/abhiyan. Website: www. posters. web site on environment education. Publications: Books on environment.246 401 .org Address: Director C. to produce and disseminate basic educational and reference material on environment and to take up environmental projects.P. Alwarpet Chenna .600 018 Dasholi Gram Swarajya Mandal Its aims are to encourage forest conservation and the use of forest products for self employment.R.htm CPR Environmental Education Centre (C. The world famous Chipko Movement was spearheaded by this organization. It works in the field of environmental education.un. Environment Eductaion Centre I A Eldams Road.

Ashram Road Ahmedabad . Publications and aids: Monthly newsletter.com Address: Smt.380 013< Gujarat Development Alternatives Design options and promote sustainable development through programmes of economic efficiency.cr/devalt/dagrp.darpana.ac. appropriate technology. waste recycling management. Mrinalini V. video cassettes (Green Show) Website: www. Publication and aids: Video and audio tapes Website: www. They are working in the field of pollution monitoring and control. resource conservation and self-reliance.Uttar Pradesh Darpana Academy of Performing Arts Through their various activities they spread the message of a better environment. audio cassettes (songs on environment and development). wasteland development.htm Address: President Development Alternatives . Sarabhai Founder Director Darpana Academy of Performing Arts Usmanpura. a school project for environmental empowerment.ecouncil. They have launched a programme µJagruti¶. equity and social justice.

They aim at preserving and rehabilitating the environment of the Doon Valley. abused and ownerless animals. Humane education programmes for schools and slum areas. running mobile clinics in slum areas. to organize workshops and seminars for environmental experts. environmental education. the Yamuna and the Narmada rivers and traditional rain harvesting techniques. . policy makers. Society for the Eradication of Cruelty to Animals Rescue.110 024 Friends of the Doon A pressure group against illegal mining. tree felling and as a platform for voicing people¶s grievances. feed and medicate all injured. Publications: They bring out publications and educational aids on the Chipko Movement. deforestation. to promote adoption programmes for animals. Gandhi Peace Foundation ± Environment Cell It was set up mainly to promote the environmental activities of rural development agencies. sterilisation of stray dogs.B-33/2. rivers and mountains. Institutional Area. audio visuals on Mitti Bachao. dams etc. Address: 27/273 under Defence Colony Flyover. the Chipko Movement. Tara Crescent New Mehrauli New Delhi . They also encourage the use of non conventional sources of energy and are executing town beautification schemes. its forests. to disseminate environmental information through the publication of up to date reports on environmental issues. individuals and organisations working for environmental issues.110 016 Friendicoes. New Delhi .

Deen Dayal Upadhyay Marg New Delhi .undp.110 002 Green Future Foundation To promote and work towards environmental protection.in/gup/gpf.Website: www. Nehru Marg Nagpur . Publication and aids: Video and audio tapes Address: Executive Secretary Green Future Foundation (GEF) 515/5/14. Publication: Journal Address: Indian Association for Environmental Management (IAEM) C/o NEERI.411 042 Maharashtra Indian Association for Environmental Management (IAEM) Educate people on the environment. to encourage the conservation of the environment and to spread environmental knowledge. They impart environmental education and training by organizing forest based camps for adults and youths. energy and ecological conservation and pollution control.440 020 .org.htm Address: Gandhi Peace Foundation Environment Cell 221/223. Anjali Ekbote Colony Pune .

to provide alternative models for development and to popularize science among the people. Land and Water. The Greening of India. Address: General Secretary Jammu & Kashmir Environment and Wasteland Development Society 14. 2. They undertake water-harvesting projects in urban areas.1.Maharashtra INTACH Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage To preserve Indian cultural and natural heritage. etc.180 001 Jammu & Kashmir Kerala Sastra Sahitiya Parishad To preserve the environment. Tropical Desertification.110 013 Jammu and Kashmir Environment and Wasteland Development Society Works mainly in the Rajouri District to develop wastelands. Ranbir Market. 3. They have worked in the field of eco-development. They have done extensive afforestation in the wasteland areas and identify wastelands in the area of function. creating awareness . Indira Chowk Jammu . Address: Director General Indian National trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH) Bhartiyam Near Humayun Tomb Nizamuddin New Delhi . Publications: Books on environmental issues .

What is that bird (An illustrated guide) Address: C-17/A. . Publications: Quarterly publications and books.680 004 Kerala Kalpavriksh It is a citizens action group set up to inculcate understanding and concern on environmental issues. 2. They have worked in the area of ecological development and protection of the environment. Guruvayeer Road Thrissur . It also aims to conduct research in environmental problems. It imparts environmental education in schools and colleges by forming a network of nature clubs. Munirka New Delhi . The Little Green Book. Publications: 1.110 067 Ladakh Ecology Development Group (LEDG) It aims to promote ecological and sustainable development harmonious with the traditional cultures of the area. Narmada ± a campaign newsletter. etc. conducting bird watching expeditions and nature trails and has developed workbooks for the school level.about water and energy conservation and encouraging the use of non -conventional energy sources such as smokeless chulhas. 3. to campaign on environmental issues and to evolve a holistic environmental perspective. Address: President Kerala Shastra Sahitya Parishad Parishat Bhawan. especially among the youth.

on the social and environmental impact of such projects. to imbibe a love for nature through camps and slide shows. Address: LEDG. such as tribals. It aims mainly to educate those directly affected by large development projects. monthly bulletin on the society¶s activities. They are fighting against displacement and disregard of the rights of the people. environmental issues related to big dams in general and the Narmada project in particular. .checklist of birds in and around Chennai. struggling towards a right to information and new environmentally sustainable water policy. To protest against the construction of dams in the Narmada Valley in general. to organise visits to sanctuaries in Tamilnadu Publications: Quarterly journal the Blackbuck. protest against land and forest issues and government interference in this regard.They have contributed to the ban of plastics in the valley. to impart environmental education through seminars and discussions. report on a pollution survey of Chennai beaches. Address: 8. They undertake surveys of the affected villages. Janaki Avenue Abhirampuram Chennai . To help the tribals get a substantial share of the government¶s development schemes/services and to unable them to undertake development activities themselves. alternative development policies. Leh Ladakh District Jammu and Kashmir Madras Naturalists Society (MNS) Its main aims are to study environmental problems in and around Chennai. They mainly educate. mobilize and organize residents of the Narmada Valley on human rights and justice.600 018 Narmada Bachao Andalon Set up in 1986 under the leadership of Medha Patkar.

Medha Patkar Narmada Dharangrast Samiti (Narmada Bachao Andolan) C/o P. bird watching. research. Dalal Post Box 52 Dhule .Publication: They come out with a bi-monthly publication the Narmada Samachar. Address: Smt. Impart environmental education and conduct tree planting. To formulate co-curricular courses in environmental sciences at all levels of education and advise the government. and soil conservation programmes. . Publications: Quarterly in English µTahr¶ and booklets.643 001 Tamil Nadu Orissa Environmental Society Set up to encourage and organise study.424 001 Maharashtra Nilgiri Wildlife and Environment Association To conserve the natural resources of the Nilgiri and preserve wildlife and the habitat. understanding and appreciation of nature.D. Nilgiri District . They have assisted in the imposition of hunting restrictions and the protection of the elephant. Address: Honarary Scretary Nilgiri Wildlife and Environment Association C/o District Forest Office Nilgiris North Division Mount Stewart Hill Ottacamand.

Address: The President Rajasthan Environment Preservation Society "Vasundara". They impart environmental education and awareness. reports. proceedings. Address: Orissa Environmental Society (OES) N-6/530 Nayapalli Bhubaneshwar . To promote social forestry and plantation and to clean the ponds. Address: Director Ramakrishna Mission Lokashiksha Parishad Belur Math Belur West Bengal Srishti . Tonk Road Jaipur . provide consultancy and encourage the use of renewable sources of energy. etc.302 015 Ramakrishna Mission Lokashiksha Parishad To uplift the rural people with a view to making them self-reliant.751 015 Rajasthan Environment Preservation Society To work towards pollution control. carrying out programmes for the development of the wasteland areas restoration of bundhs in the Sundarbans riverine areas to protect the land from saline water. It works in 11 districts covering about 4000 villages. ecological and environmental preservation. lakes and reservoirs. afforestation.Publications: The Journal of Environmental Science.

It conducts various environment related plays for children with a view to impart environment education through theatre. Address: Director-General TERI Darbari Seth Block IHC Complex. Address: National School of Drama Bhagwan Dass Road New Delhi . It has been imparting environmental education through projects. to foster concern for the environment among the people.To promote conservation and enrichment of the environment.110 003 Theatre in Education Company Affiliated to the National School of Drama New Delhi and its aim is to use theatre as a medium for education. audio visual aids and quiz competitions. Address: 1001. Antariksh Bhavan 22. policies and institutions for efficient and sustainable use of natural resources. Lodhi Road New Delhi . Kasturba Gandhi Marg New Delhi . making its preservation a shared responsibility. workshops.110 001 The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) Develop and promote technologies.110 001 . to carry out research on all aspects of sustainable living.

263 601 . Kautilya Marg.110 021 Uttarkhand Seva Nidhi was set up in 1967 to disseminate information o the environment.301 022 Rajasthan Tiger link Established to provide links between different sections working in the interest of the tiger and its habitat.O. Address: 19. Address: Bhikampura P. and to effectively take actions to overcome local obstacles. They have spread environmental education and training and are setting up a resource centre at Almora. Address: Honorary Secretary Uttrakhand Seva Nidhi Manerath Sadan. New Delhi . Champa Naula Almora . They also aim to spread literacy and do other community based work to create a healthy natural environment. Publication: Tigerlink News: a bi-annual newsletter. Kishori Thanagazi Tehsil Alwar .Tarun Bharat Sangh Work in the rural areas to study local natural resources and to find ways and means to protect them and thereby help maintain the balance of the local ecosystem.

cassettes and data on various issues which can be got from their outlets .Uttar Pradesh Vanarai Promote environmental protection and afforestation and sustainable integrated rural development. in order to improve the ways and means of garbage collection through a more concrete method.411 009 Maharashtra Vatavaran Working in the sector of solid waste collection. Publications: Monthly magazine called Vanarai and Address: Secretary Vanarai Aditya Residency. Address: Asiad Games Village New Delhi . Mitramandal Chowk Pune . 498 Parvati. Publications: They have innumerable books.110 049 World Wide Fund for Nature Its main aim is the promotion of conservation of nature and environmental protection as the basis for sustainable and equitable development.

WWW Indian Network Newsletter (Quarterly). Some of them are as follows ± 1. 2. Thank you Garima! Search Directory: Submit More Online Guides Mumbai . The Web of Life ± a resource pack for children. documentary flimmaker and activist by passion. Max Mueller Marg Lodhi Estate New Delhi . A Directory 1999 (Indira Gandhi Conservation Monitoring Centre). A Directory of Environmental Opportunities (Kalpavriksh) This list was compiled and submitted by Garima Sharma a TV producer by profession and active blogger. The Law Digest. etc. The Little Green Book. 3.Call Center List Cheap International Long Distance & Phone Cards . Nature News.110 003 Note: This Directory of NGOs has been compiled from the following sources: y y Environmental NGOs in India.in the cities. photographer. Address: Secretary General WWF-India Delhi Office Pirojsha Godrej National Conservation Centre 172-B. 4.

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Publications: Science books and journals. Latsil Lamb Road Guwahati .Indian NGOs Working For Saving the Environment India has a number of NGOs that work in the field of environmental conservation and ecology.781 001 Assam . Address: General Secretary Assam Science Society. Here is a comprehensive list: Assam Science Society They impart environmental education and training through camps for teachers and students and conduct surveys on environment.

ngoindia. wasteland and watershed management. Website: www.bnhs. Website: http://www.org/ Address: Honorary Secretary Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS) Hornbill House. field trips. Publications: Hornbill (4 issues in a year).com/baif/ Address: President BAIF Development Research Foundation Kamdhenu Senapati Bapat Marg Pune . Publications: The BAIF journal (quarterly). other jourals.BAIF Development Research Foundation Kamdahnu They do consultancy for afforestation. Opposite Lion Gate Shaheed Bhagat Singh Marg Mumbai Centre for Environmental Education (CEE) .411 016 Maharashtra Bombay Natural History Society Aims to disseminate knowledge of flora and fauna by means of lectures. They encourage the use of non-conventional sources of energy. literature and expeditions and. to study wildlife related problems and recommend management plans to conserve wildlife and its habitat. It conducts field research projects on bird migration and studies on the movement and population structure of Indian avifauna.

nic.html . Publications and database: They have a vast range of publications ± books.com/cee/index. posters.380 054 Gujarat. There is also a large computerised database ± the Environment Education bank.They mainly aim to create environmental awareness in the communities. . which has a collection of more than 800 environment concepts.a fortnightly environment magazine. wildlife. forest. Children¶s magazine The Gobar Times. investigative and educational work in the field of pollution. envfor.in/cee/cee. conduct widespread environmental education and training programmes through a very vast network. etc. Website: education. bibliographies and directories. Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) Involved in research. computer database. about 2500 environment related activities and 100s of case studies. books. educational packages. reports. Publications: Down to Earth .vsnl. land and water use. audio visuals.html Address: Director Centre for Environment Education (CEE) Thaltej Tekra Ahmedabad .

to produce and disseminate basic educational and reference material on environment and to take up environmental projects.oneworld. web site on environment education. Publications: Books on environment. posters.org/esa/earthsummit/abhiyan. Alwarpet Chenna . It works in the field of environmental education.org/cse/ Address: Director Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) 41. Website: www.Ramaswami Aiyar Foundation) Promotes environmental awareness.un. awareness campaigns to educate people about the importance of segregating waste into biodegradable and recyclable waste. Website: www. Environment Eductaion Centre I A Eldams Road.600 018 .P.Website: www. Institutional Area Tuglakhabad New Delhi .htm CPR Environmental Education Centre (C.org Address: Director C.110 062 Clean Ahmedabad Abhiyan An NGO that has been working with the Ahmedabad municipal corporation in the area of solid waste and is instrumental for organizing door to door meetings.R. audio cassettes.P.cpreec.

380 013< Gujarat Development Alternatives Design options and promote sustainable development through programmes of economic efficiency. Address: Secretary Dasholi Gram Swarajya Mandal (DGSM) Gopeshwar Chamoli District . resource conservation and self-reliance. It gives a great deal of importance to forest conservation in the Himalayas. . a school project for environmental empowerment. Publication and aids: Video and audio tapes Website: www.darpana. waste recycling management. Sarabhai Founder Director Darpana Academy of Performing Arts Usmanpura.246 401 Uttar Pradesh Darpana Academy of Performing Arts Through their various activities they spread the message of a better environment. equity and social justice. Mrinalini V. appropriate technology. They are working in the field of pollution monitoring and control.com Address: Smt. They have launched a programme µJagruti¶. The world famous Chipko Movement was spearheaded by this organization. Ashram Road Ahmedabad .Dasholi Gram Swarajya Mandal Its aims are to encourage forest conservation and the use of forest products for self employment. wasteland development.

Address: 27/273 under Defence Colony Flyover.htm Address: President Development Alternatives B-33/2.Publications and aids: Monthly newsletter. Institutional Area. They also encourage the use of non conventional sources of energy and are executing town beautification schemes. video cassettes (Green Show) Website: www. Humane education programmes for schools and slum areas.cr/devalt/dagrp. its forests.ecouncil. to disseminate environmental information through the publication of up to date reports on environmental .110 016 Friendicoes. sterilisation of stray dogs. rivers and mountains.110 024 Friends of the Doon A pressure group against illegal mining. Society for the Eradication of Cruelty to Animals Rescue. Gandhi Peace Foundation ± Environment Cell It was set up mainly to promote the environmental activities of rural development agencies. Tara Crescent New Mehrauli New Delhi . New Delhi . audio cassettes (songs on environment and development). tree felling and as a platform for voicing people¶s grievances. to promote adoption programmes for animals. feed and medicate all injured.ac. running mobile clinics in slum areas. They aim at preserving and rehabilitating the environment of the Doon Valley. abused and ownerless animals.

individuals and organisations working for environmental issues.org. They impart environmental education and training by organizing forest based camps for adults and youths. Deen Dayal Upadhyay Marg New Delhi . Anjali Ekbote Colony Pune . Publication and aids: Video and audio tapes Address: Executive Secretary Green Future Foundation (GEF) 515/5/14. to organize workshops and seminars for environmental experts. the Chipko Movement. energy and ecological conservation and pollution control.411 042 Maharashtra Indian Association for Environmental Management (IAEM) .undp. dams etc.issues. the Yamuna and the Narmada rivers and traditional rain harvesting techniques.110 002 Green Future Foundation To promote and work towards environmental protection. deforestation. Website: www. audio visuals on Mitti Bachao.in/gup/gpf. policy makers.htm Address: Gandhi Peace Foundation Environment Cell 221/223. Publications: They bring out publications and educational aids on the Chipko Movement. environmental education.

Tropical Desertification. Address: Director General Indian National trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH) Bhartiyam Near Humayun Tomb Nizamuddin New Delhi .110 013 Jammu and Kashmir Environment and Wasteland Development Society Works mainly in the Rajouri District to develop wastelands.1. 3. to encourage the conservation of the environment and to spread environmental knowledge. Publications: Books on environmental issues . Nehru Marg Nagpur .440 020 Maharashtra INTACH Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage To preserve Indian cultural and natural heritage. Land and Water. . etc. They have done extensive afforestation in the wasteland areas and identify wastelands in the area of function. The Greening of India. 2.Educate people on the environment. They undertake water-harvesting projects in urban areas. Publication: Journal Address: Indian Association for Environmental Management (IAEM) C/o NEERI.

conducting bird watching expeditions and nature trails and has developed workbooks for the school level.180 001 Jammu & Kashmir Kerala Sastra Sahitiya Parishad To preserve the environment. to provide alternative models for development and to popularize science among the people. etc. Guruvayeer Road Thrissur . Ranbir Market. . They have worked in the field of eco-development. Publications: Quarterly publications and books. It also aims to conduct research in environmental problems. It imparts environmental education in schools and colleges by forming a network of nature clubs. Publications: 1.Address: General Secretary Jammu & Kashmir Environment and Wasteland Development Society 14. to campaign on environmental issues and to evolve a holistic environmental perspective. Indira Chowk Jammu . creating awareness about water and energy conservation and encouraging the use of non -conventional energy sources such as smokeless chulhas.680 004 Kerala Kalpavriksh It is a citizens action group set up to inculcate understanding and concern on environmental issues. The Little Green Book. especially among the youth. Address: President Kerala Shastra Sahitya Parishad Parishat Bhawan. 2. Narmada ± a campaign newsletter.

3. What is that bird (An illustrated guide) Address: C-17/A. to organise visits to sanctuaries in Tamilnadu . Leh Ladakh District Jammu and Kashmir Madras Naturalists Society (MNS) Its main aims are to study environmental problems in and around Chennai. They have contributed to the ban of plastics in the valley. Munirka New Delhi . They have worked in the area of ecological development and protection of the environment. to imbibe a love for nature through camps and slide shows. to impart environmental education through seminars and discussions. Address: LEDG.110 067 Ladakh Ecology Development Group (LEDG) It aims to promote ecological and sustainable development harmonious with the traditional cultures of the area.

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But in general. Professional societies (e.. many with strong international ties to western NGOs. even though Russian specialists might consider them to be an important form of NGOs. are not usually considered to be environmental NGOs. An American environmental NGO is usually perceived as an organization established specifically to contribute to environmental improvement at the national or local level. Greenpeace is probably the leading example of this trend. for example. Oak Ridge National Laboratory).g. coordinating councils established by regional governments with common environmental interests. the American Chemical Society). government-sponsored citizen organizations. They include. During the past decade.Schweitzer National Research Council The list of organizations represented at this workshop provides a good overview of the types of environmental NGOs that are active in Russia and the United States.. for example. however. that some of the new Russian NGOs. and educational NGOs have been well represented.g. and societies that promote ecology programs for students. Several speakers have noted.HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESENTATIONS G. museums with environmental outreach programs. institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences. nongovernmental laboratories supported by the federal government (e. analytical.E. advocacy. with far . In Russia there is a long history of many types of organizations outside the formal governmental structure participating in environmental protection activities that today are considered to be environmental NGOs. and departments of universities. There are of course hundreds of others with special interests and unique approaches²at both the national and local levels. or both. the concept of NGOs is somewhat different in the two countries. At the same time. hundreds of western-style environmental NGOs have been established in Russia.