-The Computer Interfaces

Prepared By: Chauhan Rajendra G(6058). Popat Pratik P(6056).


This is to certify that Mr.Chauhan Rajendra G.(6058) and Mr Popat Pratik P.(6056) students of semester-V IT Engineering, of Shantilal Shah Engineering College,Bhavnagar have satisfactorily completed a report on “Computer Input-Output Devices” and submitted on .

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COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Guide Staff in Charge Head of Department

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We are also thankful to principal.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES AKNOWLEDGEMENT We are sincerely thankful to Beena V Thanki who thoroughly guided me and devoted her precious and valuable and pin-point suggestion in preparation of my project report on Bluetooth-Wireless Technology. Bhavnagar.(6058) and Popat Pratik P(6056) IT Engg V SEM S. 4 | Page .S.College.S. Chauhan Rajendra G.College due to whom we are able to prepare this paper with almost care.Engg.Engg.S.

64 .……………………………………………………54 ……………………………………………….20 …………………………………………………….……………………………………………………68 5 | Page .29 Magnetic ink character reader …………………………………………………….……54 …………………………………………………….COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES CONTENTS 1.5 …………………………………………….50 .19 …………………………………………………….36...38 ……………………………………………………... References ……………………………………………………..26 …………………………………………………….. Introduction 2.16 …………………………………………………….7 …………………………………………………… 11 ……………………………………………………. Micro phone Touch screen 3. Output devices Printer Plotter 4... Input devices Mouse Graphics tablet Joystick Barcode reader Light pen Pointing stick Digital camera …………………….……………………….7 …………………………………………………….

Input and output bridge the chasm between a computer’s inner world of bits. Input/Output devices are required for users to communicate with the computer.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES 1. Indeed. what good would a mouse be without the corresponding feedback embodied by the cursor on the screen. Input to computers consists of 6 | Page . and the real world perceptible to the human senses. Introduction The computer will be of no use unless it is able to communicate with the outsideworld. input devices bring information INTO the computer and outputdevices bring information OUT of a computer system. However. nearly all examples of human-computer interaction require both input and output to do anything useful. The computing literature often draws a sharp distinction between input and output. For example. Clay reacts to the sculptor’s fingers yet also provides feedback through the curvature and texture of its surface. 1997). A sheet of paper can be used to both record ideas (input) and display them (output). as well as the sound and feel of the buttons when they are clicked? The distinction between output devices and input devices becomes even more blurred in the real world.In simple terms. the complete and seamless integration of input and output is becoming a common research theme in advanced computer interfaces such as ubiquitous computing (Weiser. These input/output devices arealso known as peripherals since they surround the CPU and memory of a computersystem. computer scientists are used to regarding a screen as a passive output device and a mouse as a pure input device. 1991) and tangible interaction (Ishii & Ullmer.

and organs people can use for communicating with computers. speakers. that provides a way for the user to accomplish a low-level task. consisting of all hardware and software elements. which detects a contact closure when the user presses a key. which senses movement across a surface. or tactile and force feedback devices (sometimes referred to as haptic displays). processes. and perceptual-motor skills and abilities. and all have their value and contributions to the field. However. and more convenient means for users to transmit information to computers. or even problems uncovered during careful analyses of existing interfaces. These approaches complement one another. On the user’s side of the communication channel. It then attempts to find the common ground through which the two can be related by studying new modes of communication that could be used for human-computer interaction (HCI) and developing devices and techniques to use such modes. as well as models that can predict or interpret user performance in computing tasks. by technological breakthroughs that HCI researchers attempt to apply to improving or extending the capabilities of interfaces. it is constrained only by the technologies and methods that we can invent. Basic research seeks theories and principles that inform us of the parameters of human cognitive and perceptual facilities. Advances can be driven by the need for new modalities to support the unique requirements of specific application domains. any sensed information about physical properties of people. 7 | Page . For example. and the keyboard. and the perceptual abilities. on the computer side. An interaction technique is the fusion of input and output. or things can serve as input to computer systems. more natural. such as a display (including the cathode ray tube (CRT). places. Progress in this area attempts to increase the useful bandwidth across that interface by seeking faster. cognition.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES sensed information about the physical environment. in the traditional graphical user interface. as well as efficient. or even light emitting diodes). interaction is constrained by the nature of human attention. The fundamental task of human-computer interaction is to shuttle information between the brain of the user and the silicon world of the computer. Output from computers can comprise any emission or modification to the physical environment. Familiar examples include the mouse. salient. and pleasant mechanisms to provide feedback to the user. flat-panel displays. or by theoretical insights suggested by studies of human abilities and behaviors. Research in input and output centers around the two ends of this channel: the devices and techniques computers can use for communicating with people. users can scroll through a document by clicking or dragging the mouse (input) within a scroll bar displayed on the screen (output). but the best research seems to have elements of all of these.

in 1984 a prominent PC columnist commented the release of this new computer with a mouse: “There is no evidence that people want to use these things. However. It sometimes features other elements. or mouse devices) is a pointing device that functions by detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface. such as "wheels". which allow the user to perform various system-dependent operations. There are many input devices such as keyboard. Mouse In computing. which allows for fine control of a Graphical User Interface.The typical terminal has a keyboard so that data can be typed into the computer and a screen to display what is being typed. originated at the Stanford Research Institute. suggesting the idea of a tail) to the common mouse. a mouse consists of an object held under one of the user's hands. The mouse's motion typically translates into the motion of a pointer on a display. Physically. The name mouse. mice. with one or more buttons.[ The first marketed integrated mouse – shipped as a part of a computer and intended for personal computer navigation – came with the Xerox 8010 Star Information System in 1981. the mouse remained relatively obscure until the appearance of the Apple Macintosh. Input devices One of most common input devices is a computer terminal.mouse and many others some of them are describe here. derives from the resemblance of early models (which had a cord attached to the rear part of the device. A mouse now comes with most computers and many other varieties can be bought separately. a mouse (plural mouses. 8 | Page . or extra buttons or features can add more control or dimensional input.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES 2.

doing business as The Mouse House in Berkeley. Honeywell produced another type of mechanical mouse. The ball mouse utilizes two rollers rolling against two sides of the ball. The mouse sends these signals to the computer system by means of connecting wires. Based on another invention by Jack Hawley. This variant of the mouse resembled an inverted trackball and became the predominant form used with personal computers throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Instead of a ball. it had two wheels rotating at off axes. It came as part of the hardware package of the Xerox Alto computer. interrupting optical beams to generate electrical signals. The Xerox PARC group also settled on the modern technique of using both hands to type on a full-size keyboard and grabbing the mouse when required. 9 | Page . Perpendicular chopper wheels housed inside the mouse's body chopped beams of light on the way to light sensors. The ball-mouse replaced the external wheels with a single ball that could rotate in any direction. The motion of these two rollers causes two disc-like encoder wheels to rotate. Ball mice and wheel mice were manufactured for Xerox by Jack Hawley. starting in 1975. builder of Engelbart's original mouse. proprietor of the Mouse House. California. Keytronic later produced a similar product. One roller detects the forward–backward motion of the mouse and other the left–right motion. The driver software in the system converts the signals into motion of the mouse pointer along X and Y axes on the screen. thus detecting in their turn the motion of the ball. invented the ball mouse in 1972 while working for Xerox PARC.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Mechanical mouse devices Bill English.

This new design incorporated a single hard rubber mouseball and three buttons. This advance enabled the mouse to detect relative motion on a wide variety of surfaces. uses potentiometers rather than encoder wheels. a system prone to drag and unreliability of contact. it became possible to embed more powerful special-purpose image-processing chips in the mouse itself. using an LED or a laser diode. Changes between one frame and the next are processed by the image processing part of the chip and translated into movement on the two axes using an 10 | P a g e . Optical mice An optical mouse uses a light-emitting diode and photodiodes to detect movement relative to the underlying surface. provided the software accepted joystick input) was the best-known example. rather than moving some of its parts – as in a mechanical mouse Modern optical mice Modern surface-independent optical mice work by using an optoelectronic sensor to take successive pictures of the surface on which the mouse operates. the "analog mouse" (now generally regarded as obsolete).COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Modern computer mice took form at the École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) under the inspiration of Professor Jean-Daniel Nicoud and at the hands of engineer and watchmaker André Guignard. The "Color Mouse. and remained a common design until the mainstream adoption of the scroll-wheel mouse during the 1990s. As computing power grew cheaper. translating the movement of the mouse into the movement of the pointer and eliminating the need for a special mouse-pad. Optical mice illuminate the surface that they track over." originally marketed by Radio Shack for their Color Computer (but also usable on MS-DOS machines equipped with analog joystick ports. but detect shaft rotation using an optical encoder with lower friction and more certain performance. and is typically designed to be plug-compatible with an analog joystick.] Another type of mechanical mouse. Mechanical or opto-mechanical A mouse described as simply "mechanical" has a contact-based incremental rotary encoder. Opto-mechanical mice still use a ball or crossed wheels. This advance paved the way for widespread adoption of optical mice.

COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES optical flow estimation algorithm. For example. the Avago Technologies ADNS-2610 optical mouse sensor processes 1512 frames per second: each frame consisting of a rectangular array of 18×18 pixels. and each pixel can sense 64 different levels of gray 11 | P a g e .

12 | P a g e . similar to the way one draws images with a pencil and paper. drawing tablet) is a computer input device that allows one to hand-draw images and graphics. come as a functioning secondary computer screen that you can interact with directly using the stylus. Some tablets however. is displayed on the computer monitor. a pen-like drawing apparatus.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Graphics tablet A graphics tablet (or digitizing tablet. These tablets may also be used to capture data or handwritten signatures. A graphics tablet (also called pen pad or digitizer) consists of a flat surface upon which the user may "draw" an image using an attached stylus. rather. The image generally does not appear on the tablet itself but. graphics pad.

800px-Wacom_Graphire4_tablet Operation There have been many attempts to categorize the technologies that have been used for graphics tablets. Some of the resulting categories include: 13 | P a g e .COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Some tablets are intended as a general replacement for a mouse as the primary pointing and navigation device for desktop computers.

On older tablets. The most successful example is the technology developed by Anoto. affecting the signal generated by the pen. Modern arrangements also provide pressure sensitivity and one or more switches (similar to the buttons on a mouse). By using electromagnetic signals. Optical tablets Optical tablets operate by a very small digital camera in the stylus. Active tablets Active tablets differ in that the stylus used contains self-powered electronics that generate and transmit a signal to the tablet. These styli rely on an internal battery rather than the tablet for their power. with the electronics for this information present in the stylus itself. Wacom's patents don't permit their competitors to employ such techniques. where the horizontal and vertical wires of the tablet operate as both transmitting and receiving coils (as opposed to the wires of the RAND Tablet which only transmit). Acoustic tablets 14 | P a g e .COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Passive tablets Passive tablets. The wires in the tablet then change to a receiving mode and read the signal generated by the stylus. resulting in a bulkier stylus. as they do not have to alternate between transmit and receive modes. the tablet is able to sense the stylus position without the stylus having to even touch the surface. which can result in less jitter. make use of electromagnetic induction technology. and powering the pen with this signal means that devices used with the tablet never need batteries. Eliminating the need to power the pen means that such tablets may listen for pen signals constantly. which modern ones often encode into the signal as a digital data stream. not the tablet. and then doing pattern matching on the image of the paper. changing the pressure on the stylus nib or pressing a switch changed the properties of the LC circuit. which is received by the LC circuit in the stylus. most notably those by Wacom. The tablet generates an electromagnetic signal.

and detect it in the pen. Electromagnetic tablets Wacom's are one example of a graphics tablet that works by generating and detecting an electromagnetic signal: in the Wacom design. the tablet. and can gather much more information about the stylus.a small sound generator was mounted in the stylus.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Early models were described as spark tablets -. although this design is no longer used on any normal tablets. a graphics tablet generally offers much higher precision. and can only be used with the special stylus or other accessories. especially inexpensive ones aimed at young children. For all these technologies. using technology similar to older RAND tablets. the tilt (angle from vertical) of the stylus. 15 | P a g e . and detected by a grid of wires in the tablet. but is typically more expensive. the Scriptel design is able to detect the position of the pen while it is in proximity to. the signal is generated by the pen. and other information in addition to the horizontal and vertical positions. come with a corded stylus. the tablet can use the received signal to also determine the distance of the stylus from the surface of the tablet. Scriptel's designs are one example of a high-performance tablet detecting an electrostatic signal. Some tablets. Other designs such as those by Pencept generate a signal in the grid of wires in the tablet. Compared to touch-sensitive touchscreens. and the acoustic signal picked up by two microphones placed near the writing surface. the ability to track an object which is not touching the tablet. Capacitative tablets have also been designed to use an electrostatic or capacitative signal. Unlike the type of capacitative design used for touchscreens. Some modern designs are able to read positions in three dimensions. or hovering above.

The technology is popular and inexpensive and offers a methodology for interacting with the computer in a more natural manner than typing on the keyboard. in some cases. In East Asia. Japanese. and other attributes of the stylus and its interaction with the tablet. Indeed. stylus tilt or rotation) information generated by a tablet. many graphics packages are able to make use of the pressure (and. are widely considered to offer a very natural way to create computer graphics.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Puck After styli. A puck is a mouse-like device that can detect its absolute position. as one can put a piece of paper on them without interfering with their function. are widely used in conjunction with input method editor software (IMEs) to write Chinese. Korean characters (CJK). as opposed to mice. shape. especially twodimensional computer graphics. because of their stylus-based interface and ability to detect some or all of pressure. opacity. tilt. which can only sense their relative velocity on a surface (most tablet drivers are capable of allowing a puck to emulate a mouse in operation. color. tablets are gaining popularity as a replacement for the computer mouse as a pointing device. Finally. pucks are the most commonly used tablet accessory. and many pucks are marketed as “mice. graphics tablets. by modifying the brush size. Tablets are also popular for technical drawings and CAD. for detailed tracing and CAD work. Uptake of handwriting recognition among users of latin script has been slower.”) Pucks range in size and shape. while others are fairly large device with dozens of buttons and controls. as the position of the pen on the tablet typically corresponds to the location of the pointer on the GUI shown on the computer screen. or other attributes based on data received from the graphics tablet. or pen tablets as they are known. some are externally indistinguishable from a mouse. Professional pucks often have a reticule or loupe which allows the user to see the exact point on the tablet's surface targeted by the puck. Uses General uses Graphics tablets. with the pen tablet supplanting the role of the computer mouse. They can be more intuitive to some users than the mouse. Those artists using the 16 | P a g e .

whereas operating a pen is more natural and tends to involve the movement of the entire arm . Sufferers of carpal tunnel syndrome also report good results. A solution for injuries Advocates of tablets and pens cite relief from occupational overuse syndrome varieties such as repetitive strain injury. Graphics tablets are available in various sizes and price ranges. Modern tablets usually connect to the computer via a USB interface. A6-sized tablets being relatively inexpensive and A3-sized tablets being far more expensive.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES pen for graphics work will as a matter of convenience use the tablet and pen for standard computer operations rather than put down the pen and find the mouse. This is because the use of a computer mouse tends to be very repetitive on the wrist. 17 | P a g e .


A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling. Joysticks are often used to control video games, and usually have one or more push-buttons whose state can also be read by the computer. A popular variation of the joystick used on modern video game consoles is the analog stick. The joystick has been the principal flight control in the cockpit of many aircraft, particularly military fast jets, where centre stick or side-stick location may be employed (see also Centre stick vs side-stick). Joysticks are also used for controlling machines such as cranes, trucks, underwater unmanned vehicles and zero turning radius lawn mowers. Miniature finger-operated joysticks have been adopted as input devices for smaller electronic equipment such as mobile phones.

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Arcade sticks
An arcade stick is a large-format controller for use with home consoles or computers. They use the stick-and-button configuration of some arcade cabinets, such as those with particular multi-button arrangements. For example, the six button layout of the arcade games Street Fighter II or Mortal Kombat cannot be comfortably emulated on a console joypad, so licensed home arcade sticks for these games have been manufactured for the Xbox 360.

Technical details
Most joysticks are two-dimensional, having two axes of movement (similar to a mouse), but one and three-dimensional joysticks do exist. A joystick is generally configured so that moving the stick left or right signals movement along the X axis, and moving it forward (up) or back (down) signals movement along the Y axis. In joysticks that are configured for threedimensional movement, twisting the stick left (counter-clockwise) or right (clockwise) signals movement along the Z axis. These three axes - X Y and Z - are, in relation to an aircraft, roll, pitch, and yaw. An analog joystick is a joystick which has continuous states, i.e. returns an angle measure of the movement in any direction in the plane or the space (usually using potentiometers) and a digital joystick gives only on/off signals for four different directions, and mechanically possible combinations (such as up-right, down-left, etc.). (Digital joysticks were very common as game controllers for the video game consoles, arcade machines, and home computers of the 1980s.) Additionally joysticks often have one or more fire buttons, used to trigger some kind of action. These are simple on/off switches. Some joysticks have force feedback capability. These are thus active devices, not just input devices. The computer can return a signal to the joystick that causes it to resist the movement with a returning force or make the joystick vibrate. Most I/O interface cards for PCs have a joystick (game control) port. Modern joysticks mostly use a USB interface for connection to the PC.

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Industrial applications
In recent times, the employment of joysticks has become common place in many industrial and manufacturing applications, such as; cranes, assembly lines, forestry equipment, mining trucks, and excavators. In fact, the use of such joysticks is in such high demand, that it has virtually replaced the traditional mechanical control lever in nearly all modern hydraulic control systems. Due to the highly hands-on, rough nature of such applications, the industrial joystick tends to be more robust than the typical video-game controller, and able to function over a high cycle life. This led to the development and employment of Hall Effect sensing to such applications in the 1980s as a means of contactless sensing. Several companies produce joysticks for industrial applications using hall effect technology. The two global manufacturers that serve the largest OEM's like Caterpillar, John Deere, AGCO, CNH, JLG, GENIE and others are DeltaTech Controls [] and Penny and Giles Controls []. Penny and Giles Controls also designs and manufactures joysticks for powered wheelchair controls and radio remote controls. In North America there are 3 small regional manufactures that also service the industry; OEM Controls [], Otto Engineering [] and PQ Controls []. In Europe there are several manufacturers that supply into specialized market sectors, like for example crane controls, aviation, etc.. One of the European global joystick suppliers is the Swiss company Genge & Thoma AG [], supplying standard and tailor made industrial grade joysticks. The larger manufactures of Joysticks are able to customize joystick handles and grips specific to the OEM needs while small regional manufacture concentrate on selling standard products at higher prices to smaller OEM's. Assistive technology Specialist joysticks, classed as an assistive technology pointing device, are used to replace the computer mouse for people with fairly severe physical disabilities. Rather than controlling

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For example. named for the similar-looking headgear. Hat switch Hat switch . the hat switch may control things like aileron or rudder trim. Miniature joysticks are also available for people with conditions involving muscular weakness such as muscular dystrophy or motor neurone disease. It allows one to look around in their virtual world. The term hat switch is a sanitization of the term "Coolie Hat". while other games sometimes use it as a substitute for the D-pad. such as cerebral palsy. In a real aircraft. 21 | P a g e .at top. They are also used on electric powered wheelchairs for control since they are simple and effective to use as a control method. who find them easier to grasp than a standard mouse. many flight simulators use it to switch the player's views. They are often useful to people with athetoid conditions. which may be considered offensive. in green A hat switch is a control on some joysticks.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES games these joysticks plug into the USB port and control the mouse pointer. It's also known as a POV (point of view) switch. browse menus etc.

Like a flatbed scanner. but the position of the code target must coincide with the imaging capability of the reader. Reader gates for automatic scanning: The position of the code must be just under the gate for short time. Additionally. it consists of a light source. but must at least position the reader near the label Fix-mount readers for automatic reading: The reading is performed laterally passing the label over the reader. a lens and a light sensor translating optical impulses into electrical ones. No operator is required.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Barcode reader A barcode reader (or barcode scanner) is an electronic device for reading printed barcodes. Semi-automatic handheld readers: The operator need not swipe. Types of barcode readers Methods Scanning methods are distinguished by the amount of operator manipulation required: Pen or wand-type readers: requires the operator to swipe the pen over the code. 22 | P a g e . enabling the scanner sweep to capture the code target successfully. nearly all barcode readers contain decoder circuitry analyzing the barcode's image data provided by the sensor and sending the barcode's content to the scanner's output port.

CCD Readers CCD readers (also referred to as LED scanner) use an array of hundreds of tiny light sensors lined up in a row in the head of the reader. Dark bars in the bar code absorb light and white spaces reflect light so that the voltage waveform generated by the photo diode is a representation of the bar and space pattern in the bar code. To read a bar code.[1] Each sensor measures the intensity of the light immediately in front of it. Each individual light sensor in the CCD reader is extremely small and because there are hundreds of sensors lined up in a row. The important difference between a CCD reader and a pen or laser scanner is that the CCD reader is measuring emitted ambient light from the bar code whereas pen or laser scanners are measuring reflected light of a specific frequency originating from the scanner itself.As with the pen type reader. a photodiode is used to measure the intensity of the light reflected back from the bar code. a voltage pattern identical to the pattern in a bar code is generated in the reader by sequentially measuring the voltages across each sensor in the row. the tip of the pen moves across the bars in a steady motion. This waveform is decoded by the scanner in a manner similar to the way Morse code dots and dashes are decoded.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Types of technology The reader types can be distinguished as follows: Pen type readers Pen type readers consist of a light source and a photodiode that are placed next to each other in the tip of a pen or wand. Laser scanners Laser scanners work the same way as pen type readers except that they use a laser beam as the light source and typically employ either a reciprocating mirror or a rotating prism to scan the laser beam back and forth across the bar code. Camera-Based Readers 23 | P a g e . The photodiode measures the intensity of the light reflected back from the light source and generates a waveform that is used to measure the widths of the bars and spaces in the bar code. the light emitted by the reader is tuned to a specific frequency and the photodiode is designed to detect only this modulated light of the same frequency. In both pen readers and laser scanners.

which includes code for reading EAN-13 barcodes from cellphone cameras using J2ME.g. or other multiangle arrangement are projected at the symbol and one or more of them will be able to cross all of the symbol's bars and spaces. There are a number of open source libraries for barcode reading from images. Omni-Directional Barcode Scanners Omni-directional scanning uses "series of straight or curved scanning lines of varying directions in the form of a starburst.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES 2D imaging scanners are the fourth and newest type of bar code reader currently available. These include the ZXing project. Omni-directional scanners almost all use a laser. There are a range of different omni-directional units available which can be used for differing scanning applications. ranging from retail type applications with the barcodes read only a few centimetres away from the scanner to industrial conveyor scanning where the unit can be a couple of metres away or more from the code. no matter what the orientation. have been realized options for resolving the given tasks. the JJIL project. where packages are slid across a glass or sapphire window.and two-dimensional barcodes using Android and JavaME. Most of them use a single rotating polygonal mirror and an arrangement of several fixed mirrors to generate their complex scan patterns. a video camera has hundreds of rows of sensors arranged in a two dimensional array so that they can generate an image. Even web site integration. and Zebra (Changed name to ZBAR?). which reads various one-dimensional barcodes in C. the Barcodepedia uses a flash application and some web cam for querying a database). Unlike the simpler single-line laser scanners. which reads one. They use a small video camera to capture an image of a bar code. Video cameras use the same CCD technology as in a CCD bar code reader except that instead of having a single row of sensors. Omni-directional scanners are most familiar through the horizontal scanners in supermarkets. Folke Ashberg: EAN-13 Image-Scanning and code creation tools) or by use of plugins (e. The reader then uses sophisticated digital image processing techniques to decode the bar code. 24 | P a g e . either by image uploads (e. a lissajous pattern. they produce a pattern of beams in varying orientations allowing them to read barcodes presented to it at different angles.g.

or even torn barcodes 25 | P a g e .COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Omni-directional scanners are also better at reading poorly printed. wrinkled.

A light pen is fairly simple to implement. It was notable for its use in the Fairlight CMI. 26 | P a g e .COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Light pen A light pen is a computer input device in the form of a light-sensitive wand used in conjunction with a computer's CRT TV set or monitor. Even some consumer products were given light pens. The first light pen was created around 1952 as part of the Whirlwind project at MIT. Because the user was required to hold his or her arm in front of the screen for long periods of time. Since the current version of the game show Jeopardy! began in 1984. at which point the scan position can be read from a special register. the light pen fell out of use as a general purpose input device. The light pen became moderately popular during the early 1980s. The pen position is updated on every refresh of the screen. the X. or draw on the screen. A light pen can work with any CRT-based display. and the BBC Micro. By noting exactly where the scanning has reached at that moment. in a similar way to a touch screen but with greater positional accuracy. This is usually achieved by the light pen causing an interrupt. It allows the user to point to displayed objects. but not with LCD screens (though Toshiba and Hitachi displayed a similar idea at the "Display 2006" show in Japan). contestants have used a light pen to write down their wagers and responses for the Final Jeopardy! round. The light pen works by sensing the sudden small change in brightness of a point on the screen when the electron gun refreshes that spot. projectors and other display devices.Y position of the pen can be resolved. or computed from a counter or timer. in particular Thomson's TO7 and TO7/70 computers.

27 | P a g e . some nonzero intensity level must be present at the coordinate position to be selected.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Since light pens operate by detecting light emitted by the screen phosphors.

Features The sensitivity of the TrackPoint is usually adjustable. by using a pair of resistive strain gauges. the stick is embedded between the 'G'. The cap can be a slightly rough "eraser head" material (Classic Dome) or other optional shapes (Soft Dome or Soft Rim). On a QWERTY keyboard. 'H' and 'B' keys. The pointing stick has a replaceable rubber cap. It has also been observed on computer mice and on some desktop keyboards (as an integrated pointing device). traditionally red on the ThinkPad but also found in other colors on other machines. and can be set to provide an extremely light touch. Toshiba Satellite laptops. The velocity of the cursor depends on the applied force. including IBM's line of ThinkPad laptops (now made by Lenovo). The pointing stick operates by sensing applied force (hence it is also known as an isometric joystick). and the mouse buttons are placed just below the Spacebar.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Pointing stick The pointing stick (trademarked by IBM as the TrackPoint & by Synaptics as the Touchstyk) is an isometric joystick used as a pointing device (compare especially touchpad and trackball). It was invented by research scientist Ted Selker. HP business notebooks and on Dell Latitudes under the name of Track Stick. The mouse buttons can be operated right-handed or left-handed due to their placement below the keyboard along the centerline. 28 | P a g e . It is present on many brands of laptops.

and as much time to shift back. working at IBM. for a computer user to shift his hand from the keyboard to the mouse. the user must lift his or her finger temporarily off the TrackPoint for about 1 second. and performance is 7. three-quarters of a second.8% better . to trigger a recalibration. 29 | P a g e . History The concept of TrackPoint was created in 1984 by Ted Selker. Ted Selker wanted to construct a device that would largely eliminate this delay. Three years later. However. where a sharp tap on the pointing stick is equivalent to a button-click. The button thus clicked can be configured to be 1. He learned about a study that demonstrated that it takes relatively long time. Selker built a model of a pointing stick.. TrackPoints automatically recalibrate when the stick recognizes a steady cursor drift. a PARC researcher. Usability tests at IBM have shown that it is easier for users to position the cursor with Negative Inertia. Problems Cursor drift is a ubiquitous problem among pointing sticks. but actually had no time to work on it.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Press-to-select is an optional feature. the Trackpoint (and 3 buttons) can provide almost the entire behavior of a 3-button. However. Comparison with touchpads The pointing stick can be used in ultra-compact netbooks (see Sony Vaio P. Together with software wheel-emulation. Tapping button-2 will generate a middle-click. Negative Inertia is intended to avoid feeling of inertia or sluggishness when starting or stopping movement[2]. The TrackPoint III and the TrackPoint IV have a feature called Negative Inertia that causes the cursor's velocity to "overreact" when it is accelerated or decelerated. it is quite easy to accidentally "click" the mouse when typing. 2-wheel mouse. holding button-2 while simultaneously moving the pointer will generate vertical and horizontal scrolling events. 2 or 3. for example) where there would be no place for a touchpad. Selker was able to refine the TrackPoint design and transform his invention into a product. requiring frequent recalibration.

against 8. usually located just below the keyboard. One criticism is that because the pointing stick depends on the user applying pressure. on average. with users who refuse to buy a laptop unequipped with the device. a finger slipping off of the stick can lead to accidental pressing of one or more keys in immediate proximity. Another criticism is that it stresses the index finger and may lead to RSI injuries. and object manipulation took 6. It should be noted that these studies measured pointing performance only and cannot verify or disprove the claim that trackpoint is faster in a mix of pointing and typing actions.1 sec with trackpoint. it can cause hand cramps (although this can be partly solved by setting the sensitivity to high. Some users even choose to wear a TrackPoint cap as a badge to show their support. 1. Subjective claims Some people find it easier to finely position the pointer than when using a touchpad because there is virtually no 'dead zone'. because the track-point allows infinite movement without repositioning. one study found that "the touchpad was operated 15% faster than the trackpoint. Another study found that average object selection time was faster with a touchpad.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES The pointing stick is especially liked by touch-typists and IT professionals because it is one of the few pointing devices which does not require the user to remove their fingers from the home row. Most studies find that touchpad is slightly faster.2 sec with a trackpoint. and lifting the finger when the pointer is not being moved). Objective studies comparing pointing stick and touchpad performance A number of ergonomic studies to compare trackpoint and touchpad performance have been done . because user does not need to avoid resting wrists on a touchpad. 30 | P a g e . The device has a very loyal user base. Some people find them more appealing for mobile gaming than a touchpad.2 sec with a touchpad. In addition.7 sec compared to 2. Some users feel that pointing stick causes less wrist strain.

sufficient for nearby subjects. Compacts often have macro capability. recording video with sound. Compact digital cameras Compact cameras are designed to be small and portable and are particularly suitable for casual and "snapshot" use. storing thousands of images on a single small memory device. Digital cameras can do things film cameras cannot: displaying images on a screen immediately after they are recorded.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Digital camera A digital camera (or digicam for short) is a camera that takes video or still photographs. and deleting images to free storage space. images can usually only be stored using lossy compression (JPEG). The smallest. typically using a lens with a variable diaphragm to focus light onto an image pickup device. just as with film. In the Western market. Digital cameras are incorporated into many devices ranging from PDAs and mobile phones (called camera phones) to vehicles. The combination of the diaphragm and a shutter mechanism is used to admit the correct amount of light to the imager. They may have limited motion picture capability. but if they have zoom capability the range is usually less than for bridge and DSLR cameras. digitally by recording images via an electronic image sensor. focuses the lens. or both. Most have a built-in flash usually of low power. thus are also called point-and-shoot camera. Live preview is almost always used to frame the photo. The Hubble Space Telescope and other astronomical devices are essentially specialised digital cameras. digital cameras outsell their 35 mm film counterparts. 31 | P a g e . Compact cameras are usually designed to be easy to use. sacrificing advanced features and picture quality for compactness and simplicity. Typically. Fundamentally they operate in the same manner as film cameras. are described as subcompacts or "ultra-compacts". generally less than 20 mm thick. using the image data from the live preview feed off the main imager. Some can cro pictures and perform other elementary image editing. the only difference is that the image pickup device is electronic rather than chemical. these cameras incorporate a nearly-silent leaf shutter into their lenses. Generally a contrastdetect autofocus system. Many compact digital still cameras can record sound and moving video as well as still photographs.

Autofocus is achieved using the same contrast-detect mechanism. most use live preview to frame the image. and the scene is composed by viewing either the liquid crystal display or the electronic 32 | P a g e . partially compensating for the inability to change lenses. corresponding to a crop factor around 6. To reduce aberrations in a lens with such ambitious specifications. these have quite complex constructions. Fujifilm FinePix S9000. can usually take movies with sound. using multiple aspheric elements and often anomalous-dispersion glass. This gives them weaker low-light performance. Bridge cameras lack the reflex viewing system of DSLRs. many of these cameras have very highly specified lenses with large zoom ranges and fast apertures. Like compacts. but share with compacts the use of a fixed lens and a small sensor. Bridge cameras Bridge or SLR-like cameras are higher-end digital cameras that physically and ergonomically resemble DSLRs and share with them some advanced features. Due to the combination of large physical size but a small sensor. These cameras are sometimes marketed as and confused with digital SLR cameras since the appearance is similar. generally closer focusing ability. but many bridge cameras feature a manual focus mode for greater control. these cameras almost always include an image stabilization system of some kind to enable longer handheld exposures.7. greater depth of field. and smaller components than cameras using larger sensors. A typical example is the lens on the Panasonic FZ50. have so far been fitted with fixed (non-interchangeable) lenses (although in some cases accessory wideangle or telephoto converters can be attached to the lens).COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES To enable lower costs and smaller size. these cameras typically use image sensors with a diagonal of approximately 6 mm.8-3. a 35-420mm equivalent lens with an aperture of 1:2. To compensate for the reduced sensitivity of their small sensors.

in which a mirror reflects light from the lens through a separate optical viewfinder. 1. or 1). autofocus is accomplished using specialized sensors in the mirror box itself. They take their name from their unique viewing system. interchangeable lens cameras In late 2008 a new type of camera emerged. This gives them superior low-light performance. So each lens does not require its own shutter. telephoto. These are simpler and more compact than DSLRs 33 | P a g e . behind the mirror. The high-end models of this type have comparable resolutions to low and mid-range DSLRs. typically 18 mm to 36 mm on the diagonal (crop factor 2. low-light. and a larger size. They make use of interchangeable lenses. Since no light reaches the imager during framing. DSLRs make a distinctive "clack" noise when an image is shot. but they are capable of very good image quality (with sufficient light) while being more compact and lighter than DSLRs. In order to capture an image the mirror is flipped out of the way. The majority have a built-in flash similar to those found in DSLRs.6. (Note that most modern DSLRs feature a "live view" mode that emulates the live preview viewing system of compact cameras in the event that this method is desirable.) These cameras have much larger sensors than the other types. each major DSLR manufacturer also sells a line of lenses specifically intended to be used on their cameras. DSLRs use a focal-plane shutter in front of the imager. Because of the need to quickly flip the mirror out of the way at the moment of exposure. Electronic viewfinder. This allows the user to select a lens designed for the application at hand: wide-angle. combining the larger sensors and interchangeable lenses of DSLRs with the live preview viewing system of compact cameras. etc. Many of these cameras can store images in lossless RAW format as an option to JPEG compression. They are usually slower to operate than a true digital SLR. either through an electronic viewfinder or on the rear LCD. Digital single lens reflex cameras Digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLRs) are digital cameras based on film single-lens reflex cameras (SLRs). allowing light to fall on the imager. less depth of field at a given aperture.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES viewfinder (EVF).

As of 2009 the only such system is Micro Four Thirds. and any pattern that can be processed via image processing methods. The resulting 2-D captured images could contain. The term rangefinder alone is sometimes used to mean a rangefinder camera. and typically emulate the handling and ergonomics of either DSLRs or compacts. Unlike video cameras. they are also human-readable and can be viewable on a computer 34 | P a g e . instead of a matrix of them. and a focusing mechanism. Line-scan camera systems A line-scan camera is a camera device containing a line-scan image sensor chip. The collected two-dimensional image data is then processed by image-processing methods for industrial purposes. and at very high image resolutions. borrowing components from the Four Thirds DSLR system. resulting collected image data can quickly exceed 100 MB in a fraction of a second. waits. as distinct from an SLR or a simple camera with no way to measure distance. Digital rangefinders A rangefinder is a user-operated optical mechanism to measure subject distance once widely used on film cameras. to collect the onedimensional line data and to create a two-dimensional image. address information. Data coming from the line-scan camera has a frequency. but are not limited to 1D and 2D barcodes. where the camera scans a line.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES due to the removal of the mirror box. Since the images are 2-D. The data coming from the line-scan camera is commonly processed by a computer. using computer technology which is also affordable. and size. that is. Most digital cameras measure subject distance automatically using acoustic or electronic techniques. Line-scan technology is capable of capturing data extremely fast. and repeats. line-scan cameras use a single array of pixel sensors. Line-scan-camera–based integrated systems. regardless of angle. a film camera equipped with a rangefinder. Usually under these conditions. Line-scan cameras intended for the parcel handling industry can integrate adaptive focusing mechanisms to scan six sides of any rectangular parcel in focus. These cameras are almost solely used in industrial settings to capture an image of a constant stream of moving material. but it is not customary to say that they have a rangefinder. therefore are usually designed to streamline the camera's output in order to meet the system's objective.

35 | P a g e . These camera phones reached a billion devices sold in only five years. Integrated cameras tend to be at the very lowest end of the scale of digital cameras in technical specifications. Advanced integrated systems include video coding and optical character recognition (OCR). the gap between mainstream compact digital cameras and camera phones is closing. and ability to use accessories.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES screen. such as resolution. those that do are sometimes known as camera phones. Due to the limited storage capacity and general emphasis on convenience rather than image quality. the vast majority of these integrated or converged devices store images in the lossy but compact JPEG file format. laptops and BlackBerry devices often contain an integral digital camera. and high-end camera phones are competitive with low end standalone digital cameras of the same generation. as do some some digital camcorders. however. and in 2006 they outsold all filmbased cameras and digital cameras combined. Mobile phones incorporating digital cameras were introduced in Japan in 2001 by J-Phone. mobile phones often include digital cameras. In 2003 camera phones outsold stand-alone digital cameras. and by 2007 more than half of the installed base of all mobile phones were camera phones. optical quality. Integration Many devices include digital cameras built into or integrated into them. Other small electronic devices (especially those used for communication) such as PDAs. With rapid development. For example.

a camera followed by Nikon E3. often bigger than the camera portion itself. A notable exception is the Nikon E2. bulky digital units. using additional optics to convert the 35mm format to a 2/3 CCD-sensor. These cameras also tend to be highly modular.6 MB. the reworking and cost would be too great. not aftermarket conversions. The largest in early 2006 is the Phase One's P45 39 MP imageback. creating a single TIFF image of size up to 224. For the majority of 35 mm film cameras the answer is no. were developed from 35 mm film cameras.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Conversion of film cameras to digital Digital single-lens reflex camera When digital cameras became common. The answer was yes and no. Medium format digitals are geared more towards studio and portrait 36 | P a g e . such as the NC2000 and the Kodak DCS series. have a low unit production.000. and typical digital backs for them cost over $10. with handgrips. These were factory built cameras. A few 35 mm cameras have had digital camera backs made by their manufacturer. The technology of the time. Medium format and large format cameras (those using film stock greater than 35 mm). a question many photographers asked was whether their film cameras could be converted to digital. Leica being a notable example. to give enough space for the electronics and allow a liquid crystal display to preview. winders. especially as lenses have been evolving as well as cameras. For most a conversion to digital. however. would require removing the back of the camera and replacing it with a custom built digital unit. meant that rather than being a digital "backs" the bodies of these cameras were mounted on large. however. Many early professional SLR cameras. The very large sensor these backs use leads to enormous image sizes. film backs. and lenses available separately to fit various needs.

37 | P a g e . versus 6400 for some DSLR cameras. the ISO speed in particular tends to have a maximum of 400.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES photography than their smaller DSLR counterparts.

The control characters bracketing each numeral block are (from left to right) transit. even when they have been overprinted with other marks such as cancellation stamps. In addition to their unique fonts. Magnetic printing is used so that the characters can be reliably read into a system. amount. the patent was assigned to General Electric.S.000 for invention of MICR.S. routing. use the CMC-7 font developed by Bull. Shown are the 15 characters of the CMC-7 font. terminator. Canadian and UK checks now include MICR characters at the bottom of the paper in the E-13B font. Stanford Research Institute (now SRI International) was awarded U. 38 | P a g e .Almost all Indian. and an unused character. Some countries.000. On September 12. The E-13B font was chosen by George Jacobi. usually containing iron oxide. 1961. Patent Number 3. An example of the CMC-7 MICR font. The 14 characters of the E-13B font. Then they are usually read with a MICR read head which is a device similar in nature to the playback head in an audio tape recorder. MICR is standardized by ISO 1004. including France. The major MICR fonts used around the world are E-13B and CMC-7. on-us. The characters are first magnetized in the plane of the paper with a North pole on the right of each MICR character. and dash. or MICR. by 1963]. MICR characters are printed with a magnetic ink or toner. amount. The control characters after the numerals are (from left to right) internal.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Magnetic ink character recognition Magnetic Ink Character Recognition. and was almost universally employed in the U. who was working for General Electric at the time. US. is a character recognition technology adopted mainly by the banking industry to facilitate the processing of cheques. The process was demonstrated to the American Bankers Association in July 1956.

the can't read rate is usually less than 1% while the substitution rate (misread rate) is in the order of 1 per 100. The error rate for the magnetic scanning of the numbers at the bottom of a typical check is smaller than with optical character recognition systems. The "13" in the name "E-13B" comes from the 0. had a full character repertoire. the MICR fonts became a symbol of modernity or futurism. In 1960s. unlike real MICR fonts.013 inch grid used to design that font. leading to the creation of lookalike "computer" typefaces that imitated the appearance of the MICR fonts. 39 | P a g e . For well printed MICR.000 characters.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES and the letterforms' bulbous shapes ensure that each letter produces a unique waveform for the character recognition system to provide a reliable character result. These checks were typically printed on impact printers. The concept of utilizing desktop printers for check printing revolutionized the check printing business and companies began to manufacture MICR toner for desktop laser printers. Examples of MICR waveforms have been developed and can be displayed using spreadsheet applications like Microsoft Excel or compatible. but.

A complete microphone also includes a housing. sometimes colloquially called a mic or mike (both pronounced /ˈmaɪk/). is an acoustic-to-electric transducer or sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal. pictured right). live and recorded audio engineering. Most microphones in use today for audio use electromagnetic induction (dynamic microphone). capacitance change (condenser microphone. or light modulation to produce the signal from mechanical vibration. in radio and television broadcasting and in computers for recording voice. some means of bringing the signal from the element to 40 | P a g e .COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Microphone A microphone. Varieties The sensitive transducer element of a microphone is called its element or capsule. piezoelectric generation. motion picture production. Neumann U87 condenser microphone The most common design today uses a thin membrane which vibrates in response to sound pressure. VoIP. and for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic checking. hearing aids. This movement is subsequently translated into an electrical signal. Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones. tape recorders.

C = capacitance in farads and V = potential difference in volts. such as condenser. Sometimes other characteristics such as diaphragm size. and often an electronic circuit to adapt the output of the capsule to the equipment being driven. There are two methods of extracting an audio output from the transducer thus formed: DC-biased and radio frequency (RF) or high frequency (HF) condenser microphones.or side-address) of the microphone are used to describe the microphone. the charge across the capacitor does change very slightly. Microphones are referred to by their transducer principle. etc. dynamic. the plates are biased with a fixed charge (Q). and the vibrations produce changes in the distance between the plates. and by their directional characteristics. also known as a capacitor or electrostatic microphone. where Q = charge in coulombs. With a DC-biased microphone. according to the capacitance equation (C = Q / V).) The assembly of fixed and movable plates is called an "element" or "capsule. Condenser." A nearly constant charge is maintained on the capacitor.. (See capacitance for details. As the capacitance changes. the diaphragm acts as one plate of a capacitor. The capacitance of the plates is inversely proportional to the distance between them for a parallel-plate capacitor. The voltage maintained across the capacitor plates changes with the vibrations in the air.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES other equipment. but at audible frequencies it is sensibly 41 | P a g e . capacitor or electrostatic microphone Inside the Oktava 319 condenser microphone In a condenser microphone. intended use or orientation of the principal sound input to the principal axis (end.

The voltage across the resistor is amplified for performance or recording. The absence of a high bias voltage permits the use of a diaphragm with looser tension. The RF biasing process results in a lower electrical impedance capsule. the charge is practically constant and the voltage across the capacitor changes instantaneously to reflect the change in capacitance. The oscillator may either be amplitude modulated by the capacitance changes produced by the sound waves moving the capsule diaphragm.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES constant. a useful byproduct of which is that RF condenser microphones can be operated in damp weather conditions which could create problems in DC-biased microphones whose insulating surfaces have become contaminated. They generally produce a high-quality audio signal and are now the popular choice in laboratory and studio recording applications. generated by a low-noise oscillator. Note that the time constant of an RC circuit equals the product of the resistance and capacitance. and lowpass for the bias voltage. Demodulation yields a low-noise audio frequency signal with a very low source impedance. The voltage across the capacitor varies above and below the bias voltage. which may be used to achieve wider frequency response due to higher compliance. or the capsule may be part of a resonant circuit that modulates the frequency of the oscillator signal. Within the time-frame of the capacitance change (as much as 50 ms at 20 Hz audio signal). 42 | P a g e . Condenser microphones span the range from telephone transmitters to inexpensive karaoke microphones to high-fidelity recording microphones. The capacitance of the capsule (around 5–100 pF) and the value of the bias resistor (100 megohms to tens of gigohms) form a filter which is highpass for the audio signal. AKG C451B small-diaphragm condenser microphone RF condenser microphones use a comparatively low RF voltage. The Sennheiser "MKH" series of microphones use the RF biasing technique. The voltage difference between the bias and the capacitor is seen across the series resistor.

demodulation or detection in the case of RF/HF microphones). Though electret microphones were once considered low quality. much the way a magnet is made by aligning the magnetic domains in a piece of iron. They require a power source. Power is necessary for establishing the capacitor plate voltage. M. hence low cost. The name comes from electrostatic and magnet. Condenser microphones are also available with two diaphragms. Due to their good performance and ease of manufacture. unlike other microphone types which require the sound wave to do more work. Sessler et al. from highquality recording and lavalier use to built-in microphones in small sound recording devices and telephones. (pages 1 to 3) An electret microphone is a relatively new type of capacitor microphone invented at Bell laboratories in 1962 by Gerhard Sessler and Jim West. Electret condenser microphone First patent on foil electret microphone by G. such as cardioid. It is also possible to vary the pattern smoothly with some microphones. and is also needed to power the microphone electronics (impedance conversion in the case of electret and DC-polarized microphones. a static charge is embedded in an electret by alignment of the static charges in the material. computer.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES The inherent suitability of this technology is due to the very small mass that must be moved by the incident sound wave. Nearly all cell-phone. the signals from which can be electrically connected such as to provide a range of polar patterns (see below). the vast majority of microphones made today are electret microphones. PDA and headset microphones are electret types. omnidirectional and figure-eight. They are used in many applications.The externally-applied charge described above under condenser microphones is replaced by a permanent charge in an electret material. An electret is a ferroelectric material that has been permanently electrically charged or polarized. a semiconductor manufacturer estimates annual production at over one billion units. provided either via microphone outputs as phantom power or from a small battery. the best ones can now rival traditional condenser microphones in every respect and can even offer the long- 43 | P a g e . for example the Røde NT2000 or CAD M179.

the sound wave moves the diaphragm. relatively inexpensive and resistant to moisture. producing a varying current in the coil through electromagnetic induction. When sound enters through the windscreen of the microphone. When the diaphragm vibrates. use a stereo 3. due to the tight tolerances required in internal dimensions. sometimes called multimedia microphones. mass production techniques needed to produce microphones cheaply don't lend themselves to the precision needed to produce the highest quality microphones. whether the DC. positioned in the magnetic field of a permanent magnet. RF or electret technology is used. While few electret microphones rival the best DC-polarized units in terms of noise level. but often contain an integrated preamplifier which does require power (often incorrectly called polarizing power or bias). Rather. Combining the multiple signals correctly is difficult and designs that do this are rare and tend to be expensive. they require no polarizing voltage. The AKG D 112. the coil moves in the magnetic field. is designed for bass response rather than 44 | P a g e . this is not due to any inherent limitation of the electret. This. unfortunately. A small movable induction coil.5 mm plugs too. coupled with their potentially high gain before feedback makes them ideal for on-stage use. There are on the other hand several designs that are more specifically aimed towards isolated parts of the audio spectrum. only reversed. They are robust. for example. Unlike other capacitor microphones. Dynamic microphone Patti Smith singing into a Shure SM58 (dynamic cardioid type) microphone Dynamic microphones work via electromagnetic induction. Microphones designed for Personal Computer (PC) use. This preamp is frequently phantom powered in sound reinforcement and studio applications.5 mm plug (though a mono source) with the ring receiving power via a resistor from (normally) a 5 V supply in the computer. These tolerances are the same for all condenser microphones. A single dynamic membrane will not respond linearly to all audio frequencies. is attached to the diaphragm. Moving-coil microphones use the same dynamic principle as in a loudspeaker. a number of incompatible dynamic microphones are fitted with 3.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES term stability and ultra-flat response needed for a measurement microphone. Some microphones for this reason utilize multiple membranes for the different parts of the audio spectrum and then combine the resulting signals.

The classic RCA Type 77-DX microphone has several externally-adjustable positions of the internal baffle. The ribbon is electrically connected to the microphone's output. for example above cymbals. responds to the pressure gradient rather than the sound pressure. including new nanomaterials have now been introduced that eliminate those concerns. allowing the selection of several response patterns ranging from "Figure-8" to "Unidirectional". Edmund Lowe using a ribbon microphone Ribbon microphones use a thin. Such older ribbon microphones. some of which still give very high quality sound reproduction. Basic ribbon microphones detect sound in a bidirectional (also called figure-eight) pattern because the ribbon. usually corrugated metal ribbon suspended in a magnetic field. which is open to sound both front and back. and the figure 8 response of a ribbon microphone is ideal for that application. so that the rear lobe picks up only sound from the cymbals. or Blumlein pair. allowing sound to reach only one side. Though the symmetrical front and rear pickup can be a nuisance in normal stereo recording. the high side rejection can be used to advantage by positioning a ribbon microphone horizontally. and its vibration within the magnetic field generates the electrical signal. were once valued for this reason. Other directional patterns are produced by enclosing one side of the ribbon in an acoustic trap or baffle.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES treble[3]. Crossed figure 8. stereo recording is gaining in popularity. and 45 | P a g e . but a good low-frequency response could only be obtained if the ribbon was suspended very loosely. In audio engineering several kinds of microphones are often used at the same time to get the best result. Ribbon microphones are similar to moving coil microphones in the sense that both produce sound by means of magnetic induction. Modern ribbon materials. and this made them fragile.

with a resulting stronger electrical signal to send down the line. and circuits of modern passive ribbon microphones.e. Carbon microphones were once commonly used in telephones. i. The changes in resistance cause a corresponding change in the voltage across the two plates. These repeaters worked by mechanically coupling a magnetic telephone receiver to a carbon microphone: the faint signal from the receiver was transferred to the microphone. ribbon microphones don't require phantom power. and also reduce plosive artifacts in the recording. resulting in an audible squeal from the old "candlestick" telephone if its earphone was placed near the carbon microphone. those without the aforementioned preamplifier. they have extremely low-quality sound reproduction and a very limited frequency response range. making long distance phone calls possible in the era before vacuum tubes. Carbon microphone A carbon microphone is a capsule containing carbon granules pressed between two metal plates. therefore. applying a varying pressure to the carbon. the carbon microphone can also be used as a type of amplifier. vibrates in sympathy with incident sound waves. A voltage is applied across the metal plates. One of the plates. Protective wind screens can reduce the danger of damaging a vintage ribbon.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES even improve the effective dynamic range of ribbon microphones at low frequencies. Properly designed wind screens produce negligible treble attenuation. and hence in the current flowing through the microphone. in fact. The changing pressure deforms the granules. producing the electrical signal. the diaphragm. Some new modern ribbon microphone designs incorporate a preamplifier and. causing a small current to flow through the carbon. In common with other classes of dynamic microphone. (One illustration of this amplifier effect was the oscillation caused by feedback. this voltage can damage some older ribbon microphones.. Also there are new ribbon materials available that are immune to wind blasts and phantom power. but are very robust devices. and this causes the electrical resistance of the mass of granules to change. are specifically designed to resist damage to the ribbon and transformer by phantom power. Carbon microphones found use as early telephone repeaters. using a small amount of sound energy to produce a larger amount of electrical energy. 46 | P a g e . Unlike other microphone types. causing the contact area between each pair of adjacent granules to change. do require phantom power.

and later small electret condenser devices. An example of this is Rochelle salt (potassium sodium tartrate). such as underwater under high pressure. The high impedance of the crystal microphone made it very susceptible to handling noise. which use magnetic induction. both as a microphone and as a slimline loudspeaker component.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Piezoelectric microphone A crystal microphone uses the phenomenon of piezoelectricity — the ability of some materials to produce a voltage when subjected to pressure — to convert vibrations into an electrical signal. Crystal microphones were once commonly supplied with vacuum tube (valve) equipment. and were quickly supplanted by dynamic microphones for a time. to sense drum hits. This type of microphone is different from magnetic coil pickups commonly visible on typical electric guitars. rather than mechanical coupling. Saddle-mounted pickups on acoustic guitars are generally piezoelectric devices that contact the strings passing over the saddle. which is a piezoelectric crystal that works as a transducer. such as domestic tape recorders. for triggering electronic samples. both from the microphone itself and from the connecting cable. Their high output impedance matched the high input impedance (typically about 10 megohms) of the vacuum tube input stage well. Fiber optic microphone 47 | P a g e . They were difficult to match to early transistor equipment. to pick up vibration. and to record sound in challenging environments. Piezoelectric transducers are often used as contact microphones to amplify sound from acoustic musical instruments.

) Other uses include industrial equipment monitoring and sensing. The modulated light is then transmitted over a second optical fiber to a photo detector. Sound causes the diaphragm to vibrate. staff and patients within the powerful and noisy magnetic field to converse normally. which transforms the intensity-modulated light into analog or digital audio for transmission or recording. Fiber optic microphones are used in very specific application areas such as for infrasound monitoring and noise-canceling. Fiber optic microphones are robust. audio calibration and measurement. electrostatic or radioactive fields (this is called EMI/RFI immunity). During operation. such as inside industrial turbines or in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment environments. instead of sensing changes in capacitance or magnetic fields as with conventional microphones. such as allowing radiologists. resistant to environmental changes in heat and moisture. magnetic.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES The Optoacoustics 1140 fiber optic microphone A fiber optic microphone converts acoustic waves into electrical signals by sensing changes in light intensity. making fiber optic microphones suitable for industrial and surveillance acoustic monitoring. and can be produced for any directionality or impedance matching. Laser microphone 48 | P a g e . light from a laser source travels through an optical fiber to illuminate the surface of a tiny. inside the MRI suites as well as in remote control rooms. similar to the best high fidelity conventional microphones. high-fidelity recording and law enforcement. They have proven especially useful in medical applications. sound-sensitive reflective diaphragm. Fiber optic microphones do not react to or influence any electrical. Fiber optic microphones possess high dynamic and frequency range. The distance between the microphone's light source and its photo detector may be up to several kilometers without need for any preamplifier and/or other electrical device. The fiber optic microphone design is therefore ideal for use in areas where conventional microphones are ineffective or dangerous. thereby minutely changing the intensity of the light it reflects.

forcing a needle to move up and down in the water. the latter requires an extremely stable laser and precise optics. and Elisha Gray. Infineon (SMM310 product).COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Laser microphones are often portrayed in movies as spy gadgets. and is usually accompanied with integrated preamplifier. The former implementation is a tabletop experiment. A sound wave caused the diaphragm to move. Liquid microphone Early microphones did not produce intelligible speech. the returned light is split and fed to an interferometer. Bell's liquid transmitter consisted of a metal cup filled with water with a small amount of sulfuric acid added. The famous first phone conversation between Bell and Watson took place using a liquid microphone. The pressure-sensitive diaphragm is etched directly into a silicon chip by MEMS techniques. Other minor variations and improvements were made to the liquid microphone by Majoranna. but they were not practical for commercial application. Chambers. The slight vibrations of this surface displace the returned beam. These were the first working microphones. Major manufacturers producing MEMS silicon microphones are Wolfson Microelectronics (WM7xxx). In a more robust and expensive implementation. which detects frequency changes due to the Doppler effec. and one version was patented by Reginald Fessenden in 1903. Akustica (AKU200x). MEMS microphone The MEMS (MicroElectrical-Mechanical System) microphone is also called a microphone chip or silicon microphone. A laser beam is aimed at the surface of a window or other plane surface that is affected by sound. The electrical resistance between the wire and the cup was then inversely proportional to the size of the water meniscus around the submerged needle. until Alexander Graham Bell made improvements including a variable resistance microphone/transmitter. Often MEMS microphones have built in analog-to-digital converter (ADC) circuits on the same CMOS chip making the chip a digital microphone and so more readily integrated with modern digital products. Analog Devices. 49 | P a g e . Sykes. causing it to trace the sound wave. Vanni. Knowles Electronics. Most MEMS microphones are variants of the condenser microphone design. The vibrating laser spot is then converted back to sound. Elisha Gray filed a caveat for a version using a brass rod instead of the needle. Memstech (MSMx) and Sonion MEMS.

microphones themselves can be used as speakers. Since a conventional speaker is constructed much like a dynamic microphone (with a diaphragm. where high quality and sensitivity are not needed. is the functional opposite of a microphone. A pressure microphone uses a diaphragm between a fixed internal volume of air and the environment. a transducer that turns an electrical signal into sound waves. especially in music production. Less commonly. speakers are sometimes used as microphones in such applications as intercoms or walkie-talkies. so it is said to be omnidirectional. The use of relatively large speakers to transduce low frequency sound sources. is a microphone with poor quality. since microphones are not designed to handle the power that speaker components are routinely required to cope with. However. and poor sensitivity. A pressure-gradient microphone uses a diaphragm which is at least partially open on both sides. which was successfully used in a number of high quality loudspeaker systems from the late 1960s to the mid-70s. though. coil and magnet). A pure 50 | P a g e . speakers can actually work "in reverse" as microphones. Capsule design and directivity The inner elements of a microphone are the primary source of differences in directivity. the pressure difference between the two sides produces its directional characteristics. there is at least one other practical application of this principle: Using a medium-size woofer placed closely in front of a "kick" (bass drum) in a drum set to act as a microphone. and responds uniformly to pressure from all directions.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES peakers as microphones A loudspeaker. The result. is becoming fairly common. This is less common. limited frequency response (particularly at the high end). placing a speaker in front of a kick drum is often ideal for reducing cymbal and snare bleed into the kick drum sound. almost always as tweeters. Since a relatively massive membrane is unable to transduce high frequencies. Other elements such as the external shape of the microphone and external devices such as interference tubes can also alter a microphone's directional response. In practical use. A well-known example of this use was the Bowers & Wilkins DM2a model. One instance of such an application was the STC microphone-derived 4001 super-tweeter.

Other polar patterns are derived by creating a capsule that combines these two effects in different ways. The cardioid. The characteristic directional pattern of a pure pressure-gradient microphone is like a figure-8.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES pressure-gradient microphone is equally sensitive to sounds arriving from front or back. features a partially closed backside. so its response is a combination of pressure and pressure-gradient characteristics. 51 | P a g e . but insensitive to sounds arriving from the side because sound arriving at the front and back at the same time creates no gradient between the two. for instance.

the most important of which are two thin. the term touchscreen is generally not applicable. This causes a change in the electrical current which is registered as a touch event and sent to the controller for processing. Such displays can be attached to computers or. such as a finger. satellite navigation devices. First. and video games. if the object sensed is active. rather than indirectly with a mouse or touchpad. Contaminants on the surface can also interfere with the functionality of the touchscreen. The term generally refers to touch or contact to the display of the device by a finger or hand. When the panel is touched. Since the human body also conducts electricity. Technologies There are a number of types of touchscreen technology. Secondly. Resistive A resistive touchscreen panel is composed of several layers. The ability to interact directly with a display typically indicates the presence of a touchscreen.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Touchscreen A touchscreen is a display that can detect the presence and location of a touch within the display area. such as a stylus that needs to be held in the hand. Surface acoustic wave Surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology uses ultrasonic waves that pass over the touchscreen panel. The touchscreen has two main attributes. where it is displayed. it lets one do so without requiring any intermediate device. again. as terminals. to networks. Surface wave touchscreen panels can be damaged by outside elements. They also play a prominent role in the design of digital appliances such as the personal digital assistant (PDA). presses down on a point on the panel's outer surface the two metallic layers become connected at that point: the panel then behaves as a pair of voltage dividers with connected outputs. When an object. Resistive touchscreens can also support Multitouch. Capacitive A capacitive touchscreen panel is a sensor typically made of glass coated with a transparent conductor such as indium tin oxide (ITO)[This type of sensor is basically a capacitor in which the plates are the overlapping areas between the horizontal and vertical axes in a grid pattern. This change in the ultrasonic waves registers the position of the touch event and sends this information to the controller for processing. a portion of the wave is absorbed. However. it enables one to interact with what is displayed directly on the screen. Touchscreens can also sense other passive objects. metallic. mobile phones. a touch on the surface of the sensor will 52 | P a g e . as with a light pen. electrically conductive layers separated by a narrow gap. such as a stylus.

Like the stylus used in the defunct CED video disc. This will then calculate how the user’s touch relates to the computer software. A touch is made. sometimes to such a degree that the touchscreen’s LED light cannot be detected at all. HTC Magic and HTC Hero. This latter problem is a result of background light increasing the noise floor at the optical sensor. PCT screens enjoy the benefits of responding accurately to both fingers and styli. This technology allows a gloved hand to make the touch. Projected capacitance creates an electrostatic field above the sensing surface to determine inputs. those where no direct physical contact with the touchscreen is made). Infrared Conventional optical-touch systems use an array of infrared (IR) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on two adjacent bezel edges of a display. It has a higher clarity than Resistive technology. Visual Planet’s ViP Interactive Foil is an example of a product that uses PCT technology.e.'s Palm Pre and Palm Eos and more recently the LG KM900 Arena. precisely measured. 53 | P a g e . The measured photosensor outputs can be used to locate a touch-point coordinate. and a third object. In touchscreen applications the third object can be a human finger. An object (such as a finger or pen) that touches the screen interrupts the light beams. but it only responds to finger contact and will not work with a gloved hand or pen stylus unless the stylus is conductive.'s iPhone and iPod Touch. Sony Walkman X series and Sony Ericsson's Aino. Microsoft's Zune HD. these sensors work on proximity of the conductive medium (finger). Examples include Apple Inc. with photosensors placed on the two opposite bezel edges to analyze the system and determine a touch event.[5] Capacitance forms between the user’s fingers and projected capacitance from the sensing wires. The LED and photosensor pairs create a grid of light beams across the display. Palm Inc. causing a temporary failure of the touch screen.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES affect the electric field and create a measurable change in the capacitance of the device. causing a measured decrease in light at the corresponding photosensors. This format requires the use of patterned ITO and requires no calibration. This is most pronounced in direct sunlight conditions where the sun has a very high energy distribution in the infrared region. HTC's G1. industrial controls. and do not have to be directly touched to be triggered. and public information kiosks. Projected capacitance Projected Capacitive Touch (PCT) technology is a type of capacitive technology which involves the relationship between an XY array of sensing wires embedded within two layers of non-metallic material. then passed on to the controller system which is connected to a computer running a software application. Widespread adoption of infrared touchscreens has been hampered by two factors: the relatively high cost of the technology compared to competing touch technologies and the issue of performance in bright ambient light. resulting in PCT technology now being common in external "through window" touch applications (i. It is a durable technology that is used in a wide range of applications including point-of-sale systems.

Another feature of infrared touch which has been long desired is the digital nature of the sensor output when compared to many other touch systems that rely on analog-signal processing to determine a touch position. and essentially miniaturized it and reduced the cost for use in handheld devices. These competing analog systems normally require continual re-calibration. including scratches. it also claims to provide excellent optical clarity. this overlay is coated with an electrically conducting transparent material such as ITO. including the option to eliminate the glass or plastic overlay that most other touch technologies require in front of the display. especially for larger units.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES However.The technology claims to be unaffected by dust and other outside elements. also called force panel technology. In many cases. using LEDs and photodiodes. including fingers and stylus. the screen is springmounted on the four corners and strain gauges are used to determine deflection when the screen is touched. Such screens are typically used in exposed public systems such as ticket machines due to their resistance to vandalism. due to its scalability. which reduces the optical quality of the display. In addition to using the technology in its own N2 cell phone. This advantage of optical touchscreens is extremely important for many device and display vendors since devices are often sold on the perceived quality of the user display experience. this system uses sensors to detect the mechanical energy in the glass that occurs due to a touch. 54 | P a g e . A downside is that after the initial touch the system cannot detect a motionless finger. Strain gauge In a strain gauge configuration. Complex algorithms then interpret this information and provide the actual location of the touch. demonstrate reduced accuracy and precision compared to a digital system. A touch shows up as a shadow and each pair of cameras can then be triangulated to locate the touch or even measure the size of the touching object (see visual hull). versatility. Optical imaging A relatively-modern development in touchscreen technology. This technology is growing in popularity. two or more image sensors are placed around the edges (mostly the corners) of the screen. have complex signal-processing demands (which adds cost and power consumption). Neonode is also marketing it to other device makers. Dispersive signal technology Introduced in 2002 by 3M. Infrared backlights are placed in the camera's field of view on the other sides of the screen. since mechanical vibrations are used to detect a touch event. and affordability. any object can be used to generate these events. Neonode has taken conventional infrared touch technology. certain features of infrared touch remain desirable and represent attributes of the ideal touchscreen. Also. Since there is no need for additional elements on screen. It can also measure the Z-axis and the force of a person's touch. and have longer-term system-failure modes due to the operating environment.This technology has been around since the 1960s but new advances by Vissumo and F-Origin have made the solution commercially viable.

55 | P a g e .COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Acoustic pulse recognition This system. a motionless finger cannot be detected. The touchscreen itself is made of ordinary glass. As with the Dispersive Signal Technology system. This process is similar to triangulation used in GPS. It is usually able to function with scratches and dust on the screen with good accuracy. uses more than two piezoelectric transducers located at some positions of the screen to turn the mechanical energy of a touch (vibration) into an electronic signal. giving it good durability and optical clarity.The screen hardware then uses an algorithm to determine the location of the touch based on the transducer signals. The technology is also well suited to displays that are physically larger. after the initial touch. developed by Tyco International's Elo division.

Most dot matrix printers have a single vertical line of dot-making equipment on their print heads. When they do wear out. others have a few interleaved rows in order to improve dot density. 56 | P a g e . letters are drawn out of a dot matrix.The screen of a computer terminal displays data. striking an ink-soaked cloth ribbon against the paper. even with tungsten blocks and titanium pawls. also called a "wire" or "pin". Printer Dot matrix printer A dot matrix printer or impact matrix printer is a type of computer printer with a print head that runs back and forth.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES 3. on the page and prints by impact. Because the printing involves mechanical pressure. this grit slowly causes the channels in the guide plate to wear from circles into ovals or slots. and thus. Each dot is produced by a tiny metal rod.thus it is an output device. and when running the printer as a generic text device generally prints one line of text at a time. thermal. Facing the ribbon and the paper is a small guide plate (often made of an artificial jewel such as sapphire or ruby) pierced with holes to serve as guides for the pins. The moving portion of the printer is called the print head. which is driven forward by the power of a tiny electromagnet or solenoid. varied fonts and arbitrary graphics can be produced. much like a typewriter. Unlike a typewriter or daisy wheel printer. or in an up and down motion.In fact. the printing becomes too unclear to read. and laser printers print closely-spaced dots rather than continuous lines or characters. it is not customary to call them dot matrix printers. providing less and less accurate guidance to the printing wires. Although nearly all inkjet. Eventually. it is generally due to ink invading the guide plate of the print head. these printers can create carbon copies and carbonless copies. causing grit to adhere to it.many input devices also serve as output devices.However computer terminal is also common output device. either directly or through small levers (pawls). These machines can be highly durable. Output Devices You have learned that the most common input device is a computer terminal.

with limited color performance. Among many contributors. they are prone to bent pins (and therefore a destroyed printhead) caused by printing a character half-on and half-off the label. and ease of use. Epson. and Lexmark The emerging ink jet material deposition market also uses ink jet technologies. this unique property allows the dot-matrix printer to be used in environments where printer duty can be rare. which is relatively inconvenient and time-consuming. for instance. They can print 57 | P a g e . to deposit materials directly on substrates. While they support fanfold paper with tractor holes. limited quality and comparatively low speed. They are quieter in operation than impact dot matrix or daisywheel printers. Hewlett-Packard and Canon can claim a substantial share of the credit for the development of the modern inkjet. a daisy wheel printer offers most of the advantages of a dot matrix.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Advantages Dot matrix printers. four manufacturers account for the majority of inkjet printer sales: Canon. They are good. reliable workhorses ideal for use in situations where printed content is more important than quality. Disadvantages Impact printers are usually noisy. single-sheet paper usually has to be wound in and aligned by hand. The ink ribbon also does not easily dry out. as with a Fire Alarm Control Panel's output. making them useful for data logging. like any impact printer. As the ink is running out. Impact printers have one of the lowest printing costs per page. the present-day inkjet has built on the progress made by many earlier versions. Inkjet printer Inkjet printers operate by propelling variably-sized droplets of liquid or molten material (ink) onto almost any sized page. mailing labels). capability of printing in different colors. They are able to use continuous paper rather than requiring individual sheets. They can only print low resolution graphics. They are the most common type of computer printer for the general consumer due to their low cost. for text-only labels (ie. Epson. including both the ribbon stored in the casing as well as the portion that is stretched in front of the print head. with better print quality and a lesser chance of being damaged. Inkjet advantages Compared to earlier consumer-oriented color printers. While far better suited to printing on labels than a laser printer or an inkjet printer. inkjets have a number of advantages. high quality of output. In the worldwide consumer market. Hewlett-Packard. the printout gradually fades rather than suddenly stopping partway through a job. typically piezoelectric jets. to the extent that sound dampening enclosures are available for use in quiet environments. Like most modern technologies. can print on multi-part stationery or make carbon-copies.

this may cause the printer to display an error message. these messages can be ignored. In comparison to more expensive technologies like thermal wax.can account for a significant proportion of the total ink installed in the machine. and many consumer inkjets with photographic-quality printing are widely available. monochrome ink sets are available either from the printer manufacturer or third-party suppliers. even in direct sunlight. but some inkjet printers will refuse to print with a cartridge that declares itself empty. in order to prevent consumers from refilling cartridges. These disadvantages have been addressed in a variety of ways: 58 | P a g e . water-based highlighter markers can blur inkjet-printed documents. the ink effectively costs $3000 per liter—or $8000 per gallon. The very narrow inkjet nozzles are prone to clogging with dried ink. These allow the inkjet printer to compete with the silver-based photographic papers traditionally used in black-and-white photography. prints produced from solvent-based inkjets may last several years before fading. inkjets have the advantage of practically no warm up time and lower cost per page (except when compared to laser printers). or in many cases. When switching between fullcolor and monochrome ink sets. (For a typical OEM cartridge priced at $15. care must be taken with inkjet-printed documents to avoid even the smallest drop of water. 5. which can cause severe "blurring" or "running. or incorrectly inform the user that the ink cartridge is empty. containing 5 mL of ink. they will eventually fade and the color balance may change. Thus. although a Which? researcher who over-rode the system found that in one case he could print up to 38% more good quality pages. "The cost of ink has been the subject of an Office of Fair Trading investigation. 4. Inkjet disadvantages Inkjet printers may have a number of disadvantages: 1. and provide the same range of tones – neutral. On the other hand. The ink consumed cleaning them . even though the chip stated that the cartridge was empty 3. it is necessary to flush out the old ink from the print head with a cleaning cartridge. The lifetime of inkjet prints produced by inkjets using aqueous inks is limited. Many "intelligent" ink cartridges contain a microchip that communicates the estimated ink level to the printer. dye sublimations. performed automatically by the printer on a routine schedule . For some inkjet printers." Similarly. smoother details through higher printhead resolution.) According to the BBC (2003).COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES finer. The ink is often very expensive. Epson embeds a chip which prevents from printing when the chip claims the cartridge is empty. "warm" or "cold". In some cases. Which? magazine has accused manufacturers of a lack of transparency about the price of ink and called for an industry standard for measuring ink cartridge performance" 2. Because the ink used in most consumer inkjets is water-soluble.either during cleaning invoked by the user. and laser printers. and so-called "archival inks" have been produced for use in aqueousbased machines which offer extended life.

Laser printer A laser printer is a common type of computer printer that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics on plain paper. 59 | P a g e . damp cloth. Toner particles melt (or fuse) when warmed. used dye-based inks. Static discharge from charged toner particles can ignite dust in the vacuum cleaner bag or create a small explosion if sufficient toner is airborne. It is now possible to buy inexpensive devices to reliably reset such cartridges to report themselves as full. health risks. In addition. 3. The earliest inkjet printers. sometimes up to 80%) and also bulk ink and cartridge self-refill kits at even lower prices. Many vendors' "intelligent" ink cartridges have been reverse-engineered. Toner clean-up Toner particles are designed to have electrostatic properties and can develop static-electric charges when they rub against other particles. or the interiors of transport systems and vacuum hoses. Third-party ink suppliers sell ink cartridges at significantly reduced costs (at least 10%−30% of OEM cartridge prices. wires. Because of this and its small particle size. and metal contacts inside a laser printer. which are now available for many inkjet printers. intended for home and small office applications. 2. Safety hazards. and precautions Shock hazards Although modern printers include many safety interlocks and protection circuits. laser printers employ a xerographic printing process but differ from analog photocopiers in that the image is produced by the direct scanning of a laser beam across the printer's photoreceptor. Small toner spills can be wiped up with a cold. so that they may be refilled many times. Even the best dye-based inks are not as durable as pigment-based inks. As with digital photocopiers and multifunction printers (MFPs). This may damage the vacuum cleaner or start a fire. it is possible for a high voltage or a residual voltage to be present on the various rollers. toner should not be vacuumed with a conventional home vacuum cleaner. toner particles are so fine that they are poorly filtered by conventional household vacuum cleaner filter bags and blow through the motor or back into the room. Care should be taken to avoid unnecessary contact with these parts to reduce the potential for painful electrical shock. objects. Print lifetime is highly dependent on the quality and formulation of the ink as well as the paper chosen.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES 1.

60 | P a g e . some ozone escapes the filtering process in commercial printers. these gases can build up to levels at which the odor of ozone or irritation may be noticed. however. In larger commercial printers and copiers. poorly ventilated space. As toner is a wax or plastic powder with a low melting temperature. Even warm water is likely to result in permanent staining. and ozone filters are not used in many smaller consumer printers. The authors noted that particle emissions varied substantially even among the same model of machine. and that ink-jet printers emitted pentanol. The machine population studied. Ozone hazards As a natural part of the printing process. a special type of vacuum cleaner with an electrically conductive hose and a high efficiency (HEPA) filter may be needed for effective cleaning. with the second cycle using regular laundry detergent. some printers emit submicrometre particles which some suspect may be associated with respiratory diseases. Respiratory health risks According to a recent study conducted in Queensland. Residual toner floating in the rinse water of the first cycle will remain in the garment and may cause a permanent graying. xylenes. it must be kept cold during the cleaning process. According to Professor Morawska of Queensland University. These are called ESD-safe (Electrostatic Discharge-safe) or toner vacuums. "The health effects from inhaling ultrafine particles depend on particle composition. The first may use hand wash dish detergent. However. 17 of the strongest emitters were made by Hewlett-Packard and one by Toshiba. Australia. Washing a toner stained garment in cold water is often successful.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES If toner spills into the laser printer. When a laser printer or copier is operated for a long period of time in a small. and ozone. The washing machine should be filled with cold water before adding the garment. one printer emitted as many particles as a burning cigarette. was only those machines already in place in the building and was thus biased toward specific manufacturers. Washing through two cycles improves the chances of success. but the results can range from respiratory irritation to more severe illness such as cardiovascular problems or cancer. a carbon filter in the air exhaust stream breaks down these oxides to prevent pollution of the office environment. A potential for creating a health hazard is theoretically possible in extreme cases. Similar HEPA-filter equipped vacuums should be used for clean-up of larger toner spills. Toner is easily cleaned from most water-washable clothing." (Queensland University of Technology) A 2006 study in Japan found that laser printers increase concentrations of styrene. A clothes dryer or iron should not be used until it is certain that all the toner has been removed. Of 63 printers evaluated in the Queensland University of Technology study. forming ozone and nitrogen oxides. the high voltages inside the printer can produce a corona discharge that generates a small amount of ionized oxygen and nitrogen.

spin at high speed and paper and an inked ribbon are stepped (moved) past the print position. The wheels. Designs Four principal designs existed: • • • • Drum printers Chain (train) printers Bar printers Comb printers Drum printer Fragment of line printer drum showing "%" characters. but the technology is still in use. titanium dioxide and silica were also similar qualitatively to titanium dioxide and diesel exhaust. As the desired character for each column passes the print position. (1991) reported that the responses to chronically inhaled copying toner. the number matching the number of columns (letters in a line) the printer could print. causing the desired character to be recorded on the continuous paper. Because the drum carrying the letterforms (characters) 61 | P a g e .COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Muhle et al. Line printer The line printer is a form of high speed impact printer in which one line of type is printed at a time. joined to form a large drum (cylinder). a fixed font character set is engraved onto the periphery of a number of print wheels. a plastic dust pigmented with carbon black. a hammer strikes the paper from the rear and presses the paper against the ribbon and the drum. They are mostly associated with the early days of computing. In a typical drum printer design. Print speeds of 600 to 1200 lines-per-minute (approximately 10 to 20 pages per minute) were common.

The hammer bank moved back and forth one character position. with many more instances of the numbers appearing in the chain. the time spent waiting for the correct character to "pass by" was greatly reduced. Band printer Band printers are a variation of chain printers. Instead. where a thin steel band is used instead of a chain.) 62 | P a g e . as the correct character passed by each column. such as a complete line of dashes ("----"). a hammer was provided for every other column and the entire hammer bank was arranged to shift left and right. the strike-and-retreat action of the hammers had to be very fast. for example 600 lines-per-minute of output) and a half set of hammers (delivering 300 LPM). driven by another voice coil. Lower-cost printers did not use a hammer for each column. This obviates the situation whereby all of the hammers fire simultaneously when printing a line that consists of the same character in all columns. Typically. This was because. chain printers had the advantage that the type chain could usually be changed by the operator. with their B300. often selling similar models with both a full set of hammers (and delivering. and all special symbols. By selecting chains that had a smaller character set (for example. just numbers and a few punctuation marks). Chain (train) printer Chain printers (also known as train printers) placed the type on moving bars (a horizontally-moving chain).COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES remains in constant motion. the model number representing the lines per minute rate of the printer. As with the drum printer.and lower-case alphabet. magnets. and B1000 range. (The B300 was effectively a B600 with only half the number of hammers—one per two character positions. a hammer was fired from behind the paper. Compared to drum printers. Again. Dataproducts was a well known manufacturer of band printers. But in this way. a selection of different bands were generally available with a different mix of characters so a character set best matched to the characters commonly printed could be chosen. with the characters embossed on the band. IBM was probably the best-known chain printer manufacturer and the IBM 1403 is probably the most famous example of a chain printer. requiring two goes to print all characters on each line. numbers. B600. the printer could print much faster than if the chain contained the entire upper. Dataproducts was a typical vendor of drum printers. only half the number of hammers. For this style of printer. and the associated channels of drive electronics were required. two complete revolutions of the character drum were required with one revolution being used to print all the "odd" columns and another revolution being used to print all of the "even" columns. they were driven by voice coils mounted on the moving part of the hammer. Often the character sequences are staggered around the drum. shifting with each column.

allowing the reader to easily follow a line of text across the page. For drum printers. and was adjustable as part of the servicing of the printer. albeit on vertically-level printed lines.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Bar printer Bar printers were similar to chain printers but were slower and less expensive. Rather than a chain moving continuously in one direction. An example was the IBM 1443. Most drum. but a few designs could only print 80 columns and some other designs as many as 160 columns. This was the iconic "green bar" form that dominated the early computer age. Printronix and TallyGenicom are well-known vendors of comb printers. Pre-printed forms were also commonly used (for printing cheques. every eighth pixel). these printers were much faster than dot matrix printers and were competitive in speed with formed-character line printers while also being able to print dot-matrix graphics as well as variable-sized characters. a comb of hammers printed a portion of a row of pixels at one time (for example. In all three designs. represent the fourth major design. the entire pixel row could be printed (continuing the example. For train and bar printers. incorrect timing of the hammer resulted in printed lines that wandered vertically. By shifting the comb back and forth slightly. Because far less printhead motion was involved than in a conventional dot matrix printer. the characters were on fingers mounted on a bar that moved left-to-right and then right-to-left in front of the paper. timing of the hammers (the so called "flight time") was critical. in eight cycles). Also 63 | P a g e . In these printers. Paper (forms) handling All line printers used paper provided in boxes of continuous fan-fold forms rather than cutsheets. chain.). albeit with characters correctly aligned horizontally in their columns. These printers were a hybrid of dot matrix printing and line printing. The paper was usually perforated to tear into cut sheets if desired and was commonly printed with alternating white and light-green areas. usually printed at 132 columns by 66 or 88 lines. etc. invoices. also called line matrix printers. Some lineprinters had covers that opened automatically when the printer required attention. Comb printer Comb printers. and bar printers were capable of printing up to 132 columns. usually printed at 80 columns by 66 lines (at 6 lines per inch) or 88 lines (at 8 LPI). incorrect timing of the hammers resulted in characters shifting horizontally. The paper then advanced and the next pixel row was printed. Because all of these printing methods were noisy. Standard "green bar" page sizes included portrait-format pages of 8½ × 11 inches. A common task for the system operator was to change from one paper form to another as one print job completed and another was to begin. lineprinters of all designs were enclosed in sound-absorbing cases of varying sophistication. and landscapeformat pages of 14 × 11 inches.

As the disk revolves. 64 | P a g e . ranging from punched paper tape to fully electronic (software-controlable) tab simulation Origins The first line printer was the "Potter Flying Typewriter". fixed character spacing. "Instead of working laboriously. The faster line printers. by specifying how far to advance the paper between printed lines. Line printers continue to be used for printing box labels.. one character at a time. 80 electrically operated hammers tap the back of the paper against an inked ribbon in contact with the disk.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES common were landscape-format pages of 14 × 8½ inches.. The earlist printers by IBM used a hydraulic motor to move the forms. The the limited character set. Various means of providing vertical tabulation were provided. medium volume accounting and other large business applications. and other applications requiring high print quality. of necessity. Line printers frequently used a variety of discharge brushes and active (corona discharge-based) static eliminators to discharge these accumulated charges. Multi-part paper forms (carbon copies or carbonless copy paper) printed in one operation are sometimes useful. there might simply be two tractors at the top of the printer (pulling the paper) or tractors at the top and bottom (thereby maintaining paper tension within the printer). and maintenance. It is usually both faster and has lower total cost of ownership. The technology operates in a way similar to single sheet laser printing. These continuous forms were advanced through the printer by means of tractors (sprockets or sprocket belts). Laser printers became popular when word processing replaced typewriters. than laser printers. paper. it prints whole lines at once. books. In high volume printing. 300 lines per minute. These no longer had fixed columns or monospaced type and offered a range of fonts as well as graphics. In later Line printers. in 1952. on a paper band. allowing for 132 columns by 66 lines (at 8 LPI) on a more compact page." Current applications This technology is still in use in a number of applications. and relatively poor print quality make impact line printers unsuitable for correspondence. thus printing the proper characters in the proper places on the line. The horizontal position of the tractors was usually adjustable to accommodate different forms. both for advancing line-by-line and slewing to the top of the next form. The high-speed motion of the paper often developed large electrostatic charges. consumables.. also used "stackers" to re-fold and stack the fan-fold forms as they emerged from the printer. Heart of the machine is a continuously spinning disk with the necessary letters and numbers on its rim. Many printers supported ASA carriage control characters which provided a limited degree of control over the paper. including purchase price. allowing very rapid positioning of the paper. . continuous form laser printers have become popular. . Depending on the sophistication of the printer.. High-speed servomechanisms usually drove the tractors.

These references served to distinguish formatted final output from normal interactive output from the system. whether these devices are in fact line printers or other types of printers. Analogously.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES The names of the lp and lpr commands in Unix were derived from the term "line printer". 65 | P a g e . many other systems call their printing devices "LP". "LPT". which in many cases in line printer days was also printed on paper (as by a teletype) but not by a line printer. or some similar variant.

or very large drawings efficiently. the program would be 10 SCALE -1. but do so very slowly because of the mechanical movement of the pens. For example to plot X*X in HP 9830 BASIC. 66 | P a g e . X*X 40 NEXT X 50 PEN 60 END Early plotters (e.1. but used software packages such as the Calcomp library. PD". Those are pen plotters and electrostatic plotters. rather than raster graphics as with other printers. but could double as a digitizer.g. There are two types of main plotters.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Plotter A plotter is a vector graphics printing device to print graphical plots. and processor power was very limited.1 20 FOR X =-1 to 1 STEP 0. that connects to a computer. this was often the fastest way to produce color high-resolution vector-based artwork. When computer memory was very expensive. or "draw a line from here to here". This means that plotters are restricted to line art.g. printers are primarily for printing text. Pen plotters can draw complex line art. This had the disadvantage of being somewhat slow to move. These would establish scaling factors from world coordinates to device coordinates. as well as requiring floor space equal to the size of the paper. including text. Computervision's Interact I) involved attaching ball-point pens to drafting pantographs and driving the machines with motors controlled by the computer.1 30 PLOT X. Another approach (e. while the pen moved back and forth on a single arm for Y motion. Traditionally. This makes it fairly easy to control. where a number of printer control languages were created to send the more detailed commands like "lift pen from paper". Overview Pen plotters print by moving a pen across the surface of a piece of paper. and translating to the low level device commands. which allowed them to be changed and thus create multi-colored output. 2000. simply sending the text to the printer is usually enough to generate a page of output. A later change was the addition of an electrically controlled clamp to hold the pens. "place pen on paper". This is not the case of the line art on a plotter. The two common ASCII-based plotter control languages are Hewlett-Packard's HPGL2 or Houston Instruments DMPL with commands such as "PA 3000. Programmers using FORTRAN or BASIC generally did not program these directly. but can hatch an area by drawing a number of close. the Calcomp 565 of 1959) worked by placing the paper over a roller which moved the paper back and forth for X motion. or device independent graphics packages such as Hewlett-Packard's AGL libraries or BASIC extensions or high end packages such as DISSPLA. Pen Plotters are incapable of creating a solid region of color.1. regular lines.

pen plotters have all but disappeared. and in this form plotters can be found in many garment and sign shops. Such printers are often still known as plotters. where they have the advantage of working on very large paper sizes while maintaining high resolution. with the end of the rod sharpened into a conical tip. The typical plotter pen uses a cellulose fiber rod inserted through a circular foam tube saturated with ink. Ball-point plotter pens with refillable clear plastic ink reservoirs are available. even though they are raster devices rather than pen based plotters by the definition of this article. One category introduced by Hewlett Packard's MultiPlot for the HP 2647 was the "word chart" which used the plotter to draw large letters on a transparency. resulting in faint lines. and another conventional printer would be required for those jobs.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Hewlett Packard and Tektronix created desk-sized flatbed plotters in the late 1970s. but are generally more expensive and uncommon. This is because the language is an efficient way to describe how to draw the file using just text commands. Modern desktop scanners use a somewhat similar arrangement. A technical drawing in HPGL2 can be quite a bit smaller file than the same drawing in a pure raster form. The newer plotters still understand vector languages such as HPGL2. This was the forerunner of the modern Powerpoint chart. and onto the paper. Another use has been found by replacing the pen with a cutter. the small and lightweight HP 7470 used an innovative "grit wheel" mechanism which moved only the paper. 67 | P a g e . If a plotter was commanded to use different colors it had to replace the pen and select the wanted color and/or width. A pen plotter's speed is primarily limited by the type of pen used. They do not have the fading or wear effects of fiber pens. capillary wicking draws the ink from the foam. the fiber tip slowly wears away from rubbing against the media. the migration of ink to the tip begins to slow down. but their low speed meant they were not useful for general printing purposes. Slowing the plotting speed will allow the lines drawn by a worn-out pen to remain dark. These smaller "home-use" plotters became popular for desktop business graphics. As the pen moves across the paper surface. With the widespread availability of high-resolution inkjet and laser printers inexpensive memory and computers fast enough to rasterize color images. In the 1980s. and have been replaced by largeformat inkjet printers and LED toner based printers. Plotters were also used in the Create-A-Card kiosks that were available for a while in the greeting card area of supermarkets that used the HP 7475 6 pen plotter. but the fading will continue until the foam is completely depleted. down the rod. As the ink supply in the foam is depleted. wearing down the thin conical tip into a thicker smudged line. Plotters are used primarily in technical drawing and CAD applications. Also as the fiber tip pen is used. Pen plotters have essentially become obsolete. A niche application of plotters is in creating tactile images for visually handicapped people on special thermal cell paper.

Cut out the area which includes the desired design. The most common method: • • • • • • • • • From the front surface. 68 | P a g e . Apply a small piece of masking tape to the sides of the resulting sandwich to ease positioning. sweep the cut vinyl into contact with the mounting surface. posters. Apply a slightly tacky carrier film over the letters or design (this film is similar to masking tape though clear carrier films are also used. taking care to leave no air bubbles. Colors available are generally limited only by the collection of vinyl on hand. To prevent creasing of the material. stroking upwards and outwards. The vinyl can also be applied to car bodies and windows for large. Once the letters or designs have been cut out. peel off the surround and unwanted areas of shapes from the letters or design. The cut vinyl is now held in position by the carrier film. it is stored in rolls. not away from the letters or design. and apply final pressure to the front face of the cut vinyl to produce a weather-resistant sign. there are two methods for handling the application. Typical vinyl roll sizes are 24-inch and 36-inch width. Carefully remove the backing paper by peeling sideways.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES Vinyl Sign Cutter A vinyl sign cutter (sometimes known as a cutting plotter) is used by professional poster and billboard sign-making businesses to produce weather-resistant signs. apply a hinge of masking tape to the lower edge. A similar process is used to cut tinted vinyl for automotive windows. The vinyl knife is usually shaped like a plotter pen and is mounted on ball-bearings so that the knife edge rotates to face the correct direction as the plotter head moves. When it is in the desired position. allowing designs to be fully or partly cut out. With a small plastic wiper (a credit card will also do). and billboards using self-colored adhesive-backed vinyl film that has a removable paper backing material. Ensuring that the area to which the vinyl is to be applied is clean. vinyl and vinyl backing material. and the plotter may have a pressure control to adjust how hard the knife presses down into the vinyl film. position the sandwich. bright company advertising and to sailboat transoms. Remove the two side pieces of masking tape and the sandwich will fold down along the hinge. gently peel off the front paper sideways. including the carrier film. When all parts of the cut vinyl is in contact with the mounting surface. Generally the hardware is identical to a traditional plotter except that the ink pen is replaced by a very sharp knife that is use to cut out each shape.

and air pressure pushes down on the plastic cover sheet to hold the fabric in place. A heat gun may be used to melt/bond the vinyl pieces to the substrate. which sign cutters cannot duplicate. A vacuum pump is turned on. the individual cut-out pieces are peeled off the backing paper and carefully assembled by hand on the mounting surface to form the final image. Cutting a hole or slit will cause the unsupported material to droop and fall out of alignment.COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES An older method: • • Once the vinyl has been cut. The static cutting table uses a large flat vacuum cutting table instead of a roll feed. The plastic overlay is also cut. This configuration allows static cutting tables to cut flexible and non-rigid materials that are difficult or impossible to cut with roll-fed plotters. the backing keeps the material properly aligned in the moving rollers. using various cutting tools to cut holes or slits into the fabric. However. The table then operates like a normal vector plotter. which leads to a slight loss of vacuum. for example to produce shaped stickers and window graphics. such as fabric textiles or leather. in that the media to be cut is kept rigid by a backing sheet as pieces of vinyl are cut out. Material is placed on the table. The surface of the table has a series of small pinholes drilled in it. or plastic sheeting. They are being replaced by wide-format inkjet printers that use special fade-resistant UV-protected solvent-based inks. As the letters are cut. 69 | P a g e . sign cutting plotters are in decline for general billboard and sign design. Multiple colors can be cut and assembled but the assembly process is extremely painstaking if the cut sections are thin and flexible. and a sheet of plastic overlaid onto the fabric. Static Cutting Table A sign cutter typically functions like a traditional roll-fed or sheet-fed plotter. Static cutters are also capable of cutting much thicker and heavier materials than a typical roll-fed or sheet-fed plotter. These large inkjet printers have the added advantage of performing smooth color transitions and photo printing. As with the pen plotter. Sign cutters are primarily used to produce single-color line art. vinyls. This does not work when cutting a non-rigid material with no backing. which can directly print onto fabrics. sign cutting plotters are still very much in use for precision cutting of graphics produced by wide-format inkjet printers. but this loss is usually not significant.

the free encyclopedia 70 | P a g e .COMPUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES References 1. Wikipedia.

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