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marke4
/>eiow,
THE
EINSTEIN
THEORY
OF
RELATIVITY
Boofcs
by L
/?.
ancf H. G. Lieber
NONEUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY
GALOIS AND THE THEORY OF GROUPS
THE EDUCATION OF
T.
C.
MITS
THE EINSTEIN THEORY OF RELATIVITY
MITS,
WITS
AND LOGIC
INFINITY
Books of drawings by H. G. Lieber
GOODBYE
MR.
MAN, HELLO MR. NEWMAN
L.
(WITH INTRODUCTION BY
R.
LIEBER)
COMEDIE INTERNATIONALE
THE
EINSTEIN
THEORY
OF
RELATIVITY
Text By
LILLIAN
R.
LIEBER
Drawings By
HUGH GRAY
LIEBER
HOLT, RINEHART
AND WINSTON
New
York / Chicago / San Francisco
Copyright, 1936, 1945, by
L.
R.
and
H. G. Lieber
All rights reserved, including the right to repro
duce
In
this
of
Canada, Canada,
book or portions thereof in any form. Holt, Rinehart and Winston
Limited.
First Edition
October 1945 Second Printing, April 1946 Third Printing, November 1946 Fourth Printing, November 1947 Fifth Printing, May 1950 S/xtfi Printing, March 1954 Seventh Printing, November 1 957 Eighth Printing, July 1958 Ninth Printing, July 1959 Tenth Printing, April 1960 Eleventh Printing, April 1961 Twelfth Printing, April 1964 Thirteenth Printing, November 1966
Firsf Printing,
1975
852510115
Printed in the United States of America
To
FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT
who saved
the world from those forces
of evil which sought to destroy
Art and Science and the very
Dignity of
Man.
PREFACE
In
this
book on
the Einstein Theory of Relativity
the attempt is made to introduce just enough
mathematics
to
HELP
and
NOT to HINDER
the lay reader/ "lay" can of course apply to various domains of knowledge
perhaps then
we should
say:
the layman in Relativity.
Many
"popular" discussions of
all,
Relativity,
without any mathematics at have been written. But we doubt whether
even the best of these can possibly give to a novice an adequate idea of
what
it is
all
about.
What
in
very clear when expressed mathematical language
is
sounds "mystical"
ordinary language.
in
On
the other hand,
there are
many
discussions,
including Einstein's own papers, which are accessible to the
experts only.
vii
We
who
believe that
is
there
a class of readers
can get very little out of either of these two kinds of
discussion readers who
know enough about
mathematics to follow a simple mathematical presentation of a domain new to them, built from the ground up,
with sufficient details to bridge the gaps that exist
FOR THEM
both
in
the popular and the expert presentations.
This book is an attempt to satisfy the needs of
this
kind of reader.
viii
CONTENTS
PREFACE
Part
I
THE
SPECIAL THEORY
3
8
I.
INTRODUCTION
The MichelsonMorley Experiment
ReExamination of the Fundamental Ideas
II.
III.
20
31
IV. The
Remedy
Solution of the Difficulty
V. The
39 44
Con
VI. The Result of Applying the
VII.
Remedy
The
FourDimensional tinuum
SpaceTime
57
VIII.
Some Consequences
Relativity
of the Theory of
69
Summary
IX.
A
Point of Logic and a
83
The Moral
Part
II
87
THE GENERAL THEORY
II
A
GUIDE TO PART
X. Introduction
91
95
101
XI. The Principle of Equivalence
XII.
XIII.
A
NonEuclidean World!
107
113
The Study of Spaces
Is
XIV. What
a Tensor?
127
of a
XV. The
XVI.
Effect
on Tensors
Change
in the
1
Coordinate System
41
A Very Helpful Simplification
ix
150
XVII. Operations with TenseXVIII.
160
167 173
1
A Physical
Illustration
XIX. Mixed Tensors
XX.
Contraction and Differentiation
Little g's
78
XXI. The
XXII.
XXIII.
187
191
at Last
Our
Last Detour
The Curvature Tensor
Is
200 206
21 3
XXIV. Of What Use
the Curvature Tensor?
XXV.
The Big G's or
Einstein's
Law Law
of Gravitation of Gravitation
XXVI. Comparison
XXVII.
of Einstein's
with Newton's
219
How
Can the
Einstein
Law
of Gravitation Be
Tested?
227
Difficulties
XXVIII. Surmounting the
237
255
XXIX. "The Proof
of the
Pudding"
XXX. More About
the Path of a Planet
of Mercury
266
272
XXXI. The Perihelion
XXXII.
XXXIII.
Deflection of a Deflection of a
Ray
of Light
Light, cont.
276
283
Ray of
XXXIV. The
Third of the "Crucial"
Phenomena
289 299
303
XXXV. Summary
The Moral
Would You Like
to
Know?
310
318
THE ATOMIC
BOMB
Parti
THE SPECIAL THEORY
I.
INTRODUCTION.
In order to appreciate the fundamental importance
of Relativity,
it is
necessary to
it
know
11
how
arose.
a "revolution
Whenever
in
it is
takes place,
any domain, always preceded by
a tension,
some maladjustment producing
which ultimately causes a break, followed by a greater stability
at least for the
time being.
What was
in
the maladjustment in Physics the latter part of the 19th century, which led to the creation of
11
the "revolutionary
Relativity
briefly:
Theory?
Let us summarize
It
it
has been assumed that
space is filled with ether,* through which radio waves and
all
light
waves
are transmitted
any modern child
*This ether
is
talks quite glibly
of course
NOT the
chemical ether
which surgeons use!
ft is it
not a liquid, solid, or gas,
has never been seen
by anybody,
presence is only conjectured because of the need for some medium to transmit radio and light waves.
its
3
11
about "wavelengths in connection with the radio.
Now,
if
there
is
an ether,
does it surround the earth and travel with it, or does it remain stationary
while the earth travels through it?
Various known (acts* indicate that
the ether does
NOT travel
with the earth.
the earth is moving If, then, there must be an "ether wind/'
just as a
THROUGH
the ether,
person riding on a bicycle
still air,
through feels an
air
wind blowing
in his face.
so an experiment was performed Michelson and Morley (see p. 8) by in 1887,
to detect this ether wind/and much to the surprise of everyone, no ether wind was observed.
And
This
a
unexpected result was explained by Dutch physicist, Lorentz, in 1 895, in a way which will be described
in
Chapter
II.
The search for the ether wind was then resumed by means of other kinds of experiments.!
*See the
M
article
Aberration of Light",
by A.
in
Eddington, the Encyclopedia Britannica, 14th ed.
S.
tSec the article "Relativity" by James Jeans, also in the Enc. Brit. 14th ed.
4
But, again and again, to the consternation of the physicists, no ether wind could be detected,'
until
it
seemed
that
1
nature was in a "conspiracy' to prevent our finding this effect!
At
this
point
Einstein took
up the problem,
that
11
and decided
a natural "conspiracy must be a natural
And
as to
operating. to answer the question
this law,
LAW
what is he proposed
published
in
one
in
his Theory of two papers, 1905 and the other
Relativity,
in
1915.*
He first found it necessary to reexamine the fundamental ideas upon which classical physics was based, and proposed certain vital changes in them.
He
then
made
A
VERY LIMITED NUMBER OF MOST REASONABLE ASSUMPTIONS
by means
of
from which he deduced his theory. So fruitful did his analysis prove to be
that
it
he succeeded
in:
(1) Clearing up the fundamental ideas. (2) Explaining the MichelsonMorley experiment in a much more rational way than
had previously been done.
*Both
now
published
in
one volume
including also the papers
by
Lorentz and Minkowski,
to which
we
shall refer later/
see
SOME
INTERESTING READING, page 324.
(3)
Doing away with
other outstanding difficulties
in physics. (4) Deriving a
NEW LAW OF GRAVITATION
much more adequate than the Newtonian one
(See Part II.: The General Theory) and which led to several
important predictions
which could be verified by experiment; and which have been so verified
since then.
(5) Explaining
QUITE INCIDENTALLY
a famous discrepancy in astronomy which had worried the astronomers
for
many
(This also
years is discussed in
The General Theory).
Thus, the Theory of Relativity had
a profound philosophical bearing of physics, on as well as explaining
ALL
many SPECIFIC
that
outstanding difficulties
had seemed to be entirely
UNRELATED,
and
of further increasing our of the physical world by suggesting a number of
knowledge
NEW experiments which NEW discoveries.
No
has
have led to
other physical theory
been so powerful though based on so FEW assumptions.
As we
shall see.
II.
THE MICHELSONMORLEY EXPERIMENT*
page 4 we referred to
set themselves.
On
the problem that
Michelson and Morley
Let us
now
see
what experiment they performed and what was the startling result.
In
order to get the idea of the experiment
in
very clearly
it
mind,
first
will
be helpful
to consider the following simple problem,
which can be solved
by any boy who
has studied
elementary algebra:
Imagine a river in which there is a current flowing with
velocity v, in the direction indicated
by the
arrow:
Now
for a
which would take longer
man
to
swim
to
From
A
to
B and back
in
A
,
'Published
the
Philosophical Magazine, vol. 24, (1887).
8
or
from
if
A
to
C and back
to
A
,
the distances
AB and AC are
equal,
AB
and
being parallel to the current,
in still
AC perpendicular to it? Let the man's rate of swimming
water
be represented by c / then, when swimming against the
from
current,
A
to
8
,
his rate
would be only
c
v
f
whereas,
when swimming with from 8 back to A ,
his rate
the current,
would, of course, be c
+
v.
Therefore the time required to swim from A to fi
would be a/(c v), where a represents the distance and the time required
for the trip
AB ;
from
8
to
v).
A
would be
would be a/(c
+
Consequently, the time for the round
trip
ti
or
ti
= =
a/(c
2
/)
2ac/(c

+
v
2
a/(c
).
+
v)
Now
how
from
let us
see
trip
long the round
A
to
C and back
to
A
would take. If he headed directly toward C , the current would carry him downstream, and he would land at some point to the left of C in the figure on p. 8.
Therefore, in order to arrive at
C
,
9
he should head
just far
for
some point
D
enough upstream
to counteract the effect of the current.
In
if
other words,
the water could
be kept
still
until
he swam
at his
own
rate c
from
A
to
D
,
and then the current were suddenly allowed to operate, carrying him at the rate v from D to C
(without his making any further effort), then the effect would obviously be the same
as his going directly from
A
iojC
2
with a velocity equal to Vc' v/ as is obvious from the right triangle:
2
ex
\r
Consequently/
the time required for the journey from
A
2
to
C
would be a/Vc^ v , where a is the distance from
Similarly,
in
A
to
C
it is
going back from C to easy to see that,
A,
10
by
the same
method
of reasoning,
2
_
v
2
.
the time would again be a/Vc Hence the time for the round trip
from
A
to
C and back
fa
to
would be
= 2a/vV ti
_
A,
f2
y\
In
order to compare
and
more
2
.
let us write ft for
c/
Vc
2
easily,
v
Then we
and
get:
ti
fa
=
2a/3
/c
2a/3/c.
Assuming that v is less than c , 2 2 v being obviously less than and c
the
c
2
,
Vc
2
v
2
is
therefore less than c
1
,
and consequently ft is greater than (since the denominator
is
^
less than
t\
Therefore
that
IT
is,
the numerator). is greater than
fa ,
TAKES LONGER TO
SWIM UPSTREAM AND BACK
THAN TO SWIM THE SAME DISTANCE
ACROSSSTREAM
AND
BACK.
But what has all this to do with the MichelsonMorley experiment? In that experiment, to B: a ray of light was sent from
A
Cr
^
HB
11
At 8 there was a mirror which reflected the light back to
so that the ray of light makes the round trip from
just as the
in
A,
back,
AioB and
swimmer did
the problem described above. since the entire apparatus shares the motion of the earth,
Now,
which is moving through space, supposedly through a stationary ether/ thus creating an ether wind
in the opposite direction, (namely, the direction indicated above), this experiment seems entirely analogous to the problem of the swimmer.
And,
and
therefore/ as before/
ti
ti
= 2a0Yc = 2aS/c.
0)
(2)
and
is now the velocity of light, the time required for the light to C and back to to go from
Where
c
*2 is
A
A
(being reflected from another mirror at
If/
ti
Q.
therefore, and t> are found experimentally/
by dividing (1) the value of /? would
then
by (2), be easily obtained.
2
And
since
= c/V c
T
2 ,
c being the known velocity of light, the value of v could be calculated.
That
is,
THE ABSOLUTE VELOCITY
would thus become known.
OF THE EARTH
Such was the plan of the experiment.
Now
what actually happened?
12
The experimental values of t\ and were found to be the SAME,
instead of
ti
\
ti
Obviously
this
being greater than ti was a most disturbing
result,
quite out of harmony with the reasoning given above.
The Dutch
physicist, Lorentz, then suggested the following explanation of Michelson's strange result:
Lorentz suggested that
matter,
owing
to
its
electrical structure,
IT IS
SHRINKS
and
this
WHEN
MOVING,
MOTION.*
contraction occurs
ONLY IN THE DIRECTION OF of shrinkage The he assumes to be in the ratio of 1/ff
AMOUNT
v (where /3 has the value c/Vc Thus a sphere of one inch radius
2
2
,
as before).
becomes an
with
its
ellipsoid when shortest semiaxis
1//3 inches long)
it is
moving,
(now only
*The two papers by Lorentz on this subject are included in the volume mentioned in the footnote on page 5.
In the first of these papers Lorentz mentions that the explanation proposed here occurred also to Fitzgerald.
Hence
it
is
often referred to as
1
the "Fitzgerald contraction" or the "Lorentz contraction* or
11
the "LorentzFitzgerald contraction.
13
in
the direction of motion,
thus:
a erection
to the
Applying this idea MichelsonMorlcy experiment,
the distance
AB (=
2
a)
on
p. 8,
becomes a/jS , and ti becomes 2a/3/c
instead of 2a/3 /c , so that now ft t2
/
=
,
just as the
experiment requires.
One
might ask
how
it is
that Michelson did not
observe the shrinkage? Why did not his measurements show
that
AB was
shorter than
AC
(See the figure on p. 8)? The obvious answer is that the measuring rod itself contracts
when applied to AB, so that one is not aware of the shrinkage.
To
this
explanation
MichelsonMorley experiment the natural objection may be raised
that an explanation
for the express
of the
which
is
invented
purpose
14
of smoothing out a certain and assumes a correction
of
is
difficulty,
JUST
too
artificial
the right amount, to be satisfying.
And
Poincare, the French mathematician/
raised this very natural objection.
Consequently, Lorentz undertook to examine
his contraction
in
hypothesis
other connections, to see whether it is in harmony also with facts other than
the MichelsonMorley experiment. He then published a second paper
in
1904,
giving the result of this investigation.
To present
let us
first
this result in a clear
form
restate the
argument
as follows:
vt
T
Consider a set of axes, X and Y, supposed to be fixed in the stationary ether, and another set X' and Y' , attached to the earth and moving with it,
15
with velocity v
,
as indicated
above
Let
X
7
and
V"
move along X, move parallel to
V.
Now
is
suppose an observer on the
measure
earth,
say Michelson,
trying to
it
the time
takes a ray of light to B , to travel from
A
and 8 being fixed points on the moving axis X .
both
r
A
At
the
moment
ray of light
starts at
f
when the
A
suppose coincide, and A coincides with D / and while the light has been traveling to B
the axis
that
Y and Y
V
has
moved
the distance vt
,
and B has reached the position shown in the figure on p. 1 5,
t
being the time
if
it
Then, we have x'
This
is
DB = x and AB =
takes for this to happen.
=
x',
(3)
x
vt.
only another way of expressing what was said on p. where the time for
9
the
first part of the journey was said to be equal to a/(c
v).*
And, as we saw there, this way of thinking of
did
the
phenomenon
NOT agree
Applying now
*Since
with the experimental facts. the contraction hypothesis
we are now designating a by x', = t , or x = ct we have x'/(c v)
But the distance the light has traveled
vf.
is x , and x
=
ct,
consequently x'
=x
vt
is
equivalent to a/(c
v)
=
t.
16
proposed by Lorentz, x should be divided by /3, so that equation (3) becomes
r
x7/3
or
x'
=
=
 vt  vt). (x
x
other fads,
(4)
Now
when Lorentz examined
on
p.
1
as stated
5,
he found that equation (4) was quite in harmony with ail these but that he was now obliged
to introduce a further correction
facts,
expressed by the equation
(5)
where /3 , t , v , x , and c have the same meaning as before But what is t?! Surely the time measurements in the two systems are not different:
Whether the
origin
is
at
D
or at
A
should not affect the
TIMEREADINGS.
In
t'
was a
other words, as Lorentz saw it, 11 sort of "artificial time
introduced only for mathematical reasons,
because
in
it
helped to give
facts.
t
results
harmony with the
had
But obviously
for
him
NO
As
PHYSICAL MEANING.
it:
Jeans, the English physicist, puts
"If the observer
could be persuaded
artificial way, wrong to begin with and then making them gain or lose permanently, the effect of his supposed artificiality
to measure time in this
setting his clocks
17
would
just
counterbalance
11
the effects of his motion
through the ether
!*
Thus, the equations finally proposed
are:
by Lorentz
x'
= =
(x

vt)
z'
Note
that
1
since the axes attached to the earth (p. are moving along the Xaxis,
5)
obviously the values of y and z
(z
being the third dimension)
are the
same
as
/
and z
,
respectively.
The equations
are
just
given
known
as
THE LORENTZ TRANSFORMATION,
since they show how to transform a set of values of x , y , z , t
into a set x',
in a
y, z,
t'
coordinate system moving with constant velocity
v,
along the Xaxis,
with respect to the
unprimed coordinate system.
And,
as
we
saw,
whereas the Lorentz transformation
really expressed the facts correctly, it seemed to have
NO
PHYSICAL MEANING,
article
*See the
on
Relativity in the
Encyclopedia Britannica, 14th edition.
19
and was merely
a set of empirical equations.
Let us
now
see what Einstein did.
III.
REEXAMINATION OF THE
FUNDAMENTAL
IDEAS.
As Einstein regarded the situation, the negative result of the MichelsonMorley experiment,
as well as of other experiments
which seemed to indicate a "conspiracy" on the part of nature
against man's efforts to obtain knowledge of the physical world (see p. 5),
these negative results,
according to Einstein, did not merely demand
explanations of a certain number
of isolated difficulties,
but the situation was so serious
that a
complete examination
of fundamental ideas
was necessary.
In
he
in
other words, felt that there was something
fundamentally and radically wrong
physics,
rather than a
mere
superficial difficulty.
And
so he undertook to reexamine
such fundamental notions as
our ideas of
LENGTH
and
TIME and MASS.
20
His exceedingly reasonable examination
is
most illuminating,
as
we
shall
now
see.
But
first
let us
remind the reader
why
length, time
and mass
that
are fundamental,
Everyone knows
VELOCITY depends upon the distance (or LENGTH)
traversed in a given
TIME,
hence the unit of velocity
DEPENDS UPON
the units of
Similarly,
LENGTH
is
and TIME.
since acceleration
the change in velocity in a unit of time, hence the unit of acceleration
DEPENDS UPON
the units of velocity and time, and therefore ultimately upon
the units of
Further,
LENGTH
is
and TIME.
since force
measured
of
by the product
mass and acceleration, the unit of force
DEPENDS UPON
the units of mass and acceleration,
and hence ultimately the units of
upon
MASS, LENGTH And so on.
In
all
and TIME,
other words,
measurements
in
physics
depend
That
is
primarily on
MASS, LENGTH
why
and TIME.
21
the system of units ordinarily used is called the "C.G.S."
where C stands
for
system,^ "centimeter"
(the unit of length), stands for "gram" (the unit of mass), and 5 stands for "second" (the unit of time)/
G
these being the fundamental units from which all the others are derived.
Let us
now
return to
Einstein's reexamination of
these fundamental units.
Suppose
that
two observers
wish to compare their measurements of time. If they are near each other
they can, of course/ look and compare them.
at
each other's watches
If they are far apart/ they can still compare each other's readings
BY
MEANS OF
SIGNALS,
say light signals or radio signals/ 1 that is/ any "electromagnetic wave* which can travel through space. Let us/ therefore/ imagine that
one observer/ f , is on the earth/ and the other/ 5 / on the sun/ and imagine that signals are sent
as follows:
By his own watch/ 5 sends a message to which reads "twelve o'clock/" f receives this message
say/ eight minutes later;*
*Since the sun is about from the earth,
93 000 000
miles
light travels about 186 000 miles per second, the time for a light (or radio) signal to travel from the sun to the earth/
and
is
approximately eight minutes.
22
now,
it
if
his
watch agrees with that of S n f<
,
will
read
12:08
when
the message arrives.
then sends back to
5
the message "12:08,"
and, of course,
receives this message 8 minutes namely, at 12:16. Thus 5 will conclude,
5
later,
from
this series of signals,
that his
watch and that of f
are in perfect agreement.
But
let us
now imagine
that the entire solar system
is moving through space, so that both the sun and the earth
moving in the direction shown in the figure:
are
without any change
in
the distance between them.
Now
let
the signals again
be
sent
as before:
his message "1 2 o'clock," but sincejf js moving awayjrom jjta IRelatter wiffnot reaclTE in 8 minutes,
S sends
but will take
to overtake
some longer time
,
f
Say,
9
minutes.
23
If
it
Fs watch
will read
is in agreement with 12:09
that of
5,
when
and
the message reaches him,
accordingly sends a return message/ reading "12:09."
Now 5
and
in
it
is
traveling toward this message/
will therefore
reach him
LESS than 8 minutes,
say, in 7 minutes.
Thus S receives
at 1 2:1 6,
/
Fs message
just as before.
Now
if
5 and F
are both
UNAWARE
(and, indeed,
of their motion
we
in
are
undoubtedly moving
that
ways
we
are entirely unaware of,
so that
assumption is far from being an imaginary one.) 5 will not understand
this
why Fs message reads "12:09" instead of "12:08," and will therefore conclude that Fs watch must be fast.
Of
course, this
is
only
in
an apparent error
because, as
it is
Fs we know,
watch,
really
due
to the motion,
and not
to
It
at all
any
error in
Fs
watch.
must be noted, however, that this omniscient "we"
who
what
can see exactly
is
"really" going on
exist,
in
the universe,
does not
and
that all
human observers
24
are really in the situation
in
which 5
is,
namely,
that of not knowing about the motion in question, and therefore being OBLIGED to conclude that 's watch is wrong!
And
5 sends
therefore, the message
telling him that if sets his clock
back one minute,
then their clocks will agree.
In
suppose
all
the same way, that other observers,
of
j4,B,C,ctc.,
whom
,
are at rest
WITH RESPECT
TO
S
,
5 and
all
set their clocks to agree with that of
by the same method of signals described above. They would all say then
that all their clocks are in agreement. Whether this is absolutely true or not,
they cannot tell (see above), but that is the best they can do.
Now
when
let us
see what will happen
these observers wish
To measure the length you can place it,
to measure the length of something. of an object,
say, on a piece of paper,
put a mark on the paper at one end of the object, and another mark at the other end,
then, with a ruler,
find out
how many
units of length there are
25
between the two marks.
This
is quite simple provided that the object you are measuring and the paper are at rest (relatively to you).
But suppose the object
say, a
fish
is
swimming about
its
in a
tank?
To measure
length while it is in motion, by placing two marks on the walls of the tank, one at the head, and the other at the tail,
it
to
SIMULTANEOUSLY for,
if
would obviously be necessary make these two marks
otherwise, the mark 6 is
made
at a certain time,
C
B
/
V
then the
in
fish
allowed to swim
the direction indicated
at the
by
the arrow,
and then the mark
is made when it
head
at
some
later
time,
has reached
C,
then you would say that the length of the fish is the distance BC,
which would be a
fishstory
indeed!
Now
suppose
that our observers,
all in
after their
clocks are
agreement (see p. 25),
undertake to measure
the length of a train
26
which
is
moving through
their universe
with a uniform velocity. They send out orders that
at 1
2 o'clock sharp, whichever observer happens to be
place where the front end of the train,
at the
A'9
arrives at that
moment,
to
NOTE THE SPOT;
and some other observer, who happens to be at the place where the rear end of the train, B , is at that same moment, to put a mark at THAT spot.
Thus, after the train has gone,
they can, at their leisure, measure the distance between the two marks, this distance being equal to
the length of the train, since the two marks were
made
at
SIMULTANEOUSLY,
their clocks
in
namely
12
o'clock,
being
all
perfect agreement with each other.
Let us
now
talk to the
people on the
train.
Suppose, first, that they are unaware of their motion, and that, according to them, A f B f ^, t etc., are the ones who are moving,
a perfectly reasonable assumption. And suppose that there are two clocks
on the
train,
one and
at A', the other at B',
that these clocks
in
have been set
agreement with each other
of signals described above. , B , C, etc., Obviously the observers admit that the clocks at and B' wit!
by
the
method
A
NOT
A
27
arc in agreement with each other, since they "know" that the train is in motion,
and therefore the method of
signals
used on the moving train has led to an erroneous setting
of the moving clocks (see p. 25). Whereas the people on the train,
since they
"know"
it is
that
A, B , C,
claim that
etc./ are the
ones
who
are moving,
the clocks
etc.,
belonging to A, 8, C, which were set wrong.
What
is
the result of this
difference of opinion?
When
and
the clocks of
A
and B
,
say,
both read 12 o'clock,
at that instant
A
and B
each makes a mark at a certain spot, then A and B claim, of course,
that these
marks were
made
do not admit
simultaneously; but the people on the train
that the clocks of
A
and 8
set,
have been properly
and they therefore claim that the two marks were
NOT
and
made SIMULTANEOUSLY,
that, therefore,
the measurement of the
is
LENGTH
of the train
NOT correct.
train
Thus,
when the people on the make the marks
simultaneously,
as
judged by their own clocks, the distance between the two marks
28
will
NOT be the same as
that
before.
Hence we see
MOTION
prevents agreement
setting of clocks,
in
the
and, as a consequence of
this,
prevents agreement in the measurement of LENGTH!
Similarly,
as
we
shall
see on p. 79,
affects
motion also
the measurement of mass
different observers obtaining
different results
when measuring the mass
of the
same object.
And
as
all
since,
p.
we mentioned on
21,
other physical measurements
depend upon
length, mass,
it
and time,
seems
that
therefore there cannot
in
be agreement any measurements made
velocities!
by different observers who are moving with different
Now, of course, observers on the earth
partake of the various motions
to which the earth
is
its
subject
axis,
the earth turns on
it
goes around the sun, and perhaps has other motions as wefl.
Hence
it
would seem
that
observations
made by people on
the earth
29
cannot agree with those taken from
some
other location in the universe,
and are therefore
not really correct
and consequently worthless!
Thus Einstein's careful and reasonable examination
led to the realization that
Physics was suffering from
no mere
as
single ailment,
evidenced by the MichelsonMorley experiment alone, but was sick from head to foot!
find a
Did he
remedy?
HE
DID!
IV.
THE REMEDY.
So
far,
then,
we
see that
THE OLD IDEAS REGARDING THE MEASUREMENT OF LENGTH, TIME AND MASS
involved an "idealistic" notion of 11 "absolute time
which was supposed to be
the same for
all
observers,
and
a
that
Einstein introduced
more
PRACTICAL
notion of time
of
based on the actual way of
setting clocks
by means
SIGNALS.
This led to the
DISCARDING
of the idea that
31
the
is
LENGTH
is
of an object
a (act
about the object
and
independent of the person
III.)
who does the measuring/ since we have shown (Chapter
that the
measurement of length
DEPENDS UPON THE STATE OF MOTION OF THE MEASURER.
Thus two observers,
moving
relatively to each other
with uniform velocity/
DO NOT
LENGTH
is
FOR THE LENGTH OF
Hence we may
but rather a
the
GET THE SAME VALUE A GIVEN OBJECT.
say that
NOT a FACT about an
OBJECT,
RELATIONSHIP between OBJECT and the OBSERVER. And similarly for TIME and MASS
In
(Ch.
III.).
other words,
this
from
it is
point of view
say:
NOT CORRECT to
x'
=
x
vt
Michelson did* (see p. 16, equation (3) since this equation implies that the value of x'
as
is
),
a perfectly definite quantity,
*We do
Michelson made
not wish to imply that a crude error
ANY
CLASSICAL PHYSICIST
would have made the same statement, for those were the prevailing ideas
thoroughly rooted in everybody's mind, before Einstein pointed out the considerations discussed in Ch. III.
32
namely,
THE
in
length of the arm AB of the apparatus the MichelsonMorley experiment
(See the diagram on p. 1 5). Nor is it correct to assume that
(again as Michelson did)
two different observers, which would imply that both observers agree in their time measurements.
for
These ideas were contradicted by Michelson's EXPERIMENTS, which were so ingeniously devised
and so precisely performed.
And
so Einstein said that
instead of starting with such ideas,
and basing our reasoning on them,
let us rather
START WITH THE EXPERIMENTAL DATA,
and see
they
to
what relationships
will lead us,
relationships
between
the length and time measurements of different observers.
Now
must
we
what experimental data take into account here?
They
are:
(1):
It is
FACT
impossible
to measure the "ether wind,"
words, impossible to detect our motion relative to the ether.
it is
or, in other
This was clearly
shown by the
33
MichelsonMorley experiment,
by all other experiments devised to measure this motion (see p. 5).
as well as
Indeed, this is the great "conspiracy* that started all the trouble, or, as Einstein prefers to see
1
it,
and most reasonably
THIS
IS
A
so,
FACT.
FACT
(2):
The velocity of light is the same no matter whether the source of light
is
moving or
fully,
stationary.
this
Let us examine
statement
more
to see exactly what
it
means.
To do
it is
this,
necessary to remind the reader
of a few wellknown facts: Imagine that we have two trains, one with a gun on the front end, the other with a source of sound
on the
front end,
say, a whistle. Suppose that the velocity, u , of a bullet shot from the gun,
happens to be the same
as
the velocity of the sound.
suppose that both trains moving with the same velocity, v , in the same direction. The question is: How does the velocity of a bullet
are
(fired
Now
from the
MOVING train)
34
relatively to the ground,
compare with
that
the velocity of the sound came from the whistle
on the other
in
MOVING
traveling?
train,
air,
relatively to the
medium/ the
which
it
is
Are they
No!
the
same?
The velocity of the
is
bullet,
RELATIVELY TO THE GROUND,
v
+
u
,
is
since the bullet
not only wiih
given to
but, in
it
its
now propelled forward own velocity, u ,
by
the force of the gun,
addition, has an inertia! velocity, v , which it has acquired from
the motion of the train
and which
all
is
shared
by
wave
objects on the train.
in
But
the case of the sound
is
a series of pulsations, (which alternate condensations and rarefactions of the air
in rapid succession), the first condensation formed in
travels
the neighborhood of the whistle, out with the velocity u
relatively to the medium, regardless as to whether
the train
is
moving or not.
condensation
So
that this
its
has only
own
velocity
inertia!
and does
have the due to the motion of the
NOT
velocity
train,
the velocity of the sound depending only upon the
medium
35
(that
is,
whether
it is
it is
air
or water/ etc.,
and whether
hot or cold, etc.), but not upon the motion of the source from which the sound started.
The following diagram shows the relative positions after one second/
in
both cases:
CASE
Both
I.
trains at rest.
Tram
u
jt.
ft.
CASE
Both
trains
II.
moving with velocity
v.
v
UfV
u 4*.
Thus/ the bullet has
in
Case
II.,
moved
one second
u
+
v feet
in
36
from the starting point, whereas the sound has moved only u feet from the starting point/
in that
one second.
see that
Thus
we
the velocity of sound is u feet per second relatively to the starting point,
whether the source remains stationary
as in Case
I.,
II.
or follows the sound, as in Case
Expressing
it
algebraically,
x
=
ut
applies equally well for sound
in both Case I. and Case x being the distance
II.,
FROM THE STARTING
Indeed,
this fact
is
true of
POINT. ALL, WAVE
MOTION,
and one would therefore expect that it would apply also to LIGHT.
As a matter it DOES,
and
that
is
of
FACT,
is
what
meant by
FACT
Now,
it
(2)
on
p. 34.
as a result of this,
appears,
referring again to the
by
diagram on p. 36,
train
that
relatively to the
MOVING
(u
(Case
II.)
we should
for
then have,
x'
sound
=

v)t
x being the distance from T to the point where
the sound has arrived after time
t.
37
From which, by measuring x
then calculate v the velocity of the train.
'
,
u
,
and t,
we could
,
And,
similarly, for light
using the moving earth instead of the moving train,
we should
as a
then have,
consequence of
x'
FACT
(2)
on p 34,
=
(c

v)t
where
out
in
c
is
the velocity of light
(relatively to a stationary observer
and v
space) the velocity of the earth relatively to this stationary observer
is
and hence
the
ABSOLUTE
velocity of the earth.
Thus
But
it is
we should be
able
to determine v.
this contradicts
FACT
(1),
according to which
IMPOSSIBLE
it
to determine v.
that
Thus
APPEARS
(2) requires the velocity of light
FACT
be
RELATIVELY TO THE
to
c
MOVING EARTH
it
v (see diagram on p. 36),
whereas
FACT
(1)
(1) requires
to
be
c.*
*FACT
may be
restated as follows:
The velocity of
light
RELATIVE TO
must be
A MOVING
c
OBSERVER
(For example, an observer on the moving earth)
c,
and
NOT
vt
,
for otherwise,
he would be able to find v which is contrary to fact.
38
And
Or,
so the two facts
contradict each other!
stating
it
another way:
If,
in
the earth
one second, moves from E
to E'
while a ray of light, goes from the earth to L
then
,
FACT(1)
E'/.
be equal
requires that to c ( = 1
86,000 miles)
while
FACT
it is
EL be
(2) requires that to c / equal
Now
needless to say that
FACTS
CAN NOT CONTRADICT
EACH OTHER!
Let us therefore see how,
in
FACTS
the light of the discussion in Ch. III. (1) and (2) can be shown to be
contradictory.
NOT
V. THE
SOLUTION OF THE DIFFICULTY
We
IS
have thus seen that
facts,
according to the
the velocity of light
ALWAYS THE SAME,
39
whether the source of
is
light
stationary or
moving
light
FACT (2) on p. 34), and whether the velocity of is measured
(See
relatively to the
medium
in
which
it
travels,
or relatively to a
MOVING
observer
(See p. 37).
Let us express these
for
(acts algebraically,
f
two observers, K and K , who are moving with uniform velocity
relatively to each other,
thus:
K writes
and K'
x
=
ct
,
(6)
ct',
writes x'
=
(7)
both using
THE SAME VALUE FOR THE VELOCITY OF LIGHT,
namely, c , and each using his own measurements of length, x and x', and time, t and t', respectively.
It is
assumed
that
at the instant
when
the rays of light start on their path, and K' are at the place, and the rays of light
K
SAME
radiate out from that place
in all directions.
Now according to equation (6), K who unaware of his motion
,
is
through the ether
(since he cannot measure it), may claim that he is at rest, and that in time, t ,
40
K' must have
moved
to the right,
shown and that/
as
in in
the figure below/ the meantime,
the light/
which
travels out in all directions from
all
K
,
has reached
points at
the distance ct from
K,
and hence all points on the circumference
of the circle having the radius
ct.
But
W claims that he
K
moved
is
the one
who
and
has
has remained stationary/ on the contrary, that /
TO THE
LEFT/
furthermore that the light travels out f from K as a center,
instead of from K\
And
this
is
what he means
when he
says
x'
=
ct'.
How
can they both be right?
41
We
may be
willing
not to take sides
in their
controversy regarding the question as to
which one has moved
K' to the right or
K to
the
left
because either leads to the same
But what about the circles?
result.
,?
They cannot possibly have both
'
K and K
as their centers!
One
This
of
is
them must be
right
and the other wrong.
another
way
of stating
the
APPARENT CONTRADICTION BETWEEN
(1)
FACTS
Now,
and (2) (see
p. 39).
at last,
we
are ready
for the explanation.
Although
K claims
when
that
at the instant
the light has reached the point C(p. 41), it has also reached the point
still,
A
f
on the other
side,
WE MUST REMEMBER THAT
when
K says
arrival of
two events happen simultaneously
(namely, the
K'
the light at
C and
A),
(see p. 28).
DOES NOT AGREE THAT THEY ARE SIMULTANEOUS
So
that
when
K says that the arrival of the lisht at (rather than at C and A)
his
C and B
ARE SIMULTANEOUS,
statement
DOES NOT CONTRADICT THAT OF K, since K and K' DO NOT MEAN THE SAME THING
42
WHEN THEY SAY
"SIMULTANEOUS.
for
11
K's clocks at
C and A
do
not agree with K'*s clocks at C and A. Thus when the light arrives at A ,
the reading of K*s clock there is exactly the same as that of K's clock at
C
(K having set all clocks in his system by the method of signals described on
while n K s clock at
p. 25),
Ai
C
when when
the light arrives there/ reads a LATER TIME than his clock at the light arrived at so that K maintains that the light reaches LATER than it reaches
C,
A
C,
instant,
and
as
NOT at the SAME
that
K claims.
Hence we see
they are not really contradicting each other, but ihat they are merely using
different systems of clocks, such that
two
the clocks in each system agree with each other alright,
but the clocks
in
the
set
one system
have
in in
NOT
been
agreement with the clocks
the other system (see p. 28).
is,
That
If
we
take into account
the inevitable necessity of
using signals in order to set clocks which are
43
at a distance from
each other,
and
that the arrivals of the signals
at their destinations
are influenced
by
our state of motion, of which we are not aware (p. 24),
it
becomes
IS
clear that
THERE
due
in
NO
REAL CONTRADICTION HERE,
differences
but only a difference of description
to
INEVITABLE
the setting of various systems of clocks.
We
in a
now
see
general qualitative way,
is
that the situation
not
as
it
at all
mysterious or unreasonable,
to
seemed
be
at
first.
But
we must now
find out
whether these considerations,
when applied
QUANTITATIVELY,
actually agree with the experimental facts.
And now
a pleasant surprise awaits us.
VI.
THE RESULT OF APPLYING THE REMEDY.
chapter
In
the
last
we saw
that
by
starting with
two fundamental
FACTS
(p. 34),
we reached
expressed
the conclusion
in
the equations
x and
x'
= =
ct
ct'
(6) (7)
44
which are graphically represented on p. 41, and we realized that these equations
are
(as
if
NOT
contradictory,
at
first),
is
they appear to be
we remember
that there
a difference in the setting of the clocks
in
the two different systems.
shall derive,
We
now, from (6) and (7), between the measurements of the two observers, K and K
relationships
f
.
And
is
all
the mathematics
we need
for this
a little simple algebra,
such as any high school
boy knows..
From (6) and (7) we get
x
and
Therefore
x' x'

ct
ct'
=0
=
0.
ct'
X(x

ct)
(8)
where X
is
a constant.
Similarly, in the opposite direction,
x'
+
ct'
=
/x
(x
+
ct)
(9)
H being another constant. By adding and subtracting
(8) and (9)
we
and
get:
x'
ct'
= ax  feet = actfex
ju)/2
(10) (11)
where a
Let us
in
=
(X
f
and b
=
(X
fe
ju)/2.
now
find the values of a
and
terms of v
and c
and /C (the relative velocity of the velocity of light. ,
K
),
45
This
is
done
in
the following
ingenious manner:*
when x = , then x = bet/ a
but x'
From (10)
=
/
(12)
at the point K'\
And
that
x
in this
case
is
the distance from
is,
K to
K! ,
t
the distance traversed/ in time f by K moving with velocity v
relatively to K.
Therefore x
=
this
vt.
Comparing
with (1 2),
we
get
v
Let us
=
be/a.
(13)
now
first:
consider the situation
from the points of view of
K and
K'.
Take
K
For the time
t
,
/Cgetsx'
or

ax (from (10)),
x
=
x'/a.
(14)
Hence
K says
that
11
*See Appendix in "Relativity by Einstein, Pub. by Peter Smith, N. Y. (1931).
I
46
to get the "true" value,
K should
;
divide his x
x, by a/
in particular,
ifx'1,
K
is
says that
K"s
unit of length
unit.
only 1/a of a "true"
But
att'
K,
=
0,usins(11)
says
fex=act
and since from (10),
(15)
(1
5)
becomes
6x
ac(ax
x')/6c
f
62^2 "x ax
from which
x'
ax
f
,
=
a(1

6 /a
2
2
)x.
(16)
And
since 6/a
=
=
y/c from
(1 3),
(16) becomes
x
In
f
a(1

vVc)x.
(17)
other words, K' says: In order to get the "true" value,
x',
K should
multiply his x
a(1
by

v /c).
2
In particular,
then
f('s
ifx 1, K says
unit
is
that
2
really a(1
vr/c
) units
long.
Thus
47
each observer considers that his own measurements are the "true" ones,
and advises the other fellow
to
make
1
a "correction.*
And indeed, although the two observers,
may
still
K and
1
/(',
express this "correction*
forms,
of the "correction"
in different
the
MAGNITUDE
recommended by each of them MUST BE THE SAME, since it is due in both cases
to the relative motion, only that each observer attributes this
motion
to the other fellow.
Hence, from (14) and
1/a
Solving
this
(1 7)
we may
v /c
,
write
=
a(1

s
2
).*
equation
a
for a
we
get
= c/V?~v*.
is
*Note
that this equation
NOT obtained
by
ALGEBRAIC SUBSTITUTION
from (14) and (17), but is obtained by considering that the CORRECTIONS advised by K and K'
in (14) and (17), respectively, must be equal in magnitude as pointed out above. Thus in (14) K says: "You must multiply your measurement by 1/a", whereas in (1 7) K' says:
"You must multiply your measurement by and since these correction factors must be equal
a
(1
48
Note
is
that this value of a
/?
the same as that of
on
p. 1
1
.
Substituting in (10) this value of a
and the value
fee
=
ay from (13),
we
or
get
x' x'
= =
0x  8vf /3(xrt)
(18)
which
is
the
first
of the Lorenti transformation
of the set of equations on page 19!
Furthermore,
from
(1
8) and /
x
\x'
= =
ct
ct'
we
or
get
ct'
t'
= = =
P(ct
/3(t
 vt)  vt/c).
vx/c ),
2
Or, since
t
=
t'
x/c,
/3(t

(19)
another of the equations of the Lorentz transformation!
which
is
That the remaining two equations = y and z' z also hold, y' Einstein shows as follows:
=
Let
K and
/C'
each have a cylinder
of radius r, when at rest relatively to each other,
and whose axes coincide with the Now, unless / = y and z = z, K and K would each claim that
r f
X (X ) axis/
7
his
own
cylinder
is
OUTSIDE
the other fellow's!
We
by
thus see that
the Lorentz transformation was derived
Einstein
(quite independently of Lorentz), as a set of empirical equations
NOT
49
devoid of physical meaning, but, on the contrary,
as a result of
a
most rational change
in
our ideas regarding the measurement of the fundamental quantities
length and time.
And
the
so, according to him,
of the equations of the Lorentz transformation,
first
namely,
x'
is

/3(x

vt)
so written
as Lorentz
because of any real shrinkage, supposed, but merely an apparent shrinkage,
to the differences
Einstein writes
t'
NOT
due
in
the measurements
made by
K and
2
/C
*
(see p. 45).
And
=
/3(t

vx/c
)
NOT because
it is
it is
just a
mathematical
trick
WITHOUT any MEANING
but again because
the differences
of the
(see p. 19)
the natural consequence of in the measurements
two observers.
And
that
each observer may think he is right
is
and the oiher one and yet
each one,
wrong/
by
using his
own measurements,
same form
it
arrives at the
*This shrinkage,
will
be remembered,
1 3).
occurs only
in
the direction of motion (see p.
50
when he expresses
as, for
a physical fact,
example,
when
and
K says
f
x
ct' , says x' they are really agreeing as to the of the propagation of light.
K
= =
ct
LAW
And similarly, K writes any
if
other law of nature,
and
if
we apply
the Lorentz transformation
to this law, in order to see
what form the law takes
expressed in terms of 7 the measurements made by /C ,
it is
when
we
find that
is still
the law
the same,
although it is now expressed in terms of the primed coordinate system.
Hence
Einstein says that
although no one knows what the "true" measurements should be,
yet,
each observer
in
may
use his
own measurements
WITH EQUAL RIGHT
formulating
AND EQUAL
SUCCESS
THE
or,
in
LAWS OF NATURE,
formulating the of the universe, the quantities which remain unchanged namely, in spite of the change in measurements
INVARIANTS
due
to the relative motion of
K and K
.
Thus,
we
can
now
appreciate
Einstein's Principle of Relativity:
"The laws by which
52
the states of physical systems
undergo change,
are not affected
whether these changes of
to the
state
be
referred
one
or the other
of
in
two systems of coordinates
uniform translatory motion.
"
"But
Perhaps some one will ask is not the principle of
it
relativity old/
and was
not known long before Einstein?
in a train
Thus a person
moving
into a station
with uniform velocity
looks at another
train
which
is
at rest,
is
and imagines
whereas
his
that the other train
is
moving
own
at rest.
And
by
is
if
he cannot
find out his mistake
making observations within his train
the same as
it
since everything there
just
would be
at rest.
his train
were really
Surely
this fact,
and other
similar ones, must have been observed
long before Einstein?"
In
other words,
to an observer
RELATIVELY
on the
train
everything seems to proceed in the same way whether his system (i.e., his train)
is
at rest or in uniform*
motion,
and he would therefore be unable
*0f
course
if
the motion
is
not uniform,
but "jerky",
things on the train would jump around and the observer on the train
would
that his
certainly
know
was not
at rest.
own
train
53
to detect the motion.
Yes, this certainly was known long before Einstein. Let us see what connection it has
as stated
with the principle of relativity by him:
Referring to the diagram
on
p.
36
we
see that
a bullet fired from a train
has the
same velocity
RELATIVELY TO THE TRAIN
whether the latter is moving or not, and therefore an observer on the train could not detect the motion of the train by making measurements on the motion of the bullet.
This kind of relativity principle
is
the
one involved
in
the question on page 53,
and
WAS
known long before
Einstein.
Now Einstein EXTENDED this
so that
it
would apply
principle to
electromagnetic
phenomena
(light or radio waves).
Thus,
according to
this
extension of
the principle of relativity, an observer cannot detect
his
motion through space
by making measurements on
the motion of
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES.
this
But
why should
a great
it
extension
be such
achievement
why had
not been suggested before?
54
BECAUSE
it
according to fact (2)
must be remembered that see p. 39,
o

whereas, the abovementioned extension of
the principle of relativity
requires that EL should be equal to c (compare the case of the bullet on p. 36).
In other words, the extension of the principle of relativity
to electromagnetic
phenomena
seems to contradict fact (2) and therefore could not have been made before it was shown that fundamental measurements are merely "local" and hence the contradiction was
only apparent, explained on p. 42; so that the diagram shown above must be interpreted in the light of the discussion on p. 42.
as
Thus we see that whereas the principle of relativity as applied to MECHANICAL motion
(like that of the bullet)
was accepted long before Einstein,
the
SEEMINGLY IMPOSSIBLE EXTENSION
phenomena
55
of the principle to electromagnetic
was accomplished by him.
This extension of the principle, for the case in which and K' move relatively to each other with velocity, and which has been discussed here/ is called the SPECIAL theory of relativity.
K
UNIFORM
We
shall
see
later
how
Einstein generalized this principle
STILL FURTHER,
to the case in which
K and
that
is,
K?
a
move
relatively to each other
with an
ACCELERATION,
CHANGING
And, by means
which he called
the
velocity. of this generalization/
GENERAL
theory of relativity,
he derived
A NEW LAW OF
Newtonian
first
GRAVITATION/
than
much more adequate even
the
and
is
law, of which the latter
a
approximation.
But before
we
we must how the
first
can discuss see
this in detail
ideas which
we have
already presented were put into a remarkable mathematical form by a mathematician named Minkowski.
This
in
work was essential to Einstein
as
the further development of his ideas/ we shall see.
56
VII.
THE FOURDIMENSIONAL SPACETIME
CONTINUUM.
We shall now see how Minkowski* put
in a
in
Einstein's results
remarkably neat mathematical form, and how Einstein then utilized this
the further application of his Principle of Relativity,
which led to The General Theory of Relativity,
resulting in a
NEW LAW OF GRAVITATION
and leading to further important consequences and discoveries.
NEW
It is
now
clear
1
from the Lorentz transformation (D.
that
9)
measurement, x , one coordinate system depends upon BOTH x and and that
a length
in
t'
t in
another,
depends upon Hence^
also
BOTH
x and
t.
as
instead of regarding the universe being made up of
Space, on the one hand, and Time, quite independent of Space,
there
is
a closer connection
between Space and Time than we had realized.
In
other words,
in
*See collection of papers mentioned
footnote on p. 5.
57
that the universe
is
NOT a
universe of points,
with time flowing along irrespective of the points,
but rather,
this
is
A
UNIVERSE OF EVENTS,
at a certain

everything that happens,
happens
place
AND at a
certain time.
Thus, every event is characterized by the PLACE and TIME of its occurrence.
Now,
since
its
place
may be
designated
by
By
three numbers,
namely,
the
(using
x, y, and z coordinates of the place any convenient reference system),
it,
and since the time of the event needs only one number to characterize we need in all
FOUR NUMBERS TO CHARACTERIZE
just as
AN
EVENT,
we need
three numbers to characterize
a point in space.
Thus
we may
say that
we
live in a
fourdimensional world.
This
that
does
NOT
mean
we
is
but
that
Space, only another way of saying
live in
live in fourdimensional
we
A WORLD OF
rather than of
EVENTS POINTS only,
58
and
it
takes
FOUR
numbers to designate
each significant element, namely, each event.
Now
by
in a
if
an event
is
designated
the four numbers
x, y, z,
f ,
given coordinate system, the Lorentz transformation (p. 19)
shows how to
find
y', z', t',
the coordinates x', of the same event,
in
moving
another coordinate system, relatively to the first
with uniform velocity.
11
In
studying "graphs every high school freshman learns
how
to represent a point
by two
that
is,
coordinates, x and y, using the Cartesian system of coordinates,
straight lines
two
perpendicular to each other. Now, we may also use
another pair of perpendicular axes, X' and Y' (in the figure on the next page),
as before, , having the same origin, and designate the same point by x and
in this
y'
When
coordinate system. the high school boy abovementioned
new
goes to college, and studies analytical geometry, he then learns how to find
60
/ H
..
fl
't^
\
\
\
J
6
\
the relationship between
the primed coordinates and the original ones/
and
finds this to
be expressed
x'cosfl
x'sinfl
as follows:*
x
anc
y
= =

/sine
)
+
/cos0 /
(20)
where 6 is the angle through which the axes have been revolved, as shown in the figure above.
The equations (20) remind one somewhat
of the Lorentz transformation (p. 19),
since the equations of
*Seep. 310.
61
the Lorentz transformation
also
show how
to
go
from one coordinate system to another.
Let us examine the similarity between (20) and the
Lorentz transformation
a little
more closely,
selecting from the Lorentz transformation
only those equations involving x and t , and disregarding those containing y and z, since the latter remain unchanged in going from one coordinate system to the other.
Thus
we
wish to compare (20) with:
/ t
x'
t'

8(x
/3(t

vt)
2
vx/c
).
Or,
that
if,
for simplicity,
we
by
take c
=
1,
taking the distance traveled
is,
light in
one second,
as the unit of distance,
we may we wish
say that
to
compare (20) with
x'
t'
= /3(x vt)) = P(t vx)f
x and
t ,
Let us
first
solve (21) for
so as to get them more nearly in the form of (20).
By ordinary algebraic operations,*
*And temembering we are taking c =
and
that therefore
that
1,
62
we
and
get
x
t
= =
fat
j8(t'
+ vt') + vx') }
)
'
Before
let us linger a
we 90 any further, moment
and consider equations (22): Whereas (21) represents /(speaking, and saying to K "Now you must divide x by /3,
'.
before you can get the relationship between x and x' that you expect, namely, equation (3) on p. 16;
in other words, your x' has shrunk although you don't know it."
In
(22),
speaking, tells K the same thing, namely that K must divide x by
it is
K
f
and he
/? ,
to get the "true" which is equal to
x x
,
1
+
vt'.
Indeed,
this is
quite in accord with the discussion in Chapter VI.,
in
which
it
was shown
that
each observer
gives the other one precisely the same advice!
Note
that the
only difference
is
between (21) and (22)
that
+
in
y becomes
v
going from one to the other.
63
And this is again quite in accord with our previous discussion since each observer
believes himself to be at rest, and the other fellow to be in motion, only that one says:
"You have moved to the whereas the other says: "You have moved to the
Otherwise,
right*'
(+
v),
left*' (
v).
their claims are precisely identical;
and
this is exactly what equations (21) and (22) show so clearly.
Let us
of (22)
in
now
return to the
comparison
that
and (20): Minkowski pointed out
(22),
if,
t is
replaced
t'
by
IT
(where
/
= V
1 ),
and
by
IT',
then (22) becomes:
x
IT
= =
/3(x'
/?(//
+ ivr') + VX')
or
/ X \ IT
= =
frt'
I/V
+ +
by
*i):
Or (by
multiplying the second equation
x
T
Finally,
=
/3x'
/3r'

+
i/3vr'
fivx'.
64
substituting* cos0 for
]8
and
sin0 for
i
these equations
become
(
x
\ r
= =
x'cosfl
x'sinfl
r'sinfl )
+
r'cosfl j
EXACTLY
In
ff
like (20)!
K
other words, observes a certain event
finds that
and
the four numbers necessary to characterize it (see p. 58)
are
x, y, z
,
r
,
and
K
',
observing the
SAME
event,
finds that in his
f
system
the four numbers
are x',
y, i ', r
,
then the form (23) of the Lorentz transformation
shows
to
that
go from one observer's coordinate system
merely necessary
to the other
it is
first coordinate system through an angle 0, in the x , r plane, without changing the origin,
to rotate the
*Since
is
greater than 1 (see p.
11)
must be an imaginary angle:
See
p.
another
25 of "NonEuclidean Geometry/' book by H. G. and L. R. Lieber.
2
Note
that sin
+
cos
2
=
1
holds for imaginary angles as well as for real ones/
hence the above substitutions are legitimate,
thus
2
+
2
since
v ), 1/(1 r being taken equal to
/3
=
(
2
i/5v)

= F 2
V=
2
(1

v
2
)

1
(see p. 62).
65
thus:
(remembering
that
And
and
then That
since
we
= y and z y took (p. 65)
f
=
z').
p
ifiv
tan
is,
= cos e = sin = iv.
the magnitude of the angle
depends upon v
,
the relative velocity of
K and K
f .
And
since, from (23),
2
2
/x
(
r
= =
7
2
(x
7
)
2
cos
sin
2

2
(x
)
+
2
2xYsin0 2x r $infl
/
cosfl
/
+ (rj costf + (r')
2
sin
2
cos
2
fl
then, obviously,
x
or (since
2
+r =
and z
z
2
2
(x')
+
),
(rj
y
2
= /
=
7
z
x
2
+
y
+
+
r
2
= (xT
66
+ (y? + (z ) +
7
2
(rj
Now,
it
will
be remembered
from Euclidean plane geometry,
that x*
+
2
y represents
the square of the distance
and between and similarly,
in
O
A
,
Euclidean threedimensional space,
also represents the square of the distance between two points.
)C
+
2
y
Thus, also,
x
2
+
2
y
+r+
r represents
1 *
2
the square of the "interval between two EVENTS, in our fourdimensional world (see p. 58).
And,
just as in
plane geometry
the distance between two points remains the same
whether
we
use
the primed or the unprimed
coordinate systems (see p. 61),
that
is,
*>
+
2
y
= (xj
67
+
(yj
(although x does
NOT
and y does
So,
in
NOT
x2
equal equal /).
x',
three dimensions,
+
2
y
+
z
2
= (x7
+
(yj
+
(zj
and, similarly, as we have seen on p. 66,
the "interval" between two events, in our fourdimensional
spacetime world of events, remains the same, no matter which of the two observers,
K or
That
/C',
it.
measures
is
to say,
although K and K' do not agree on some things/
as, for
their length
they
(1) (2)
Etc.
DO
example/ and time measurements, agree on other things:
p,
The statement of their LAWS (see The "interval" between events,
51)
In other words/ although length and time
are
in
no longer
INVARIANTS,
the Einstein theory, other quantities,
like the
spacetime interval between two events,
ARE
in this
invariants
theory.
invariants are the quantities
These
68
which have the
SAME
value
for all observers,*
and may therefore be regarded
as the realities of the universe.
Thus, from this point of view, the things that we see or measure
NOT
are the realities, since various observers
do not
of the
get the same measurements same objects,
but rather
certain mathematical relationships
between the measurements 2 2 2 2 r ) z (Like x y
+
+
+
are the realities, since they are the
for all observers.*
same
We
in
shall see,
discussing
Relativity,
fruitful
The General Theory of
how
Minkowski's viewpoint of a fourdimensional SpaceTime
World
proved to be.
VIII.
SOME CONSEQUENCES OF THE
THEORY OF
RELATIVITY.
We
if
have seen that
two observers,
K and K , move
f
relatively to each other
*Ail observers moving relatively to each other
with
UNIFORM
velocity (see p. 56).
69
their
with constant velocity, measurements of length and time
are different;
and, on page 29,
we promised
that their
In this
also to
show
different.
measurements of mass are
chapter
we
shall discuss
mass measurements,
as well as other
measurements which
depend upon
these fundamental ones.
We
in a
already
know
that
if
an object moves
direction parallel to the relative motion of K and
gives the relationship
K
,
then the Lorentz transformation
between the length and time measurements of K and K'.
We
in a
also
know
that
direction
the relative
there
is
PERPENDICULAR motion of K and K
f
to
NO difference
in
the
p. 50),
LENGTH
and,
measurements (See footnote on
in this case,
the relationship between the time measurements may be found as follows:
For this
PERPENDICULAR
direction
Michelson argued that the time would be
t2
= 2a/c
(seep. 12).
Now
is
this argument supposed to be from the point of view
of an observer
who
70
DOES take
the motion into account,
and hence already contains the "correction" factor /}/
hence,
replacing to by t'f the expression t' = 2a/3/c represents the time
in
the perpendicular direction
as
K tells
K SHOULD be written.
it
,
Whereas
K
in his
own
system,
would, of course, write
t
=
2a/c
t.
for his "true" time,
Therefore
t'
=
8f
gives the relationship sought above, from the point of view of K.
From
a
this
we
see that
with velocity u
direction,
body moving
in this
will
PERPENDICULAR appear to K and K to
have
different velocities:
Thus,
Since u
=
d/t and
</'
u'
=
c/'/f'
represent the distance traversed by the object
as
where
c/
and
measured by K and and since J = </'
(there being
K
f
f
respectively;
NO difference
in
LENGTH
see p. 70)
f
measurements
in this direction
and
then
t
i/
= j8t , as shown above, = c///3t = (1//3)u.
=
u/t and a'
Similarly,
since a
=
f
u /t
71
where a and
as
a' are the
accelerations of the
body,
/(',
measured by
find that
K and
respectively,
we
In like
manner
find the relationships
we may
between various quantities in the primed and un primed systems of coordinates,
provided they depend upon
length
and time.
But, since there are
THREE
basic units in Physics
and since the Lorentz transformation deals with only two of them, length and time,
the question now how to get the
Einstein found
is
MASS
into the
that the best
game. approach
to this difficult problem was via the Conservation Laws of Classical Physics.
Then,
just as the
old concept of
the distance between two points
(threedimensional)
was "stepped up" to the new one of the interval between two events
(fourdimensional), (see p. 67) so also the Conservation Laws will have to be "stepped up" into
FOURDIMENSIONAL SPACETIME.
And, when
an amazing
this is
done
vista will
come
into view!
CONSERVATION LAWS OF
CLASSICAL PHYSICS:
(1) Conservation of Mass:
this means that no mass can be created or destroyed,
72
but only transformed from one kind to another.
Thus, when a piece of wood its mass is not destroyed, for
if
is
burned,
one weighs
all
the substances into which
transformed/ together with the ash that remains, this total weight is the
it is
same
as the
weight of the original wood.
express this mathematically thus: where 2 stands for the SUM, so that
We
ASm = 2m
o
is the mass, and A, as usual, stands for the "change", so that = o says that the change in
TOTAL
ASm
total
mass
is
zero, which
is
the
very convenient, brief, exact form!
(2) Conservation of Momentum: this says that if there is an exchange of momentum
(the product of mass
Mass Conservation Law
in
and velocity, mv) between bodies, say, by collision, the
TOTAL
is
momentum BEFORE
after collision:
collision
the
SAME
TOTAL
A2mv =
o.
as the
(3) Conservation of Energy:
which means that Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but only transformed from one kind to another. Thus, in a motor, electrical energy is converted to mechanical energy, whereas
in a
the reverse change takes place. both cases, we take into account the part of the energy which is
dynamo
if,
And
in
transformed into heat energy, then the energy
by
friction,
TOTAL
and
BEFORE
is
the
AFTER the transformation SAME, thus: A2E = o.
a
Now,
moving body has
73
KINETIC energy,
expressible thus:
two moving, ELASTIC bodies collide, there is no loss in kinetic energy of the whole system, so that then we have
When
2 Conservation of Kinetic Energy: AS^mv (a special case of the more general Law);
=
o
whereas, for inelastic collision, where
some
of the kinetic energy
is
changed
2
into
other forms, say heat, then AZ^r/nv
5^ o.
Are you wondering what is the use of all Well, by means of these Laws, the most
this?
PRACTICAL problems can be solved,* hence we must know what happens to them
in Relativity Physics!
You
(a)
will see that
they
will lead to:
NEW Conservation
Momentum and
Laws
for
INVARIANT
Energy, which are under
the Lorentz transformation, and which reduce, for small v, J to the corresponding Classical Laws
(which shows why those Laws worked so well for so long!)
(b) the
IDENTIFICATION
of
MASS and ENERGY!
Hence mass CAN be destroyed as such and actually converted into energy!
Witness the
ATOMIC BOMB
(see p. 318).
See, for example, "Mechanics for Students of Physics and Engineering'* by Crew and Smith, Macmillan Co., pp. 238241
1 *
Remembering
that the "correction
factor, ft,
is
is
equal to
c/V c
2
y
2
,
the velocity of!
you
i
see that,
when v
1
=
1
grit, c, thus making and hence no "correction* is necessary.
small relatively to 2 v negligible, then
74
Thus the Classical Mass Conservation Law was only an approximation and becomes
merged
into the Conservation of
Energy Lawl
Even without following the mathematics of the next few pages/ you can already appreciate the revolutionary
these results, and become imbued with the greatest respect for the human
IMPORTANCE
of
MIND
which can create
all this
and
PREDICT happenings
Here
is
previously unknown!
MAGIC
may be
for
you!
Some
others
readers
able to understand
the following "stepping
up" process now,
to
it
may
prefer to
II
come back
after reading Part
of this book:
The components of the velocity vector
in Classical
Physics, are:
cfx/c/t, c/y/c/t, c/z/c/t.
And,
these
if
we
replace x, y, z
in
become,
by xi, X2, xs, modern compact notation:
JxjJt
01,2,3).
momentum components
are:
Similarly, the
m.c/x,/c/t
(/= 1,2,3)
so that, for n objects, the Classical Momentum Conservation
Law
is:
=o
But (24)
is
(/= 1,2,3)
under
(24)
NOT an
invariant
the Lorentz transformation;
75
the corresponding vector which IS so invariant is:
=o
0=1,2,3,4)
(25)
where s is the interval between two events. * and it can be easily shown that c/s = c/t//3,
c/s
being, as you know,
itself invariant
under the Lorentz transformation.
Thus,
and
(i.e.
1
in going from 3dimensional space dimensional absolute time
from Classical Physics)
to 4dimensional
SPACETIME,
the independent variable
we must
use
t.
s for
instead of
Now let us examine (25) which is so easily obtained from (24) when we learn to speak the
NEW LANGUAGE OF
Consider
first
SPACETIME!
3 components of (25):
(i
only the
first
Then
is
A{33m.c/xi/c/s}
=
o
= 1,2,3)
(26)
the
NEW
Momentum
since, for large v, it and, for small v, which
Conservation Law, holds whereas (24) does
makes
it
/3
=
1
and
c/s
NOT/ = c/f ,
(26)
BECOMES
And
and
(24), as taking the now,
should!
FOURTH
namely, m.cta/cfs or mc.dtjds (see p.
substituting
c/t//J
is
for </s,
we
get mci8 which
mc.c/Vc
_
2
2
component 233)
v or
2
of (25),
mc/Vl

v /c or mc(1
2
2

v
2
"*
.
/c )
(27)
Expanding, by the binomial theorem,
we
get
Since
2
cp + j.^ + j^ +
,
,
,
/,
1
v
2
3 v
4
. .
\ j,
2
c/s
= cVt2 2
2
(c/x
+ c/y + c/z
2
dividing
(c/s
by
2
c/t
and taking
c
=
)
(see p. 233).
2
1
/c/0
=
1

,
we
A/1
get
v anc/
2
c/s/c/t
=

y
=
1 //S
76
which/ (or small v(neglecting terms after v ),
2
(1
1
+
r
vr\ ~
2
I.
(28)
2
.
And,
multiplying
2 by c, we get me
+
^mv
Hence, approximately,
2
A{Z(roc
+
2
/nv )}
=
o.
(29)
Now,
which
if
m
is
2
then A2/nc
is
=
constant, as for elastic collision, 2 o and therefore also A2(J?mv )
=
o
the Classical
Law
of the
Conservation of Kinetic Energy for
elastic collision (see p. 74); thus (29) reduces to this Classical for small v, as it should!
Law
that
Furthermore,
for
we can also see from (29) INELASTIC collision, for which
A{2mv
hence also
2
}
^o
(see p. 74)
A2mc ^
2
2
o or
c being a constant, c
A2m ^
o
which says that, for inelastic collision, even when v is small,
any
loss in kinetic
energy
is
compensated
for
by an increase in mass (albeit small) a new and startling consequence for
Physics itself! from this viewpoint Thus, even in Classical Physics
CLASSICAL
NEW
we
realize that
the
Mass
of a
body
is
NOT a
its
constant but
varies with
changes
in
energy
amount of change in mass being too small to be directly observed)!
(the
Taking now (27) instead of (28), not be limited to small v/
we
shall
77
and, multiplying
we
get
A{2mc /3j =
2
by
c as before,
o for the
Conservation Law of Energy, which/ together with (25), is invariant under the Lorentz transformation, and which,
as
NEW
we saw above,
reduces to
v.
the corresponding Classical Law, For small Thus the expression for the
NEW
is:
ENERGY
(30)
of a
for
body
f
=
/nc /3, which,
2
v
=
o
,
gives fo
= me
2
,
showing
that
ENERGY
and
MASS are
one and the same entity
instead of being distinct, as previously thought!
Furthermore,
even a
is
SMALL MASS^m,
LARGE
ENERGY,
amount of equivalent to a 2 since the multiplying factor is c ,
the square of the enormous velocity of light! Thus even an atom is equivalent to
tremendous amount of energy. Indeed, when a method was found (see p. 318) of splitting an atom into two parts and since the sum of these two masses is
a
less
than the mass of the original atom,
that
you can see from (30)
this loss in
mass must yield
of energy
a
terrific
amount
(even though this process does not transform the entire mass of the original atom into energy).
Hence
the
ATOMIC BOMB!
this terrible
all
(p.
318)
Although
stunned us
let us
gadget has
into the realization
of the dangers in Science,
not forget that
78
the
is
POWER
human
behind
it
the
MIND
itself.
Let us therefore pursue our examination of
the consequences of Relativity, the products of this POWER!
REAL
In
1901 (before
Relativity),
Kaufman*, experimenting with fast moving electrons, found that the apparent mass of a moving electron
is greater than that of one at rest a result which seemed
very strange at the time! Now, however, with the aid of (26) we can see
that his result
is
perfectly intelligible,
for it quantitatively! instead of c/t,
and indeed accounts
Thus the use of
c/s
(where
c/s
=
dtj(3) brings in
,
the necessary correction factor, j3, for large v not via the mass but is inherent in our
NEW
in
RELATIVITY
r
LANGUAGE,
the idea of
it
which
c/x /c/s replaces
c/Xj/c/t,
velocity,
and makes
unnecessary and undesirable to think mass depending upon velocity.
in
terms of
Many
c/s
writers
c(t/j8 in
by
on Relativity replace (26) and write it:
A{Sinj8.(/Xj/(/t}
=
o,
putting the
correction
on the m.
course gives
K12,
Though
*
this of
Gcscll. Wiss. Gott. Nachr., Math.Phys., 1901
p.
143, and 1902,
p.
291.
79
the same numerical result, it is a concession to
CLASSICAL LANGUAGE,
and
Einstein himself
does not
like this.
He
rightly prefers that since
we
are
learning a
NEW language (Relativity)
think directly in that language translating each term
we should
and not keep
into our old
CLASSICAL
11
LANGUAGE
before
We
meaning. must learn to "feel" modern and talk modern.
its
we
"feel
Let us next examine
another consequence of the Theory of Relativity:
When
radio waves are transmitted
1
through an "electromagnetic field/ an observer K may measure the electric and magnetic forces
at
any point of the
relationship
field
at a given instant.
The
is
between
these electric and magnetic forces
expressed mathematically
the wellknown
by
Maxwell equations
(see page 311).
Now,
if
another observer, K'/
relatively to
moving
K
with uniform velocity,
makes his own measurements on the same phenomenon,
and, according to the Principle of Relativity,
uses the
in his
same Maxwell equations
primed system,
80
it is quite easy to show* that the electric force
is
NOT an INVARIANT
two observers/
is
for the
and
similarly
the magnetic force
also
NOT AN INVARIANT
although the relationship between the electric and magnetic forces expressed in the
MAXWELL EQUATIONS
has the same form for both observers; just as, on p. 68, though x does equal x' f and y does equal y
NOT NOT
still
the formula for
the square of the distance between two points has the same form
in
both systems of coordinates.
Thus
the
we have seen that SPECIAL Theory of
is
Relativity,
I
which
the subject of Part (see p. 56), has accomplished the following:
revised the fundamental physical concepts.
of
(1)
It
(2)
By the addition
namely,
ONLY ONE NEW POSTULATE,
the principle of relativity
the extension of
*
See
the
Einstein's
first
paper (pp. 52
in the
&
53)
in
bo>k mentioned
footnote on p. 5.
81
to
ELECTROMAGNETIC
made
phenomena*
(which extension was
by
it
possible the abovementioned revision
of fundamental units
see p. 55),
results
explained
many
experimental
ISOLATED
As,
for
which baffled the
preEinsteinian physicists:
example,
the MichelsonMorley experiment, Kaufman's experiments (p. 79), and many others (p. 6).
(3)
It
ONE LAW
led to the merging into
of the two, formerly isolated, principles^ of the Conservation of Mass and the Conservation of Energy.
In Part
II
we
the
shall
see also how SPECIAL Theory served
point for
as a
starting
the
GENERAL THEORY,
*The reader may ask:
call this a postulate? not based on Facts?" The answer of course is that
(s it
"Why
a scientific postulate must
be
BASED
on
facts,
but it must 30 and hold also
facts that are
further than the
for
known
facts
still
TO
BE discovered.
So
(a
an ASSUMPTION really only most reasonable one, to be sure
that
it
is
since
if it
it
agrees with facts
now known),
in
which becomes strengthened
continues to agree with as they are discovered.
the course of time
facts
NEW
82
which, again,
by means
of only
ONE
led to
results
other assumption,
FURTHER
NEW IMPORTANT
RESULTS,
which make the theory the widest in scope
of any physical theory.
IX.
A
POINT OF LOGIC
AND A SUMMARY
It is
interesting here
to call attention to a logical point which is made very clear
by
In
the Special Theory of Relativity. order to do this effectively
let us first list
and number
certain statements, both old
and new,
to which
we
shall
then refer
by
NUMBER:
(1)
impossible for an observer detect his motion through space (p. 33). to
It is
(2)
The velocity of light is independent of the motion of the source
The old PREEINSTEINIAN postulate and length measurements
is,
(p. 34).
(3)
that time
are absolute,
that
are the
same
for all observers.
(4) Einstein's replacement of this postulate
by the operational
that
fact (see p.
31)
time and length measurements
83
are
NOT absolute,
but relative to each observer.
(5) Einstein's Principle of Relativity (p. 52).
We
have seen that
retained
(1)and(2)
are contradictory IF (3)
is
but are
(3)
is
NOT
contradictory IF
replaced by (4).
(Ch. V.)
Hence
it
may
NOT
be
true to say that
two statements
MUST
be
contradictory or without specifying the
Thus, in the presence of (3)
(1) and (2)
EITHER
NOT contradictory,
ENVIRONMENT
ARE
contradictory,
whereas, in the presence of (4), the very same statements (1) and (2)
are
NOT contradictory.*
may now
briefly
We
summarize
the Special Theory of Relativity:
(1), (2)
and (4) are the fundamental ideas in
and,
since (1)
it,
and (4)
are
embodied
in (5) 7
then (2) and (5) constitute the BASIS of the theory.
Einstein gives these
as
two
POSTULATES
whether two statements are EQUIVALENT or not
*Similarly
may also depend upon the environment (ee p. 30 of "NonEuclidean Geometry" bv H. G. and L R. Lieber).
84
from which he then deduces
the Lorentz transformation (p. 49) which gives the relationship
of
between the length and time measurements] two observers moving relatively to each other
that
with uniform velocity,
and which shows
there
is
an intimate connection
between space and time.
This connection was then
EMPHASIZED
who showed
that
by Minkowslo,
may be regarded r plane from one set of rectangular axes to another
the Lorentz transformation
as a rotation in the
x
,
in a
fourdimensional spacetime continuum
(see Chapter VII.).
fFor the relationships between other measurements, jee Chapter VIII.
86
THE
1.
MORAL
Local, "provincial" measurements are not universal,
although they may be used to obtain universal realities
if
compared with other systems
measurements taken from
certain
of
local
a different viewpoint.
By examining
RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN
LOCAL MEASUREMENTS,
and finding those relationships which remain unchanged in going from
one local system to another, one may arrive at
the
INVARIANTS
of our universe.
2.
By emphasizing the
fact that
absolute space and time are pure mental fictions,
and
that
that the
only
PRACTICAL
notions of time
man can have
are obtainable only the Einstein Theory
that
by some method
shows
that
of signals,
'Idealism" alone, 11 is, "a priori thinking alone, cannot serve for exploring the universe.
On
the other hand,
since actual measurements
are local
and not
universal,
87
and
that
only certain
THEORETICAL RELATIONSHIPS
are universal, the Einstein Theory shows also that
practical
is
measurement alone
also not sufficient
for
exploring the universe.
In short,
a judicious combination
Of THEORY and PRACTICE, EACH GUIDING the other
a "dialectical materialism" is our most effective weapon.
PART
II
THE GENERAL THEORY
A
I.
GUIDE FOR THE READER.
The
first three chapters of Part the meaning of the term ''General Relativity/*
II
give
what it undertakes to do, and what are its basic ideas. These are easy reading and important.
II.
introduce Chapters XIII, XIV, and the fundamental mathematical ideas
XV
which
will
also easy reading
III.
be needed and important.
to
Chapters
XVI
XXII build up
the actual
streamlined mathematical machinery not difficult, but require
the kind of
care and patience and work go with learning to
that
run any The amazing
NEW
machine.
of this
POWER
new
operated,
and the
TENSOR CALCULUS, EASE with which
it is
are a genuine delight!
IV.
this
Chapters XXIII to XXVIII show how machine is used to derive the
NEW LAW OF GRAVITATION.
This law,
though
at
first
complicated
91
behind
is
its
seeming simplicity,
then
REALLY
V.
SIMPLIFIED.
Chapters XXIX to XXXIV constitute THE PROOF OF THE PUDDING!
easy reading again
and show what the machine has accomplished.
Then there are
a
SUMMARY
and
THE
MORAL
92
INTRODUCTION,
In Part
I,
on the SPECIAL Theory, it was shown that
two observers who
are
moving
relatively to each other
with
UNIFORM
velocity
can formulate
the laws of the universe
"W!TH
EQUAL RIGHT AND EQUAL SUCCESS,
11
even though
their points of
view
are different, and their actual measurements
do not
agree.
to
The things that appear alike them both
are the
the
'TACTS of INVARIANTS.
11
the universe,
The mathematical relationships which both agree on
are the
"LAWS
11
of the universe.
Since man does not
the "true laws of
know
1
God/
should any one human viewpoint be singled out as more correct than any other?
why
And
it
therefore
fitting
seems most
to call
THOSE
relationships
95
"THE
laws,"
which are
VALID
from
viewpoints, taking into consideration all experimental data
DIFFERENT
known up
to the present time.
Now,
it
must be emphasized
Theory, only that change of viewpoint was considered
that in the Special
which was due to
the relative
UNIFORM
velocity
of the different observers.
This was accomplished
Einstein
in his first
by
paper*
in
published
1905.
Subsequently, in 1916*, he published a second paper
in
which
he
GENERALIZED
the idea
to include observers
moving
with a
(that
is,
relatively to each other
CHANGING
with an
is
velocity
ACCELERATION),
it is
and
"the
It
that
why
called
11
GENERAL
Theory of
I
Relativity.
was shown
in Part
that
to
make
possible
even the SPECIAL case considered there, was not an easy task,
1
*See "The Principle of Relativity* by A. Einstein and Others,
published by Methuen
&
Co., London.
96
for
it
required
a fundamental
change
in
Physics
to
remove the
certain
APPARENT CONTRADICTION
between
EXPERIMENTAL FACTS!
Namely,
the change from the that TIME is absolute
(that
is,
it is
OLD
idea
that
the same (or
all
observers)
to the
NEW
idea that
time
is
measured
to an observer,
RELATIVELY
just as the
ordinary
space coordinates, x , y , z,
are measured relatively to
a particular set of axes.
This
SINGLE new
idea
was SUFFICIENT
to accomplish the task
undertaken
in
the Special Theory.
We
shall
now
see that
again by the addition of
ONLY ONE
called
Einstein
more
idea,
1
"THE PRINCIPLE OF EQUIVALENCE/
made
possible
the
GENERAL
Theory.
Perhaps the reader
may
ask
why
ONLY ONE
was added?
the emphasis on the fact that new idea
Are
not ideas good things?
97
And
is it
not desirable
many of them as possible? To which the answer is that
to have as
the adequateness
of a
is
new
scientific
theory
judged
(a)
By
and
its
correctness, of course,
(b)
By
its
SIMPLICITY.
No doubt everyone appreciates the need for correctness,
but perhaps
the lay reader may not realize the great importance of
SIMPLICITY!
he
iJBut,"
will say,
"surely the Einstein Theory is anything but simple!
Has
it
not the reputation
of being unintelligible to all but a very few experts?"
Of course "SIMPLE does
11
not necessarily mean
*
"simple to everyone/* but only in the sense that
*lndeed,
it
everyone
WHO
can even be simple to
will take the trouble to learn
some
mathematics.
Though this mathematics was DEVELOPED by experts, it can be UNDERSTOOD by
any earnest student.
Perhaps even the lay reader
will appreciate this
after reading this little
book.
98
if
all
known
physical (acts
are taken into consideration,
the Einstein Theory accounts for
a large
in
number
of these facts
the
SIMPLEST known way.
now
see
Let us
what
is
meant by
of Equivalence/*
it
"The Principle
and what
accomplishes.
It is impossible to refrain from the temptation
to brag about
it
a bit
in anticipation!
And
to say that
by making the General Theory
Einstein derived
possible,
A NEW LAW OF
which
is
GRAVITATION
even more adequate than
the Newtonian one, since it explains,
QUITE INCIDENTALLY,
experimental
facts
which were
left
unexplained
theory, and which had troubled
the astronomers
for a
by the older
long time.
And, furthermore, the General Theory
PREDICTED
this is of
NEW
FACTS,
which have since been verified
course
the supreme test of any theory.
But
to
let us
get to work
show
all this.
99
XL THE PRINCIPLE OF EQUIVALENCE.
Consider the following situation:
Suppose
lives in a
that a
man, Mr. K,
away
spacious box, from the earth
all
and from
there.
so that there
other bodies, is no force of gravity
And
the
suppose that
box and all its contents are moving (in the direction indicated in the drawing on
with a changing velocity,
increasing
p.
100)
32 ft. per second every second. Now Mr. K, who cannot look outside of the box, does not know all this; but, being an intelligent man,
he proceeds to study the behavior
of things around him.
We We
watch him from the outside,
us.
but he cannot see
notice that
he has
a tray in his hands.
And
of course
we know
that
the tray shares the motion of everything in the box,
101
and therefore remains
relatively at rest to
him
namely, in his hands. But he does not think of
this
it
in
way/
is
to him, everything
at rest.
actually
Suddenly he
continue to
lets
30 the
tray.
Now we know
that the tray will
move upward
also
with
CONSTANT velocity/*
and, since
is
we
know
that the
box
moving upwards with
an
ACCELERATION,
that very soon the up with the tray
floor
we expect
will catch
and
hit
it.
And,
Mr.
of course,
we
it
see
this
actually happen.
K also
sees
it
happen,
still
but explains
differently,
he says that everything was until he let go the tray,
and then the tray FELL and
hit
the floor;
and
K
attributes this to
11
11
"A
He
force of gravity.
to study this "force.
is
Now K begins
finds that there
an attraction
between every two bodies,
*Any moving
with
object
CONTINUES
in a
to
move
CONSTANT speed
it is
STRAIGHT LINE due
unless
to inertia,
stopped by
example.
some
external force,
like friction, (or
102
and and
its
strength
is
proportional to
1
their "gravitational
masses/
varies inversely as the
square of the distance between them.
He also makes other experiments, studying the behavior of bodies
pulled along a smooth table top,
and
finds that different
bodies offer
different degrees of resistance to
this pull,
and he concludes
is
that the resistance
proportional to the
"inertial
mass" of
a
body.
And
then he finds that
ANY
FALLS
object which he releases with the acceleration,
SAME
and therefore decides
that
the gravitational mass and the inertial mass of a body
are proportional to each other.
In
that all bodies
other words, he explains the fact fall with the
acceleration,
SAME
by
is
saying that the force of gravity such that
the greater the resistance to motion
which
a
body
has,
the harder gravity pulls it, and indeed this increased pull
is
supposed to be
JUST BIG
ENOUGH TO OVERCOME
IN
the larger resistance, and thus produce
THE SAME ACCELERATION
Now,
if
ALL
BODIES!
Mr.
K is
a
very intelligent
103
Newtonian
he says,
physicist,
"How
strange that these
two
distinct
properties of a
body should
always be exactly proportional to each other.
But experimental (acts show accident to be true,
continues to worry him.
this
and experiments cannot be denied."
But
it
if
On the other hand, K is an Einsteinian
relativist,
he reasons entirely differently: "There is nothing absolute about
my way
Mr.
of looking at
phenomena.
K
1
,
outside,
(he means us), may see this entire room moving upward with an acceleration,
and
attribute all these
happenings
to this
motion
rather than to
a force of gravity
as
am doing. His explanation and mine
I
are equally
good,
from our different viewpoints."
This
is
what Einstein called
the Principle of Equivalence.
Relativist
K
continues:
"let
me
try to
see things from
f
the viewpoint of
my good
though
I
neighbor, K , have never met him.
of course see
He
would
104
the floor of this
hit
room come up and
I
ANY object which
it
might release,
to
and
would therefore seem
ENTIRELY
NATURAL
him
for all objects released
at a
from a given height given time
to reach the floor together,
which of course is actually the case. Thus, instead of finding out by
long and careful
that
EXPERIMENTATION
the gravitational and inertial masses are proportional,
as
my Newtonian
ancestors did/
he would predict
that this
A
PRIORI
case.
MUST
be the
And
so,
facts are
although the
in either
explainable
way, K"s point of view
is
the simpler one, and throws light on happenings which
could acquire only by arduous experimentation, if were not a relativist and hence
I I
quite accustomed to give equal weight to
my
neighbor's viewpoint!
Of course as we have told the story, we know that K is really right:
f
But remember that
in
the actual world
we do
We
not have this advantage: cannot "know" which of the two
is
explanations
"really" correct.
105
But, since they are
EQUIVALENT,
we may
select the simpler one,
as Einstein did.
Thus we already see an advantage in
Einstein's Principle of Equivalence.
as
And, we
is
it
said in Chapter X.
this
only the beginning,
led to his
of Gravitation which
(or
new Law
RETAINED ALL THE MERITS OF
NEWTON'S LAW,
and
has additional
merits which Newton's Law did not have.
NEW
As we
shall see,
106
XII.
A
NONEUCLIDEAN WORLD.
Granting, then, the Principle of Equivalence, according to which Mr. K may replace
11
the idea of a "force of gravity by a "fictitious force due to motion/
1 *
the next question
is:
"How
does
this
A
In
new Law
help us to derive 11 of Gravitation?
answer to which
ask the reader to recall
we
a
few simple things which
in
he learned
elementary physics
in
high school:
11
*The idea of a "fictitious force due to motion
is
familiar to
everyone
in
the following example:
Any
if
he swings
youngster knows that a pail full of water
in a vertical
plane
fall
is
WITH SUFFICIENT SPEED,
the water will not
out of the pail,
even when the
actually upside
pail
down!
And
he knows that
the centrifugal "force" is due to the motion only,
since,
if
he slows down the motion,
the water
WILL
a
fall
out
and give him
good dousing.
107
If
at
it
on a moving object an angle to this motion, will change the course of the object,
a force acts
and we say
the
that
body
has acquired an
ACCELERATION,
even though its speed may have remained unchanged! This can best be seen with the aid of
the following diagram:
If
AB
if
represents the original velocity
in
(both
magnitude and direction)
is
and
the next second
the object
moving with
,
a velocity
represented by AC due to the fact that
some
force (like the wind)
its
pulled it out of then obviously
course,
108
BC
must be the velocity which
11
had to be "added" to
to give the "resultant
AB AC,
1
'
as any aviator, or even any high school boy, knows from
the "Parallelogram of forces.
Thus
BC
is
the difference between
the two velocities,
>ACand AB.
is
And,
since
ACCELERATION
defined as
the change in velocity, each second, then BC is the acceleration,
even
equal
that
if
AB
and
AC happen
to
be
in length,
is,
if
even
the speed of the object
has merely
has remained unchanged;*
the very fact that
it
changed in DIRECTION shows that there is an ACCELERATION!
Thus,
if
an object moves
in a circle/
with uniform speed, it is moving with
an acceleration since
it is
always changing
its
direction.
Now
lives
is
on
imagine a physicist a disc which
who
revolving with constant speed!
Being a physicist, he is naturally curious about the world, and wishes to study it,
even as you and I. And, even though
*This distinction
is
we
tell
him
11
that
between "speed
1
and "velocity"
discussed on page
28.
109
he
is
moving with an acceleration
he can formulate
he, being a democrat and a relativist,
insists that
the laws of the universe
"WITH
EQUAL RIGHT AND EQUAL SUCCESS
:
and therefore claims
he
but
is
is
that
not moving at all merely in an environment
11
in
which
a "force of gravity
is
acting
(Have you ever been on
and actually
Let us
felt this
a revolving disc 11 "force ?!).
now watch him
become interested know whether
in circles:
tackle a problem:
We
He
see him
wants to
the circumferences of two circles
are in the
same
ratio as their radii.
He
draws two
circles,
a large
one and
a small
one
(concentric with the axis of revolution of the disc) and proceeds to measure
their radii
and circumferences.
larger circumference,
When
he measures the
we know,
from a study of
the Special Theory of Relativity* that he will get a different value
from the one
WE
should get
(not being on the revolving disc); but this is not the case with
his
measurements of the
radii,
since the shrinkage in length, described in the Special Theory,
"See Part
I
of this
book.
110
takes place only
IN THE DIRECTION OF and not in a direction which
MOTION,
is
PERPENDICULAR
(as a radius
is).
to the direction of motion
Furthermore/ when he measures the circumference of the small circle,
his
value
is
not very different from ours
is
since the speed of rotation
small
around a small
circle,
is
and the shrinkage
negligible.
therefore
And
he
are
so, finally,
it
turns out that
finds that the circumferences
NOT
is
in
the same ratio as the radii!
that
Do we
and
tell
him
he
is
wrong?
that this
that
not according to Euclid?
is
he
a fool for trying
to study Physics
on
a revolving disc?
Not
at all!
On
the contrary,
relativists,
all right,
being modern "That is quite
we
say
neighbor,
you are probably no worse than we are, you don't have to use Euclidean geometry
it
if
does not work on
a revolving disc,
for
now
there are
nonEuclidean geometries which are exactly what you need
Just as
we would not expect Plane Trigonometry to work on
for
a large portion of the earth's surface
which we need
which
Spherical Trigonometry,
in
the anglesum of a triangle
isNOTlSO
,
111
as
we might
naively
demand
after
a high school course in
Euclidean plane geometry,
In short/
instead of considering the discworld
as an accelerated system,
we
by
can, the Principle of Equivalence,
it
regard
as a system in
11
which
acting,
a "force of gravity
is
and, from the above considerations, we see that
in a
space having such a
gravitational field
NonEuclidean geometry,
rather than Euclidean,
is
applicable.
We shall
how
now
illustrate
the geometry of
a surface or a space
may be
studied.
This will lead to
the mathematical consideration of
Einstein's
Law
of Gravitation
and
its
consequences.
XIII.
THE STUDY OF SPACES.
first
Let us consider
the familiar Euclidean plane.
Everyone knows
that
for a right triangle
on such
a plane
the Pythagorean theorem holds:
Namely,
113
that
s
2
Conversely,
it is
true that
IF the distance
between two points
on
is
a surface
given
by
2
(1)
s
=
*
2
+
y>
THEN
the surface
A
it is
MUST BE EUCLIDEAN PLANE,
obvious that
to
Furthermore,
the distance from
A
114
ALONG
THE CURVE:
is
no longer
the hypotenuse of a right triangle,
and of course
we
If,
CANNOT write
however,
take two points,
2
here
s
=
x
2
+
2
y
!
we
A
and 8,
sufficiently near together,
the curve
AB
is
so nearly
a straight line,
that
we may
actually regard
ABC as
in
a little right triangle
which the Pythagorean theorem
does hold.
115
Only that here we shall represent
by
as
c/s
is
,
its
three sides
c/x
and
in
c/y ,
done
the differential calculus, to show that the sides are small.
So
(2)
that here
we have
2
c/s
=
2
</x
+
2
c/y
Which
and
is
still
has the form of (1)
characteristic of
the Euclidean plane.
be found convenient x and y xi and xi , respectively, by so that (2) may be written
It
will
to replace
2
(3)
c/s

2
c/x L
+
c/xA
Now
on
a
what is the corresponding situation nonEuclidean surface,
such as,
the surface of a sphere, for
example?
Let us take
two points on
this surface,
A
and 8
,
designating the position of each
by
its
latitude
and longitude:
116
**"^^ \
TV
Let
Df be
the meridian
from which
longitude
is
measured
the Greenwich meridian.
And
and
let
DK be
a part of the equator,
the north pole.
latitude of
Then the longitude and
are, respectively,
A
the
number
of degrees in
,
the arcs
^F and AG
(or in the
corresponding central angles,
Similarly,
a and
0).
117
the longitude and latitude of
are, respectively,
8
the
number
of degrees in
the arcs
CF and BK.
is
The problem again
to find the distance
between
If
A
and
B.
is
the triangle /ABC
sufficiently small,
we may
en
a
consider
it
to lie
Euclidean plane which practically coincides with
the surface of the sphere
this little
in
region, and the sides of the triangle to be straight lines
(as
ABC
on page
1 1
5).
Then,
since the angle at
is
C
a right angle,
we have
(4)
AB*
let us
=
see
A? +
BC*
And now
what
if
this
expression becomes
in
we change
(4)
the Cartesian coordinates
(in the
tangent Euclidean plane) to the coordinates known as
longitude and latitude
on the surface of the sphere.
Obviously
AB
has a perfectly definite length
irrespective of
118
c
which coordinate system we use; but>4C and BC,
the Cartesian coordinates in the tangent Euclidean plane may be transformed into
longitude and latitude on the surface of the sphere, thus:
let r
be
the radius of the latitude circle
FAC,
and R the radius of the sphere. Then
Similarly
BC
=/?$.
in (4),
Therefore, substituting
we have
2
(5)
c/s
=
tJc?
xi
+
,
this
And, replacing a by may be written
2
and
j8
by
(6)
c/s
=
i>c/x?
+
tfdxt
.
A
comparison of (6) and (3)
will
show
that
*any
that
high
if
an
arc,
school student knows x represents the length of is the number of and
it,
radians in
then
And
therefore
x
=
120
on the sphere, the expression (or
is
2
c/s
as
not quite so simple it was on the Euclidean plane.
The question naturally arises, does this distinction between a Euclidean and a nonEuclidean
always hold,
surface
and
is
this a
way
between them?
to distinguish
That
if
is,
we know
the algebraic expression which represents the distance between two points
which actually holds on a given surface,
we then immediately decide whether the surface
can
is
Euclidean or not?
it
Or does
perhaps depend upon
the coordinate system used?
To answer
let us
this,
30 back to the Euclidean plane,
and use oblique coordinates instead of the more familiar
rectangular ones
thus:
121
The coordinates of the point
A
now xand y
are
represented
by
which are measured
parallel to the
X and Y axes,
each other.
and are now
NOT at right angles to
Can we now
find
the distance between
and
A
using these oblique coordinates?
Of
for,
course
we
can,
by the wellknown Law of Cosines in Trigonometry,
we
can represent
the length of a side of a triangle
122
lying opposite an obtuse angle,
by:
2
s
=
x
2
+
2
y
2xy cos
a.
Or,
for a
very small triangle,
2
</$
=
2
c/x
+
2
c/y
2c/x</ycosa.
And, if we again replace x and y
by
this
xi
and X2
,
respectively,
becomes
2
(7)
c/s

2
c/x
+
Jxl

2 c/xrc/X2cosa.
Here we see
even on
a
that
Euclidean plane,
2
the expression for is not as simple as
c/s
it
was before.
And,
if
we had used
polar coordinates on a Euclidean plane,
we would have obtained
or
(8)
*
Js
2
=
24)
2
c/x
+ x?
(See page
1
123
The reader should remembering that
verify this,
the polar coordinates of point
P
are
its distance, xi , from a fixed point, , makes with a fixed line (2) the angle, x2 , which
(1)
O
OP
OX.
Then (8)
is
obvious from
the following figure:
o
124
Hence we see
depends upon
(a)
that
the form of the expression for c/r
BOTH
the
KIND
we
and
pF SURFACE
are dealing with,
(b) the particular
COORDINATE SYSTEM.
We
a
shall
soon see
that
whereas
mere superficial inspection 2 of the expression for </s
is
not sufficient
to determine the kind of surface
a
we are dealing with, DEEPER examination
of this expression help us to
DOES
For
know
this.
this
deeper examination
we must know
how,
from the expression for
the sVcalled
2
c/s ,
"CURVATURE TENSOR
11
of the surface.
And this brings us to the study of tensors:
What
are tensors?
what use are they? and are they used?
Of
HOW
Let us see.
125
XIV.
WHAT
*
IS
A
TENSOR?
The reader
is
no doubt
1
familiar
11
with the words "scalar
and "vector.
which
A
a
scalar
is
a quantity
has magnitude only,
whereas
vector has
both magnitude and direction.
Thus,
if
we
70
say that
the temperature at a certain place
is
Fahrenheit,
is
there
obviously
NO
is
DIRECTION
to this temperature,
and hence
TEMPERATURE
But
a
SCALAR.
if we say that an airplane has gone
one hundred miles
east,
obviously its displacement from its original position
is
a
VECTOR,
whose
MAGNITUDE
is
and whose
DIRECTION
is
100 miles, EAST.
Similarly,
a
person's
AGE
is
a
SCALAR,
whereas
127
the
is
VELOCITY
VECTOR,*
with which an object
moves
a
and so on;
the reader can easily
find further
of both scalars
examples and vectors.
discuss
We
shall
now
some
quantities
which come up in our experience and which are neither scalars nor vectors,
but which are called
TENSORS.
And,
when we have
illustrated
and defined these,
we
a
shall find that
is
SCALAR
VECTOR
shall
a
TENSOR
whose
RANK
is
ZERO,
and
a
is
a
TENSOR
is
and we
a
see what
whose RANK meant by
is
ONE,
Thus
TENSOR of RANK TWO, or THREE, etc. "TENSOR" is a more inclusive term,
""speed" and "velocity
is
*A
distinction
is
often
made between
the latter a
the former Thus when
a
SCALAR,
is
its
VECTOR.
in
we
are interested
HOW FAST a thing
ONLY
moving,
and do not care about
DIRECTION of motion, we must then speak of its SPEED, but if we are interested ALSO in DIRECTION, we must speak of its VELOCITY. Thus the SPEED of an automobile
would be designated by
"Thirty miles an hour,"
its
but
its
VELOCITY would be
EAST."
"Thirty miles an hour
128
of which
"SCALAR
discuss
11
and
"VECTOR
11
are
SPECIAL CASES.
Before
we
the physical meaning of
a tensor of rank two,
let us
consider
the following facts about vectors.
Suppose
that
we have
any vector, AB , in a plane, and suppose that we draw a pair of rectangular axes, X and y,
thus:
T
B
X'
Drop
from
a perpendicular
BC
8
to the Xaxis.
that
,
Then we may say
AC
for,
is
the
is
and CB
as
Xcomponent oF AB the /component of
from
we know
the elementary law of "The parallelogram of forces/* if a force acts on a particle
AC
and CB also
acts
on
it,
the resultant effect
as that of a force
is
the
same
AB
alone.
And
the
that
is
why
are called
>AC and
CB
"components"
course
if
of
AB.
Of
we had used
the dotted lines as axes instead, the components of AB
would now be
In
AD and
DB.
other words, the vector AB may be broken up
into
in
components
various ways,
depending upon our choice of axes.
Similarly,
if
we
use
THREE
two
axes
in
SPACE
rather than
we
as
in
plane, can break up a vector
in a
into
THREE components
shown
the diagram 1 31 .
on page
130
D
By dropping the perpendicular BD from 8 to the XYplane,
and then drawing
the perpendiculars
to the
DC and DE
X and
Y
axes, respectively,
we have
namely,
the three components of
AB
L
and, as before,
the components
depend upon
the particular choice of axes.
Let us
now
illustrate
the physical meaning
of a tensor of rank two.
Suppose we have
at
a rod
every point of which
is
there
a certain strain
due
to
some
force acting on
it,
As
a rule the strain
131
is not the same at all points, and, even at any given point, the strain is not the same in
all
directions.*
if
Now,
(that
is
the the
STRESS
is,
FORCE
at the point A causing the strain at
A)
represented
in
both
magnitude and direction
by/B
*When
an breaks object finally under a sufficiently great strain, it does not fly into bits
it
as
would do
if
the strain were the same
at all points
and
in all directions,
but breaks along certain lines where, for one reason or another, the strain is greatest.
132
and
if
we
are interested to
this force
know
the effect of the surface
upon CDEF (through A} f
we
are obviously dealing with a situation which depends
not on a
but on
SINGLE
vector,
TWO vectors:
AB ,
in
Namely, one vector,
which represents the force and another vector
(call
it
question;
whose
the
/AG), direction will indicate
ORIENTATION
of the surface
will represent
CDEF,
and whose magnitude the AREA of CDEF.
In other words, the effect of a force upon a surface on the force depends
but
size
NOT ONLY ALSO on the
can
itself
and orientation of the
surface.
Now, how
by
If
we
indicate
the orientation of a surface
a line? a line through
we draw
A
in the
plane
obviously
in
CDEF , we can draw
no way
this line
many
different directions,
is
and there
of choosing one of these to represent the orientation of this surface.
BUT,
if
we
PERPENDICULAR
such a line
is
take a line through A to the plane
CDEF,
UNIQUE
133
and
CAN
if
therefore
be used
to specify the orientation
of the surface
CDEF.
a vector, direction perpendicular to and of such a length that
Hence,
we draw
in a
CDEF
it represents the magnitude of the area of CDEF,
then obviously this vector
AG
indicates clearly
both the SIZE and the
of the surface
ORIENTATION
CDEF.
Thus.
the
STRESS
at
A
upon the surface CDEF depends upon the AB and AG , and is called
a
TWO vectors,
TENSOR
now
in
of
RANK TWO.
convenient way
Let us
find a
of representing this tensor.
And,
let us
order to
do
so,
consider the
stress,
F,
upon
a small surface, c/S ,
in
represented
the following figure
Now
is
if
OG,
perpendicular to
ABC
,
the vector which represents the size and orientation of ABC
then,
134
z
c
it is
quite easy to see (page
1
36)
that the
Xcomponent
of
OG
the XZplane.
represents in magnitude and direction
the projection
08C
of
ABC upon
of
And
the
similarly,
7 and
Z components
,
OG
represent the projections
0/C and 0/B
respectively.
135
To show
both
in
that
OK represents OBC
magnitude and direction:
T
That
is
it
does so
in direction
obvious,
since
OK
is
perpendicular
that
to
OBC
(see p.
1
34).
As
we
regards the magnitude
must
now show
OK _ OBC OG ABC'
(a)
between
Now OBC = ABC ABC and OBC
x cos
of the dihedral angle
(since the area of the projection
of a given surface
is
equal to
ihe area of the given surface multiplied
by
136
the cosine of the dihedral angle
between the two
But
this
planes).
dihedral angle equals anale and since are respectively perpendicular to ABC and OBC ,
GO/C
06
OK
and cos
ZGOKisOK/OG.
Substitution of this in (a) gives the required
OBC _ OK OGABC
Now,
which
acts
if
the force
F,
is itself
a vector,
on
ABC ,
its
we
can examine
total effect
separately the effects of its three components
fx i fy i
by considering
and
fz
upon
EACH
of the three projections
OBC,OAC*ndOAB.
Let us designate these projections
by dSx
/
dSy end dSz
,
respectively.
Now,
since fx
(which
acts
is
the
upon
EACH
Xcomponent of F) one of the three
abovementioned projections,
let us
designate the pressure
due
to this
component alone
upon
the three projections
by
Pxx
respectively.
/
Pxy
,
Pxz
/
We
must emphasize
the significance of this notation: In the first place,
137
the reader must distinguish between
the "pressure" on a surface and the "force" acting on the M The p ressurel1 k the
surface.
FORCE PER UNIT AREA.
that
is
So
the
TOTAL FORCE MULTIPLYING
PRESSURE by
'
obtained by
of the surface.
the
the
AREA
Thus the product
PXX dSx
gives the force acting upon the projection dS, due to the action of f,
ALONE.
'
Note
the
DOUBLE
PXX
i
subscripts in
i
Pxy
PXZ
refers to the fact
The
that
first
one obviously
all
f.,
these three pressures from the component
emanate
alone;
whereas, the second subscript designates the particular projection upon which
the pressure acts.
Thus
p/.v
means
the pressure due to fr upon the projection dSy
Etc.
It
,
follows therefore that
fx
=
pxx'dSx
+ Pxy'dSy + pxz'd
And,
and
similarly,
~
>y
fx
Pyx'dSx f Pyy'dSy
PZX dSx
'
+ Pyz'J
+p
zz
=
~\~
fzy dSy
'
dS
138
Hence
the
TOTAL
STRESS, F,
on the surface c/S,
F=(x+(y +
or
i
?,
=
PXX cfix ~T Pxy
'
'
'
*
cr jj/
~r PXZ
'
dSz
C/S2
.
+ Pyx + PZX
Thus
stress
uSx H~ Pyy uSy p yz dSx PZU dSy ~\ p Z2
'
+
'
+
'
'
C/Sz
we
is
see that
just a vector, with three components in
not
threedimensional space (see p. but has NINE components
in
1
30)
THREEdimensional space.
is
Such a quantity
called
A
TENSOR OF RANK TWO.
tensor suffice:
For the present
let this illustration of a
Later
It is
if
we
shall give a precise definition.
obvious that
dealing with a plane
we were
instead of with
threedimensional space,
a tensor of rank
two would then have
components instead of nine, since each of the two vectors involved has only two components in a plane, and therefore, there would now be only
only
FOUR
2X2 components for the tensor
X
3 as above.
instead of 3
And, in general, if we are dealing
with
ndimensional space,
139
a tensor of rank
two
has n components
which are therefore conveniently written
in a
SQUARE
array
1
as
was done on page
39.
Whereas,
in
ndimensional space/
a
VECTOR VECTOR
has only n components:
Thus,
a
in a
PLANE
it
has
in
TWO components/
has
THREEdimensional space
components/
THREE
and so on.
Hence,
the components of a
are therefore written
in a
VECTOR
SINGLE ROW;
instead of in a
as in the case of a
SQUARE ARRAY TENSOR of RANK TWO.
Similarly,
ndimensional space 3 of rank THREE has n components, and so on.
in
a
TENSOR
To sum
In
up:
ndimensional space,
a
a a
VECTOR has n components, TENSOR of rank TWO has n components, TENSOR of rank THREE has n components,
2
3
and so on.
The importance of
in Relativity
tensors
will
as
become clear we 90 on.
140
XV. THE EFFECT
CHANGE
IN
ON TENSORS OF THE COORDINATE
A
SYSTEM.
In Part
I
of this
book (page 61)
we had
occasion to mention
the fact that
the coordinates of the point
A
141
in the unprimed coordinate system can be expressed in terms of its coordinates in the
primed coordinate system
by
the relationships
w
/
Ov
/
= = (y
x
x co$0 y x sin0 + / cos0
of
f
as
is
known
to
any young student
elementary analytical geometry.
Let us
now
see
this
what effect
change
in
the coordinate system has
upon
a vector
and
its
components.
Call the vector cfs,
and
its
let o'x and c/y represent components in the UNPRIMED SYSTEM, and dx and c/y'
its
as
components in the PRIMED shown on page 143.
SYSTEM
142
Obviously
is
c/s itself
not affected by the change
of coordinate system,
but the
in
COMPONENTS
of
</s
the two systems
are
as
DIFFERENT, we have already pointed out
1
on page
30.
Now
are
if
the coordinates of point
in
A
x and y
one system
143
and
in the other, x' and the relationship between these four quantities
is
/
given
And
we
c/x
by equations (9) on p. 142. now, from these equations, by
differentiation*,
can,
find the relationships
between
and c/y and 7 c/x' and c/y
It
.
will
be noticed,
in
equations (9),
that
x depends upon BOTH x and y', so that any changes in x' and y'
will
BOTH
the
c/x ,
affect x.
Hence
namely
will
TOTAL
change
in
x,
depend upon
Partially
TWO causes:
in x',
(a)
upon the change
c/x' ,
namely
and
(b) Partially
upon the change
7
in y',
namely
c/y
.
Before writing out these changes, it will be found more convenient
to solve (9) for x and y in terms of x and y.
7 7
*See any book on
Differential Calculus.
fAssuming of course
that the
in (9)
determinant of the coefficients is not zero.
(See the chapter on "Determinants" "Higher Algebra" by M. Bocher.)
in
144
In
other words,
to express the
NEW,
in
primed coordinates, x' and /,
original ones,
terms of the
OLD,
x and y ,
rather than the other
way around.
This will of course give us
x' ==
N (10) '
<
,
ax
ex
\
y
=
J
+ 6y + dy
,
,
where a,
It
fc,
c,
are functions of 0.
will
be even
better
to write (1 0) in the form:
(11) x '
x2
=
621X1
using xi and XL instead of x and y , 2 (and of course x[ and x' instead of
x'
and /);
and putting different subscripts on the single letter a ,
instead of using
four different letters:
a
,
b
,
c
,
d
is
The advantage
not only that
easily
of this notation
we
can
to
GENERALIZE
n dimensions
from the above
twodimensional statements,
but,
as
we
shall
see
later,
itself
this
notation lends
to
a beautifully
CONDENSED
work with.
way
of
writing equations,
which renders them
very
EASY
to
145
Let us
now proceed
with
the differentiation of (11):
we
get
k'
(1 2) * '
I \
C/X2
= =
ail( 'Xl
"^ ai2C^X2
521C/X1
+
a 2 2C/X?
The
MEANING
of the a's in (12)
should be clearly understood: Thus an is
the change in
x'\
due
to
in
A
UNIT
CHANGE
xi,
so that
when it is multiplied by the total change in xi , namely
c/xi ,
we
get
THE THE And
612
CHANGE CHANGE
similarly in
IN IN
*(
DUE TO
* ALONE.
CHANGE
in
a^cfa,
represents
the change in xi and therefore
PER UNIT
x2 ,
the product of a\? the total change
gives
in
and x / namely dx
,
THE THE
Thus
the
is
CHANGE CHANGE
IN x{ IN x2
DUE TO ALONE.
in xi
TOTAL CHANGE
by
given
just as
the total cost of
a
number of apples and oianges would be found
cost of
by multiplying the
ONE APPLE
by
the total
number
of apples,
146
and
ADDING
one
this result
to a similar
for the oranges.
And
similarly for
Jx 2
in (1 2).
We
a
may
therefore
replace an
by dx(/dx\
symbol which represents the partial change in xj per unit change in xi*, and is called
the "partial derivative of xi with respect to xi ."
Similarly,
dx{
'
3l2
~
/
cl21
~
9x2
T~~ OXi
/
^22
_
9X2
9x5 " ^ 0X2
And we may
in
therefore rewrite (1 2)
the form
dx{
f\
j dx\ H *^i
i
dx{
f\
OXi
0X2
<?X2
(13)
</X2 2
=
9X2 , T'CfXi
+
,
T~
0x2
But perhaps the reader
is
getting a
is
it
little
tired of all this,
and
what
wondering
has to
do
with Relativity.
*Note
is
that a
i A A
PARTIAL
MJM
d
change
letter
always denoted by the
"d"
in contrast to
which designates a
TOTAL
change
147
c
To which we may give him
a partial answer
now
and hold out hope
of further information
in
the remaining chapters.
What we can
already say
is
is
that
since General Relativity
concerned with
finding the laws of the physical world
which hold good for ALL observers/ and since various observers
differ
from each other,
in that
as physicists,
only
they
use different coordinate systems, we see then
that Relativity
is
concerned
with finding out those things
which remain
INVARIANT
under transformations of
coordinate systems.
Now,
as
we saw on page 143,
is
a vector
such an
INVARIANT/
and, similarly,
tensors in general
are such
INVARIANTS,
so that the business of the physicist
really
becomes
to find out
which physical quantities
are tensors,
and are therefore
1
the "facts of the universe/ since they hold good
for all observers.
*See
p.
96.
149
Besides,
as
we promised on page 125,
1
must explain the meaning of "curvature tensor/ since it is this tensor
we
which
CHARACTERIZES
then
a space.
And
with the aid of the curvature tensor of
our fourdimensional world of events,*
in this world what paths the planets take, and in what path
we shall find out how things move
a ray of light travels
as
it
passes near the sun,
and so on.
And
of course
all
these are
things which
can be
VERIFIED BY EXPERIMENT.
XVI.
Before
A
VERY HELPFUL SIMPLIFICATION
further
we go any
let us write
equations (13) on page
147
more
thus:
briefly
(,4)
**
THREE
TIME
is characterized by spacecoordinates and of its occurrence
I.
*FOURdimensional, since
each event
its
the
(see Part
of this book, page 58)
150
A careful study of (14) will show
(a) That
(14) really contains
it
TWO
equations
(although
since, as
its
looks like only one),
give
we
M
1
possible values,
and 2
,
we have
c/x[
and
c/Xj
on the
in
left,
just as
we
did
(13);
The symbol 2, means that when the various values of <J ,
(b)
namely
1
and 2
,
are substituted for
cr
(keeping the
must be
Thus, for
(1
constant in any the resulting two terms
\i
one equation)
ADDED
/i
together.
<r
=
1
and
=
1
,
2
,
4) becomes
it dxi
=
dx(
dxi
,
dxi
+
.
dxi
j
dx2,
0x2
just like
the FIRST equation in (13),
and, similarly,
by
taking
ju
=
2
,
and again "summing on the <r's ," since that is what 2, tells us to do,
we
get
dx2
which
Thus
If
=
3X2 I T'cfxi OXi
+OX
I
5X 2 J
2
ax2
t
is
the
SECOND
all
equation
in (13).
we
see that
of (13).
(14) includes
A
is
still
further abbreviation
introduced
by
omitting
the symbol 2,
151
WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT WHENEVER A SUBSCRIPT OCCURS TWICE IN A SINGLE TERM
(as, for
in
it
example,
<r
the righthand
will
member
that
of (14)
),
be understood
a
SUMMATION
ON THAT
(15) U ;
in
is to be made SUBSCRIPT.
Hence we may
d*" <Jx'
write (14) as follows:
=
dx
'*<lx *'
dx.
which
we
shall
know
that the presence of the
in
TWO </s
the term on the right,
that
means
2a
is
understood.
And
since
now, finally, c/xi and cfe
are the
components of
system
c/s in
the
UNPRIMED
let us
represent them more briefly
by
A
respectively.
]
and
A
2
The reader must
these
with
NOT confuse
EXPONENTS 2
SUPERSCRIPTS
is not the "square of" A but the superscript serves merely the same purpose as a
thus >4
,
SUBSCRIPT,
namely,
to distinguish the
components
from each other.
Just
why we use SUPERSCRIPTS instead
appear
of subscripts
will
later (p. 1 72).
152
c
v
And
will
the components of
c/s
in the
PRIMED
1
coordinate system
now be
written
A' and A'\
Thus
(1
5)
becomes
And
if
so,
a certain vector
we have
is,
A"
,
that
a vector
whose components
2
are
A
1
and
if
A
in a certain
coordinate system,
to
and
a
in
we change
new coordinate system
accordance with
the transformation represented then
by (11) on page 145
,
(16)
the
in
tells us
what
will
components of
this
be same vector
coordinate system.
the
new (PRIMED)
Indeed, (1 5) or (16) represents the change in the components of a vector
NOT ONLY for the
but for
of coordinates:*
change given
in
(11),
ANY transformation
Thus
a point in
suppose x, are the coordinates of one coordinate system,
*Except only that
the values of (x a ) and (x/) must
be
in
onetoone correspondence.
154
and suppose
that
xj
=
ft
(xi
,
x2/ ....)
=
ft
x! 2
etc.
=f>(xa )
this entire
Or, representing
set of
equations
Xp
by
Ifj.
\Xa)f
where the f s represent
any (unctions whatever,
then, obviously
'
,
^
~
HI
J OXi
OXi
or, since
ft
JJ J'CTX2 ~r T" ^ 0X2
afl
.
.
.
.
=
x{
If
=
{
r~ OXi
C/Xi
+
'
^
C/X2
+

.
.
.
0X2
etc.
Hence
gives the
manner of transformation
of the vector
dxa
to
ANY other coordinate system
(see the only limitation
mentioned
in
the footnote on
page
1
54).
And
in fact
ANY set of quantities which
transforms according to (16)
is
DEFINED
or rather,
TO
BE
A
VECTOR,
A CONTRAVARIANT
the meaning of
VECTOR 
"CONTRAVARIANT"
155
will
appear
later (p. 1 72).
The reader must not
forget that
in
whereas the separate components the two coordinate systems are
different,
the vector
itself is
an
INVARIANT
under the
transformation of coordinates
(see page 143).
It
should be noted further that
(16) serves not only to represent a twodimensional vector,
but
may
represent
a three or four or
ndimensional vector,
since
all
that
is
necessary
is
to indicate the
number
2 and
of values that
M and
Thus,
(r
may
take.
1
, <r
if
=
JLI
=
1
,
2
,
we have
but
if
a
M

twodimensional vector/ 1 , 2 , 3 , and a = 1 2 ,
,
3
,
(16) represents a 3dimensional vector,
and so on.
For the case M
^
1
/
2
,
3 and
(7
= 1,2
(16) obviously represents
THREE EQUATIONS
the righthand
in
which
members
terms:
each have
THREE
(JX[
ux2
0x3
3*2
axi
A
/!
l
+
i
dXo
r
}
fa' I* A+ ,
0x3
5x 3
156
Similarly
we may now
give
the mathematical definition of
a tensor of rank two,*
or of
any other
rank.
Thus
a contravariant tensor of rank
is
two
defined as follows:
(17)
Here, since 7 and
in
it
5
occur
TWICE
the term on the right,
is
understood that
must
we
SUM
for these indices
over whatever range of values they have. Thus if we are speaking of
THREE DIMENSIONAL SPACE,
we have 7 = 1 , 2 , 3 and ALSO a = 1 , 2 , 3 , and
But
5
= 1 = 1
,
2
,
,
3.
,
2
3;
NO SUMMATION
on the a and
j8
is
to
be performed
since neither of
them occurs
term/
TWICE
so that
in a single
any
particular values of
cv
and p
must be retained throughout
ANY ONE
equation.
For example,
for the case
a
=
1 , /3
=
2
,
It will be remembered (see page 128)
that
a
VECTOR
is
a
TENSOR
of
RANK ONE.
157
(1 7) gives the
equation:
,,
/\
_ ~
<9x[
'
V~~
dxs ~ All
'
r\
^
,
dx[ dxj "
'
'
"I
n
a
^
,
12
,
dx! 3*2
'
'
Jl
3
9xi 9xi
9xi 0x2
9xi 0x3
..
6x2 9xi
.
.
__
.
9x2 9x2
9x2 9x3
+ ^.^./31 +
9X3 9xi
It
dx dx
l.
*.
AV
,
??!.
dx
?.
9X3 9X2
that
9X3 9X3
will
be observed
7 and
<5
have each taken on
their
THREE
possible values:
in
1,2,3,
which resulted
NINE
a =
1
terms on the right/
whereas
and
ft
=
2
have been retained throughout.
And now
there will
since
a and
/3
may each have
be
the three values,
1,2,3,
NINE
Thus
such
EQUATIONS
in all.
(1
7) represents
nine equations each containing nine terms on the right,
if
we
are considering
threedimensional space.
Obviously
(17)
for
twodimensional space,
will represent
only four equations each containing
only four terms on the
right.
Whereas,
in
four dimensions,
as
we must have
in
Relativity*
*See the footnote on
p. 1 50.
158
(17)
will represent
sixteen equations each containing sixteen terms on the right.
And
in
;
in
general,
ndimensional space,
a tensor of
RANK TWO,
defined by (17),
consists of
n equations, each containing n terms
in
the righthand member.
Similarly,
a contravariant tensor of
is
RANK THREE
defined by
(18)
A'tol^^A vXp ox? dx
ff
and so on.
As
the
before,
number
of equations represented
by (18)
and the number of terms on the
right in each,
depend upon
the dimensionality of the space in question.
The reader can already appreciate somewhat
the remarkable brevity
of this notation,
But
when he
will
see
in
the next chapter
how
are
easily such sets of equations
MANIPULATED,
will
he
be
really delighted,
we
are sure of that.
159
XVII.
OPERATIONS WITH TENSORS.
For example,
take the vector (or tensor of rank one) 2 1 and having the two components
Af
a
A
A
in a
plane,
with reference to a given set of axes.
And
of
let
6 be another
a ,
a
such vector.
Then, by adding the corresponding components
Aa
and B
we
obtain a quantity
also having
two components,
namely,
A +
1
B and
l
A +B
2
2
which may be represented by
and C
respectively.
2
,
Let us
now prove
that this quantity
is
also a vector:
is
Since A*
its
a vector,
is:
law of transformation
(19)
/V
x
=
:
M"(see
Similarly, for B"
X
(20)
B'
=
ox,
^B\
Taking corresponding components,
160
we
get, in full:
f\
AH
lAli *. /I ^
i
OXi
0X2
and
B/l
=
^ Xl
TT
.....
Dl D ~r
1
axi
^ Xl D2 D . 0x2
The sum of these
gives:
Similarly,
dxi
6x2
in:
Both these
results are
included
Or
(21)
c^^e. dx
a
Thus
a
we
see that
is
the result
VECTOR
(see p. 155).
Similarly for tensors of
higher ranks.
Furthermore, note that (21)
may be obtained
QUITE
MECHANICALLY
by adding (19) and (20)
AS
IF
each of these were
A SINGLE equation
containing only SINGLE term on the right,
A
161
c
instead of
A SET OF EQUATIONS EACH CONTAINING
SEVERAL TERMS
Thus the notation
ON
THE RIGHT.
AUTOMATICALLY
shall
takes care that
the corresponding components
be properly added.
This
in
is even more impressive the case of multiplication.
Thus, to multiply
(22)
A'
x
=
M'
^
(A, /.,,/*
by
(23)
""^^
0g.g.C*
= 1,2)
we
write the result immediately:
(24)
(X //t/
,/31,2X
To convince the reader
it is quite safe to write the result so simply,
that
let us examine (24) carefully and see whether it really represents
correctly the result of multiplying (22)
by (23). By "multiplying (22) by (23)" we mean that EACH equation of (22) is to be
multiplied
by
163
EACH
equation of (23)
in
in
the
way
in
which
this
would be done
ordinary algebra.
Thus,
we
must
first
multiply
by
f \r
j
fj
y
We
(25)
8 et,
9xi 9xi
9x2 9xi
9xi 9xi
,

ox* 0x2
Similarly
we
shall set
three
more such equations/ whose lefthand members are,
respectively,
A'T,
A'B'\ A" B'
2
,
and whose righthand members
resemble that of (25).
Now, we may
by
taking X
=
obtain (25) from (24)
1
=
,
/*
1
,
retaining these values throughout,
since no summation
[that
in
is,
is
indicated on X and
/x
neither X nor
is
repeated
any one term of (24)].
164
But since
a and
ft
each
in
OCCUR TWICE
the term on the right,
they must be allowed to take on
all
possible values, namely,
1
and 2
,
and
SUMMED,
we
replace A'B**
thus obtaining (25),
except that
by by
the simpler taking A
symbol C
1 , /*
a^
*.
Similarly,
=
=
2
/?
in
(24),
and summing on a and
as before,
we
obtain another of the equations
mentioned on page 164.
And
X
=
2
, /*
=
1
,
gives the third of these equations/ and finally A = 2 , M  2 gives the fourth and
last.
Thus (24) actually does represent
COMPLETELY
the product of (22) and (23)!
Of
course,
in
threedimensional space,
(22) and (23) would each represent
THREE THREE
equations, instead of two,
terms on the right, instead of two;
each containing
and the product of (22) and (23)
*Note
that either
A" B
11
or C<*
allows for
FOUR
Namely, AW or C AW or C", AW or C and AW or C
21 ,
components:
,
22
.
And hence we may use G* instead of A* V.
165
would then
consist of
NINE
NINE
But
is still
equations, instead of four,
terms on the right, instead of four.
each containing
this result
represented
of course,
in
by
(24)!
And,
four dimensions
(24) would represent
SIXTEEN
equations, and so on.
I :
Thus the tensor notation enables us
to multiply
WHOLE
containing
as
SETS
as
OF EQUATIONS
TERMS IN EACH,
elementary algebra!
multiply
in
MANY
we
EASILY
simple monomials
we
Furthermore, see from (24)
that
the
is
also a
PRODUCT of two tensors TENSOR (see page 157),
and, specifically, that
the product of two tensors each of ONE,
RANK
gives a tensor of
RANK TWO.
m
and n
In general,
if
two tensers of ranks
.
respectively,
are multiplied together,
the result
a
is
TENSOR OF RANK m
+
n.
This process of multiplying tensors
is
called
multiplication,
OUTER
166
to distinguish
it
from
another process
known
as
multiplication which is also important
in
INNER
Tensor Calculus,
shall
and which we
describe later (page 183).
XVIII.
A
PHYSICAL ILLUSTRATION.
But
first
let us discuss
a physical illustration of
ANOTHER KIND OF TENSOR, A COVARIANT TENSOR:*
Consider an object whose density
is
different in different parts of the object.
B
A
^This
is
to
be distinguished from the
1
CONTRAVARIANT tensors
discussed on pages
55ff.
167
We
may
then speak of
the density at a particular point,
A
.
Now,
but a
density
is
obviously
NOT a
And
directed quantity,
(see page 127).
SCALAR
since the density of the given object
is not uniform throughout, but varies from point to point, it will vary as we go from A to
B
.
So
that
if
we
designate
by ^
the density at
A,
.
then
^ and ^

"
dxi
dx2
represent, respectively,
the partial variation of
in
\l/
the xi and x> directions.
Thus, although
a
^
in
itself is
NOT
depend upon
quantity,
DIRECTED
quantity,
the the
CHANGE
$
DOES
DIRECTION
IS therefore a
and
DIRECTED
are
whose components
9xi
Now
let us
see
this
what happens to
quantity
is
when
the coordinate system
changed (see page 149).
We
are seeking to express
d\[/ r
d\l/
,
,
.
f
d$
9xi
in
terms o!

,
d\l/ ,
.
9x1
3x2
three variables,
9x2
Now
if
we have
say^^andz,
169
such that y and z depend upon x it is obvious that
the change
IF IT
in
,
z per unit change in
x,
CANNOT
in
BE
FOUND
DIRECTLY,
may be found by
multiplying the change
y per
unit
change
in
x
y,
by
the change in z per unit change
or,
in
expressing this in symbols:
..
c/z
f
_
cfz
Jy
(26)
In
cfx~d[ydx
we have
our problem above, the following similar situation:
affect
A change in x( will
BOTH
and the
xi
will affect 1/7
and x2 (see
p.
145),
resulting changes in XL
and
X2
hence
Note
that here
right
we
have
TWO
terms
on the
instead of only
ONE,
in x{
as in (26),
since the change
affects
BOTH
in
xi
and x2
and these
whereas
a
in turn
BOTH
affect ty,
(26),
change in x affects y/ which in turn affects z , and
that
is all
there was to
it.
Note
since
also that
the curved
all
"d"
is
used throughout
in
(27)
the changes here
170
are
PARTIAL
changes
(see footnote on page 147). And since ^ is influenced also
by
a
change
in
x2/
this influence
may be
by
similarly represented
And, as before, we may combine (27) and (28) by means of the abbreviated notation:
where the occurrence of a TWICE in the single term on the right indicates a summation on a ,
as usual.
And,
finally,
writing
A^
4
for the
represented
J'in
W
C/ JC
two components
\
I
and
>A ff
for the two components,
v
/
we may
(30)
write (29) as follows:
AljfrA. CXM
(30) with (16)
0*^ =
If we now compare we note a
VERY IMPORTANT DIFFERENCE,
namely,
that the coefficient
is
on the
right in
(30)
the reciprocal of the coefficient on the right
in
(16),
171
so that (30) does
NOT satisfy
in
the definition of a vector given But it will be remembered that
(16).
(16)
is
the definition of
A CONTRAVARIANT VECTOR
(30) introduce to the reader
in
ONLY.
And
we
the mathematical definition of
A COVARIANT
Note
that
VECTOR.
to distinguish the two kinds of vectors, it is customary to write the indices
as SUBscripts in the
one case
in
and
as
SUPERscripts
the other.*
1 56), represent a vector in any number of dimensions, depending upon the range of values
As
before (page
(30)
may
given to
JJL
and
0"
,
and
for
ANY transformation
of coordinates.
A COVARIANT
is
Similarly,
TENSOR OF RANK
TWO
defined
by
and so on,
for higher ranks.
and and (17). (31)
COMPARE
CONTRAST
carefully
^Observe that the SUBscripts are used for the COvariant vectors,
in
which the
PRIMES
in
the coefficients
(see (30), p. 171).
are in the
DENOMINATORS
To remember this more easily a young student suggests the slogan
"CO, LOW, PRIMES BELOW/
1
172
XIX.
MIXED TENSORS.
is
Addition of covariant vectors performed in the same simple manner
1
as for contravariant vectors (see p.
61
)
Thus, the
SUM
A\
of
r~7*.n a
ox\
and
Sx=
dx(
is
"
c=
Also,
3x
x
.
the operation defined on page
as
is
166
OUTER MULTIPLICATION
the same for
covariant tensors:
Thus, the
OUTER PRODUCT
A(
of
=
^A a
and
is
dx a
Furthermore,
it is
also possible to multiply
a
a
COVARIANT tensor by CONTRAVARIANT one,
173
thus,
V
the
OUTER PRODUCT of
A(
=
J.
A.
and
is
(32)
C/5;:=
^'ax"'
C'
Comparison of (32) with (31) and (17) shows that it is
NEITHER
a covariant
NOR a
It is
contra variant tensor.
called
A
the
MIXED TENSOR
generally,
of rank
TWO.
More
OUTER PRODUCT
of
and
is
rfr

***
*
That
if
is,
any two
tensors of ranks
m
and n,
respectively, are multiplied together so as to form their
the result
OUTER PRODUCL is a TENSOR
of rank
m+
175
thus, the rank of (33) and that of (34) is 2 ,
is
3
,
hence,
the rank of their outer product, (35),
is
5.
Furthermore,
suppose the tensor of rank
is
m
a
MIXED
m
tensor,
having mi indices of covariance*
and
(such that
has
mi m^ = m), and suppose the tensor of rank n
indices of contravariancef
+
m
indices of covariance*
contravariance/f"
and n 2 indices of
then,
their outer
product
will
be
a
MIXED
mi and
+m
tensor having indices of covariance*
m2
+
rt2
indices of contravariance.f
All
in
this has
already been illustrated
the special case given above:
Thus,
(33) has
ONE
index of covariance (7)
(5),
and (34) also has index of covariance
ONE
therefore their outer product, (35), has indices of covariance (7,
TWO
<5);
and
similarly,
since (33) has indices of contravariance (a/ and (34) has
TWO
*
/?)
SUBscripts.
t SUPERscripts.
176
ONE
has
index of contravariance
(K),
their outer product, (35),
THREE
indices of contravariance
(,
/3,
K) O
We
hope the reader appreciates
it
the fact that
although
it
takes
many words
to describe these processes
is
extremely
EASY
to
DO them
with the AID of the TENSOR NOTATION.
Thus the outer product of
A*
is
and B75
simply
C$
!
Let us remind him, however, that behind this notation,
the processes are really complicated: Thus (33) represents a whole SET of equations* terms on the right each having
MANY*
MANYj
(34) also represents a SET of equations!
And
each having
terms on the right.
And
is
their outer product, (35),
obtained by multiplying
*Namely, EIGHT
for
twodimensional space;
TWENTYSEVEN
SIXTYFOUR
for threedimensional,
for fourdimensional,
and so on. tFour for twodimensional space,
NINE
SIXTEEN
for threedimensional space, for fourdimensional space}
and so on.
177
EACH EACH
equation of (33)
by
one of (34), resulting in a SET of equations, (35),
containing
THIRTYTWO
equations for twodimensional space,
TWO HUNDRED AND
threedimensional space,
FORTYTHREE
for
ONE THOUSAND AND TWENTYFOUR
all
for
fourdimensional space, and so on.
And
with a
correspondingly large number of terms on the right of each equation!
And
yet
11
"any child can operate
as easily as
it
pushing a button.
XX.
CONTRACTION
and
AND
DIFFERENTIATION.
This powerful
easily operated machine,
the
TENSOR CALCULUS,
and LeviCivita
was devised and perfected by
the mathematicians
Ricci
in
about 1900, and was known to very few people
until Einstein
Since then
it
has
made use of become
it.
widely known, and we hope that
will
this little
book
make
it
intelligible
even to laymen.
178
But what use did Einstein
make
of it?
What
is its
connection with Relativity?
are nearly ready to Fulfill the promise made on page 1 25.
We
When we have explained two more operations with tensors, namely, CONTRACTION and DIFFERENTIATION, we shall be able to derive
the promised
CURVATURE TENSOR,
of Gravitation
from which
Einstein's
is
Law
obtained.
Consider the mixed tensor (33), p. 175: suppose we replace in it
7 by a,
obtaining
f\<x
dx a dx x dxM
^~f
a
\
**"
By
the summation convention (p.
1
52),
the lefthand
so that
member is to be summed on (36) now represents
only equations instead of eight,* each of which contains
TWO
TWO terms
since
on the
left
instead of one;
furthermore, on the RIGHT,
a occurs twice we must sum on a
for
here,
each pair of values of v and X
:
Now,
*Secp. 177.
180
when
v
happens to have a value
from X,
DIFFERENT
then
dx, dx^
__
dx
v
__
dxa dxx
f
dxx
other
BECAUSE
the x's are
NOT functions of each
p
(but only of the x"s) and therefore
there
is
NO variation of x
x,
with respect to
a
DIFFERENT
be
namely xx
.
Thus coefficients of
will all
A?
when A
^
v
ZERO
these terms drop out.
and
will
make
v.
BUT When A =
then
dx,
dx
_
a dxx dx'
_
.
dxl dx x
Thus (36) becomes
(37)
dx' 3xx a
A'
=
g^
which we must sum on the right for X and M
in

still
To make
all this
clearer,
let us write
out explicitly
the two equations represented
l
by
l
(37):
2
'\
+ A'?
=
l
^ UXi
d
UXi
(A\
+
Al
)
!?
+ A'f =
f (A? +
181
^l
1
)
^ + A?) + ^ (A? + Al
+
(Al
OX'2
2
).
Thus (37)
may be
written
more
briefly:
08)
where
cge
C'^/T + ^T, C = A'\ + X?
2
2
and
C2
In
=
A[
2
422
other words,
by making one upper and one lower index
ALIKE
in
(33),
we have REDUCED
a tensor of rank a tensor of rank
THREE ONE.
to
The important thins to note
or
as
is
that this process of reduction
CONTRACTION,
it
is called/ leads again to
A
TENSOR,
it is
and
foi
obvious that
every such contraction the rank is reduced by TWO, since for every such contraction
two of the
partial derivatives in
the coefficient
cancel out (see page 181).
We
how
shall
see
later
this
important
process ot contraction
is.
if
Now, we form
the
the
OUTER PRODUCT
(p. 1
of
two
tensors,
in
way already described 182
75)
and if the result a mixed tensor,
then,
is
by
as
contracting this
mixed tensor
is
shown above,
get a tensor which
called
we
an
in
INNER PRODUCT
contrast to
their
OUTER PRODUCT.
OUTER
product of
Thus the
A*
is
and B7
(see page
1
Ck
if
77);
now,
in this result
we
replace
7 by
8 ,
obtaining
CS, or
Da
(see pages
1
80
to
1
82),
then
D A*
is
an
INNER
product of
and B\
And now we come to DIFFERENTIATION.
We
if
must remind the reader that
y
=
uv
where // u, and v are variables,
then
dy
c/x
_
dv
c/x
c
j,
f?f*
c/x
Applying this principle to the differentiation of
(39)
A* = ^'A', OXff
differential calculus
*See any book on
183
with respect to
x,' ,
we
get:
Or, since
dA
dA* dxr
hence (40) becomes
( 41 \
^
=
dxT
From (41 ) we see that if the second term on the right were not present, then (41) would represent
a
mixed tensor
in certain
of rank two.
And,
this
special cases,
second term does vanish,
cases,
so that
in
SUCH
differentiation of a tensor
leads to another tensor
whose rank
is
one more than
the rank of the given tensor. Such a special case is the one
in
which the coefficients
dx.
in
(39)
are constants,
as in (13)
on page 147,
since the coefficients in (1 3) are the same as those in (1 1) or (10);
184
and are therefore (unctions of 6 , 6 being the angle through which the axes were rotated (page 141), and therefore a constant.
In
when the
other words, transformation of coordinates
is of the simple type described on page 141
,
then
ordinary differentiation of a tensor leads to a tensor.
BUT, IN
and IN
so,
GENERAL,
these coefficients are
NOT constants,
GENERAL
give a tensor evident from (41).
differentiation of a tensor
does
as
is
NOT
BUT
there
is
a process called
COVARIANT DIFFERENTIATION
which and which we
ALWAYS
leads to a tensor,
shall presently describe.
We
the
of
cannot emphasize too often
IMPORTANCE
any process which leads to a tensor, since tensors represent
the
"FACTS
11
of our universe
(see page 149).
And, besides, we shall have to employ
COVARIANT DIFFERENTIATION
in deriving
185
t/
X
the longpromised
CURVATURE TENSOR
and
EINSTEIN'S
LAW OF GRAVITATION
XXI.
THE
LITTLE
g's.
To explain covariant
differentiation
we must
in
first
refer the reader
back
to chapter XIII;
which
it
was shown that
the distance between two points, or, rather, the square of this distance,
2
namely, c/s , takes on various forms
depending upon
(a) the surface in question
and
(b) the coordinate system used.
But now,
with the aid of the remarkable notation
which
we have
since explained,
2
we
in
can include
these expressions for
c/s
ALL
the
SINGLE
expression
(42)
and, indeed, this holds
Jf = g^Jx^Jx9ff
NOT ONLY
for
ANY
or
SURFACE,
but also for
any THREEdimensional space,
FOURdimensional,
187
or, in general,
any ndimensional space!*
Thus, to
show how (42)
represents
equation (3) on page 116, we take M = 1 , 2 and ^ =
obtaining
2
1,2,
(43)
c/s
=
guc/xic/Xi
'
g2lC/X2
C/Xi
+ +
gi>c/xrc/x2
'
g22C/X>
C/X2 /
since the presence of
ju
and
in
P
TWICE
in
the term on the right
(42)
/*
requires
SUMMATION
may be
2
on both
and
p.f
Of
course (43)
c/s
written:
(44)
=
giic/x?
+
g, 2 c/xic/X2
+
and, comparing (44) with (3),
we
find that
the coefficients in (3) have the particular values:
=
ffll
1
=
I ff!2
,
jjfel
=
7
22
=
^Except only at a socalled "singular point"
of a space/
that
is,
a point at
which
matter
is
actually located
In other words, f42) holdr. for any region Pee page 1 52.
AROUND
exponent
matter.
 Note that in c/xi (as well as in c/x:)
the upper
"2"
is
is
really an
and
NOT a
NOT
SUPERSCRIPT
an
since (44)
ordinary algebraic equation and is in the
ABBREVIATED TENSOR NOTATION.
188
Similarly, in (6)
on page 120,
gu
and,
in
=
r\
ffi2
=
,
g2 i
=
, 322
=
=
/?*
/
(7) on
page 123,
gn
=*
1, 912
^
 cos a, g2i
= cos a,
g2 2
1,
and so on.
Note
the
that gi2
and
in
g?i
have
SAME value.
indeed,
general
9?"
And
=
9w
in
(42) on page 187.
Of course, if, in (42), we take /* 1,2, 3 and ^=1,2, 3, we shall get the value for c/s2
in a
THREEdimensional space:
2
(45)
c/s
=
guc/xi
+
gi2C/xrc/x2
+
gisc/xrc/xs
4 g>2]dx2dxi
+
Thus,
in particular,
for ordinary
Euclidean threespace, using the common rectangular coordinates, we now have:
gn
=
1
,
g22
=
1
/
gas
=
1 /
and
for
all
the other g's are zero,
so that (42) becomes,
THIS
PARTICULAR CASE,
2
the familiar expression
c/s
= =
c/x?
+ +
c/xl
+
c/xi
2
2
2
c/s
c/x
c/y
+
2
c/z
/
and
similarly for
higher dimensions.
189
Thus/ for a given space/
two, three, four, or ndimensional, for a given set of coordinates, we get a certain set of g's.
and
It is
easy to show* that
set of g's,
is
any such
(which
the
represented
by gv)
of a
constitutes
COMPONENTS
in fact, that
TENSOR,
and;
COVARIANT TENSOR OF RANK TWO,
is appropriately designated with SUBscriptsf:
and hence
TWO
Let us
now
briefly
far:
sum up
the story so
By introducing the Principle of Equivalence Einstein replaced the idea of M a force of gravity" by the concept of
a geometrical space (Chap. XII).
And
is
since a space
characterized
by
its
g's,
the
is
knowledge
things
of the g's of a space
essential to a study of
how
move
in
the space,
and hence
Einstein's
essential
to an understanding of
Law
of Gravitation.
*Seep.313. tSeep.172.
190
XXII.
OUR LAST DETOUR
As we
said before (page 185),
to derive the
Einstein Law of Gravitation, we must employ COVARIANT DIFFERENTIATION.
Now,
the
COVARIANT DERIVATIVE
known
as
of a terror
contains certain quantities
CHRISTOFFEL SYMBOLS*
which are functions of the tensor g^
discussed
in
chapter XXI,
set
and also of another
which
g^
(note the SUPERscripts here)
we
shall
now
describe:
let us limit
For simplicity, ourselves for the
moment
to
TWOdimensional space,
is,
that
let us
take
/x
=
1
,
2 and v
=
1
,
2
;
then gMV will have
FOUR
components,
namely,
the four coefficients on the right
in
(44).
let us
And
in a
arrange these coefficients
thus:
SQUARE ARRAY,
ff21
ff22
I
which
is
called a
MATRIX.
921
Now
since gt2
for the
=
(see page
1
89)
*Named
mathematician, Christoffcl.
191
this
is
called a
SYMMETRIC MATRIX,
since
it
is
symmetric with respect to
the principal diagonal
(that
in
is,
the
one which
starts
the upper lefthand corner).
IF
we now
replace the double bars
on each side of the matrix
as
by SINGLE bars, shown in the following:
we
a
get what
is
known
as
DETERMINANT.*
carefully
The reader must
DISTINGUISH between
*The reader probably knows that a square array of numbers
with single bars on each side
5
6
3
2
is
and
called a determinant, that its value is found thus:
5X36X2 = 1512Or, more generally,
at =*J
I
I
c
A determinant does not necessarily
have to have
but
TWO
may have n rows and
rows and columns, n columns,
.
and is then said to be of order n The way to find the VALUE of
a determinant of the nth order
is
described
in
any book on
college algebra.
193
a square array with
SINGLE
bars
from one with
The and has
DOUBLE bars: FORMER a DETERMINANT
is
a
SINGLE
way
in
VALUE
found by combining the "elements"
in a certain
as
mentioned Whereas
is
the footnote on p. 193.
the
DOUBLEbarred
array
a set of
SEPARATE
"elements,"
in
be COMBINED They may be just
NOT to
any way.
the coefficients of the separate terms on the right in (44),
which,
as
we mentioned on page
1
90,
of a tensor.
are the separate
COMPONENTS
The determinant on page 193 may be designated more briefly by
!
g.
I
,
Oi
=
1
,
2
/
v
=
1
,
2)
or,
still
better, simply
by
g.
And now
in
let us
form a
new
square array
of
the following manner: DIVIDE the
of the determinant
COFACTOR*
EACH ELEMENT
on page 193 by the value of the whole determinant,
namely, by g,
thus obtaining the corresponding element of
the
NEW array.
*For readers unfamiliar with determinants this term is explained on p. 195.
194
The
is
COFACTOR
of a given element
of a determinant
found by
striking
out
the row and column containing the given element, and evaluating the
determinant which
is left over, or prefixing the sign according to a certain rule:
+
Thus,
in
the determinant
523
4 6
1
8
/
the cofactor of the element 5,
1
is:
=
7
8
1X78X0 = 70 = 7.
4
is:
Similarly, the cofactor of
2
8
3
7
= (14 24) = 10;
and so on.
Note
that in the
first
case
we
we
prefixed the sign , while in the second case prefixed a
rule
is:
.
+
The
the
prefix a
+
the
or
according as
of steps required to
NUMBER
first
go
from the
(that
is,
element
in
one
the upper lefthand corner) to the given element,
is
EVEN
or
ODD,
respectively/
thus to
go from "5" to "4" it takes one step, hence the cofactor of "4" must have
a
MINUS
2
prefixed before
3
'
8
But
7
all this is
explained
in
more thoroughly any book on
college algebra.
195
Let us
at the
now 90 back
bottom of
p.
to the array described
194.
This
which
new array, we shall designate by
p
g"
can also be shown to be
a
TENSOR,
this
and,
A CONTRAVARIANT
OF RANK TWO.
it is
time,
TENSOR
That
also
SYMMETRIC
can easily be shown by the reader.
We
can
now
give the definition
of the Christoffel
symbol
{^v, \]
which
It
we need.
by
for:
is
designated
is
and
a
symbol
In
other words,
:
the abovementioned Christoffel symbol involves partial derivatives of
the coefficients in (44),
combined
the
as
shown
in
(46)
and multiplied by
components
in
of the tensor
g^
.
Thus,
twodimensional space,
*There arc other Christoffel symbols, but we promised the reader
to introduce only the barest minimum of mathematics
necessary for our purpose!
196
since
M
,
v
,
X
,
a each have
the values
1 ,
2
,
we
have, for example,
(11
*
I
I
/
1) {
I
2
a 11
<J
I
\dxi
12
i
4
9n
11 dxi

9n
^T
dxi
2
g
and
similarly (or the remaining
SEVEN
values of
obtained by allowing M
to take
,
v
and X
for each.
on
their
two values
Note
that in evaluating
we
SUMMED
a
to
allowing
above, {11 ; 1 on the a, take on BOTH values, 1,2,
}
BECAUSE
if
EACH TERM
and
(46) were multiplied out, would contain
this calls for
a TWICE,
1
SUMMATION
Now
that
on the a (see page
the meaning of
52).
we know
the 3index Christoffel symbol
X},
we
are ready to define
the covariant derivative of a tensor, from which it is only a step to
the
If
new Law
is
of Gravitation.
Ar
a covariant tensor of rank
one,
its
COVARIANT DERIVATIVE
xr
with respect to
is
DEFINED
as:
(47)
dA.
.
.
^{r,aM..
197
}
It
can be shown to be a
it is
TENSOR
in fact/
a
COVARIANT TENSOR OF RANK TWO*
and may therefore be designated by
A,T
Similarly,
if
.
we have
by
a contravariant tensor of rank one,
represented
its
Aa ,
COVARIANT DERIVATIVE
the
with respect to x,
is
TENSOR:
<
48 >
K.
+ln
.
r]
*.
Or,
starting with tensors of rank
TWO,
we have
the following three cases:
(a) starting with the
CONTRAVARIANT tensor, 4", we get the COVARIANT DERIVATIVE:
(b) from the MIXED tensor, we get the
A:,
COVARIANT
DERIVATIVE:
',*See p.
60
of
1
"The Mathematical Theory of Relativity/ by
A.
the
S.
Eddington,
Edition.
1930
198
(c) from the
we
set the
COVARIANT tensor, A. , COVARIANT DERIVATIVE:
T
Arrp
=
AA

jT^ UXp
{*P/
*}
Ar

\Tp / *}
A,
.
And
similarly (or the
COVARIANT DERIVATIVES
of tensors of higher ranks.
Note that IN ALL CASES COVARIANT DIFFERENTIATION OF A TENSOR
leads to a
TENSOR
having
ONE MORE UNIT OF COVARIANT CHARACTER
than the given tensor.
Of
course since
the covariant derivative of a tensor
is itself
a tensor,
find
we may
which
is
ITS covariant derivative
then the
of
SECOND COVARIANT DERIVATIVE
the original tensor, and so on for
higher covariant derivatives,
Note also that when the g's happen
as, for
in
to
be
constants,
example,
the case of a Euclidean plane,
using rectangular coordinates,
in
which case
we have
(see p.
1
88)
so that
=
flfll
I
/
l2
=
, ff21
=
,
22
199
all
constants,
then obviously the Christoffel symbols here
are
all
ZERO,
is
since the derivative of a constant
zero,
and every term of the
Christoffel
symbol
has such a derivative as a factor/
so that (47)
becomes simply
~~
.
That
is,
in this case,
the covariant derivative
becomes
simply the ordinary derivative. But of course
this
is
NOT so
IN
GENERAL
XXIII.
THE CURVATURE TENSOR AT LAST.
Having now built up the necessary machinery, the reader will have no trouble
in following the derivation of the new Law of Gravitation.
Starting with the tensor,
A,
,
form
its
covariant derivative
:
with respect to x r
(49)
A =
d
 K!A.(seep.197).
*See page 196.
200
of
Now form the covariant AT (see page 1 99)
xp
:
derivative
with respect to
(50)
A
=
rp
d
!<rp, e)
A, 
[rp,
ej
A,.
obtaining
a
SECOND
is
covariant derivative of
Aa
,
which
a
COVARIANT TENSOR OF RANK THREE.
Substituting (49) in (50),
we
A
get
A,,,
=
l/
^ff
T.*
~
(
)
(
ffr'/
i
^^a ^7" UJ\p
A  A
^
i
v/JCp
<
)
{"/
"I
9A
,
dA,
or
o
4
202
If
we had
the
taken these derivatives
order,
in
REVERSE
namely, FIRST with respect to xp and THEN with respect to xr
,
we would
of course have obtained
the following result instead:
f M<rT
+
which
a
is
3
)
A
'
}
ax~
{<7T,e}
f
{tp,a} A.
Vf\a
)
{pT'tlfc
again
,f + !PT /
)
(
)
l
(T6 /
a
)
l
l
A,
COVARIANT TENSOR OF RANK THREE
Now,
comparing (51) with (52)
we
shall find that
they are
NOT alike THROUGHOUT: Only SOME of the terms are the SAME in both,
but the remaining terms are different.
Let us see:
the FIRST term
2
in
each
is:
j V ^~ and T , , dx dx/ dxTdxp
ff
3 Ar
d~A
p
,
respectively.
These,
by ordinary
calculus,
203
The
is
ARE the same.* SECOND term
the same as
of (51)
the
FOURTH
in
term of (52)
since the occurrence of
a
(or e)
TWICE
the same term
implies a
SUMMATION
!
and it is therefore immaterial what letter is used (a or e) f
Similarly for
the
FOURTH
term of (51)
and the SECOND of (52). The SIXTH term (and the SEVENTH) is the same in both since the reversal of r and p in
*For, suppose that z
as, for
is
a (unction of
x and /
,
example, z
x
2
+
2xy,
Then
.
=
2x
+
2
2y
(treating
y as constant)
and
v v" dxdy
THEN
=
(treating
x
as constant).
if we reverse the order of differentiation, finding FIRST the derivative with respect to y with respect to x , and
And,
we would
get
Y
\0
= 2x
(treating
x
as constant)
and
the
7,
2
dydx
(treating
y as constant)
SAME FINAL
this is true
result.
And
t
IN
GENERAL.
is
An
index which
thus easily replaceable
is
called a
"dummy"!
204
does not
alter the value of
this Christoffel
symbol:
This can easily be seen by referring to the definition of this symbol;* and remembering that the tensor gM ,
is
SYMMETRIC,
is,
that
ft,
g,M (see
page
is
1
89).
Similarly the last term
in
the same
both (51) and (52).
But the
are
THIRD and FIFTH
to
subtraction
terms of (51)
in
NOT equal
any of the terms
(52).
\
Hence by
we
}
get
f
{^
}
A*
Aa
oxp
{
or
(53)
And
since addition (or subtraction)
of tensors
gives a result which is itself a tensor (see page 161) the lefthand member of (53) is
A COVARIANT
is
TENSOR OF RANK THREE,
hence of course the righthand member
also such a tensor.
But,
now,
since
An
is
an arbitrary covariant vector,
*Seepa 9 e196.
205
its
coefficient;
in
namely; the quantity must also be a tensor
square brackets,
according to the theorem on p. 31 2.
Furthermore,
this
bracketed expression
must be a
since
it
MIXED
tensor of
RANK FOUR,
on inner multiplication by A.
is
must give a result which
of rank
THREE;
it
and indeed
must be of the form
(see page 31 3).
This
AT LAST
is
the longpromised
( P a 8 e187),
CURVATURE TENSOR
and
is
known
as
THE RIEMANNCHRISTOFFEL TENSOR.
Let us examine
so that
its
it
carefully
we may
appreciate
meaning and value.
XXIV.
OF WHAT USE
IS
THE CURVATURE
TENSOR?
In
the
first
place
that
we must remember
it
is
an abbreviated notation for
in
the expression
in
square brackets
(53) on page 205;
in
if
which,
we
substitute for the Christoffel symbols,
206
and so on, accordance with the definition on page 196,
(crp, e}
their values in
we
First
find that
we have
partial derivatives
an expression containing
and second
,
of the g's
which are themselves the coefficients
in
the expression for
2
c/s
(see p.
1
87)
How many
Obviously
components does
that
the RiemannChristoffel tensor have?
depends upon the
dimensionality of the space
under consideration.
Thus,
a
if we are studying twodimensional surface,
then each of the indices,
will
so that B*TP
have two possible values, would then have
sixteen components.
Similarly,
in
it
threedimensional space
4 would have 3 or 81 components, and so on.
in
For the purposes of Relativity, which we have to deal with
a
FOURdimensional continuum
this tensor has
44
or
256 components!
We
it is
hasten to
add
that
not quite so bad as that, as we can easily see:
In
if,
the
first
place,
in this tensor,*
*That
in
is, in the expression (53) on page 205.
in
square brackets
207
we interchange r and p , the result is merely to change
Hence,
its
sign.J
of the possible 16 combinations of r and p only 6 are independent:
This
that
is
,
in itself
we
shall linger
so interesting here for a moment:
a,,;j ,
(wherea=
Suppose we have 16 quantities, 1 , 2, 3 7 4, and
 1,2,3,4),
which we may arrange
as follows:
a2t
322 332
^42
a23
a;j;}
324
331
44
ast
641
^43
And
(that
suppose
is,
that a a)3
=
a fta
a reversal of the
in a
two
subscripts
change of sign of the term), = an implies that an = then, since a n , and similarly for the remaining terms
results
only
in
the principal diagonal,
hence,
the above array becomes:
324
323
324
Thus there are only
SIX
distinct quantities
instead of sixteen.
Such an array
is
called
ANTISYMMETRIC.
tThc reader would do well to compare this expression with the one obtained from it by an interchange of r and
p throughout.
208
Compare
a
this
with the definition of
array
SYMMETRIC And so,
on page 193.J on page 208,
come back we now have
to
six
to the discussion
combinations of r and p
to
be used with
sixteen combinations of
giving
6
X
16
or
<r and a, 96 components
instead of 256.
Furthermore, it can be shown
that
we
can further reduce
this
number
to 20.*
Thus our curvature tensor,
for the situation in Relativity,
has only
20 components and
consider for a
NOT
256!
Now
let us
moment
of this tensor
the great in the study of spaces.
fThus
in
IMPORTANCE
an
ANTISYMMETRIC
a/3
,
matrix
we have
ap =
whereas,
in a
SYMMETRIC
matrix
we have
Note
were
it
that
if
the
first
matrix
on
p.
208
SYMMETRIC,
distinct elements,
in
would reduce to
the principal diagonal
in that case.
TEN
since the elements
would
NOT
be zero
*See A. S. Fddington's The Mathematical Theory of Relativity,
page 72 of the 1930 edition.
209
Suppose we have
a
Euclidean space
more dimensions, and suppose we use
of two, three, or
ordinary rectangular coordinates. Here the g*s are all constants.*
Hence,
since the derivative of a constant
is
zero
the Christoffel symbols will also be zero (see page 200);
and, therefore,
all
the components of the
curvature tensor
will be zero too, because every term contains
a Christoffel
symbol (see page 205).
BUT,
if
in
the components of a tensor any given coordinate system
all
are
zero,
its
obviously
components
in
any other coordinate system would also be zero
(consider this
in
the simple case on page 129) c
And
so,
2
whereas from a mere superficial inspection
of the expression for
cfe
whether Euclidean or not,! an examination of the curvature tensor (which of course is obtained from the coefficients
tell
we cannot
the space
is
in
the expression for
1
1
2
c/s )
*Sec page JScc page
89. 25.
210
can definitely give this information, no matter what coordinate system
is
used
2
in setting
up
cfs
.
Thus,
whether
we
use (3) on page
116
or (7) or (8) on
all
page 123,
of which represent
the square of the distance
between two points
ON A
we
EUCLIDEAN PLANE,
using various coordinate systems,
shall find that
in all
the components of B"Tp
three cases
ARE ALL ZERO.*
The same
for all
is
true
coordinate systems
and
for any number of dimensions, provided that we remain in Euclidean geometry.
*To have
a clear idea of
the meaning of the symbolism, the reader should try the simple exercise
of showing that
He
must bear
in
for (8) on B?TP = mind that here
p.
123.
911
=
1,
312
=
g2i
=
o,
gfc^xj,
and use these values in the bracketed expression in (53) on page 205,
remembering of course
is
that the
meaning of [ap 1
1]
,
etc.
given
by
all
the definition on page 196;
indices,
<r
also that
,
p
1
,
c
,
etc.
have the possible values
since the space here
is
and 2,
twodimensional; and he must not forget to
SUM
whenever an index appears TWICE IN ONE TERM.
ANY
211
Thus
(54)
is
B; rp
=
condition
a
NECESSARY
that a space shall
be
EUCLIDEAN.
It
can be shown that
is
this
also a
SUFFICIENT
condition.
other words, given a Euclidean space,
In
this tensor will
be zero,
is
whatever coordinate system
AND
used,.
CONVERSELY,
given this tensor equal to zero, then we know that
the space must be Euclidean.
We
how
is
shall
the
now see new Law
of Gravitation
EASILY
derived
from
this tensor.
XXV. THE BIG G'S OR EINSTEIN'S OF GRAVITATION.
In
LAW
(54) replace p
by a ,
obtaining
(55)
Since
in
B
a
=
0.
a appears
,
twice
left,
the term on the
must,
we
according to the usual convention,
sum on a,
213
t\
V
so that (55) represents
4X4
in a
SIXTEEN equations corresponding to the values of <r and r
only
fourdimensional continuum.
when er = r (55) becomes
Thus,
=
1
7
Bin
Similarly for
<r
+
Bin
r
+
=
Bin
+
B?u
=
0.
=
1 ,
2
,
we
get
0121
+
Bl22
+
Bi23
+
Bi24
=
and r
and so on,
for the
16
possible combinations of
<r
We
(56)
may
therefore write (55) in the form
G =
ffr
as
In
where each G consists of 4 shown above.
other words,
B's
by
CONTRACTING
is
B,' rp ,
which
a tensor of the
we
get a tensor of the
FOURTH rank, SECOND rank,
namely,
G
ffT
,
as explained
on page 182.
The QUITE INNOCENTLOOKING EQUATION (56) IS EINSTEIN'S LAW OF GRAVITATION.
Perhaps tht reader
is
startled
by
But
this
sudden announcement.
look into (56)
is
let us
carefully,
and see what
behind
its
innocent simplicity,
215
and why
the
In
it
it
deserves to be called
Law
of Gravitation.
the first place must be remembered
that before contraction,
B*rt>
represented the quantity in brackets in the righthand member
of equation (53)
on page 205.
it
Hence,
when we contracted by replacing p by a
,
we
can see from (53) that
Gar represents the following expression:
\
r\
(57)
{era, e}
(er, a}

^
{<"",
a]
+
{aa, a]

{err,*}
{,<*},
which,
in turn,
by
the definition of
the Christoffel symbol (page 196)
represents
an expression containing
first
and second
little g's.
partial derivatives
of the
And,
of course,
(57) takes 16 different values as <r and r each take on
their
4
different values,
letters in
while the other Creek
(57),
namely, a and e, are mere dummies (see page 204)
and are to be summed
(since each occurs twice in each term), as usual.
216
To get
just
clearly in
mind
what (57) means,
is
the reader
advised
to replace each Christoffe!
in
symbol
accordance with the definition on page 196, and to write out in particular
one
of the
16 expressions represented by (57)
<r
by
putting, say
=
1
and r
=
2
,
and allowing a and
in succession, the values 1,2, 3
6
to assume,
,4.
It
can easily be shown
that (56) actually represents
NOT
So
is
16 DIFFERENT equations
but only 10,
and, of these, only
that the
6 are independent.* new Law of Gravitation
first.
not quite so complicated
it
as
appears at
But
why do we call it a Law of Gravitation at all?
It
will
be remembered
that a space,
of any number of dimensions,
is its
characterized
by
2
expression for
cfs
(see page 187).
Thus
(56)
is
completely determined by
the nature of the space which, by the Principle of Equivalence
determines the path
of a freely moving object in the space.
*Se
p. 242.
217
But,
even granting the
Principle of Equivalence,
that
is,
granting the idea
that the nature of the space,
11
rather than a "force
of gravity,
determines
how
objects (or light)
move
in
in that
space
other words,
granting that the g's alone
determine the
Law
ask:
of Gravitation
one may
still
Why
Law
is
this particular
expression (56)
taken to be the
of Gravitation?
To which the answer
it is
is
that
is
the
SIMPLEST
expression which
ANALOGOUS to
Perhaps the reader
at this reply,
is
Newton's Law of Gravitation.
unpleasantly surprised
and thinks
that the choice has
been
made
rather
ARBITRARILY!
book
1
May we
in
therefore suggest to him
to read through the rest of this
order to find out
the
CONSEQUENCES
Law
predict that he will
of Einstein
*
choice
of the
of Gravitation.
We
and
be convinced
this
of the
WISDOM
of this choice,*
is
will
appreciate that
part of Einstein's
GENIUS!
particularly
*The reader
who
is
interested in this point
wish to look up a book called "The Law of Gravitation in Relativity" by Levinson and Zeisler, 1931.
may
218
He
will see, for
example, on page 271
,
that the equations giving
the path of a planet,
derived
are the
by Newton,
SAME,
to a
first
approximation,
as the Einstein equations,
so that the latter can
do
ALL
and
the
that the
Newtonian equations do,
FURTHERMORE,
term in (84) accounts for the "unusual" path of the planet Mercury,
ADDITIONAL
which the Newtonian equation (85) did not account for at all.
But
we
are anticipating the story!
Let us
a form
now
which
express Newton's Law in will show the analogy clearly.
XXVI.
COMPARISON OF
EINSTEIN'S
LAW
OF GRAVITATION WITH NEWTON'S.
Everyone knows
that,
according to Newton,* two bodies attract each other
with a force which
is
proportional
to the product of their masses, and inversely proportional to the
square of the distance between them,
thus:
*See the chapter on the "Theory of Attractive Forces*' in Ziwet and Field's Introduction to Analytical Mechanics,
219
In this
formula
we
regard the two bodies, of masses mi and m ,
>
as each concentrated at a single point
11
*
(its
and
"center of gravity r is then precisely
),
the distance between these two points. Mow we may consider that mi
5
is
in
surrounded by a "gravitational field* which the gravitational force at A
(see the diagram on page 221) is given by the above equation.
If we divide we get
both sides by m%
fc/m ~ _F_ __
1
o~~
ni2
r"
And,
according to Newton,
a
the acceleration with which
=
/3l2
,
the force
m> would move due to F acting on it.
We
(58)
may
therefore write
a
=
where the constant C now includes
since
we
are speaking of
.
the gravitational field around mi
*Thus
it is
a fact that
to support a
it is
body
over,
not necessary to
it
hold
up
all
but one needs only support it right under its center of gravity,
as
if its
entire mass
at that point.
were concentrated
220
Now,
and
it
acceleration
is
a vector quantity/*
may be
split
up
into
components:!
,
Thus take the origin to be at mi and the mass 012 at A i
then
OA =
let
2
r;
at
and
(since
in
AB represent the acceleration m is being pulled toward mi)
A
both magnitude and direction.
if
Now
it is
X
is
the xcomponent of a
,
obvious that
X
a
x
r'
Therefore
Or,
better,
*See page 127. fSee page 129.
221
to
show
that the direction of
X
is
to the
left.
Substituting in this equation
the value of a from (58)
we
get:
y A  And,
similarly,
^*
7

y=


3
and,
in
3dimensional space,
we would have
By
also
Z=
get:
p
differentiation,
we
dx
But, since r
(as
is
2
6
r
=
,
x
2
+
2
y
+
r),
z
2
obvious from the diagram
if
on page 131
i
AB =
'
dr
then
x = r
dx
Substituting this in the
it
above equation,
becomes
dx
r
6
And,
similarly,
From these we
(59)
get:
3X,ay,az _ TV"
[
ox
ay
az
222
This equation
may be
,
written:
,
(60)
dV
ax
is
2 "*"
^
a/
*
dz
2
2 "*"
where
a (unction such that
and
is
called the
1
*
*/
"gravitational potential
obviously (60)
is
merely another way
of expressing the field equation (59)
obtained from
Newton's Law of Gravitation.
This form of the law,
is
namely (60),
generally 'known as the Laplace equation
and
is
more
briefly
2
denoted by
v ^ where the symbol
that
V
2
merely denotesf
the second partial derivatives with respect to x , y , and z ,
respectively,
are to
as
be taken and added together, shown in (60).
from (60), then,
We see
that the gravitational field equation
obtained from
Newton's Law of Gravitation
an equation containing the second partial derivatives of the gravitational potential.
is
See footnote on page 21 9. is read "nabla", fThe symbol 2 and is read *'nabla square".
*
V
V
223
Whereas (56)
is
a set of equations
which also contain
nothing higher than the second partial derivatives
of the g's,
which,
by the Principle of Equivalence, replace the notion of
a gravitational potential
derived from the idea of
11
a "force
of gravity,
by
the idea of
the characteristic property of the SPACE in question (see Ch. XII). It is therefore reasonable
to accept (56) as the
gravitational field equations
which follow from the idea of
the Principle of Equivalence.
HOW
will
REASONABLE
it
is
be evident when we test it by
EXPERIMENT!
It
has
been
said (on
page 21 5)
that
each
G
consists of four B'S O
Hence,
if
the B's are
all
zero,
all
then the G's will
be zero;
but the converse
is
obviously
NOT true:
all
Namely,
even
it
if
the G's are
zero,
does not necessarily follow
that the B's are zero.
925
But
we know
that,
to have the
fi's all
zero
implies that
the space
is
Euclidean (see p. 213).
Thus, if the condition for Euclidean space
is
fulfilled,
namely,
Off Tp
~ Ba = V /
automatically follows/
then
thus
G<rT
=
is
true in the special case of
Euclidean space.
But, more than since
this,
does
hence
NOT NECESSARILY
fi's
imply
that the
are zero,
can be true
EVEN
IF
THE SPACE
IS
NOT EUCLIDEAN,
namely, in the space around
a
body which
creates a gravitational field.
Now
but
all this
sounds very reasonable,
naturally asks:
still
one
"How
Law
be
can
this
new
of Gravitation
tested
EXPERIMENTALLY?"
226
Einstein suggested several ways in which it might be tested.
and,
as every child
now knows/
when
the experiments were
actually carried out,
his predictions
were
all fulfilled,
and caused
a great stir
not only in the scientific world, but penetrated even into
the daily news the world over.
But doubtless the reader
would
like to
know
the details of these experiments/ and just how the abovementioned
Law
is
of Gravitation
applied to them.
is
Thai
what
we
shall
show
next.
XXVII.
HOW CAN
THE EINSTEIN
LAW OF
GRAVITATION
BE TESTED?
We
have seen that
G, r
=
new
represents Einstein's Law of Gravitation/
and consists of 6 equations
containing partial derivatives of the little g's.*
*See pages 21 5 to 21
7.
227
,u
In
order to test
this
law
substitute in
it
we must obviously
the values of the g's which
actually apply in our ohysical world;
in
other words,
first
we must know
what
is
the expression for d* which applies to our world
(see Chapter XIII).
Now,
if
we
use
the customary polar coordinates,
we know
in
that
twodimensional
2 c/s
EUCLIDEAN
2
space
we have
=
c/r
+ rW.*
Similarly,
for threedimensional
EUCLIDEAN
we have
space
the wellknown:
2
c/s
=
2
c/r
+ rW +
2
2
r
sinW</>
The reader can
2
c/s
easily derive this from

c/x?
+
Jxl
+ Jx]
(on pa g c 189),
by changing
to polar coordinates with the aid of the diagram
on page 230.
*See page 123
229
where
xi
X2
xs
= = = =
x
r
= 01 = OMcos
cos
<t>
/
POM
r
cos
=
</>
<
r sin ^
cos
<
y
z
= LM = = PM =
OM sin
cos
0.
=
r sin
sin
And,
for
4dimensional spacetime
230
we have
2
fc/s
= 
Jr
2

rW  fWe/flcfy +
2
(61 a) or
2
= =
[c/s
c/x?
 xl^ 9, x3
x?sinVc/xi
4
f c/xi
(where xi
r, x2
=
= 0, x =
t
7
and c
as
we
taken equal to 1), can readily see:
is
Note
in
that the general form for
fourdimensional space
Cartesian coordinates,
analogous to the 3dimensional one on p. 189,
2
c/s
=
Jx
2
+
2
dy
+
2
</z
+
2
c/r
.
But 7 on page
67
we showed
in
that
order to get
in
the square of an "interval"
spacetime
in this
form/
four plus signs,
to take r
with
all
we had
NOT
equal to
the time, t, BUT to take T
i
= 
ict* where
c
= =
the velocity of light;
2
from which
c/r
=  cW,
and the above expression becomes:
*As
in
a matter of fact,
11
"Special Relativity,
we
took r
=
it,
but that was because
we
also took c
=
1/
otherwise,
we must
take r
=
231
ict.
V
And,
2 2
furthermore,
since in actual fact,
c
c/t
is
always found to be
2
Sreater than (</x
+
2
c/y
+
2
c/z ),
therefore,
to
it is
make c/s come out reel instead more reasonable to write
2
of imaginary,
c/s
=
c/x
2
Jy
2
c/z
2
+cW,
which
in
polar coordinates,
a).
becomes (61
The reader must
this
clearly realize that
formula
still
applies to
EUCLIDEAN
which
the
is
spacetime, involved in
SPECIAL
theory of Relativity*
where we considered only
observers moving with
UNIFORM
velocity relatively to each other.
But now, in the GENERAL theory (page 96)
where we are considering
accelerated motion (page 102),
and therefore have a
NONEUCLIDEAN
(see Chapter XII),
spacetime
2
what expression
shall
for
c/s
we
use?
In
the
it is
first place reasonable to assume that
(61 b)
Js
2
= 
e* </x?

e* (xldxl
+
+
(where Xi
*See Part
,
e'c/x
X2 / Xa / X4 represent
of this book.
I
233
the polar coordinates r, 0,
respectively,
$, and
t,
and A
,
IJL
,
and
v are (unctions of xi only),
BECAUSE:
(A) we do not include product
of the form
or,
cfxi
terms
cfa
,
more generally, of the form dx c/xr where
ff
cr
^
r
,
(which
since
ARE
included
in
(42), p. 187)
from astronomical evidence
it
seems
that
is
our universe
(a)
ISOTROPIC and
(b)
HOMOGENEOUS:
is,
That
the distribution of matter
(the nebulae)
is
the
SAME
ALL DIRECTIONS
and
(a)
IN
(b)
FROM WHICHEVER POINT WE LOOK.
the omission of terms like
Now, how does
dx JxT where
ff
<r
^
r
represent this mathematically?
Well, obviously,
a term like c/rc/0
(or C/0C/0 or c/rc/(/>)
would be
for 6 (or
different
</>
or r) positive or negative,
2
and, consequently,
the expression for
c/s
if
would be
in
different
we
turn
opposite directions
234
which would contradict the
experimental evidence that the universe is ISOTROPIC
And
from
of course the use of
2
the same expression for
c/s
ANY point
HOMOGENEITY.
it is
reflects the idea of
And
so
we
see that
reasonable
2
to have in (61 b)
only terms involving c[0 , c[</> , c/r in which it makes no difference
whether
2
2
,
we
substitute
+c/0 or
c/0, etc.
Similarly,
since in getting a measure for
2
c/s /
a
we are considering STATIC condition,
is
and not one which
from
changing
moment
to
moment,
we must
for
in
therefore not include
terms which will have different values
+dtand
c/f/
other words, we must not include
product terms like c/rc/t,
In short
etc,
\we must not have any terms involving
cfx^c/Xr
where
or
^T,
but only terms involving
dx dxr where
ff
(7
=
T.
(B)
The
in
factors
e
x
,
e
M
, e",
are inserted
the coefficients
*
to allow for the fact
*Cf.(61a)and(61b).
235
that our space
is
now
NONEUCLIDEAN.
Hence they are so chosen as to allow freedom to adjust them
to the actual physical world /since they are variables),
jnd yet
iheir
it
FORM
is
such that
to manipulate
will
in
them making the necessary adjustmentshall see.*
be easy
as
we
Now,
(61 b) can
be somewhat
simplified
by
replacing
2
e*x?
by
(x() ,
and taking
x( as a
new
coordinate,
thus getting rid of e" entirely/
and we may even drop the prime, since any change in c/xi which arises from the above substitution can be taken care of by taking X correspondingly different.
Thus (61 b) becomes, more simply,
2
(62)
c/s
= 
e\/x?

xldxl
 xrsinWx2 +
.
2
e'c/x4
And we now
have to find
the values of the coefficients e and e"
in
x
terms of xi.j
^Further justification for (61 b)
may be found
R. C. Tolman's
Relativity
p.
in
Thermodynamics
& Cosmology,
239
ff.
ISee page 934.
236
We warn the reader that this a COLOSSAL UNDERTAKING,
is
we
but, in spite of this bad news, hasten to console him by
telling
him
that
terms will reduce to zero, and the whole complicated structure
many
will
we
melt down to almost nothing; can then apply the result
to the physical data with the greatest ease.
To any reader who "can't take
1
'
it
we
suggest that
he omit the next chapter and merely use the result
to follow
Einstein
the experimental tests of the Law of Gravitation
given from page
255
on.
BUT HE WILL MISS
A
LOT OF FUN!
XXVIII.
SURMOUNTING THE
DIFFICULTIES.
So
far,
we have
SLI
then, the following values:
=
*
x
/ ff22
= cr
and gar
=
x?
,
g33
= 
2
x?sin
x2 , g44
=
e*
when
^
r.
(see (62) on p. 236.)
Furthermore, the determinant
is
g (see page 194)
simply equal to
principal diagonal,
the product of the four elements in
its
237
since
ail
the other elements are zero:
Hence
Also 7
in this case,
and
T
g*
=
when a
^
r.
f
We
in
need these relationships determining e* and e in (62).
shall shall
Now we
how
see
the big G's will help us to Find the little g's
and how the little g's will help us to reduce the number of big G's 10
ONLY
THREE!
show
that
First let us
the set of quantities
is
SYMMETRIC,}:
and therefore
*See the chapter on determinants in any college algebra,
to Find out
a
how
to evaluate
"
determinant of the fourth order.
M tSee the definition of g on page 196. 193. {Seepage
239
Gar =
as
reduces to
TEN
on
*
equations
instead of sixteen/ v and r each take
1
their values
,2/3,4.
that
p.
To show
this,
we must remember
on and let us examine {act, a} which occurs in (57):
ffT
G
really represents (57)
216;
By
definition (page 196),
But,
remembering
that
the presence of in term
a and
c
TWICE
EACH
(after
multiplying out)
on implies that we must the reader will easily see that
SUM
a and
e
many
and
of the terms will cancel out
that
we
shall qet
Furthermore, v the definition of g" on page 196, the reader may also verify the fact that
by
i
dg
2ff
=
1
dg
where g
is
the determinant of p. 239.
And,
from elementary calculus,
*See pase 193.
240
Similarly,
/} =
we
get:
:>
log
vgr.
Substituting these values in (57),
<\
(63)
G =
ffT
{era, e}
{er, a}

jar, aj
+
We
can
now
easily see
that (63) represents
10 equations and not
In
sixteen/
(or the following reasons:
the
first
place/
{er, a]
=
{re, a}
(see pp. 204, 205).
Hence,
by
the
its
interchanging a and r , first term of (63) remains unchanged,
factors
two
merely change places
*Notc
that
we might
also have obtained
is
V +
_
g,
= y, (we shall show on p. 252 that X 4 2 and therefore g on p. 239 becomes xi sin X2) it is more reasonable to select v g f which
will
but since g
always negative
make
the Christoffel symbols,
in
and hence also the terms
the
new Law
of Gravitation,
REAL
rather than imaginary.
241
(since
as
and a are mere dummies,
explained on page 204).
And,
the second, third and fourth terms of (63) are also unchanged by
the interchange of a and r. in other words,
Thus, if we arrange the 16 quantities in
in a
G
JT
square array:
Gn
vJ21
Gi2
tf22
Gis
VJ23
G
\3
Gsi
G41
Gs2
642
that
633
Gl3
G 6
We
this
have
is
just
shown
a
SYMMETRIC
to
matrix.*
Hence (63) reduces instead of 1 6 ,
as
10 equations
we
said before.
We
how
shall
not burden the reader
with the details of
(63)
to only
that
is further reduced SIX equations.! is
But perhaps the reader
are
still
thinking
"only six" equations
no great consolation, particularly if he realizes
*See page 239. he is interested, he may look this up on page 115 of M 1 The Mathematical Theory of Relativity/
flf
by A. S. Eddington, the 1930 edition.
24*
how long each of these equations But does he realize this?
he would do well to take cr and r = 1 , and r = 1 , say <r in order to see just what
particular values of
,
is
!
ONE
is
of the equations
in
(63)
really like!
(don't forget to
Is
sum on the dummies
I)
just
Is
the reader wondering what we are trying to
this a subtle
do
to
him?
mental torture
by which we
alternately frighten The fact is that
and console him?
we do want
to
to frighten him sufficiently
realize
make him
the colossal amount of computation that is involved here,
and yet to keep up
his
courage too
by the knowledge
it
that
does eventually boil down
might not appreciate simple form
it.
to a really simple form.
He
the
if
final
he did not know
this
the labor that produced
With
we shall how the
apology, now proceed to indicate
further simplification
takes place.
In
we
each Christoffel symbol in (63), must substitute specific values
for the
It is
Greek
letters.
obvious then
243
that there will (a) those in
all
be
four possible types:
letters are alike:
which the values of
three
Greek
g
Thus:
ffo
a}
0<r ,
(b) those of the form
(c) those of the form
r
or
,
r
and
(d) those of the form
{err ,
p}.
Note that it is unnecessary to consider the form {rer, r} since this is the same as (or, r} (see p. 204).
Now, by
definition (page 196),
and, as usual, we must sum on a.
But since the only g's which are not zero
are those in which
the irrdices are alike (see p.
237)
and,
in that case,
flT*=1/ff~
(P 239).
Hence
f
_
(jcr,
a} }
dS _ jL( v~ ^'l Adx
2g
4 9~ r ~^
d
d  9~
\
I
(T
<y
5x
ff
3x,/
and therefore
which,
by elementary
{<r<r,<r}
calculus, gives
(a)
=
^
^
log
gro.
244
Similarly,
*"' = Mi!*" + 2 Vox,
will
1dx,
Hdx
a
/
Here the only values keep the outside
of
a
T
that
ra
factor
,
are those for which
a =
g
from being zero
and since r
^
a
(for otherwise
we
should have case (a)
)
we
get
or
/L\ (b)
Likewise
(c)
{CTT.T}
=
g
^
log grr
and
(d)
{<rr
/P }=0.
Let us
now
evaluate these various forms
for specific values:
Thus, take,
in
case (a),
cr
=
1
1
r)
:
Then
{11/1}
=
g
^7
lo
33n
x Butgn= c
(Seep. 239).
hence {11
f
i}=l.og(O
calculus, gives
which,
by elementary
245
L 4 A where V represents

or
/
6x1
since xi
dr
=
r (see
page 233),
Similarly,
in,
But, since
i4
if
*J
in taking a PARTIAL derivative with respect to one variable, all the other variables are held constant,
hence
and therefore
(22,2} =0.
And,
likewise,
{33 ,3)
= {44,41=0.
2
/
Now,
take
for case (b),
first (r
=
1
,
r
=
then
{11
,
2}
= 
^
x2
is
gn
= 
~
2flL> 2
~3x2
But, since X is a function of x\ and is therefore held constant
only/
while the partial derivative
with respect to x>
taken,
hence {11,2} and so on.
Let us see
=0,
specific values
how many
in all.
we
shall
have
Obviously
(a) has
4
specific cases,
*Se
page 234.
246
1 ,2,3,4, namely, <r which have already been evaluated above.
=
(b) will have 12 specific cases, since for each value of a = 1 , 2
,
3
,
4
,
r can have 3 of
(for
its
possible 4
values
here a
^
r)
/
(c) will also
have 12 cases,
and
(d) will have 4 but since {or , p}
this
X
3
X
2
=
24
=
cases,
[TV , p\
(see p. 204),
reduces to
in all
1 2.
Hence
there are
40
cases.
The reader should verify the fact that 31 of the 40 reduce to zero,
the
9 remaining ones being
(64)
'Remember
that
x2
=
Note
that
/=
d
oxi
~=%
or
.
Now,
in (63),
when we
give to the various
Greek
letters
their possible values, we find that,
since so many of the ChristofFel symbols are equal to zero, a great meny (over 200) terms drop out ! And there remain now
only FIVE equations, each with a much smaller number of terms. These are written out in full below, and,
lest
this
final
the reader think that is the promised
simplified result, hasten to add that the BEST is yet to come!
we
Just
Gii is obtained, the reader how showing to on a. and e and which terms drop out (because they contain zero factors}
how
SUM
will be found on page 31 7.
in
V,
And,
similarly (or the other G's.
Here we give the equations which result after the zero terms have been eliminated.
248
Gu=
11,1} {11,1}+
13, 3} {31,3}
+
12, 2} {21, 2}
14,4)141,4}
=
Similarly,
0.
,3] (83,3)
=
0.
/
= 2{33 1}{13,3}
+ 2{33,2}{23,3}
133, 2}
ST {33,11ir
,
=
0.
,1}
{14,41(44,1}
/
=
0.
=
0.
249
If
we now
substitute
these equations the values given in (64),
in
we
get
=
424
v
"
+
""

xv  
=
Similarly
0*
G =
33
2
sin
0e
x
l
+
r
(/

X')

2
sin
=
0.
=
=
0.
d X
\"
and
v"
=
j
250
and 612 becomes:
r
cotfl

r
cotfl
=
which is identically zero and therefore drops out, thus reducing the number of equations
to
FOUR.
also that
,
Note
633 includes 622
so that these two equations
are not
independent hence now the equations are
THREE.
And
we
now, dividing
G
x
44
by
e*~
,
and adding the
get
A'
result to
Gn
(65)
=  / = ~
dv T" dr
'
d\
or
T" or
Therefore,
by
A
integration,
(66)
= 
v
+
I
where
/ is a
constant of integration.
But, since
at
an
infinite distance
from matter,
our universe would be Euclidean,*
*See page 226.
251
and then, (or Cartesian coordinates, we would have:
that
is,
the coefficient of c/x? and of dx\ must be 1 under these conditions/
hence,
if
(61 b)
is
to hold also for
this special case,
as of course
we
In
it must do, should then have A =
,
v
=
0.
other words,
v
since,
when
=
,
then, from (66),
X also equals , / , too, must be zero.
Hence
(67)
\=v.
Usins (65) and (67),
622
on page 250 becomes
e'(1
put
(68)
If
+n/) =
,
1.
we
7
=
e
and
differentiate with respect to r
,
we
get
or
or
dy ^~
_
e
v
"
dv
dr
Hence (68) becomes
(69)
7
+ fy =
1.
*See pages 189 and 231.
252
This equation
may now be
easily integrated/
obtaining
(70)
T
=
1

~
where 2m is a constant of integration. The constant m will later be shown
to have an important physical meaning.
Thus
we have succeeded
an e and
x
in finding
e'
*From elementary theory of
differential equations,
we
write (69):
or
or
cf
T_ = Jr
r
17
Having separated the
'
we
can
now
variables, integrate both sides
thus:
log (1
or
7)
= =
log r
+ constant;
log r (1
7)
constant,
and therefore
r (1
7)
=
constant.
We
may
then write
r (1
we
A 1
7)
= 2m
2m
.
,
from which
get
7
=
253
in
terms of xi
e"
:
=
x
1/e
=7 = 1 2m/r = 1
2
2 2
2/n/x,
and (62) becomes:
(71 )
ctf
=  7i</r2  rV0 =
=
r sin
c/</
where, as before (p. 233),
r
=
xi /
x2
,
x3
,
t
=
x4
.
And
the
hence
new Law of Gravitation, consisting now of only
the
THREE
remaining equations:
Gn =
are
,
G =
33
,
and
G =
44
,
now
little
fully
determined by
the
g
s
of (71).
We
can
now proceed
it
to test this result to see whether
really applies
to the physical world
we
live in.
XXIX. "THE
PROOF OF THE PUDDING.
11
The
the
first
test
is
naturally
to see what
new Law
of Gravitation
has to say about the path of a planet.
It
was assumed by Newton that
1 *
a
body
"naturally
moves
along a straight line
255
if it is
not pulled out of
force acting
its
it:
course
by some
As,
a
for
on
example,
body moving on
a frictionless Euclidean plane.
Similarly,
according to Einstein
if it
moves "freely
11
on
the surface of a
it
SPHERE
1
would 30 along the
is,
"nearest thing to a straight line/
that
along the
GEODESIC
circle.
for this surface,
namely, along a great
And,
it
for other surfaces,
or spaces of higher dimensions,
would move along
the corresponding geodesic for the particular surface or space.
Now
what
our problem
is
is
to find out
the geodesic
in
our nonEuclidean physical world,
since a planet must
move
along such a geodesic.
In
order to find
the equation of a geodesic it is necessary to know
something about the
1
"Calculus of Variations/ so that we cannot go info details here.
But
we
shall give the reader
a rough idea of the plan,
together with references where
257
he may look up this matter Suppose, For example, that
further.*
we have given two points, A and B
,
on
a
Euclidean plane,it is obviously possible to
join
thus:
them by various paths,
B
Now,
which of
is
all possible paths the geodesic here? Of course the reader knows the answer:
It is
the straight line path.
But
how do we
set
up
the problem mathematically so that we may solve
similar
problems
in
other cases?
*(1) For fundamental methods see "Calculus of Variations/' by
G. A.
Bliss.
(2) For this specific
1
problem see "The Mathematical Theory of
Relativity/ by A. S. Eddington, p. 59 of the 1930 edition.
(3)
Or
see pages 1281 34 of
1
"The Absolute
by
Differential Calculus/ T. LeviCivita.
258
Well,
we know
that
if
from ordinary calculus
a short arc
on
any
of these paths
is represented then
by
f.
c/s ,
B
f
JA
A
represents the total length of
that entire path.
And
this of
course applies to
any one
of the paths from
A
to B.
How
do we now
select from
among
these
the geodesic?
This
problem is similar to one with which the reader
undoubtedly
familiar,
is
namely,
if
y
is
=
f(x),
find the values of
y
y for which 16 an "extremum" or a "stationary.
in
Such values of y are shown
the diagram on the next page at a , 6 , and c:
259
a
and/ (or
all
these/
we must have
dy/dx
or
=
(72)
<fr=ffo)c/x
is
=
where x,
Similarly/
a
,
6
,
or
c.
to
go back to our problem on pp. 258 and 259,
the geodesic
we
are looking for
would make
rB
f JA
a stationary.
A
This
is
expressed
in
the calculus of variations
by
(73)
JA
f
c/s

analogously to (72).
To
find the
equation of the geodesic/
satisfying (73),
is
not as simple as finding
260
a
maximum
or
minimum
in
ordinary calculus,
and we
shall give here the result:* only
(74)
+
W .,
Let us consider (74):
In
the
first
place,
for ordinary threedimensional
Euclidean space a would have
three possible values: since we have here
1,2,3,
x3 /
three coordinates xi, X2,
furthermore,
by choosing
Cartesian coordinates,
we would have
ffll
(see page
==
1
89):
522
=
ff33
=
1
and
& =
and therefore
for
/i
^
v
which involves derivatives of the g'sf
would be equal to zero, so that (74) would become
(75)
~
in
*For details, look up the references the footnote on p. 258.
fSee (46) on p. 196.
261
Now, if in (75) we replace c/s by
it
dt
*
becomes
(76)
=
0
way
of writing
(*
= 1,2,3)
which
is
a short
the three equations:
/ 77 \
(77)
But what
the
is
PHYSICAL MEANING
we
consider an observer
of (77)?
*lf
who
has chosen his coordinates
in
such a
way
that
C/X2
C/Xl
in
=
=
C/X3
=
9
other words, an observer who
a
is
traveling with
moving object, and for whom the object
standing
still
is
therefore
with reference to
his ordinary spacecoordinates, so that only time is changing for him,
then, for him (61 a)
2
becomes
c/s
2
= = =
2 c/x4
2
or or
c/s
c/t
c/s
c/t.
That
c/s
is
becomes
to say, of the nature of "time/"
for this reason
c/s is
often called
"the proper time"
since
it is
a
"time"
itself.
for the
moving object
262
Why, everyone knows
(or uniform
that,
motion,
v=s/t,
where v
a
it
is
the velocity with which
body moves when
goes
a distance of 5 feet in
t
If
seconds.
the motion
is
NOT
uniform,
we
can, by means of
elementary differential calculus,
express the velocity
AT AN INSTANT,
.
by
v
=
ds/dt
are
Or,
if
x, /, and z
s
on the and Z axes, respectively, X, Y, and vx , vy , and vz are the projections of v on the three axes,
the projections of
then
_
e/x ~
_
~
dy
__
di
in the
abridged notation,
v,
=
^
vx ,vv ,Vz'
('=1,2,
3)
where we use
instead of
xi, X2 , Xs
x, y, z,
, va
and
vi ,
v2
instead of
Furthermore,
since acceleration
is
the change in velocity per unit of time,
263
we have
Jv
or
(78)
a
<T
=^
1.2
tr1 V*
*
I
2 *
/
3) */
Thus (77)
states that
the components of the acceleration
must be zero, and hence the acceleration must be zero, thus:
itself
or
From
or
this
we
set,
v
=
by
integrating,
a constant,
r
and therefore
=
a constant,
by
integrating again,
s
= at+
b,
which
is
the equation of
A
In
STRAIGHT
other words,
LINE.
when the equations
namely, (74),
for a geodesic,
are applied to the special case of
THREEDIMENSIONAL EUCLIDEAN SPACE,
they lead to the
(act that
264
in this special
case
IS
THE GEODESIC
A
STRAIGHT
LINE!
We
and
hope (he reader
is
DELIGHTED
NOT DISAPPOINTED
is
to get a result which
so familiar to him;
and we hope
in (74)!
it
gives him
a friendly feeling of
confidence
And
that
of course
he must
realize
(74) will work also for any nonEuclidean space,
since
it
contains
the
little g's
which characterize the space/*
and
for
cr
any dimensionality,
since
may be
given
values.
any number of
In particular,
in
our fourdimensional
nonEuclidean world,
(74) represents the path of an object moving in the presence of matter
(which merely makes the space
nonEuclidean), with no external force acting upon the object;
and hence (74)
is
THE PATH OF
A
PLANET
for!
which we are looking
*Seep. 190.
265
XXX.
MORE ABOUT
A
Of
a
THE PATH OF PLANET.
course (74)
is
only
expression, and does not yet apply to
GENERAL
our particular physical world, since the Christoffel symbol
involves the g's, is therefore not specific until we substitute the values of the g's
and
which apply
in
in a
specific case
the physical world.
in
Now
in
(64)
,
we have
And, by (67), A hence we know {&$ ,
v
, r
the values of \a/3 terms of X , v , r and 0.
a}

v
,
<?}
in
terms of
and
6.
Further, since e"
= 7
and 7
is
known
in
(see page 252) terms of r from (70),
f
we
therefore have [ct$
r
a}
in
terms of
and
0.
The reader must bear
that
in
mind
whereas (76), in Newtonian physics, represents only three equations, on the other hand,
(74) in Einsteinian physics is an abridged notation for
FOUR
equations,
266
as
its
<J
takes on
FOUR
Taking
first
possible values: 1,2,3,4. the value a = 2 ,
and, remembering that x2
=
(see page 233),
have, (or one of the equations of (74), the following:
/rn\
we
a
2
(79)
+{^} dx
.
f
^
a
dxa
=
^

And
since
now, a and
/?
each occur
TWICE
the second term, must sum on these as usual, so that we must consider terms
in
we
containing, respectively,
{11,2}, {12,2}, [13,2}, {14,2}, {21,2}, {22,2}, {23,2}, {24, 2}, etc
which a always equals 2 , and a and /3 each runs its course
in
from
1
to 4.
But, from (64), we see that most of these are zero,
the only ones remaining being
and
{33,2}
Also, by page 204,
= 
sin0co$0.
{21,2}
=
{12,2}.
267
Thus (79) becomes
fftfYk
<PO
(80)
+ .._.
1 dr dd
tm fl. eoi
,/</</>
..
Y
=0.
If
in
we now choose our such a way
coordinates
that
an object begins moving
6
in
the plane
= =
7T/2
,
then
j
and cos0
=
di
and hence
If we now substitute all these values in we see that this equation is satisfied,
(80),
and hence
thus
=
ir/2
is
a solution of the equation,
showing
plane.
that
the path of the planet
is
in a
Thus from (80) we have found out that
a planet,
according to Einstein, must move in a plane,
just as in
Newtonian physics.
further,
Let us now examine (74) and see what
tell
the 3 remaining equations in
us
it
about planetary motion:
263
For
<T
=
1 ,
(79) becomes
Or
But since
then
we have chosen
In
6
=
7r/2
,
~r
=
and
sin0
=
1 ,
hence
this
equation becomes
And
for
a
similarly,
=
3
,
(79) sives
( 82 )
as
2
r
as as
and
for
cr
=
4,
we
get
(83)
^ +F f** or
as as
o.
269
And now
from (81), (82), (83), and (71), tosether with (70),
we
get*
2
c/
u
,
W
(84)
___
m
A
5
==
n
where c and h are
constants of integration,
and u
1/r.
Thus (84) represents the path of an object moving freely,
that
is,
not constrained
by any
external force,
and
in a
is
therefore,
straight line in
sense,
analogous to a
Newtonian physics. But it must be remembered
that in Einsteinian physics,
owing to the
Principle of Equivalence (Chapter XI), an object is constrained by any external force
NOT
even when
as, for
it
is
moving
in
the presence of matter,
example,
a planet
moving
around the sun. And hence (84)
would represent the path of
*For details see page
a planet.
86
in
"The Mathematical Theory of
Relativity/'
by
A.
S.
Eddington (the 1930 edition).
270
From
this
point of view
we
are not interested in
comparing (84) with the straight line motion
in
Newtonian physics, as mentioned on page 270,
but rather with
the equations representing the path of a planet
in in
Newtonian physics,
which, of course, the planet is supposed to under the
of the sun.
it
move
GRAVITATIONAL FORCE
has
in
been shown Newtonian physics
that a
body
1
moving under a "central force/ (like a planet moving
under the influence of the sun)
moves
in
an ellipse,
with the central force (the sun) located at one of the foci.*
And
the equations of this path are:
2
e/
u
~r u
,
__ 
m
TO
jLTsi
*
(85)
*
where
r
is
"
*
the distance
from the sun to the planet, m is the mass of the sun,
*Sec Ziwct and Field: "Mechanics/*
or
any other book on mechanics.
271
a
is
4> is
the semimajoraxis of the ellipse, the angle swept out by the planet
t.
in
time
We
notice at once
the remarkable resemblance between
(84) and (85).
They
are indeed
for
IDENTICAL EXCEPT
the presence of the term and of course the use of
</s
3mu2,
instead of dt in (84).*
Thus
the
we
see that
Newtonian equations (85)
are really a first approximation to
the Einstein equations (84);
that
is
why
satisfactorily
they worked so
for so long.
Let us
now
see
is
how
the situation
affected
by
the additional term 3mir.
XXXI. THE PERIHELION
OF MERCURY.
Owing
to the presence of the term
3mu2
(84) is no longer an ellipse but a kind of spiral
in
is
which the path
NOT
p.
retraced
each time the planet
*See
262.
272
makes
but
in
is
a
complete revolution,
shifted as
shown
the following diagram:
in
which
is,
the "perihelion/* that the point in the path
nearest the sun, S, at the focus/ is at the first time around/
A
at at
6 C
the next time/ the next/
and so on.
273
In
a planet
other words, does not 30
round and round
in the same path, but there is a slight shift in the entire path, each time around. And the shift of the perihelion can be calculated
by means
of (84).*
This shift can also
be
experimentally, and therefore can serve
as a
MEASURED
method
of
TESTING
the Einstein theory
in actual fact.
Now
when
is
it is
obvious that
a planetary orbit
very nearly
CIRCULAR
this shift in
is
the perihelion
not observable, this is unfortunately the situation with most of the planets. There is one, however,
and
in
which
this shift
measurable, namely,
the planet
IS
MERCURY.
Lest the reader think
that the astronomers
*For details see aqain
in the
Eddington's book referred to footnote of page 270.
274
can make only crude measurements, let us say in their defense, that the discrepancy even in the case of Mercury is an arc of
ONLY ABOUT
43
SECONDS PER CENTURY!
Let us make clear what we mean by 19 "the discrepancy: when we say that the Newtonian theory requires the path of a planet to be an ellipse, it must be understood that this would hold only if
there were a SINGLE planet; the presence of other planets causes socalled "perturbations," so that
even according to Newton
there
would be
shift in
some
the
perihelion. But the amount of shift due to this cause has long been known to be 531 seconds of arc per century, whereas observation shows that the actual shift is
574 seconds,
thus leaving a shift of
43 seconds per century
in
UNACCOUNTED FOR
the
Newtonian theory.
Think of the
DELICACY
275
of the measurements
and the patient persistence
by
by
over a long period of years generations of astronomers
is
that
represented
the
above
figure!
And
this figure
was known
to astronomers
It
long before Einstein. worried them deeply
since they could not account for the presence of this shift.
And
then
the Einstein theory,
which originated in the attempt to explain
the MichelsonMorley experiment,* with the intention and
NOT AT ALL
of explaining the shift in the perihelion of Mercury,
QUITE INCIDENTALLY EXPLAINED
THIS DIFFICULTY
for the
ALSO,
in
presence of the term 3mu'
(84)
leads to the additional shift of perihelion of 42.9" 
!
XXXII.
DEFLECTION OF
in
A RAY OF
LIGHT.
We
saw
the previous chapter
that the experimental
evidence
*See Part
I.: the Special Theory of Relativity. fFor the details of the calculation which leads from (84) to this correction of perihelion shift,
see p. 88 of the
1930
edition of
1
"The Mathematical Theory of Relativity/
by
A.
S.
Eddington.
276
in
connection with
shift of
the
the perihelion of
at
Mercury
was already
hand
when Einstein's theory was proposed, and immediately served as a check of the theory.
Let us
now
consider
further experimental verification
of the theory,
but
this
time
the evidence did not precede
but was
PREDICTED BY
the theory.
This
was
in
connection with
the path of a ray of light as it passes near a large mass
like the sun.
It
will
be remembered
that
according to the Einstein theory the presence of matter in space
makes the space nonEuclidean and that the path of anything moving freely (whether it be a planet
or a ray of light)
will
be along
a geodesic
in that
space, and therefore
will
be affected by the presence
of these obstacles in space.
Whereas,
according to classical physics,
the force of gravitation could be exerted
only by one mass (say the sun) upon another mass (say a planet),
but
NOT
upon
a ray of light.
277
Here then was
a definite difference in viewpoint between the two theories,
and the facts should decide between them. For this it was necessary
to observe
what happens to a ray of light coming from a distant star
as
is
it it
passes near the sun
bent toward the sun, as predicted by Einstein, or does it continue on
in a straight line, * as required by classical physics?
Now
to
it is
make
this
obviously impossible observation
since
under ordinary circumstances, we cannot look at a star
rays are passing near the sun,
itself:
whose
on account of the brightness of the sun Not only would the star be invisible,
but the glare of the sun
would make
to
it
impossible
direction at
all.
look
so
in that
it
And
*lf,
was necessary
were considered
to wait for a total eclipse,
however,
light
to
a stream of incandescent particles instead of waves,
be
the sun
WOUL6
have
a gravitational effect upon a ray of light, even by classical theory,
the
AMOUNT of deflection
on
this basis,
calculated even
as
DOES NOT AGREE
we
shall
with experiment,
show
later (see p.
287).
278
when
but
the sun
glare
is
is
its
up in the sky hidden by the moon,
so that the
stars
become
distinctly visible during the day.
Therefore, at the next total eclipse astronomical expeditions were sent out to those parts of the world
where the eclipse could be
advantageously observed/
and,
since such an eclipse
lasts only a few seconds, they had to be prepared
to take photographs of the stars
rapidly and clearly, so that afterwards,
upon developing the
the positions of the
plates/
stars
could be compared
with their positions in the sky when the sun is present.
NOT
279
The following diagram shows
B
/A
F
the path of a ray of light, from a star, v4 , when the sun is in that part of the sky.
AOE ,
NOT
And,
also,
IS present,
when the sun
and the ray is deflected and becomes ACF ,
280
so that,
when viewed from F,
the
star
APPEARS to
be
at B.
Thus, if such photographs
could be successfully obtained,
AND
IF
they showed
that all the stars
in the part of the sky near the sun were really displaced (as from A to B)
AND
the
IF
MAGNITUDE
of the displacements
agreed with the values calculated by the theory,
then of course
this
would
constitute
in favor
very strong evidence
the Einstein theory.
of
Let us
now determine
the magnitude of this displacement as predicted by the Einstein theory:
We
that
in
have seen (on page 233)
1
the "Special Theory of Relativity/
in
which applies
2
c/s
EUCLIDEAN
spacetime,
2

cW

2
(c/x
+
c/y
+
by
2
c/z )/
2 cfc ,
we now we get
if
divide
this
expression
but
Jx c/y </z "~T i ~~r i ~~r
are
281
the components of the velocity, v moving thing (see p. 263), then obviously the above quantity in brackets is v2, and the above equation becomes:
a
,
of
= c
Now
when
1*
the "moving thing
a lightray,
happens to be
then v
=
c
,
and we
get,
FOR LIGHT, c/$ = 0.
world,
But what about our
NONEUCLIDEAN
containing matter?
It
will
be remembered (see
p.
118)
that in studying a
nonEuclidean twodimensional space (namely, the surface of a sphere)
in a certain
small region,
we were aided by
the Euclidean plane which practically coincided with the given surface in
that small region.
Using the same device for space of higher dimensions,
we
in
can,
studying a small region of NONEuclidean fourdimensional spacetime, such as our world is, also utilize the EUCLIDEAN 4dimensionaI spacetime which
282
practically coincides with in that small region.
it
And
hence
will
in
apply
our
FOR LIGHT even NONEUCLIDEAN world.
And
now,
A
using this result in (71), together with the condition (or
a geodesic,
on page 261 ,
we
shall obtain
THE PATH OF
A RAY OF
LIGHT.
XXXIII.
DEFLECTION OF A LIGHT (Continued)
RAY OF
In chapters XXIX and we the condition for a geodesic
XXX
showed
that
given on page led to (74),
the
260
which, together with little g's of (71) gave us the path of a planet, (84).
And
in
now,
order to find
the path of
A RAY OF
c/s
LIGHT,
we must add
the further requirement:
= 0,
in
as
we
pointed out
Chapter XXXII.
in Substituting c/s the second equation of (84),
283
we
get
which changes the
first
equation of (84) to
which
is
the required
PATH OF
And
by
this,
A RAY OF
LIGHT.
integration*
gives, in rectangular coordinates,
+
for the equation of the curve
2
y
on
page 280.
Now,
since
a (page 280)
is
a very small angle, the asymptotes of the curve
may be
found by taking y very large by comparison with x ,
and
so,
neglecting the x terms on the right in the above formula,
it
becomes
And,
*For details see page
90
of
Eddinston's "The Mathematical Theory of Relativity/'
the
A.
S.
1930
edition.
284
using the familiar formula for the angle between two lines
(see any
book on
tan
OL
Analytics):
__
mi ~~~
iii2
f
where a is the desired angle, and mi and m> are the slopes of the two lines,
we
get
tana
from which
it is
=
4/?m
4m 2 fl2
easy to find
.
sin
a
R
4m
+
4m2/R
And, a being
its
value
in
small, radian measure
is
equal to so that
sin
a
*
we now have
/O/A (86)
a
=
R
4m
+ 4mVR
a

Now,
what
in
in
is
the actual value of
the case under discussion,
which
R =
and
the radius of the sun
m
is its
mass?
*For the proof of this see
any book on calculus, or look up a table of
trigonometric functions.
285
Since
and
m=
R = 697,000
kilometers,
f
1.47 kilometers
neglected by
/?,
4m 2 may be
comparison with
so that (86) reduces to the
very simple equation:
4m
from which
we
easily get
1
a =
In
it
.75 seconds.
other words,
was predicted by
the Einstein theory
that,
a ray of light passing near the sun would be bent into a curve (ACF),
as shown and that,
in
the figure on p. 280,
consequently
a star at
A would APPEARtobeatB,
the reader will stop a
a displacement of an angle of 1.75 seconds!
If
moment
to consider
how small is an angle of even one DEGREE, and then consider that
onesixtieth of that
is
an angle of one
MINUTE,
is
and again
onesixtieth of that
tSee page 315.
286
an angle of one
SECOND,
small
is
he
a
will realize
how
1
displacement of
.75 seconds!
Furthermore, according to the Newtonian theory,* the displacement would be
only half of
that!
And
it is
this
TINY
difference
that must distinguish
between the two
After
all
theories.
the trouble that
the reader has been put to, to find out the issue,
perhaps he
is
disappointed to learn
how
small
is
the difference
between the predictions of Newton and Einstein. And perhaps he thinks that a decision based on
so small a difference
can scarcely be relied upon! But we wish to point out to him,
that,
far
from losing his respect and
faith
in scientific
method,
he should,
ON
be
THE CONTRARY,
the
all
more
filled
with
ADMIRATION AND WONDER
to think that
experimental work
IS that
in
astronomy
SO ACCURATE
278.
*See the footnote on
p.
287
these small quantities* are measured
WIFH PERFECT CONFIDENCE,
and
that
they
DO distinguish
between the two theories and decide in favor of the
DO
as
Einstein theory,
is
shown by the
British
following figures:
The
gave
expeditions, in 1919,
to Sobral
and Principe,
for this displacement:
1.98"
0.1
2"
and
1.61 "0.30",
respectively; values which have since
been
confirmed at other eclipses, as, for example,
the results of Campbell and Trumpler,
who
using
obtained,
two
different cameras,
1.72"
in
0.11" and 1.82"
0.1 5",
the 1922 expedition of the Lick Observatory.
that
So
all
by now
physicists agree that the conclusions are
beyond
question.
in
*See also the discrepancy
the shift of the perihelion of Mercury,
on page 275.
288
We
in
cannot
refrain,
closing this chapter, from reminding the reader that
191 9 was right after World War and that Einstein was then classified dS
a
I,
GERMAN
scientist,
and yet,
the British scientists, without any of the
stupid racial prejudices then
(and
alas! still)
in
rampant
the world,
went to a great deal of trouble to equip and send out expeditions
to test a theory 11 an "enemy.
by
XXXIV. THE THIRD
OF THE "CRUCIAL PHENOMENA.
11
We
have already seen that
two of the consequences from
the Einstein theory
were completely
experiment:
(1)
verified
by
One, concerning
the shift of
the perihelion of Mercury, the experimental data for which
was known long before Einstein
BUT NEVER BEFORE EXPLAINED.
And
it
must be remembered
that the Einstein theory
was
289
NOT expressly designed
explain but did
this shift,
it
to
QUITE INCIDENTALLY!
(2) The other, concerning the bending of a ray of light as it passes near the sun.
It was never suspected before Einstein that
a ray of light
when
passing
near the sun
would be bent.*
It
was
for the
first
time
theory,
PREDICTED by
was actually
this
and, to everyone's surprise,
verified
by experiment,
QUANTITATIVELY as well as QUALITATIVELY (see Chap. XXXIII). Now there was still another
consequence of this theory which could be tested experimentally,
according to Einstein. In order to appreciate
it
we must
say something about spectra.
Everyone probably knows that if you hang a triangular glass prism
in
the sunlight,
a
band of
different colors,
like a rainbow, will appear on the wall
where
the light strikes after it has come through the prism.
The explanation of
this
phenomenon
p.
*But, see the footnote
on
278.
290
is
quite simple,
as
may be seen
from the diagram:
A
When
it
a
beam
of white light,
SD,
strikes the prism
ABC,
does
the
NOT continue in SAME direction, D,
is
but
bent.*
Furthermore,
if it is
"composite"
light,
light,
like sunlight or
any other white
of
which
is
composed
light of different colors
(or different wavelengths),
*This
is
bending of
a light ray
called "refraction,"
to
and has nothing
do
with
the bending discussed in Ch. XXXIII.
The reader may look up "refraction" in any book on elementary physics.
291
each constituent
bends a different amount; and when these constituents
reach the other side,
BC,
of the prism,
they are bent again,
as shown in the diagram on p. 291, so that, by the time they reach the wall, the colors are all separated out,
as
XY
,
shown,
the light of longest wavelength,
namely, red, being deflected least. Hence the rainbowcolored spectrum.
Now,
if
obviously, the light from 5
1
is
"monochromatic/
that
is,
light of a
SINGLE
wavelength only,
instead of "composite,"
like sunlight,
we have
instead of a "rainbow/*
a single bright line
on
XY
,
having a DEFINITE position, since the amount of bending,
as
we
said above,
depends upon the color or wavelength
of the light in question.
Now
may be obtained
such monochromatic light from
the incandescent vapor of a chemical element
thus sodium, when heated, burns with a light of a certain definite wavelength,
characteristic of
sodium.
292
And
This
similarly (or other elements.
is
explained as follows:
The atoms of each element
vibrate with a certain
DEFINITE period
of vibration,
characteristic of that substance,
and, in vibrating, cause a disturbance in the medium around
this
it,
disturbance being
a lightwave of definite
wavelength
corresponding to
the period of vibration, thus giving rise to
a
DEFINITE color
is
which
i
visible in
DEFINITE
so,
position in the spectrum.
And
if you look at a spectrum you can tell from the bright
lines in
it
just
what substances
are present at 5.
Now
then,
according to Einstein, since each atom has
a definite period of vibration,
it is
a sort of natural clock
as
c/s.
and should serve
a
measure
for
c/s
an "interval"
Thus take
be the interval between the beginning and end of one and eft the time this takes,
to or the "period" of vibration;
vibration,
then, using space coordinates
such that
dr=
S=
d<t>
= 0,
293
that
is,
the coordinates of an observer
for
whom
the atom
is
vibrating at
the origin of his space coordinates (in other words,
an observer traveling with the atom),
equation (71) becomes
<tf
= yd?
1
or
c/s=
Vydt,
where
7 =
2/n 
(see p. 253).
Now,
if
is
an atom of, say, sodium vibrating near the sun,
we
for
should have to substitute
m
and
r
the mass and radius of the sun/
and, similarly, if an atom of the substance
vibrating near the earth,
is
m
and
r
would then have
to
be
the mass and radius of the earth, and so on:
Thus
7 DEPENDS upon
is
the location of the atom.
But since ds
the spacetime interval between the beginning and end of a vibration,
as
judged by an observer
consequently
of the location
traveling with the atom,
c/s is
INDEPENDENT
of the atom/ then, since
294
obviously
eft
would have
to
be
DEPENDENT UPON THE LOCATION.
Thus,
though sodium from a source
in a laboratory gives rise to a line in a definite part of the spectrum, on the other hand,
sodium on the sun, which, according to the above reasoning, would have a
DIFFERENT DIFFERENT DIFFERENT
period of vibration,
light of a
and hence would emit
wavelength,
a bright line in a
would then give
part of the spectrum
from that ordinarily due to sodium.
And now
let us
see
a
HOW MUCH of
and whether
it is
change
in
the period of vibration is predicted by the Einstein theory
borne out
by
the
facts:
If Jt and dt' represent the periods of vibration near the sun and the earth,
respectively,
then
or
295
Now
Tearth is
very nearly
1
1
;
hence
cfc
&
V^un
J,
2m R
_ ~
<(
.
_
!l
m* _
f
T
+
.
.* m
7?
m
Or, using the values of and R given on page 286,
qet get
we
This result implies that
an atom of a given substance should have a
slightly
LONGER
is
is
when when
it it
period of vibration near the sun than
near the earth,
and hence a
slightly
LONGER
wavelength
and therefore
its
lines
SHIFTED
should be a little toward the
of the spectrum (see p. 292).
RED end
This was a most unexpected result! and since the amount of shift
was so
slight,
^Neglecting higher powers of A
since
p
is
very small
(see the values of
m and R
on
p.
286).
296
it
made
the experimental verification
very
difficult.
For several years after
Einstein
announced
this result
(1917)
experimental observations on this point
were doubtful, and this caused many physicists to doubt the validity of the
Einstein theory, in spite of its other triumphs, which we have already discussed.
BUT FIN ALLY,
in
1927,
the very careful measurements
made by Evershed
definitely settled the issue
IN
FAVOR OF THE
Adams
known
as
EINSTEIN THEORY.
similar
Furthermore, experiments were performed
by W.
on the
S.
star
the companion to Sirius, which has a relatively
LARGE MASS
thus
and
SMALL
RADIUS,
making the ratio
S7eft
1
+r
much
in
larger than
the case of the sun (see p. 296) and therefore easier to observe
experimentally. Here too
the verdict was definitely
IN
FAVOR OF THE
that
EINSTEIN THEORY!
So
today
297
all
physicists are agreed
that the Einstein theory
marks a definite step forward
for:
(1) IT
EXPLAINED PREVIOUSLY KNOWN FACTS
MORE ADEQUATELY THAN
PREVIOUS THEORIES DID
(2) IT
(seep. 103).
EXPLAINED FACTS
NOT EXPLAINED AT ALL
BY PREVIOUS THEORIES
such
(a)
as:
The MichelsonMorley experiment,*
(b) the shift in the perihelion of Mercury (see Ch. XXXI),
(c) the increase in mass of
an electron
(3) IT
when
in
motion. f
PREDICTED FACTS
The bending of a
NOT PREVIOUSLY KNOWN AT ALLlight ray passing near the sun (see Ch. XXXII). (b) The shift of lines in the spectrum (see p. 296).
(a)
when
(c)
The identity of mass and energy,
which/
in turn,
led to the
ATOMIC BOMB!
ff.)
(Seep. 318
And
by
and
all this
using
VERY FEW
*See Part
I,
"The Special Theory.
11
tSee Chap. VIII.
298
VERY REASONABLE
hypotheses (see p. 97), in the slightest degree "farfetched" or "forced."
not
And
what greater service
can any physical theory render than this
!
We
has
trust that
the reader
this little
been led by
book
to have a sufficient insight into the issues involved,
and to appreciate
the great breadth and
fundamental importance of
THE EINSTEIN THEORY OF RELATIVITY!
XXXV. SUMMARY.
I.
In
it
the
SPECIAL
Relativity
Theory
was shown that two different observers, may, under certain
SPECIAL
conditions,
study the universe from their
different points of
view
and yet obtain
the
II.
In
SAME LAWS and the SAME the GENERAL Theory,
result
FACTS.
this
democratic hold also for
was found to
ANY two observers,
without regard to the special conditions mentioned
in
I.
299
III.
To accomplish
this
Einstein introduced the
PRINCIPLE
by which
the idea of a
OF EQUIVALENCE,
FORCE OF GRAVITY
was replaced by
the idea of the
CURVATURE OF
A
SPACE.
IV. The study of this curvature required the machinery of
the
TENSOR CALCULUS,
by means of which
the
CURVATURE TENSOR
was derived.
V.
This led immediately to
the
NEW LAW OF GRAVITATION
THREE CRUCIAL
which was tested by
the
PHENOMENA
and found to work
VI.
beautifully!
And READ AGAIN
pages 298 and 299
1
300
THE
MORAL
.

THE
Since man has been
so successful
MORAL
can
we
in science, not learn from
THE SCIENTIFIC
and
WAY OF
is
THINKING,
of,
what the human mind
HOW
is
capable
it
achieves
SUCCESS:
in science.
There
NOTHING ABSOLUTE
Absolute space and absolute time have been shown to be myths.
We
must replace these old ideas
concepts.
by more human,
OBSERVATIONAL
303
c
II.
But what
we observe
is
profoundly influenced by the state of the observer,
and therefore
various observers get widely different results
even
in their
measurements of
time and length!
Ill
However,
in spite of these differences, various observers may still
study the universe
WITH EQUAL RIGHT
AND EQUAL
the
SUCCESS,
and CAN AGREE on what are to be called
LAWS
of the universe.
305
IV. To accomplish
this
we need
MORE MATHEMATICS THAN EVER BEFORE,
MODERN, STREAMLINED, POWERFUL
MATHEMATICS.
307
V. Thus
a combination of
PRACTICAL REALISM (OBSERVATIONALISM)
and
IDEALISM (MATHEMATICS),
TOGETHER
have achieved SUCCESS.
VI.
And
knowing
that the laws are
MANMADE,
we know
that
they are subject to change
and we are thus
PREPARED FOR CHANGE,
But these changes
are
in
science
NOT
the
made
WANTONLY,
BUT CAREFULLY
by BEST
AND CAUTIOUSLY
MINDS and HONEST HEARTS, and not by any casual child who
thinks that
the world
may be changed
as easily
as rolling off a log.
309
WOULD YOU
ARE DERIVED:
LIKE
TO KNOW?
(20)
HOW THE EQUATIONS
ON PAGE
61
x
.'.
x
= = =
a cosfl
(x'
=

(x'
fc)
cos0
y' tanfl)
cos0
x'
cos?
y' sinf?.
\f
y^cfc/^
f
COSC^
^+
}
a
sinfl
=
y
cosO
+
i
(*
~
a
/ =  +
x smO
/

'
y
co$0
/.
/
=
x' sinfl
+ / cos0.
HOW
THE
FAMOUS MAXWELL
EQUATIONS LOOK:
X Y Z represent the
f f
components
of the
ELECTRIC FORCE
at a point x , y , z in an electromagnetic field/
at a
given instant,
t,
L
,
M N represent the components
,
of the
at the
MAGNETIC FORCE
at
same point and the same instant.
311
III.
HOW TO JUDGE WHETHER A SET OF QUANTITIES
IS
A
We
TENSOR 9R NOT:
may apply
various criteria:
(1) See if it satisfies any of the definitions of tensors of
various character
and rank
given
in (1 6), (1 7), (1 8), etc.,
or in (30), (31), etc. or in (32), etc.
Or
(2) See
of
if it is
the
sum, difference, or product
two
tensors.
Or
(3) See if it satisfies the following theorem:
A QUANTITY WHICH ON INNER MULTIPLICATION
BY ANY COVARIANT VECTOR (OR ANY CONTRAVARIANT VECTOR) ALWAYS GIVES A TENSOR, IS ITSELF A TENSOR.
theorem may be quite easily proved
This
as follows:
Given
for
that
XA a
is
known
to
be
a contravariant vector,
any choice
that
of
the covariant vector
Aa /
To prove
Now
it
since
X XA a
is
a tensor:
is
a contravariant vector,
must obey (16), thus:
(X Aft) =
(XA a );
312
but
A' s
=
X y
hence, by substitution,
yr A Af _
/A/9
dx,;
dXfl
'
\
dx y ox a
^
/i/sA
Ary
or
j/ S\0
/y/ VA
3x5 3x^ y\ AI "^ 6xT 3xa
TV~~
_ ^ v,
But
/A^
does not have to be zero,
hence
XI _
which
C'X^ ~
'
C/X0
ax T oxa
^
y A
satisfies (1 7),
thus proving that
X must be a CONTRAVARIANT TENSOR OF RANK TWO.
And
Thus if XA = B, y then X must be a tensor of the form /
similarly for other cases:
and
then
if
XA* =
Barp
a
C^
C
rp /
X must
be
,
a tensor of
the form
and so on.
Now
is
let us
show
that
the set of
little g's in
(42)
a tensor:
313
SCALAR i.e.
Knowing
that
2
c/s
is
a
A
TENSOR OF RANK ZERO
member
(1
(see p. 128), then
the righthand
A
of (42)
1
is
also
TENSOR OF RANK ZERO/
c/x, is,
but
A CONTRAVARIANT
hence,
,
by
5) on p.
52,
VECTOR,
A COVARIANT
And, again, since C/XM is
by the theorem on page 312, gMI dx^ must be
TENSOR
OF RANK ONE.
a contravariant vector,
then, by the same theorem,
A COVARIANT
OF RANK TWO,
and therefore
it is
g^ must be
TENSOR
appropriate to write
it
with
as
TWO SUBscripts
of
we have been doing
in anticipation
this proof.
314
IV.
WHY MASS CAN
KILOMETERS:
BE
EXPRESSED IN
The reader may be
surprised to
see the mass expressed in kilometers! But it may seem more reasonable"
from the following considerations: In order to decide in what units
a quantity
we must
in
is expressed 14 consider its "dimensionality terms of the fundamental units of
Mass, Length, and Time: Thus the "dimensionality" of
a velocity
is
L/T;
the "dimensionality" of 2 an acceleration is i/7 ;
and so on. Now, in Newtonian physics, the force of attraction which
the sun exerts
being
F
=
is
upon the
2
earth
where
m
fcmm'/f (see p. 219), the mass of the sun,
the mass of the earth, and r the distance between them;
m
and
j
also,
F
m
j,
being the centripetal acceleration of the earth toward the sun
(another one of the fundamental laws of Newtonian mechanics);
hence
fcmm'
2
_ m ,. j
or
m = v r2
i.
Therefore,
315
the "dimensionality" of
,, L
m
is
L
= V
'r
p
since a constant, like V, has no "dimensionality/*
And now
if
we
the time
take as a unit of time/ it takes light to go
a distance of
one kilometer/
n
of time
and
M
a
call this unit
kilometer
(thus
300/000 kilometers would equal one second/ since
in
light goes 300/000 kilometers one second)/
we may express the "dimensionality" of 3 2 L /T or simply /
then
thus
m
thus:
we may
in
express
kilometers.
mass also
So
far as
considerations of
"dimensionality" are concerned/ the same result holds true also for
Einsteinian physics.
If
the reader has never before
this
encountered
idea of
"dimensionality"
(which,
by
the way,
is
a very
important tool
in scientific
thinking),
he
enjoy reading a paper on "Dimensional Analysis" by
will
Dr.
A. N. Lowan,
published by the Galois Institute of Mathematics
of
Long
Island University in
Brooklyn, N. Y.
316
V,
HOW
Gu LOOKS
IN FULL:
13,3)131,31
r
+
If
this
mathematics
BORES you
BE SURE
TO READ
317
PAGES
318323!
THE ATOMIC
BOMB
is:
We
saw on
p.
78
that the
energy
which a body has when
fo
at rest,
= me
tells us
Thus, the Theory of Relativity not only that
mass and energy are one and the same
but that, even though they are the same still/ what we consider to be
even a SMALL MASS ENORMOUS when translated
is
into
ENERGY
terms,
so that a mass as tiny as an atom has a tremendous amount of energy
the multiplying factor being c , the square of the velocity of light!
2
How
to get at this great storehouse of
energy locked up in atoms and use it to heat our homes, to drive our cars and planes, and so on and so on?
Now,
so long as
m
is
constant,
as for elastic collision, fo will also remain unchanged.
m,
But, for inelastic collision, and therefore Fo , will change;
this
is
and
the
the situation
IS
when
SPLIT UP, for then sum of the masses of the parts is LESS than the mass of the original atom. Thus, if one could split atoms,
the resulting loss of mass would release a tremendous amount of energy! And so various methods were devised
AN ATOM
by
scientists like
Meitner, Frisch,
Fermi, and others
318
to
It
"bombard
was
Finally
11
atoms.
shown
that
when
Uranium atoms were bombarded with neutrons* these atoms split up ("fission")
into two nearly equal parts, whose combined mass is less than the mass of the uranium atom itself,
this loss in
mass being equivalent,
as the Einstein formula shows,
to a
tremendous amount of energy,
thus released
by
the
fission!
When
Einstein
warned President Roosevelt
terrific
that such experiments might lead to
the acquisition of
new
sources of
race,
power
by
the
ENEMY of the
human
the President naturally saw the importance of having these experiments conducted
where there was some hope that they would be used to END the war and to
PREVENT
by
future wars
instead of
those
who
set out to
take over the earth for themselves alone!
Thus the
ATOMIC BOMB
in
was born
the U.S.A.
And now
has
that a practical
method
of releasing this energy
been developed,
the
MORAL
is
obvious:
it
We MUST
scientific
realize that
has
become
too dangerous to fool around with
GADGETS,
is
WITHOUT UNDERSTANDING in the MORALITY which
*
Read about these amazing experiments in "Why Smash Atoms?" by A. K. Solomon,
Harvard University Press, 1940.
319
Science, Art, Mathematics
SAM,
for short.
These are
NOT
mere
idle words.
We
and
must
ROOT OUT the
DOCTRINE
is
AND DANGEROUS that SAM amoral
FALSE
is
indifferent to
Good
and
Evil.
We
must
SERIOUSLY EXAMINE SAM FROM THIS VIEWPOINT.*
Religion has offered us
a Morality,
u
lc
wise guys refused to take it
but
many
have
seriously,
and have distorted
meaning!
its
And
now, we are
is
getting
ANOTHER CHANCE
SAM
we
now
also
warning us that
MUST UNDERSTAND
is
the
MORALITY
for
which
HE now offering us. And he will not stand
our failure to accept
a source of gadgets!
it,
by regarding him merely
as
for
Even using the atomic energy "peaceful" pursuits,
*See our book
"The Education of
of this vital point.
IC
Mits"
for a further discussion
321
like heating the furnaces our homes/
IS
in
and
NOT ENOUGH, will NOT satisfy SAM.
is
For he
desperately trying
his
to prevent us from
merely picking
pockets
to get at the gadgets in them/ and is begging us to see
the
Good/
the True, and
the Beautiful
which are
in his
mind and
heart,
And, moreover,
he
is
giving
clear
new and
meanings to
1
these fine old ideas
which even the sceptical 11 "wise guys
will find irresistible.
So
DO NOT
or
BE
AN
you
ANTISAMITE,
SAM
will get
with his
atomic bombs,
his cyclotrons/
and
all his
new
whatnots.
He
if
is
so anxious to
HELP
us
only
we would
IT
listen
BEFORE
IS
TOO
LATE!
323
SOME
INTERESTING READING:
(1) "The Principle of Relativity" by Albert Einstein and Published by Methuen and Company, Others.
London.
(2) The
original
paper
ment:
Philosophical Magazine, Vol.
on the MichelsonMorley experi24 (1887).
D.
Carmichael.
(3) "The Theory of Relativity" by R. Pub. by John Wiley & Sons., N. Y.
(4) "The Mathematical Theory of Relativity" by A. Eddington, Cambridge University Press (1930).
(5) "Relativity" by Albert Einstein. Smith, N. Y. (1931).
(6)
S.
Published by Peter
"An
Introduction
to
the Theory
E. P.
of
L. Bolton.
Pub. by
Dutton
&
Relativity" Co., N. Y.
by
(7) Articles in the Enc. Brit., 14" ed., on: "Aberration of Light" by A. S. Eddington, and "Relativity" by
J.
Jeans.
(8) "Relativity Thermodynamics and Cosmology" by Pub. by Clarendon Press, Oxford. R, C. Tolman. (9) "The
Civita.
Absolute
Differential
Pub. by Blackie
&
Calculus" by Son, London.
T.
Levi
(10) "Calculus of Variations" by G.
Court Pub. Co., Chicago.
A.
Bliss.
Open
Einstein.
(11) "The
Meaning of Relativity" Princeton University Press, 1945
by Albert
(12) "The Law of Gravitation in Relativity" by Levinson and Zeisler. Pub. by Univ. of Chicago Press.
324