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BY CHARLES G. B. WHEELER. Woodworking for Beginners A Manual for Amateurs A Shorter Course in Woodworking A Practical Manual for Home and School .S.

A SHORTER COURSE IN WOODWORKING A Practical Manual for Home and School BY CHARLES G. P. Putnam's Sons New York and London Ubc Icnicfterbocfter press 1911 . WHEELER AUTHOR OF "WOODWORKING FOR BEGINNERS" WITH 765 ILLUSTRATIONS G.

A289332 . WHEELER 0/ -X TTbe 1m(cbecboclter press.«^ Copyright.. BY 191 i CHARLES G. "Rew ]Socfe CCI.

and mechanics are demanding that the training of youth be more practical. business men. nor necessarily logical order in which many of the tools is there any and operations must be taken up. that the subject way . man ways that the pupils be trained in up-to-date methods and of thinking. from a pedagogical point of view. pupils. . modern This book is not meant to conflict with courses in woodworking in use. of the mechanic. is a comtechnical terms. and it is believed that a general manual which can be used as a textbook and reference-book will be helpful and time-saving to both teacher and pupil. of the educator. parents. and details during one demonstration by the teacher. Manual training. that so aroused as to call forth his may be presented to the best for his general development. A satisfactory system must meet the demands of the pupil his interest and enthusiasm may be pupil in the or the individual student. but rather to fit in with any system for the approved methods of work the result of the experience of generations of workmen should be known to all teachers. tions When class exercises are begun with oral and manual demonstramany pupils do not readily grasp and assimilate the new ideas. and individual now . — — students. to readily. although some are naturally brought into use Therefore the material in this book is so arranged that it can be used in any order. that the most practical methods may be adopted and of the business best efforts.PKEFACE Teachers. No set course of procedure can be adopted by all. and any desired topic can be referred before others.

an almost interminable course of hand. The aim of the systems of work used in schools ranges all the way from the general development of the pupil's faculties to turning out trained workmen. Often he is kept using tools for their educative value which the mechanic never For example. but in the matter of using the modern machinery there is some disagreement between the methods of many schools and those of the work-shop. class should It is natural less and inevitable that many of the first be more or lacking in practical knowledge and breadth woodworking experience. alone. and that those of the second class should lack the knowledge. on the ground that it is best for the general development of the pupil. using a bow-saw for anything which could be done by a band-saw of or jig-saw. He will be broader and better-developed than those of either of the other two This fact seems to be overlooked by some who advocate classes. and the principles are applicable many similar articles. These are to show the approved methods of construction. the other hand the extremists who wotild have nothing done by hand future . second. proone of two classes at present.iv paratively Preface new subject. while the pupil is kept at work with this almost obsolete On tool. The day. A to number of what may be called typical models are given simple examples of various classes of work. training. long after he has learned from it all that is worth while. fessional teachers who have studied the subject with reference to teaching. Therefore many teachers of woodworking First. and experience of the teacher. It is hoped that this book may be of help to both classes and also of use of to the independent student. The mechanic of the must not only be an all-round hand-worker but he must also imderstand and use the machines of his line of work. The day for the modern narrow specialist who is but a cog in a machine is passing away. skilled mechanics who have taken up the work naturally belong to of instructing. Each of these systems has its place. has passed for the old-fashioned all-round mechanic who was a hand-workman only. no practical workman would think uses unless obliged.

mental. The way which seems the most logical and to promise the best . but the position of machinery must be recognized. and it is good practice for hand and eye to use the bow-saw. after the pupil has acquired the skill to plane down siu-faces accurately. We may prefer the handscraped table for its human touch. therefore the pupil should learn the use of this tool. for another example. or general development. instead of being held back by doing over and over again what he has once learned. Machinery is of course unsafe for small children. for it has come to stay and the age demands it. and ex- a mistaken view to scorn the help of machinery. Two men cannot scrape a board in a day so accurately and smoothly as a first-class scraping-machine can do it in fifteen seconds. labor. for example. and moral) which undoubtedly comes from varied and continued excellent ones to be run by foot (or hand) can be bought for a small sum. and is diswork which shoiild be done by machinery. but from a purely mechanical point of view is — — it is idle to claim. but having mastered it reasonably well he should not be obliged to use it longer. for him to continue to do a great waste of time. but mechanically it is inferior to that scraped by machine. The advantages of hand-work need not be sacrificed. alone in view to advance to more difficult problems in hand-work. If too young to be trusted with machinery the sawing should be done for him. for machinery has its educative value as well as hand-work. It is largely used to save time. great development Also. The time saved by the help of machinery will enable him who has hand-work. as is frequently done. is In most so-called hand-work of the present day machinery pense. If old enough he should be taught the use of the band-saw (or the jigsaw). it is couraging.Preface v which can be done by machine would cause the pupil to miss the and training (physical. that hand-work is necessarily superior to thoroughly executed machine. If power-machines are out of the question. Looked at from an artistic and sentimental point of view there something about hand-work the personal equation which no machine can supply.

The effort has therefore been made to give the necessary facts and no more. or any suggestions. therefore notification of errors and omissions. is to follow the natural process of evolution. W. operations left to test to the utmost the skill of the most brilliant hand-work. investigation. will be gratefully received. It is partly When a question of time-saving. and that the pupil may have a chance to work out his own salvation. sent the author under care of the publishers. give the pupil a good thorough course in the essentials of he has acquired a reasonable degree of skill with any tools and processes now obsolete in practical work. pupil or instructor. let such work There will still be enough hand thereafter be done by machine. It is wished to keep this book up to date. manual on the subject of woodworking is in danger If he is not explicit enough the of saying too much or too little.VI Preface all-round results. . The question his time is is not whether the pupil is well employed or not. he retards the student instead The maker of developing his faculties. whether the final aim be general development or special technical training. C. that each teacher may be free to arrange his methods of procedure according to his circumstances. experience. and experiment or which should be left to the intelligence and common-sense of teacher and pupil. but whether being used in the best way and so as to save as much as of a possible for further advancement. which should be learned by observation. G. If he explains matters pupil is hindered from lack of sufficient data. That is.

To be sure that the pupil has a clear idea of the work he is about to do before he begins the teacher must first understand it himself. expect satisfactory results with dull tools. But nothing less than a happy combination of excellence in both respects will do full justice to the pupils. he learns by experience he remembers. as time is limited. will not tell the pupil what he can learn better by observation and exThe pupil enjoys finding things out for himself. It is astonishing what unforeseen difficulties or objecvii ^ . The tools must be sharp and in good condition. had best be told or shown. The benches and all of the equip- ment should be kept in good working order. than that he be a mechanic first and a teacher afterward. as of many other studies. The wise teacher of woodworking. however.TO TEACHERS The teacher of woodworking is often looked upon as one who need only be proficient in the practical execution of woodwork. and to this he must add practical knowledge of the work itself. As a practical matter. and it is a wise thing to do even then. But to get the best results he must have as good pedagogical training as other teachers. The pupils should never learn to It is useless to rely upon him to do any of their work for them. there are many things which. unless you are an experienced mechanic. The wood should be The novice cannot be expected to clear. In fact it is doubtless better that he be a teacher first and a mechanic afterward. In elementary work make every article yourself before giving it to a pupil to make. and it is easy to be over-confident in this respect. straight-grained stock. Nor will the judicious teacher yield to the temptation to help in the actual work. do good work with anything else. dry. and what perience.

to the exclusion of other matters. and management of every tool. Besides. in his zeal for the routine of the work. unless the pupil be held to a good standard of execution in the early work. It is easy for a teacher to become so absorbed in a set of models as to think the reproduction of them by all the pupils to be the end and aim of manual training. adjustment. tionable features sometimes develop in the process of objects. Originality and spontaneous effort should be encouraged. but usually can be gradually developed until the pupil can see for himself inaccioracies which at first he could not see even when pointed out. — . something menprojects which require more than mere attention. as well as hands and eyes. On the other hand there is danger in striving for too minute exactitude with some pupils.viii To Teachers making simple and the teacher should not get caught by difficulties which the experienced workman would foresee. — — The beginner should at the outset learn the construction. that the pupil has brains to be ciiltivated. In woodwork. Manual dexterity often requires but little brain power beyond the faculty of attention to the work in hand. By this it is not meant that the teacher must be an experienced workman in order to do useful work as an instructor for to teach some woodworking it is not necessary to know all woodworking but he should not fail to understand all the details of every problem which he knows to be before him. Similarly. as the pupil begins to acquire skill. If all his work is carefully laid out for him and tally stimulating. it will be difficult to do so in the more advanced articles. certain movements and operations become more or less automatic and cease to require Therefore he should then have the higher order of faculties. After a time. the sense of acciiracy is in many cases very defective. the pupils are as quick to discover the limitations of the teacher's knowledge in woodworking as in other branches. forgetting. as in drawing and other branches. as it is harder to do this after his interest has become centred on the actual work. and the power developed to overcome difficulties other than those of mere manual dexterity. lest they never have time to learn anything else.

He may understand and appreciate the purpose of his schooling. and without his interest and enthusiasm a full measure of success will never be attained. but the work in a school shop should be real work. — — . and touch so far as possible his life and the things which naturally appeal to him and the things which are suitable to the community. be done too often. looking at the pupil's ultimate benefit. not merely a preparation for what may or may not come later. a part of real life. or should be. but the pupil (unless quite matiire) is looking at the object he is making as the end in view. Therefore in zeal for details and for turning out an accurate set of "models" the teacher should not lose sight of the broader aspects of the subject.To Teachers ix all his thinking done for him in advance. Things are made because they are wanted. There should be some definite usefiil and present purpose in all their work. until it is This soon becomes very discouraging and should not satisfactory. be so far as possible a part of home or school or outside life. If a pupil spoils a piece of work do not feel that you must in every case keep him making the article over and over again. the objects should be such as to arouse useful articles. The prevailing opinion seems to be that the best method for elementary work is to have the pupils make a progressive series of Besides this. each pupil's interest. In school they are often made with the idea that what is learned may be of some use later in life (what may be called disciplinary or preparatory work). because there is some reason for making them. The pupils are *as much a part of life now as they ever will be. but he should be allowed to advance to some new problem by which the desired end can be reached. but the direct interest of a young pupil is more in the article he is making than in the training he is getting. he is losing perhaps the most important part of his training. In real hfe woodworking is done for some definite end. and what young pupils are interested in Their tasks should is life now and not in preparations for the future. Thus there is danger that he may acquire a good degree of manual skill without the power to apply it usefully to the purposes of everyday life. The teacher is.

when the pupil's proficiency and mental development will allow. and he will soon learn the There is as much educative discipline in work which is a difference. A comparatively long piece of work about which the pupil has enthusiasm is better than a short one in which he takes no interest. be thought out carefully. good projects than it is possible vide himself with a greater number of structor. however. let him have the experience and satisfaction of undertaking and successfully carrying out work which when finished will be of real value cipline —the — and a source of pride to all concerned. for him to execute. that the objects in each group may offer similar problems and difficulties. —in work for the beso introducing him to the work that he can have something suitable to do. . part of the pupil's present little interest. In regard to allowing pupils in their early work to choose what they shall make. giving them wider choice as they progress. The different groups from which they may be allowed to choose should. hand do not feel that only short jobs should be undertaken. there is no further difIn fact he will often proficulty in finding suitable work for him. problem of seeing that he has suitable work take care of The ginner greatest difficulty in arranging a course of lies in the early stages. The dis- mental and moral training which comes from sticking to work and working hard at it until it is as well done as can be expected is lost if only quickly executed work is undertaken. life as in that in which he can take but As he grows older and becomes more will proficient this itself. and the groups themselves be progressively arranged. it is well at first to let them select from but few carefully considered articles.X To Teachers Let the teacher who doubts this try giving his pupils work which appeals to them and work which does not. Therefore. —something worth while and still use no more tools and operations at the same time than can be luiderstood readily or than can be kept track of by the inAfter the pupil has once learned the elementary uses of the common tools and the elementary operations. Many pupils wish to make things which On the other are too hard and would take too long to do properly.

and in the elementary work avoid mechanical appliances and make the pupil rely on hand and eye and the common hand tools. Time-saving and acciu"acy-securing devices should not be introduced until the worker has attained a reasonable degree of skill without them. If some project involves the use of other materials than wood do not reject it on that account. propose. After the pupils have become fairly proficient in the use of the common tools. group-work can sometimes be used to good advantage. and make articles in which he is interested. Do not keep him too closely to a set course of procedure. do not give the work up. Objects which give valuable lessons in construction a side of the work often much neglected can frequently be made by a number of pupils which it would be impracticable for one to make alone. A little possession. If everything desirable is not available to meet a particular situation. The path will not be hewed for him in real life. does not interfere with . within reasonable limits.. etc. as it cultivates versatility. the advantage is too obvious to be neglected. if otherwise desirable. If a pupil can try to work out in the art department the best design for something which is to be made in the shop. Let his real life begin in the school. provided no pupil is kept too long at any one operation. leather. but encourage the pupil to contrive some way to reach the desired end. Also. and resourcefulness. design. Let him. adaptability. Comparing notes and interchange of ideas on the part of the different teachers may show ways in which the work can be so correlated as to be helpful and stimulating to the different departments. The student should be shown different ways of doing work. — — simple auxiliary work in metals. whenever the pupils can use the shop as a laboratory for the working out of any problems or the construction of apparatus for scientific studies it is for the advantage of both departments to do so.To It is Teachers xi important to remember that a well-trained eye is a valuable Therefore have the work tested by eye so far as possible before using instruments. Whenever connection can be made between the woodworking and the regular school work this should be done.

should be free to advance as fast as he can." that it is hard to justify it on any higher ground than that of expediency. lumbering.xii To Teachers relation the success of the woodworking. It is a good plan to have catalogues of tools (these will usually be supplied by the dealers) accessible to the pupils. found in keeping a large class together Supplementary or extra work for the quicker pupils may perhaps answer the requirements of discipline may keep the class out of mischief but from an educational point of view such a method is so crude. the growth of trees. and is accessible to all. difficulty is often Much in the elementary exercises. Such subjects can be taken up at any time of life. It is certainly doubtful if there be any satisfactory way to keep pupils together in large classes. etc. the teacher is usually not consulted. pupils is The work. as thereby much time is saved. nor is it desirable to do so except for the Of course each pupil difficulty of handling so many individually. If the time will admit it is of course well to take up the most important of such topics. The practical work should not be sacrificed for such correlative topics as forestry. to increase their interest and give leaves. But this is a subject about which. — unfortunately. their distribution. After the most elementary stages different kinds of wood should be used. a great hindrance to good Sometimes advice and reasoning will soon effect a slowing excessive haste of many . but is often a stimulus. It is well to have on hand models of joints and the like. but if the best period of life for the manual training proper is once past it cannot easily be recalled. and so unfair to those who show the most aptitude and are therefore required to "mark time. Classes should not be too large to allow every pupil to have the individual attention of the teacher. but if the classes are large it is physically and mentally impossible for the teacher to handle the pupils individually in the early stages of the work. and he has no alternative but to try to keep them together as well as he can. information about them useful information. and the of the different branches of mechanical work is better understood.

to talk over with him not merely the projects of the school shop but the outside private mechanical work which so many of them are sure to undertake. absorbent cotton. and care should be taken that no pupils work with dangling sleeves or any exposed loose ends of clothing. All belting. within reach of all. to a mill and the machines and their uses studied. but he should apply to — — hardly be laid upon insisting that nothing be allowed to distract the attention of any one while working at a machine. Pupils should be cautioned not to put glue on a cut. In case of a bruise or pounding the nail put the finger at once in as hot water as can be borne. Rolls of bandages. Teachers xiii material. when sufficiently advanced. shafting. This is a hard problem failures. has constant opportunity to inculcate the virtues of honesty and thoroughness in work. because of possible infection. adhesive and healing preparations for cuts and on hand. often bring about a great improvement. Where machinery is used the teacher who has had extended experience with it will not need to be cautioned about the dangers to which the novice may be exposed and no one should take charge of such work without sufficient experience but too much stress can for the conscientious teacher. with study of the individual characteristics. and he may thereby often learn something useful himself. To attempt to specify the attainments of the ideal manual training . and gearing with which one can come in contact should be protected. dealing as he does with tangible materials and the creation of objects.To down and repeated . If the workshop is not supplied with machinery. he has a fine opportunity to encourage the pupils. whether machinery is used or not. and some antiseptic bruises should always be because of the practical nature of the subject. the pupils should be taken. plaster. for often some of the most intelligent and industrious workers are afflicted with this trouble in an acute form. with watchfulness will and incidentally the waste of considerable and patience on the part of the teacher. by his interest in what interests them. He need have no fear that such efforts will not be appreciated. antiseptic gauze. The teacher of woodworking. it careful thought. Also.

While he must read^ study. If the teacher does his part as it should be done. there will be little occasion for government. While the position and authority of the teacher must be maintained with proper dignity and kindly firmness. and keep up to the times in woodworking. experiment. it is not well to try to exact all the conventional requirements of the ordinary schoolroom. for much freedom of movement. and there may be times when "discipline" must be resorted to.xiv To Teachers teacher does not come within the province of this book. but it will bear reiteration that it is even more important for him to be a good teacher than to be a good mechanic. for the pupils will have no desire for mischief. in much self-government and self-discipline on the part of the pupil. but will be eagerly and zealously attending to business. he shoiild ask himself wherein he has failed to arouse and hold the interest of his pupils. but if the teacher finds the need of much of it in his classes. is The successful carrying out of his work is sure to resiilt necessary. Occasional acts of thoughtlessness or forgetfulness are hard to prevent in any collection of youth. and mental liberty also. . he must also be keenly alive to pedagogical progress and to outside interests.

. 275 . . Boring tools. Other cutting tools.... — — 6 PART II. and laying out work...... Fitting. — Common — Tools for laying out and testing work... Tools and Their Uses PAGE iii vii i PART I. Shaping... ... work together........ Chisels. Index .... — — A few elementary principles of construction.. Woodworking machines.... ..... Miscellaneous tools and appliances. — — — — . Saws........ and Finishing Wood 139 201 practical problems in drawing Some Some types of construction...... — Operations in Appendix Wood....CONTENTS Preface To Teachers Introductory .... Tools for pvitting Planes.


) Second. —the kind of wood. . a little too large with saws or other tools and afterwards reduced by planing and other operations to the exact required dimensions. and other things necessary. 2 Sometimes it is necessary to do this. the details of the object should be decided upon and understood. and a working drawing with dimensions First. — Before any and all complete article them. — Whether this drawing should be made by the pupil or be provided for him must depend upon the circumstances and the nature of the work. but he should have a drawing to work £rom in every case. the most suitable materials must be decided upon. To do this the dimensions must be measured and the outlines of the Usually these are got out piece or pieces marked out on the wood. Estimating. Laying out Work. and Getting out Stock. size. wholly or partly. The Process.A SHORTER COURSE IN WOODWORKING INTKODUCTORY can properly be made in woodworking. what materials are to be used. the material must be selected and the "stock" got out. hardware. the various pieces must be fitted together in accordancewith the plan. ^ Next. the shape. Finally. and the whole smoothed and finished. one must learn its construction. before making the working • drawings. An 2. and what tools are needed and how to use 1.' (See page 217. be made.

see page 20 The first. This plank 3" thick. mouldings." or "square foot. one foot will cost ten M cents. straight-grained.wood. and 12' long^ contains 12 feet. method is easily applied to pieces of which the length or width is a con- A venient multiple or divisor of twelve. or rough dimensions. A board i" thick. about one eighth of an inch greater in thickness than the 1 ' The symbol " means inches and i " ' means feet. clapboards. Boards less than one inch thick are usually sold by the square foot of surface. etc. Some rare woods are sold by the pound. when. for the beginner. is sold by the square foot. 12" wide. or 12 square feet. Pieces turned out in quantities for special uses. 7" wide. In case of a plank ^ multiply the width in inches by the thickness of the plank. The unit of lumber measurement is the "board foot. board measure.) stock. inch board price varying according to the thickness. is —the lumber are sold by the hundred or by the piece. and laths come in bunches or bundles. estimate of materials and cost should be This contains 144 cubic inches. dry (See page 201. the price being set by the Thus. Shingles. ginner should have thoroughly seasoned. A board i" thick. width in inches. The bevaries with every job and can rarely be foretold exactly. ' Planks are more than thick. (1000 feet). except where an planed down. as ebony. for small work. If the board tapers. For other matters relating to Wood. clear. 6" wide. etc. inch thickness is charged for. measure at the middle. There is no distinction in measuring made between a rough board i " thick and a planed board |" thick. should usually be. and any piece of wood containing 144 Most lumber cubic inches is a board foot. . and 12' long conThus to measure twelve-foot stock simply find the tains 6 square feet. if pine boards are selling at $100 an M.. of course. Certain regular sizes and shapes of are often sold by the running foot." which means a volume one foot square and one inch thick. as strips. and 12' long contains 21 square feet.2 A Shorter Course in Woodworking made before beginning any Make liberal allowance for waste which but the simplest work. as they represent the same amount of lumber. without regard to its shape. leopard.

and about or lumber order. Pine No. As different kinds of lumber. of Pieces 2 pieces Thickness 4 pieces 3 pieces . about one quarter of an inch greater in width. next the thickness. quickly. arranged according to kinds out. are usually kept in separate piles. state first the kind of wood. and then the width wood and dimensions.. or so. greater in length. A of list. so that they can be got out as systematically. and economically as possible. the pieces. different thicknesses. etc. should be made and length. of all one-half inch.Introductory final 3 dimensions.

and lay out the work from A mark this side and edge only. Operations of the same kind should be done at the same time so Lay out duplicate pieces together (Figs. as the top of a table or the front side of a pictiire-frame but the face sides of the legs of tables.) In the same way the joint-edges in such work as door-frames. 2 the side which shows. Select the best "face" and the best edge for the "joint-edge. chairs." a mark on each to avoid mistakes. It is essential that all working-faces and joint-edges the inside. (See page 165. should be on Make .A Shorter Course surface for the in Woodworking^ that the edges or surfaces are exactly parallel. . 3 If otherwise suitable. In some work the face side should be Fig. like a V as in Fig. etc. 2 will designate Working Face > both working-face and joint-edge. 3 and 4) mark far as possible. 4 is the best for the face side. should be planed true in all cases where joints are formed. the concave side of a warped board because it is the best to plane first.. etc.. 687. Fig.) ' Fig. . should be on the inside to ensure accurate joints with the rails and other parts. ^ (Fig.

Each pupil should have his own individual bench. In any case the worker when standing at his bench should face the light and have it also on his left so that it may fall properly on his work. common tools within reach. at the same 3. The floor should be of wood. planing. or some anti-rust preparation. Have all the together. and the dust from objectionable. should be kept in a stone jar or covered tin box.. lard. or. instead of put away in chests and drawers. They are dangerous. If there is any dampness in the shop. — ^A work-shop should be well lighted and Concrete is properly heated. . and other work which might — wax. lest the tools rust and the work be injured by dampness. after using. the steel and iron parts of the tallow. should metal. (See page 80. tools should be rubbed. as bit-brace and bits. the tools used most nearest to the worker. be of a cheaper quality. with a little fat. Except for childish work the only advantage of double benches for school use is in saving space and expense. if a few are kept. Oily rags should either be burned at once. The Work-shop. time. vaseline. boring.) Separate benches. oily cloth. and dry. Have everything where it can be reached in the least possible Have tools that go time. kept near together. and do similar sawing. 5 etc. which may be provided for finishing. It is an advantage to have windows on all sides of the shop.Introductory similar details. it is bad in case of dropping tools. filing hurt the regular benches.

Chalk-line. Knife. eighths. Bevel. and sixteenths. 5). and Plumb. lay the rule on edge so that the divisions on its In making several small measurements side touch the wood (Fig. is divided into 4. quarters. To measure as in Fig. used to measure and lay out work. 6 Fig.. Square. To mark distances for accurate work. Compasses. 5 do not move the rule (Fig. ' A number of illustrations of tools are given through the courtesy of the Stanley Rule and Level Co. Chalk. Level. halves. Fig. Scratch-awl. for the end is likely to be Britain. Pencil. Connecticut. 5). inches. use any divisions on the rule rather than its end. The Rule.PART I COMMON TOOLS AND THEIR The most USES ^ TOOLS FOR LAYING OUT AND TESTING WORK important are the Rule. New 6 . 6. Straight-edge. Gauge.

7). into an equal number of parts. is convenient for bench-work. (see stick six feet long and another rule is also ten or twelve. as the width of a board. is two-foot rule. where you cannot tance on a single stick. A fourfold rule. fairly in accurate. not conrule. and common use. and many The prefer to begin with it because of its common use among workmen. page 21). witi the rule. with feet and inches marked. where is Fig. place the rule so that the required number of equal divisions upon it will just reach from one edge of the board to the other. dis- .Common inaccurate. A zigzag folding rule from 2' to 8' long is convenient. caliper The good for small outside measurements A Calipers. is at \ To two find the distance it between points. as the width of a board. slide it across the surface until some inch-mark an equal distance from each edge of the board (Fig. or. meas- mark the 9. To divide a distance. folding to six inches in length.7 handy in To find the middle of a given distance. 8).8 venient to use a common ure with an extension or slide rule. are laying out work. two sticks may be used as in Fig. will help adjust the rule. and make a dot exactly at each division (Fig. is better to carry around. with the rule. Tools and Their Uses 7 and The thumb harder to place in line with the edge of the wood. folding once. Fig. or slide rule The is extension useful for obtaining inside dimensions (see below).


Shorter Course in


The Square. The try- square is to test right-angled work, and to mark Hnes at right angles across surfaces. Keep the beam or head (Fig. lo) pressed against the surit is applied, and the blade will then be in position for either marking or testing a right

face to which

angle (Figs, ii



good way to mark with the square is to place the knife on the given point and
slide the


square along until





Then draw



Fig. 9

such a line upon the adjacent surface, place the knife at the end of the line as in Fig. 13, slide the square up to it, and mark the

Fig. 10

next face.

Fig. II

Fig. 12

In testing a surface or edge with the try-square (Figs.
15), place it at several points.



Face the



best try-squares are entirely of metal.




or lo-inch blade)

marked on the
the blade


more useful than a small one. A scale is often Sometimes the end of the head or beam next

cut on a bevel (Fig. 16), for mitring (see page 142), but the


Tools and Their Uses
(See Bevel,

so short that

it is

accurate only for very small work,

To square across or around an hexagonal, octagonal or cylindrical stick, place

a rectangular piece between the head of the square and the stick (Fig. 17).


lay out a bevel with a square,
as in Figs.

get out a wedge-shaped piece with the

required taper and use



and 19. A saw-kerf can be made the wedge to admit the blade of the
(See Bevel, page 10.)


The framing-square,
Fig. 13







like the try-square

stock, in laying out work,


of great value in getting out


in testing

work too

large for the try-



can also be used as a rule (see page

6), as

a straight-edge

(see page 16), and to set the bevel at different angles (see page 10.)


computations can

be made by means

the figures on the blades.

For squaring large work, see page 223. The Knife, which 6. should be used for fine, accurate marking may be a common pocket-knife, a sloyd knife, or a special marking knife. The scratch-awl can also be

Fig. 14

The marking-awl,
can be used

or scratch-awl, has a round, sharp point,


like the knife for




Shorter Course in



— For

nice work a round pencil

moderately (medium-hard or

somewhat soft) will do. A pencil is best to mark curves which cannot be drawn with compasses.

Sharpen pencil
points on fine sand-

paper or a
Fig. 15



for the purpose.


framing and the rougher kinds of carpentry, for getting out stock, etc a carpenter's pencil sharpened flatways may be used. The Bevel is similar to the try-square, but 8. the blade can be set at any angle. The mitre-square

Fig. 16


fixed at an angle of 45°, and is better for accurate mitre- work than the adjustable beve' (seepage 142). The head of the bevel like that of the square must be held firmly against the wood (Fig. 20). To get angles of 45° and 135° with the bevel, place it against the in-

side edge of the steel-square (Fig. 21),
set the blade at the
Fig. 17


same distance on each
See also page 226.


of the square."

drawn from the straight-edge of a board, points marked at equal distances from the point A (Fig. 22), and the bevel set by these points.
right angle can be



Tools and Their Uses


frequently, take a small block of

To make a bevel for small work, useful when the same angle is to be tested wood 2" or 3" long and about i" square, make a saw-kerf in one end, and fit tightly in this kerf at the required angle a slip of wood 2" or 3" long (Fig. 23).

Fig. 19

Fig. 20

A Protractor can also be used for obtaining any desired angle.

See under Square, page




page 226.


The Gauge

used to


lines parallel to

an edge.

has a block, called the head,

stock, or fence, to slide against

the edge of the wood, and a
Fig. 21

beam, or stem, which passes through the block, and

can be set by a thumb-screw to project to the distance required. A spur or marking-point is inserted near the end of the bar, which has the


A Shorter
a rule




marked upon
it is


which to set the spur,

more accufrom the the gauge to
It is bet-

rate to measure with


the point of the spur
(Fig. 27).


to sharpen the

spur to an edge parallel with the head
(Fig. 24) rather

Fig. 22

to a point.


See that the spur projects from j\" to

1 6


Hold gauge and

rule as in Fig. 26.

Set the spur

^m ^^^^^ ^m ^H

Fig. 23

at the required distance from the head by adjusting with the thumbs and forefingers. Tighten thethumbscrew and test the distance with the rule (Fig. 2'/). Push the end of the piece of wood to be gauged against

Fig. 24

the bench-stop or some other firm

you and tip it from you so that the spur will be drawn along the siu-face and make only a slight mark. Keep the head of the gauge firmly pressed against the edge of the wood and push the tool steadily from you.

Hold the gauge

as in Fig. 28 in front of

make a better line when slightly convex on the side toward the This helps to keep the head close to the wood. ' In getting out stock for nice work, if the gauge is set exactly at the given distance, when the gauge-mark is planed out afterwards, the piece will be slightly smaller than intended, so allow for the width of the gauge-line in such cases. In gauging for joints and the like, set the gauge exactly right and make no allowance.

The spur



(Fig. 25),

the spur

Tools and Their Uses


quite far from the head, the gauge can be held

as in Fig. 29.

In marking across the grain, unless the sptir has a verykeen knife-edged point, use the square and knife or scratchawl instead, for nice work, else the wood may be torn. Let gauge-marks run by (see page 17) where they will not show after the work is finished. Gauge from the same
side of the

^ p


in laying out mortises or


lines to

pig_ 25

at a fixed distance from the edge, else the gauging


not come parallel




The only gauge




where accuis



not called a rule and

A line a pencil, may be drawn at a given distance from the edge of a board
as in Fig. 30.
Fig. 26


near the edge,

as in chamfering or



do to scratch the wood, the finger and pencil can be used as in Fig. 31, or a gauge with a hole bored near one end of the bar or beam, into which
will not


pencil will



It saves time to have at least two gauges for ordinary work. For special cases a fixed gauge can be

Fig. 27

32 and 33). to lay Pj angles and arcs. as for a mortise (see page 144).gauge Fig. and to ''scribe" where a gauge can not be used. . to lay out measureTo set ments. It saves time but and is often hard for the beginner to use. to take measurements from a rule. There are gauges called panel-gauges. Compasses are used circles or to off strike arcs. with long beams and heads for wide One can easily be made.14 A Shorter Course in Woodworking in Fig. and two lines marked at is once. 33 is The form shown (Figs. one of which any required distance from the The mortise. not a necessity- with steel wheel edge instead of a Occasionally a knife point or spur. 29 other. work because the head is longer. spaces. or some object. made better for straight Fig. a drawing. 28 has two can be set at spurs. Some gauges have a sharpened 10. blade is used for cutting thin stock.

Fig. When hold the compasses by the top at the hinged grasping them lower down may lean cause the points to move. Fig. measurements. 31 To draw a circular curve at the of the piece in Fig. 39. the will be drawn along Hold them in same way when "stepping off" 35).Common them by the joint. across the middle of the surface. 37 set end the compasses at one half the width and scribe a line at that distance from the end. on the rule as in Fig. the middle of Fig. so that the marking point smoothly (Fig. set one point of the compasses and strike the arc as shown in Fig. find Or. Where the two lines cross. are easy to adjust and attachment can be used on one leg. strike arcs intersecting at . A pencil (Fig. and will or those with arc set screw. 38. 34 From these points with radius AB . 34. 2>^ Also another from one edge. as in Fig. In nicely smoothed work a thin slip of wood should be put under the point of the compasses not slip. 33 the end (A) and also the same distance (D) Fig. from the corner on one edge. Wing compasses. and them slightly in the direction they are being turned. 36). as Tools and Their Uses 15 rule place the points striking circles or arcs.

To strike larger circles or arcs than can be done with the compasses. place a thin piece cardboard or wood on the surface. 35 string. 40). 38 II. 3 I as^ Fig. This is a rod having sliding sockets which carry steel or penAs a substitute. 42 43. or dividers. run the compasses along with one point on the ^ irregular surface and the other marking the piece to be fitted. The Straight-edge is used in marking straight lines and for testing the straightness surfaces. See also page 221 for problems requiring the compasses. Fig. (See also page 231. of A Shorter Course in Woodworking Where marks will deface the work when finished. 39 of edges and Any piece of wood or other material that .i6 C. two nails (or a nail and a pencil) put cil points (Fig. as in fitting the edge board to an irregular surface as shown in Fig. This is more accurate than to use a Fig. 41).36 a beam-compass (sometimes called a trammel) is used. Fig. through a stick can be used (Fig.) scribe a line parallel to another of a To Eor Pig 27 Hne or surface.

and will force the latter be held firmly (see page 220). marking point often tends to The fol- ^ \r\ low the grain of the wood and run o£f the line. 2|" to 32" wide. For short work use the V edge of the framing-square. and about i" thick. It saves time to let Fig. 4" wide. make no unnecessary lines where they will show. 11 and 13). 41 lines which meet at a point Also the crossing of two lines marks a point cross one another. 43 edges. from a common ruler or the edge of a square to a long board. and 8' or 10' long.Common Tools and Their Uses 17 has a straight edge and is convenient to use can be so called. For work to be nicely finished. Fig. 40 the straight-edge. in the most accurate way. __S_ ^ J~\ 1 When marking by marking a straight-edge keep the tool very slightly inclined away from Fig. Every woodworking shop should have at least two or three straightGood sizes are about 4' long. Light pencil marks can be removed by a rubber eraser. but with the point close to the edge (Figs. or |" thick. or the try-square. Clear straight-grained . in preference to sandpaper or \ \ straight-edge out of place unless the scraper. 42 Fig. however.

but plane until it looks surface is straight. for a straight-edge. if To test. surface may be smooth without being true. In the same way. ^] On the is other hand. to whether a broad surface is true sight across it from 48. When the surface is true. mark a Hne by then turn Sometimes one beit over and see the edge coincides with the I A is used to determine whether a surface is straight or "true. 45 ^?^^^^ board warped as in Fig. finally using the straight-edge (Figs. do not stop to apply a straightedge." A well-trained eye is one of the most valuable possessions of a Therefore do all the testing you can by eye before skilled workman. If you can see that the edge is too high or too low anywhere. Use the straight-edge final only as a test (Fig. lengthways of the surface. throughout. the edge is not straight. sight lengthways toward the light (Fig. 45. 50). 51. . straight-edge is The also be in line and no point of the _ surface above or below the edges. When planing the edge of a board. the straight-edge (in whatever 52.g_ 46 different directions (Figs. fine comes curved." A surl^P^^^i'^^^^:^^ face is true only when a straightedge (in whatever position Fig. The board in Fig. and diagonally. for instance. white pine or mahogany good line. Always look toward the light. 44 Sight across it in any direction and the edges will a true surface. but must be planed until the straight-edge touches it F. 53). If any shows through. when the Fig. the "winding. determine crossways.i8 A Shorter Course in is Woodworking it. 47). 49. using instruments. 44 placed) will touch it throughout. 46).

Chalk-line. 55). It can be revolved in the hand as the line is chalked. '-^3Hrr»^ Sticks of graphite or some composition are also good for the roughest marking. 48 For large work a long straightedge of equal width throughout should first be placed on the surface to be tested. Chalk is used for 12. Fig. and from this end. but not with the chalk13. line. The Spirit-level (usually combined with a Plumb) is important in carpentry and building and for many kinds of mechanical work. 54. lift it squarely from as near the middle as practicable with the thumb and forefinger of the other hand. and the level or plumb applied to the straight-edge (Fig. hold it down with one hand. 14. The plane can used as a straight-edge for testing (Fig. 56).Common position placed) will touch Tools and Their Uses it 19 often be throughout. Then draw the coid taut to the other end of the desired line. rough marking and also (See with the chalk-line. small cord better than 47 a large one. 144). below). . and let it snap back to the of the desired line fix the cord with a loop surface (Fig. is a chalked cord used to mark between A Fig. as in Fig. The two is Chalk-line points. so that the chalk will not be cut in two. chalk it At one end around an awl or nail.

the post plumbed as in Fig. A long plumb is more accurate than a short one in most cases. 59 a. is vertical. a can be made as in Fig. the edge of the board will be vertical. will be vertical. but if only a part of it be plumbed. 60. When the cord hangs exactly on the line. Fig. 49 apex of the notch. As a horizontal or . The cord can be hung on a board with a line gauged down the middle of the side. 50 level level line is at right angles with a vertical one. it may lean to one side (Fig. for large work.20 A To Shorter Course in Woodworking The cord get a plumb-line hang any weight at the end of a cord. 57). When the plumb-line ab. parallel to the edges (Fig. For example. cd will be level. at right angles The frame should be several feet long to cd. or at the will Fig. 59 b). taken as a whole. be vertical as soon as it stops swinging (Fig. 58).

or spline.Common 15. rubber.) . 61. are very important in some work. as turning. Tools and Their Uses 21 Calipers. which are called "inside ' * "or outside . A Flexible Ruler. as suggested in Fig. Small outside measurements can often be taken with the caliperrule. The diameter of a to can found by some simple combinaobject curved often be tion of squares. or other See (Fig. material can be used for drawing irregular curves. of wood. page 236. rules.. ' ' according whether they are ^^1 to find the diameter of a hole or the outside diameter of an object. 16. etc. 62.

22 A The Shorter Course in Woodworking back and for-th the thickness of the blade. Seize the place the saw at the outside edge of the line. steady strokes. wood with the left hand. allowing the saw to slip easily' (Fig. cut started right. Hold the saw forefinger with the it against the side of the handle _. First draw the saw gently backit wards. 66). The teeth cut best when slightly inclined toward the tip of the saw (Fig. Cross-cutting Saw is used for sawing across the grain. The sharp cutting edge of each tooth is on the outside. and after a few easy strokes to get the little pressure as possible. and cut across the fibres of the wood somewhat like the point of a knife. firmly. 17. with as then push it gently forward. is it thicker at the teeth than at the back. the left and hold the thumb of hand against the blade (above the teeth) to help start the cut in the right place (Fig. and at the handle than at the freely. First place the wood upon it a pair of horses. 64). but not such long strokes that the ' tip of The blade of the common hand saw tip. The teeth are pointed and sharp (Fig. to steady (Fig. or fasten in the vise. move the left hand a little further away and saw '^" ^'^ with long. 63). 65). to stiffen and to enable it to pass through the wood . lest splinter the edge. 64).

but this is inconvenient and it is best to learn to hand the piece is which off. lest it catch and the saw buckle. i Fig. If the saw is not cutting r^ shown in Fig. With a sharp saw there is nothing gained by bearing down heavily on the Fig. it carefully. At the end of the cut saw gently with light strokes and hold with the left surface of wood. If the saw begins to run off the line. 67) to bring it back to the line. 57 tested with the try-square (Fig. can be Fig. the bend side- Try side to keep the blade of the saw right blade at angles with It the the ways (Fig.Common Tools and Their Uses 23 the saw enters the kerf. 56 which can be done most easily when the saw is held at about the angle saw without such help.74- squarely. 58 or support . 68). 55 teeth. Rather let it run of itself with an easy. being cut it Or Fig. 69). guiding Sawing furiously may make the saw jump out of the kerf and damage the work or cut the hand. ^ _ _ twist it a little with the wrist as you go on (Fig. light stroke.

lest it break off and splinter one of the two pieces (Fig. 70). A cross-cutting saw for soft wood can be given more provided it is . The less set in any hand-saw the better. enough to give the blade clearance. 18" to 24" is a good length for a cross- cutting saw. in From inch. 60 some way. The degree to which the teeth are set and the number of teeth to the inch depend upon the use — — Fig. The finer the teeth the smoother the cut.24 A Shorter Course in Woodworking Fig. 62 to which the saw is to be put. with about 8 to 10 teeth to the For ordinary work 10 points to the inch is Fig. A figure often found near the saw handle tells the number of points to the inch. The slant given the teeth the rake or pitch is such that the point can be drawn smoothly and easily across the wood.61 a good number.

The former needs a wider set to give the blade clearance. a little notch can be made with the knife or chisel on the outside of the 64 line. 63 mon. In nice work. 74). If the cut closes after the saw so as to "bind" it. little The latter are knives to cut across the grain. It is com- Fig. 74). able to cut directly across the grain. 65 used like the cross-cutting saw (see page 22) but usually cuts best when held slanting (Fig. to use the same saw for both soft and " Tip Handle Fig. on the forward and are like little with the grain but are not suit- chisels to cut (Fig. 71). which are square (Fig. The Splitting-saw (or ripping-saw) is used to cut with the grain. because the fibres of the looser-textured soft wood are bent aside by the saw teeth and are not so cleanly cut off as in the hard wood. to help start the saw (Fig. 18. 73.Common set Tools and Their Uses 25 than one for hard wood. and the teeth differ from those of the cross-cut- ting like saw. showing set). 72). The sharp ends. drive a wedge When you come to a hard knot it is sometimes into the kerf (Fig. however. hard wood. . cut ofif the fibres. but the teeth of the splitting-saw cut only stroke. and the front edges of the teeth push them out of the kerf. The splitting-saw is Fig. or may be oblique.

66 Fig. Fig. 69 .26 A Shorter Course in Woodworking Fig. 67 Fig.

back-saw can also be used as in Figs. but care must be taken lest the blade Fig. the Seven points to is good for common work. 72 Fig. Five to inch eight points to the inch will cover ordinary cases. 78 shows a combecome bent. 75).Common Tools and Their Uses 27 best to take the cross-cutting saw to cut through it. may "chatter" and While finishing the cut hold the ends in place (Fig. and to saw two ends See Mitre-box. and saw from the side on. 79. This saw is used like the cross-cutting saw (see page 22). mon use of the back-saw. and gradually lower the handle until the blade cuts the whole width of the piece (Fig. Many pieces of wood can best be screwed in the vise for sawing. 76 and 77. 20. to fit (see page 155). The 80). 70 opposite and so towards you. reverse the piece about as far as shown in Fig. reversing. 73 start the stroke as with the cross83). Place the wood upon the bench-hook (see page Fig. back of Great care is necessary to cut exactly to the knife line. Saws for Cutting Curves. shown in Fig. If the saw is cutting far from the vise it not work well. Fig. cutting saw in the position shown in Fig. page 85. and a metal to give the blade firmness. Fig. 19. In sawing into a block after cutting 76. grasping the wood with the left hand. ']'] Thus you have only to follow the line on the side As your skill increases you can saw further without as The ripping-saw usually has larger teeth than the cross-cutting saw. — It is well to learn the use of the . 71 The Back-saw has a very thin blade to make a fine cut.

and is used like In sawing holes ("inside" or "coring" work) one or more smaller holes must be bored in which to start the saw (Fig. also from the . alFig. 76 Fig. 75 though the bow-saw and compass-saw are practical workmen.28 A Shorter Course in Woodworking compass-saw. the how. the keyhole-saw. is for cutting curves. since most curved sawing can be done better. The Compass-saw the other saws. easier. now seldom used by Fig. The blade is narrow. The compass. as the narrow blades are easily injured.or turning-saw. tapers from the handle to the tip.and keyhole-saws must be used with care. quicker. and the fine coping-saw. 77 21. 81). and cheaper by a band-saw or a jig-saw.

23. 22. and The Turning-saw or Bowsaw can be used for curves when Fig. as a The blade can usually be Fig. Tools and Their Uses 29 and set.Common teeth to the back-edge. saw and used in the same cutting for way for curves. way is The Keyhole-saw the is smaller than compassquicker keyhole. 79 Fig. 80 . The compass keyhole saws are sometimes combined. the teeth have a wide Thus it will cut a small circle. with several blades. 78 adjusted to project from the handle to suit the size of hole to be cut. The teeth are a kind of compromise between those of the splitting- and cross-cutting saws. to cut freely either of the grain.

Try to make the cut square with the strokes. The handles and blade should turn so that sawing can Fig. . 81 long. 24. even surface. board as in Fig.30 A Shorter Course in Woodworking the frame will not prevent. Saw lightly with Fig. Hold it by the larger handle with both hands (Fig. 82 useful for fine Cut the end 83. Clamp this on bench or table and use the saw as in Fig. 84. 83 be done at an angle with the frame. 82). The teeth should point from you. The is Coping-saw of a or Bracket-saw work.

work only. see page 88. stead Fig. 84 to guide the blade and also to rest upon and hold the wood in place if necessary (Fig. Where the wood and tool can not both be securely held by the left hand the chisel The work should be firmly fastened by be free to help control the controlled as in Fig. to stand heavy blows of the mallet. see page 136. That is. For fine cutting the chisel A is slicing or shearing stroke^ effective. 89). or somewhat sideways. and the other used Fig. 85 of being pushed straight through the wood (Fig. hold the in- tool so that the edge cuts slantingly. The left hand should always be kept behind the cutting-edge. is if by the varying balance of two with one hand and the controlling with the other ' It is largely ^ The edge of a razor can be pressed against the hand without cutting. in framing. forces — the pushing forward of the chisel — that effective use of the tool acquired. 94). handle is usually held with one hand. a rule cut with the flat side of the chisel next the wood. and other heavy work. chisel. mortising. For Sharpening Saws. 102. for paring and trimming wood to shape. be used for Hght mortising. CHISELS The Firmer-chisel is meant for hand. and can 25.Common Tools and Their Uses 31 For Saw-machmery. than the firmer. and the left hand can be The fingers of the left hand can thus guide or check the tool as it is pushed As forward by the right hand. The Framing-chisel is stouter 26. but moved . or clamp. ' vise.

. A powerful microscope will show that the edge of a sharp tool. and will. Owing to the angle at which it works. Usually the softer the material the greater the advantage in this slanting or slicing stroke. best by curve like that shown in Fig. lengthways it will cut at once. 86). 88) Or hold the chisel upright and move it sidethe tool ways as it is pushed down. the cutting edge can also be considered as thinner. tle for little not be square with Advance the tool a lit- each stroke so as to trim off but at a time with the forward edge of the chisel. keeping the surface and edges square. making a Fig.) As you trim to the line test the squareness. as is often better. with a slanting stroke. start the chisel as in Fig. ^J and push the handle both forward and down- ward until at the is end of the stroke . Take such a position that you can sight along the flat side of the chisel and thus keep the cutting it perpendicular. tear or saw its way through the wood best if used with a slanting or sideways stroke (Fig. so that the waste '^' ^ wood may break off and not the part to be kept. upright (Fig. 87 slanting cut (Fig. 85). 86 can be cut first removing part of the wood with the Then hold the chisel as shown in Fig. Another way is flrst to cut off the comer with the chisel up to the curve (Fig.32 A Shorter Course in Woodworking: A saw.curve is cut. Then pare off the angles again and so on (Fig. 89 and 88a. 90) until the . 88. as a rule. is really quite rough and ragged. else may the surface. Even a blade of grass will cut if drawn quickly through the hand. which seems smooth. Begin at the edge just outside of the end of the curve and work with the grain. and so more effective. at the same time that it is pushed forward. Keep the flat surface of the chisel against the part already cut as a guide. Either cut straight down with the chisel or.

Common Saw cuts can often be Tools and Their Uses nearly to the line. but some pieces are so irregular in grain that this or round- cannot be done. The surface can then be smoothed with . the tool downward. and 99 show other ways of using the chisel for paring. Slant the cut. so that any splitting will be Fig. Cut the opposite way when the direction of the grain changes. (Fig. shavings from one side Finally trim carefully to the of wood from a gain (Fig. 92). Then cut line.) Another way to make slanting meet (Fig. the pare best off thin from the other the side. Usually is way to smooth the bottoms gains and grooves chisel with the router. 33 made so that the waste wood can be cut off easily without danger of splitting the work (Fig. 97. 88a in the waste wood and not in the part to be kept. 91). (See pages 59 and 102. 103). a slanting or shearing cut can be 94)- used (Figs. loi). The shave is usually a better tool for curved work. cuts at each side of the space until they Then trim down to the line with the chisel held flatways.) The cleanest cutting can often be done across the grain with a slanting stroke (Fig. the Fig. if possible. Figs.) side to side as the tool is pushed forward (Figs. 31. 104). loi and 102) gives a is Moving the (See page handle from slanting effect to the stroke. 93 and Sometimes the chisel will work best with the basil (or sloping side) downward (Fig. 95) until the line is nearly reached. To pare to a line ABC (Fig. fiat side of 91a. To remove 100). 96. (See page 43. 98. bevel or chamfer each edge to the . ing In cutting off a corner or an edge.

Besides the firmer-chisel. dovetailing and The the like. and are easier to sharpen than those with square edges. the paring-chisel is used for paring only.34 A Shorter Course in Woodworking Fig. 89 line (Fig. are convenient for working into corners. 91 and is lighter than the firmer or other Hght chisel is ^" firmer. and then pare across with the chisel until the chamfers are removed. see page 128. with the long edges bevelled on the same side as the cutting basil. corner of the basil is sometimes ground off. The blade of the of steel only. 105). and the thick blade tends to the cutting make more accurate. Bevel-edged chisels. or where the handles are struck by the mallet. Socket chisels are the best and those with disks of sole leather. to break in heavy work. are strongest for heavy work. while that of the framing-chisel is partly of iron it to make tougher. For sharpening. Mortise-chisels with great thickness of blade are not likely ferrules. The Straight-bent chisel . ^^' Fig.

91a Fig. -page odd-shaped work. the wedge-shaped hole Sometimes called the plane-bit. 108). are other chisels There seldom Fig. as the corner-chisel. ing 17L.or parting-tool. . 94 needed by the beginner. A Skew- has a slanting edge and convenient for corners and See CarvTools. is PLANES A plane is. chisel is page 43). (See also Fig. and other places where the common firmer-chisel cannot be used to advantage.Common Tools and Their Uses 35 Fig.93 Router. which is similar to the carver's V. in principle. The sharp-edged ' cuts the wood is is called the plane-iron (Fig. grooves. The bottom surface of a plane » called the face or sole (Fig. 106) is useful for cleaning out comers. a chisel stuck through a block which piece of steel which serves to control the cutting. 92 (Fig. 107). and used in angles and corners.

result. in) jects to see that the iron pro- Fig. The is wood.95 double-ironed ' ' planes. iron cap with a dull edge screwed to the face of the cutting-iron ' ' 109). cross-grained wood the mouth should The nearer cutting - it is to the to edge. Also see that the edge of the cap fits tightly against the plane- iron so that shavings cannot pass up between them. and also that it is not askew. grained the wood the nearer the cap should be to the cutting-edge. it Screw the cap firmly in posielse may slip. Fig. ^ and are called With be narrow to ensure a smooth The more crosssurface. Sight along the face (Fig. and the slot at the bottom through which the edge of the iron projects (Fig. 96 the right amount. but the work the plane. the smoother the harder tion. is called the mouth plane- Most common planes have a (Fig. Therefore the cap is added to bend the shavings up against the forward edge of the mouth. so that they can be cut off smoothly before splitting begins.36 A Shorter Course in Woodworking where the plane-iron goes is called the throat. The iron should project more for soft and loose- single plane-iron when used against the grain (Fig. to The edge of the cap can be ground fit if necessary. from the plane ' itself. because the shavings tend to split the wood ahead of the cutting edge. io8). no) or on cross-grained apt to leave the surface rough. . lest one side cut more deeply than the The way to adjust the iron in an iron plane is easily learned other.

1 15) and then on the chip as before. but with the adjustments of the iron planes. 113). tap on the upper end of the iron (Fig. hold the plane with the left hand so that the iron cannot (Fig. Iron planes . 114).97 wooden plane. solid. To lower the cutting-edge.98 To remove the iron Hold the plane hand in these ad- for sharpening. — to make too thick raise shavings. fall 112) or on the rear through. and tap on the top of the fore end of the plane end of the smoothing. in the left justing operations. not strike any part of it while it rests on anything unevenly. 99 "jointed" to make it true.Common grained wood than for hard Tools and Their Uses 37 and the cap-iron be nearer the edge for hard wood. the chip also is removed. tap on one edge of the upper part of the iron Good planes are made with wooden still stocks.plane (Fig. When the iron in place is adjusted fix it firmly the by tapping on top of "chip" or wedge which it holds in place (Fig. Fig. To the iron of a Fig. Some workmen prefer the wooden planes. The beginner the iron to is apt to set too project much. If Do the cutting-edge projects (Fig. 116). as there ness is a light- and smoothness about their action not found in the iron ones. stocks however sooner or later become warped and then the face has to be The wooden Fig.

38 A Shorter Course in and to keep Woodworking To protect the are easier to adjust in order. These planes are still occasionally used. The 107). and removed heavy shavings. often convenient to have an extra jack- plane iron with rounded edge for rough work. arrange a little strip one end slightly from the bench or 27. The jack-plane was followed surface before using the other planes. ground squarebut with the' comers is very slightly rounded. 118. better. cut deepest in the middle (Fig. the jack- plane and fore-plane now commonly have It is the iron ground squarely across and differ only in size. cutting-edge to raise lay planes on their sides or ends. The jack-plane (with . the iron being but very slightly rounded. This plane was formerly used for coarse work and to rough off the Fig. 102 The cutting-edge was rounded. which was used to straighten and level the surface. shelf. or. but as machine-planed stock can be obtained of any Fig. to straighten as now commonly by the used. lOi Fig.103 desired dimensions almost everywhere. leaving the surface uneven (Fig. by the longer fore-plane or trying-plane. of ^'^" ^°° is and iron level the surface the wood. 117). ly across (Fig. and can be followed smoothing-plane. The Jack-plane. exaggerated).

Common rounded edge) is is Tools and Their Uses 39 frequently the best good for "traversing" or planing across the "grain.' It will make a surface smooth. often adjustable. The Jointer longer than the jack-plane and thus It more accurate for making a surface level and true. As ' The final smoothing of nice work is done with the scraper (page 61) and sandpaper (page 78) . and also page 45. Fig. is has a single iron set at a more acute angle with the face than in The width of the mouth the block-plane can be used with one hand.) is 28. it is hard to make it straight or level or true with this plane. but unless the surface is small. 104 The smoothing . (See a Jointing. 106 ^ is therefore merely to Fig. so far as it can be done with a plane. The Smoothing-plane is used for the final 29. Fig.107 the other planes and with the bevel upward.plane ^. page 43. 105 smooth the surface after it has been straightened by a longer plane (Fig. page 47. (See page 50. The Block-plane is chiefly for planing across the ends of pieces (for planing "end-grain"). alone.) The long jointer is longer than the jointer and correspondingly more accurate. is good to straighten the edges of boards. See also Block-plane^ A wooden smoothing-plane can be held as shown in Fig. It ^'S. because it is short and will follow the irregularities of the surface (Fig. smoothing of the surface. 30. or where the surface must be Small pieces can be straightened smooth but need not be true. 119). 133). 120. which way to plane down a surface. and trued by the smoothing-plane below and Planing.

The joint-edge (the one from which the work is squared (see page 4) should be placed just at the edge (Fig.) against the "stop" or cross-piece of the bench-hook. to prevent either edge chipping off. 109 can first be cut off as in Fig. Press down on the front of the plane and -"^ stop planing before reaching the further edge. 123.0 edges (Fig. plane across end work from both rfig. 108 . 121). or shooting-board. The ends of many pieces can be planed on the bench-hook. To grain. I PLANING AGAINST THE GRAIN 10 piece will be Then plane as shown and the end of the smoothed and perhaps squared. Hold the piece firmly (See page 8^. . Then re- verse and plane from the other edge in the same way. 122).40 it is A Shorter Course in Woodworking greatly lessened the convenient for trimming pieces which cannot well be held in the vise. Modern machinery and trimmers have value of the block-plane. 124). jackboard. Sometimes a piece of waste wood can be put at one edge to prevent chipping (Fig. Many prefer the smoothing-plane. with the end PLANING WITH THE GRAIN Fig. or one edge Fig.

size of the smoothing-plane. The Toothed-plane about the scribed above (Fig. until correct. Ill planed diagonally from corner to corner. tested Tools and Their Uses 41 All planing done in this way should be carefully with the square and replaned if necessary. Fig. and the handling of the plane so skilful that the result can be assumed to be exact. Fig. Therefore it should always be tested. . as deis 31. 121 and 125).Common next the stop. both ways. 125). Many prefer to fasten the wood in the vise for this kind of planing (Figs. 113 114 'It rarely happens that the surfaces of the bench and bench-hook will be so accurate. 112 When the end is large or nearly square in section. it can be held in the vise and Fig.

126). for a very keen edge should cut the most obstinate grain. The planing can be Hold the plane started with the aid of a straight-edge as a guide. It is used in veneering (see page 177) and other work. to work into places which cannot be reached iron is Much The by the common planes. so that the cutting-edge has little Fig. to make the glue hold more strongly (see page 182). 32. 117 manner of planing. 116 teeth which make grooves on the surface of the wood. firmly against the wood without tipping it sideways. The Circular- . very cross-grained surface sometimes be smoothed " more easily if it is first "toothed A can in different directions.42 but the iron A is Shorter Course in Woodworking set ways with fine almost vertically and the flat side is scored lengthgrooves (Fig. 118 surface cannot be planed smooth however. 115 Fig. The Rabbet-plane is to cut rabbets (page 159). The Bull-nosed plane has reversed. If a Fig. the trouble is usually with the edge of the plane-iron or the adjustment. work is now done by machinery. or with the Fig. unless the wood is extraordinarily hard and knurl y. of its the iron at the fore end.

121 . does ' ' ' ' Fig. 127). and locks. There are other planes for special purposes. see that dirt or grit which might dull the tool is brushed from the surface. as well as combination and universal" planes. Fasten the wood low in the vise (Fig. beading-pla?ies. as.Common Tools and Their Uses 43 plane has a flexible sole of thin metal. for example.planes. etc. The plough and matching-planes must be kept level or square with the surface. and similar work. or lay it upon Fig. 33. and in inlaying. Modern machinery. is useful in fitting hinges. — Before beall ginning to plane. the bottoms of grooves and depressions. 119 most of the work of these special it planes more quickly and economically than can be done by hand Planing. the plough. and progressive workmen only use them in case of necessity.. which can be adjusted to plane The Router is for smoothing either convex or concave surfaces. when available. as you can plane better than if the surface is pj„ J 20 high. hollow ' ' and round planes. matching.

or fasten it between one of the stops and the tail vise (Fig. 130. as the case may require. and the plane is apt jump. 127. If the piece is long and tends to drop at the un- supported end.^ Press down on the forward part of the plane during the first part of the stroke. 128a. ' ^ to roll the body to "chatter" or . It is natural to begin and end the stroke as shown in Fig 129 and back and forth. Stand at work and hold the plane Plane with the arms from the shoulder. not with the whole body. 123 Fig. Plane slowly. with the result shown in Fig. turning the piece around if necessary. 124 whether the work is being done right.44 A Shorter Course in Woodworking the bench top against the stop. and watch the mouth of the plane and the shavings to know the rear end of the as in Fig.' Fig. fasten a hand-screw to it (Fig. 214). 128). 131). Sometimes it is well to turn the plane sideways to make Hold a wooden plane as shown in Fig. and on the rear part of the plane during the last part of the stroke (Fig. With cross-grained stock plane with the grain as much as you can. 122 possible. Place the if wood so as to plane with the grain Fig. See that the plane is set right (see page 36). making little hollows and ridges.

but nice work should be planed by hand carefully until the "planer-marks' are removed. easy movement in placing and that raising the is plane is is all not easy to describe but can be necessary. What you have to do is to make the edge straight from end to end and also square with Fig. the rear the stroke. Use the jack-plane. 125 seem smooth. but useno greasy lubricator to deface the surface of nice work. oiled An all good to lay planes on when not in use. or long jointer. Planing Edges and 34. thus tapering the ends of the shaving. Wood planed by a common machine planer may Fig. 127 — the side of the piece. (Fig. This learned by experiment. (See page 107. See also 45 page 50) but as a rule the plane should be pushed . Narrow Surfaces. . A long plane does this better than a short one fore-plane. straight forward. A light.Common Tools and Their Uses a slanting cut across the grain (Fig. jointer.) is pad end a stroke at any other point than the end end of the plane can be lifted slightly from the wood at the beginning and end of If you have to start or of the piece. If it runs hard a few drops of oil can be rubbed on the face. 132. 133).

136). Sight and test the edge as already shown. length of the piece if possible. coarse when shavings can be made at first. and attachable guides can also be A obtained. steady strokes. 18. If part of the edge is higher on one side and part on the other. 138). In ' wrong position of the left hand on the fore part of a wooden plane (see Fig. making the edge winding. the plane-iron is at all rounding.) If one side of an edge is too high. 135). 128a The shooting-board can be for correct position) will tend to tip the plane sideways. the planing can be begun as just directed and the plane worked over edge as (Figs. 128 pro- jects In edge it is common to hold the fingers below the sole of ''jointing" an the plane as a guide (Fig. 134). (See p. Before planing an edge see that the plane-iron Fig. planing or than the other (Fig. . it is to the other Fig. Woodworking the edge may The plane-iron should be set fine. deliberate. it will then take off a shaving thicker on one edge evenly.^ The jointing should be done with The last stroke should be the full long. unless is very uneven. 128a pushed forward 137. used to advantage for short pieces (see page 83). 135. the plane can be moved over so as to plane that side only If the edge of (Fig.46 as the case A Shorter Course in require.

as quartered oak or mahogany. set The plane should be fine. for usually the sur- face will have to be planed after the joint if is glued. 129 is neariy straight. and the grain runs in different ways it will be hard to Fig. but if much wood is it Jit^f jvair jita^ ^ to be planed off to can be set Fig. the piece —or better. 130 the jack-plane or fore-plane. . in handsomely figured wood. as to "joint" the edge of a board.131 make a coarse shaving at first. The term 35. is also commonly and applied to straightening squaring the edge of one piece only. long. To plane joint. 139. straight-grained ^ 'Sometimes. it is often best to hold the plane as in Fig. With soft. Jointing is planing edges to make a tight joint. however." first for a "glue- see which edges will best go together. the only plane is - needed the is Fig. the pieces should be arranged in the way that looks the best. 132 make the surface smooth. or if long jointer. In joining two or more boards to make a wider one. and the way it crops to the surface. but in such cases extra labor is expected in order to have the article as handsome as possible. the jointer.Common Tools and Their Uses 47 bevelling or rounding an edge. If the edge Fig. notice the way up the grain runs lengthways. or planing an end.

for example.48 A Shorter Course in Woodworking Fig. 136 Fig. mark Fig. this is of less importance In jointing narrow sethan with wood which is hard to smooth. examine grain it the ar- end range and in different ways (Fig. etc. 133 white pine or white wood. See p. to show which edges go together. for this is easy Fig. 138 . 141). lected p i e c e s to be glued together so as to prevent warping.134 the pieces are arranged. 137 Fig.. When Fig. 135 on the surface across the joints (Fig. 212). 140.

careful strokes until they fit. No|:fe^^5|^JS:fefe^^^ tice whether you Fig. place the other piece on it in the proper position. 141 ways. which are to be joined. 140 ^ can see the light through anywhere. — of the first piece vise with the is placed in the side of the marked board toward you. This to offset evenness in setting the tipping of the plane one side. 142 touch throughout. or winding in the pieces. if the edge posite sides. Also slide the top board length- Fig. 139 not use the try-square to test the edge when making glue-joints. Not only must the edges touch . For nice work plane edges.psige 83. for a sensation of adhesion or suction can be felt when the two edge? fit.) Do Fig. one or both must be planed with thin.Common to forget. and see if the edges touch throughout. and press down If at the ends to see if they touch. under Strike the board slightly to see if the upper one shakes or tips sideways or endways. the edges do not Fig. (See Shooting-board. plane the next piece with the marked is side against the bench. To test the planing. Tools and Their Uses 49 Joint each edge separately. put one piece in the vise with the jointed edge up. from opthat is. or away from any unplaneto you. iron. for the joint will not be good otherwise.

have it in the middle Fig.) Sometimes the edges of boards to be glued are made slightly concave lengthways. better to than at the ends. and in the case of long joints it may be best to have the edges slightly apart in the middle. by a Fig. Test this with the steel square or any straight-edge (Fig. 143). Before gluing hard wood well to plane them with the toothed-plane. 143 forcing the joint together for its whole length and expelling the surplus glue. edges it is See also Circular-saw. Keep the plane from tipping sideways at the edges or more will be planed off there than elsewhere. but the sides of the boards must be in Hne (in the same plane). but with short joints the advantage of this method is certainly doubtful. 142. page 100). — . 144 Planing Broad Surfaces. there to be any open place it is in the joint before gluing. If much wood has to be removed. the idea being that a clamp applied at the middle will. give stronger If result than is if the edges are straight. either planing straight across at 36. it is often best to plane across the grain (called "traversing") first. (See page 41. so that they touch at the ends but do not quite come together in the middle (Fig.50 A Shorter Course in Woodworking throughout.

crossways. and smooth with the plane. or as in Fig. usually the better one. result. for the " joint -edge" page 4). for the "working-face. 148). testing in the usual manner. t t w h gauging from the joint-edge. 147). you can determine whether the surface as a whole is straight and true. or the Fig. 145 with a straight-edge (see page 18). 148 square out throughi he working-face. 147 in Fig. Fourth : Plane to these gauge lines. as (see shown 146. stock to a rectangular shape and given dimensions First: Select one surface.) Squaring Stock to Dimensions. 145. true.Common Tools and Their Uses 51 Also plane right angles to the front of the bench. Winding-sticks can also be used. 132. and plane straight and Fig. or with an X or any simple — mark. diagonally or at whatever angle will give the best smoothing off should be with the grain. By applying a straightedge lengthways. gauging from the working-face (Fig. To plane a piece of rough 37. cd (Fig. make it straight. and diagonally. 146 edge of the plane itself. usually the better side. it Fig. 144). The final Working face Test by ent sighting differ- Wo thing Join-f- face with the eye in directions and edg e Fig." as in Fig. and mark it as shown. (See page 86. Fifth : Set the gauge at the required thickness and gauge lines ef and gh on both edges. Mark it as before. . if straight (Fig. Third: Set the gauge at the required width and gauge a line ab on the working-face and also on the opposite face. Second: Select one of the edges. not an edge.

if accuracy of shape is more important than exact the dimensions. for any alteration would change On the contrary. the surfaces and angles should be tested and corrected. handle into which different awls made is all Theoretically. at the first end. Do all squaring from the working-face or joint-edge. testing Fig. Fig. Seventh : With try-square and the four sides knife square Hnes (Fig. For sharpening the plane. . no part of the work is perfect. Bore with the cutting-edge across the grain (Fig. without and true. The Brad-awl should not be as quite Y\g. the awl can be twisted a little back and forth as it is pushed There is always risk of further. practically. 149 with try-square. 151 It is well to A ' have a variety of sizes. planing to the gauge marks on this opposite side testing to see that the surface is that necessary. squaring lines. therefore if dimensions are more important than accuracy of shape. splitting thin wood near an edge. After the edge is well into the wood. 150 so large the nail to be driven. even though this makes a slight change in the dimensions. and the piece reduced to the required dimensions. the end just finished measure the required length on the working-face Eighth: From and with square and knife mark lines around the piece (Fig. 1 50) . 151) lest the wedge shape of the tool cause the wood to split. if the working-face and joint-edge are straight true and square with one is another.52 A Shorter Course in Woodworking down to the Sixth: Plane the surface opposite the working-face gauge Hnes just made. and saw and plane to the 149). as will be A // BORING TOOLS 38. Saw and plane to the lines. But. around near one end from the working-face and joint-edge. see page 128. dimensions. there is no object in testing after the work has been cut to the lines.

places. the awl does not remove any wood. shipbuild- and the larger forms woodwork. The Bit-brace or is Bit-stock. and indicates the size. ing. h inch. acting as a it is more conveUnlike gimlets and bits. also a "universal angle" appliance. If the number is 8. 41. if properly planned. An extension. 152). As this cut deepens. The Auger. nient to have each awl in a separate handle. which are brought to the surface as the boring proceeds. Although an old- fashioned tool. — in like that of the auger-bit (Fig. 39. of pjg 152 worm or spur.Common can be fitted is Tools and Their Uses 53 sometimes used. or has a handle attached to it. — The ratchet-brace it is preferable to the common form. . the bit eter. The Gimlet is occasionally useful. Great care is is needed to prevent splitting thin wood or near an edge. See Sharpening. but merely presses it aside. that is. but the upper end of the shank (which can be of any length) is either bent into a crank-like handle. draws the bit into the a w^ood so that the scoring-nibs b make a circular cut. as in repairing in is awkward but for general use superseded. page 135. the cutting-lips c slice off shavings. Bits.or dowel-bit is sometimes convenient for do welling (page 152) and other work. to bore in out-of-the-way places but these are seldom needed in new work. — . two scoring-nibs. because can be used where there not room to turn the handle around. The Auger-bit consists. so the fibres of the wood tend to close tightly around the nail or screw. fitted to the brace. it is common of use in carpentry. at the cutting end. 42. 152). is Y^ of an inch in diameter. A short auger. and two cutting-lips. The sizes are arranged by sixteenths of an inch from y^" to 2" in diamThe number on the shank is the numerator of a fraction of which the denominator is 16. but for shop. The worm a (Fig. The cutting part of an auger 40. can be used in places which cannot be reached without it. and is not easily bent by the beginner.

so the bottom of the hole is smooth. Centre-bit 45. It is hard to start exactly at the desired point." The spear-like point a (Fig. The spoon-bit or pod-bit is for small holes. and being but it is hard to start exactly at the desired point. the point b scores a deep ring. grain. is not 44. more sizes holes can be bored from one-half inch in diameter to three It must be used carefully in hard wood. cuts away the wood. driven by gears. are good. easily Care is necessary. but the most important is the twist-drill for either metal or wood. and is liable to work off The German-bit is a modification of the gimlet-bit. dulled. but does not cut very well with the stock. 153) acts as a centre. page 135. — them automatic. with chuck. There are various patterns of drill-stocks. Other Bits. The Forstner bit has no worm. is liable to work off to one side. and can be used upon metal. to one side. Very small . particularly in hard wood. and with one or 46.54 43. that is. softer The Twist-bit for wood cuts quickly and well. It is good to bore in end-grain. It is well to bore a trial hole when exactness is required. The Twist-drill makes a good hole. or four inches. and its tapering end is apt to split delicate work. and can also be used with only part of the bit bearing on the wood. which is bent to form a flat chisel. The gimlet-bit is a common form for small 47. It is easily dulled holes. because the spur is not quite in the centre and thus the hole is a little larger than the bit. for holding drills of various sizes for small holes. particularly for very thin It cuts a smooth hole. bores easily. some of twist-drill is than the not so easily broken. 153 seconds of an inch from -^ to ff The Expansive-bit is adjustable. lest it be snapped by bending. and the edge c. and bent. Drills for metal only are often useful to the woodworker. A The Shorter Course in is Woodworking sometimes useful. and is useful to bore for short stout screws. twisting but once in its length. It ranges in size from y\" to |-". See Sharpening. Radial drills. It ranges in size by thirtyFig. but the twist-drill and twist-bit are now used for most purposes. and bends easily. in "end wood.

and the brace and bit changed to the proper After the bit has gone a short distance into the wood. The rose form of countersink all is good and suit- ^^' ^^'^ able for hard woods. position before boring. 154. square. 48. ' only) cuts smoothly ~- and is easily sharpened. as sometimes it works off to one side. stop boring.Common drills for Tools and Their Uses 55 points stuck in a small bits (half-round. or tapering flat dish of wax or soap. metal are also useful for wood. The Clark double-cut countersink (for wood . stuck in holes in racks exposed to view. Then angles stand at either side at to right the first position and judge again. and can be kept with the Reamers. conical) make them coniReamersfor metal are also useful. enlarge the outer part of a hole to receive the head of a screw (Fig.brace. used with the bit. in Brace and Bit. octagonal. The is to Countersink. The worm can be placed on the point as in Fig. 185). Bitscan be kept in a divided drawer or box. stand squarely in front. and judge by eye whether the 155 bit is at right angles with the work. more are to enlarge holes and to cal. firmly in the jaws of the the — It is often well before boring hard wood to prick a hole with an awl to start the worm of the bit in the exact place. or. Alter the position of the . is A countersink for metal useful. conveniently. Use of Fasten the bit brace.



Shorter Course in
and repeat









The square can be used, but it is better to learn to bore without reTo keep the bit perpendicular some workmen look directly down upon it from above, instead of from the side, turning the brace while they move slowly around from one side of the work to the other. Some rest the chin on the left hand on top of the handle of the brace, to steady it (Fig. 155) and to increase the pressure when necessary, as in
lying on such help.

driving heavy screws with the screw-driver-bit, the shoulder



it is



needed to bore with an auger-bit. a sign that the bit is dull, or that something





from the wood, give the brace a turn or two worm, and then either pull the bit straight out when it can be done easily without turning the brace, or as you pull it out keep turning the brace as if boring, thus bringing out most of the chips. In boring through a piece of wood, watch for the coming through of the worm on the other side. When it pricks through, turn the piece and bore back from that side. This is to prevent splintering, Care or a ragged or "burred" edge, where the bit leaves the wood. must be used in boring back from the other side or the bit may tear the wood as it comes through. When you cannot bore back from the other side, clamp on a piece of waste wood and bore through into it. When the position of a hole must be exact on both sides of the wood, mark the centre accurately on each side, and bore from each
will loosen the

To remove a backward, which

side until the holes meet.

In boring a hole of considerable depth with the grain, that is, into the end of a piece of wood, withdraw the bit after boring a short distance, to clear the chips from the hole, reinsert, bore, withdraw

and so on.




the boring easier and



injury to the bit, and can sometimes be done to advantage


boring in other directions.

where there


In boring with a small bit, like the gimletdanger of splitting, turn it backward as well as

forward, and work

Tools and Their Uses


slowly through the wood.


gimlet-handle for

use with small bits




occasionally useful in places where the bit -brace

cannot be used.
be stopped at a fixed depth, use one of the bit gauges or stops made for the purpose. Lacking this, measure from the

When holes must


to the chuck of the brace each time, or


holes are to be bored, use a piece


the side of the bit



through a piece (Fig, 157). The depth can be told approximately by counting the turns of the brace in each case.
or bore

Fig. 156


cut a hole larger than any bit bore a

hole within the circumference of the desired
circle, in which to insert the blade of the keyhole- or bow- or compass-saw, with which the curve can be sawed (Fig. 81). The


edge can finally be smoothed with gouge, spokeshave, etc., according to the

Fig- 15:


the hole.

See also Jig-saw, page


Or bore a

series of smaller holes all

around and then trim to the and Counterboring, page 177.

See also Screw-pocket, page 254,


The Hatchet is not easy to control, so keep the fingers out of the way and watch the direction of the grain of the wood. To remove waste wood it is often best to make cuts nearly to the line and then trim to the line (Fig. 158). With crooked grain this lessens (See also page 33.) the danger of splitting the part you wish to keep,

There are many kinds of hatchets, but a common medium-sized bench-hatchet that can be used easily with one hand is all that the beginner will ordinarily need.



Shorter Course in

is is

The Knife.

— The sloyd
Keep the


excellent for whittling, but


pocket-knife or jack-knife

commonly used by workmen. hand behind the blade, and when

possible cut from you, for the tool




slanting stroke


often best (see page 31).




great variety of

work can be done with a comis

pocket-knife or jack-knife, which

perhaps the

best emergency tool for either

the beginner or the





so easy to sharpen that

Fig. 158



excuse for using a dull one.

the best


In selecting a pocket-knife get a plain one, with not more than two or three blades, and of Open the blades to see that each is in line with the handle,



necessary for strength.

The Gouge is like the chisel except that the blade is curved. 51. The common gouge has the basil or bevel on the convex or outer side and is known as an "outside" gouge. It is used for ordinary work. The "inside" gouge has the basil on the inner or concave side, and

some purposes, but is less important than the outgouge for general work, and is harder to sharpen. Gouges, like chisels, are of various kinds for different uses, and are of different degrees of "sweep" or curvature,^ Fig. 159 showing a "fiat" and a
useful for

"quick" curve.

In using the outside gouge,


short strokes frequently have to be made, for only

the basil bears on the wood, which makes this gouge hard to control at times but as long strokes

should be taken as the nature of the wood will allow, often be rolled around with the hand to make a slanting cut (see page 31), sometimes useful with crooked grain or across the grain (Fig. 160). In working out a moulding or other odd shape, for
instance, the tool can often be held at an angle with the




the grain of the wood.

Try not to scoop



using the gouge, take the latter held around a

Tools and Their Uses


below the required depth of the

To smooth

the surface after

or curved scraper,

and sandpaper, the

block curved
(See page 78.)




The Spoke52. shave works on the
principle as the

Pig jg^

plane, but as

a short sole or face to bear on the wood, used only for shaping and smoothing small curved or irregular surfaces.
it is

Grasp it firmly as in Fig. 162, bear downward, and push it from you so as to cut like a plane. It can also be drawn toward you. See Sharpening, page 128.
Fig. 161

Metal spokeshaves of various patterns

made with adjustments
, ,

for dif'

ferent curves etc.

— also a

* '


spokeshave with movable handles and detachable side for rabbeting. The spokeshave is very valuable for much curved work, but should not be used as a substitute for the plane.

The Draw-knife







large shavings



Fig. 162



odd shapes


It cuts


a knife or very

wide chisel, and can be used with the

In carved work this smoothing can be omitted, as

it is

usually best to

show the


flat side or


Shorter Course in


the bevel against the

only a short surface to

wood as may be required. As it has bear on the wood and guide its course, it is
apt to follow the grain and
cut too deeply, so be careful
to cut with the grain


Stop and cut the other

way whenever necessary.

often best either to


the tool sideways across the

work while pulling it toward you (Fig. 164), or to hold it obliquely and pull it straight toward you (Fig. 165. See
Fig. 163

tool 140,


It is a

left carelessly

dangerous on the



Paring, page





Sharpening, page

Fig. 164

Fig. 165

Draw-knives are made with folding and adjustable handles, for places which can not be reached by the blade of the common form, and there are guiding attachments for chamfering, etc.


Tools and Their Uses


Trimmers, which are made in many forms, are excellent trimming the ends of pieces accurately and smoothly at any for

angle (Fig An effective




made, and Fig. 167 trimmed to the wood shape by a succession of thin The cutting edge slicing cuts. must be kept sharp.
page 31)



—The cabi-


Fig. 166

made of saw-blade used to make a surface smoother than can be done with the plane or other tool. The edge is turned over as in

cuts off thin shavings.

Fig. 167 (see also page 109) and Hold the scraper between the fingers and thumbs (Fig. 168), inclined from you but as nearly upright as will allow the edge to cut well, and push it forward with force. Spring or bend it
slightly so that

will cut in the


dle (Fig. 169). as a rule.

Scrape with the grain

It is often best

however to

hold the scraper obliquely to the grain
(Fig. 168),


there are


or undulations on the surface, and where
there are alternations of hard and soft



If the in quartered oak. crooked or twisted, scrape in any


that will


Fig. 168

the surface

smooth. Test for smoothness by running the fingers over the surface An experienced workman can at once feel inwith a light touch. By permission of Fox Machine Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan.

170). it is dull and should be sharpened. See Sharpening. but for nice work the way shown in Fig. It is well to have . the surface goes there is nothing better or more easily taken care of than the in. 170 a stock like that of a plane. is A also scraper sometimes set in a stock with a handle or handles and Fig. page 133. with which there is danger of scraping more in one spot than But so far as smoothing in another. as the fiat sole can not follow the irregularities like the hand scraper. Fig. The latter helps to common hand-scraper. 169 is best. 169 Sometimes one end is held between the thumb and fingers of one hand and the palm of the other hand applied below to push the tool (Fig.62 A Shorter Course in Woodworkinof equalities that he cannot see. keep the surface of the wood true. When the scraper ceases to make fine shavings and merely scrapes off wood-dust. It is best to follow the scraper-plane with the hand-scraper.

A parting-tool ("V" tool) and a small veining-tool (like a very small gouge) are occasionally convenient.Common is Tools and Their Uses 63 curved-edged scrapers for curved work. though rarely needed for plain work. few Carving-tools are often useful. Use of the Hammer. or it may be driven crooked or bent. 171) and not but so that the head can slantingly. Keep the face of the hammer free from grease or glue. and the The face is is the part which The former kind. A TOOLS FOR PUTTING 57. —The common forms flat-faced. WORK TOGETHER for ordinary The Hammer. Use light strokes it is —mere taps—in starting After you are sure On going straight. The Maydole bell-faced is good. it — Hold the hammer near the end of the handle. or upholsterer's hammer is also very convenient. A smaller brad- hammer 58. as even a slight dent will be likely to show when the work is finished. the nail. A few carving chisels. 56. . as the face slightly convex. ^ Nailing. etc. Leave that for the nail-set (see page 68). For general use choose a carpenter's hammer of medium and weight. sight it from different directions. and swing freely strike the nail squarely (Fig. will drive the nail farther into the can be done with the There are riveting. and can have handles different from those of the other tools. the surface than many other varieties for special purposes. as for upholstering. Bore holes when ' In rare cases it will do to hold it nearer the head. To start a nail straight. both square-edged and skew (with the end ground obliquely) are good for odd-shaped work because the edge is bevelled on both sides. you can use more nice work do not try to sink the nail quite flush with the wood. . size wood without marring flat-faced hammer. . A block with slanting saw-cuts See Scraping-machines page 109. as in driving very fine brads in delicate work. force. woodwork are the bell-faced strikes the nail. good to hold scrapers when not in use.

— Nails hold strongest (Fig. 173 to another (Fig. when driven slanting or "toed" 173). this effect up and can sometimes tightly after be nail has increased. to lessen the danger of bending. To drive long. if the latter drive tightly into (Fig. Then place the piece in position for nailing and the points of the nails will help hold it in place. With nails having large heads and in hard wood the holes in the outer piece can be about as large as the nails. Slanting the nails helps to draw one piece Fig. or the inner piece. 636. . danger of splitting or when slender nails are driven into hard they bend. slender nails into hard wood. if the points are rubbed on a piece of soap. 171 Fig. Nails drive into hard wood easier 59. by drawing the hammer in the direction of the point of the nail so as to bend the upper part toward the other piece. drive the nails into the outer piece until the points prick through. In such cases as shown in Fig.64 there is A lest Shorter Course in Woodworking wood. 174). 172 nail. The hole should not be quite so large as the Fig. the been driven part way. "Toe" Nailing. 172). hold with pincers between three fingers.

as in nailing cleats on a is and in boat work. over gradually to one As it bends. slanting it blows so as to curl side. but without crushing the fibres Another way is to (Fig. that (Fig. 176). the nail then driven in to the head. the nail through against a drive heavy hammer or other solid piece of metal. Each board This holds it is nailed slantingly it just above the tongue down and draws . — For good work made expressly for clinch- ing should be used. rough door anything that is to better than toeing for cleats. Drive the nail through. 175 side. hold a hammer or piece of metal against the head. and have violent strain. is. Staggering.Common 60. finished by it striking the bent is so that and the clinching end sunk in the wood. Clinching is Fig. is directly Clinch across the grain of the wood. Tools and Their Uses nails 65 Clinching. though for rough work any nail that can be bent without breaking will do. — In naiHng "stagger" the nails. (See page 69. held on the other until buried in the wood. 442).) 62. or in similar cases. (Fig. 176 wood. arrange them in a zigzag way to This usually distributes them the best advantage and lessens the danger of splitting the Fig. and strike the projecting point with light. Blind-nailing leaves no holes on the sur- face. The nail can be driven through a little way. so that the point is bent over often useful. the point bent over. strike more downward until the hooked end embedded in the wood. as in floors of matched-boards. 175). 61. This also applies to screws.

and the place immediately rubbed with sandpaper drawn around a flat block until the shaving is firmly stuck.66 A Shorter Course in Woodworking of the next toward the adjoining board. as you pick Fig. . conceals the naiUng. which way to hold them. or the wedged shape of the nail may cause the wood to split (Fig. you can tell by the fingers. grain and the smooth sides with ' A special tool is made for this purpose. so that the nail can be driven and set. A little shaving is raised with the gouge (an inside gouge best) or a narrow chisel (Fig. The old-fashioned nails which taper on two sides should be used on the same principle as the brad-awl (seepage 52). 177). ''Sliver'' nailing is The grooved edge board sometimes used is for nice work. With two sides smooth and two rough. Hot glue is then dabbed into the groove. the shaving pressed back. 179 the nails up. 178). the rough sides going across the it. There may be a question as to the desirability of concealing methods of construction.

although 63. Wire nails are now used for most purposes. cloth. To withdraw nails place a block under 179). is withdrawn. and so on. etc. in similar cases. set. according Do not use tacks for fastening wood to wood (except in canvas-canoe work). eight-penny. the old-fashioned nails are better for some work. particularly for 64. using thicker blocking. together then with a quick blow of the hammer pound the board back into place. ' Bolts are of various kinds the surface. and with the a short distance —perhaps 34" — and Nails. they are to be holes. pound down or "upset" the other end washer or "burr" is sHpped over the end it. This saves splitting the boards and bending the nails. to form a second head. as shingling.' copper being preferable. 179. A Rivet is a pin of metal with a head.Common Tools and Their Uses 67 To set nails. Dis- tinguish between the common nails with broad flat heads and those with smaller round heads. striking between the nails. two-ounce. as in Fig. The smaller sizes of the latter are called brads. as the nail so that pry up a board. Tacks are sold as one-ounce. . This will usually leave the nail-heads projecting a little above the surface. page 68. The pointed wedge shape of the tack tends to split thin wood. and are of great use where frame- Sunk below See Nail-set. boat work. see Nail-set. hold a hammer or solid piece of metal against the head. To draw nails from nails. and to size. Bore a hole for the rivet. — The old terms three-penny. can come out straight. A of the rivet before upsetting 66. do not drive another in the same hole. page 68. indicate the size.. especially useful in 65. After withdrawing a nail which has not driven straight. drive it through the wood or metal. but only for fastening leather. necessary. so that they can be drawn. boxes. as the flat-heads make rough Copper or galvanized nails and tacks are best for boat-building. If use the round-headed ones. it if the hammer-head (Fig. or the like to wood. salt water.



Shorter Course in


work must be fastened more securely than by screws or nails, as in parts of a gate, a bob-sled, boat-work, a heavy bench, etc, A washer should be used between the wood and the nut, and in work exposed to the weather a bolt should not be screwed up so tightly that the head is
sunk in the wood, as water is apt to settle in the depression and cause decay. ^ Dogs, which are merely short iron rods with 67. Pj jg^ the ends pointed and bent at right angles to be driven into the wood, are often used in heavy construction. If the pointed ends slant outwards slightly, they will tend to draw

the pieces together (Fig. 180).

driver to a short one.

Tools and Their Uses




useful for driving screws

rapidly and with force, because of the leverage gained

by the


Automatic screw-drivers work well

for light work.

The end should be shaped
in Fig. 183, so that it will

like either of those

of the slot of the screw.

remain at the bottom If ground with a short

bevel (Fig. 184),



it will bear only at the top of the keep slipping out, on the principle of

the inclined plane.
extracting screws, as


short bevel





Fig. 183

Fig. 184

necessitates pressing hard

against the screw to keep the screw-driver from slipping out of the



—The common wood

screws are either flat-headed,
steel (bright, blued,

round-headed, or "oval "-headed, and of

a screw

copper-plated, galvanized, or nickeled), or of brass.

To make

drive easily, rub the point on soap or beeswax.

The lag-screw is sometimes useful in fastening framework, as a bench, but should not be used where it will be seen in nice work. Nails are someScrews can often be times used when it would be better to use screws. It is a tightened, if necessary, where nails would have to be re-driven. recent custom to fasten many pieces of furniture with round-headed screws. In some cases this construction is strong. In others it is not. In most cases it gives the article the appearance of having been made either by an amateur or at a factory where cheapness of manufacture is the chief aim. The screw derives its value, mechanically speaking, from the principle of the inclined plane, consisting of a thread winding spirally around a cylinder or conically terminated cylinder, the "pitch" of the screw depending on

The size is indicated by the by the size of the wire from which the screw is made, as a i3^" screw No. 9, meaning one and oneWood screws are made from half inches long and made from No. 9 wire. Some screws for rough }/^" to 6" in length and of wire from i to 30. work are made to be driven with the hammer, the screw-driver being used
the inclination of the inclined plane or spiral.
length in inches or fractions of an inch, and

only to finish the driving.



Shorter Course in


hole for a screw should be so bored that the screw will just

through the outer piece, and be screwed firmly into the The head of the screw will thus draw the inner one only (Fig. 185).
slip freely

outer piece tightly against the inner one.
the inner piece should depend on circum-


size of the hole in

The and

stouter the screw the smaller hole required.
larger the piece of




the smaller hole required.



small or liable to
carefully in

the hole must be carefully



hard wood for a slender screw, as

liable to twist off unless a sufficient hole is provided.


Fig. 185

screws are very apt to do this, and much care must be used If the hole is a trifle too large they will not in hard wood.

If a trifle too small they will twist off, which is very troublesome in such cases as hinge-screws, for instance, where the place for the screw can not well be changed. The hole in the inner piece (Fig. 185) should be somewhat smaller than the diameter of the screw. If the wood is quite hard the hole may be even as large as the core or solid shank of the screw In good sized pieces of soft wood there if the threads were stripped off. Stop turning a screw is frequently no need of any hole in the inner piece. in soft wood when it is well driven home, or you may strip off the thread


the screw has cut in the wood.


Sink fiat-headed screws flush with the surface, first using the For rough work in soft wood, however, the head of

the screw can be driven flush with the screw-driver.

a screw

hole must be moved a little, but not far enough to bore a new hole without the bit slipping into the old one, fit and drive in a wooden plug so that the new hole can be bored where required. For indoor work the plug can be dipped in glue. See Screw-driver, page 68 and •Staggering, page 65. Hand-screws are useful to hold pieces in any required 71. The larger sizes position and to clamp work that has been glued. The C-shaped iron are more generally useful than the smaller ones.

clamps, or carriage clamps, are also of great service.

To open

Tools and Their Uses


or close a hand-screw, hold

at arm's length with a
(Fig. 186).

handle in each hand, and revolve

toward or from you

Fig. 186

When fitting it
at the tip at

to hold

two or more

pieces, leave the

jaws open a


first (Fig. 187).


give the final tightening with the

outer screw until the jaws bear on the wood evenly (Fig. 188). When the surface of the wood may be injured by the pressure, put pieces of waste wood between the work and the jaws. Before glue is applied, the hand-screws should be fitted and placed where they can be put


as quickly as possible.

Fig. 188

Fig. 189

Glue often

sticks to the insides of the jaws

and should be removed


scraping, lest

deface the work.

The screw threads should be
bayberry -tallow,

rubbed over with blacklead, and tallow melted together.




Shorter Course in


clamp, suitable for such work as temporarily holding in place parts of a boat, is shown in Fig. 189. A hand-screw used in the benchvise is sometimes convenient to hold an odd-

shaped piece

(Fig. 190).



shown in Figs. 192 and 193, are useful in making glueTo clamp joints and in other operations. two or more flat pieces together, as in making a glue-joint, or a door-frame, lay the work on the horses, and apply the clamps as in Fig. Put pieces of waste wood between the 191. Place the clamps so work and the clamps.
flat sides of

— Cabinet-clamps,

that either the


bars or the corners, as shown,

touch the surface of the work, to keep it from bending


the bars

when the





clamps should be fitted and placed where they can be put






When several

clamps are

used, tighten each in turn a
at a time, so that the


be brought together evenly.

of clamping too securely.'

There is not much danger See Jointing, page 47.

the glue becomes

may change before Clamping at only one or two points may force the joint to open Then, after gluing, hold the pieces First make the best joint you can. elsewhere. together with a good number of clamps, firmly and evenly tightened. The old-fashioned way of rubbing the two edges together and then leaving the rest to the glue is not so good

Unless the pieces are firmly clamped throughout, their shape

for the begirmer as to use clamps, except with small pieces, such as corner-blocks.




will often

Tools and Their Uses
sight across the surface of the work.


As the clamps are tightened
be winding.
of the

(See page i8.)
or down,

more corners

work up

When as may



move one


(Fig. 192), until the surface is true.


be required, in the clamps experimenting will show how

In the case of to do this. framed work, such as doors,
test the angles


the square as soon as the



the angles are not right,

move one end
right or

of either or

both of the clamps to the
as the case

may require
you can

(Fig. 193),


Fig. 192

change the angle until the square shows

to be right,

and the

joints should close accurately.

when the screws can be tightened In truing work in this way with

Fig. 193

The work can be tightly wedged to a close bearing by driving the slightly tapered double wedge (see Wedges. page 182. purpose. pieces are already finished or for any reason can not be planed or scraped near the joint after gluing. 195). but For heavy work. if hot glue is used. metal screws with winch handles are good. Wooden clamps answer every more expensive. examine once or twice soon clamps to see that the continued pressure has not moved the work too much. Fig. a single wedge of corresponding slant can be used. Wood and . iron are also combined. page Where 70. to distribute wood between the work and the clamps the pressure and prevent bruising. Steel ones are better. See Glue. page 139) or by fastening one of the blocks at an angle.screws. The clamps can then be screwed tighter. . 194 Fig. particularly after setting the when cold glue is used. See (Fig. 191. also Hand. waste in trying to get the surfaces exactly flush with each other at lest the joint before partially tightening the clamps.74 A Shorter Course in Woodworking clamps. or bolting a block at each end (Fig. no time set. the glue become can be made by tapping with the Use a waste block to strike against unless the dent from the blow will be removed afterwards by planing. Useful clamps can be made of any strong strips of wood of suitable length by nailing with clinch nails. Where the pieces to be glued could be bent by the pressure of the clamps. put paper between the joint and the clamps. 195 stout pieces of waste 194). or screwing. put slight alteration Then any hammer near the joint. In such cases as that shown in Fig.

196 In some cases a stout cord doubled. Fig. To hold Pressure can often be applied by a lever. 199 Pressure can sometimes be applied by using the elasticity of a board or pole. and by wedges. easily made of two sponding holes in each. can sometimes be used with the odd-shaped pieces for working. a clamp vise (Fig. and a stick inserted between the two parts of the string. 199). 198). 197)- Fig. like a beam of the floor above (Fig.Common Tools and Their Uses strips 75 with corre- Fig. 196 shows a simple clamp. . can be put around the work. By turning the stick the cord becomes twisted and the parts of the work drawn together (Fig. sprung into place between the work and some firm object.

or be screwed or nailed. The Mallet is used to strike wooden tool handles and is made in various forms and sizes. the blocks should be held in place with hand-screws or clamps until the glue is hard. 201 to break MISCELLANEOUS TOOLS AND APPLIANCES 74. valuable for smoothing or rounding teeth incline towards the point of . and edges and curved surfaces. holds glue well. should be got out with the grain running as shown in Fig. chairs. the tool. 200). so that it cuts The when pushed forward. A rounded head with the handle on the end saves effort. or any dense. for strength. 75. The File is a piece of hard steel with rows is of- ridges or teeth cut obliquely on the sruface. Fig. or other wood which 73. 201. You do not gain force by using the mallet instead of the hammer. to be glued and screwed to the rails or other surfaces. For heavy work it is well to have the handle put through the head from the outside. if possible. to strengthen and stiffen the work (Fig. because then the head can not come off. hard wood is good for a mallet.. The grain of the blocks should run in the same direction as that of the adjoining surfaces. lignum vitee. Have the blocks warm. Rubber heads are useful in putting furniture together. etc. Blocks to strengthen the inner corners of tables. as it is equally effective in any position. hot glue rub the blocks back and forth several times. Hickory. to save bruising. apply plentifully. rubbed with hot glue into interior angles of cabinetwork.76 A Shorter Course in Wood working Corner-blocks are small pieces of pine. and leave to dry. of The same principle applies to brackets any kind where short grain at the ends would be liable off. maple. but the softer and more yielding blow saves the tool-handle. 200 If cold glue is used. Fig.

Press lightly in using a new file. nor a file for metal on wood. the triangular. as carver's For metal. and steady the end with the left hand. etc. 204). half-round (Fig. 203) The round (tapering) form is also convenient. and often there not room to use the edged-tools. flat. are sometimes useful. file is stroke. In filing rounded surfaces.Common it Tools and Their Uses n Hold Fasten the wood firmly and use the file with both hands. not to The be recommended where a clean-cutting tool like the plane. thumb uppermost. drawshave. 204 forms are most needed. The "half-round" shape. a rocking motion often best. or spokeshave can be used but there are many quick curves for which is it is the best tool. useful. 203 Fig. use of the chisel. To Round a is the most other files. with the right hand. or cabinet-file (Fig. Press only on the forward stroke. and round Fig. Stick. When a file becomes clogged with wooddust or other substances use a file-card. To file squarely across. When the teeth are cut in one direction only a file is called single-cut. or fine wire brush. is and the way to file in all cases should depend upon the shape of the work and the grain of the wood. or with the fingers or palm. See Fig. push the tool steadily straight forward with a long without rocking up and down. Many shapes. 202). . straight and curved. . A file meant for wood should not be used on metal. 202 page 160. Soak a clogged file in hot water and brush with a stiff brush. thumb uppermost (Fig. but when there are two oblique rows of teeth crossing each other it is called double-cut.

than the file.78 76. It is useful to work curved objects roughly into shape. Do the work right and you will need but sandpaper. but instead studded with projecting points. To use it much. 3" or 4" wide. and the result lacks the sharp accuracy of good work. 23. A size coarser than I3 is seldom For most work a sheet can be torn into four parts. but more roughly. if possible. For an edge the block should be narrower than the edge (Fig. 1 fineness of sandpaper 2. for the beginner is apt to prefer it to the edged-tools which he should be A good-sized half-round cabinet-rasp discretion. but not to cut away the wood and it scrub into shape. is indicated by numbers 00 (the finest). needed. fiat For a wood perhaps surface fold the sandpaper over a fiat block of cork or 4" or 5" long. 205 for the grit dulls the tools. Sandpaper with the grain. learning to use. 205). any straight edge. ex- cept to skim over the work. A piece of thick rubber or leather which can be bent is good for curved surfaces. o. encourages a slovenly style of working. If the surface be curved. Avoid using it until all cutlittle ting with the tools Fig. as a rule. and 3 (the coarsest). with the edges slightly rounded. except for work which is to be painted. finish with the paper in the hand (Fig. extra smoothness. to round edges and the ^^^ HHK ^H^Hj^^^^H ^^^•^^^^^^^^^^M --^^^^^^^^^^^ like. After using the block. by means of The 5. 206). is done. a block curved correspondingly should be used. if used with but should be put into the hands of advanced workers only. which tear off the wood more quickly. — 2. for — — of ridge-like teeth it is is a valuable tool. 207). and i'' thick (Fig. to remove fine scratches. except in a few special operations. Sandpaper should be used. A Shorter The Rasp Course in Woodworking wood is a kind of coarse file. I. merely to give a little 77. .

when the edge might be rounded or the surface scratched by . In sandpapering delicate Fig. 206 Fig. 209 work.Common Tools and Their Uses 79 Care should be taken not to round the corners and edges of the work. 208 Fig. 207 a surface. since the paper cuts more near an edge than on the middle of Fig. 208 and 209. To avoid rounding the angles when the paper is used in the hand. hold it as in Figs.

8o even the A Shorter Course in Woodworking down finished work (see by removing the outer layer finest sandpaper. m Fig. some with metal use. 210). To sandpaper an inner corner fold the paper and push it into the angle. 210 and push the piece steadily forward (Fig. To sandpaper a small end. In sandpapering round pieces like cylinders. and so on. a simple frames. Small pieces of wood can often be sandpapered best by rubbing them carefully on the sandpaper. For home . page i88). Raise it from the paper on the backward stroke and push forward again.. at the ends than elsewhere. off 78. Long. lay the paper on a flat surface. sandpaper less. Sandpaper can be dampened on the back to soften it. or like other edges and corners they will be cut away too much. page no. After a few strokes reverse the piece and push forward with the other edge in advance. also See Sattdpaperingmachines. because of the particles of metal. seepage 161. hold the piece of wood upright. For sandpapering roundetc. —There are is many kinds. Faces or surfaces which come together to form joints should not be sandpapered. but the general type the same. with the hand close to the sandpaper Fig. as in rubbing Finishing. 211 fine steel shavings called Steel-wool can be used for cleaning paint and such work. The Work-bench. but should not be used until all work with the edge-tools is done. split the paper when the part to which the sand adheres will be more flexible. ed edges. and more carefully.

212 213).. 212 made and In for cabinet-makers and for school use are much better (Figs. There being ' is too no danger of a bench strong and solid. but those Fig. prefers a plain simple bench. with a strip at the back edge and sometimes at each end. easily made. Hammacher. where tools. and Co. can be used (Fig.' many the back part of is the bench-top an inch or so lower than the front. .Common Tools and Their Uses 8i carpenter's bench. for actual operations. Schlemmer. forming a tray (Fig. 213 By 6 permission of Messrs.. practical The workman usually Fig. The is front part of the top should be of hard wood and best built of selected strips glued and bolted together. small pieces of work. 213). can remain while in use. keeping the front part clear etc. 211). New York.

when holding the plane. to put large vv'ork together on. and "quick-action" or "instantaneous-grip. Keep the tops smooth and clean. If a piece has — — to be held with considerable force in one side of the vise only. 127). also with a Horses or Trestles are to lay stock on for marking or sawing. and for similar uses (Fig.or pattern-making." These are good. and he may become round-shoulIf much too high. Fig. The Bench-vise.vise is certainly very useful. in the other side 163). to prevent straining the vise and to hold the 214 wood with even pressure. the planing can not be so well dered. and some think a common wooden vise better for the beginner. and the arms will become tired. For school use it is con- • Bench-stop. put a piece of waste wood of the same thickness (Fig.82 and it A Shorter Course in Woodworking floor. 80. There is nothing better than the old-fashioned 79. Some also prefer a bench without a tail-vise ^ for the beginner. form shown in Fig. and is easily raised or lowered. The work should be clamped in the vise only tightly enough to keep it from slipping. If much too low. which will not damage the work or the tools. for hardened glue or varnish will deface See also page 242. nice work. it will be hard to manage the work. used for holding work flat on the bench-top against one of the stops (Fig. A bench for cabinet. There are excellent bench-vises (preferably with jaws of wood). 81. ' is slightly for carpentry is usually rather lower than bench is usually higher. in many cases. the work can not be managed well. 191). 214. venient to have should be firmly bolted to the it adjustable in height. and almost essential. 2 The vise (with a stop) at the right-hand end of the bench. while a carver's . bent and his back about straight (Fig. but a tail. on the ground that he should learn to keep the work steady without it. The height should be such that the workman's right elbow. done. but are not necessary. 214). the workman's back will get tired.

The cross-cleats should be screwed on and should be square with the right-hand edge of the board. holds small work also saves marring the bench-top. 215. Fig. 215 — on the raised part of the shooting-board with the edge projecting. See page The Shooting-board or 83 Fig.Common 82- Tools and Their Uses (Figs. 213. 216 Jack-board is for jointing.. and 79 and 124). It is placed on the bench as in Fig. About 15" long by 6" wide is a convenient size. and Lay the board to be jointed is particularly useful for short. If one cleat is short as in Fig. 83 The Bench -hook firmly for sawing. planing. or one of the cleats can be screwed in the vise. 216) and also at 85. 217 . thin stock. etc. and for squaring edges and small surfaces and ends with the plane.. a mitre. For its use. Fig. A kerf is sometimes made in the cleat for sawing at right also angles (Fig. it will save marring the bench in sawing. see pages 21 and 40.

217). The stock must be planed free from winding. A jack-board can be of any wood which holds its shape well. Thus the cutting-edge of the plane is approximately at right angles with the surface of the board. Use the plane on its side on the lower part of the shooting-board (Fig. 218 being made of 3^" and 3^" " and Fig. The shooting-b o a r d should be fastened on the bench as shown. cleats) allows the escape of the . Clear white pine or mahogany is good. stop or cleat should be at right angles to the nearer edge. Approximate dimensions are suggested. 218 and 219. struction is plain. as described on page 49.84 A Shorter Course in Woodworking Hold it firmly with the left hand. 219 page 47 and Benchhook. Fig. 219 of |" and h stock. Two forms are shown The conin Figs. One of two pieces to be jointed for gluing can be turned over. 218 the top In board overlaps trifle. Fig. will and the edge be planed square as nearly across ^ as the accuracy of the apparatus will allow. but careful work is necessary. 220 the ends of the cleats a 'See footnote. Fig. page 83. The stock. Fig. page which (with the spaces between the 41. Screw the pieces together from the under side. See Jointing.

Tools and Their Uses made of metal. the inside of one side from the .board. 84. 220) also useful.Common shavings. 223) will The kerf for the should be made with saw to run in a back-saw Fig. Great care is necessary to make an accurate wooden mitre-box (Fig. at a distance equal to the width of the bottom. warp or twist. 223 sawed mitre holds glue better than a planed mitre. 221. and Trimmers. m n (Fig. above. draw a line across the tops of the sides to meet these lines. as shown by the middle line in Fig. 224 shows a mitre-board for sawing strips. page 61. of the other from the point The diagonal line p q ( —An iron angles the best. n. thus fixing Next fasten on the sides. . point m and on the inside 0. 221 Fig. represent the mitre. 85 of Chute-boards are also and are is course more A mitre-shooting-hoard or jack-board (Fig. mouldings. before putting together and lay off from one end of this line a point a on the edge. Mitre-box. square upright lines on the points m. Pine or beech is good. 222) across the top side of the bottom piece. and make a kerf. 224 In a similar manner square on the inside two upright lines opposite each other. Do not use spruce or any wood liable to 221). Square a line. A 4r Fig. for sawing or a panel-saw. accurate. See also mitre-box which will cut at various Mitre . but trimming with the plane is often required. Fig. and 0. The angular stop or stops must be fitted to make the angles exactly 45°. squarely across.shooting . 222 Fig.

then on the edges. Bead-cutters and reed-scrapers and can be bought of various patterns. readily held in the bench-vise. reeds. 225.sticks (which are simply straight-edges).86 and the size is A Shorter Course in Woodworking like. the 86. 227 and the like. 85. It is usually best to stop reeding a short distance from the ends of a surface. Be sure the surfaces and edges are true and square. The lower piece can be of Mark the lines I" stock. 226). and lastly on Fig. 226 the top. so that they will be at the correct angles with the surfaces against which the wood to be sawed will rest. A good form. The steel. blade. is made to of a piece of saw-blade filed shape required. as with the mitre-box just shown. are to . A good from i' to 2' long and 6" wide (in all). This tool is pushed forward with both hands. 225 Fig. 227 Fig- shows an easily made tool for scrap- ing beading. Winding. and with the chisel cut the reeds to a square end (Fig. fluters Fig. is shown in Fig. first on the bottom of the upper piece. but the upper one should be i]/^" to i%" thick. The hole in the blade is larger than the screw to allow of adjustment.

one or two legs until the straight-edges are page 256. TRUE straight-edges are sufficient for ordinary To make evenly. 229 of the surface to be tested. 229. 231). By putting them in different positions it can be determined whether the whole surface is true. and to determine whether different parts of the work are in the same plane. a chair or table. over. 230). 228). lay straight-edges on the ends sight across (Fig. 230 and Then trim in line. Stand back and look across the top edge If these are in line there is no winding where the straight-edges are placed (Fig. 228 Fig. For other methods. stand WINDING Fig. any warping or winding will be more the upper edges of the sticks are it is thin. one across each end Fig. Two framing squares can often be used as in Fig. It is more accurate If to use straight-edges longer than the width of the easily seen surface to be tested. for it example.Common Tools and Their Uses 87 help in getting surfaces true. turn of the legs. as (Fig. which shows the surface to be winding. see . of one to the top edge of the other." easier to tell when C they are in line. and lay them on edge. but common work. Take two straight-edges. each of equal width throughout. or "feather-edged.

and the parts. and care of each machine. properly lubricated. even if they do not use machinery themshould be familiar with the general principles on which the machines work and should know what they can do. Also. relation of all the principle. WOODWORKING MACHINES in wood.) Shears for metal and a hack-saw are sometimes useful. while using a machine. the meaning. properly adjusted. expense and space. A solid horn. as those for pincers. a pair of pliers or for holding metal. or there may be an accident. or upon others who might interrupt him or distract his attention. cutting (See nippers. and page 77. files for metal. and the cutting-edges sharp. the operator must attend strictly to what he is doing and to nothing else. To shoiild learn. All who work selves." Chopping-block a section of a tree-trunk — — often convenient. construction. Each machine must be kept in good order. It should have a flat steel surface and Fig. An Anvil is often of use and is sometimes combined with a vise. and the special study of such machines as are in use in each workshop must be made use. but if they are much used it wastes time to keep . There are so many designs and arrangements for each kind of machine that they cannot be described in detail. 88. 231 also a tapering point or "round is 89. Combination machines often save from the machines themselves. and also a good wrench. —Every woodworking shop should have a vise woodworking should not be used for metal. A Shorter Course in Woodworking Vise for Metal. use woodworking machinery properly and safely the pupil under competent supervision rather than from a book.88 87. This can not be impressed too strongly upon him.

Illinois. In the smaller sizes shop-work the saw projects through a bench or table-top (Fig. . There are other machines for various purposes.Common Tools and Their Uses 89 changing the adjustments. and the Oliver Machinery Co. Jig-saw. and Turning-lathe. and Messrs. The Circular-saw the for rapidly revolving is the most generally useful machine. Mortising-machine. ^ Fig. It is better to have separate machines for each purpose if they can be afforded. Boring-machine. and angles can be cut. ease. M. As both splitting and crosscutting saws are used. 232 90. and accuracy. Rockford. Independent motors for each machine have some obvious advantages.. Adjustable guides or gauges are fitted to the saw-bench top so that different lengths. most of the common operations of hand-sawing can be done with the circular-saw. Boston. Band-saw. Moulder. Large circular-saws are used for sawing logs.. Grand Rapids. Whitney and Son. and delay is caused by waiting for one's turn. Fig. Planer. The most important machines for general woodworking are the Circular-saw. and those of foot-power machines by permission of the W. Massachusetts. 232 is a typical illustration of a modern circular-saw bench. Michigan. Fig. and saw cuts with speed. and also many special operations. Massachusetts. Marston and Co. F. 233 shows the ' The illustrations of power woodworking machinery are inserted by permission of Messrs.. 232) on which the wood to be cut rests. Winchendon. and John Barnes Co. Jointer. Baxter D. Tenoning-machine. widths. J.

Such machines have many convenient adjustments. That on the further and those on the Fig. and illustrations 235 to 261 are taken with an inexpensive saw-bench to show the great usefulness of such machines where more expensive machinery is not available. fitted "swaged" (see As the saw toward the it must be on the arbor so teeth on top '-33 point toward the front of the bench (Fig. cross - cutting gauges. nearer side are for cross-cutting. The cross-cutting saw also works on the same principle as the handthat the . A great variety of work can be done. revolves operator.90 gauges. Either can be quickly raised for use. A Shorter Course in side is Woodworking for splitting. either at right angles or at different 234 shows a convenient form which carries two saws at once. however. 232). with a saw-bench which has only the simple splitting and degrees. (see page although the teeth are of ten page 138). The circular splitting- saw cuts on the same principle as the hand splitting-saw 25).

Always put the saw on with the maker's name on top. so that the saw may project above the Fig. Raise the end of a first. raise the end you hold. Do not force it against the Fig. always keeping the hands in front of the saw between the saw and yourself or well — — . is Tools and Their Uses 91 See pages 22-25. to reduce to the regularities minimum ir- the variations due to and to wear. long board very slightly above the level of the bench-top at To stop splitting instantly. made Either the saw-bench top.Common saw. 235). 237). It cuts best when it projects only enough to cut through the piece to be sawed (Fig. to raise or lower. To split a piece roughly the wood can be guided by hand while the line is followed by eye (Fig. Hold a short piece carefully as in Fig. 235 bench-top as much or as little as may be required. but for all accurate work the gauge should be used (Fig. 236). or to remove the board instantly. 237. or the saw itself. 236 saw. so that the wood will clear the saw (Fig. 239) Advance the wood evenly and lightly.

74). Any attempt for the to escape or to will be futile. is the saw remove the hands motion of much quicker than any possible muscular movement. If the the saw it can be wedged at a safe distance behind the saw. 238). A Shorter Course in Woodworking As the motion of the saw is toward the operator the hands cannot be drawn toward it while they are kept in front. 237 Another diffi- person may hold the cult piece after it has passed a safe distance beyond the saw.92 to one side. but if they are behind the saw or too close to the sides of it and anything happens there ger that they is great dan- against the may be drawn teeth. way When the saw-teeth fairly get hold of a piece in this be moved toward the operator at a speed equal to that at which the periphery of the saw is moving. bring around at either side of the saw. but do not reach over the saw An attachto do this. care- Many Fig. wood binds on ment can be used behind the saw At the end of the cut the pieces must be so pushed along that they are kept clear of the teeth at the further side of the or there is to prevent the wood binding. saw (Fig. a piece to be brought to the front of the saw again for further sawing. unless you have first stopped the machine. 238 might be hurled at you with force enough to inflict a serious or even fatal injury. never above it. as in hand-sawing (Fig. for if it it — should fall upon the saw-teeth it Fig. perhaps from 5000 to it will — . accidents come from ends of a lessness in this respect. If may be trouble.

239). 239). accurately with the splitting-saw one edge of the piece must be straight and kept against the splitting-gauge (Fig. If Fig. which can be adjusted at any required distance To saw from the saw. 240 10.Common Tools and Their Uses 93 Fig. if When reaching the end there be a space of several saw and the gauge the piece on that side of the saw can inches between the be safely pushed through with the hand. push the piece . if anything happens. so that. 239 Fig.000 feet a minute. of the cut. 241 the space be narrow. the hand will instinctively cling to the gauge and thus be kept from being drawn against the saw-teeth (Fig. protect the operator. provided two or three fingers are hooked over the top of the gauge. to prevent danger A piece of Guards can be fastened to a saw-bench to plank is often suspended over a saw from flying pieces.

against If across the grain use the cross-cutting saw. Some gauges Fig- have an adjustment or "stop" for use 243 are to ' when a number of pieces be cut of the same length. lest the wood on the saw to cut at (Fig. simply steady it withclose out pushing. a straightedged piece. . and also the cross-cutting gauge. saw one-half side. Do not reach over after it. is 242). o f equal width throughout. the piece to be cut off long enough to require being held by the hand. To split a piece which is too thick for the saw. If the machine has but one gauge. to do a variety of work the ^ splitting-gauge can be tipped for cutting bevels. another can easily be made of wood for this purpose. the piece often tends to sHp away from To prevent this another gauge can be fitted on the other side of the saw. If necessary to use an irregular edge against the gauge. way through turn the piece over on one and saw through the remaining thickness. which slides back and forth at right angles to Hold the wood firmly the gauge (Fig. 240. 241). can be placed on the side toward the gauge and Fig.94 A Shorter Course in Woodworking Push through with a stick notched at the end as in Fig. 242 both pushed through together In machines made (Fig. or a stick with a shoulder at the In splitting with the gauge tipped at a bevel. the piece clear through. 242). the gauge at the angle where the gauge and bench-top meet. Cross- cutting gauges are also adjustable any angle. To saw the saw.

243). 246).' Fig. 245). If Cut the other is side of the rabbet in the same way (Fig. 247 in Fig. ' 246 itself Fig. 244 Fig.Common end can be attached Tools and Their Uses 95 (Fig. . 245 cut a rabbet. as the case and the cross-cutting or the may require. or raise the bench-top. lower the saw. A stop can also be attached to the spHtting-gauge to regulate the length of pieces to be cut with the cross-cutting gauge (Fig. but a piece attached as 244 is sure to give the wood clearance. 244). Fig. until the splitting-saw projects above the top just the depth of the rabbet. Then To set the splitting-gauge at the width of the rabbet and make a kerf (Fig. The splitting-gauge can be used as a stop. the rabbet to be cut across the end. use the cross-cutting saw splitting-gauge.

a little tightening with the wrench will compress the pasteboard wedges more and thus alter the width of the cut. and iti Fig. Thick saws are made ' A simpler way is to fold up the necessary thickness of cardboard or some similar substance (Fig. of thin Fig. of cut The width depends upon the slant of the collars. which it revolves. wedge-shaped 248 collars wood Fig. and remove the grooving is wood between by a (Fig. 252). Make of a pair (Fig. Test with of a piece waste Fig. can also be altered by changing their relative po- sitions. series of parallel kerfs When much to be this done. make a kerf at each side of the groove (Fig. 253). " For a thick saw must be used. so that they point in opposite directions (FigThus the saw will no longer be at right angles to the arbor 250). This ensures tightness and stiffness of the saw. . as a thin one will not be stiff enough. and place one on each side of the saw.96 A Shorter Course in Woodworking^ To cut a groove. 248). and the cutting-edge will wabble from side to on side and make a kerf (Fig. 249 249). and insert equal thicknesses above and below (Fig. 251 250 wood and alter the collars ' until for grooving the width of the groove is right. wide 251). 247). After the saw is fastened in place. as the hardest cutting is done with the teeth which are on top and beneath when the saw is being adjusted. the saw can be "wabbled.

Although convenient. are cut in the same way. 214. light work. and special cutters are made for grooving and a great variety of similar work. 252 smooth kerf is and in other operations in Fig. with the or with the pose." or lengthways parts of a frame like that shown in Fig. cutters cross-cutting saw also made for for the pur- The cross-cutting saw can grooving sometimes be used and rabbeting lengthways in fine. Dadoes. first To cut 253 adjust the saw to cut the required depth. a rabbet or extend to the edge or end of a piece. light work. then clamp blocks Fig- 254 Fig.Common Tools and Their Uses 97 (without wabbling). these are not necessary for common work. splitting Fig. where an especially desired. as in groove which does not the "styles. 255 . grooves across the grain.

length required (Fig. Push it Fig. 254). and also on the gauge. safer to use a block at each end. place the end against the nearer block. 257). lower it upon the saw and push it along until the nearer marks are opposite one another. But it is Such rabbets can be cut with a moulding-machine. . until upon the bench. along against the gauge until 257 . 256 Upon the bench-top so that the wood cannot be pushed further forward or backward than is necessary to make the rabbet of the . 256) The ends must be trimmed ' to shape by hand. and also on the circular-saw bench with a cutter of the required shape or by wabbling the saw. reaches the further block (Fig. Such rabbets can be gauged by marking on the upper surface of the wood opposite the ends of the projected or on the bench-top.98 A Shorter Course in Woodworking SHHHBBIIlBHWBBBwBB^^^^^MB M il llMw^m-arB Fig. opposite the points where the edge of the saw rises above the bench-top when adjusted to cut the required depth (Fig. 255). 254) Hold the piece firmly. Then place the piece so that the further marks agree. and carefully lower it it lies flat it upon the saw (Fig. Then carefully raise the nearer end and remove the piece (Fig.

261 To cut a piece tapering. be "roughed out" or worked approximately to shape with the circularsaw (Fig. the final trimming and smoothing being done by hand. to substitute for the saw for such work. if necessary. and push both through together (Fig. 259). Fig. . are made in a great variety of shapes. 259 Fig. 258 Fig.Common Tools and Their Uses 99 Mouldings and other odd-shaped pieces can. 260 fit it Fig. Cutter heads. into a notch of corresponding shape cut in the edge of a straight-edged piece. 258).

reversing the edges more than once if necessary. saw. 262 must be straight it is well to first joint the other edge with the saw. Cut crossways saw should be fine left by a fine assist the glue to hold. when the usual power-driven ones are not available. and as inconspicuous and strong joints as possible can be quickly made by a competent workman with a suitable To make joint-edges — and lengthways as glue-joints for — the and saw in the best condition. 262 and 263) are very useful Such comparatively . similar to that in cutting a rabbet. To cut a tenon. against the gauge As the edge used See Sharpening. the process as in Fig.100 A Shorter Course in is Woodworking in Fig. The minute roughnesses Fig.(and hand-) power machines (Figs. to remove any slight irregularity left by the plane. Then reverse the piece and joint the edge which is to be glued. Foot. 261. page 136. 260. The saw must be very sharp for this work.

should make more revolutions in a minute. for the operator has no great reserve of force to drive a dull saw through the wood. and usually not so continuously. Foot-power ma- chines are safer than the others. that is. nor do it so quickly. Swing-saws are often used for cutting 264 off stock. particularly when many pieces are to . Fig. but they will power-mado ordinary good work cases. is Fig. thick wood. is simply applied more advantageously than by hand.Common inexpensive Tools and Their Uses lOI machines not do so accurate and varied work. It is important that saws be run at the correct speed. and are is to be recommended when power-machinery — that out of the question. for within the limits of their capacity. 91. and there It requires thick one. used the operator must not expect the work to be easy. no belting or shafting. It is particularly essen- The power tial that a foot-power saw be kept sharp. which can be found by consulting tables for the purpose. because the saw does not run so powerfully. as the may most costly chines. It should be borne in mind that no power is gained by foot-power machines no greater force is can be used than Therefore if supplied by the operator. 263 or hard wood. saw than a Small power-saws should be run faster is more skill to run a thin than large ones.

is 265 applied near the guide (Fig. The saw must run evenly and be free from vibration. —As this saw (Fig. While large sweeping curves (Fig. before the saw is started. 268) require a narrow saw to cut them properly. 92. but skilful use of this machine must be learned by experience. harder to take care The correct degree of tightness for the saw can be told by testing with the hand below the upper wheel. and other attachments are sometimes can. but not overstrained. if necessary. 266) the saw can be freely pulled a litThis guide for the saw can be raised or lowered as the work may require. do a great variety of work with a band-saw. lower end of a frame which is usually suspended from the ceiling (Fig. This cannot be learned from a book. Do not reach around the saw while it is in motion to adjust anything. The Band-saw. 264). but it must be right. The width of saw should be adapted to the work. 265) cuts continuous(Fig. 267) can be cut with a wide saw. so that the saw can be swung across the bench upon which the wood to be cut is placed. The saw must be fairly tight. but of.102 A Shorter Course in Woodworking An ordinary cross-cutting circular-saw runs at the be of equal length. Care must be used to avoid accident. Splitting-gauges An experienced workman . quick curves (Fig. Its it motion is is also smoother. used. at an angle. The table can be adjustable for sawing tle way toward the operator. ly while the jig-saw 272) on the down-stroke. It should be loose enough that when the hand tig. the advantage of the band-saw cuts only in saving time is obvious.

and 266 not to turn too abruptly. If the wood it closes behind the pulling for it saw. Care should be taken not to try to cut curves too for the saw. Fig. 267 Fig. 269). but hold it lightly and easily. sharp also Fig. cut as nearly to the required curve as free and easy running of the saw will allow. and withdraw the wood. do not try to get free by toward you. you off may pull the saw the wheel. 267). Where the surface must be left as smooth as possible. open the kerf.Common Do wood not Tools and Their Uses 103 crowd the against the saw. Stop the machine. simply guiding it (Fig. If necessary to cut a quick curve with a saw too wide for it. 268 . saw with the grain of the piece to be kept (Fig.

— not however overstrained. For common work a saw-blade }/^' wide will or scroll the different work and quick curves must be used (Figs. ing downward. where power-machinery is Large bandsaws are used for sawing and less wood is wastis ed than by the circular- saw. logs. or something saw must not be at all may . The proper degree of tension for the blade cannot be described. jig- The mechanism - sawing machines varies. easier to use and to keep in order than the circular-saw or even the band-saw.and handpower band-saw (Fig. safer. however. and then work by short cuts up to the Hne (Fig. The slack. 270 stroke (Fig. It is. Fig. 268 and It must be put in with the teeth point270). but the principle of a narrow sawblade running up and down is the same in all. 272) all is the safest of of for younger pupils. 269 93- The Jig-saw i s now practically super- seded by the band-saw except for "inside" or "coring" work. but for fine smaller sizes Fig.104 A Shorter Course in Woodworking . break. simpler. but tightly strained. 270) but this is not to be advised and the curve will not be so smooth as when cut with a saw of suitable width. and is therefore for some reasons the best machine to begin with. The foot-power jig-saw (Fig. 273). so as to cut on the downusually do. as the kerf narrower. A good foot. not available. 271) will do excellent work up to the limit of its capacity.

page 103. To saw holes "inside" or "coring" work a hole must first — — . The wood should not be held down hard on the table. injured. the upper end may come down. 271 Fig. as in case of may result. but handled lightly and easily. The general principle of sawing is similar Care must be taken not to turn to that with the band-saw (page 102). Also. The wood should not be forced against the saw.Common catching a cut Tools and Their Uses 105 its The hands should not be kept very near the saw. 272 rection. and di- without being bent in any Fig. but advanced only as fast as the saw will cut easily and freely. the wood too quickly. on the hand. for it may catch and the saw or the work be See also under Band-saw. if a saw breaks.

With a "double surfacer" the upper and lower sides are both planed at once. principle to the cap of an or- 274 dinary hand plane-iron (Fig. 276 and page 36). on a similar Fig. ''single Fig. In the (Fig. These knives plane the surface (Fig. and the knives must describe a small circle at high speed to ensure the best work. 273). and machines are made which plane all four surfaces at once. . and passed under a rapidly revolving cylinder to which cutters or knives are bolted (Fig. but as stock 94. The table can be adjustable an angle. the feed must be steady. can be bought already planed and necessary planing can usually be done at a near-by mill for a small sum. so closely that chips cannot be forced between them. 276). The knives have pieces of steel fitted to them. The Planer is highly important in saving time. the planer can be omitted from a limited outfit much better than the he jointer. 275). There should be freedom from vibration. surfacer" is 273 274) the wood along over the moved smooth bed of the machine by means of "feed rolls" with corrugated surface.io6 A Shorter Course in Woodworking for sawing at be bored to admit the saw (Fig. although it is an important part of a comcircular-saw o r t plete equipment.

to the distance These undulations correspond between the strokes of the knives. when accurate work is demake one side as true as possiThe knives or ble before planing. Fig. although slight irregularities will be removed. piece be warped before planing. cutters (Fig. plane equal amounts (see page 209).Common The Tools and Their Uses is 107 thickness of the planing is regulated by raising or lowering If the table on which the wood carried along. 276) make the little Therefore. ' Figs. but does not true it. a piece is to be made Fig. it will be warped afterwards. 274-276 show a Whitney planer. 277).^ These planer-marks must be removed by hand for all nice work. . » The is old-fashioned Daniels's planer left makes the stock true. it is vent as much from each side passed through the planer several times. it is superseded. 276 waves or undulations seen in machine-planed stock (Fig. but as it is slow and the is surface very slightly rough. To preas possible subsequent warping. The common planer makes the surface If a smooth.' sired. 275 much thinner. except where especial accuracy required.

straight beading horizontal or irregular. tonguing. useful as an auxiliary machine. 453. used.. and great care must be jointer joints. rabbeting. is often used to make It must be kept carefully adjusted for accurate work. and pieces (Fig. etc. rapid revolution. . 278). and running both through together. The gauge is adjustable to plane bevels. not too large can be trued and squared on it. o f A piece can be planed thickness b y on top of another piece having the required degree of taper. The The glue- knives are more or less exposed. and moulding in various ways. and steadiness of the cutter-head. as in Fig. beveling. are essential to making this waviness as slight as possible. and firm holding of the stock. and grooving. "Buzz" planer is a very important machine used for planing edges and narrow stock. with steadiness of feed. ^ 96. Fig. ' It beading. and . Moulding-machines are either 278 ' The former can be used for such work as getting out matched boards. by the use of different adjustments and cutters. Planers are made is A small or pony planer is good for small work. The Jointer or It is cutters (which are similar to those of the large planers) plane the under side of the wood. Therefore small diameter. The wood is held against the gauge and passed over the table by hand so that the revolving 95. can also be used for chamfering. A stick can be made octagonal tapering it placing by placing Fig- it in a cradle or 277 form. tenoning. and run- ning both through together.io8 A Shorter Course in Woodworkino^ of various sizes.

Common Tools and Their Uses 109 or reeding. work The 'boards are run through as through a planer and are given an even surface and satin-like finish. The wood moved . with. Scraping. "sticking" strips of moulding. along against the spindie and shaped by the revolving k n first-class i . 280 (page 61). and the like. 279) cuts the edge of woodwork in anydesired shape for which knives can be . Fig. The irregular moulder (Fig. and Fig. is chines valuable nice 280) are where much done. The knives or cutters (of which there is a great terns) variety of pat- are fastened to the spindles which project above the table and revolve very is rapidly. 282 a toothing-knife which can be used instead of the scraper. is The principle the same as that of the hand-scraper Fig. The stock is passed through the machine as with a planer. smooth that finishing is is no further A moulder not a machine for the novice to experi- ment 97. Fig. 279 of the grain ves A machine will mould the wood in any direction leave and so the surface required. 281 edge of shows the a Whitney scraper after it has been turned by the burnisher.

have long been in use and can easily be contrived also sanded belts for — — — rounded surfaces. j^. Woodturning is a trade in . loi. —Most woodworking Fig. Their use is easily learned. Mortisinguse. See also page 100. 283 machines are of recent invention. 281 common are and Fig. 98. 282 often is driven similar to that of cutting mortises by foot-power.. against which the wood is held. 102. 284 Barnes) also save time and labor. machines are in Fig. Tenoning-machines (Fig. The Lathe. but the work can be done more easily and quickly (Fig. give a smooth and even surface (though usually not to be compared with that produced by a scraping-machine) but the grit quickly dulls tools used afterwards. A boring to attachment circular-saw a in mado chine will cases. The principle by hand. and there are ordinary many independent b o r i n g-machines made. through which boards are run as through a planer. 99. Simple machines. Sandpapering machines. shaped like a drum or a disk covered with sandpaper. 283 Barnes). A Shorter Course in Woodworking Boring-machines are useful where much boring is done. but the lathe in its primitive forms dates from antiquity.

the gen- 285 eral principle is the same in all. Handle the tools lightly and freely. on account of the friction. and revolved toward the turner. general which handbook. for. For the ing. . though the details of differ- ent machines Fig. Do not press hard and long at any one spot. Fig. Tools and Their Uses III and is much better learned from All perienced tiirner than from a book. edges in different positions so as to learn to do as much clean cutting. at- are all that can be Turning requires concentrated tion. and thus cuts it into the de- sired shape. included in a understand the general and the elementary operations. as possible. 285 will serve as a typical illustration of a lathe.Common itself. the common forms is of turn- wood is held between two rapidly points or centres. principles of turning however. and Different different is turners frequently have ways of doing work and there opportunity for thought in so handling the tools as to do the cleanest much and best work in the least Therefore carefully observe the effect of holding the cutting time. tention and freedom from interrup- both on account of the work to avoid accident. may vary. 284 and as little scraping. who holds the edge of a tool against it. Fig. a practical and exwoodworkers should.

or shakes. sometimes called the "dead" movable the tool centre. Select pieces free though whitewood or from cracks. 289 Fig. This called Coc/A/7-e/fs/¥^rr- sometimes other the "live" centre. Fig. 288) to hold the other merely end l/re CeA/r/re of the wood in place Tee fesr //eAO and does not turn SrocH PeAo ^eA/r/9e This is with it.291 When the belt on the smallest step of the cone-pulley (Fig. Clear pine is the best wood to begin with. 286) is -held. 288 f Fig. 286) of . 287). so that when centre the is reis CoAfs fatter T/G/^r ^A/o Loose fau. The Cor/e fatter centre is (Fig. 290 is Fig. tee-rest A for is fastened in front of the wood. other similar wood will do. 286). so that the tool Fig.112 A Shorter Course in Woodworkinor between which the stick this One of the centres (the left in Fig. has spurs which enter the wood (Fig. 286 held may be securely and steadily (Fig. which plight cause the wood to spHt while being turned. era volved is wood also revolved. checks.

with very little skew or squarely across. 291). gives the wood a few revolutions and. Do not change it while the lathe is moving. ^ Find the centre of each end of the stick by drawing diagonals or by one of the other methods given on page 229. loosen the If the wood becomes overheated at any time. Move the tail-stock (Fig 286) up toward the head-stock until the wood is held between the two. To turn a cylinder. makes a slight cut with a tool to detect any inaccuracy in the centring. of the countershaft pulley is and the largest of the lathe pulley. the turning chisel. •^ 1%" square will do but for the following elementary is immaterial. without danger of striking. 290) and is usually a skewExperienced turners. centring it by the marks just made upon Screw up the tail-stock until the spurs of the live the ends. Small work requires a higher speed than large. ^ The experienced turner centres small work by eye. are apt to grind chisel also (Fig. be securely held. The chisel is ground on both sides (Fig. for small work. For roughing out. however.Common Tools and Their Uses 113 the lathe it will be on the largest step of the driving-pulley on the counterThis gives the highest speed. it is to correspond with the degree of curvature of the tool (Fig. if necessary. large wheel to a smaller the speed is increased in proportion to the sizes For the slowest speed put the belt on the smallest step of the wheels. 285). for the speed is decreased when a small wheel connected with a larger one. but for large work should be . sometimes ground squarely across. for when a belt runs from a shaft above. get out a piece of wood with the circular-saw about 2"x2"x 10''. Do not oil while the lathe in motion. however. stop the lathe and is oil again or wood slightly. before starting the lathe. By stopping the lathe and by tapping or a slight movement of the piece he adjusts it to ' The exact size is — exercises this run true. The tools needed are the turning gouge and The gouge is usually ground with the edge rounded 289). Put a few drops of oil on the end of the piece where the dead centre will be inserted. First. 3 The rest can be a little below the centres somewhat above the centres.^ centre are firmly fixed in the wood and the dead centre also forced The wood must revolve freely and at the same time well into the end. a suitable size and can be economically cut from a 2" plank. Adjust the top of the tee-rest to be about level with Fasten it as close to the wood as you can the centres (Fig.

If cuts as in the cuts are made nearer together the bulk of the corners will be roughed off. 293. . The left hand can be held as shown. 295 at the right-hand end and move the tool sideways back and forth along the stick until it becomes In smoothing with the gouge place the tool at first so that cylindrical. 292. thus making a I The highest speed is usually right for these small elementary exercises. 292 Fig. would cut at a tangent (see page 116) to the upper part of the cylinder. 294) rather than with the extreme end. Then carefully raise the handle until the edge begins to cut. as in Fig. succession of Fig. Then begin Fig. and should bear firmly on the rest as well Begin with the edge of the tool so placed that it as hold the tool. 294 Fig. 296.^ First rough out the work with the gouge held as in Fig.114 A Shorter Course in Woodworking Start the machine slowly. The tool can be turned over slightly so as to cut with either side of the edge (Fig. or Fig. 292. 293 underneath as in Fig. the basil and not the cutting-edge bears on the wood and then carefully raise the right hand a very Httle until the edge begins to cut. After dipping down into the wood dip in this way move little and making a the tool along a down again.

Place the chisel as in Fig. ^^ _ left hand. lay the hand on the pulley to bring it to a standstill. Leave the piece a httle larger than required to allow for finishing with the ^^1^ ^^JI^H^B ^-«. with rule and pencil 298 ' With long slender work a piece of leather wrapped around the hand will prevent burning and the tool can be held against a nick cut in the leather. the edge begins to cut and making a smooth shearing move Keep the tool the basil bearing on the wood. work to bear against is used for work which will spring much.' After moving the "shipper" or lever to cutting done in the opposite direction.Common Tools and Their Uses Test Fig. 294. stop the machine. 297). holding them Hghtly as in the with chisel. so that the basil rests on the wood. way from the end of The tool can now be turned the piece lest the edge the other way and the As you thus trim to the exact diameter. It is well to keep the forefinger of the left hand hooked under the tee-rest. as this gives firm control of the tool (Fig. 295). — HHHhlR':. left hand is sometimes laid over the chisel in the 296 little until position shown in Fig. working from the middle Fig. not on the wood. It is well to begin a little of the tool catch. 298. test with calipers (Fig. Fig. Near the middle lay off a space. holding it on the rest with the . To cut a cylinder with one or more steps. 2" for example. caHpers. Finish with the skew-chisel. First turn a cylinder. raise the handle cut.^3. 296. 295. The hand is often held around the piece as in Fig. Fig.^ ^^ 299 as is turned in a similar manner. already shown. Keep the upper point of the chisel clear above the wood. A back-rest for the . 115 diameter smooth shearing cut (see page 31). 1^. 297 Then slowly a very steadily to the right. 299 toward each end. Rough to shape Fig. The Fig.

310. A Shorter Course in Woodworkino^ Hold the chisel (skew or square-edged) as in Fig. 303). 302 Fig. D CXD F=> Fig. and the lines with the parting tool (Fig. chisel (Fig. 300 In cutting angle of the chisel next the shoulder. 306 Fig. lower the handle slightly lest the tool cut too deeply. raise the handle slightly with and carefully so that the will corner dip of the tool into the down (Fig. 304 Next mark cut down before (Fig. 305 Fig. of wood 301) the each end at 2" space and cut a groove about there As tV" deep.Ii6 (Fig. 300). 307 . as Fig. 301 can be done with the Fig. 302). the angle nearly touching the wood. is but little to wood it be removed with the Fig. 304) held just outside off spaces. of i3^" for example.30: Fig.

^:^^8u. 302 shows the angle at which to hold it more clearly) turn it to cut the half -bead. 306. 312 Fig. 309). Fig. and then. 311 (Fig. 311 Fig. 312). 308. 313 basil bear on the wood as a guide. shoulders are smoothed accurately to the lines with the chisel as in Fig. 307. At the end try to cut one shaving from the whole surface. 306. cut in with the chisel as in Fig. Lay out the spaces for the beads on a cyhnder with compasses (Fig. 310 The exact dimensions are not important. 309 Fig.Common Tools and Their Uses 117 Or cut a V-shaped groove with the as in Fig. 314). 305. placing the tool as in Fig. 310. After turning a cylinder. To cut a half-bead in the opposite direction. It is well to practise with a variety of similar steps. making To . to a depth of 3^''. first with the gouge. turn beads (Fig. cut a half -bead (Fig. reverse the positions and movements. 313). or with rule and chisel. first cutting straight down as in Fig. See that the ends of the Fig. raising the handle gradually in a curve and pushing the tool forward as is necessary (Fig. chisel.J^«**''^*4--«^^ Fig. and then slantingly as in Fig. Turn to the required dimensions as before. turning it when near the shoulder so that it will cut as in Finish with the chisel as before. This exercise can well be repeated with half -beads of different sizes. as the object of such exer- cises is to get To a good working understanding of the process. Remember to let the . 308 Fig.

Then proceed and as in turning also try to two half -beads. Fig- 314 Fig. 315 Fig. Practise with beads of different sizes make a row of uniform size. . 321 Fig. 318 Fig. Lay off Fig.' Pencil marks can also be made for the centres of the beads.Ii8 A Shorter Course in Woodworking a very slight cut. 319 Fig. ^ 320 pieces Fig. 316 310. a gauge can be made by driving brads wood at the required points and sharpening the projecting ends. 317 Fig. Cut down between the beads with the chisel as in Fig. 322 Where many this in the edge of a strip of have to be marked aUke. To cut off a cylinder or other shape at a given length. will Holding gauge lightly against the revolving wood mark the spaces.

325. 317). the cuts down. 320). To 323). Make the successive lightly to make opening cut a little wider than the tool Fig. cut in or "size " down with the parting tool or chisel (the sizing tool. Cut in carefully with the parting tool a little outside of the line marked or hold a 305. thus making a V-shaped cut and trimming thin shavings from the end of the part to be kept until the line is reached and the piece almost cut through.Common Tools and Their Uses 119 the required length with rule and pencil. cut concave curves or hollows (Fig. first straight down (Fig. is sometimes used for repeated sizings) where the dimensions are naturally measured (Fig. as in Fig. To roughly. Use the calipers as in Fig. with one end close to the cutting tool. leaving a little space at each end. 324) part of the wood. and small gouge and remove hold the tool push it care- . 315). When the calipers indicate the correct 1^ Fig. Turn a cylinder and mark the spaces.324 to avoid friction and continue until there is only enough wood left to avoid danger of breaking (Fig. turn a tool handle. with basil }/i" scraping tool as in Fig. 323 Fig. with the basil bearing on the wood. 325 diameter stop cutting. enough at the live end that the tools cannot strike the spur when cutting in. Do the rest of the turning with gouge and chisel as already described. 322). but keep well within the lines. 319. hold a horizontally and at right angles to the work (Fig. 316) and then slantingly (Fig. 321. 318. Fig. Then as in Fig. Finally hold a small piece of folded sandpaper with the forefinger and middle finger and move it rapidly back and forth over the surface (Fig. Or cut entirely with the turning chisel. First turn a cylinder After marking spaces.

dimensions and try to make a series all that and shape. chisel. so that the gouge will work itself up out of the wood. as the pupil should learn to cut rather than scour the wood into shape. at the same time rolling it partly around and moving the handle toward the right or left as the cutting proAt the ceeds. do this before setting the lathe in motion. 328. cut the hollows and then the convex curves or beads. and the and without catching. as in upper part of as in the lower part of Fig. 327 the outlines of most turned objects are made up. bearing on the Fig.120 fully A Shorter Course in Woodworking forward and upward. and continue cutting first on one side and then the other until the curve is correct. 326. and proceed for this design as in Fig. end of the cut the tool should be in the position shown in Fig. Then round the corners of the square as in Fig. The sides of the hollows must be cut down straight for some distance to allow for the rounding of the beads. are the elements of which Fig. 330) or make deep V-shaped cuts with the chisel as already shown. Fig. squaring distinct pencil lines across one side of the piece (Fig. as in Fig. of various degrees of curvature and in an combinations. Round the beads with gouge or MW The chisel will give cut quicker. Sandpaper should not be used in the earlier exercises. Cut a groove at the ends of the square members (Fig. To mark spaces where there are square members. 329). 328. or parts. 327. For members . endless variety of Simple forms. first. 327. 326 keeping the basil of the tool wood as a guide a slight movement of the handle will cause the By edge to cut tool can be controlled so as to cut cleanly Practise with hollows of different of uniform size is required. The experienced turner a finer surface but the gouge will will cut both rounds and hollows smoothly with the gouge. To turn a combination of hollows and rounds. 328. Next cut on the other side of the hollow in the same way.

Common Tools and Their Uses 121 ordinary work cut a small piece of sandpaper. 322. t Small pieces can be screwed (by turning the lathe) to the centre screw of the ZZ l^ Fig. many shapes. 333 the tool in such work. the wood must be fastened to the live spindle only. or polished ^fttc- '-^ 328 a handful of fine shavings and dust made Fig. In sandpaper- ing sharp curves or beads care must be taken not to injure the shape surface (Fig. double it and hold as Move it quickly back and forth in Fig. . 331). common to instruct that such turning be done with what are quired. 329 can be further smoothed with Fig. face plate which for is (Fig. For large holes 331 IZ^ pieces :::^ screws are in- serted through x^ in the face-plate. 332). The D ~^ can be placed at right angles to the position already shown tee-rest or at any angle re- it is Because of the varying angles at which the grain of the wood meets the edge of Fig. substituted the spur centre used in the previous exercises. The Fig. to prevent scratching the work. 330 by the For turning. 332 Fig. rosettes and cups for example.

335. some operations which can be done by scraping only. screw chuck and mark with compasses. Cut the edge with parting tool as in Fig. and uses the scraping tools only when The beginner should learn to do his work as much by necessary. Cut off the corners with a hand-saw or saw Screw to the approximately to shape with the band-saw (Fig. 336 Fig. howwith the basil down. ever. ever. Fig. howclean cutting and as little by scraping as possible. There are.122 A basil Shorter Course in Woodworking called "scraping tools" have the rest (Fig. 333). Place the tee-rest as in Fig. 337 To turn a disk. It is common to put a piece of waste wood between the face-plate and the work. experienced turner. 335. does the greater part of his turning with the regular tools al- Fig- 334 Fig. 335 ready mentioned and on the same general principles of cutting that have already been described. which are of various shapes and on one side only. They are held horizontally on the The skilful. to cut . 334).

and with straight-edge. 338 and 339. Keep the basil bearing on the wood. Turn the face Fig. 342 {B in Fig. and turn the tool so as Fig. a part of the large saucerlike depression. 336. then the centre with gouge and chisel. 341. and at the same time roll or turn it in the positions . or cut entirely. 338 Fig. for the further half of the wood is moving Test the straightness of the surin the wrong direction. face by eye To turn shapes similar to that shown in Fig. as at A in Fig. 340). never beyond the centre. 340 to make a shearing cut at the Fig. 340. and move the tool forward. as in Fig. with the basil bearing on the wood. Tools and Their Uses finished. or scraping chisel alone. 341. first turn a disk. 337.Common against. afterwards holding and turning the gouge as in Figs. Next hold the gouge as in Fig. 341 and also complete rounding the edge. working from the face-side edge. Work entirely between the centre and the edge nearest you. 339 with gouge and scraping chisel. to remove. 123 with gouge and The edge can be scraping chisel held in the position shown in Fig. Then start the gouge as in Fig.

out of the wood. The and 345. by clean cutting them into shape with scraping tools. 344. 343. but bear in tool bearing mind to keep the basil of the on the wood as a guide during the whole operation and to . 342 Fig- 343 scribed. 344 Fig. 340) can be removed smoothed by repeating the operations just de- and the surface finally Fig. Such opera- Fig.124 A Shorter Course in Woodworking o shown in Figs. so that the edge works itself up and surplus wood (Cin Fig. This is the scientific rather than to scrape way to turn such surfaces. 345 tions are hard to describe.

346). 348 Fig. is and with shavings. Some kinds of work have to be held in a chuck. cleaned off The wood can be required.Common so hold Tools and Their Uses 125 and turn the tool as to cut with the grain. if See Finishing. cut a curve like that in Fig. the filler principle of finishing turning the same as with other filled. It is is sometimes used to secure accuracy in turning merely an exact reverse outline of the required form cut in sheet metal or thin as far as possible wood and applied to the work to test It is best to learn to it. 336 can be turned into a rosette (Fig. page 188. 348) of the right size to tightly bottom of the latter hold the turned base (Fig. turn by eye and to resort to such tests only is when necessary. 349). The general work. Fig- 346 Fig- 347 In the same way the disk in Fig. so far as possible. To shown by the arrows. after turning the upper side of the candlestick base shown in Fig. can now be turned. A common way to polish with a . 347. 91 with a spokeshave. you would cut as Try to follow the same principle in turning. or pattern. For example. Stop the lathe before applying the templet. shapes. The depression in the Fig. screw a piece of wood to the face-plate and turn a recess in it (Fig. 349 A some templet.

A Put a Shorter Course in on a cloth. and have various toolholding and self-feeding attachments also knife attachments by which patterns can be turned automatically at great speed. Machines should be firmly bolted to a firm foundation and be free from vibration. Loose pulleys are apt to give trouble and must not be neglected. multiply the diameter of the driving pulley by the number of its revolutions and divide by the diameter of the pulley to be driven.turning. rather than to the elementary principles of hand. countershaft is turned and the machine set in motion. when working. but the relative sizes must be regulated by the speed required. and also avoiding the need of running main shafting when only part of the machinery 106. advantages. and is belted The latter belt runs directly to the machine and also to the main shaft. while the loose pulley continues to revolve. justment should be set up so that the light will fall properly upon the machines and the work. 286). Lathes are also adapted for screw-cutting. Placing of machines. All lines of shafting and all machinery should be set up exactly level and all connecting pulleys exactly in line. on the countershaft on either of two pulleys. The belt is shifted from one pulley to the other by one or more levers. danger. side by When the belt is shifted to the tight pulley the other loose (Fig. and afterwards rubbing down in the usual way. the side.126 pad. Pulleys and Belts. and expense of shafting and belting. revolving the work by hand. Motors connected directly with each machine have some obvious 105. for the light should fall upon the work from the back of the saw. It is important that the circular-saw be so placed that the operator. will face a window or a clear light. It is better to have large pulleys than small. is in use. as twisted or "rope" patterns.machines which require careful ad103. To find the speed of a pulley to be driven by another pulley. as dispensing with the care. used so that a machine may be started or stopped without affecting the running of the main shaft. one tight. When the belt is 104. A Countershaft is — on the loose pulley the countershaft and machine stop. and appliances for turning a great variety of odd shapes. The lathe — — is usually placed before a window. — . Woodworking little oil pour on shellac and make a pad to hold against the work. but such matters belong to advanced work and manufacturing purposes. All . Shellac can also be applied with a brush.

Common To number Tools and Their Uses 127 find the necessary diameter of a driving pulley to give a required of revolutions to a driven pulley of given diameter. must be on the outside. multiply the horse- . which are easily applied. The ends can also be shaved tapering. as it would soon wear through if crossed. cut the ^^S- 35o ends of the belt squarely across. but for larger pulleys and it is between belts a greater distance better. 351). rawhide belt-lacing. divide by two. To make a machine run in the opposite direction from is the shaft. the nick will catch and keep the end in place . To To find the width of belt for a given horse-power. The lacing on the pjg ^ri inside which comes against the pulley must run lengthways of the belt. being the weaker side. of the shafts. There are two thicknesses on the inside. Punch ^ j holes with a belt punch. There are various metallic fasteners for belts. Belts are of leather or rubber. the belt must be crossed between the pulleys. which sometimes necessary. add the diameters of the pulleys. | (Fig. multiply by 3. also lacing of wire. and divide by the re- quired number of revolutions of the driven pulley. although common practice to use much shorter belts. multiply the diameter of the pulley to be driven by the required number of revolutions of revolutions of the driving pulley or the driving and divide by the number shaft. A speed of three thousand feet a minute is is as fast as a belt should run belts 15 feet in ordinary cases. when pulled through an extra hole made for the purpose with a knife. 350. shafting is For small pulleys and narrow a good distance. whether \ leather or wire. To find the necessary diameter of a driven pulley in order that it may revolve at a required speed. All crossing of lacings. should be in contact with the pulley. To fasten the ends cut a little nick in the edge of the lacing at such a point that. to lap over one another. There are various ways A common way is shown in of using the Fig.' The hair side of a leather belt. using the try square. Before lacing. multiply the diameter of the driving pulley by its number of revolutions. 14 16 and add twice the distance between the centres find the length of a belt. — and glued or riveted.

. The Sharpening Tools. as it is easier to hold the tool without the edge catching.128 A slip Shorter Course in Woodworking of belt in feet a minute. toward which the top of the stone turns. however. plane-irons. 352 and sometimes finally stropping on leather. The grindstone must be kept wet. To grind a Chisel. is to grind them o n the grindstone. for the heat from the friction of the tool on the dry stone of the steel steel. which make it necessary to oil at long intervals only. —and smooth the coarse edge the grindstone fine by by rubbing on a oil stone with or water. or from him. general process with — chisels. would injure the temper Besides. and the like. Fig. —With the old-fashioned an hole. with the right hand. the water carries ofT the waste particles of stone and To which would glaze the stone. but quite often the beginner can get a better result with the stone turning the other way. These save much trouble and greasiness. power by one thousand. stand on the side ' This is the proper way. Much machinery is now provided with devices of various kinds. grasp the handle of the chisel or the upper end of the plane-iron. Saws are sharpened by filing. usually harder to grind evenly in this way and the edge is usually not as good. knives. To 107. o r t h e emery-wheel — the former left is better for the beginner. although open to the objection that as the oiling is not a matter of daily Oiling. oil routine it may be neglected until after the bearings have become dry. do so in the direction of the motion. 108. and hold the grind. boxes where there is simply every morning before beginning work. oil on a belt. or Plane-iron. and divide by the speed the result being the required width in inches. It is.

which helps to keep the edge straight and prevents the stone being worn away too much in one place. but for very hard wood and rough work the angle should be slightly greater.Common blade in the left Tools and Their Uses 129 hand with the fingers uppermost and near the cuttingpalm of the left hand across the blade. of the left hand. and then the tool Keep raise the handle until the bevel touches the stone (Fig. testing wide chisels and plane-irons with the try square. edge (Fig. but Appliances can be bought (or easily contrived) to ensure the correct angle being it is better to learn to grind without such mechanical help. Lay with the beveled side down quite flatly on the stone. 353 Fig. Fig. Move the tool slowly sideways. across the stone. or the palm. on the flat side ("wire-edge" or "feather-edge") should be taken off on the oilstone. 354 the arms rigid near the body and hold the tool firmly against the stone. Try to grind squarely across the blade. Never apply the flat side of the tool to the grindstone. or turning over of the edge. Any slight burr. ' kept. Control the grinding by the pressure of the fingers. while for very soft wood and delicate work a smaller angle may be used. for the bevel of such tools as the about 25° (a. on top of the tool. 355 The tool should be held at the same angle all the time or the basil will be rounded. 352) or lay the Fig. Do all grinding on the basil. lest the edge become broken. 354). in Fig.^ Wipe the tool dry immediately The usual angle is chisel after grinding. . 353). back and forth.

130 A Shorter Course in Woodworking .

and therefore requires a keener edge to cut it cleanly without tearing or crushing the wood. of the tool sideways across a piece of soft pine wood. Test for sharpness with the thumb (Fig. being offers less resistance to the tool. . or any part of 360 can be seen as a bright line the tool is dull. Gouges. it Draw edge (Fig. A keen edge cannot be seen by the naked eye.Common Any wire-edge on the flat side Tools and Their Uses 131 flat side can be removed by drawing the over the stone once (Fig. more yielding than that of hard wood. If Test by cutting across the grain of a piece of soft pine. — » The fibrous structure of soft wood. tell when the edge hold it is in prop- condition. toward you or sideways. P ane. if used for rough work. wire-edge. may need more strength at the edge.' left The edge by stropping. It As you remove the and a new bevel made on the stone. 360). it. the tool is sharp. If toward the Fig.irons can sometimes be ground to a more acute angle than chisels. but do not raise the handle at all. although the jack-plane. oil To er light. by the Raise oilstone can often be improved for fine work away from the from the strop on the forward stroke. 359). as any bevel on the flat side will spoil can also be drawn flatways across the ball of the thumb. the cut be clean and smooth. an edge which would merely tear the The soft firmer structure of hard wood can be cut by wood. the edge. The tool should then be reground the edge. After sharpening several times on the oilstone the bevel will become so wide that it is a waste of time to rub it down. The tool must be continually turned or rolled to make the tool back over the strop. feel on the bevelled side of the edge A slight wire-edge can often be removed by drawing the edge also. 355). The lightest touch of thumb or finger will detect any lack of keenness.

straight part of the blade. In rubbing the knife on the oilstone give it a circular motion rather it — and to grind the bear a little . To grind the point. The common "outside" gouges are not rubbed on the inside. 361 Fig. 363 than elsewhere. rolled can be held at right angles with the 361 and 362. For "inside" gouges. as it is passed back and forth. but the slip can be used on It is well to have a the outside (Fig. stone. Fig. while resting flat on the grindstone. for the separate stone for the outside bevel of gouges. rounded edges are apt to wear the stone unevenly. The Knife.132 A and Shorter Course in It Woodworking oil- the grinding uniform. as in Figs. 363). except the merest touch to remove any wire-edge or burr. The sHp need not fit the gouge exactly. let harder near the edge of the stone Fig. but should have a curve a little quicker or sharper than that of the tool. called "slips" are used (Fig. 362 rounded pieces of stone. it can be moved back and forth lengthways with a curving motion. 364).

Common Tools and Their Uses 133 than simply back and forth. or file them (using the file lengthways). by grinding off the teeth and slightly rounding the angles on the grindstone until the tool is smooth. 365 The Drawknife is ground in the way already described. Slightly round each file corner to prevent scratching the as in wood. Fig. Then hold the and draw it along the edge it 366 of the scraper. To sharpen a Scraper requires a burnisher. which is simply a piece of hard. The straight part can be allowed to "bear a Httle more heavily near the edge of the stone as it is passed back and forth. 365 Fig. particularly for the point. smooth steel of triangular or curved section.^ First grind the two long edges of the scraper squarely across on the grindstone. 364 Fig. . 364) resting the tool on the bench. such as is used for filing saws. Fig. keeping at right ' If necessary. a burnisher can be made from an old three-cornered file. and is rubbed with a flat slip in the same way as the gouge (Fig.

as shown. Some workmen grind the edges of the scraper with a bevel and use only the acute angle of each edge. slightly projecting over the edge. without grinding or filing the edge. as The burnisher should be drawn with a slightly end-toshown. which is almost flat on the scraper. lay the scraper flat on its side near the edge of the bench and rub the burnisher back and forth a few times as in Fig. and draw the burnisher with a firm. resharpen with the burnisher. end motion. first fiat angles to the stone. curled over. After one edge gets dull. The scraper can be laid fthus flat Fig. When all four are dull. making four edges edge. Next. but soon the turned edges will become worn off and must then be refiled. This bends a little of the steel over the Do the same on each side of the long edges. even stroke. 367 smooth. lengthways of the edge. This can be done a few times. once or twice. hold the scraper as in Fig. 366. rub the scraper on its side and then on edge at right both of the long edges are square and is Fig. This gives a slightly keener scraping . which helps turn the edge. 367. The fine edge (Fig. When a burr at the edge.134 A on the Shorter Course in If Woodworking angles to the edge. use another. All four edges can 368) thus turned over will take off shavings. if preferred. lightly there oilstone. be treated in the same way. 368 on the bench.

also used. the iron being moved from pj„ . either by one of the contrivances made for the purpose or by holding the end of a piece of soft iron. it will steady it and the finger be less likely to be cut (Fig. be wasted. for it will then wear away irregularly. Oilstones of very fine and hard grain. no. carving gouges.^ side to side as may be required. Water can be used in this operation. but are not so well suited to the beginner as the — / > 'Z grindstone. 363). The Grindstone. When an oilstone becomes unevenly worn. steel. Planer -knives and the like had best be taken to a machine shop where there are proper facilities for grinding such edges. In rubbing with the slip. which give a keen edge but cut very slowly. 369 shows a common form. — A quick-cutting stone is best or time will 109. lest they score a circle too small for the rest of the bit. 364). while the cutting-lips are filed from the under The Centre-bit can be sharpened with a small oilstone. against the surface. Fig.Common Tools and Their Uses 135 edge than to grind the steel square. The Arkansas stone produces a keen edge. to remove the paste of ground stone. and oil left on the surface. Wipe clean after using. or other tools sharpened on the inside. side. without water. slips of stone of various shapes are useful. the scoring-nibs from the inside. . They should be set in blocks or boxes with covers to keep them clean. but requires more frequent sharpening and is of doubtful advantage. V. and is of fine texture. as a piece of pipe. or wet sand on a board. The India and Turkey stones are Some stones cut well with water. The carborundum stones are excellent. A stone can be trued while revolving. hold the tool upright in the hand and rub the slip up and down. require slips of stone of corresponding shapes. Do not let it become softened in spots by being left immersed in a trough of water. as it cuts The Auger-hit can be sharpened with a file and a slip-stone. In addition to the ordinary rectangular oilstones. Emery-wheels are in common use. it can be trued by rubbing on sandpaper. are not so good for the beginner as those of moderate coarseness which cut faster. The Washita stone is good for woodworking tools. If you rest the tool against the bench. moving the slip and not the tool (Fig.

373). or some similar preparation well rubbed in. When cutting near an edge or where the wood bends aside easily. as linseed. in but soon ceases to work.136 A Shorter Course in Woodworking is Kerosene will do. Lard oil can be used. provided obtuse enough to give the necessary strength to the end of the tool. and gums the stone. for it does not need to be done very often and costs but little. — The leather can be glued to a pine board for chisels. The saw-filer should know for what work the saw is to be used and whether for hard or for soft wood. be changed with every new operation. etc. for it is not a good lubricator. and it is soon enough to undertake it when the pupil has become quite familiar with the use of the cutting-edge the easier it is will tools. hatchet. edges. as in whittling thin shavings (Fig. Edge 139). the edge cuts all the time and a thin blade with long. as calf-skin or horsehide. good for gouges and curved Even a pine board on which air-dust has accumulated can be used piece held loose in the A hand is as a strop. and other flat tools. 370 advantage. knife. The Strop is a piece of hard. but all that can be done practically is to have a longer bevel for soft wood than for hard. it The more acute work. Soft wood is more easily bent aside or compressed than hard wood so that the angle can be more acute for the former than Thus. It is easy to understand the theory of setting and . tapering wedge-shaped edge can be used. chisel. thought to harden some stones. smooth leather. 370). as the wedge-shaped blade splits wood advance (Fig. lard oil and crocus powder. tools work more or less on the principle of the wedge (see page This can be seen plainly when using the axe. Fig. to always cut to the best for the latter. theoretically. but Oil Sperm oil is good to use with oilstones. Thus in splitting wood the the cutting-edge starts the cut. plane-irons. All thick and gummy oils should be avoided. on which can be spread a very little paste of sweet oil and emery. Never use any vegetable oil. Saw-filing is hard for beginners to do well. but where the wood will not separate easily a blunter shape is required to force the wood aside so that the edge may cut. the angle of the cutting-edge should.

filing only the teeth which bend (i. without any rocking motion. Then turn the saw around and file the other teeth. but to do the work well is hard and only a small proportion good workmen are experts in fixing saws. e. On looking lengthways along the edge of a cross-cutting or panel saw that has been properly set and filed." or reduced to the same level.. Press only on the forward stroke and lift the tool on the back stroke. lay the saw on a straight board and joint the sides of the points of the teeth by running a . lightly touching the adjacent is filed and for little make allowance the fact that when the alternate set the file will take off a from the first set of teeth. so that it will not shake or rattle. and the point between the thumb and forefinger of the left hand (Fig. away at every alternate tooth). At a north window is the best place for the clamp. Do this with a "saw-set. Press only on the tooth being but ^'^.Common filing Tools and Their Uses 137 saw-teeth. Push the file across with an even. by lightly passing the flat side of a file over their points. an angular groove will be seen along the whole length. Thus care must be taken not to file too much. The saw is firmly fastened in a saw-clamp. lengthways of the saw.371 keep the tooth. on account of the light. The teeth are first "jointed. straight stroke. and carefully keeping the file the proper filed. as Hold the handle of the file in the right hand will be seen by examination. 371). After setting and filing. in which a needle will slide from one end of the saw to the other." A tooth should not be bent for more than half its length. File from the handle toward the of point. For a cross-cutting saw the file (a triangular saw-file) is held at an angle with the blade depending upon the particular form of tooth adopted. file angle. The teeth are set by bending them outward. one tooth toward one side and the next toward the other side.

Less set is required for fine work than for coarse. The teeth and band-saws are often "swaged" instead of the way already described._2 ^te speed and hold a stone (a bit of grindstone. uniform and the cutting smoother. so as to be wider than the thickness of the blade (Fig. Power-saws. J and the process of setting and filing cirand jig-saws is the same as with hand-saws. The clamp for holding a circular-saw is circular. First joint. is good for ripping very dry stock. then file. The ripping-saw is usually filed square across at right angles to the blade (Fig. then swage. J ' ' 1 To joint a circular-saw revolve it at moder- pj„ . A saw with a very thin back. Thus each corner of the tooth cuts instead of only one corner as with the common spring set. because the fibres. which are quite cleanly cut or broken in the hard wood. or the like) against the teeth until of circular ripping-saws being set in same length. to be used without setting. file each tooth sharp. and finally side-file to . whetstone. then joint again and secure uniform width. a slight bevel is given the teeth in filing. and wet wood more set and larger teeth are needed than for dry hard wood. 73). but sometimes when a saw with fine teeth is used for very hard cross-grained wood.138 smooth A Shorter Course in Woodworking Thus the width will be more file along the sides of the teeth. 372). For soft. The point of each tooth is all are reduced to the spread with a tool called a swage. band-saws. soft emery. loose-fibred. in the more yielding soft wood are bent aside by the teeth to close in upon the blade with considerable binding force. —The principle J cular-saws.

often with the wood against some fixed object. look sharply. or split. —One great thing about whittling faculties. is that you do not rely on squares. 100 can be cut as in Fig. 373. AND FINISHING WOOD III. A (Fig. but must be independent. Fig. To cut a notch. slanting 85). Whittling. and rely on your Keep the left hand behind the knifeblade. rules. is good. and some- times toward the thumb as in Fig. 103. use a single wedge. 374 in place. The wood for whittling should be of good quality. page To press. A notch or gain as in Fig. without damaging the shape of the object. to of Wedges are much used See also clamp or hold parts Fig- woodwork 150. Pine or white birch 112. use 139 . or compasses to get the work right. and whenever possible cut from you.PART II OPERATIONS IN SHAPING. FITTING. Watch the grain of the wood carefully to pre- vent cutting the wrong way. hold. stroke often best Much whittling best done as in Fig. think quickly. 373 374. the knife passing by the thumb and not against it. but to move. begin in the middle and work outwards (Fig. for the tool is may is slip. 375). clear and straight-grained.

Woodworking double wedges. It is sometimes best to make cuts with the saw (Fig.. Long. 158 and 376). This can often be done in chamfering. drawknife. Splitting wood as done on the principle of the wedge. first cutting a notch at each side . each upon the surface of the other with a knife. flaring ones. hinge-fitting (see page 185). since wood appearing to be straight-grained will not always split the way one would ex(Fig. or whatever tool may be suitable (Figs. 377) is a good way to join two sticks at right 114. Tenons and dowels are often wedged (see page 149). bevelling. 370) is will split. — pect. to make a series of not quite to the line (Fig. Paring.140 A Shorter Course in is. and mark the width of angles or obliquely. the hatchet can sometimes be 113. As the outer ^'2- 375 two wedges having the same taper and pointsides remain parallel when the separate wedges are driven. and is common in carving. In paring to a line. but the direction of the grain must be watched carefully. 98). tapering wedges 195). etc. Fig. but are more easily driven and are less liable to slip. and also in the lines of the annual rings (see page 201). In small sticks the wood can be removed with the knife. Wedges and pins can often be made best with the chisel. short cuts 158). 91). cracks. break up the grain of the wood. 376 Then trim in the direction of the grain with hatchet. —that ing opposite ways. chisel. work more slowly than short. It is often well to first. Wood most easily on the radial lines or in the direction of the medullary rays (see page 201). rabbeting. after they are sawed it or split out approximately to shape (Fig. Place them in position. the work will not be injured (Fig. used safely until you nearly reach the line. Halving (Fig.

Fitting. Fig. 377 Fig. The wood can be pared out with the chisel (see page 33). can also be dovetailed. the depth (one half the thickness of either piece) with the gauge. 141 and then paring off the wood between (Fig. 381 Fig. in common . and Finishing . 378) the wood can be entirely removed by the saw. which Fig. (Fig. 380. 379. 103) With large pieces the side Hnes should be marked by the square. When the halving is at the end of a piece (Fig. 378 then be sawed down. 379 Fig. and use for cheap boxes (Fig. 382 is can be applied to a mitred-joint. The sides of the cuts can Fig.Operations in Shaping. keeping just inside the lines. 384). 383). Forms involving bevelling and dovetailing are shown and 382. There is also the open mortise and tenon in Figs. 380 381.

joint. page 252). 383 Fig. boring and driving the nail 387 into the other piece until it pricks through.' When dry. . is A it Shorter Course in Woodworkinof Mitring. As the nail is finally driven home the upper piece can be forced down until the corners meet. size the joint with thin glue (see page 184).joint line at the angle (Fig. particularly where strength is required. To right in the vise. or the lines for the meeting of two pieces at any angle." when mitring the only way Fig.' —The only advantage of a mitred. glue again. ' This applies to indoor work. avoid the mitre. to Use the square draw the lines on the a mitredfasten one piece upnail edges. weak joint at best. 385) is that shows only a It is a concealed. Before gluing. scrape. and that the end wood There are some cases. and put the joint together (see Picture-framing. 387). Do not glue joints which are to be exposed to the weather. 384 Fig. Lines connecting these points will give the angles for cutting. place the latter with the corner slightly projecting (Fig. To lay out a mitre. 386 and after Fig. Fig.142 115. 385 in which the frame can well be put together. and the points of crossing marked on each edge (Fig. but as a rule. the pieces can be laid one above the other at the desired angle (for which square or bevel can be used). as is in making a picture frame of "moulding. 386).

can be made (Figs.operations in Shaping. Fitting. Saw-kerfs. 389) swelling. Shrinking in width will open a tapering crack from the inner corner (Fig. This fitting is quickly done with a circular-saw. with knives making a shearing cut. into which thin strips can be tightly fitted and glued. 393 and 394). 388). A trimmer (page 61). a good way. but requires much care to do well by hand. 393 glued under pressure when possible. 392). with the grain running across the joint (Fig. A mitred-joint can be halved (Fig. Fig. is good for trimming accurately at a mitre or other angle. after the mitre is put together. — . from the outer corner (Fig. 392 Fig. 389 Fig. or wider cuts. 391 Fig. and Finishing 143 The mitre-box (page 85) is the simplest way to saw a mitre accurately without machinery. 388 Fig. for the wood will expand and contract more or less. and a mitre shooting-board (page 85) or an adjustable mitre-plane can also be used. A mitred-joint can be strengthened by inserting a spline or tongue. 390). 390 The mitre is not a good joint for wide pieces used flatways (Fig. and can also be dowelled (page 152). 391). and . Fig.

across the face (Fig. To lay out a mortise and tenon (Fig. the tenon 396 come through) Next measure from the end of the trifle tenon-piece (Fig. select and mark the working faces for each piece. 395. The tenon is the pin or projection in the other piece. First is take the piece in which the mortise Unes.144 A Shorter Course in Woodworking is combination of the mitre with the joint in Fig. the side (that X {ae and Carry these lines across cf) and also across the side opposite to is. 396).— The mortise (Fig. ab to be cut (Fig. 397). X the side where will Fig. Square two and cd. 394 Fig- 395 116. 398) a distance a greater than the width of . 396) is the one of the two pieces to be joined. shaped to fit the mortise. the result being much stronger A shown in Fij Fig.^ 383 than the plain mitre. hole in The Mortise and Tenon. 397) and the same distance apart as the width of the tenon piece.

145 line. scribe the Hne j^ on the side X (Fig. or to be kept. coarse work. on the opposite side. The rest of the wood can be 399) pared to the lines with the chisel. without changing the gauge. gh. on the opposite the face of the tenon-piece (Fig. etc.. The simplest way to cut a mortise is to first bore a series of holes. set of lines. The parts to be cut away. 398). Fitting. Add the width of the mortise to the distance at which the gauge was set. Continue this Hne. and scribe another From op and rs. XKXXXY^ Fig. as begauging all the time from the same face. mark Im on the side X. the gauge marks can be run across the other lines. lest the . with a bit of a diameter a little smaller than the width of the mortise (Fig. These are called "witness-marks" in framing. . and Finishing the face of the mortise-piece. can be shown by cross marks (Fig. 400 Do not jam it down lengthways of the mortise when the latter is blocked with chips or firm wood. fore. where marks on the surface do no harm.Operations in Shaping. and from this point square a across the face of the tenon-piece. or both sides of the mortise marked at once with the In mortise gauge (page 14). 379). around the Set the gauge at the distance that the mortise is to be from the face. gi. Another gauge can be used for this. 398 and side. from both sides of the mortise. and on the end. 399). with the square. piece. Fig. side of the mortise be split off.399 Fig.

middle successive 401). 402 SHOWING SECTION SHOWING SECTION the tool as in Fig. SHOWING SECTION 404 the chisel handle a sHght pull toward the centre of the mortise each time you move it. Give Fig. 401 Fig. turn it over . Then make cuts. After cutting about half through the piece (Fig. hold Fig. 400. to loosen the chips. 402). 403 Fig.146 A Shorter Course in Woodworking To cut out the wood with the chisel only. and make a V-shaped opening in the (Fig. 402). begin near the middle of the mortise. will working toward the ends. which be left slanting (Fig. with the basil turned outward. take one a little less in width than the mortise.

carefully to the line gh and its opposite (Fig. the strain thin it will be weaker than the sides of the mortise. one third is wide enough for the tenon. as it would leave the cheeks of the mortise very thin. Finally. as in case of a post resting on a sill. and had best be made a little thicker. 398). and tenon should depend on the kind of to be put on the joint. To cut the tenon. 405). One third of the width of the piece is as thin as a tenon is often made (Fig. The projecting end of the tenon can be cut off afterward. ' < ^ in. the wood. use the chisel lengthways of the grain only toward the end of the process. 404). It is easy to trim it a — little with the chisel if too large. and Finishing 147 and repeat the process from the other side (Fig. and on the lines Im and rs. It will then sometimes be weaker than the sides of the mortise. so that it will not tear the mortise. If very thick. If the joint is to stand violent wrenching. or the tenon may be too small. In soft wood the sides of a tenon can often be pared down best with the chisel. . On the other hand two thirds of the width of the piece would be too thick to make a tenon. The firmer.or paring-chisel can but for heavy work use the mortising-chisel. Fitting. etc. the reverse will be the case. 406 thinner but if the joint is merely to hold the tenonpiece in position. 405 (Fig. 403). 403). The proportions of a mortise work. but should not require much force to drive be used for light mortising. 406). Cut a little bevel around the end of the tenon Fig. and pare the end to the line. Now turn the chisel around with the flat side toward either end of the hole (Fig. If the tenon is very . lest it split out the sides of the mortise. saw . with the sides of the mortise a little Fig. but in hard wood the saw can often be used to better advantage. Test the cutting of the sides and ends with the chisel (Fig.Operations in Shaping. as it is best not to weaken the sill by cutting a larger mortise than necessary. the mortise will be square with the surface. Do not cut beyond the line. the tenon in this case might break before the mortise-cheeks. to pare the sides evenly with Try to hold the chisel so that the sides of light strokes to the line. The tenon should fit the mortise snugly.

if all the mortises Two or more tenons are sometimes cut on a wide fit snugly (Fig. for the expansion and contraction of a wide piece may cause change of shape or splitting. unless the tenon is very thin and the wood very strong." Fig. Sometimes the tenon is short and does not go through (Fig. 416). 396 is a very simple Fig. Six times as long as it is wide is about as long as it is well to make a mortise under ordinary circum- The length of a mortise thin. In such cases as a door-frame. a tongue and groove is often used in addition to the tenon ("relishing. 409 form. Fig. sometimes called blind a mortising. or when the end of a board is to be fitted into the side of a post. thus avoiding too long a mortise.148 A Shorter Course in Woodworking is also a matter of judgment. 410 Pig. To pin a mortise and tenon. 407). 408). 410). If the tenon is can be longer than if it is thick. as a rule. In this case it should not reach quite to the bottom This is of the mortise. avoid trying to make very long mortises. piece. Fig. and fastened with joints can be glued. for the cheeks will be thicker and stronger. the mortise Fig. wedged. mortise and tenon given in Fig. unless some of the tenons are fitted loosely at the ends. as there may not be strength enough in the cheeks of the mortise (Fig. and The this is a good way. 407 stances." Fig. common form. Mortise and tenon pinned. dovetailed. 411 a key. 408 Sometimes the other piece for its the tenon-piece full is simply let into width ("housing. but this will not do for very wide stock. but. mark a point with square and gauge upon . 409).

413). drive through a snugly fitting pin. If too near the edge. and on the sides of the mortise. For such work as pinning a joint in a chair or table. and glue also put into the saw(Fig. Do not use too eight-sided pin is as good as a round one. 414 is ' ' Use glue for indoor work only. The tenon and mortise having been glued. 414). To wedge a tenon. If the pin is too far from the edge. the tenon is too much out of line. and Finishing 149 each side of the mortise-piece (Fig. 412). In ship-building. fit the tenon in place.Operations in Shaping.wood pin will usually do. An stronger). A small tenon can be split Before wedging. the ends of the mortise should be carefully with a chisel. a }/i" hard. one or more saw-cuts should be made in it and carried farther than the wedges will extend (Fig. and old-fashioned houseframing. " fit at the draw-boring " is resorted to The hole in the tenon bored a little nearer the shoulder Fig. enlarged toward the side on which the tenon comes through (Fig. 411).piece. 415 than the holes in the mortise. driving the pin through puts too much strain on the end of the tenon. pins and treenails from i" to i ^" or more in diameter are used. . the sides of the mortise may tear or split off. to insure a snug joint. bridge-building. its hold on the tenon will be weak and the end of the latter may break out (shear). and trim off the projecting ends. for if the hole in fit at the shoulder. Fig. particularly in timber work. 413 large pins. so that when the pin is driven through it draws the tenon-piece to a snug This has to be done with judgment. In The pin should be slightly pointed before fine work bore from both sides. Fitting. Sometimes. rFfRi ^ 412 Fig. Dowels (page 152) will often do for small framing (though a rift-pin is driving. bore a hole. h Fig. on the pin. It is useless for work to be exposed to the weather.

If well done. driven home. are dipped in the glue and driven down into the saw-cuts. the tenon and the wedges. The process is similar to that already described. tapering (Fig. Saw them to length. the mortise as before. 418). spread the tenon at the end and fix it firmly. and then sawed into the required out in one the sides (Fig. 415). else they may be bent to one side and not drive into place. The so long wedges must not be fere with the as to break off or to inter- tenon being Fig. tables. To make the keys.150 A Shorter Course in is Woodworking fitted in place. and drive the tenon to place. 417). 416). If the keys wanted. there will be less danger of splitting the latter. 417 tom of the mortise must be flat where the wedges will come. cuts with a thin slip of wood. . This will push in the wedges. and the like (Fig. start the wedges in the cracks. apply the glue. it cannot be withdrawn. 419 Fig. When everything is ready. get out one piece of the required size and long enough to make all care. and requires Fig. making out. previously prepared and tapering quite gradually. mark the and cut to the lines. 418 Fig. Thus the end of the tenon is spread into a dovetail until it fills it the mortise tightly (Fig. is it very hard or impossible to pull the tenon does not go through (Fig. To have the tenons pass through the other pieces and be held in place by keys or wedges is a way much used for bookcases. gauge the small ends. and the wedges are so planned and cut that When undercut they to will spread the tenon fit the mortise. 420 much the small mortises for the wedge-shaped keys are cut before the tenons. and the bot- 416 Fig. 696). They can also be got taper on block.

or a wide shoulder can be left on the outside of the tenon (Fig. and square lines across these gauge marks so that the mortise for the key will be of the right length In marking the hne for the latter to fit ('Fig. page 139. In laying out mortising for frames. 72 6. Fig. This is done in doors and frames of various kinds. forming an open mortise and tenon joint (Fig. and the like. When the joint comes at the end of the mortise-piece. of the necessary size slantingly (Fig. screens. 413). Mark the width of the tenon with the gauge on the sides and end. Gauge lines on the tenon for the sides of the mortise into which the key is to fit. 421 slightly undercut. as these shoulders cover the ends of the 422 mortise. 419). Fitting. so that the pin will force the joint to a snug fit (Fig.) scribed. it should be a little nearer the shoulder than the distance from the latter to the pin. 422. Fig. wedges or a rectangular block . For common or rough work the tenons already described will do. chairs. be- when they come plenty of at different may be cut up too much.Operations in Shaping. lay the cause the mortise-piece . 383). which is nearer the shoulder. The mortise is laid out and cut as already deThe shoulders of the tenon-piece can be inwards (Fig. the tenon can extend to the edge on the outside and the mortise be cut out to the end. but where there is wood in the mortise-piece in proportion to the size of the tenon. When two mortises come together as in Fig. 420). This makes a neater joint. where there are two or more pieces alike. this will make no difiEerence. and Finishing number of 151 can be sawed Square lines around a tenon piece at the shoulder. 423 ^K/v^ Fig. or bevelled exaggerated) to ensure a close It is common two mortises and tenons. 423). tables. the result may not be so strong as places. which to have is fit. (See also Wedges. ^^^^^^ but for nice work shoulders are also cut at the other W^^^Wm sides of the tenon (Fig. 421).

in which case the outer ends of the holes (Fig. It is hard to bore the holes exactly at right angles to the surface. Also. and are valuable in pattern-making — and where H- it is required that the parts of work be into one separable. Dowelling. the intersecting lines upon each piece. to start the worm of the bit. as in Fig. Dowelling. until they project perhaps Vie of an inch. Dowels are round sticks of different diameters used in place of nails and screws. where the centres of the holes should be. . Dowels are sometimes good when slender members are to be joined. the centres can sometimes be found by scribing. 37. has to be skilfully 424 done. if other means can not well be used. Dowels are much used in framing furniture. 426). To will find the centres for boring. Press the pieces together in the right position in order that the brads may prick corresponding holes in the second piece (Fig.' It is well to two pieces and r^N/^ take a round pointed awl and prick a small hole at each Fig. cut off and point the heads of small wire brads and drive them into one piece. for marking. to be good. should usually be enlarged. with the face-sides either on the outside. usually. etc. 425 point marked. 424). as mortise and tenon are generally much Split and wedged dowels are often useful. 426 Fig. pieces. 425). with compasses. better. together or 117. dovetailing. or instead of mortisThey can be split and wedged ing. as it is apt to work off to one side. ' Where gauge and square can not be same used. Fig. to ensure accuracy in putting the work together. square lines across both gauge lines at the required distance from the edge of each piece. which is not to be recommended. when the dowels can be glued piece only.152 similar pieces A Shorter Course in Woodworking on the bench or horses. so that the holes in the be opposite each other. crossing the lines just squared (Fig.

427 If the parts flt accurately take Fig. and in These should be warm (see page 182). 429). edges (Fig. . and Finishing 153 which is necessary for a good joint. this time putting glue on the faces which Fig. Clamp the Dowels are sometimes used in joining gether. 427). The holes in the plate should be slightly smaller at Dowels are usually of make them of exact size throughout. 428 and glue them as before into the other piece. which otherwise may form a rim around the dowel. It is better to have them a trifle too large rather than too small. To can be driven with a mallet through a hardened steel plate having holes of various sizes. Before gluing. glue around the inside one of the holes with a small stick.Operations in Shaping. 430). 428) to catch the surplus glue. Then see that in that half of the joint. there is no hardened glue on the dowels or on the faces of the of joint.^ Countersink (page 55) a little hollow around the mouth of each hole (Fig. hard wood and can be bought in long sticks. they the top (Fig. The dowels must be thoroughly dry. of a file. Wipe off any superfluous glue and repeat the process with each of the dowels Leave to dry a day or more. flat surto- are to come 429 whole firmly and leave to dry. dip one end of a dowel in the glue and drive into place. for then they can be pared to a snug flt. ^ It is well to scratch ' Dowel sharpeners are them lengthways with the toothed-plane or with the edge made for this purpose. Sometimes the pieces can be laid flat on the bench and blocks arranged to guide the bit. the joint apart. Fitting. many other joints. Trim off the sharp edge at the ends (Fig. the work should be fitted together. Fig. The sizes should be such that the dowels will drive snugly into the holes made by the corresponding bits. as it is very awkward to make changes after beginning to ' glue.

using the gauge. the ends of the pins or dovetails on the sides of the drawer are shortened. which square the lines or drawer dovetailing (Fig. apply glue. end When this cutting has been cleanly done. lay the piece Fig. and with the back-saw (or a Dovetailing requires dovetail-saw) cut piece •m). 432 on the end of the piece B in the way it is finally to go. Lay Fig. taking care not to cut on the wrong sides of the Hues which mark the pins. from the ends of A gh on both sides of the piece. completely around each piece. used. end upward.154 ii8. 433) is similar to the preceding form. 430 off the oblique lines ec on both sides of the wood. Lay the and with the chisel cut out the parts to be removed (marked as in cutting a mortise (page 146). can be done as follows: mark the lines ab (Fig. Mark around the pins. by these oblique lines {ec) to the lines ah. at a distance from the end equal to the thickness of the stock. Lay '^X/XA \^X/^\ off the lines cd on the end of the piece A. 422). When fitted. so that the pins just cut will rest exactly in position across the end of the piece B. put together. which should be understood even if seldom and workmanlike The common form. 432). or the dovetailing may fit too loosely. used in joining the sides of a box (Fig. It is a scientific method. forming the oblique lines jg. Fasten the piece in the vise. and when dry smooth off. but Lap . flat. A Shorter Course in Woodworking much skill to do well. Remove the wood as before. undercutting very slightly at the (Fig. 431). 431 Fig.

hold the pieces in position and run the saw 435 through the joint AB (Fig. 437). 435). which makes a better joint in some cases than the common square or butt joint. —Saw the ends S down f Fig. then the other piece (Fig.Operations in Shaping. 436 Fig. — that open at the bottom. 433 Fig. This process requires much skill and care. and cut the pins is required) determine the bevels for first the pins of the 119. 434b) marked Mitre dovetailing {blind or secret dovetailing) is used where it is desired to conceal the dovetails. repeat the operation. piece by eye. Ends are sometimes joined by bevelled scarfing or splaying (Fig. but should not be relied on as a regular way to make joints. to ensure a tight joint on the side which shows (Fig. squarely as possible and plane or pare them if necessary. Where only one side of each piece shows. The side piece (Fig. which is exaggerated). lest it result in a careless method of work. Practised workmen in dovetailing usually (unless exact symmetry of to fit. the pins being shorter. 437 the joint is made a little . off as End-joints. and Finishing and the recesses in the front piece 155 through to the front. the ends are some- times undercut slightly Fig. 434a Fig. Fitting. is. To saw to a fit. 434a) which are to receive them are not cut is marked and cut as f Fig. is 434b just shown. 436. but is more work. This method can be used with joints which meet at any angle. If one sawing is not sufficient. the result looking like an ordinary mitred joint. Strips of moulding are often joined in this way.

The simplest way. sometimes dowelled (page 153). being quite complicated. 438). pieces of selected stock. and the like.. etc. 441). avoid warping and change of shape. to avoid flaws the grain to the best advantage. the joints When glue is is used there may come apart. is To done for many I things. or make a halved splice or scarfed joint (Fig. the surface can be planed and squared to the required This kind of joint is dimensions. To makeWide Surfaces with two or more boards or planks several methods can be used. roof-framing. for bridge-building. though strong and suitable for such work as common drawing-boards. for a brace is A joint ^^^'439 shown in Fig. ways can be done by machine quicker than by hand. 757a. Arrange the pieces so that the grain of the ends be reversed in adjacent pieces (Fig. machine-tables. Then after gluing (page 182). Cleating (page 157). 740). masts. will rarely. A piece which practically perfect it cases than a built-up combination. or be built up of selected narrower pieces (Fig. objects are sometimes built up of selected pieces. 441). is often undesirable. should be cleated or fastened This in some way. as the tops of benches. is to glue the edges. chopping-blocks. which must first be jointed (page 47). without cleats. rough doors. have occasion to do more than nail strips (fish-plates) on the sides of the pieces (Fig.156 A 120. bows. which can be fastened in various ways. in which case it is not usual to glue them. edge from opposite sides (Fig. any wide surface. etc. Q pA rabbet can be cut in each 440). ^ This helps to counteract the tenand many other and defects and to arrange is The frames of machines. Otherwise may always the danger that probably better in most be better to build up with smaller is . Shorter Course in Splicing. such as a drawing-board or bread-moulding-board. ^'^^^^ 121. fishing-rods. drawingwill boards. The edges can also be matched These last (Fig. 708). Woodworking many ways some of splicing —There are two or more pieces to get greater length. or grooves cut and a spline inserted (Fig. 439). The beginner however.

board place. Fig. Grooves inserted (Fig. These operations are done best by machinery. able. ^^g- 445 A is good way for such work as a drawing-board. and Finishing dency to warp. Cleating. 443 Fig. but "stagger" them (Fig. 446). End-cleating does well on small work and where the tendency to warp is not too great. For heavier work. 122. 443). 444) can be cut in both cleat and board. 442). to use tapering wedge-shaped cleats. Make the cleats a little too long and drive them into . 442 much greater than that lengthways of the cleat (see page 211). — for the smoothing the surfaces and edges. 442). as doors. 157 The grain on the surfaces of the pieces should run the it will be hard to smooth the surface whole should be glued together before same way so far as possible. If the pieces are short they can be cleated across the ends (Fig. o Such a cleat should not be glued unless the surface ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^=^^^^W^ is very narrow. — ^A pieces of board or cleat way to join two or more plank to make a wider piece is to strong o o o o o p. cleats on the side are stronger. since the exside (Fig. groove can also be A made in the cleat. dovetailed into the under side of the (Fig.Operations in Shaping. 444 though not always desir- Do not put the screws or nails in a straight line.'^ a tongue or spline Fig. otherwise after gluing. . Screws or nails should be used. which does well for bread-moulding-boards and the like. 441 them on the o o o o o o o pansion and contraction across the surface is Fig. Fitting. 445). but requiring nice work. into which a tongue on the end of the board can be fitted (Fig. and 1)))))). or to keep a single board from warping. as they will allow some play to the pieces.

Fig. or by holding a straight-edge 95). with the plane. down. trimming off in the direction of the grain. 448 finishing with the fiat side Test a chamfer with the bevel (Fig. be- cause of possible chipping at the corner. mark parallel to work Fig. Then pare the wood or first make a series of cross-cuts to break up the grain of the wood (Fig. as in Fig. to the line at wood at the ends. as far as you can without striking . The extreme ends must be trimmed with the chisel or other tool. and prevents splintering. In cutting the ends of a stop-chamfer (Fig. 449) do not cut quite down first. (Fig. In paring a bevel This across the grain with the chisel. 448) is usually best A simple bevel the made with plane. 447 advantage (Fig. or chisel. To is the easiest and cleanest way to cut. 20). push the tool as in Fig. 139). draw-knife. use the plane. so as to cut near the ends. 376). 53). remove waste wood the chisel can sometimes be held best with the basil down (Fig.158 A Shorter Course in Woodworking the surface formed by cutting faces of a piece Chamfering. or a tool mark may be left which can not be removed. 446 lines. 447) with a pencil (Figs. In sandpapering a chamfer . 448. lest the work be defaced by the gauge mark. which can often be slanted to good Fig. The draw-knife the can sometimes be used before the plane. For long chamfers or bevels. Where both end and side are to be chamfered. The plane can be held slantingly. and in cutting it you can work from each corner toward the middle. across the surface (Fig. and a bull-nosed' plane will cut nearer still. gradually to these (Fig. lines other to tool. first is away the angle made by two To chamfer or bevel spoke-shave. first cut the end. —A of chamfer wood. 30-33) rather than a spur gauge. 94.

line to attached to the saw or to a piece of saw-blade. Sometimes it is desired to remove only the sharp edge or corner. and the wood between removed by the chisel. and is best made by machine (see Circular-saw. 450). Dadoing is used for the best inside finishing. See also Coping (page 164). In some cases the sides of a groove can be sawed by a hand-saw and the material removed by the chisel. page 95). is Dadoing. where Fig. and Rabbeting (below). Fitting. and Finisliing care 159 must be taken not to round the angles (Figs. is A "cornering tool" made 124. A templet or pattern can easily be made to test the depth of grooving. although this operation has been superseded by machine work. The beginner should — . a rectangular groove across the grain (Fig. Fig 449. 450). for this purpose. except in cases of necessity. 208 and 209). as may happen with mitring. Rabbeting. learn to do such work by hand. guide the saw and occasionally The lines for the groove can also be cut with the knife or chisel. and the principle of cutting is the same as for other 125. dado-plane or the circular-saw (page 96) can be used.Operations in Shaping. for it is good construction and never shows an open joint. Grooving. 207. used to smooth the bottom of a groove or a dado. but this is not easy if the groove is long. lengthways in the edge of a piece of wood (Fig. however. The beginner The router is often should. —A rectan- gular groove can be cut by hand with a plane made for the purpose (as the plough). A stick is sometimes clamped beside the itself. A rabbet is a rectangular recess or groove cut 126. by merely of a tool a slight touch or by y:^^' sandpaper. —A dado A grooving (see above). 707). 450 the inside corner of the joint shows (Fig.

452 clamped to the saw itself to guide Such expedients. side of the chisel In the final trimming hold the flat toward the line. it will is large enough. though useful under some circumstances. the most workmanlike methods. provided the piece square in section. or in a form Next. plane off each of the eight corners so be sixteen-sided. and the rabbet-plane (page a useful In some cases the saw can be used. The chisel can also be used. to show 452). or against the bench-stop. 451 Fig. . To make a stick eight-sided or octagonal in section. as in cutting a mortise (Fig. the required lines can be made. Shorter Course in Woodworking 42) learn to cut one is by hand however. Mark else Fig. taking care not to plane below the gauged First. 127. keeping the latter close to the gauge. 451). —First Lay out an octagon page 233). Set the plane fine or you is setting the gauge equal to the radius of the arcs in Fig. It is often best to pare across the grain with the chisel.i6o A tool. This is about as far as you can go in is way. (see on the end octagon. lines. 128. or one half the diagonal of the square. 453 the sides which are not to be planed (Fig. 452). ' how much to plane off (Fig. they may be planed by mistake. In plan- ing. if To round a the stick stick. that this ' (Fig. place the wood in the vise. For nice work a pencil-gauge (page 13) should be used to avoid defacing the work. unless the stick By quite large. A strip of wood can be clamped . 452. are hardly it. and pieces are sometimes even Fig. — make it eight-sided (see above). 453). from the angles of the it make square in section. the lines for the rabbet having been carefully marked with a knife or gauge.^j^ -g across the piece on the line as a ^m£| "^HBI^ ^^^^^^wgHiwl ^BBBBJj^BKa- gauge or guide for the saw and the sawing be done with the heel or rear corner of the saw. Gauge lines on the four sides of the piece.

perhaps across the stick.. 456 shows how the end of a round stick can be squared and Fig.Operations in Shaping. follow the . and one false cut running in too deep. Do the rest of the rounding with light. Fig. first chamfering. will often bring the grain Fig. To round small sticks. and Finishing i6i may plane too much. it Also use lengthways of the grain (Fig. and so on. will spoil the work.455 same way. Even a slight turn of the stick wrong with relation to the tool. as spars for model boats. edge is Wood will rarely be found with perfectly straight grain. 457 how it can be sawed. fine strokes. so watch the grain carefully. 454 Fig.457 Masts and spars should be "natural sticks. arrows. as well as a curved scraper or glass. Cut strips sandpaper in back and forth around the stick pull it and (Fig. and the final shaping and smoothing will be all they will require. or file Some- times the spoke-shave. testing by eye and by passing the hand over the work. 454). except in "rift" stock or natural sticks (and in these there are often unexpected twists and crooked streaks). can be used to good advantage. 455). Fitting. then cutting off the angles left. 456 Fig. An rounded in the Fig. or." if possible. etc. chisel.

and the Fig. 458 129. Bending Wood. fasten the plane bottom-up in the vise and pull sole. with the edge downward. which is simply a — wooden or metal box with a steam pipe opening into it.l62 same process stick is A Shorter Course in Woodworking when the so far as the small size of the sticks will allow. but too small to do this. At the last one end can be rested on the bench and the stick turned toward you while filing. following the regular process so far as the size of the stick will allow. . Soaking wood for some time in boiling hot water will often make it sufficiently Soaked wood has. close against the side of your leg just above the knee. the stick along the hold the knife. and pull the stick steadily between the leg up Small square sticks can often be rounded entirely with the file. and cold water can be used in many cases. more tendency to straighten when dry than if steamed. is bending usually The best way to make wood pliable for by steaming in a steam-chest. however. knife. or. pliable.

which is to be . boiling water poured over them. Greasing and applying heat is some- times done. WRONG 460 hclps (Fig. 458 shows forms or moulds strap of for bending. end-pressure will be applied. during the bending. Winding Tound or Small squarc pieces with narrow strips of thin canvas. to bear hard f////////ll • 459 against the end of the piece to be bent. 163 Pieces can be wrapped in cloth (flannel is good) or buried in sawdust or sand in a covered box. strong tape. 461 layers of the wood (page 201) which the nails are to will be at right angles to the direction in be driven (Fig. A brass or other metal. 459). the spring toward its wood should be held in place until dry. or the ends of sticks. piece attached to the other end. 460) To bend a piece (without steaming or boiling). Small pieces. or the like. and the like. For ribs. Fig. to prevent the wood splitting or splinterIf one end of the strap be fastened to the form and a "stop" or end ing. It is well to bend a it more than you wish it is is unless to be perma- nently fastened. favorable to the durability of wood. Fitting.operations in Shaping. and left to soak in the steam retained. A piece should be left on the form until dry and set. condition of to several days. according to the size of the wood and the the atmosphere. will often prevent slivering. the stock should be got out so that the annual Fig. and Finishing . as there usually a tendency to straighten out. which RIGHT Fig. can be boiled in a Boiling is not kettle or wash-boiler. After bending. or it will The drying will take from several hours original shape. piece a little to remain. nor is steaming conducive to strength. or even a thin piece of wood Fig- should be placed outside of the stick to be bent when the curve is quick.

Fig. Bend the piece as you make edges. 463. or the "kerfing" so planned that the cuts will close up. and it will give the Hne to which to cut (Fig. 461) across the back-side (the side which will not show). that the saw-cuts equal depth. glue. 464. equal depth (Fig. the reverse of the mitre for a picture frame). The proper distance be- tween the kerfs for them to close up can be calculated. the cuts.1 64 A Shorter Course in Woodworking make a series of kerfs of fastened so that but one side will show. angle of 45°. 467 Coping. Such curves can sometimes be strengthened by driving wedges. but this is unnecessary for the work of the beginner. Fig. with into the saw-kerfs after the piece is bent (Fig. moulding said to be coped it is cut at an cut to fit another piece. as in Fig. when Saw the end to be 468 The cutting is done with gouge and chisel . 462). is —The end of a Fig. L Fig. as in making a "back" or "inside" mitre (Fig. 465). which makes the piece thinner so far as bending is concerned. 465 may be of For uniform curves the kerfs should be the same distance apart. 462 Fig. —up to the breaking point. 463 Fig. and can be glued. This is best done with a circular-saw (page 94). A 466 moulding can sometimes be bent after sawing it into strips lengthways. nearer together and the deeper the cuts the more the piece can be Hot water can be used on the face-side. 464 The bent. D 130. First run gauge lines along the Fig.

466) is a strip of rectangular section. 472 in Fig. according to the taste of the designer. are suggested Fig. fillet A (Fig. i: \r\r\r^ Fig. -nosed moulding (Fig. or edge. Mouldings are of almost endless variety. and the like. is a common form of ornament. Fig. and Finishing or a coping-saw (page 30). Figs. . To true a curved 132. desired. bookcase-tops. 469. 165 Dadoing (page 159) and coping are the best methods for fitting inside corners in first-class inside finishing. Fig. 475. besides those given above. 476) at each end down to this line (Fig. or chamfer to the line. shapes. in matched-boards is to render the joint less noticeable by making it an inconspicuous part A few simple of the moulding and in shadow. Fig. Fitting. The elementary forms can be variously combined. as in matched -boards (Fig. the proportions and arrangement of which are varied as Beading. Mouldings are said to be Fig. lay it on the bench with the rounded side down and wedge it firmly underor — c I V^/'AT neath to make it as nearly level as possible. 470 either at a corner (staff -bead. either projecting or sunk even with the surface.471 The bead "stuck. 467). or when called I reeds as in Fig. 474. 473 To True Surfaces. warped board. 471 show types of common mouldings. as being in common use for the edges of table-tops. 473). — Then scribe a line with the compasses across each 474 end at the height of the lowest point of the surand cut a depression or rabbet face (Fig. 469 also common (Fig. Winding-sticks (page 86) . 470. 468).Operations in Shaping. is in common round The ogee {cyma recta and cyma reversa) is use. 477). 131. 472). much used Fig. or combined with other forms." meaning worked or made. in ornamental construction and often The astragal.

The other side can be made parallel.475 therefore true. and plane down to these lines. line all by setting the gauge at the thinnest point. warped board can often be straightened by heating or wetting (or Experiment will fix this in the mind best. and planing to the line. or chamfers. Warping or winding can be detected by laying a straight-edge diagonally (Fig. 478). gauging a of short pieces around the edge. These methods work quicker with thin wood than with thick. and they can be altered Draw lines on each edge connecting the bottoms of the Test by sighting rabbets. 476 Fig.i66 will if A Shorter Course in Woodworking show whether the rabbets are in line. and the straight edge. A A board can be soaked or pressed into shape . Fig. but do not feel sure that the result will be lasting. and necessary. from corner to corner Fig. 477 both) one side.

479. 133. it If If it fits too tightly or buckle or split. the and warping of wide surwork may be framed in panels. faces. shrinking. 479).yg becomes stuck at the joints. Planing off one side only. showing section on line AB). and Finishing 167 between clamps or under a weight. often produces the same effect.operations in Shaping. but have room for expansion in width (Fig. —To prevent bad results from swelling. It should not extend to the bottom of the groove. but be loose enough to slide in and out as it swells and shrinks. may . fitting in the groove of the frame (Fig. because the two sides are Fig. It is often well to bend a piece more than required. and left until thoroughly dry. swells and often tends warp and twist. or planing one side more than the other. The and shrinks. It should fit closely in the groove. to In nice work rub wax or tallow around the edge of the panel before gluing the frame lest the panel become stuck. Panelling and Door-making. Laying a board on a fiat surface will often cause it to warp (thin wood quicker than thick). or the frame be split or forced apart the door or surface to be panelled is too large for one panel. Fitting. wrong pjg_ . to allow for the tendency to spring back when released. thin panel. but can not exert force enough to change the shape of the thick frame. 478 unequally exposed to the atmosphere.

cut off Do not (Fig. 410). . 480). 483) If done by machine gauge . This can be done by machinery. and the extra length for the mortising makes the ends stronger and fitting. are combined. 484) . — face In using any of these methods mark one side of each piece for the and one edge for the joint-edge (which should be the edge next the panel) and lay out all the work from that side and edge only (Fig. 481 see if everything fits. across the edges to mark the positions for the rails (Fig.i68 A Shorter Course in Woodworking several are used. Carry . The stiles rower than the rails and long door. the stiles to length at first The projecting ends will be useful when you knock the frame apart for 483). often elaborately arranged. but is inferior. 480) through to the ends and cut tongues or short tenons on the ends of the rails to fit them (Figs. as in any common with the In laying out a door or panelled stiles together. Dowelling is often used for small doors. 481 and 482). but on the same general principles. all panelled work is based The best way to fasten the frames of doors and panels is by mortise and tenon (see page 144). panel-frames. other similar framework. are usually naras a rule run the way (Fig. after first putting it together to Fig. is to Fig. 480 is not to be subjected run the grooves in the stiles (Fig. gluing. A and common way to much to make light doors. Sometimes the grooving and mortising an excellent way (Fig. frame. as a rule. which strain. 482 and the face-sides outside. from the face-side and joint-edge. place the inside edges — the joint edges—uppermost and square lines Fig. The whole frame and panel can thus be fitted quickly and accurately with a circular-saw (page 89).

Fig. learn to do this by hand. and mark the rails and or some symbols to show the way they are stiles to be fitted together (Fig. with the planes made for . 481). Then the panel in the grooves of the rails (Fig. and fit these parts into place (Fig. Fitting. 483). Saw off the ends of the stiles. (page 189). with the grain running the same way as that of the is stile (Fig. 485 In practical work it is best to make the grooving. Plane and smooth the panel and the inside edges of the frame (the edges which come next the panel) and fit the whole together. The end of a tenon is sometimes cut a little short and the mortise-hole on the outside edge plugged with a piece of wood. letters. Neither of these ways is so strong as a common mortise and tenon. scraper. and smooth the surface of the frame with the plane. or grooved and tongued joints. and when dry remove the Fig. to see that everything fit is right before begining to glue. and Finishing these lines across the faces of the 169 stiles with figures. Drive Fig. glue the tenons of one end of both rails and the grooves or mortises of the corresponding stile. but can be used for a light door. and sandpaper. by machine.Operations in Shaping. The beginner should. 486). The tongued and grooved joint shown in the illustrations not so good as a mortise and tenon. Do not put any glue where may (see cause the panel to stick. the rails home. 485) all being — 483 it done as quickly as possible. 484 clamps. however. the frame in the same Then glue and fit the other side of way (Fig. Leave the work to dry. is page 72). The mortise sometimes not cut through. 482). Finally clamp the frame securely Clamps.

Any combination In nailing a moulding of these forms can be used on the opposite sides. The true carver can not get his inspiration from a book. but must have in him that inspiration. around a panel. without which I — his work will not rise above the level of manual dexterity. No attempt can be made to teach the art of carving in a few pages. For Hinging see page 1 135. but it is well. for the shrinking of the latter may cause trouble. or any panel requiring The surface of the frame must be finished before strength. A Few ^-i^ I —ip^ — CyV' Pj g ^ Elementary Operations in Simple Carved Work. for the general woodworker often has occasion to work wood into odd shapes. sometimes made flush with either side of the frame. or shrinkage of the panel will show an unfinished strip. A door must be fitted loosely enough to swing freely. good for the lid of a box or desk. It is as in Fig. 488. To Fit a Door. as it is This difficulty can be impossible to have it fit perfectly at all times. and the so on until all door in place four edges are fitted. ^ 488 — 85. and sometimes the edge which is not hinged is bevelled slightly to clear the frame. The swelling or shrinking of the panel is an objection. by having a rabbet on that side (Fig. -. then plane the top until the first edge and the top both fit the frame. panel is A Shorter Course in just Woodworking A The panel shown (Fig. A panel can also be raised in the middle with a bevel or a curve around the edge (Fig. trying as the planing proceeds. avoided somewhat by making the panel thicker and grooving it This is stronger and will show no crack. putting together. artistic feeling. ' — ^ig. nail it to the frame and not to the panel.170 the purpose. 487). 134. —Fit the edge which 1 — pj^ ^g^ "^ — is to be hinged to the frame. to have some understanding of the methods by which the simpler forms in low rehef are shaped. 489). but this can well be avoided by the beginner. however. . and power of execution. 479) is the simplest form. nor even from a master.

and also be used. but as increasing one's ability to handle the more mechanical processes It is later. etc. as it is carving is easy Fig. cherry. should face the sible. used in ordinary woodwork. . They should not be used for sharpened on both a great variety of sides. Fitting. but are and are of and degrees of curvature. sizes other work. is or a bench but a special not necessary unless much to be done. if other woods can straight-grained. not very hard. common to advocate be- ginning with soft wood. for the training of hand and eye and mind given by it are of great value. The simplest tools are similar to other chisels and gouges. clamps. not merely in the way of general development. but there are some advantages in starting with good. clear-grained oak. and Finishing 171 Elementary practise in carving can well precede the more mechanical forms of woodwork.Operations in Shaping. The bench light. for it is hard to get the proper freedom of movement while sitting. Pine. mahog- any. 490 to block up the work. and kept so by frequent stropping. which should come down on the work if posCarving should be done standing. The edges must be ground and whetted to be very keen.. wedges. but simple work can usually be held by the vises. A little carver's bench is usually a higher than a cabinet-maker's carpenter's. A variety of holdfasts and clamping devices to keep the work in place are in use. black walnut.

or partingThen stamp the back- ground as in Fig. light Fig. sides to a point. 490). with a carver's For small places and corners punch. A simple outlined design can be done by with such tools as will fit (Fig. lest the work become mere mechaniflat copying of a pattern.172 A Shorter Course in Woodworking on the bench before you but behind the work. 493 made with the V. The picture of what is to b e carved should b e Fig. 491). 492. 491 Fig. 493). Or the design can be outlined with a very cut tool (Fig. of carving tools of differ- ent pattern from those of the other tools. Try to use gouges of such curvalightly cutting the outline ture that the successive cuts will run to- gether in smooth and fiowing lines. cutting only deeply enough to clearly mark the outline. with as it is quicker to pick them up by the blades and to select the tool required. 492 clear cal and definite in the mind. It is well to have the handles tools Lay the the handles away from you. first use a nail filed from four To cut a simple scroll (Fig. roughly sketch the design .

the narrow band in Fig. 490). It is not necessary to flatter Fig. just outside of the line (Fig. cutting in different directions requires. 494). when the grain Remember to regard the Thus to cut grain of the pattern and not that of the background. After thus roughly outlining the design (Fig.Operations in Shaping. as the beginner Fig. carefully cut on the line down to the level of the background (Fig. 496 have a gouge to fit every curve exactly. 494). and Finishing 173 is well at first to with chalk or pencil. For an outside curve a gouge than the curve can be . Fitting. 495 cut in different directions as shown. and then go o-^^er it carefully with pencil. It mark over the background (Fig. 494 Fig. Clamp the wood firmly With a small gouge run a groove around the pattern. hands can be free. for this. 496) The mallet can be used .495 is so that both apt not to distinguish the design clearly.

497 Fig. The an- and corners must be cut with whatever tool will best do the work. The remaining wood in the background can part to be kept. freehand work is machine.174 used. groove cut has removed most of the chips will readily break off in the waste wood (Fig. 498 now be cut away. but the wood should in all cases be removed by clean cutting and not by prying. the without damaging the an inside curve one "quicker" than the curve. to Do if not try make the background ab- solutely true. as ^^' done by '*^^ urally results from. 497). as might happen . The . using as large a gouge as may be convenient (Fig. if the grooving were omitted (Fig. gles and flat smoothed with a gouge. finally 498). A and for first Shorter Course in Woodworking As the wood near the outHne. The slight irregularity or waviness which natproper in carved work.-^ Fig. 496).

Operations in Shaping. or can be glued on and carved afterwards. The general process with high relief In roughing off the wood. and then cut the details. Fitting. on the principle shown in Fig. After a design has thus been outlined and the background cut the raised parts require to be shaped. a piece. or. above the general surface. The cutting should be done with the grain. gouges Fig. is little to In a design like Fig. Sometimes waste wood can be quickly and safely removed by the use of the bits and bitFig. Little hollowing cuts as in Fig. 492 there do but to cut down where the parts overlap. stopping and cutting the other way when the grain requires. 501 stock. for example. smoothed as nicely as may be with short cuts of a flat gouge. . without danger of damaging the part to be saved. " rough out" the shape with such gouges as may be required. and Finishing 175 background can be stamped as before. so that the waste wood only will break off. 495. but gluing is not to be recommended unless necessary. begin at points distant from the final shape and work toward it. When the design is to be moulded as begun in Fig. When some part projects much pieces. as is more commonlydone. 499 make a good background for many designs. Sometimes the outline is undercut by sloping the handle of the tool outwards. 500. Sometimes much of the waste wood can be removed by sawing. 500 of somewhat flatter curvature than those of the design are used. all work in and odd-shaped or projecting forms is first to remove the superfluous wood.

rubbing over. but ter to use the mallet. missable to remove a too sharp edge. A brush is the best thing for cleaning. thus removing the waste wood before trying to work the wood exactly to shape. 503 (see page 245. Finish carved work either with wax or very thin shellac. 501). Fig. a slight blow can be given the tool handle with the hand.176 A Shorter Course in Woodworking the end of the arm of the corner-chair shown in Fig. 502. 726 round the end with the band-saw or by hand (Fig. Also. learn at Fig. 504. and then cut down between the divisions of the design.) When the pushing force of the hand is Fig. as shown. 502 the start to work either right or left handed and to cut in any direction. 504 it is usually bet- not try to scrub carved work smooth with sandpaper. page 31. and it is not practicable to keep turning the work. much of the waste wood can be removed by sawing as shown in Fig.) The removal of the waste wood and roughing out can be begun as in Fig. In ting. first To shape In cutting a clawfoot as in Fig. all cases remember to remove the wood by cut- and never pry or tear it away. Push with the hand which grasps the handle. check and control with the hand which governs the blade. never with varnish or a thick coating of it Do as the tool leaves shellac. and polishing carving. therefore one must become ambidextrous in using the tools. . (See under Chisel. Leave A touch with sandpaper is sometimes perit. The direction of the lines of the design and of the grain require continual change in the direction of the cutting. 503 not sufficient. and the rest of the shaping done on the general principles already described.

The whole operation should be done as quickly as possible. In boring with augerbits the larger hole is bored first and then the smaller. 506 successfully done if sufficient care be taken. be bored through is not too great (Fig. half a dozen gouges. Veneering. but the inside bevel is made by rubbing with a slip shaped to fit the tool. is dampened with hot water on the upper side and the glue then applied to the other side. and a couple of straight-chisels are enough to do a great deal of simple work. 506). which should be cut a little too large. as clear pine. If the smaller were bored first. it is pressed and held by a caul or . a V-tool.operations in Shaping. and it would be hard Fig. for Veneering on a large scale is not suitable work the beginner. See also Screw-pocket. Veneers are sawed or sliced 137. More can be added when needed. The veneer. there would be no wood for the worm of the larger bit to be screwed into. To keep the veneer firmly in place until the glue has set strongly. The surface to be veneered is sized with thin glue. very thin from valuable logs. 505 to bore accurately or even at all. page 254. To counterbore when the small hole is already bored a metal plug with a soft centre can be inserted in the hole for the worm to screw into (Fig. The surface to be veneered and the under side of the veneer are first toothed with the toothingplane (page 41). Veneering should be done upon soft straight-grained wood which is not liable to warp or twist and is free from knots. 505). veining-tool. which is allowed to dry. and are used to cover the surface of cheaper wood. Fitting. and Finishing 177 The variety of odd-shaped carving tools occasionally used by carvers very great. but small plain work can be Fig. is Counterboring is often done when the width of the piece to 136. The outside of a carving gouge or parting-tool is sharpened much the same as other tools. but for the work of the beginner or the general woodworker only a few of the simplest kinds are needed. A couple of skew-chisels. Next the surface to be veneered is glued and the veneer put in place.

should be heated and the surfaces soaped For very small fiat work or patching. the recesses carefully outlined. and such regular work is easiest nailed 139. so that when the parts are separated the upper piece will fit tightly in the opening made in the lower one. —Begin shingling at the eaves and work upward. Lattice Work. thus avoiding the loose fitting which would result if the saw were held vertically. the inlaid piece being first glued in place and then the whole glued upon the surface of the work (see Veneering. but so that the spaces between the lower layer are covered by the shingles of the upper this slight space (perhaps |" to |") Leave a between the shingles in laying them. the wood removed with curved. the parts to be inlaid If both pieces can can be sawed with a bracket or coping saw (page 30). can be made of wood or of metal. be sawed. forcing out the glue. place the piece to be inlaid on top and saw both together. neath. which is held near the head with the handle turned away from the operator. the length of the roof. page 177). If of thin material in the required shape. hammer requires considerable skill and experience. This gives room for swelling and allows the water to . Inlaying can be done by cutting out depressions or recesses in the surface of the of the shapes required wood and fitting in with glue pieces of wood or other substance by the pattern. letting the butts slightly overhang On is. Much inlaying is easily done in this way with veneer or very thin stock. be used. The surface is finally dampened and wiped with a dry cloth. fence pickets. a fiatiron can to prevent sticking. Veneers are also laid with a veneering hammer. and holding it beside each strip as a guide by which to nail the next one. Shingling. The saw-table should be very slightly tilted. Lay a row the edge. 140.178 A Shorter Course in fitted to the surface Woodworking The caul mould previously and secured by clamps. that layer. pressed down hard and worked over the surface from the centre to the edges. breaking joints with those underfirst row double. or if a bracket-saw be used it should be tipped outward at the top. The parts to be inlaid are got out and chisels or router. lay the the shingles of row lay another. by using a piece of wood of the same width as the space between the strips. The use of the 138. The degree to which the saw or table should be tilted depends upon the thickness of the stock and of the saw.

which can be adjusted and to the be laid about 4 Yi' to the weather that is. do no harm in ordinary work.Operations in Shaping. where they will be covered by two Small knots or defects at the Sapwood is objectionable or three layers. thin ends. 507). Lay the butts of each row by a chalkline or against the edge of a narrow board. . and so on. the tendency is to dam up these water-courses and retain the moisture. the lower under the first row until only the desired edge of the last row of clapboards should be bevelled to fit the upper edge of the water-table. Nail the clapboard nails. Clapboarding. with that portion of the length exposed at the butt. and Finishing 179 run off freely. as the latter rust away quickly. Cut nails are better as it is apt to rot before the rest. Lay clapboards in line and at equal distances apart. keeping the clapboards in place nails in the by a few upper part only. cornerboards. letting the edge of one overlap the and temporarily held ridge of the roof. 141. . Trim off the upper ends of the top row of shingles and put on saddle-boards at the top. If shingles of extra length are used this distance can be varied accordingly. than wire nails for shingling. Fitting.and window-casings. as variations in the alignment are quite noticeable. The best cedar or cypress shingles are not too good for any Spruce is poor for shingles. and first such outside finish should shingHng. far enough up from the butt to be covered by the next row of shingles. usually begun at the top. is —Door. This will hold the first row near the lower edge with second row in position while the third row is put in place. if a water-table is used at the bottom (Fig. The thin edge of the upper row can be covered by a strip of board or moulding. Clapboarding. which is injurious. unlike line. Fasten each shingle with two shingle nails (one near each edge. within perhaps i"). Lay the upper row by a as in shingling (page 178). building where durability is of importance. be put on. If the edges are close together at the lower end. or. Clapboarding can be continued to the bottom of the building. in place by two strips nailed to it Common shingles (16" long) can other. Then slip the next row up from below width is exposed.

Copper is good but 143. One two suggestions may. expensive. To replace the arm of a chair. thus covering the crack where the casing joins the side of the buildFig. sign of the mending often requires more and ingenuity and more general knowledge of woodworking than to of operations used in make new or To give complete directions for repairing would be to describe the majority woodworking. 508 142. Flashing. — To repair thoroughly skill and leave no articles. adding new wood if necessary. next make the parts fit together. above or below. This is important. and saw them carefully with a fine saw. be of use. 507 Fig. A few defects in clapboards near the thin edges which are to be covered may do no serious harm is for common work. trying to make as close joints as possible.and door-casings and all similar joints should be protected by strips of sheet-lead. that do not have the one row in line with. —The tops of win- dow. as the rain will drive through such cracks. using the try-square. even though they seem tight. Woodworking joints of Break joints at the ends. Repairing Furniture. the upper edges of which are slipped up under the clapboarding (Fig. Mark the ends accurately. but are inferior to lead. Siding shaped as in Fig. those of the next row. Zinc and 509 even tin can be used. however. Tonguing and grooving (page 156) can be used in such cases. be taken where roofs or other attachments join a building. Fig. first clean off all the old glue. for example. some- times used. 509) or the shingles. 508 ing. and finally .i8o A Shorter Course in is. and shedding the water. but The same precaution should flashing with lead is a simpler process. or very near.

clamps. 510 may be of use in curved or angular Rubbing chalk on the inside of the jaws of hand-screws helps work. or dowels. Glue and Its Use. cold glue may be better. . where this can be done without showing. but not until the glue has Staining (page dried thoroughly. as a rule. wrap a little muslin. buy the best otherwise. trimFig. or table. —Glue is made from refuse animal matter or from parts of fish. show. In patching holes and defects in old work with new wood. 144. first make. laid in glue. Hot glue is preferable for nice work if all conditions are as they should be. if possible. Trim off the new pieces after they have been glued in place rather than before. ming them afterwards to fit. If a tenon be too small. glue on thin pieces to make it larger. Fitting. and used hot. the wood should match if possible. it not be quite so strong as a well new to reinforce with a block or brace glued and screwed on the under or inner side. This can sometimes be done with round pins Splitting and wedging tenons and dowels is often useful in reIf necessary to use screws where the heads will pairing (pages 149 and 152). a rope twisted. If this can not be done. In either case. or some parts firmly in the place while the glue is The suggestion in Fig. or in liquid form to be used cold. device — to some arrangement hold —hand-screws. therefore it is A repaired joint may one. as inside the frame of a chair. 510 around the tenon. to prevent their slipping. and Finishing i8i other drying. 189) to match the older parts is often required.Operations contrive in Shaping. sofa. with bit or chisel a neat round or square hole of sufficient diameter to admit the head of the screw and deep enough to allow a plug of the same kind of wood to be inserted after the screw has been driven (see page 189). to be dissolved It comes in sheets or cakes or flakes or ground.

and see how much force is required to break the joint. but do not weaken it by diluting with more water than is necessary. smell. and it is into these that the glue works. then put in the glue-pot and boil the water When cooked the glue should be thin enough to drip from the brush in a streamlet. the better the quality. so that . or spaces between the fibres. reaching from the cavities in one surface into the cavities in the other. You cannot tell good glue by the color. The Glue-pot is made of copper. and holes. clean it out every time. Glue loses strength by repeated meltFor ings. in as much water as you think it will absorb. where it would be more exposed to the atmosphere. cover. Glue end.wood under pressure after sizing (see page 184). as well as the glue hot. Brushes are made especially for glue. Glue is oftener used too thick than too thin. is like It the "double should have a A good one can Glue-brush. without collecting in drops. very nice work. The wood should be warm. so clean out the glue-pot after every second or third using. The more it without dissolving. thus getting a firm grip on the wood. or tin. about the consistency of thin cream. or as long as may be necessary. and not leave it in a layer between the two pieces. Soften the end in hot water and pound it with the hammer until the fibres separate.i82 grade. break it pieces. for there are many kinds and many makers but it should will swell . and boiler" used in kitchens to prevent overheating. use sticks. For corners. soak it in all the cold water it will absorb for it — perhaps twelve hours. in the outer vessel for several hours. leave until hard. To prepare glue hot. A Do Shorter Course in Woodworking not use glue that has a mouldy or otherwise disagreeable The only sure test is to get a little and try it. iron. — into small Preparation and Use of Glue. be made of a stick of rattan. Wood is filled with pores. Soak glue over night. cracks. — Therefore the pieces should be pressed or clamped together as tightly as possible to force the glue into the wood. be clear looking. whittled to the required shape.

This should depend on the kind of work. No exact time limit can be set for leaving the clamps on glued work. for there no time to have begun to glue. Fitting. and Finishing the pores 183 thoroughly penetrated before the glue "sets. or with water if you are to use it at once. let the other be warming near the fire. wet a cloth with hot water. and be sure that everything comes together is right. page 72). To warm small pieces. but with cold glue considerable time can be taken to get them into position. After the piece has set several hours the surplus can be cleaned off. if the shop is not warm or if you cannot have the glue hot." Gluing should be done in a warm room of an even temperature.^ The moment the glue on the brush leaves the pot it begins to cool. Again. Do not wipe off the glue which oozes from a glued joint.operations in Shaping. and it will then be too late to correct mistakes in the fitting. Glued joints should not be planed until the water in the glue has had time to evaporate. wring it dry. Where several parts of the work may be have to be glued at the same time it may be hard to apply all the hot glue before that first put on begins to set. the kind of wood. Brush all dirt from the surfaces to be joined. fit the pieces together. Before beginning to glue have everything laid out. but do not pour water into the stock-can of liquid glue. a large box warmed by steam or other heat is convenient* ' . and wipe the joint. the joint will not be good. It may be thinned with vinegar or acetic acid (which keeps it liquid without putrefaction). With hot glue the positions of the pieces must not be changed after putting them together. While applying it to one piece. but let it harden. unless you have help. as it will when there are be lost when once you protect the joint. If it fairly begins to set before you get the two pieces together. cold glue is better. It is particularly necessary thus to rehearse the process several pieces to be glued. use the other. Do not spread the glue on too thick. In such cases. clamp them up as if you had put on the glue (see Clamps. This takes much longer to set than the hot glue. If necessary to remove it while fresh. In cold weather it should be slightly warmed and it is best to warm the wood also.

. but when the stock has any considerable thickness this cannot be done with safety. Fine-grained and coarse-grained pieces do not glue together so firmly as pieces of similar It is best to do gluing either on horses or on a special cheap bench fibre. A great deal of glued work comes apart sooner or later. Liquid glue sets more slowly. hard wood than for soft. it takes some time for it to become actually hard. Then. can be successfully glued flatways. smooth off to the wood and But glued joints in end-wood are to be glue in the ordinary way. To glue the ends of pieces (end-wood) together. soap. Under unfavorable conditions cold glue may not harden for several days. Twelve hours is usually long enough for common work in soft wood and with hot glue. cold. to save the regular work bench. for the is former similar more easily planed and fitted. to the required thickness. for the grain of two pieces to be exactly parallel. however. glue first and plane afterwards. In gluing pieces where the surface is to be finally planed. and then have the whole planed as one piece. used for gluing only.i84 A Shorter Course in Woodworking and other circumstances. or tallow on any part which must not be stuck by the surplus glue. More time should be allowed for avoided. It is easier to is make good joints in soft wood than in hard. dry air assists the hardenshort a time as should be allowed. by machine. Rub wax. ing. as in the case of a panel (see page 167). and twenty-four hours is usually as Warm. not necessary. else the glue will be soaked up too quickly. taking care to have the grain of both pieces run in the same direction if possible. and moisture. the grain of the pieces Wide is pieces of very thin stock. It is as the expansion and contraction will cause breaking or splitting. as veneers. as seen in the prepared chair-seats made of layers of veneering. with the grain of the different pieces running at right angles. Although glue dries quickly to the touch. The best way is to glue up the rough boards before they have been planed at all. Remember that wood changes shape with the heat. after allowing this coat to stand. When and runs in the same direction the joint is usually best. first size with thin glue to stop the pores. Large blocks and pieces glued flatways require more time than thin stuff.

513. It is safest to place no reliance upon glue where the work is to be exposed to dampness or to the weather. and should be sunk in the wood. Although two properly pieces together glued are stronger than a single piece. as in Fig. and Finishing 185 In gluing two pieces to make a thicker one. and mark with a knife directly from each hinge. glue is apt to deteriorate. better to build 145. so that the centre of the pin of the hinge will be in line with the back of the box (Fig. to prevent warping. gauging to the centre of the pin. Set the gauge for the width to be cut as in Fig.513 Fig. — It is well to have the hardware on hand. A butt-gauge is made for such work. it may be up the desired shape of pieces selected for the purpose. where warping would be very undesirable. 516). 513). or sometimes a little outside (Fig. as in Fig.Operations in Shaping. one half in each of the parts to be hinged. on both box and 514 cover at the same time. Hinge-fitting. for example. Fig. so as not to extend across the edge. — Common neatest when narrower than the hinges. look thickness of the stock (unless the latter is quite thin). or selected. the rear piece can be turned slightly as in Fig. Relid recess in . 146. except where. In the case of a box. Hardware Fittings. place the lid exactly in position (shut). Fitting. Fig. 643. 515. It is safer to use Fig. Remove the and with knife or square and gauge outline on box and lid the which the hinge is to fit. the points from which to lay out the recesses for the hinges. 512 a whole piece where you can. and for the depth close the hinge until the flaps are parallel and gauge to the middle of the space (Fig. when laying out a piece of work. 512. and this difference in direction of the grain will often help much to prevent warping. 511 Fig. 514). 511.

cut the gains. Cross cuts can be made first. places Fig. does not. as and then pare the wood to the Hne with the The router can be used in fitting hinges. in Fig. Door. fitting snugly against the frame or casing on the hinge side and on top. or the like are placed so that the centre of the pin is exactly opposite the crack and then screwed on. or bit. as To Hinge or "Hang" a 147. drill. Fig. Bore with bradawl. 517 and The for Fig.1 86 the A Shorter Course in chisel. Put the door in place. for Hold the hinges in place with two or three screws each and see whether the cover opens and shuts properly. Mark the outlines. 451. the screws. it is changed a trifle. by boring the screw holes nearer the requisite edge of the hinge. 517. it is easier to all make alterations before the screws have been inserted. and put on the hinges. on both door and frame as already deIf the door and the scribed. casing are not flush. If it does. T-hinges. 516 hinges can also be marked on a stick. allowance must be made for this in gauging for . put in If it the rest of the screws. Mark with the knife the places for the hinges on both — door frame. or notch as in Fig. 515 The po- sition of the hinge can be screwed in place. Woodworking move wood with the chisel. Strap or surface hinges.

Use locks of good quality. others still to be let into — mortises. door-locks. and press slightly to make a mark to help show where to put the hasp. others to be sunk in recesses cut in the side of the wood. The thickness of the metal must be allowed for both on the inside and on the edge. Some door hinges or butts have the pin loose so that each half of the hinge can be fitted and screwed on separately and then the pin put in or withdrawn at will. pressing against the wood. There are so many 148. Fitting. square. will mark the place for the mortise into which it is to slide. sink the plate into the lid flush with the surface. Pare away it. that to it will be well to examine a well-fitted lock like the one you have fit. When the lock has been screwed in place. When the keyhole is shaped. Locks. place it in position. and Finishing 187 one side of the hinge. and cut it out with gouge and chisel. determine the place for the in position keyhole and bore on the inside and with a pencil mark the outline of the box-part of the lock. Then shut the lid. drawer-locks. or transfer-paper can be put between the hasp and the wood. into its place in the lock. Cut this mortise and the drawer can be locked. or blackened grease rubbed on the plate of the hasp. Outline the place for it with knife." or part to be fastened to the lid. Close the drawer and turn the key hard to raise the bolt (the top of which has been previously rubbed with blackened grease. cupboard-locks. and cut the recess for it.or box-lock (not a mortise-lock). chest-locks. but let into a mortise. which bears against the wood. . Trim the keyhole to a neat outline to conform to the shape of the key. where it will be when the chest is closed. and screw it in place. that the surface of the plate may be flush with the wood. To fit a chest. Determine the place for the keyhole. see if the lock works before screwing it on. Mark around the part to be sunk in the wood. etc. To fit a common drawer-lock.. Sometimes the hasp has points to prick the wood. Put the lock into place and mark the outline of the outer plate on the inside of the drawer front and on the top edge. and bore it. and gauge. varieties.operations in Shaping. Hold the lock the wood carefully with the chisel to let the plate sink flush. some to be screwed on the outside of the wood. A mortise-lock is fitted in a similar way. which. put the "hasp. such as can be scraped from an oilstone).

see that the surface of the all — . Use strong ones. Slip the key through the escutit 519 cheon. Fig. Small holes or cracks can often be filled with wood-dust and glue. cover the bruise with wet blotting paper or several thicknesses of wet brown paper and apply a hot fiatiron. which. and with a sharp chisel. in the lock. — The way to put casters made on is usually obvious. as to strengthCasters.. held nearly at right angles to the surface. A great variety of casters is with ball bearings. mixed with the glue. Where a piece of wood has been taken out. Those with ferrules or outside sockets are serviceable for good work.1 88 A wood Shorter Course in Woodworking 149. as when a notch has been cut. or in holes. 518). 150. this process can not be depended on. The points for boring in fitting a screw-hook and screw-eye can be L. and you can readily find the position for the Finishing. 519. and should be sunk flush with the back-side — They are usually of brass. corner-irons are often useful. Put a daub of hot glue on the smooth end of a piece of wood of the same kind as the article. put escutcheon. cabinets. of the Mirror-plates. scrape off fine wood-dust. en a sled. If that is not sufficient. 518 They are commonly Fig- fastened with round-headed escutcheon pins or screws. (Fig. The operation can be repeated until it has no further effect. mirrors. etc. Escutcheons for are set plates screwed. — Before applying any finishing coat to nice work. etc. Mirror-plates are to fasten to the wall. nailed. at keyholes. screw-hooks. wood has been thoroughly smoothed. Try to take out any bruise or dent in the wood by wetting with warm water or even cold and rubbing down with sandpaper. This will often swell the compressed wood sufficiently to remove a large dent. ornament. and hardened glue carefully removed.or determined as suggested in Fig.

is. Good wood of a handsome color. smooth cracks. A hole or defective place can often be filled best with a plug of wood. also be washed with some thin stain which colors the wood to some distance below the surface. Dip the plug in hot If it is liable to be injured by glue. In nice work the plug should match the wood. Cut or trim the hole to fit the plug. it will take considerable bruising This method sometimes enhances the . is After the surface in proper condition. and also secured against further splitting. and drive well in. which do not obscure the grain The surface can of the wood. When dry smooth off. in stick form. and Finishing 189 form a paste with which the cracks can be more than filled. the end of a piece can often be plugged. Make the plug and taper it slightly. Plaster of Paris (calcined plaster). dependent upon chemical processes carried on in the wood itself. holes bored with the bits. to color. There are a number of ways of staining.operations will in Shaping. Shellac. When off. decide whether the wood to be left of the natural color (which always darkens more or less with exposure. 520). can be melted over a candle and dropped into holes or hard. but tend to make it more conspicuous. the hammer. Fitting. into which a wood can be fitted and is glued. place a block on it and strike the block. Staining. and grain of the rest of the Round fit plugs can be bought or made with a Cracks at pig. can be used to fill cracks and holes. with the grain running the same way as that of the main piece. but staining is often — desirable. left to mellow with age. preferable to stained wood. as a rule. so that to expose its original color. and is darkened slightly by even the most transparent finish). cutter. it is not so good. mixed with shellac or thin hot glue. or to be darkened or stained. and colored if desired. so that when driven it will fit tightly and project above the surface (Fig. Mixed with water only. texture. 520 by making slip of a straight saw-kerf in the crack.

Before using stains. ' Repeated applications rubbing down with of raw linseed oil at intervals of several days or weeks. or apply a colored stain." or colored shellac. if it is desired to make the "flashes" especially prominent they can be rubbed carefully with the finest sandpaper after staining. but a common one with amateurs and in cheap work. tends to soften the glue. " which must be rubbed down with fine sandpaper before finishing. To change the color entirely. will in light fine sandpaper before each time give a surface of finish of oil beautiful color and soft lustre. however. is of oak. Have the the work To room well ventilated. you must use some chemical process. one or two — — applications of linseed oil allowed to stand a week or two before finishing. If you do not care about deepening the color greatly. (a solution of To deepen mahogany common lime in water). . Clean out all cracks and corners thoroughly. and also "raises the grain. fresh look peculiar to recently cut wood. A simpler way is to wash the work with ammonia. or cherry black. Wetting the wood. with a oiling. In case of quartered oak. is to cover the surface with colored varnish. no coating of color put on outside can be so durable as color imbedded in the substance of the wood. and do not inhale the fumes. ^ If hasten the process requires something stronger than oil. with a dish of strong ammonia on the floor. the grain and character of the wood are obscured by a colored coating. for lime deposited on the surface will injure the the color of or cherry.1 90 A Shorter Course in Woodworking beauty of the grain. more than once if necessary. This is cheap and effective and preserves the natural appearance of the wood. test them on planed and smoothed pieces of waste wood of the same kind as the article to be finished. The poorest way to stain. and scarring or injury to the coating exposes the original color beneath. wash with lime-water Repeat the operation until the desired shade is obtained. shut it up for some time in a box or tight closet. will take off the raw. Besides. But this takes too long for most people and a alone is apt to collect dust. to make pine wood red or green. and the work usually has a cheap. Of course. "varnish stain. artificial appearance.

can be used for staining. Turpentine stains are good for ordinary work. Mix pigment of the desired color with a little For black work. sandpapered before applying the stain. Such wood. but they are inexpensive and do well for much work. Dragon's blood in alcohol gives a color similar to mahogany. Getting the work so wet is an It must be thoroughly dry and be sandpapered before finishing. For black or ebonizing. Fitting. if . cally Any pigment or coloring substance which can be dissolved in turpentine. A great variety of prepared stains. or alcohol stains. oil. Water stains are as a rule not so good for nice work as turpentine. but the latter can be used. Vandyke brown or burnt umber can be added. or cherry. After staining. They should be wiped off and. To lessen this trouble it is sometimes dampened with water and. rub with a well soft cloth before finishing. oil. After the matter of color has been attended — to. is superior to lamp black. These penetrate or even mechanically mixed with stains raise the grain of the the wood well. use a solution of bichromate of potash in water. Alkanet root in raw linseed oil will give a warm and mellow hue to mahogany objection. so that the surface has to be sandpapered after it is dry. after thoroughly drying. and Finishing 191 appearance of the work when finished.Operations in Shaping. Fillers. For a brown stain a little extract of logwood dissolved in hot water and applied hot can be used. Any pigment or coloring substance that can be dissolved in water. ivory black or bone black. many the of which are excellent. To get a darker shade. Oil stains are easy to apply. or mechani- mixed with it can be used. Turpentine penetrates the wood and dries quickly. and thin with turpentine. it. apply solution of logwood and wash with vinegar in which iron filings have been soaked. and a very little Japan. or a black aniline dye in ammonia or alcohol can be used. the surface sandpapered with "00" sandpaper. Many excellent stains are made with alcohol. and do not raise the grain of the wood much. can be bought ready for use. after drying. thinned with turpentine.

makes an excellent filler for fine-grained wood. Clean off the filler thoroughly. Wood alcohol can be used and is cheaper. using a blunt tool to clean out the angles and corners. The surface dries quickly and the coat hardens more rapidly than varnish. and then apply shellac. but to cut it yourself lessens the chance of adulteration. and can be bought prepared. and used according to the directions on the can. and then rubbed down with fine sandpaper. let it stand until it begins to set. Shaking will hasten the process. e/c. in distinction from what . a it is kind of varnish. forms a hard and durable coating which can be given a high polish or a soft lustre and dull finish. The rags used should be burned. Shellac is cut (dissolved) in alcohol.192 A is Shorter Course in Woodworking open grain. across the grain (lest you wipe it out of the pores). do for • Shellac in is. sandpaper carefully until no filler remains on the surface. the pores should be filled with some "filler. but it is so different from many kinds of is varnish popularly common use that known as varnish. varnish. of coarse wood — . as in Oak. or often. Cork the bottle and leave in a warm place until the shellac is cut. allowed to dry Thin shellac for a day. the figure of the grain can be brought out best by using a filler darker than the wood. or the finished surface will have a cloudy appearance. usually spoken of as shellac. and then rub it off with a bit of burlap or any coarse material. grade) to somewhat more than cover it.' A good simple finish is to oil the wood (raw linseed oil slightly thinned with turpentine) let it dry thoroughly. strictly speaking. A second coat can be used if necessary.-r-Final finishing coats may be apFor furniture and articles for indoor use there plied in various ways. Use of shellac. Rub the filler into the wood thoroughly. Into an open-mouthed bottle put some of the shellac (which comes in flakes and looks somewhat like glue) and pour over it enough grain alcohol (95 per cent. wax. Shellac is no better way for the beginner than to use shellac or wax. or stiffen. as oak or chestnut." This can be bought in the form of paste (different colors either light or dark). but Orange shellac will most work. The filler can be as light as the wood. After it has become hard enough. Liquid fillers can be put on with a brush.

Three or four thin coats give a much coats better rethick.Operations in Shaping. brush and not a soft camel's-hair brush. because daubs or "runs" can be wiped off and covered better when you thus follow the construction of the work. on a wire stretched across it. . or it may blister. Pour a little shellac into a Before applying to the wood. It is buy this already prepared. last coat. and on account of best not to use long in a closed room. dry place. and with the grain. gummy Never thin with anything but alcohol. working from Work lengthways the top or from one end or side. Fitting. ' the In shellacking doors or panel-work. Keep the bottle corked to prevent evaporation and to keep out dust. but do not leave the work close to a hot stove or in the hot rays of the sun. a larger brush is better. first shellac the panels. and Finishing work done with the fumes is it is it is 193 not so good. Shellac keeps better in glass than in tin. it than two shellac. but also poisonous. a little harder to use than the colored kind. sult shellac should be quite thin. white (bleached) shellac can be used. For large surfaces. free from dust. or better. so that you can see what you are doing. ' stiles (see Fig. and finally 480). the tawny tint of orange shellac It is well to objectionable. Shellac in a warm. Before beginning to shel- — lac see that the work is free from Fig. small dish. 521 dust. unless for the to two inches in width is suitable for small work. and lay on the shellac as evenly and smoothly as possible. never where it is cold and damp. it It is a deadly poison. clean the brush thoroughly with alcohol. wipe the surplus shellac from the brush on the edge of the dish. is Denatured alcohol If much better than is wood alcohol. Face the light. It is better to have of it and should flow freely from the too thin than too thick. then the rails. Use a flat bristle One inch The brush. After using.

521) rather than across the surface. very quickly to the touch. for instance may be required. If surplus shellac collects and spreads over any part of the surface. Give each coat plenty of time to harden before applying another. The Use putty for surplus can be carefully pared off after it is hard. Take a bit of felt or haircloth. If there are holes. but better to have the that cannot be ar- ranged. skim over the surface with very fine sandpaper (00) to remove any roughness. by keeping the air from it. which will be filled with the melted — This is better for dark-colored wood than for light. or try to patch up spots. Begin and end each stroke of the brush gradually and Hghtly. so as to avoid a "lap" where the strokes meet.194 A Shorter Course in Woodworking is if It (as in Fig. and a fourth time if necessary. twenty -four hours is not too long. If not. cracks. small quantity of whatever dry color burnt umber. wipe the brush quickly. surface in a horizontal position when possible. renewing the oil and carefully and pumice . sandpaper and shellac again. Work quickly and carefully. but do not work over the coat after it Lay it has begun to set. wet with thin (kerosene. You will know how to do better the next time. When you have a sufficient " body" of shellac on the wood. with the grain. as dry as you can. or defects not yet filled up. and apply a second coat. This is sometimes sufficient. Do not apply the brush at first quite at the edge of the surface. on as well as you can and let it go. When the first coat is hard. and lightly and quickly take up the surplus liquid. which will remove the "shiny shellac. you can much improve the surface by rubbing " it down with powdered pumice and oil. painted work only. or petroleum or linseed oil thinned with little of turpentine) take up a the pumiice on the felt. softer surface. but does not get really hard for some time. they can be Melt the wax and add a filled with wax colored to match the wood. rub over the surface. begin at the upper part and work downward. lest the shellac collect too thickly there. Another way is to hold a hot iron close to a piece of shellac directly over the hole. The outer coat hinders the drying Shellac dries of the shellac underneath. effect it and leave a oil .

but should be learned from a practical polisher.Operations in Shaping. or a piece of haircloth. the surplus can is sometimes be taken hard to do without scraping too much. French polishing is often attempted by the beginner. Rotten-stone used with oil (petroleum is good) is excellent for giving a soft polish. can be used instead of felt or sandpaper. If the shellac has collected too thickly at the edges or off corners. but varnishing in some respects harder it is for the beginner to it do well. following . In using sandpaper for rubbing down nice work. and the pad quickly passed over the surface with a circular motion. free from dust. and on this is poured thin shellac. ^ This process is sufficient for ordinary work. or with longer strokes in the form of the figure 8. A handful of tightly squeezed curled hair. many purposes. is good for removing oil and cleaning the surface. rubbing down with the finest sandpaper wet with eral principle is that as the surface For some work simply oil is should be used. a drop of linseed oil put on the outside to prevent the shellac from sticking. Wipe off thoroughly with a soft cloth. for it will be almost impossible to repair the damage if you rub through to the wood. finer is enough. as in case of a and do not rub it with pumice and oil. becomes Pumice as well as sandpaper finer. and Finishing as 195 may be needed. After doing this for a while a boat. but this The general directions given for shellacking also apply to the use of is varnish. simply sandpaper the shellac ' Fine sawdust of soft wood with a soft cloth. The genrubbing material of difi^erent grades. with the scraper. A wad or pad of woollen cloth or cotton wool is made. This wet pad is then covered with a piece of clean linen. but the split it distinction concerns the expert finisher only. first. and the surface There are many kinds of varnish and for of the wood should be clean. or they can be sprinkled on the work. The final coat can be rubbed down with pumice or tripoli and water. will by removing the outer layer of paper. Fitting. If varnish is to be used over shellac. When shellac a good article is to be varnished best to give a coat of thin This tends to prevent the wood being darkened by the varnish. Rub evenly and not too long on any one spot. Pumice can be sprinkled on from a can with perforated top. Varnishing should be done in a warm room. adding whatever alcohol may be necessary. which by leaving the sanded layer thin and pliable make it less likely to scratch or rub through the finish.

like a table-top.or tooth-brush. pour enough turpentine to make it the consistency of paste. the arm of a chair. Painting. An old-fashioned way to finish. It Use the best paint throughout for good work. A chisel (used like a scraper) is sometimes good to remove a thick body of old varnish. is excellent for cleaning out corners and carved work. A thin coat of shellac rubbed down with sandpaper when dry makes an excellent filler before applying a wax finish to coarse-grained wood. a mixture of equal parts of linseed oil and turpentine with a very small quantity of Japan is excellent. finish will allowed to dry for a short process repeated. but it is hard for a beginner successfully to polish a large flat surface. For simply brightening and cleaning furniture. be scraped down to the wood. Before refinishing old work it should. and the end used as a brush. A stiff brush. if the surface is in bad condition. using the scraper and finishing with sandpaper. It is has been formed. A coating of shellac is usually put on in the ordinary way first and skimmed over with sandpaper. such as a nail. melt beeswax in a can or saucepan and. either by washing with soapsuds or by scrubbing with the finest split sandpaper. and the article will look fresher for a time. is to apply a mixture of turpentine and beeswax. for example. until a sufficient body of the polished finishers. soft and lustrous. — . using oil. This makes a beautiful finish. Pumice can be used. The surface of the wood must be very smooth for successfully finishing with wax. and clean off the excess. it should be cleaned. in scrubbing the work thoroughly. ready for use. The details vary with different quite easy to polish a small flat surface. and though it is easily applied. however. which can be bought in cans. Apply with a brush or cloth. wound with string. It shows spots. to save labor in the polishing process. but it is not a substitute for refinishing.196 A when the Shorter Course in have been deposited. If the surface does not need scraping. but still in vogue. is Woodworking This is very thin coat time. To prepare it. requires renewing and rubbing to be kept in good condition. This will make It should be well rubbed in and carefully cleaned off. scratches and bruises less conspicuous. rub in well. The work must be wiped off clean and be perfectly dry before applying a new coat. when taken from the stove. as already described. A piece of haircloth can be tightly rolled. rubbing it long and thoroughly.

or the long way of the work. Try to mix only enough paint for the coat you are about to put on.Operations in Shaping. When the first coat is thoroughly dry. Paint joints in outside work. ^ Begin the painting at the highest part of the work. for the fresh wood will quickly absorb the oil from the putty. Draw the brush back and forth both ways to spread the paint as evenly and smoothly as possible. to prevent spattering or dripping on the freshly covered surface. and work toward the other end or side. at one end or side of a surface. and Finishing is 197 particularly important that the good quality. carefully putty the holes and cracks. Begin. Take up but little paint on the brush. but will show plainly in the later coats. but the oil will soak in quickly. that the surface free from dirt. mouldings. using a large brush for large surfaces and finishing all corners. Work the first coat well into the wood. for the oil in the paint will be quickly drawn into the wood. Paint with the grain of the wood. If thick the paint not be sufficiently absorbed. else it or "priming" coat should be of thoroughly seasoned before paintwill be liable to decay. proceed as directed on page 193. . or the paint to peel. leaving it dry and crumbly. leaving too much of the pigment on the outside. Fitting. or it will be likely to show a "lap. leave off where there is some natural line or break in the work. tenons and ' It is not well to wipe brushes on the sharp edge of a tin can. If you cannot cover the work entirely at one time. See first is Be is sure that wood Knots or streaks of resinous or pitchy matter should have a coat or two of shellac. or both. or the part farthest from you. In doors or panel-work. while if a coat of paint has been put on first and dried. as it injures the bristles. to "kill" them and prevent colored spots showing later. and edges with a small brush. Try not to leave any part of a surface until another time. also. The will first coat should be thin to soak into the surface. It is well to have a wire stretched across the top of the pot to draw the brush over to remove any excess of paint. the pores of the wood will be stopped and most of the oil will remain and harden in the putty. ing." This does not matter in the priming. Never use putty until after one coat of paint has been applied and dried.

First mix the color with a little oil or turpentine. and color if desired. Red lead is commonly used to paint iron and is very durable for that purpose. Raw linseed oil is required with which to mix the lead and thin it to the proper consistency. and cleanest for the (if of the best quality) do very well for most purposes. and it is better to have it warm. be careful to add but very little of the darker pigment at first. can also be bought in the form of paste. For work exposed to the weather there is probably no better way than to use the These ingredients can be best white lead and oil. however. and Prepared liquid paints are the simplest. Iron must be dry. do this in all work exposed to water and the weather. to be thinned when used. Zinc paints are usually considered inferior. The white lead can be bought ground in the form of paste ready to be thinned with oil. The simplest way to buy colored paints is in liquid form or mixed in Paint can easily be colored with various dry oil. colors. especially when tinting white paint. as in buildings and boats. handiest. and be sure that it is thoroughly mixed. for use. Black Japan varnish and asphaltum are often used. for it is easy to get in too much. The prepared paints of any color or. Test the shade on a piece In making paint darker. paint to work more freely and smoothly from the brush and to dry more It gives the dull. This seems to be a common opinion among experienced men. to paint to hasten the drying. before putting together.. for inside work. inside work. There are. many painters of experience who prefer the prepared liquid paint. and also sometimes to thin the prepared paints. as much of it is injurious to the durability of the paint.' mixed easily and form a durable and economical paint. shoulders. for the wood quickly decays at the joints and seams because dampness collects there." as Japan. Add it just before the paint is to be used and only to the quantity to be used at the time. soft. to be thinned. with good white lead. etc. Use very little dryer. It takes but very little of most colors. ' . in the form of powder. or "dead" appearance often desired in quickly. but detracts from the durability if used lavishly. It is well to beginner.198 A Shorter Course in Woodworking mortises. unless to thin It is commonly used for inside painting and causes the the first coat. It is not customary to use it for outside work. Turpentine is also used for thinning. with turpentine. It is usual to add a "dryer. of wood.

is From one to two inches wide usually large enough. for it is not easy to remove paint after it is hard. or even water. except for very coarse work.Operations in Shaping. roof. for excluding the air from an under layer causes to dry much more slowly than if left exposed. Keep a rag with you when painting. as a little left between the bristles Brushes which will sometimes stick them together so as to ruin the brush. Fasten a wire hook on the handle and hang the brush so that the bristles will be covered by the paint. wool can be used to clean off old paint. Thus the outside surface may seem to be dry and hard while the paint underneath remains comparatively soft. pour a thin layer of linseed oil over the top to exclude the air and keep the paint from hardening. are in use can be hung from the handles in a can partially filled with oil. as it is better for the hands Warm canvas before painting or deck. The first coat especially should be given plenty of time to dry. — It is essential to have a brush for cleaning is off work before finishing. If the brush is not to be used again for some time it should be cleaned with kerosene or turpentine and put away. as that tends to bend the ends of the bristles. Paint dries more quickly in a warm and dry atmosphere than where it is cold and damp. varnish. and paint. lay it floor. to wipe off any spattering. Wash out all the paint. Steel coats. and each succeeding coat should also be dry and hard before applying another. For small or narrow surfaces. but not standing or resting on the bottom of the can. If to be used again soon. the . and Finishing 199 When leaving paint. it and where it is laid on wood as for as heavy coating of white lead. Brushes. the can being kept covered. Small flat bristle brushes are usually better than large round ones for shellac. although for a large surface a large brush does better work and saves time. for the durability of the painting depends much upon i-t it. but will not touch the bottom. in a than turpentine. A sash brush good. Use kerosene to take fresh paint from the hands. Fitting. Sandpaper nice inside work after the first coat and between successive Pumice can be used for old inside work to be repainted. it will do to leave the brush in the paint.

varnish — varnish and the brush. see that the rabbet or to go is primed with lead paint before off old good to clean putting on the putty. it White lead worked it in with the whiting makes oil far superior. The alcohol used for rinsing can be saved and used to thin shellac. If too soft wrap in paper and the surplus oil will soon be absorbed.200 A Shorter Course in Woodworking brushes used for "drawing" sashes are good. not in paper. as in bookcase doors. and paint brushes in ttirpentine or kerosene. and for drawing Hnes use "pencil" brushes. color putty. —An old chisel is setting glass in old frames. Vessels can be bought with covers arranged to protect both the else will cut shellac). If paint or varnish brushes are not to be used again soon they should be thoroughly washed in strong soapsuds and carefully smoothed into shape before laying away. Glazing. can be fastened it. shellac brushes in alcohol (nothing brushes in turpentine. shoulder where the putty is putty before On new work. they can be rinsed clean. Use a squarebladed puttyknife for 151. . flat surfaces. Rinse brushes carefully after using. not pressed too tightly against Strips moulding are good. in place with small strips. stir the coloring matter in little and then work and knead into the putty until the whole colored. and before setting the glass. See also page 253. Keep putty under water or in a tight vessel. spread a layer of putty on the rabbet for it to rest on. Putty. Before using. — Common putty To is a mixture of linseed oil and whiting a is of about the consistency of dough. "Glazier's points" are best to hold the glass in place under the putty. Common of plain glass in furniture.

and shrinks faster because. 524 depending upon the kind of tree. log contains. etc. called the annual rings.APPENDIX WOOD The rings. too. Sometimes these rays are not noticeable. usually looks different from the inner wood. In some trees there are rays. is In the common trees of temperate climes one layer 201 . the season of the year. The layers of wood forming the annual rings also appear in what is called the "grain" on the surface of a piece of wood cut seasoning lengthways (Fig. 523 and 524). medulla). Green wood contains Fig. cracks can be seen radiating from the centre natural . known as the sapthe outside. radiating from the centre. ^ tree. or circular lines. after has begun. 523) are and each marks a new layer of wood added to the used for woodworking grow by adding layers of wood on Notice that the wood nearest the bark. showing lines the of cleavage or separation. because they spring from the pith (Latin. At the ends of timber. and known 523. for the trees on the end of a piece of wood (Fig. called the heart (Fig. than the heart because ' contains more water. 523 much water. 524 ). wood. The more water a green The sapwood shrinks more added each year. quantity the Fig. the more it will it shrink in drying.) as the medullary rays (Figs.

that tree. the cracks running in toward the centre. around the is. the drying goes on more is cracking Fig. Fig. The log the annual rings. 526). uniformly. 529). at the circumference (Fig. When a log is sawed into boards or planks (Fig. and planks. but becomes thinner toward the edges. because it is cut through the centre of the log and has no more tendency to curl one way than the other. according to itself. Thus a piece cut from the centre of 526 a log shape better than a piece cut from one side (Fig. Shrinkage lengthways is The result of this unequal shrinking is that the log tends to crack open. 530) the middle board shrinks but little in width and in thickness at the centre. much less in the line of the medullary rays. or boards cut from a log have the same tendency to shrink un- evenly that is found in the log This causes them to be irregular in shape and to curl or warp more or less. that parts are exposed. too slight to be considered' (Fig. The beams.202 A Shorter Course in it is is. Woodworking shrinks most in the line of It shrinks being on the outside. more exposed. I . so If it be halved or the quartered. line of Thus the way the is log is sawed inner important. the part of the log from which they are taken. 525). holds its pieces Although the shrinkage lengthways is not usually noticeable. the not so bad. in the the medullary rays. It does not curl. that across the tree. and the 525 parts of the log will shrink somewhat as shown in Figs. 527 and 528. as can be seen in boards which have been left free to bend while seasoning. it shows slightly when become sprung or bowed lengthways. joists.

the outer boards will be poorer because they contain a is usually inferior to the heartwood. This is the Fig. Different kinds of wood ferent shrink degrees. 530 1 greater proportion of sapwood.Appendix The outside board shrinks least in thickness and most in width. way for ordinary purposes. and concave They toward the outside. which 2 In addition to the curling. except the middle one. or heart. 203 and all. and warp to difExamine the stock in a lumber-yard. The highly but for common figured grain ^ often seen in Fig. 531). By this is not meant the figures or flashes shown by the medullary rays. shrink differently on one side from the other. Fig. 529 Fig. become convex toward the pith. 527 To get the most from a log in the form of boards or plank. it is sawed in the simple way just shown usual (Fig. and the outer ones inferior. 528 The central boards will be good (Fig.' as just shown work all can generally be used. 530). or "silver .

535 takes are examples. that is. method The wide board shown in Fig. etc. 531 Fig. oak. most marked in the outer boards (Fig. 534. the log should be cut in the direction of the radii. the log should be sawed on the radial lines as just shown. grain" seen in quartered oak and some other woods. The nearer a board is cut to the radial line the more richly the figure Fig. 531). as in quartered oak. 534 of the medullary rays will first be shown. and Fig.204 A is Shorter Course in Woodworking etc. 532). as in Fig. chestnut.. as it costs more than the wood. This method of sawing more labor and wastes more 534 and either of those in Fig. 533). along the lines of the medullary rays (Fig. To obtain boards that will shrink the least in width and remain as true as possible. 532 To get the beautiful figure formed when the medullary rays show on the surface of a board. . ash. as seen in plain oak. but the figure of the grain without the medullary rays. because the annual rings are cut more obliquely than in those at or near the centre. 533 Fig. results from sawing the log in this way (Fig.

shown in Figs. or in which part of the boards are so cut. 537. in the case of an old tree.Appendix Wood 205 shrinks but little in the direction of the radii. Figs. thus avoiding "cross- Well-seasoned wood is necessary for nice work.' Various methods of radial sawing. 536 is Fig. as a rule. the To be especially tough and p. opened joints. except in case of is very green wood. and 539 showing the log quartered and different ways of sawing into are boards. sapwood. 536. 533 and 539. as for an axe handle or a stout wood should be split out. the best. and often the entire ruin of the article. and boards thus sawed will be alike on both sides as regards heart wood. as just shown. pin." sure to be in the Hne of the fibres. is properly seasoned. ' 539 ly One is the old-fashioned method (usualknown as seasoning. to prevent cracks. It is not easy for the beginner to decide whether stock soggy. which of course is wet and Much stock sold as dry not thor- buying. Fig. 538 the splitting grain. unless it is very straight-grained. decay has begun at that point. and. have the least tendency to change of shape. Split or rift stock is stronger than sawed. 538. warping. as when. oughly seasoned and care should be taken in Two ways of drying wood are com- mon. 537 Fig. or air-drying) in which Although boards cut through or near the middle are. because Fig. therefore. . when they contain the pith they are sometimes valueless in the centre.. durable. etc.

in most cases the only sufficiently seasoned kind available. be air-dried for some months at least. but that will not fully restore its elasticity. though never elastic. until the absolutely dry. Wood is sometimes soaked in water before being seasoned. The gain by kiln-drying. There is little danger of its being kept too long. 3 The kinds of wood commonly used are known as either hard or soft. Get it from first Hard woods ^ should being put into a kiln. pends on what it is to be used for. The kiln-drying "takes the a slow-drying kiln if possible. however. the conand various circumstances. This helps remove the soluble its shape and size. is. kiln-drying) The second way is is that ordinarily used. dried in a closed By the natural air-drying process the moisture slowly works out to is the surface and evaporates. It certainly lessens the elasticity of the The latter process tends to dry the outside and ends of the lumber too fast for the inside. and the stock firmer. therefore. For some rough work there is no advantage in seasoning at all. as the oak. according Whether it is dry enough deto the temperature and the humidity of the atmosphere. for the common whitewood of the hardwood class is softer and easier to work than hard pine of the softwood class. the wood room by steam or other heat much more quickly than by the old way. while for very nice indoor work even more time ' The time it takes to season depends on the kind of wood. will be beneficial. the former from trees with broad leaves. This distinction is somewhat puzzling in some cases. wood more is seasoned. Kiln-dried stock is. it its strength. dition of the atmosphere. . of moisture never will get left.2o6 the A wood is ' Shorter Course in Woodworking To save time and (called gradually seasoned by exposure to the air (but protected from the weather). before life out of the wood. for example." Lumber left for years to season naturally "stands" better than if kilndried. For much common work one or two years is enough for some kinds and sizes of wood for a nicer grade of work two or three years is none too much. and holds water tenaciously. in addition to that popularly understood to be contained in the pores of the wood. money. offset by impairment of the quality of the wood. than if kiln-dried. as there will always be from ten to twenty per cent. the latter from coniferous or needle-leaved trees. and less affected by heat and cold. * Recent investigation shows that the very fibre or substance of the wood itself imbibes. but the distinction is based on botanical reasons. Oak. will reabsorb moisture until gets into a more natural condition^. Unless it is at once protected it from dampness wood and weakens in some way. moisture and dryness. . in time and money. It perfectly dry. There are various other methods of seasoning. takes longer than pine. as the white-pine.

so that lie straight. the stock is piled to allow the air to circulate around and between the pieces. pieces can readily be smoked. else the weight of the pile will make the boards crooked. dryer to the touch. durability. and it shows a difference when you saw it. scorch. particularly in the case of thick stock. It is not always easy even for an experienced person to determine the degree of seasoning in some cases. cuts differently when you whittle it (the piece you whittle off breaks differently). Stock is sometimes stacked upright.Appendix 207 elements of the sap. should for nice work be got out in advance and larger than required. For seasoning. let it stand in the warm shop a while Do this before using it for nice work. 540 sticks between the layers should be placed directly over one another. to allow for springing and change of shape. If exposed to sun and weather pile with the heart side up. and leave it in a dry place for some time for a final seasoning. before putting it into nice work. Seasoned wood is lighter in weight than green. as in a wet shed or cellar. which hardens the wood and adds to its Care must be taken not to burn. to cut it approximately to shape. with kiln-dried stock fresh from the dry-house. and small pieces are occasionally hung up. The Fig. Even if wood has been well seasoned it is best. One test is to rap the the lumber will . but it is doubtful whether the process improves the Smoking and steaming are also resorted to. These differences cannot be accurately described and must be learned by actual work. usually has a different odor. for such nice work as billiard cues and bows. Whenever wood has been exposed to damp air. Let it have time Strips cut from wide stock to get into harmony with the atmosphere. Small quality of the wood. A common way is to pile as in Fig. 540. or crack the wood.

which are signs of decay. as with many green sticks which can be easily bent but have not much elasticity.2o8 A Shorter Course in Woodworking boards sharply with a hammer. Much can be learned about the character and condition of lumber by sawing or planing or whittling a piece. but the latter is more elastic Applying moisture with heat to seasoned wood brings it back. Sometimes cross-grained stock is desirable. as in mahogany for furniture. but tough wood may have but little elasticity. is not so strong. as with lancewood or white ash. These two qualities are Elastic wood must necessarily found combined in varying degrees in all woods.) Even a slight winding may make much trouble in nice work. Stock with a bright lustrous appearance and of dark hue is generally superior to that of a lighter color and duller appearance. or both. or of the attack of fungi. This defect can be detected by the eye or a straight stick. on account of the beautiful figure of the grain. Green wood is tougher than seasoned. have toughness up to the breaking point. and makes it tougher for the time being. whereas kiln-drying lightens the color of some woods. but such characteristics depend much upon the kind of wood. or the wattles of a basket. Boards and planks are not always sawed to a uniform thickness. Reject wood which smells musty. to a certain extent. which may spread. or has rusty-looking spots. This is a good test for dryness. ^ There is a distinction between the elasticity needed for such purposes as a bow or springboard. since it is harder to work and to smooth. often due to careless "sticking. Warped or curled stock with the surface rounded or hollowed is also bad. Reject crooked stock. to its original condition. but must spring back (or nearly so) to its former shape when released. . For plain work avoid "cross-grained" stock. A green board and a dry one of the same kind will have a different vibration and give out a different sound. and for nice work avoid that which has knots. hence the process of bending wood by the application of steam or hot water. (See page 1 8. toughness. and elasticity (which you can tell about by breaking the shavings) Weather-dried timber is usually somewhat darkened from exposure. The worst form is winding or twisting. 541). while in the latter case it must bend without breaking but is not required to spring back to its original form. In the former case the material must not merely bend without breaking. where the . and the toughness required for the ribs of a canoe. Look particularly for this defect. and does not hold its shape so well." Use caution about stock badly checked or cracked at the ends. Stock is sometimes sprung or bent lengthways. and rough stock should be examined for this defect before buying. or wavy (Fig. however.

though usually inferior in other respects. Do not buy thick stock with the idea of sawing it into thinner pieces (unless necessary). for instance. It is better to do this for nice work even if an extra charge be made. 540). will show from what part of the log the pieces were sawed. the grain. When buying. while in an old tree the heart having begun to deteriorate is softer and not so good as the more recently formed growths nearer the sapwood. sometimes considered superior to the heartwood. ends in dry stock are sometimes sized with glue to prevent checking. It is common to simply smooth off. as nearly as may be. .Appendix 209 drying takes place most rapidly. and strongest in the young tree usually being nearest the heart.. select the stock yourself. Avoid sap wood. have it planed equally. instead of splitting up If thicker lumber. which in a measure prevents this result. hickory. because it is usually inferior. though the latter is often stronger and more durable and preferable for many purposes. etc. In some kinds of wood it is Fig_ ^41 impossible to tell before the In mahogany. Suddenly exposing the middle of a piece of wood to the air often entirely alters the shape. and then plane the board down on the other side. the sapwood (when visible). is tougher than the heartwood. and timber light in weight is sometimes tougher than heavy wood. for you cannot be sure that these will be so true as the original stock. In the case of elm. they sometimes are found to extend. from both sides. or "surface" one side. The ends of valuable boards and planks are sometimes painted or cleated. Carefully pile and "stick" the stock on hand (Fig. Occasionally. as a rule. almost infinite. and young ash the sapwood is. several feet beyond where they appear to stop. The sapwood. stock is cut where cracks and splits end. often making it warp badly at once. or develop. however. The growth and structure of trees is a very complex matter. for example. If you want to use boards for good work buy those which have seasoned as boards. as it will tend 'As a rule. however. when a cleat is removed a crack will suddenly open and even Freshly cut split the board. the best. If the tree is in its prime the wood is more uniformly hard throughout. and the diversities hardest. The annual rings at the ends of the boards. and always try to treat both sides of a board alike. you have an inch board planed down by machine to three eighths of an inch. wood from a young tree is tougher than that from an old one.

and sooner or later will totally destroy the wood. protection from the sun and posts. however. as in the piles of a wharf. The latter ways. as in all organic bodies. particularly in the bark. but some of the sub- stances involved in the growth soon decay. but does not decay. Stock for nice work must be kept and used in a dry place. and perhaps be ruined.210 A all Shorter Cause in Woodworking to keep the pieces straight directly is and true. so the more the sap can be got rid of the better.542 rain. decomposition begins. and will not Thorresist so much. hot. or when the seasoned. and decay it. and the turpentine and oils and resinous deposits found in needle-leaved trees. however. The woody fibre itself will last for ages. which abounds in other volatile oak and a number of trees. When kept constantly wet it is somewhat softened. are also the least favorable for the attacks of animal life and of fungi. moisture and dryness. while the parts above and below are still sound. such as tannic acid. ^ The conditions best for the preservation of the wood. which render the wood more durable. There are. Wood lasts the best when kept dry and well ventilated. close Fig. — Tim- ber decays fastest when alternately wet and dry. sets attack preferring The sap is liable to ferment. Decay and Preservation. tint. aside from those elements especially required for their growth. Decay originates chiefly in the decom- position of the sap (although in living trees past their prime decay begins in the heartwood while the sapwood is sound). Do not lay a single board of nice stock flat on its side on the bench or floor. . the best of The top board work is removed later to a dry place 152. 542 shows the decay caused by alternate wetness and dryness. ough seasoning. and the like. as the sills and floor-timbers over some damp and unventilated cellar. Fig. As soon as the tree has been felled and dies. Fungi may fasten upon the wood. to keep a pile of stock once thoroughly will warp. shown by a bluish in. and free circulation of air are the es^ sentials to the preservation of timber. it will shrink or warp. Worms and insects may also that which is richest in sap. moist. Keep short pieces. Never lay good boards down flat upon one another unless they are thoroughly seasoned. which it is not worth while to "stick. some substances found in various trees. fenceor when exposed to a atmosphere." standing on end where they will be equally exposed on all sides to heat and cold. as referred to above.

which interferes with the process of evaporation. decay. or else 153. are good and cheap preservatives. and the work must be put together to allow for it. it draws moisture from the wood. and swells. damp. and in time results in the entire crumbling away of the wood. the wood swells more. The so-called "creosote stains" are excellent for outside work. Creosote is one of the best preservatives known. applied hot in thin coats. the swelling and shrinking of dry wood has to be borne in mind for many kinds of work. This continual swelling and shrinking cannot be prevented. does not attack dry wood. but in using any coating. When taken from the kiln it absorbs moisture from the air. Creosote is preventive to the extent to which it saturates the wood. 543 shows the to dryness common 154. like cellars and the more confined parts of ships. not very expensive. and easily Coal-tar and wood-tar or pitch. swaying in the wind. Fig. the wood should be thoroughly dry when it is applied. as in warm. its and fungi are repelled by odor. between the annual rings so as to separate the layers. When the air — becomes dryer. When the air becomes more damp. ' For instance. Various expensive processes for preserving wood are in use where large quantities Painting with oil paint is of course the most common way of are required. but is found where there is dampness and lack of free circulation of air. Charring the ends of fence-posts by holding them for a short time over a fire is a common method. or other causes. also HEARTand moisture. and unventilated situations. protecting wood. and are due to uneven shrinkage. as paint or tar. or the coating will confine the moisture and favor decay. Dry rot. forms. Besides guarding against Effects of Expansion and Contraction. if you were to glue cleats for their whole length across the side of a .Appendix Many Insects 211 preparations and chemical processes have been tried for the preservation of wood. damage from the shrinking of green wood. Wet rot is a decay of the unseasoned wood. It occurs in wood alternately exposed applied. which is due to fungi. Shakes are cracks radiating from the centre of the tree. which may also be caused in seasoned wood by moisture with a temperate degree of warmth. and the latter becomes dryer and shrinks.

often produce very crooked and tangled grain. 544. swell and shrink. Cracks. cracks result. for instance. Some kinds of wood shrink much in drying. and cracking are obviated in many cases where objec- drawing-board three feet wide. . unexpected bending and twisting will often develop in the smaller pieces which did not exist in the original stock. Such trees may show Even in straight trees the pith is seldom quite straight. Frequently the heart of a tree is not in the centre. Exposure Fig. Put one end of a green board into a hot oven. Some. after seasoning. others but little. If one part shrinks much faster than another. Figs. In some kinds of mahog- any. As another example see Fig. twisting. 638. curling. 546). In addition.212 A Shorter Course in Woodworking irregular wood are due to and uneven swelling and shrinking. Fig- due to suddenly exposing the 545 Fig. 544 of either one side of a seasoned piece to dampness or heat will cause it to curl. wounds. the twisting of the stems. or twisting of Stock once thoroughly air-dried. for the dampness swells the it. the fibres are strangely interlaced and run in different directions in layers which are quite near each other. Warping. an exaggerated way. curl and warp. The heated end will crack and split before the rest of the board has fairly begun to dry. and other causes. alters less under ordinary circumstances. winding. to a marked degree with the changes of the atmosphere. enough to allow for shrinking and swelling. In some cases it takes such a devious course as to make the grain so crooked that the tendency to warp or twist cannot be prevented by any method of sawing. and the wood of many broad-leaved trees is sometimes extremely complicated in texture. it would probably not be many weeks before the cleats would be loosened for at least part of their length. 546 fresh cuts to the atmosphere. because of the expansion or contraction In such cases the cleats should be fastened with screws which have play of the board. warping. screw-fashion (as seen in cedar). side affected or the heat shrinks In cutting wood into smaller pieces. however. the knots caused by branches. due to the crooked way the tree grew when young (Fig. 545 illustrate this in beautiful variations of grain.

Where but one side of a board is seen or used. warping and twisting can sometimes be largely prevented by lengthways saw-cuts (easily made with the circular saw) on the back or under surface. the annual rings at the ends will not run together as in a natural piece. These should be selected and put together so that. and you cannot change the shape without breaking Fig. though the grain will run in the same direction lengthways. but will be reversed or arranged in various combinations.) by building up with a number of smaller pieces. Thus instead of a single swelling and shrinking (see page 167). panelled work also illustrate various methods of preventing damage from act each other. but in many cases it . and where the full strength is not needed. This very simple principle has innumerable applications in all kinds of Where there is no strain upon a structure to alter its shape. making it it. so that the warping will merely result in a slightly wavy line. so that the warping and twisting tendencies of the different parts will counter- board which would naturally become warped in one large curve. as in a drawing-board. nail a diagonal 155. Strength of Materials. 548 constructive work. diagonal strengthening is not necessary. you will find that you cannot alter the shape of the triangle without applying force enough to break it. — three strips of strip to the rectangle (Fig. the tops of benches. A FEW ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF CONSTRUCTION Importance of Diagonal Members. Whereas a little pushing or pulling will change the shape of the rectangle. into two triangles. 548). 547). 547 Fig. Now. the crossways strength required Doors and most forms of being secured by cleating or other devices. etc.Appendix tionable (as in the 213 wooden frames of machines. Nail wood together to form a triangle (Fig. Nail also four strips to form a square. 140). a number of strips can be glued up (Fig.

In making splices and other joints where strength is required. The strength to resist a It rr^ay may be strained or destroyed in several ways: by being may be crushed or pushed together. A beam ten feet long is twice as strong as one twenty feet long. so if we put a diagonal rod from A to D it will tie the . therefore the aim should be to make a joint or splice as nearly equal in strength to the parts The joint best for one strain is usually not the best for another. 549. " ' A piece of wood or metal stretched or pulled apart. compression. .or cross-strain. as A and D have Now been pushed farther apart and B and C drawn nearer together. For example. to be A plain butt joint fastened to prevent movement sideways is sufficient for compression. is as the width. it be broken across. or shearing is in proportion to the area of its section. except by the giving way of some part. A beam eight inches deep is four times as strong as one four inches deep. but often requires strengthening for cross-strain also. The strength of a piece of wood or metal to resist crushing. tension. 550. it may transverse or cross-strain depth. Fig. soon begins to get out of shape. Joints subjected to tension require careful planning to preserve so far as possible the full strength. as in Fig. be broken or injured by any or several of these strains. or it may be twisted apart by torsion. 549 tance A D will be longer and B C shorter than before. That is. four inches wide is twice as strong as one two inches wide. inversely as the length. and as the square of the Doubling the width doubles the strength. c I? sU ^a r ' ' i l—U —U—U 550 11 U U U U U o Fig. an iron rod is good for a pulling strain (tension) but not for a pushing strain (compression). it connects as possible. tranverse. therefore the fewer different strains a joint is subjected to the better. After the gate has settled out of shape the dis- plOJLiULJL. a beam strength by two. it should be borne in mind that the strength of any structure is limited by the strength of its weakest part. made as in Fig. a driveway gate. A piece with a section two square inches in area is twice as strong as one with a section one square inch in area. If it have a diagonal member it cannot do At first the diagonal distances this. A Shorter Course in Woodworking planned is for a lightly built structure properly often much stronger than a heavily built one of poor design. Doubling the length divides the Doubling the depth multiplies the strength by four. AD and BC were equal.214 is essential. tension.

This principle applies to the trusses of a bridge or a roof. for the slight sagging A and D l„n 1 m f i^ ^a n n n n J^m u u u u u u Fig. although these made up of many pieces instead of one piece. if we wish to put a diagonal member from B to C. 554). it will suffer the same kind of strain as the twig. and we should not use a rod. it will be under a pushing strain (compression). If you were told in time of war to destroy a wooden railroad bridge. shortening (compression) in the top part and pulling out (tension) in the lower part. as they are called (A in Fig. 554 floor-timber.Appendix points 21 and the gate will hold its shape (Fig. and the . 551). showing twig. 553 Fig. the lower under tension. except which is inevitable in such work. or as a is m —^Compression B « w Fig. (Fig. if being lengthened or pulled out (or subjected to tension)^ you lay a piece of timber 2" x 8" across a brook for a bridge. together. showing that the top that the lower part Now. all you would have to do would be to are saw through the lower chords. but a wooden brace or strut. The bark is hang a weight at the middle and see will pucker on the upper side of the being shortened or compressed.551 Lay a twig what happens across two supports. Or. which will stand the pushing and will not easily bend (Fig. The upper part is under compression. 552). The bark will be stretched and perhaps cracked apart on the under side. since the points B and C will tend to come nearer together. 553). 552 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ race u u u u u Fig.

instead. being fastened to the beam. 557). for the top would be under compression and the saw-kerf would immediately close up like any butt joint that is being pushed together. which applies compression to the beam. 557 the braces. 556. as. For a wider distance the beam (or girder) can be supported by braces as in Fig. it is comin turn put the beam under tension. it pulls on the rod at the middle. will push or thrust on them. The weight at bending the beam. and the middle of the beam hung from their apex (Fig. Fig. Bridge trying to pull apart the time. one half the thrust being put upon each brace which in turn pushes against the abutment. in a common I-beam of iron (Fig. hanging from the apex. mon to strengthen or stiffen a beam as in Fig. for example. and they will be under compression. since an unsecured butt-joint might work out of place. The bridge would not be so strong. The The simplest is distance to lay a pjg ^55 weight on the beam. pushes the braces.2l6 bridge would A fall. pushes the strut or block A. but it would not fall of itself. and this pulls on the rod. way to bridge over a short beam on edge. In fact the pressure would bind the saw unless the kerf were forced open. . twice as over its A beam will bear much weight equally distributed length as when applied at the centre. As another illustration. the bridge would still stand. as well as W roofs. 554). 555 In order that the material may resist the compression and tension to the best advantage it is placed with reference to these strains. These crude illustrations give the clue to the general principles which. apply to the construction of many comparatively simple pieces of work. often carried much farther. or the braces can be put on top. Shorter Course in for the lower part all Woodworking would be under the strain of tension If you were to saw the upper chord and (B in Fig. When the beam begins to bend with the weight applied. 558. in which a good deal of the metal is purposely arranged at the top and bottom. I trusses illustrate this also. and the like. and Fig. bridges. 555). This rod. bearing downward.

little strips of soft 217 pine perhaps >^" x 3^" X 12' pieces. . is merely a rough explanation of the meaning of the terms. and positions of the take accurate dimensions from various parts. This view ^ called the plan. one opposite every point of the object. The view object is of what you would see called the front elevation. Such experiments show the strength derived from combination. Bridges of this kind made by pupils of the writer have supported the weight of entire classes (several thousand pounds). support an enormous weight. Very little force will break one of these together to form a simple lattice bridge as shown in perhaps 6' or 8' long and each side or truss several Nail Fig. To do so we must have drawings which show at once the exact shapes. In the same manner the rear elevation Next. SOME PRACTICAL PROBLEMS IN DRAWING AND LAYING OUT WORK While a photograph or picture shows how an object looks. 559. If the sides or ends are not alike. sizes. imagine yourself directly above the object. strictly speaking. not the way the front or side would appear if looked at from one position. we cannot it with a rule. The elevation is. and long levers have sometimes been necessary to break them. them making it strips in thickness.Appendix Have a few hundred prepared. two side or end views may be needed. as is sometimes the case. Compfession Fig- 558 Fig.559 it will Though a very slight-looking affair. side or end elevation. ' This definition of elevations and plan as being representations of what you would see you stood opposite the sides or above the top of the object. but the way it would appear if you could look at it from directly opposite every point of it as if you could have an infinite if — number of eyes. and also that the strength of a model is much greater proportionately than a larger structure. if you stood directly in front of an Stand opposite either side or end and you have the is is shown.

expressing the design with the details in working drawings. line. to save making extra drawings.' Elevations are taken at right angles to the plan. each line of a drawing is one half the length of the same line in the a "half-size" drawing. it is called If the drawing is not made with accuracy. and shows what would be seen if the object were cut The surface supposed to be cut is usually indicated by parallel apart. frequently shown by changing the direction of the parallel lines. and is said to be drawn on a If "one-fourth size. first to design the if object. This is called a "section" (Lat. and it gives a better idea of In making a drawing which is symmetrical. Yet since too many dotted lines are confusing. Details inside of an object. one must understand the construction of the object to prove to be always the logical or sensible it come before the work. 662. sectio. it be made. should depend upon his knowledge of the construction of the object he is to make. scale of 6" to the foot." the scale is 3" to the foot. —that is. from secare. or 3^" =1'. This requires that the work be thought out to the end and thoroughly understood.. — in fact. = i ft. it is frequently best to make another kind of — drawing to show such details. The scale is often expressed as an equation. Independent parts. . which to be made but exactly how to make Every detail and measurement should be accurately drawn to scale.. to cut). The drawing must should be made by the pupil. If the object is quite simple. may be sufficient. drawings are required at all they is must obviously be made before the object is begun. Make drawings full-sized when the object is not too large. one elevation and the plan.: 2 in. as in ' It is the custom in all practical work for which drawings are used. rough preparatory sketches being made first when necessary. or two elevations without the plan.2i8 A Shorter Course in Woodworking All important work should be should show not only exactly what it. or be provided for him. it is necessary to put the dimensions upon it. are often shown by dotted lines. as in Fig. If real object. as those of different pieces. are lines crossing it. the necessary and logical mode of procedure in professional work does not it That this necessarily way for the beginner. is made from working drawings. Sometimes dotted lines are used in the same way to show the back of an object. To make working drawings properly. viz. but whether be made. a safeguard to lay out from a centre and labor and space are usually saved by drawing on one side of the centre line only. This is often done for convenience with drawings which are accurate. Mistakes are is less likely to how it is the object to look. such parts as cannot be seen or properly shown in the elevations or plan.

It is often a help to have a picture of the object to be made as well as a working drawing. i. two triangles (Figs. dividers (with pencil point). . Where the appearance of the object is of consequence. although the first step in the process. An idea in the mind is not always sufficient from which to make working drawings. — — ^ Greek. 561 Fig. Use of the T-square. Oblique or parallel projections are often used. Isometric perspective will not readily give the correct dimensions except in the lines which are vertical or which slant either way at an angle of 30° with the horizontal. rule or scale.) Another way of representing objects for practical purposes is shown in Figs. sketch or picture the completed object often looks quite different from what was expected. When the idea is put into the form of a picture. 560 Drawing Instruments. (See page 221.) Fig. 560 and 561). 219 sometimes be combined in A half-elevation and half-section can one drawing. the picture is important. as may 157. so far as obtaining correct dimensions for is concerned..Appendix Fig. portant for common pencil work are a drawing board. and is known as isometric^ projection or isometric perspecThis method is incorrect so far as giving an accurate picture is tive. it often does not look as you thought it would. 661. but they are easily drawn and readily understood. 479. but is often useful because by it all that is required can frequently be expressed in one drawing. from which measurements can be made. 571. you cannot take the other dimensions off with a rule as from a plan. The most im156. equal measure. and if you had started at once on the working drawings the result would have been unsatEven after making a satisfactory isfactory and sometimes impracticable. it is practically not useful other than rectangular objects. though even with objects having curved parts it may advantageously be used to show the general shape. as in the case of a house or bookcase. and thumb tacks. T-square. (See page 221. lead pencil (rather hard). concerned. Such projections are not true representations of the objects as they appear to the eye.e. Therefore. in forming a correct idea of something you may never have seen. Slide the head up or down.

220 be required. 562). round point. 562 lines. pencil. A Use Shorter Course in the left Woodworking the against side of drawing board only as in Fig. of Triangles. 564 offers suggestions for practise in the use of T-square. and Fig- between are which given 563 Fig. 578.^ Many kinds of lines are often used by draughtsmen. / . — Slide them against the T-square and against one another. with a fiat or wedgeshaped edge (Fig. for careful drawing. Pencils for common use can be sharpened with a 159. and straight-edge. Celluloid triangles are very convenient. 158. rule. Parts not seen are designated by dotted parts Fig. dimensions by ^10"-^. knife.

To bisect a straight line (Fig. 572 measured by the number of degrees it includes. 574). 567). By connecting the ends of these lines the shape of the block is shown. 568). 571 illustrates isometric perspective. 596. An arc is 16. Fig. are examples. as shown. Geometrical problems in common use in practical work: I. 567 Fig. Fig. Figs. —Let AB be the given straight . Fig. in which all the measurements and are drawn at the are taken either vertically or at angles of 30° with the horizontal. An angle is also measured by the number of degrees of the arc included between its sides. 569 Fig.Appendix (Fig. 568 Fig. 596. is In oblique perspective' (Fig. lines of the right length same angle. 570 correct shape size and then. as the angle DOB in Fig. 571 Fig. 569 and 570. 221 566). the front of the object drawn of the n: I I P tei- . as the arc DB in Fig. from the angles. Turn the upright board down and you have these three flat views displayed on a surface (Fig.

A Shorter Course in Woodworking AB. y F £ Whole Fig. at the To draw a perpendicular from a point (Fig. 2. 575 From C as centre. 577). 360' 573 Fig. at E. 4. and and /' with the radius CB describe an arc DBE cutting AB at E. From these points with any radius greater than CD or CE. circle \ B D 574 Fig. (Fig. then draw DB. B 576 — From D and E as centres and with will csvy radius describe arcs cutting each other at F. Draw CD cutting AB AB is then bisected at E. — Let AB end of "^ be the given straight line. AF be the perpendicular required. From A and B as centres. Draw a horizontal line with the . 3. and C the given point. describe arcs cutting each other in F. Take any point C above the line. describe arcs cutting the line at D and E. but for common work the T-square and triangles can be used. with any radius. The methods given above are the most accurate. B the given point. which will be the required perpendicular. a given straight line from a point without the line (Fig. to To draw a perpendicular £'~~ Fig. From a given point in a given straight line to erect a perpendicular 575). From the point A describe an arc cutting BC at D and E. a line 576). Draw ECD. with radius greater than half of describe arcs cutting each other at C and D.222 line.— Let AB be the given straight line. FC will be the perpendicular required. Let A be the given point and BC the given straight line.

without the T-square. perpendiculars can be erected in any position (Fig. 577 square in its use only vertical perpendiculars can be erected with the triangles. Two triangles. can be used in a similar manner Any straight-edge can be used in (Fig. ing the T-square is that by so doing the perpendicular can be more accurately drawn at the required point.Appendix 223 T-square. With the F Fig. Tnormal r — With triangles. On the mathematical principle that the square of the hypothenuse is equal to the squares of the other two sides. 5 1 579. or straight-edge and triangle. 578). but it can of course be used merely as a straight -edge. slide the T-square down a little. 580). place of the lower triE rangle shown in Fig. 579). place a triangle at the desired The reason for lowerpoint and draw the perpendicular (Fig. a right angle can always be .

A — Let Shorter Course in Woodworking AB be the given line and to cut - as a centre draw an arc AB ^ / / / / C the given point. to cut the first arc in it E. draw an arc to cut AB in F. . With D as centre and CF as radius draw an arc in D.224 (Fig. 582). Draw a line through C and E and will oe parallel to AB. With C With the same radius and D as a centre.

an arc — DE cutting AB and BC at D and E.Appendix point 225 A lay off any convenient equal distances F. angle. and so that DA is the equal to DB. with A special tool for bisecting angles. point D. and GH. 590 Fig. 591 arc DE ' AB is at the points D and and E. . Draw HB. angle gles ABC is ed into two equal an- ABF the and FBC. steel 589 (Fig. J. — Let BAC be the given From A cutting describe an Fig. HB. Let From B describe be the given angle. FG. 7. To bisect an angle with framing or square 589). 585). points tant from C. EJ. ABC To bisect a given angle (Fig. describe arcs intersecting in F.^ From the Place the steel square with one leg touching the point A and the other the point B. Then AB will be and D divided into AD. FK. a given angle (Fig. point C lay off A and B equally dis- Mark 8. and DI parallel to equal parts at I. 588). K. it will bisect the angle the dividFig. DE. drawn by For ordinary small work these parallel lines can be quickly sliding a triangle against a straight-edge (Fig. with any equal radii. and L. EF. draw GL. From D and E. and from G. From F as a centre. Draw BF and That is. To to construct an angle ^:-^ equal 590). ABC. The Hne CD will bisect the angle ACB. made AC Draw the line FG. E.

Then the lines AG and BG will be at 45° with the line MO. 591). A-9^"c-75 H-15' This can often be done by so adjusting a and a straight-edge (T-square blade. another triangle or ruler) that when the triangle is slid against the straight-edge the angle can be drawn (Fig. so that the same divisions on each blade of the square will fall on the line MO. done by eye. 594. with the steel square. To draw it a right angle (Prob. can be divided with approximate dividing the arc accuracy. and trisect it with the lines and BF (Prob.226 A Shorter Course in Woodworking From I J at the same radius. which as far as the process can be carried with geometrical accuracy. Bisect and ABE with the lines is BG and BH. Place the square as in Fig. with radius equal to ED. — angle ABC (Prob. try a combination of triangles. 2). 2) and with a triangle use the triangle having two Draw angles of 45° each. 592 certain angles (Fig. This of di- vides the right angle into divisions 593 15° each. Bisect it with the line BD BE FBC Fig. draw an arc cutting the arc J as a centre. or a mitre. To lay out Fig. To mark an angle of 45°. H. Each of these into divisions degrees. a protractor for obtaining Draw the right 592). by first 593) into three parts with dividers. triangle 9. HC B Fig. 595 shows laying out the angle from the edge of a board. describe an arc IJ cutting FG at J. 594 To draw an angle of 4^°. and then dividing each of these thirds into five parts. 7). 10. 7). 14). Draw FH and the angle HFG will E-bO' be equal to BAG. (Prob. — bisect it (Prob. as nearly as can be (Fig. Fig. If the sides of the angles are not respectively parallel. — .

To draw angles ofjo°. The angles of an equilateral triangle (Fig. 560 and 561).Appendix II. and A and B as centres. BOD will be 60°. 598 To draw these angles with a triangle. and 120° is made by projecting either of the sides. 120°. use the corresponding angles of the triangle (Figs. Draw OC and OD. and be 30°. FOB of the other angles can be bisected in the same way. side of 60°. 596). COB will be 120°. so these angles can be accurately found by drawing an equilateral triangle with dividers (Prob. 227 dividers (Fig. Either Fig. 597) are 60°. strike arcs inter- Fig. a straight line. 598). 595 secting the semi-circumference at C and D. and 150° with On one ence. Bisect AOC (Prob. or approximately with the rule (Fig. COD. 597 Fig. with any radius. . Angles will AOC. 7) will and AOF be 90°. will FOD be 150°. 15). draw a semi-circumfer- With the same radius.

Place the square as shown with the edge of the equals DC. 600. a circle tangent to a straight line (Fig. Then the blade on the point C. 60°. compasses on a straight-edged board. 602 Hne AD DC BC BAD BCA and 150°. with radius equal to the radius of the circle.228 If A Shorter Course in Woodworking on the bevel the bevel be applied to the steel square so that the distance intercepted is twice that on one of the arms of the square. 120°. Draw the and 30° with the line MO. This method can be used at the edge of a board to set the bevel as in AB and AC. with drawing tools. and so that the distance equals 60°. circle Draw centre Fig. side. and the angle angle gles BCO and BAN.^ 12. 601) the and distances equal to each other. being supplements of these angles. the angles — In a right-angled triangle the hypothenuse of which is twice the length of the short adjacent to the hypothenuse will be 30° and 60°. 601 Fig. The exterior anequals 30°. will equal 120° Fig. or ijo° with the steel square. Fig. ' . To draw an angle \ of 30°. to which the bevel can be applied. gles of jo° — Describe MO of To draw anand 150°. or by using the bevel set by means of the steel square (see below) these angles can be obtained. 603 (Fig. a line from the the 599 perpendicular to the line MO lines at the point A. therefore by laying out a triangle of such proportions. To set The angle can be laid out with the bevel at any required angle. 599). the angles which the blade of the bevel makes with the square will be 60° and 30°. Lay off on a straight — Fig. . strike arcs cutting the circle at which will give angles of 150° B and C. From the point A.

Let AB be the length of one _£ side of the required triangle. 605). the distance between these points can be measured and will be the length of the required side (Fig. with the framing square and rule. when the lengths of the other two Fig. 606). 608). To find the length of the hypothenuse of a rightangled triangle. The centre of a piece of wood can often be found by using compasses as This way can also be used for irregular shaped in Fig. pieces. as the compasses will trace a small copy of the outline (Fig. with the division 7 on the edge of one blade at the point A and the division 12 on the other blade touching the given line. 605 sides are given. as in Fig. draw arcs to cut DE in F and G. quarter-inches. lines To find the centre of a square or rectangle (Fig. 603 or a gauge. _S To draw an equilateral triangle with the steel square (Fig. approximately. 604 To construct a triangle. describe an arc at F. measurement This method can be used to find _A the length of a brace approximately. with radius equal to B. With D and E as centres and with the same Draw BF and BG and radius. place the square against the point B — ' This applies only to a right angle. or any equal divisions can be taken as the unit of p. its three sides being given (Fig. 607). as a centre. cutting the former at F. Place the square as pig. 13. 600.^ right angle. In the same way. 15. Inches. Fig. From E . Join FD _C and FE and DEF the triangle required. Draw diagonal from the opposite angles and they will intersect in the centre. lay ofiE on the blades of the square the lengths of the given sides. describe another arc. . To trisect a right angle (Fig. From D as a centre.Appendix Lay out 229 the angle from a line drawn parallel to the edge. By applying the rule. 604). — Make DE equal is to C. 602). with radius equal to A. so that there will be no need to try to set the point of the compasses at the exact edge of the board. 14. 606 shown. these lines will trisect the right angle ABC. Draw AC. —Let ABC be the With B as a centre and any convenient radius draw an arc DE. as 6 and 9.

C to with radius equal A describe an arc in F. 611 From D 18.230 A Shorter Course in Produce Woodworking to and draw DB. ^C D ' oblong \ with given as A -—j. 610). and ABDC is the square required. —At the given point A erect a perpendicular AB (Prob. To draw a circle or an arc tangent to a straight line at a given point (Fig. and AC equal to AB. bisects the arc. 609). To bisect an arc and its chord (Fig. — Let AB be the arc. 16. 609 equilateral triangle required. CD. draw arcs intersecting at G. To draw an or rectangle sides. Then CFGD is the oblong required. Draw CD and parallel AB and AC. and B (Fig. 19. 610 Fig. 612). 17. but a square can be drawn and triangle. This method is not so accurate as to use compasses.^^^ ^ — Make CD equal to B. This for ordinary purposes with T-square most accurately done with dividers. AEB will be the Fig. 607 Fig. AC and DB meet in E. Draw FG and GD. and from F with radius equal to B. To describe a square on a given line AB (Fig. At C erect a perFrom pendicular CE. the perpendicular bisector of the chord. with radius equal to A. 608 Fig. 611). . — Make BD the angle to CAB is a right angle. cutting CE Fig.

21. work it is impossible to be absolutely accurate. Fig. angle of the square should touch the curve at any point. and DCE angles. 231 With radius equal to that of the required circle or arc. Their intersection will be the Take radius equal to one half the length of the side of the square. 616 ence of the circle 616). ACEG be the square required. DBE. It is on this principle that the core-box plane is constructed for working out semi-circular hollows.Appendix 2). point A as centre. take a point midway between. Draw AC. In whatever position and measuring the distance between the points cuts the circumference. 617. EG. In Fig. — Let CG and ABCDEFGH will To inscribe a square in a given circle (Fig. A and B where the edge of the square Conversely: if the diameter of a circle be given. if the points do not coincide. 613 But in all such should be opposite the first. 615 Fig. Draw diameters A E and Fig. The accuracy of a semi-circular hollow can be tested by applying the square as in Fig. — Draw di- agonals within the square. 615 Thus circumference to the ends of the will be right Consequently the diameter of a circle can be found approximately by applying a square with the angle touching the circumfer- DAE. be the circle. therefore it is well to also measure around the other way and. Fig. C is the centre of the required circle or arc. describe and with the an arc cutting the perpendicular at C. 612 at right angles to each other. To inscribe an octagon in a given in the circle in a semi-circle chords drawn from any point diameter will form a right angle with each other. as at C (Fig.^ To find points opposite each other on a cyclindrical stick. and the last point A Fig. 614). To inscribe a circle in a square (Fig. ' 614 22. 20. dius three times on the circumference. 613). From a given point lay off the raas required for boring. GA. when the. the circumference can be found by applying the square to the ends of the diameter. CE. . centre of the required circle.

Bisect GO at I. the circumference will be divided into eight equal parts. BC. . 620 To inscribe a polygon of any number of around with is sides within applied. Join these points and ABCDEF will be the hexagon required. I Draw diameters ^ AF and GH at right angles. describe an arc KE J a" cutting the circumference at E. or bisecting the chords. in practical work where exactness not required. Such methods can be used inaccurate. F. gon or an equilateral triangle in a given circle (Fig. DE. Join every other point. producing the as a centre. Bisect two of . —With the radius of the circle describe a succession of arcs cutting the cirFig 617 cle in the points A. CD. — LetABCDE I be the given circle. 619). D. but are apt to be somewhat See also Fig. C. and B. ABC From D a (Prob. To inscribe a pentagon in a given circle (Fig. describe circle. as ^ J><^'^-~j\ BAC i^ and lines to intersect D. the angle or point of the square will describe the semi-circumference required._^ the perpendicular distance from sides. ABCDE will be the Fig. 614). Join these points and pentagon required. From A as centre. — the angles. E and ACE will be the equilateral triangle required. then the angles by diameters. and by sliding the square its Nails can be driven edges bearing against the nails. 628. with AK as radius. Draw AB. GH. With AE as radius describe a succession of arcs cutting the circumference in D. and the octagon required. FG. B. EF. E. HA.232 (Fig. 24. the point (angle) of the square will touch the circumference. as A. 26. ^ C. With as centre and as radius describe an arc AK cutting GH at K. with radius equal of to the ^^^ ^y I ^J^S\ \. ABCDEFGH will be To inscribe a hexa23. 618). at A and B. 7). A Shorter Course in Woodworking by bisecting — Proceed as in Prob. 21. C. To inscribe a circle in a triangle (Fig. D to any K 25. 620).

with AD as 6). With H as centre. GH cutting the last arc in first I. ABEJC will be the pentagon required. lines from D and F. 624 an octagon within a given square (Fig. 621). cutting the two arcs in C and Draw AC and BE. 623). B. Place the square as shown of the square at point C. with radius AC. IM. in J.. as centres. — From A and B as cen- G with radius AB. Fig. 622). F. etc. draw arcs intersecting Draw CJ and EJ. draw arcs to intersect in G. From A and D as centres. or BE. tres. Draw E. and FJ. draw arcs intersecting in and H. Draw through I. E. 27. H. A. J. To construct a regular pentagon one side being given (Fig. describe Draw LH. Join these and ABCDEF will be the polygon points required. With radius CD draw a succession of arcs cut- ting the circumference in B. From G radius. K. many equal parts (6 for example) as the required polygon has sides (Prob. L. and with radius cutting the other two arcs in HA. —Bisect To lay off an octagon in a given side AB square. Let ABCD be the given square. From C and E as centres. . I. with radius AE. Draw the diagonals AC and DB intersecting at E. M. GK. draw an arc D and F. 622 Fig. draw a line — through the second point (2 or 4) cutting the circumference of the circle in C. 28. with the steel square (Fig. G. D. arcs cutting the sides of the square in F. C. From A. and LHGKIMJF will be the octagon required.Appendix a given 233 Draw a diameter AD and divide it into as circle (Fig. To construct — 624).

the To find the centre of a circle of which AB whole circumference. Then with the gauge mark lines on the sides of the stick. B. C will is Erect perpendiculars at E and F intersecting at be the centre of the arc passing through A. chords From E and F draw circle. first lay out a hexagon on the end of the stick as in Fig. describe a circle the distance through A around the circumference as chords. AB and BD. and BD. 30. The exterior angle. Mark points 7 divisions from each edge. and C. ADEFGB will be will pass whose cirand B. The point E is at one angle of the octagon. (Fig. Bisect them at E and F. and the same distance on the other blade touches the line AB at E. to form an octagon. GB. AD.234 A Shorter Course in Woodworking so that the distance AC taken on the edge of one blade comes at the point A. DE. — To construct a hexagon on a given side (Fig. 626 30. with radius AB. 627). 623. is given (Fig. according to the Fig. — C. lines perpendicular to AB and BD. . Gauge lines through these points parallel to the edges (Fig. 452. With and radius cumference CA CB. so that the rest of the figure can be laid off either byrepeating the process or by the gauge and angles of 45°. is 45°. 627 Draw Through three given points to draw an arc Let A. C will be the centre of the 31. 29. EF. Fig. 625 size of the stick) between the edges of the wood. B. FG. intersecting at C. To lay out the lines approximately hold the square or rule so that there will be 24 divisions (inches or fractions of an inch. 627). Fig. and D be the given points. as in Fig. Apply AB the required hexagon. —From A and C as centre B. 625). Bisect the chord AB at E and the chord — Draw the BD at F. or describe arcs cutting each other in C. To lay out the lines for making a square stick hexagonal. or an arc. . 626). This essentially the problem same as Prob.

and slide it around with a pencil or marking point at B. 629) . (Fig. describe arcs cutting AB in F and F. drawn ^ o rFig. The pencil 32. keeping the frame pressed against the nails as will describe the required arc. 629). These points given (Fig. — Let AB two diameters being are called the foci of the ellipse. From the point E with radius equal to one half the longer diameter.628 perpendicular to each other and intersecting at their middle points. To draw an ellipse. drive nails at A and C.Appendix 235 To draw this arc when the centre is out of reach. 628). make a triangular frame of strips of wood (Fig. At these two points drive pins or nails and tie a string quite tightly around the points D. it is moved. the be the longer diameter and DE the shorter diameter. -^ . also a third at point D.

Lay off AK equal DL and from L as a centre deL. for an arch. and ordinary work does not differ CD one half the short diameter or curves formed of a nimiber of circular curves shows a curve with 5 centres. These curved edges are moved around until a part or parts are found which will fit the curve desired. the triangles. The other half is drawn in the same way. J. the long and short diameters. The marking point (A) will trace the required Or. Lay off DH equal IC and describe the arc JH. because an ellipse is but the one first given of drawing ellipses not a circular curve in any part. A square can be placed on the diameters as shown to help guide the points. rise. 633 of different radii are used. or span. a series of points can be marked and the curve drawn through ellipse. French curves are used. Lay ofE DG equal . 632 There are other methods of describing an ellipse. and F will be the centres for half the curve. All methods with compasses are inaccurate. 631 is ^ r Fig. in cases where free-hand drawing These are made of thin material like will not do. scribe the arc KJ. and describe a semi-circle on AG. 632) r Fig. cutting JH at J.236 A Shorter Course in Woodworking Draw it same with the other corners of the rectangle. which for Let AB be the long essentially from half of an ellipse. them by hand. Draw AC. ' For much common work compound Fig. strip of cardboard or wood from a given the lengths of the long and short diameters of the required Place the marking point at A and move the points B and C along ellipse. diameter. Draw EF perDC.^ For curves which are not arcs of circles. with the edges cut in various curves. the most convenient for ordinary work. pendicular to AC. inside intersections of the slanting lines and will a line through the be very nearly an ellipse. Another method: mark on a point A (Fig.

Boxmaking. to fasten such a box as that in adds strength. — SOME TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION These few simple examples are not given as a course of Fig. nor be Bore holes in the in danger of coming out through either side of the ends. In the majority of boxes the sides and ends should be got out with the grain of the wood running horizontally. first mark the places for the nails so that they will neither be too near the edge of the sides. draw one half of the curve. Fig.Appendix 237 To draw symmetrical curves free-hand the simplest way for practical work usually is to lay out a centre line on a piece of paper. 635 is with nails. ^itj. they just prick through. all the ^'^^^5. around the box. fold the paper at the middle and trace the other half from the first half. Different workers will prefer many different designs. in which the sides are nailed to the ends gives a strong top edge at around and bottom. 635 common type.) To nail together. and drive the nails until placing the parts in position (Fig. 634). or the first half can be cut out and the paper reversed (Fig. (See page 64. which would be of use The best way if the grain of the wood should run in different directions. — Common boxmaking first machiiiery. but these typical forms are simply to show workmanlike modes of construction and some principles of wide application to many common 160. but the beginner should learn to is now done almost entirely by make a good box by hand. 636). that is. 634 work. sides. This of nice boxes is largely a matter of accurate joints. The making a shows and then the bottom and top put on. and when the sides and ends swell and shrink the change will be the same in each. certain ^ig- ^36 little joints this arrangement allows the use of glue. objects. Toeing the nails Fig. This will help in In hard wood it may be necessary .

637 Fig. Thus the bottom can be loose enough to allow for expansion and contraction. it may either open a crack at the side or perhaps force the joint apart (Fig. 391. of little use with such joints. 385. 384. so as not to show. Other more difficult joints are shown in Figs. slightly smaller than the nails. the sides and ends (Fig. when driven with the grain. Fig. and top. i. A better way for nice work is to fit the bottom into a rabbet (page 1 59) cut in the lower edge of . or both. or shrinks.. bottom.e. ends. afterwards swells. and screws do not hold very strongly in endwood. shows other ways of arranging the sides. 640 The bottom but as it is often fitted between the sides and ends. 639 showing box bottom up). 638 Fig.238 A Shorter Course in Woodworking Glue is to bore holes in the ends. 639 Fig. 638). Fig. and 431. The lid or cover can be hinged to the top edge of the back of the box or arranged as in . 637.

letting the saw project above the saw-bench only a trifle more than the thickness of the side of the box. and shows also be used to less end-wood than the common is butt-joint. the corner be rounded (Fig. 91) Joint the edges carefully with the jointer Let the plane rest on two edges (Fig. A rabbeted joint can be made by hand. Gauge Where by which to saw it open. for accuracy and to lessen the danger of tearing the edges. but much quicker with a circular-saw. Glue can advantage with this joint on account of the shoulder. be strengthened by splines or keys pieces let into saw-kerfs. 641) is a strong Fig. 643 If neat joint. Some people gauge two lines and saw between them. 642). (See page — I43-) Various joints can be made by machine. It is. for everything but rough or temporary work. . That is. the box does not open at the top but lower down. Box joints are sometimes mitred (page 142). a poor way in point of strength and only a skilful mechanic can make a box with nicely fitted mitred joints that will hold permanently. 641 Fig.Appendix 239 Plain lids. by cleats on the under side (page 157). It (Fig. as in Fig. 643. the joint quite inconspicuous. or by framing (page 167). This can be done best with the circular saw. or jack-plane. however. The sawing can be done first from one corner and then the line from another. should Fig. as in various kinds of framed work. and do not drive nails too near this lineSaw the box open carefully on the line. however. 642 Fig. 640.^ ' This applies also to planing any edges or surfaces fastened at an angle. the best way is to put the box tight together and then saw it apart. while planing one edge. Mitred joints can. let the plane also rest on the adjacent edge. (See page. be strengthened either by cleats at the ends (page 157). 644).

but if you merely wish for The sides and ends of strength. bottom and top are got out accurately they will help to make the box square. Fig. (See Fig. With glued joints waste pieces should be placed over the joints (across the grain of the sides) to prevent the work being marred by the clamps and to distribute the pressure (Fig. The inside must. 647 There is no better or more workmanlike way to put boxes together than by dovetailing (see page 154). lay the boards lengthways. 646). bottom of a large have as few cracks as possible and to avoid the swelling and shrinking across the grain as much as you can. The bottom can be fitted to a groove cut around on the inside. lay them crossways. Care must be taken to test the angles with the square. 645.) A good form for a plain chest is shown in Fig. 644 Fig 645 page 96. 646 The final smoothing of the outside should be done after the box has been permanently put together. 194). in making a nice box. Fig. but this should not be undertaken until one . and so guard If the against winding. as with all framed work. be smoothed before putting together. and some- Where if several boards are required to cover the top or to box. chests or large boxes are often panelled. of course. you wish times fitted to grooves or rabbets cut in posts at each corner (Fig. and plenty of time allowed for the glue to dry.240 If is A Shorter Course in Woodworking required the box cover must slide in and out careful grooving (see page 159) if done by hand. but it can be quickly done by machine.

jig-saw. Saw the curved parts of the runners with the band-saw. Box corners are sometimes do welled. 4). Fig. 649 mark at once (Fig. 650).cross-bars). (Figs. spokeshave. 649). Sled Making.Appendix 241 has acquired considerable skill. or other strong wood. unless made with unusual skill. 648) should be of straight-grained oak. place the runners together on edge (Fig. and with drawshave. making a tenon with one shoulder at each end (Fig. To lay out the mortises. or plane. 647). . or compass-saw. 2" apart (or the width of the Continue these lines upon both sides of each runner. and trim to the line — Get out the and i" thick. ash. but The this is by no means a strong joint. cross-bars about 2" wide all Fig. turning-saw. The ranners and cross-bars of a sled (Fig. 650 . maple. glued or screwed in place (Fig. 648 161.^ In marking these tenons and the length of the cross-bars. or remove most of the waste wood with the common hand-saw. 651) and square lines across both on the top edges at the points where the cross-bars are to go. Corners can sometimes be reinforced inside to good advantage by triangular corner-pieces or posts. principal advantage of dowelling is to prevent having nail holes show. ]/&" stock will do for the runners of a common hand-sled. Set the gauge at '^'i" and mark the line AB ' J Fig. 652 34" thick and and If the sled is large and heavy it may be better to make the cross-bars 1 to have two shoulders (Fig. clamp them together. lay the pieces fiat upon the bench.

242 653) A upon both before Shorter Course in sides of Woodworking Set the gauge again at each runner. iH" and mark as CD. oil coat of linseed (hot is best) Apply a and finish fol- with paint or with one coat of shellac lowed by two or more coats of varnish. 654). as the finish might fitting the be burned in hot ends of the runners. A small L-iron at each joint adds (Fig. 651 Fig. X 653 Fig. or even more. in section. Cut the mortises and tenons. 655 (Fig. fasten each tenon with a screw driven edge of the runner. . from i3^" x 3" to 3" x and from 2' to 3' long. Horses or Trestles may be from 18" to 2^3" in height. down from the top much to the strength is The seat should be screwed to the cross-bars. 3^" thick enough for a common hand-sled seat. 9 652 W Fig. 655) Fig.) W Fig. It is best to have the iron or steel runners put on before finishing. (See page 144. For the tops get out and square up 6". Fig. as pieces of pine ' may be required. 656 162. 654 After fitting.

Smooth the tops carefully. Saw 660 Fig. 657) Trim ac curately to the lines. the angle. Fit on cross-braces as described above. and cut"f^' with saw and chisel. Use the bevel or measure Nail on the cross- Fig. made of plank or joist (Figs. 657 Fig. ^ 163. 661 or plane off the projecting ends of the legs on If the horses do not stand top. using the bevel. 659 carefully that the slant may be the same for both legs With saw. remove the parts marked (Fig. '^' A Kennel. 662 and 663). and of such length as will give the required height. '^^^^ Horses for heavy work can be ^ . Get out eight legs of Y^" stock. Get out the crossbraces of ^" board and saw the ends at the same bevel as the legs. if ^^^ ' small. 656 (showing top and bottom) with the pencil.''^^ '^^ ^^e legs. square.Appendix 243 Select the best sides for the tops and mark each end like Fig. or Fig. squar'e bevel and gauge. can Fig. ' square. them Get out eight legs and cut can also be glued. and gauge. marking and squaring all together. braces. Nail or screw the legs in place with 2" nails or measunng i^" screws. keeping the mner edges of the tops of the legs even with the tops of the horses (Fig. or saw and chisel. 658 Fig. with rule. evenly on a true floor see page 256.663 be made much like a common *"° ^'^'^^ ^^ P-^' ^r any wood not likely to warp'l''x'v' ror°J^' v'' '""T'^ "\ '' ''' ^^'"°" ^^^"^ ^^'^. 658).or <' wide (accordmg to the size of the horses). 4.



Shorter Course in


box, but for a larger structure, as in Fig. 664,

Use it is well to make a frame. plank of any size from 1Y2" to 2". First get out the small joists or strips of Fasten sills or bottom pieces, halving (see page 140) and nailing the corners.





the corner posts in place, and on top of them the plates (a second horiSquare the framework and see that zontal frame corresponding to the sills) Hold it in place temporarily, until the boarding it is free from winding.


put on, by diagonal strips (Fig. 665). Next get out rafters for the roof, with their ends cut at an angle of 45°, or whatever pitch is desired. Use a Lay the floor before the sides are strip of board at the top for a ridge-pole. put on. Cover the sides and ends with sheathing or matched boards laid The vertically, and cut a doorway and a small window in the back gable. roof -boards can be laid horizontally and shingled, or covered with other Matched boards laid up and down and painted make a roofing material. good roof, in which case a square stick about 2" square should be used for a ridge-pole. Put saddle-boards on the ridge. Paint with three coats.

Another doorway



in Fig. 666.








Curved Forms.

— Circular work


668), each


of several sections,

often built up in layers (Figs. 667 "breaking joints" in the different



and screwed or nailed or glued together. The ends can be cut squarely or obliquely. Sometimes a

single thickness


or otherwise



the ends (Fig. 669).
cross as


grain of the pieces should

shown and the

sections be fastened firmly,

These methods apply both to small work, as picture frames, and to large forms, as cistern curbings. Even circular houses have been built in this way. More complicated methods are sometimes used. To make a curved table-leg, for example, as in Fig. 670, the best way is to work it out of a solid square post.^ This is best done with band-saw or jig-saw. After it has been cut to shape from one side (Fig. 671), the pattern must be marked again, but in transferring a fiat pattern to a curved surface, the curves must either be drawn directly upon the wood to match the other side, or points in the curve projected from the pattern to the wood, as the shape will not be correct if the pattern be bent to fit the wood. The waste pieces can be used to block up the main piece if necessary (Fig. 672), so that it will rest firmly on the saw-table while sawing the second
particularly near

the ends.




Fig. 671

Fig. 672



line first,

done by hand it is a good plan to make saw-cuts nearly to the which lessens the danger of cutting or splitting beyond the line. Cabinet makers often build up such crooked forms by gluing (See page 33). on pieces where required, as in Fig. 673. This takes more time but less wood, and usually is the cheapest way. A solid piece is better, however, in most cases. To hold odd-shaped pieces for shaping, contrive some combination of clamps, hand-screws, or vise, with blocks if necessary. Fig. 199 gives a

suggestion suitable to some cases.

Baluster stock or "squares" can be bought of different sizes, suitable for such work.



Shorter Course in


A Canoe

to work.

Birch, maple,

Spruce is a good wood, light, tough, and easy and ash are used. Select a very straight-grained

piece. ly^' or

^" thick.

Draw a

centre line along the

side before

marking the pattern

(Fig. 674) as a help in

making the outline symmetrical. From 5" to 63^" is a good width and from 5' to 6' a good length, but the
exact dimensions are matters of individual preference.
the outline with band-saw, jig-saw, bow-saw, or compass-saw; or remove most of the wood with the hand-saw; or make saw-cuts nearly to the line (Fig. 91), and finally trim to the line with spokeshave, drawNext draw a centre line along shave, chisel, or plane.


draw the

the edge, lay off the thickness at different points, and Taper the thickness of the outline of the edge.

ness along the centre line.

blade toward the end, keeping the required midrib thickThen gradually shave the

from the middle to the edges with drawknife, plane, Round the shaft with plane or spokeshave (see page 160), and shape the handle or knob with spokeshave, plane, gouge, chisel, and file. Smooth the whole paddle with scraper and sandpaper. Finish with one coat of linseed oil, one of shellac, and two or more coats of varnish rubbed down.
or spokeshave.

Hull of Toy or Model Boat. If the hull is not too from a solid block; but if quite large, it may be necessary to build it in layers (Fig. 680), or to build up a block of several pieces, for it is hard to get suitable wood in large blocks and it has become very The wood should be thoroughly seasoned, expensive. Fig. 674 Nothstraight-grained, and free from knots and checks. ing is better than white pine. Straight-grained mahogany is good, but costly for a large boat. Take, for example, a simple model of the fin-keel type (Fig. 675).'
large, it is best to cut it

breadth plan.

Three views are usually drawn for a boat: the sheer plan, the body plan, and the halfThese correspond to the front or side elevation, end elevation, and plan ordinary drawings (see page 217), and give side, end, and top views of the boat, or of

one half



as the sides are alike.

Several equidistant horizontal lines are





cut it from a solid block, square the block to dimensions, and draw upon the sides the sheer plan, or side view (Fig. 676). To remove the wood to

this line with


tools, either




of the waste

wood with the

to the

and then trim



shave, plane,

chisel, or
spokeshave or make a
series of saw-



t s




(Fig. 91)

line and

then trim as




shape can be
accurately and quickly cut with a band-saw or jig-saw. The surface need not be smoothed, as it will be cut away in rounding the hull later. Next, make a centre line lengthways on the top of the block and transfer the half-breadth plan on one side of this

centre line (Fig. 676).

Turn the pattern over and mark again on the other



the plans.


of these represents the



called the load water-line.

at equal distances apart.

Hne of the water when the boat has its proper The other lines parallel to it represent other levels, Other lines also show vertical, horizontal, longitudinal, and These
details are fully described in

•cross sections, at regular intervals.

works on yacht

model yacht) building.



Shorter Course in


The centre line can be made on the bottom also. Cut the top outline as before. If band-saw or jig-saw are used, save the waste pieces cut off in sawing the sheer-plan and use them to block up the ends so that (See page 245.) the piece can be held firmly while sawing the top outHne. The deck-sheer (Fig. 675) can now be cut or be left until later.
side of the line.

Fasten the block bot-







upon the

bench top and cut the



shape, with the drawshave, wide chisel, or

working from the centre toward



a rule.


can often be

used across the





the shaping spokeshave o r

To make



sides alike,


the correct shape, cut
templates, or patterns,

cardboard of the shape of the hull at Before hollowing the inside, different sections, and test the work by them. gauge a line around the top, Y2' from the edge, except at the bow and The hull stern, where a greater distance should be allowed (Fig. 678). should be held firmly by clamps or in some way, so that both hands can be used in cutting. Bore one or more holes (according to the size of the boat) downward from the top (Fig. 678), but leave at least Yi' of wood below them. Run a groove with a small gouge inside of the line marked (Fig. 678), and hollow out the hull with a larger gouge, cutting toward the middle.




holes will help.

Finally cut straight

down from

the line

thickness of the sides

about 34"

(Fig. 679).

marked on the top, until the The gunwale should be

thicker than the rest, to stiffen the sides

for nailing the

and give a bearing



this point,


the thickness of the sides as uniform as you

can, except that a thicker place can be left at the
to be fastened (Fig. 679).

bottom where the keel


One fourth of an inch is thin enough for any but a skilled workman to make the sides. Make templates for the inside. A good deal can be told by the sense of feeling, gauging the thickness between the thumb and finger. Use a

gouge for smoothing the



the sheer of

the deck has not yet been cut, the


now, using a

thin strip or flexible ruler (see page 21), and trim to


Sandpaper the outside, first with No. i or i^ and finally with No. 00. Apply at least two coats of paint inside and It is a good plan to use a coat of hot linseed oil first. three outside. Unless the boat is quite small it is well to fit in two or three deck beams These can be of thin to connect the sides and support the deck (Fig. 679). stuff (perhaps yV' thick and 3^" wide), set on edge and slightly arched,



with the ends fitted into gains cut in the sides, and nailed with fine brads. The deck should be thin (I" or y^")- Mark the deck outline and cut it just outside of the line. Fasten small blocks of wood to the under side of the deck where attachments for the rigging are to be fastened. Paint the
of boards are sawed as in Fig. 680, glued tonot so safe a way as to use a solid block, for the joints are liable to separate after a while. In laying out the pieces, draw a centre line along each side and end, and a midship line across each side and edge, so that the layers can be put together accurately. The outside curves can be sawed by either band-saw or jig-saw, but the inside ones require a jig-saw or bow-saw. In gluing the layers together use plenty


build with layers a sufficient
to shape.



and then trimmed



clamps or hand-screws, and put pieces between the jaws and the wood to distribute the


Many slight inaccuracies. you must hold yourself to a higher standard. Whitewood. can be painted. where it can be stepped in a smaller hole. like pine. or in a block. Trim the edge of the deck. smear the top edge of the hull with thick white lead. however beautiful in itself. when soft and straight-grained. the ends of which can be set in lead. easily put together. Begin with simple articles. Begin with — plain. Many other woods are It can be stained if desired. or be cut from sheet metal (brass or The rudder can be fixed in a brass tube. First attend to the blockform or general proportions of the object. Be content with the more easily worked woods. softer. well suited to the Oak in its softer. straight-grained material. when you come to the actual work. straighter-grained varieties. In undertaking a really nice piece of cabinet-work. It is durable and an article made of oak will stand more abuse without serious defacement than if made of almost any other wood used for furniture. become such conspicuous defects in cabinet-work as to detract much from the satisfaction which should be taken in home-made articles. will make an ill-shaped. Mahogany is a wood of great beauty and durability. ' The fin sheet-iron). First and foremost. It is one of the best woods to not desired of the natural color it can be painted or stained. while a well-shaped and well-proportioned object will be pleasing to the eye if free from decoration of any kind. as to accuracy of detail. is White pine suitable for many if ''stand" or hold its shape. and paint the outside. or simply passed through the deck to the bottom. things. No amount of carving or inlaying.250 A Shorter Course in Woodworking lower side. is easy to work and to finish. and is (when highly figured or wavy) one of the most beautiful woods. for your first attempts. . and nail the deck in place with fine brads. and holds its shape exceedingly well but the beginner should confine himself at first to the lighter. and takes stain exceedingly well. Quartered oak is a very satisfactory wood. straight-grained forms is work of the beginner. Cherry. perhaps 3^" in length. Furniture. is easy to work. of little consequence in the rougher kinds of work. The deck can be set in a rabbet cut in the gunwale. than is necessary for much of the other work often done by amateurs. use thoroughly seasoned wood. durable. 167. and . The mast can also be stepped in a brass tube. or fine brass screws can be used. This is an essential of making permanently satisfactory furniture. can be obtained in wide boards. Choose therefore simple forms. badly-proportioned article a thing of beauty. can also be made of wood and screwed on.

It is the practice with skilled workmen to put a piece of furniture completely together once (without glue or nails) to see that everything fits right. as chestnut. separated such as are joined without glue or nails it is best to take the freely in the angles of furniture — — . This precaution should not be neglected. by sighting if across the front or back. 9) be- equal. before putting together permanently. In addition to applying the square to the angles. Furniture should always be finally hand-planed and scraped. birch. not in an upright position. how much "out of square" and how winding the result of sometimes be if it is not tested as the parts are put together.Appendix used. there are many cases in which measuring diagonals is a good It is surprising careful work will test. as in tables and chairs where the rails are often below the surface level of the Surfaces which can be smoothed as legs and had best be smoothed first. or bent in order to put the article together. It is well to use corner-blocks this will help much in the final adjustment. of the work together thoroughly when using glue. tween the angles. butternut. also look for winding. 479). This is a good way for large case work. of course. smooth such parts as cannot readily be smoothed after putting together. and not require to be sprung. well after the article is put together can be left until the end. when the work will. as in the case of a bookcase or cabinet. beech. where they will not show (Fig. or fitting two adjustable sticks (Fig. as door-frames (Fig. should not as a Clamp the parts rule be finally planed and smoothed until after gluing. twisted. maple. using winding-sticks (Fig. that is as true as you can find and see that it is Put a piece of case work together horizontally upon horses or flat on its back or face. ash. Alter the angles of the work until the two opposite diagonals are equal. using the large steel square when you can. because there is always the liability of injury during the process of the work. 228) necessary. for slight defects become very noticeable in the finished work. For the work of the amateur no finish is better than When the work is made of parts which can be readily shellac or wax. using a stick. 200). After fitting the parts of a piece of furniture and before gluing. when the latter can be altered until the diagonals are While testing for squareness. Allow time enough before removing the clamps. be rectangular. should come together easily. when fitted. 251 Buy stock planed as true as possible. sycamore. Adjoining surfaces which are to be flush. When the work has a back fitted in. You cannot get the surface too smooth. The pieces.

) inside got out too long. but stopped before reaching the ends of the longer ones which have the mortises. passing a doubled cord around and inserting a stick. handles. Woodworking work apart before mirror-plates. If the moulding is even slightly sprung or twisted this is hard to do and trimming with the plane f\ Ij ^' ^ is often necessary. and test the angles with The mitred joints are usually glued It is well as and (See page 142. The latter pieces should be (See Circular-saw. 682). nailed.) a rule to fasten the pieces in pairs ' two corners diagonally opposite. in most cases. nailing strips a short distance outside of each of the corners and driving wedges between these strips and the frame (Fig. If the — wood has not been finished blocks can be glued near the ends of the pieces and hand-screws applied (Fig.252 A Shorter Course in finishing. 681 face. 85). The mitre shooting-board is some- times useful (Fig. Also guard against winding by sighting across the the square. or trimmer (see page 61). • Another way is to lay the frame flat. the cord can be twisted until the frame devices. have to be mitred at the corners. In some cases the work should also be clamped together. 682 For a plain frame nothing is better than a joint with mortise and tenon (Fig. Take out removable shelves. None of the joints should be sprung or twisted to fit. escutcheons. 681). and all detachable parts. Unhinge doors and take off locks. but the final edge planing and smoothing of the rest should be done after the frame is glued together. Picture and Mirror Frames made of prepared moulding will. Also by putting blocks at the corners. is held tightly.^ Fig. Fig. The should be smoothed before putting together. This can be best done with mitre-box (see page 85). Finish all these parts separately and then put the work together again. and the like. the rabbet at the back being cut through to the ends of the shorter pieces (those having the tenons). 683). circular-saw (see page 89). and then the remaining corners. so as to overlap a little at the ends. page 97. backs. i68. Picture-frame makers have clamping .

Most come un- — der a few types of conFig. 685 Fig. 684 shows a simple form. owing to the softness of the wood. page 140. or of glass to fit dimensions of frame. The legs should be of plank and can be halved where they cross. Tables. and lightly pressed into the crack around the glass (Fig. .Appendix 253 In mitring a frame of rabbeted moulding. These short pieces. Figs. as for a mirror. tables common Fig. but large plates. 686 and 687 show common forms. For a small or medium-sized Square them and cut to table the legs can be from 13^2" to 2}/^" square. 169. (See Fig. although struction. 683. 686 the details of shape and design vary greatly. The rest can be of "yi" stock. 685 Fig. 684). glued on one or it ^ may — — side. so that the size wih be right for the picture or glass. The rabbet of mirror frames must be colored black also of any frame to hold plate glass on account of the reflection. measure at the inner corner of the rabbet. one or two inches long. not too rigidly. allow as much as of an inch for irregube necessary to trim either rabbet or glass. The rabbet is usually about of an inch square. bevelled on one side. glass. Small pieces of plate glass can be held in place by strips. wedge the glass in place securely and. should be fastened by little pieces of soft pine.) Extra cleats can be put under the top if needed for stiffness. ^ and in laying fit out the frame to larities.

a slender . A The lower. plane down two opposite sides and then the other two. 693 ' top. 690). put together two legs and the connecting rail. and bore down into this Fig. 690 leaving the outside surfaces straight. bore a large hole or "screw-pocket" on the inside of the rail. using glue and clamping the joints cases. 688. Fig. connect the legs. Glue and screw corThe joints can ner-blocks in the angles (Fig. and in similar cases. but this tends to weaken leg. dry. Fig. also be pinned (Fig. Cut mortises on the two inner sides of the legs to receive tenons cut on the ends of the rails (Fig. an inch or so from the first Fig. 689 Fig. is See page 144).254 length. 694 The mortises in heavy legs can be open at the top (Fig. 691 securely until posite legs together in the Put the two opFig. 692 same way. To fasten the top of a table to the framework beneath. 691. 687 Fig. 689). although little many are or made the legs are to be tapered toward the bottom. See page 148). below the rails. A good way is to taper the insides only. the taper- ing should not extend to the top but to a point a cross-bars which. 688 Fig.' Ji" stock thick enough for rails for ordinary When the parts are fitted. and finally join these two sides with the remaining rails. If to be tapered on all four sides. in a case like Fig. If Shorter Course in Woodworking is height of an average table about 30". gluing and clamping as before. 692.

700. are common. 698 Fig. 699 to protrude slightly (Fig. Designs like Fig. place the frame of the table in posi- and screw to the top. 694). then saw the pattern required to form the legs. put on the top. . fastened Tables are partly often by keys. 693). A tongue or spline is sometimes in- ' Another method is to fit small blocks into mortises in the rails and screw these blocks to the under side of the table (Fig. 698. Octagonal or hexagonal tabourets (Fig. 697 from below with the gouge (Fig. First bevel the edges. Blocks of soft pine can be glued on temporarily for the hand-screws to press against joints on the principle shown in Fig. The variety of small stands and tabourets is great. and the clamps also. page 177. 699) require especial care in making the vertical bevelled where the sides meet. It well to leave the final scraping of the top un- and sandpapering til the table is all put together. as explained 150. lay it face horses.Appendix hole with a slight slant from the top edge. 697). Some device must be used to prevent the joints. and with the keyed construction pieces are halved referred to. The cross- where they cross and a similar arrangement is used at the top. Metal fastenings and L-irons are also in common use. 695 if Fig. 255 A slanting cut can be made Fig. from slipping after the glue is applied. 695). 696 Fig. Fig.^ necessary to allow the screw-head to pass To downward on the tion is See Counterboring. to which the top of the table is screwed. wedges. or blocks can be screwed to the inside of the rail (Fig. or pins on page In some. all of the tenons run through and can be trimmed (Fig. 696) .

does not stand evenly on all four legs. which can then 703). Fig. 701).475 shows a few simple mouldings used table-tops. and scribe^ around the other legs. est leg is raised (Fig. place it on a true surface. Cabinets.256 A Shorter Course in Where Woodworking serted (Fig. 704) can be nailed together. 703 until the corners of the top are equally distant from the surface on which Then set the compasses at a distance equal to that at which the end of the shortthe object stands. for the edges £ Fig. Screw and glue blocks inside at the top. 170. be cut off. the hand-screws are to be applied to the edges of the legs. and similar Fig. 702). or other fourlegged object. 700 glue (Fig. and screw the top on through these blocks without two sides at a time. see page 263. 701 of To shape the ends of tablewhere they project through or above the top. but cut a tongue or wide tenon on the end of the shelf. with a shoulder at . 705 but it is more workmanlike to groove the shelves into the sides ^ (Fig. Fig. do not fit the entire end of the shelf into a groove. level the top by wedging under the legs legs Fig. Bookcases. as fitting a shelf in a bookcase. Fit and glue in corner-blocks inside wherever they will not show. Glue and then glue these joined sections together. 705)* ' In nice work. A plain Fig. work. pieces of soft pine can be fitted to receive the pressure. If a table. See also page 87. 704 case (Fig.

is liable Fig. The back can then be screwed in place.. ec je. The shelves should be grooved as just desible. as in Fig. 257 or the top and bottom shelves can be grooved into the sides and those The back can be fitted by cutting a rabbet on the back edge of each side for the entire length and making the shelves of such a width that they will not project beyond it (Fig. but this should only be done for small work as the expansion and contraction of a wide board. 17 into a corresponding groove. 706. can often be best made of a single board. The back for little cases. Another way is to make the back of upright pieces alternately thicker and thinner. Fig 708 Do not force C?: :5~3!: -fe_if a the back tightly into place but allow a little room for expansion and contraction sideways. 709). etc. and use screws of only mediumsized wire. but a little play allowed at the sides. See . giving a panelled effect (Fig. Fig. to fit each side and the front Dadoing. 707 to injure the case (see page 211). 707). or halved (Fig. 710 involve no new principles. A back can be made of matched boards or sheathing. Fig. such as hanging wall-cabinets. passing through holes in the back large enough to allow a little play which except for the pieces at each firmly as poscan be screwed in place as side. page 159. 709 (See also page 211. yi" 708) for a plain case of this kind.) Bookcases of the type shown in Fig. A back made of a single board should be firmly screwed at the middle of the top and bottom.Appendix between be movable. A narrow piece can be screwed on the back of the case to show above the upper shelf. 706 or of several glued together.

For moulding at the edge of the top. This gives a heavier appearance to the and the shelves can fit behind the facing strip.258 scribed. It is best to groove the sides into the top. A moulding. The baseboard can be bevelled or moulded on the top edge. 712). A Shorter Course in Woodworking In low open cases. from 1%" to 2" wide. but y^" stock will do for a small case. and the bottom shelf into the sides. The piece in front can be glued and also the mitred joints. a thin plank (i/^" to 1%" thick) is often best Fig. mitred at the corners. 712). only. it is the most workmanlike way to work all mouldings on the solid wood. Fine nails can also be used but the side pieces should be glued at the front ends only. The other shelves can be movable if desired. The rest can be of y^" stock. Corner brackets under the lower shelf will stiffen an open case. using as thick wood for the top as may be . plank thickness. 710 be The upright sides can well 711. can be nailed around under the top board as shown. like for the upright sides. according to the size of the case (Fig. sides. this. The sides of such cases are often made of y&" stock and the front edge faced with a strip glued on. glued in front and at the corners of A common form of case is shown in Fig. 712 Reeds can be worked on the facing strip (Fig. and mitred at the corners. Fig.

but it is quicker to cut the notches on the side of a narrow piece of board. 714. 716 shows a common way. and the position of the shelves cannot be readily changed. See also page (Fig. Shelves. and recesses cut on the under side of the shelves to fit the screw-eyes. together is with projecting tenons fastened with keys or pins. 716 mag- and the to like. make the top of two and to mould the edges before the two are glued thicknesses together. —Where the wood is expensive it is common make shelves of white wood or pine. Screweyes can be screwed into the sides under the shelves (Fig. Removable shelves can rest on cleats at the ends. music-cases. to which 259 it is This avoids putting on moulding across the grain of the piece A common way is to fastened. cabinets. but this does not always look well. and cleats with rounded ends used. Fig. clamped together. which is not a scientific way. Or holes can be bored in a strip and the strip then sawed apart (Fig. 715 Fig. 713). The best way to make the back for nice work is to make Fig.. and to face the front edge with a strip of the same wood as the rest of the case. azine-cases. which is then sawed into the desired strips or "ratchets. the size and arrangement of the panels depending upon the size and shape of the back. (See also page 257. These few principles to be observed in making bookcases apply also to many cabinets. and the notches laid out and cut as if there were but one piece. The vertical strips can be laid on edge side by side.) A good way to put bookcases. 171. Fig.) W Fig. . 715).Appendix required. Movable metal supports are cheap. 713 which is screwed firmly in place as one piece (Fig. 150. 717). etc. 714 a panelled frame." with the circularsaw.

The front and 720 sides of a drawer should be got out to fit very snugly. about %" . should b e free from winding. for the drawers should be true. on and can be grooved into the sides of These frames. but the dimensions are governed by the size of the drawer. 718 The more it is to fit the drawers. the easier In good work. accurately the case which holds the drawers is made. The front of the drawer should be of the same kind of wood as the outside of the article. a horizontal frame (Fig. 717 Fig. is ^". If and the bottom. as well as the whole case. — Fig. 718) is fitted it beneath each drawer for to run the case like a shelf (see page 256). front piece is The nearly sides. always thicker than the back. but the beginner should understand the operation.26o A Shorter Course in Woodworking Drawers. front Fig. 721 sides are or W'. and the stock ^ Fig. even if he may not attain the highest degree of skill in its execution. smoothly-running drawers. It takes a very good workman to make well-fitting and 172. the usually 719 Fig.

723) can be fastened on the under side of the cross-frame so that the inside of the drawer front will strike against It is common to bevel the under side of the bottom at the edges to fit the groove 722). there is a space at the sides of the drawer. Thus the groove need not be so wide as the thickness of the bottom. These can be quickly made by machinery (see Circular-saw. slip the bottom (previously fitted) into place. and bottom are often made of whitewood. but care should be taken not to plane away too much. though sometimes the same wood is used throughout. or parallel with the front (Fig.Appendix etc. When Fig- 723 and must be adjusted carefully to fit. small slides for the drawer to run between are fastened at each side next to the drawer at the bottom (Fig. The order of the process is: ist. carefully smooth the and the sides. low for the bottom off at the is and is often cut 719 be used for ordinary work. When put front together and dry.^ Smooth the insides of the pieces before putting the drawer together. Dovetailing (see page 154) the best joint for a drawer. 723). 3d.. so that the rest without injuring the drawer. to cut the grooves for the bottom in the sides and front. Thin blocks or "stops" (Fig. back. When these parts are glued and put together. at the front edge only. page 95). but is difficult for the beginner. 261 but the sides. Glue be free to swell and shrink Be sure that the drawer is m this) and free from winding. to for the fit the parts together. may 721). 4th. it and Fig. A little trimming with the plane may be required to make the drawer run freely. ' (Fig. (Fig. to make the joints for the sides. The piece al- back is narrower than the front piece. rectangular (putting in the bottom will assist Test with the framing square. maple. The joints shown in Fig. can 720) with the plow or circular-saw. . to 721). It should be got out with the gram running across the drawer. 2d. pine. to get out the pieces to the required dimensions. 722 of the sides (Fig. Cut the groove for the bottom on the inside of the front top also. front and back.

— Many kinds of chairs are too hard for a beginner to undertake. the same method of fitting is used as in fitting a dowel into one of two pieces. . however. A simple way to attach a drawer under a shelf. for it is not so well calculated as mortise and tenon to withstand the severe strain to which chairs Of course where rungs or other members are used of such shape that the are subjected. etc. 726. and is used in most chairs in the market because easily and cheaply done by machinery. and of many which are not cheap in price. 173..262 A It is Shorter Course in in as far as it Woodworking . but A drawer which is a trifle larger at the back short from front to back. as in Fig. in most cases. 726 plain rectangular type (Fig. glued. Chairs. does not reThe joints should quire more than ordinary skill. and pinned. easier to make should go or the drawer can be stopped at a drawer which is narrow and long (from Fig. unless he has unusual skill. 724 Fig. are fitted at odd angles. or table is shown in Bayberry tallow is excellent to rub Fig. 725 front to back) run smoothly than one which is wide across the front. should be mor- Dowelling is a common method of making the joints of cheap chairs. backs. 725).^ is about 18". the seat of an ordinary chair of this kind be mortised. rungs. It is not to be recommended. as it will be less likely to bind or catch. The height of The ' joints of the frame of a corner-chair. than at the front will run best. A Fig. particularly those forms in which the legs. 724. them when pushed the back. bench. on the sides of drawers. ends would naturally be rounded into pins or dowels.

727). other two. on the principle of the circular work shown on page 244. involve the same principles of careful and accurate planning and mortising already described. 731 Fig. and screwed together from the under side.or caneseated. and the like. For seats which are to be upholstered. 729). Seats of leather or other material can also be fastened . The ends of chair posts legs. see page 256. A rabbet can be cut for a seatframe to be upholstered. except that dowels can be turned at the tops of the posts for the curved back and arms. glued. or rush. but also because it calls for skill and experience to design a rocking-chair so that it will 727 balance and rock properly. 732). Morris-chair (Fig. If Fig. Seats of odd chairs like this are often less than 18" in height. 728). upholstered independently. 731) to re- ^' Fig. ceive the cloth 733 or leather covering.. table and other square flat posts are often finished like 730 pyramids sometimes four faces 729 (Fig. 732 Fig. and legs. The back and arms are got out in three pieces. a chair does not stand evenly. 730). a shallow rabbet around the top rail sometimes cut of the seat o n the outside (Fig. not merely because of the angular character of the work. or covered with leather. simplecrickets.Appendix 263 tised. A plain framed stools. and placed on a rabbet cut around the inside of the seat-frame or upon a ledge screwed on inside (Fig. In each case plane first two opposite sides and then Sometimes the edges are simply bevelled or rounded is (Fig. Sometimes a frame is made. w Fig. 728 Fig. ^^^ Fig. Rocking-chairs can well be avoided by the beginner. with the curved the (Fig.

736 from side to side of the s at. and cover the whole A Fig.. 733. stretch S webbing made for the pur- pose tightly across the frame (Fig. 734).738) or on top of them. Fig. and scribe the corners to be cut out with knife and square. finally cover. (Fig. wrong side up upon the seat.^ cord. and is woven in various patterns pegs are driven into the holes to keep the material already woven taut while the weaving progresses. made of a little strip of metal with an eye in one end. in the case of a chair. This prevents the hair working through the on evenly. with ornamental headed nails. 737 Fig. Where strips of reed. first tack the material in position with small nails and then drive the ornamental nails so as to cover the heads. To put folding. final The covering is ZA • also be wound around in two or three directions. and then woven over and under the other way from the front to the back of the seat. should be turned under. or whatever similar material is used. In nailing on leather. The edges. A bent needle. Then work by degrees toward the four corners. First. A seat can be of wood fastened on top of the seat rails. Tack over this burlap (Fig. ' Upholstering is a trade in itself. however. is used for the weaving. as Fig. Where the cane passes through holes. 737). as in the common cane-seated chair. and then weaving over and under until the spaces are filled. 735 with cambric or other cloth. or woven leather. leaving regular spaces (Fig. . Next at the middle of the two other sides (C and D. round or rounded rungs should be used. either fitted between the legs (Fig. 734) ends under. The woodworker should. 734). and then a sheet and tack securely the turning 7 I M 11° I I U of cotton-batting (cotton- wool). On this spread the 735). stretch from the middle of one side to the middle of the opposite (A and B. a strip can be carried around in one direction. The ends can be held by driving in pegs. and cutting off if necessary the surplus cloth at the corners. It can selvedged. lay the chair ning from front to back. know how to upholster a plain seat for a chair or the top of a box. or the like. 734 this Fig. unless put on in the same way.264 A Shorter Course in Woodworking For rush seats. etc. Fig. tacking over the edge. Cut out the corners and screw on from underneath up in a shallow rabbet cut as in Fig. curled hair or whatever material is used. and with the grain of the wood runIf fitted around the legs. 736). can be simply ^i^^^^^^?^^?7^^'^'?i^^®^i'^?y wound around as on a reel.

Frames for seats should or Fig. or horizontal timbers at the base of the building. or lengthways horizontal members at the top. The roof timbers or rafters are easily fitted as shown. to prevent undue wear. 731 and 732). counterbore (Fig 505) frame with holes bored near the inner edge. 223. 738 be made with mortise and tenon (see page 144). or cord bear should be cut slanting rounded. can be nailed down on top of the posts and studs. Begin to lay the roof-boards at the . All edges against which rushes. Halve the ends of the sills. Fig. and cane-seated or covered with leather or other material (Figs.739 Toe-nail the upright corner posts. The board- 740 ing on the roof must run lengthways. can be fastened on in this way. To keep them in place nail on lathstrips. to the sills. Square them also.) Plumb the corner-posts (see page 19). nails. The remaining pieces can be nailed through or toed as may be required. Level the page 19). A Small Building with 174"Lean-to" Roof. leather thongs. or if the latter are quite deep. (See also p. 739 shows the construction of a small building with "lean-to" roof— a form of roof suitable for small buildings to construct.— Fig. The plates. Applying the steel square is usually sufficient for a small sills Use 3>^" and 4" (see structure. and easy Fig.Appendix A 265 through the rails. and also the other upright members or studs.

or with one of If desired to have the roof overlap more. fit to the edge a . or for the boarding. or clapboards. — ' If you need to pound the edge of matched boarding or flooring. the other way omit some of the middle rafters and run roof timbers (purlins) lengthways on top. A very with a straight-edge and pencil. with tin or other metal. The roof can be covered with shingles (see page 178). flat roof is not advisable for The sides can be boarded vertically. The Framing of a Small One-story Building. Saw the ends of the boards off after they are laid. 740). First get out the 175. but flush at the top. To have the roof boarding run rafters can be made longer than shown. the the numerous roofing fabrics. line (see page 19). Matched boarding is good and can be painted. waste piece of the same kind and strike that (Fig. A Shorter Course in Woodworking They can overlap a little to shed the water.266 lower side. and can have a on at the edge if desired. strip nailed marking with a chalk Two-inch nails will do shingling. or rougher boarding' can be used and covered with shingles (See pages 178 and 179).

745 Toe-nail them to the sills. and anywhere required to stiffen the frame or for nailing the boarding. according to Fig. Place one floor-beam at each end next the posts. Floor-beams can be laid on the sills as shown.743 Fig. but if 6' or more in width the floor-beams should be 6" or 8" in depth. also the plates (the horizontal sills) at the top over the as shown in Fig. The floor-beams should be about 18" apart or less. if they are not of exactly the same . 741. and aftersize and the stiffness of floor required. to which it can be nailed. If the building is very small. of the door-space Fit vertical studding at each side and window-spaces.Appendix sills. Then put these together squaring and plumbing carefully and holding ^ Fig. for a floor of moderate size. allowing a little more than the actual widths of the door. 743) before laying. 742 Fig. 2" X 4" may do. It is well to nail in short corner braces with the ends cut at 45° where the posts meet the sills and plates. 267 halving the ends as shown. It is easiest to lay the floor next. to stiffen the frame (Fig. members and the corner posts. 744 temporarily by the stay-laths shown.and window-frames. Also fit horizontal pieces above the door-space and above and below the window-spaces. "Size" them on the under edge at the ends (Fig. 742). wards nail to the studding where practicable.

If ' the building more force 1. If the floorbeams are more than 6' or 8' long. and it is well to have setting the studding. enough extra must be allowed to form the "pockets" in which the weights can run. 744). The sides can now be boarded up. window-frames. with weights. and are hollowed or "backed out" on the under side. For all but very cheap buildings it is best to lay a double floor. and such joints should be arranged to alternate or come at different points of the Fig. Next lay the floor boards lengthways of the building. Place the rest of the studding 16" apart (centre to centre) if the building is to be lathed and If it is to be unfinished inside. the studding can be arranged at plastered. other distances if thought best. in. The doors. but at the ends also. Also put heading pieces of studding across above the door-space and above and below the window-spaces. Under 745) b e fo r e nailing. be bought ready made. If is required a toggle-joint arrangement (Fig. to prevent mistakes. Pry each board tightly against the one last laid with a chisel (Fig. leaving a little more than the width of the frames to allow for irIf the windows are to run regularities and to ensure getting them plumb. is quite small 2" x 4" studding will do for the roof timbers. Between the two floors lay sheathing or roofing paper. The lower layer can be of cheap boards.and windowspaces. they should be " bridged" every six or eight feet (Fig. Be- them on hand before gin at the bottom. The best floor boards are matched not merely at the edges.268 width. A Shorter Course in Woodworking Unless sized to equal width the floor will be uneven. and casings can all The upright studding can now be put laying the floor. to distribute the pressure upon them. ^ boards which are not the full length must be sawed so that the ends will be butted over the middle of a floor-beam. 746 floor. 746). or other similar device can be contrive . or this can be done before Studs must be placed at each side of the door.

The The end . 741). by two persons. In laying out with the steel square it is usual to take the run as one foot and the rise as some number of inches. Always use as many 749 shows a good form can be learned at a glance where any building as two nails at each nailing of bracket to hold a staging. but it is much quicker to use the steel-square as . 748. and place the ^^' square as in Fig. and the ridge-board can in easily be raised and nailed place Fig.third pitch. 750 staging is so simple that it operations are going on. being tem- porarily stayed by a board or "stay-lath" (Fig. the blade being at the right angle for the vertical or "plumb" cut.6" is is as small as should be used. and the angles for cutting the ends can be marked directly by the square. which for one-half pitch twelve. for one-quarter pitch is six. if called one-half pitch.'' rafters (Fig. one-quarter pitch. If the half span is not an even number of feet. of the rafter. if one third the width. scale upon a floor. ness of ^ Allow for one half the thickthe ridge board (for which a piece of % " board on edge will do) is ridge-board rafter often omitted. but a staging will facilitate the work. 747): AD the "run" and BD If the height of the roof is one half the width. moving it along as many times as there are feet in one half the span. and the tongue for the horizontal or "foot" cut. it is To the lay out "rise. Ladders can be used for the construction of the upper part of a small The construction of a plain building. one. Fig. in moving take the number of inches on the tongue instead the square the last time '''^ of twelve. for one-third pitch is is eight. 2" y. In this case four times. place in a staging. according to the pitch of the roof. which gives the right length for a rafter for an eight-foot span. take distances twelve on the tongue and eight on the blade. 749 Fig.Appendix But if 269 12' or more wide. one fourth the width. ' All such problems can be figured out mathematically. To lay out one-third pitch. or can be laid out full size on a small on paper or shown.

often let into gains in the girders. 752 and sometimes hung by Rafters can but for simple work [the way shown is good. or made. It is a great protection to The cover the walls with sheathing paper first. and held by a brace by bolting to the building. frame and casing.and window-casings must be "flashed" (see page 180). ings and the boarding lay strips of sheathing paper. and there must also be flashing where the chimney comes through the roof. The top edge of the water-table is usually bevelled (Fig. It is common to put a narrow board or moulding where the roof overhangs. 751. 750). The arrangement of these details will be readily understood by examining them Between the casin almost any wooden building. door. horizontal pieces of board nailed across in the upper part of the roof (Fig. 752. and the water-table is sometimes omitted. 507). stirrups. the timbers of the frame can be planed by machine. or covered with beginning at the bottom.270 easily A Shorter Course in in place Woodworking (Fig. as will be seen by inspecting other small structures. The sides can now be clapboarded or shingled. 752). After the rafters are The roof can then be shingled (see page 178). At the door-space put a threshold and doorall in place. in cases where appearance is an obIf the roof is to overhang. 753 shows an arrangement of — . finishing with saddle-boards along the ridge. so that cold and dampness will not come in through the cracks between the casing and the clapboards or other Corner-boards and water-table outside covering. see Fig. sills or Fig. be braced by collar beams. can next be put on. If the inside is not to be plastered or sheathed. projecting a few inches all around. use longer rafters and cut the ends Floor timbers are as in Fig. ject. any other roofing material. If a pipe is used for a chimney. Fig. board the roof.

and having determined the points for the top and bottom of mark the notches with the square on a similar principle to that used in laying out rafters. 754 do for the risers. (See the stairs. take two pieces of plank X 9" or 10". 753 you can use for the steps. boarding. nailed to rafters 271 and plates. The same thing must be done wherever timbers are cut off for the chimney. as just shown. allowing an air space to prevent the wood becoming overheated by the chimney. 102" for example. and Fig. and 10" is better." For stairs.) You can mark on a stick the height from the top of the lower floor to the top of the upper. 754). Upright sheathVer- ing of tical matched boards is suitable for the walls of small buildings.Appendix floor timbers for a garret. ^ ^ this stick as a gauge to determine the points for the notches After these notch-boards or string-pieces have been cut ^ ^__^ ^ '^ nail and put in place. while 7^" or 8" Fig. and It is best the "treads. you can easily get out and on the "risers" or upright boards. Assume for trial a satisfactory height for each step as . with the cracks covered with battens (Fig. must be securely fastened between the second story floor-beams where they are cut off to make the opening at the head of the stairs. from floor to floor. to have the treads not less than 9" wide when you can. 755). this distance on the stick into as Divide many- parts as you wish to have steps." or horizontal ones. "header" or cross-piece (Fig. steel page 269. 755 In a two-story building a common way to arrange the framing for the second floor is shown ' To find the number of steps for a given situation. find the height. is some- times used. will A Fig. 2.

checks. as Fig. (Fig. good-sized building. Make a middle mould (Fig. First cut out the sides of is %" stock. Pine is or other defects. by 14 to get the exact height of each step. 757 shows a frame for a 757). 176. 756. 757a Divide 102 by it 7. which can well be somewhat thicker than the boards used for the sides. stock. To make the number even. for a small. which gives 14V7 for the call 14. free Use straight-grained from large knots. 761) Fig7". or cedar. the floor timbers should bear on beams which are a part of the frame (Fig. cutting the ends at a slant to give whatever rake may be desired at stern and stem. — A Flat-bottomed Row-boat.272 A Shorter Course in in Woodworking Fig. and you have only to divide 102 number of steps. but for an important or large building. 760). excellent. 758). Get out a stern-piece (Fig. Fig. 759. . This does very well cheap structure.

Appendix 273 of the same length as the width of the boat at the widest point. taking especial care to cut the rabbets accurately. 764 . 762 Fig. 763 and 764 are sometimes used. Fig. 760 Fig. 759 The sides are bent around the middle mould and nailed to the sternpiece (which will require bevelling at the edge to make a close fit) and to the Fig. 763 Fig. 762. Arrangements like Figs. The slant at the ends should correspond to the flare which the sides of the boat are to have. 761 Fig. and of the general shape shown in Fig. 761. Fig- 758 Cut a bow-piece or stem of the general shape shown in Fig.

To caulk the joints. Paint thoroughly with at least three coats. unless already in that form. The lower edges of the sides must be bevelled with the plane for the bottom boards. 765 tight joints. Force the material in firmly and thoroughly. Fasten wale strips along the gunwale. which is siu"e to occur. nailing. and nail carefully to the sides with 2}i" or 2%" nails. A regular caulking iron is not necessary for a boat of this kind. On the same principle wicking or strips of flannel can be laid in white lead along the edges of the sides before nailing on the bottom boards. and then apply white lead plentifully to the joints. The amount to plane off can be determined by laying a ^^^^^^ board across (Fig. trusting to the swelling. to make waterFig. or anything of the kind.274 A Shorter Course in of Woodworking fit if which can be trimmed to joints should be painted with white lead before stem (the rabbets galvanized iron necessary). It is well to bore holes The edges can be fitted as accurately for all nails which come near edges. 765). Roll the material into a loose cord. as soon as . If the boat is not very large. can be used satisfactorily. with the edges carefully jointed. A strip can be nailed along the bottom inside or outside and clinched. These Use copper or nails. as possible. it can be removed you have put in enough seats and any other braces necessary to keep the sides in position. wi ek- lead into the cracks. make them slightly open on the outside. and then force into ing or something of the kind. or matched boards. and force it into the cracks with a putty knife. them oakum. Get the bottom boards out a little too long and saw off the ends after nailing. If the middle mould will be in the way if left in place. run white cotton-batting. first painting the edges of the sides with white lead. plain sheathing. Get out the bottom boards of ^" stock.

193 and filing Alkanet root Ambidexterity 191 191 Battened sheathing Bayberry tallow 138 33 271 262 Ammonia Angles (for staining) Bisecting 176 190 221 225 Bead cutters 86 108. 109. 83 Annual Anvil rings Arc Or circle. 37 Band-saw Setting Basil 102-104 Air-dried stock 205. brad Marking-. 226 Of 30°. 165 Beading -Planes Beads. 92 Bisecting an angle 225 An arc and chord 230 9 108 228 A straight line 221 53 Bit-brace Bits Auger- 53-55 53 275 . 181 See Corner-blocks Beam-compass Beams.INDEX Page Page Adjustment Alcohol Stains of plane 36. 63 127 126. 136 Bevelling. etc. 120°. 127 127 127 128 127 5. 10. 80. 228 Of edged-tools. See Chamfering 158 Edges (boat) 274 Bichromate of potash 191 Binding of saws 25. 81 171 27. 60°. oiling 43 117 16 267. 268 213-216 128 Beeswax. to turn Constructing equal 225. to strike 201 88 221 15. 181 Arkansas stone Arm of chair. 226 Of 45° and 135°. to construct 227. 259 Bending wood Bevel 10. floor Strains Bearings. See Bevel. See Workbench Carving 235 135 180. Asphaltum to mend Corner chair Assembling furniture Astragal Auger Bit To sharpen Automatic drill-stocks Screw-drivers Awl. 208 192. or scratch- 176 198 251 165 53 53 135 54 69 52 9 257. 16 Bell-faced hammer Belt-lacing Belts To find length of Bisecting Tangent to straight line To draw through three points To draw when centre is out reach 230 230 234 of To Speed of slip on of Width -Hook -Stop -Vise Bench. to construct. 40. See Wax. and 150°. 82 82 1 62 1 To lay out with square To plane Back for case work Background (carving) Back-mitre -Rest -Saw Baluster stock 174 164 115 27 245 For obtaining angles Cutting with circular-saw 94 -Edged chisels 34 Of edged-tools 129-131. Angle-blocks.

measurement Boarding of Boat.. flat-bottomed row Toy hull Body plan Bolts 272-274 246-250 246 . to mend -Seat. 178 Bow-piece Caul Caulking Centre-bit 274 54. See Hinge-fitting "Buzz" planer Cabinet-file 266. 171. 51 Chamfering Charring wood Chattering (plane) (Saw) 158 211 44 27 208. 187 108 77 80. bitJoint for 237-241 267 55-57 53 Fig. lattice Strains Bridging of floor beams Bristle brushes Broad surfaces. cornerBoard foot Testing with 65 39 76 2 2 2 266. elementary Finishing Sandpapering Carving-tools Slips for 35-37 135 77 9 70 Measure Boards. 268 Canoe paddle Canvas. planing 217 214-217 268 199 50. height of Chairs Levelling Braces Bracket-saw Bracket for staging Brackets Brad-awl 216 30 269 76 52 67 262. 177 Bone black Bookcases Boring-machines -Tools 135 256-259 no 52-57 273 28-30 Casings (door. i35 Bow-saw Box-lock. 209 To make Brown stain Bruises. 119 7. to find Irregular shape Square or rectangle 234 229 229 152 112 1 13 180. 757a circle.. Brushes Building (small "lean to") 200 265. 263 262-265 256 19 19 Chalk Chalk-line Brads Bridge. to remove 156 191 Checking (ends) Cherry See Box-making Chest. 213.and window-) Casters 268 188 177. fileCarpenter's square Carriage clamps Carved work. to fit 187 Centre of Box-making Corner Brace and bit Brace. Chest-locks Chimney (opening) Chip (wooden plane) 250 237-241 187 271 37 188 193. 245 42 133 185 186. 199. 181 Centres for dowelling Of lathe Centring for turning Chair arm. See Furniture Caliper-rule Calipers 78 250-265 21 21 115. Black stain Blind dovetailing Mortising Nailing Block-plane Blocks. centre- DowelExpansiveForstner- GermanGimletPlane- 53 53 54 54 54 PodSpoonTwistTwist-drill 54 35 54 54 54 54 135 191 155 148 Building (small one-story) "Built up" constructions Bull-nosed plane Burnishers Butt-gauge Butts.276 Index Page Page Bits. to paint 246 199 Cap (plane) Carborundum Card. 81 To sharpen -Maker's bench -Rasp -Work.67 191 170-177 1 76 176 63. 266 . 272 156.

SocketStraight-bent Coping -Saw Copper for flashing Cord ("twister") for clamping Core-box plane Coring work. to turn 115 Cutting-edges. to cut with chisel Cut nails (shingling) Saws 237 27-30 32. 184. 138 126 138 loi 22-24 94 127 42 Speed Crossed belts Cross-grained surface. semi-. 16 Sharpening Skew. to cut off 118 To square 9 To find opposite points 231 To turn I13-I15 (With steps).heads (circular-saw) Concave curves. 245 70 137.or C-shaped Filing- 72-75 72. expansion and Control of tool 237-274 21 1-2 13 FramingMortiseParing- 34 34 128-13 35 34 34 113 88 230 215. 138 179. cutting with band-saw Curves. 136. 181 TurningChopping-block Chord. 165 97 . 232 Clamping 72-75. saws for Corner-blocks Corner-boards Corner-braces Corner-chisel -Irons 176 164 28. some types of Contraction. 31.Index Page 277 Page Chisel Bevel-edged- 31-35 34 63 31 35 31 31 CarvingControl of CornerFirmer- Construction. 15 Compound curves to turn 1 Compression 236 214 19. Cuts and bruises Cutter. compound Curves. to find 231. 245 214-216 214-216 211 121 Clamps CabinetCarriage. 32. inscribed in triangle Inscribed in square Tangent to straight line 232 231 230 42. See Flashing Creosote Crickets Cross-cutting saw and its use Cross-cutting (circular-saw) 55 188 Circular-plane Circular-saw Position of Setting and filing 211 263 89-102. to saw Coring (inside) work.. 245 Circumference. 73 Cup-shakes Cups. drawing irregular Clapboarding Clawf oot Cleaner (for furniture) Cleating Cleats Cleavage. 43 Cornering tool Counterboring Countershaft Countersink Cracking. smoothing Cross-strain Crushing strain (compression) Circular work 244. 183. bisecting 270 257 35 188 159 177 112. 99 See Sharpening Cutting-gauge 14 Cylinder. 212 201 65 211 181 Symmetrical for cutting Curves. 180 Curved forms Built up Curves. lines of Clinching Coal-tar Cold-glue 245 236 102 21 176 196 157 211. a few principles 213-217 Dadoing With circular-saw 159.'. Cone pulley 120 112 Construction. to strike Circle. See Checking Cracks. 216 125 85 15. 33 179 xiii Collar-beams Collars (for wabbling circular-saw) Combination-planes Compass-saw Compasses 270 96 43 28 14. to fill Flashing. 30 180 75 231 105 28-30 76. to turn Curled-hair for rubbing 195 244. 126 Chord (strains) Chuck Chute-board Circle or arc.

185. principle Eight-sided stick Elasticity Elevations 31.and window-spaces Door-frame Locks Door. to construct Parts. gauging Finishing 165 13 188-200 . 220 39. 268 40 155 270 187 167. twist- Dado-plane Daniels' planer Dead centre Finish (painting) Decay and preservation 159 107 112 198 Dryer Drying wood 54 198 205-208 211 198 Dry rot Deck-beams Denatured alcohol Dents. to remove Diagonal members Diameter of circle Diameter of curved object Driven pulley Driving pulley Dimensions. 238 Expansive-bit 54 Extension or slide rule j 18 Eye. to turn Dividers 210 249 193 188 Dull finish (painting) Duplicate parts. 213. See Drawknife. 153. to hinge. planing Joints Dogs Door. See Kennel Emery wheel End cleating Elevation -Grain. planing and jointing Matched Rabbeted Edge-tools. 226 224. to lay out Ebonizing Edge. 229 186 268 ^^ 36 106 140 157 154. 218.278 Index Page Page Drill. 192 To Metal for 54 54 Finger and pencil. 236 128 157 217. 204 76. 77 Drawing-board Instruments Problems Drawings. 239 156 1 56 136 160 218 122 219 224. working Drawknife sharpen Drawshave.and panel-making Door. 244 ElHpse 208 217 235. training of Dowels Dowel sharpener Dragon's blood Draw-boring Face Draw-dogs Drawer dovetailing Drawer-locks 149 68 154 187 (of plane) -Plate -Surface 35 121 4 51 WorkingFacing Feather-edge Felt for rubbing edges of case work 258 129. 130. rough Squaring stock to (Working-drawings) Disk. or "hang" Doors and casings Double-cut file Double-ironed planes " Double-surf acer " planer 68 267. 52 Edge of tools Grooved with spline Edges. 225 227. 153 153 191 -Pressure -Wood.32 156 45-50. 225 243. gluing Equal angles. dividing line into Equilateral triangle Double wedges Dovetailed cleats Dovetailing Dowel-bit DoweUing Dowel-plate 188 Escutcheons i Estimating 211Expansion and contraction. 262 153 152. 155 53 152. Dividing line into equal parts Dog-house. Drill-stock 219 219 217-237 216-221 59 133 -Card Rounding with Filing saws Fillers Fillet 77 162 136-138 191. 170 Of post or leg 263 163 1 84 225. 184. joint- 4 191 51 213-215 231 21 127 127 2 51. 131 Drawers Draw-filing scraper 260 133 Fence pickets Figured grain File 194 178 203.

225. 185. 253 Window and door. Glue and its use -Brush -Joint. Carving Sharpening Turning Grain alcohol Of wood Green wood Grinding. 234 French curves 236 PoHshing 195. 141 .work Turning Firmer-chisel Fish-plates Fitting together (cabinet-work) Flashing Flat-faced hammer Flexible ruler . to square Tabourets Hinge-fitting 212 211 201 209 232 234 9 255. to fill 187 186 186 186 188. 100. 159 See Sharpening. 272 214. spaces for. 38 163 Grindstone Grooving 54 226 Frame. 34 Glazing. picture and mirror 252. .Index Page Finishing. 271..34 -Square 9 -Square (various uses). 228. 268. 201 128. board"Foot" cut 235 2 Foot-power machines SquareFore plane Forms for bending Forstner-bit Forty-five degrees 267 1 00-110 2 Gouge. cabinet-work 251.267. 126 31. 196 Front-elevation 217 Furniture 250-265 Polish or cleaner 196 Repairing 180. 189. 97 93 46 88 194 117 246 1 -Chisel 31. to turn 77 56 140. pinned and braced 272 Frames. 204. 215 -Timbers -Strains Foci of ellipse Foot. 132 113 192 201. 272 (Pinned and braced) 272 . to pare out -Round file Halved splice Halving (and nailing) Veneering Handle. 203. to wedge plate Glazier's points 279 Page Carved. 186 Hinges (loose-pin) Strap- Gimlet -Bit Glass. 108 182 72 182 58 177 131. to turn Half -breadth plan 96. dowelling 253 200 200 181-185 182 153 47-50. 71. tool. 135 108. 14 -Wood Hexagon. 212 270 63 (Jointing) -Pot Floor-beams -Boards. . 272 Rubbed Testing joint 268 270.63-67 178 119 186 185 Hand-screws Hanging a door 70.-. 256 . for boring Gauging for hinges 13. 268 Framing (small one-story building) 266. 176 125. laying 21 267.272 (Second story) 271. 57 186 To construct Geometrical problems German-bit Getting out stock 221-237 54 i Hexagonal stick. Hammer . measuring for Setting 53 54 253 200 THinging a door Holes or cracks. 233. 181 Hardware fittings Hard wood Hatchet Header Head-stock Heart -Shakes Gauge ButtFor turning 1 33 1-14 186 Ii8 12 206 57 268. 229. 156 251 180. 194 . 271 112 For special work Setting Stop-. 252 Glass. 226. inscribed in circle 185. Saws and cutters Guards for circular-saw Guides for planing Hack-saw Hair-cloth for rubbing Half -bead. 181 Gain.

curved To paint 198 Irregular moulding-machine 109 Isometric projection or perspective. to turn Hook. drawing Linseed oil (for 272 245 127 19. 243 181 148 Knots. 169 180 198 198 265. placing Woodworking Keyhole-saw Keys. for brace Fig. end- 156 39 108 47-50. sawing through To "kill" with shellac 26 197 Hot glue Housing Hull of toy or model boat Hypothenuse. 84 3 6 152 151. 120 188 108. screw and eye Horizontal moulding-machine Horses 43 119.. 141 142.or drawer-dovetailing Lathe Position for 1 I-beam India stones Inlaying Inside calipers 246-250 229 216 135 178 21 Lath. 151 28. 20 87. 256 190 51 darkening) 220 190 53 192 198 188 Grooved. 108 37 137. 168. Laying out work Tools for (Mortising) (Framing panels) -Gouge -Mitre 58 164 28-30.2i9. 105 Work Instruments. 132. 58. 138 155 Locks Log. drawing Iron. 242. 264 Length Level of belt. 266 263. Lumber. with spline Joint. 105.. stay Strips Lattice bridge Lattice bridge work 127 69 154 10-126 126 269 265 217 178 i. chairs. 156 757a Lips. to find Japan Jig-saw Joint-edge 85 38 198 104. 29 150. testing M Kennel Kerfing Keyed tenons 244 164 (lumber measurement) Machines. 138 4. 143 Liquid fillers Paints L-irons List of materials. painting 47-50 50 197 131 243. cutting Halved Mitred Scarfed Jointer 140. and oil "Lean-to. 221 Ivory black 191 Jack-board MitreJack-plane 83. to find Lacing of belts Lag-screw Lap. 109 82. etc Live centre Or "buzz " planer Jointing Face of wooden plane Sawteeth Joints. etc Lime-water Lines." Leather seats Ledger-board Leg for table. lumber. methods 3 112 187 of sawing 202-205 191 Logwood Long jointer Loose pulleys 39 126 207. 133. 210 Glue. 151 Mahogany Stain 126 88-128 250 191 Mallet 76 251 9 17 206-208 9. 139 107 . planing for "Sprung. to make Kiln-drying 150. 209. 100. Maple Marking-awl Lines Knife Knives. care of Measurement Order Seasoning 2 3 205-208 2 Keen edge. plane- 219 35-37 Lead for flashing Red White." for gluing Etc. Levelling tables.28o Index Page Page Hollow and round planes Hollows and rounds. planer- 106.

253 253 . 126 176 109 170 109 165 259 99 163 Projections Paring. See also Chisel. 108. 140. 221 34 63. 219. 160 255. 221 178 252. 173 21 58 195 Ogee Oil (for darkening) (For oil stones) Oiling bearings Oil stains Oil stones Jack-board Shooting-board -Square To draw Mitred-joint. 14.. 86 155 85 85 10 233 9 108. 7 250 204 219.. 36 Nailing Mitred-joint Nails 63-67 142 For shingling 67 179 construct Perpendicular.tool (carving) (Turning) 167-170 223. 151 148. 254. 143 Open mortise and tenon Orange shellac Mitring Model boat (hull) Modelling or shaping (carving) Model. 116 177 192 220 13 17 10 Gauging with rule and Marks. Gauge Locks draw To cut Mortising-machines no Motors Moulding or shaping (carving). strength of Morris-chair 246-250 175. isometric Pickets Picture and mirror frames Picture.or insidesticks Oak Quartered Oblique projection Oblong. to erect Perspective. Narrow surfaces. scoring Nippers.Index Page 281 Page Marking. To measurements for 232 233 222. to Open Pinned Mortise-chisel 246 196-199 14 34 145 187 146. 176 Outlining carving Outside calipers Gouge Mortise and tenon 217 263 262 144. Moulding-machines Nailing around panel Strips of . Mouldings For case work Roughing out Moulds for bending 258. 252. 108. to mark To make Octagonal tabourets -Box -Dovetailing 253 164 85. Nails. ornamental 116 To withdraw Nail-set Mason's square Masts and spars Matched-boards NaiUng 220 223 161 156. to remove Sharpening Pentagon (in circle) Mouth of plane 35. 147 145. 253 188 Octagon (in circle) (In square) Octagonal stick. 165. 132. rough Spaces (turning) (Straight-edge) 19 115. planing Needle (weaving) Nibs. to wedge Mitre. 175. 221 7 230 231 253 201 252. 172 Sharpening Paste fillers Pencil 10. to nail 226 142 142. 223 219. 6. cutting 264 67 68 45-50 264 53 88 271 To strike Matching-planes 266 43 63 2 Notch-boards Maydole hammer Measurements Of lumber Measurements with two For picture or glass Medullary rays Mirror-frames Plates Mirrors. 224 219. 256 165 190 136 128 191 130. to draw 3. 268 65 108. -Chisel Parting. 149 Pad for polishing Paddle Painting Panel gauge Panelling and doormaking Parallel lines. 135 151 192 172. back. 131.

to hold 46 106 Planer 108 Jointer. 219. 159 54 204 268. 135 -Knives Smoothing Toothed- For seats To cut with circular-saw. 211 221 221 226 126 126 195 68 266 251 200 200 Quartered oak " Quarter "-sawing Quick-action vise 204 204.. 205 82 Rabbet. 220 Raw linseed oil (painting) Rays. 210 i CombinationCore-box Double-ironed Fore- 43 43 231 Process.. .'239 50.95. Protractor Pulleys. etc i9r 189 lead scrapers Plumb " Plumb " cut 20 269 Reeding Reeds . setting and Preservation of wood filing 263 191 138 -Bit BlockBull-nosed Circular- 35-52 43 35 39 42 42. 37 35 38 39 39 43 43 42 43 62 128-131 Pumice Punch.. in woodworking Processes for preserving wood Projection. colored black -Plane 253 42 . 267. glazier's Sawteeth Polishing. . 266. bichromate of Power-saws. to wedge 51 45-50. ends of Potash. 218. 51 2 24 78 53 259 198 201 55 217. adjustment of 37 Wooden. 109 165 Plough Plugs. sawteeth 43-51. 108 Rake.36.282 Index Page Page 88 Pincers 250 Pine. 42 Trying38 Universal43 Wooden. 107. 209 50. 1 1 . Purlins See Nail-set Putting together. to fill holes. _. 151 149 Pins 211 Pitch Pockets for window weights Pod-bit Points. Rasp Ratchet-brace Ratchets for shelves Broad surfaces Edges Traversing Planks Plaster of Paris Plate-glass. 98 156 108. oily 263. (cabinet-work) Putty -Knife 197. 97. French Of roof Sawteeth Placing of machines Plan Plane Beading. setting And belts up 194. 220 Polygon (in circle) 268 54 200 24 . Sharpening 39 41. 196 232. 233 108 Pony planer Posts and legs. 272 88 43. or "buzz" 106. to draw To Red Reed find centre 230 229 198 86 108. 149. white Pinned mortise and tenon. I07. 148. isometric Oblique or parallel 219. to lay out Rags. 159 Reamers Rear elevation Rectangle. medullary 189 Plates Pliers 253 265. Hollow and round -Iron -Iron cap JackJointer Long jointer MatchingPlough RabbetRouter Scraper- 36 38 43 35. Rabbeted joint Rabbeting Radial drills Sawing Rafters. 150. 195. 269 5 Rails 168 -Marks Planing 45. 264 . the. 218. 269 24 126 217.

setting BowBracket- 28-30 30 up 231 231 68 21. annual 269 161. 138 Sawteeth Setting nails Shafting. 201-205 161 155 Round stick To fit (end-joints. Nailing. 264 262. 121 Turned work Sapwood 201 Saw BackBand- 209 21-31 27 . wet and dry Rotten-stone Rough dimensions Roughing out carving 211 195 2 218 156 155 62 61 62 133. Secret dovetailing. nail- 218 209 102-104.. 223. Mortising. nailing. 195 6. 266 KeyholeRipping-Set.Index Page 283 Page Refinishing old work Relishing Removing paint from hands Repairing furniture Resinous matter. 138 Ripping-saw "Rise" Risers Rivets of rafters Rocking-chairs Roof -boards Roof -boards "Lean-to" Strains 201 25-27. 269 121 Sawing inlaying Of log. Semi-circular hollow. . 205 222. Rounded Shellac surfaces 194 119. 138 269 271 67 263 265. Section Selection of stock 208. circular- -Clamp CompassCopingCross-cutting -Filing. Splitting. 134 109 196 122 9 126 68. 175 160. flexible 219 7 13 -Hooks -Pocket Screws 254 69 70. See Dovetailing. to "kill" Ribs. 161 Round stick. 105 See Jig-saw Saddle-boards Sandpaper Blocks Splitting 78-80 78 80. 138 137.or ripping- 28-29 25 137 25-27 loi SwingTurningTeeth. For marking "Run" of rafters 220 269 179 16 104. gauging Ruler. 138 68 126 . 195 Sandpapering carving -Machines 176 Seasoned wood Seasoning Tests for Seats Height Covering no 161 205-208 205-208 207-208 263. stock for 196 148 199 180. (Working-drawings) Scarfed joint Scarfing or Splaying Scraper -Plane To sharpen Scraping-machines Scale. 137._ 89-102. rake or pitch 28-30 24 178 -Timbers Rosettes. to turn 265 214-217 268. testing Semi-circumference. 181 Saw. 231 For cutting curves Jig- 28 30 22-24 136-138 27-30 28. 71 21 HandScribing with compasses Scroll-saw. Rubbed glue-joint Rubber-headed mallet Rubbing-down Rule Extension or slide And pencil. 159 Old work Tools Scratch-awl Screw-cutting -Driver 272-274 72 76 194. ) See Rule. Rot. 120. to make To saw To square Router Row-boat 161 161 43. to find Set. 7. 105. mortising. 263 264 etc. 25. 138 197 163 Ridge-board Rift-stock Right angle Rings. 104. 69 188 .

163._ 36 106 153 267.284 Index Page Page Spirit-level Shakes Sharpening pencils Tools Sharpness. See Tables. Sted. 113 See Square. 179 83. 177 58 31. 255 152 205 14 194 Splitting-gauge 270 246 192-196 192 189 Sand paper -Saw With circular-saw As Shelves filler Wood Spokeshave Spoon-bit For holes and cracks Shingle-nails Shingles 256-259 79 179 178. 31 165 65 Staging Staining Stairs 269 189-191 271 211 267. Steel-wool Steps. 266. bevelled SpHce. 206. 213 201 Members Mitre- (turning) 68 9 2 231 223 120 10 Side elevation 217. 207 34 206 35 161 127 loi 112. halved Splicing Spline Split and wedged dowels Split or rift stock 19 155 155 156. 234. 135. testing Shavings and dust (polishing) Shearing stroke Shears Sheathing -Paper Sheer-plan Shellac 211 10 128 131 121 31. 211. 268 219 35. 267 Silver-grain Similar parts. 207 9 261 128 132. 80. laying out Single-cut file Single-ironed plane "Single surfacer " planer " Sizing " dowels Steel (various problems) 225. Spur-set (for nails) Shingling Shooting-board Mitre- Square Square foot (In circle) Shop Shrinkage 5 Mason's Lengthways 201-207. air-dried Bit- Care of Getting out Selection of Stools Stop. 113. Star-shakes Stay-laths Steam-chest vSteaming wood Steel-square (Various problems). 177 Smoking wood Smoothing-plane Soaking wood Socket-chisels Soft wood Sole (of plane) 66 207 39 162. 61 88 271 Splaying or scarfing. number of Stern-piece Sticking stock Stiles 162 162. 233. 226 228. 84 85 1 "Sprung" joints for gluing 25-27 9i~93 1 40 59 54 50 8. 220 Siding 180 18 Sighting surfaces and edges Sills 265. 33 242 241. 272 272 Stock. 269 Stands. 209 Speed of belts Circular-saws 263 82 158 Lathe Pulleys 126 -Chamfer -Gauge for boring 57 . 269 To To describe find centre 230 229 161 51. 210 I Spars and masts 208. 218. 214 21. 229. 204 4 "]"] Squaring a round stick Squaring stock to dimensions Staff-bead Staggering Floor-beams Sketch or picture Skew-chisel Slanting cut (gouge) Stroke Sled-making Slicing-stroke Slides for drawers Slipping on a belt Slips "Sliver" nailing . 199 271. 52 203. bench- 207 168 205-208 53 207-209.

to fasten Tables Tabourets 254 245 87. arrangement of Care of Control of 213-217 271 136 131 268. 220 163 Strap for bending Strap-hinges Strength of materials String-pieces 186 Tonguing Tonguing and grooving Tool handle.Index Page 285 Page Stop. 5i Tacks ThumbTail-stock -Vise Tannic acid Taper. 166 . For carving For laying out and testing For turning 6 113. 256 254. saw- Compass-saw Ripping-saw Templates Templets. equilateral 227 Triangle (in circle) 232 Triangle. 230 Turkey stones 135 Turning 1 10-126 -Chisel 113 Finishing 125. to turn Tools. 227-230 Trimmers 61 Trimming. 235 214-216 39. 177 42 50. 255 253-256 255 67 Transverse strain Traversing Treads 214 209 246-250 16. floor or roof Tin for flashing 186 234 270 35. for drawers Straight-bent chisel Straight-edge 94. 219. See Paring 140 Tripoli 195 Trisecting right angle 229 True surface. coal. 243 Triangle. to cut (circular saw) To plane Tar. Swing saws Symmetrical curves loi Toughness 237 Toy boat Trammel (hull) Table. arc through Threshold Throat of plane no 214 18 Thumb-tacks Tight and loose pulleys Timbers. See Templates.and woodTeeth. to determine 18 Truing grindstone 135 Oilstone 135 Surfaces 165. for circular-saw Stops. 42. curved To level Top. 95 "Toe " nailing (flashing) 64 108 180 119 5 5 261 34 16-18. . height Leg. use of. Tenon. to draw 229 Triangles. 224. . 223. cross-grained of Edge. 248 144 100 149. principle 136 171. 220. See Mortise and tenon Tenon. 150 181 271 T-rest 112 Treenails 149 Trestles 82. to cut (circular saw) 219 113 82 210 99 108 211 25 29 27 125. 126 -Gouge 113 -Saw Turpentine Stains Twist-bit -Drill 28-30 198 191 214-216 180 "Twister" Types of construction 54 54 252 237-274 . 121 41. 50 Planing broad 51 Toothed plane Knife Toothing veneers Torsion Swaged sawteeth 138 Swelling and shrinking. To wedge Enlarging Tenoning-machines Tension Testing surfaces and edges T-hinges Three points. See Expansion and contraction 2 1 1-2 13 109 177 208. 272 176 3i> 32 Edge Strop Stropping Studding Surface. 36 219 126 Trusses 214-217 Try-square 8 Trying-plane 38 T-square. 50. 226. 242. use of 219-224. 226. . 222.

. 96 165. . 37 46 10-126 88-128 i Wood 167 obviated. 150. 51 127 251 86. etc. Varnish. 1 79 67 145 192. alcohol Wooden plane.) Weather drying. Sticks 87 163 18 87 .286 Index Page Page Undercutting in carving End-joints Shoulders Unit of lumber measurement Universal planes Upholstering 175 155 151 2 White.212. principle (edged-tools) 264 136 152 149-151 139. Veining tool 192-196 190 200 '. 140. benchFor metal 177 177 184 82 88 Window frames And door-spaces Wing compasses Wire-edge -Nails 268 267. twisting. 80. 166 Wood. Washita stones Water-stains Table etc. 193 "Wabbling" circular-saw Warped board. 172 Planing "V-" (or parting) tool Width of Winding 139 156 50. 268 15 Withdrawing nails Witness-marks 129-131 67. 151. 201-213. to true Warping of boards Warping. 195. adjustment Holding Wood turning 1 270 196 194 Wax (finishing) (Filling holes. pine Shellac 250 193 White wood Whittling 250 43 Wide surfaces. 253 211 198 Workshop Worm Woven Wrench Zinc for flashing Paints seats 51 5 Wedged dowels Tenons 53 264 88 Wedges Wet rot oil White lead and 180 198 . (Bending) Winding surface Testing for See also Shellacking. to belt make 263-264 63. 177 Veneering Veneers Gluing Vise. 81 218-221 4> Webbing Wedge. laying out Work-bench Working-drawings Working-face and edge 5. Woodworking-machines Work. See also Lumber. 213 135 191 179.. See Air-dried stock. etc Stains Vessels Varnishing. 135. 63.

P.Jl Selection from the Catalogue of G. PUTNAM'S SONS Complete Catalogue sent on application .


Tribune. history of the Naval A Life at The Making of Amusements. P. . and how that institution became a famous Naval College. (By mail." etc.00. Dalton. By Park Benjamin. trations. describes the education of our young naval officers in the past. $1. won wide renown by swimming across this passage he was in the water 23^ hours. and he shows in his book how each may be overcome. $2. and what they have to expect while there and also many pictures. For the instruction of the swimmer already able to keep afloat. With an Introduction by Col. A limo. the American West Point Army Officer. of " Japanese " Physical Training for Women by Japanese Methods." How Practical Treatise Instruction as to the Best to Swim upon the Art of Natation. showing his life in the old frigates and ships-of-the-line. and then at the Naval School in Annapolis." " The book is an admirable and thorough presentation of the life of It shows us the experithe Cadet and the purposes of the Academy. author In $1. Y. Fully illustrated. Captain Dalton includes descriptions of racing strokes and of fancy movements.40. late Champion Swimmer of the World. he Captain Dalton saved 281 persons from death_ by covered 60 miles. the English He swam back and. all properly stopped to the yarn as it is handsomely paid out. together with Methods of Saving Persons Imperilled in the Water and of Resuscitating those Apparently Drowned. subject in a sympathetic manner.Excellent Books for Boys The United States Naval Academy Being the Yarn of the American Midshipman (Naval Cadet). His Studies. and what they must do and know to get into the Naval Academy. A. Mills. drowning. Irving Hancock.50. .) and By H. till he finishes his course. 8vo. Discipline. Military Academy. and received i6g medals for gallant conduct in his jjrofession. who is thoroughly competent to deal with his subject. f 1. By Captain With 31 IllusDavis. and has treated his as at present. intendent of the U. Net. Fully illustrated. Super121110. author Physical Training. Putnam's Sons New York London . being carried out of his course by the tide. of the Class of '67. Academy written by an expert on naval The book affairs. upon his G.50. JVet. L. ences of a Cadet from the time he first presents himself for examination N. S. meanwhile making him into the most accomplished and versatile young seaman in the world together with some reference to the boys best suited for the Navy. The Channel. Benjamin is a brilliant writer. ^t)^ pages. as well Mr. the difficulties which confront the beginner in the art He is aware of of swimming.

and the like. and gives descriptions common tools and their uses. boring. any knowledge. treats of simple house-building for beginners. Manual Traifiing School. gives the detailed directions. G. small sail-boats. etc. Philadelphia. Wheeler With over yoo Part for fitting I. shows The hearty indorsement. sticks. in its plan a thorough which I acquaintance with the subject. " Wood-working ' for Beginners ' has my It subject is treated in a masterly manner.y pp. Part for II. Girard College. . is alphabetically arranged. frames. It is best of its class of have After showing the work to several of the Faculty of D. skiffs. $2. etc. planing. iceboats. treats of boat-building. book-cases. flat- bottom canoes. Part III. making many objects sleds. etc.Wood-Working for Beginners A Manual for Amateurs By Charles G. with directions and designs for simple summer-cottage building. Part IV. wood. bench hooks. Illustrations. together with matters of general import- ance to the beginner. Pa.^0 contains chapters treating on tools.. houses. and also of such subjects as rounding bending wood. 562. etc. EavetzGirard College they all gave it their unqualified approval. tool cabinets. P. and includes a variety of camping-houses. laying etc. including punts. of interest to the amateur such as dog- toboggans. doors. including benches. 8vo.. out of work. Putnam's Sons New York London . of Part V. and gives detailed directions and suggestions up workshops. gymnastic apparatus. boat-houses." SOH. with illustrations..






«AY 31 1911 .

Div. to Cat.One copy del. MAY 31 >9n .


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