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Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the mobile telecommunications standard. For other uses, see 4G (disambiguation). 4G stands for the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards. It is a successor to 3G and 2G families of standards. Speed requirements for 4G service set the peak download speed at 100 Mbit/s for high mobility communication (such as from trains and cars) and 1 Gbit/s for low mobility communication (such as pedestrians and stationary users).[1] A 4G system is expected to provide a comprehensive and secure all-IP based mobile broadband solution to smartphones, laptop computer wireless modems and other mobile devices. Facilities such as ultra-broadband Internet access, IP telephony, gaming services, and streamed multimedia may be provided to users. Pre-4G technologies such as mobile WiMAX and first-release 3G Long term evolution (LTE) have been on the market since 2006[2] and 2009[3][4][5] respectively, and are often branded as 4G. The current versions of these technologies did not fulfill the original ITU-R requirements of data rates approximately up to 1 Gbit/s for 4G systems. Marketing materials use 4G as a description for Mobile-WiMAX and LTE in their current forms. IMT-Advanced compliant versions of the above two standards are under development and called “LTE Advanced” and “WirelessMAN-Advanced” respectively. ITU has decided that “LTE Advanced” and “WirelessMAN-Advanced” should be accorded the official designation of IMT-Advanced. On December 6, 2010, ITU announced that current versions of LTE, WiMax and other evolved 3G technologies that do not fulfill "IMT-Advanced" requirements could be considered "4G", provided they represent forerunners to IMT-Advanced and "a substantial level of improvement in performance and capabilities with respect to the initial third generation systems now deployed." [6] In all suggestions for 4G, the CDMAspread spectrum radio technology used in 3G systems and IS-95 is abandoned and replaced by OFDMA and other frequency-domain equalization schemes.[citation needed] This is combined with MIMO (Multiple In Multiple Out), e.g., multiple antennas, dynamic channel allocation and channel-dependent scheduling.[citation needed]

• • •

1 Background 2 ITU Requirements and 4G wireless standards 3 4G Predecessors and candidate systems

3.1 4G candidate systems
 

3.1.1 LTE Advanced 3.1.2 IEEE 802.16m or WirelessMAN-Advanced 3.2.1 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) 3.2.2 Mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e)

3.2 4G predecessors and discontinued candidate systems
 

   • •

3.2.3 UMB (formerly EV-DO Rev. C) 3.2.4 Flash-OFDM 3.2.5 iBurst and MBWA (IEEE 802.20) systems

4 Data rate comparison 5 Objective and approach
○ ○

5.1 Objectives assumed in the literature 5.2 Approaches

5.2.1 Principal technologies

• •

6 4G features assumed in early literature 7 Components
○ ○ ○ ○

7.1 Access schemes 7.2 IPv6 support 7.3 Advanced antenna systems 7.4 Software-defined radio (SDR) 8.1 Deployment plans

• • •

8 History of 4G and pre-4G technologies

9 Beyond 4G research 10 References

10.1 Additional resources

[edit] Background
The nomenclature of the generations generally refers to a change in the fundamental nature of the service, non-backwards compatible transmission technology, and new frequency bands. New generations have appeared about every ten years since the first move from 1981 analog (1G) to digital (2G) transmission in 1992. This was followed, in 2001, by 3G multi-media support, spread spectrum transmission and at least 200 kbit/s, in 2011 expected to be followed by 4G, which refers to all-IPpacket-switched networks, mobile ultra-broadband (gigabit speed) access and multi-carrier transmission.[citation needed] The fastest 3G based standard in the WCDMA family is the HSPA+ standard, which was commercially available in 2009 and offers 28 Mbit/s downstreams without MIMO, i.e. only with one antenna (it would offer 56 Mbit/s with 2x2 MIMO), and 22 Mbit/s upstreams. The fastest 3G based standard in the CDMA2000 family is the EV-DO Rev. B, which was available in 2010 and offers 15.67 Mbit/s downstreams.[citation needed] In mid 1990s, the ITU-R organization specified the IMT-2000 specifications for what standards that should be considered 3G systems. However, the cell phone market only brands some of the IMT-2000 standards as 3G (e.g. WCDMA and CDMA2000), but not all (3GPP EDGE, DECT and mobile-WiMAX all fulfil the IMT-2000 requirements and are formally accepted as 3G standards, but are typically not branded as 3G). In 2008, ITU-R specified the IMT-Advanced (International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced) requirements for 4G systems.

[edit] ITU Requirements and 4G wireless standards

• • • In September 2009. A common argument for branding 3. Recently.[8][8][9] Peak link spectral efficiency of 15 bit/s/Hz in the downlink. as defined by ITU-R.e. LTE Advanced will be fully built on the existing LTE specification Release 10 and not be defined as a new specification series. they are based on a new radio-interface paradigm. Confusion has often been caused by some mobile carriers who have launched products advertised as 4G but which are actually current so-called 3.75 bit/s/Hz in the uplink (meaning that 1 Gbit/s in the downlink should be possible over less than 67 MHz bandwidth) System spectral efficiency of up to 3 bit/s/Hz/cell in the downlink and 2.[7] The first set of 3GPP requirements on LTE Advanced was approved in June 2008.This article uses 4G to refer to IMT-Advanced (International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced). Ability to offer high quality of service for next generation multimedia support.25 bit/s/Hz/cell for indoor usage[8] Smooth handovers across heterogeneous networks. Peak data rates of up to approximately 100 Mbit/s for high mobility such as mobile access and up to approximately 1 Gbit/s for low mobility such as nomadic/local wireless access. the technology proposals were submitted to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) as 4G candidates. instead relying on the work of other standards bodies such as IEEE. An IMT-Advanced cellular system must fulfil the following requirements:[7] • • • • • Based on an all-IP packet switched network. ITU-R Working Party 5D approved two industry-developed technologies (LTE Advanced and WirelessMANAdvanced)[13] for inclusion in the ITU’s International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced (IMT-Advanced program). While the ITU has adopted recommendations for technologies that would be used for future global communications.[12] Current LTE and WiMAX implementations are considered pre-4G. Both technologies aim to reach the objectives traced by the ITU.[11] LTE Advanced will be standardized in 2010 as part of the Release 10 of the 3GPP specification. which is focused on global communication systems that would be . WiMAX) Present implementations of WiMAX and LTE are largely considered a stopgap solution that will offer a considerable boost while WiMAX 2 (based on the 802. A summary of the technologies that have been studied as the basis for LTE Advanced is included in a technical report.9G technologies. Dynamically share and utilize the network resources to support more simultaneous users per cell. Scalable channel bandwidth.16m spec) and LTE Advanced are finalized.[10] Basically all proposals are based on two technologies: • • LTE Advanced standardized by the 3GPP 802. but are still far from being implemented. and therefore do not follow the ITU-R defined principles for 4G standards. according to the ITU requirements. between 5 and 20 MHz.9G systems as a new generation is that they use other frequency bands than 3G technologies. optionally up to 40 MHz. and the standards are not backwards compatible with 3G but some of them are expected to be forwards compatible with future "real" 4G technologies. they do not actually do the standardization or development work themselves. The WiMAX Forum and 3GPP. and 6. as they don't fully comply with the planned requirements of 1 Gbit/s for stationary reception and 100 Mbit/s for mobile.16m standardized by the IEEE (i.

[14] LTE Advanced is essentially an enhancement to LTE. While the ITU has adopted recommendations for technologies that would be used for future global communications. but do not yet meet the more recent ITU-R IMT-Advanced requirements. among other things.[16] [edit] 4G predecessors and discontinued candidate systems [edit] 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) See also: LTE Advanced above . This upgrade path makes it more cost effective for vendors to offer LTE and then upgrade to LTE Advanced which is similar to the upgrade from WCDMA to HSPA. and have been considered as 4G candidate systems. While the ITU has developed recommendations on IMT-Advanced. formally submitted by the 3GPP organization to ITU-T in the fall 2009. the ITU’s PR department ignored that agreement and used term 4G anyway when issuing their press release. are based on or employ wide channel OFDMA and SC-FDE technologies. The ITU is relied upon by developing countries. Release 10 of LTE is expected to achieve the LTE Advanced speeds.[15] Data speeds of LTE Advanced LTE Advanced Peak Download 1 Gbit/s Peak Upload 500 Mbit/s [edit] IEEE 802.20 as well as Flash-OFDM meets these early assumptions. the Working Party itself purposely agreed not to tie their IMT-Advanced work to the term 4G. however. first release LTE. The target of 3GPP LTE Advanced is to reach and surpass the ITU requirements. LTE and LTE Advanced will also make use of additional spectrum and multiplexing to allow it to achieve higher data speeds. IEEE 802.16m or WirelessMAN-Advanced The IEEE 802. The WiMAX Forum and 3GPP.[citation needed] [edit] 4G Predecessors and candidate systems The wireless telecommunications industry as a whole has early assumed the term 4G as a short hand way to describe those advanced cellular technologies that. instead relying on the work of other standards bodies such as IEEE. recognizing its common use in industry already. they do not actually do the standardization or development work themselves. It is not a new technology but rather an improvement on the existing LTE network. MIMO transmission and an all-IP based architecture.16m or WirelessMAN-Advanced evolution of 802. [edit] 4G candidate systems [edit] LTE Advanced See also: 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) below LTE Advanced (Long-term-evolution Advanced) is a candidate for IMT-Advanced standard.[citation needed] This working party’s objective was not to comment on today’s 4G being rolled out in the United States and in fact. Release 8 currently supports up to 300 Mbit/s download speeds which is still short of the IMT-Advanced standards.[citation needed] The ITU’s purpose is to foster the use of communications globally.16e is under development. who want to be assured a technology is standardised and likely to be widely deployed. with the objective to fulfill the IMT-Advanced criteria of 1 Gbit/s for stationary reception and 100 Mbit/s for mobile reception.available several years from now. and expected to be released in 2012. for example. those recommendations are not binding on ITU member countries. Coordinated Multi-point Transmission will also allow more system capacity to help handle the enhanced data speeds.[citation needed] Mobile-WiMAX.

16e) The Mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802. are used. now named Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA). LTE has a theoretical net bit rate capacity of up to 100 Mbit/s in the downlink and 50 Mbit/s in the uplink if a 20 MHz channel is used — and more if multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO). AT&T also has an LTE service in the works.16e-2005) mobile wireless broadband access (MWBA) standard (also known as WiBro in South Korea) is sometimes branded 4G. The world's first publicly available LTE service was opened in the two Scandinavian capitals Stockholm (Ericsson system) and Oslo (a Huawei system) on 14 December 2009. and offers peak data rates of 128 Mbit/s downlink and 56 Mbit/s uplink over 20 MHz wide channels[citation needed] .[2] Sprint Nextel has begun using Mobile WiMAX. i. antenna arrays.e. The world's first commercial mobile WiMAX service was opened by KT in Seoul. . as of September 29.[17] In Russia.[citation needed] [edit] Mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802. The first LTE USB dongles do not support any other radio interface.Telia-branded Samsung LTE modem The pre-4G technology 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) is often branded "4G". The physical radio interface was at an early stage named High Speed OFDM Packet Access (HSOPA). South Korea on 30 June 2006. but the first LTE release does not fully comply with the IMT-Advanced requirements. Yota. Belarus and Nicaragua WiMax broadband internet access is offered by a Russian company Scartel.[3] Currently. The user terminals were manufactured by Samsung. the only publicly available LTE service in the United States is provided by Verizon Wireless[citation needed] . 2008 branded as a "4G" network even though the current version does not fulfil the IMT Advanced requirements on 4G systems. and branded 4G. and is also branded 4G.

WiMAX update IEEE 802. Comparison of Mobile Internet Access methods (This box: view·talk·edit) Downlin Uplink Primary k (Mbit/s) (Mbit/s) Standard Family Radio Tech Notes Use LTEAdvanced update 100 (in 50 (in 20 expected to UMTS/4G OFDMA/MIMO/ 20MHz MHz offer peak LTE General 4G SM SC-FDMA bandwidt bandwidt rates up to 1 h) h) Gbit/s fixed speeds and 100 Mb/s to mobile users.3 1.8 Mobile range OFDM Internet 10.6 30km (18 mobility up 15. UMB's lead sponsor.4 miles) .20) systems The iBurst system ( or HC-SDMA. C) Main article: Ultra Mobile Broadband UMB (Ultra Mobile Broadband) was the brand name for a discontinued 4G project within the 3GPP2 standardization group to improve the CDMA2000 mobile phone standard for next generation applications and requirements.16 rates of at Internet SOFDMA bandwidt bandwidt least 1 Gbit/s h) h) fixed speeds and 100Mbit/s to mobile users. announced it was ending development of the technology. favouring LTE instead.[18] The objective was to achieve data speeds over 275 Mbit/s downstream and over 75 Mbit/s upstream.[edit] UMB (formerly EV-DO Rev. High Capacity Spatial Division Multiple Access) was at an early stage considered as a 4G predecessor.16m expected to 128 (in 56 (in offer peak Mobile MIMO20MHz 20MHz WiMAX 802. also known as IEEE 802. [edit] iBurst and MBWA (IEEE 802. Flash-OFDM FlashMobile Flash-OFDM 5. [edit] Flash-OFDM At an early stage the Flash-OFDM system was expected to be further developed into a 4G standard. Qualcomm. In November 2008. [edit] Data rate comparison The following table shows a comparison of 4G candidate systems as well as other competing technologies.6 3.20. It was later further developed into the Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA) system.9 5.

76 22 UMTS-TDD UMTS/3G Mobile SM Internet CDMA/TDD 16 16 . Reported speeds according to IPWireless using 16QAM iBurst 802.384 UMTS/3G HSDPA+HSU General 3G 14. ~200 kbit/s uplink.to 200mph (350km/h) HIPERMAN HIPERMA Mobile N Internet OFDM 56.9 extended range 55 km (34 miles) Wi-Fi 802.4 SM CDMA/FDD/MI PA 56 MO HSPA+ 0.384 5.11 (11n) Mobile Inter OFDM/MIMO net Antenna. Typical downlink rates today 2 Mbit/s. bandwidth) throughput and/or spectra efficiency (310km&382k m) Cell Radius: 3–12 km Speed: 250km/h Spectral Efficiency: 13 bits/s/Hz/cell Spectrum Reuse Factor: "1" 3GPP Release 7 HSDPA widely deployed. RF front end enhancements and minor protocol timer 300 (using 4x4 tweaks have configuration in helped deploy 20MHz long range bandwidth) or 600 P2P networks (using 4x4 compromising configuration in on radial 40MHz coverage.2 UMTS WCDMA/FDD CDMA 0.9 56.20 HCMobile Inter SDMA/TDD/MI 95 net MO 36 EDGE Evolution GSM Mobile Inter TDMA/FDD net 0. HSPA+ downlink up to 56 Mbit/s.2 0.

1 4. 4G may allow roaming with wireless local area networks. the assumed or expected 4G requirements have changed during the years before IMT-Advanced was specified by the ITU-R. including the use of external antennae. including the spectral efficiency of the technology. The performance of each technology is determined by a number of constraints. see bit rate progess trends. In the literature. and 1 Gbit/s while client and station are in relatively fixed positions as defined by the ITU-R[19] A data rate of at least 100 Mbit/s between any two points in the world[19] • . but also new services like HDTV. see Comparison of wireless data standards. spectral efficiency comparison table and OFDM system comparison table. 0 CDMA200 Mobile EV-DO 1x Re 0 Internet v. video chat.g. and requires a fallback to 1xRTT when a voice call is placed or received.1xRTT CDMA200 Mobile 0 phone CDMA 0.8xN modulation similar to HSDPA+HSU PA Succeeded by EV-DO for data use. but still is used for voice and as a failover for EV-DO Rev B note: N is the number of 1. For more comparison tables. distance from the tower and the ground speed (e.45 3.A EV-DO Rev.15 1. Notes: All speeds are theoretical maximums and will vary by a number of factors.8 1. and the amount of spectrum available. Usually the bandwidth is shared between several terminals. These are examples of objectives stated in various sources: • A nominal data rate of 100 Mbit/s while the client physically moves at high speeds relative to the station.144 0.9xN 0. mobile TV. For more information.144 EV-DO 1x Re v. [edit] Objective and approach [edit] Objectives assumed in the literature 4G is being developed to accommodate the quality of service (QoS) and rate requirements set by further development of existing 3G applications like mobile broadband access.B CDMA/FDD 2. Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS). EV-DO is not designed for voice. communications on a train may be poorer than when standing still). comparison of mobile phone standards. and may interact with digital video broadcasting systems.25 MHz chunks of spectrum used. the cell sizes used.

for example Multi-carrier modulation (OFDM) in the downlink or single-carrier frequency-domain-equalization (SC-FDE) in the uplink: To exploit the frequency selective channel property without complex equalization. HDTV video content. In 4G systems this mobility is provided by the mobile IP protocol. This means that in 4G. the circuit-switched infrastructure is abandoned. etc.a. and only a packet-switched network is provided. The terminal also keeps the same IP address while moving. end-to-end Internet protocol (IP). LP-OFDMA) in the uplink: Variable bit rate by assigning different sub-channels to different users based on the channel conditions Turbo principleerror-correcting codes: To minimize the required SNR at the reception side ○ ○ • • • Channel-dependent scheduling: To utilize the time-varying channel. packet switched network[21] IP-based femtocells (home nodes connected to fixed Internet broadband infrastructure) [edit] Approaches [edit] Principal technologies • Physical layer transmission techniques are as follows:[23] ○ ○ MIMO: To attain ultra high spectral efficiency by means of spatial processing including multi-antenna and multi-user MIMO Frequency-domain-equalization. two infrastructures in parallel. and believed at an early stage in peer-to-peer networking in which every mobile device would be both a transceiver and a router for other devices in the network eliminating the spoke-and-hub weakness of 2G and 3G cellular systems. thus a file transfer is not interrupted in case a terminal moves from one cell (one base station coverage area) to another. and circuit switched nodes for voice calls.e.[citation needed] The DARPA selected the distributed architecture. traditional voice calls are replaced by IP telephony. while in . cellular systems have provided dual infrastructures: packet switched nodes for data services. but handover is carried out. Linearly precoded OFDMA. and the cooperative relaying concept.[24] Since the 2. for example (OFDMA) or (Singlecarrier FDMA) (SC-FDMA. Frequency-domain statistical multiplexing.5G GPRS system. mobile TV. known as multi-mode protocol [edit] 4G features assumed in early literature The 4G system was originally envisioned by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Cellular systems such as 4G allow seamless mobility.k. while 2. meaning that a mobile server is reachable as long as it is within the coverage area of any server. i.• • • • • • Smooth handoff across heterogeneous networks[20] Seamless connectivity and global roaming across multiple networks[21] High quality of service for next generation multimedia support (real time audio. including fixed relay networks (FRNs). part of IP version 6. high speed data. Link adaptation: Adaptive modulation and error-correcting codes Relaying. In 4G systems.)[21] Interoperability with existing wireless standards[22] An all IP. a.5G and 3G systems require both packet-switched and circuit-switched network nodes.

Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA). The 4G wireless system is expected to provide a comprehensive IP solution where multimedia applications and services can be delivered to the user on an ‘Anytime. UMTS. one set of standard used the combination of FDMA and TDMA and the other set introduced an access scheme called CDMA. cellular wirelss. TDMA proved to be less efficient in handling the high data rate channels as it requires large guard periods to alleviate the multipath impact. Anywhere' basis with a satisfactory high data rate. WLAN. and with any technology Support for multimedia services at low transmission cost Personalization Integrated services Some candidate systems suggest having an open Internet platform. TD-CDMA and TD-SCDMA. Integrated wireless solution.[26] 4G is described as MAGIC — Mobile multimedia. Interleaved FDMA and Multi-carrier CDMA (MC-CDMA) are gaining more importance for the next generation systems. capacity and scalability. premium quality and high security. These are based on efficient FFT algorithms and .[25] While maintaining seamless mobility. The increased bandwidth and higher data transmission rates will allow 4G users the ability to utilize high definition video and the video conferencing features of mobile devices attached to a 4G network. 4G will offer very high data rates with expectations of 100 Mbit/s wireless service. Global mobility support. such as satellite. anywhere. to use CDMA as the access scheme. [edit] Components [edit] Access schemes This section contains information which may be of unclear or questionable importance or relevance to the article's subject matter. Usage of CDMA increased the system capacity. (May 2010) As the wireless standards evolved. a CDMA network setup does not inherently reject new clients when it approaches its limits. but as a theoretical drawback placed a soft limit on it rather than the hard limit (i. 1xEV-DO. PAN and systems for acessing fixed wireless networks. such as IS-2000. In the wireless channels. and Customized personal service. 4G provides flexible interoperability of the various kinds of existing wireless networks. Data rate is also increased as this access scheme (providing the network is not reaching its capacity) is efficient enough to handle the multipath channel.earlier cellular generations it was only provided by physical layer and datalink layer protocols. So in second generation systems. In addition to seamless mobility.e. This enabled the third generation systems. Please help improve this article by clarifying or removing superfluous information. though this outcome is avoided in practical implementations by admission control of circuit switched or fixed bitrate communication services). The first generation wireless standards used plain TDMA and FDMA. However. resulting in a denial of service to all clients when the network overloads. Recently. FDMA consumed more bandwidth for guard to avoid inter carrier interference. HSXPA. Some key features (primarily from users' points of view) of 4G mobile networks are as follows: • • • • High usability: anytime. the issue with CDMA is that it suffers from poor spectral flexibility and computationally intensive time-domain equalization (high number of multiplications per second) for wideband channels. the access techniques used also exhibited increase in efficiency. Anytime anywhere. Similarly. new access schemes like Orthogonal FDMA (OFDMA).

although NAT will still be required to communicate with devices that are on existing IPv4 networks. Both transmit/receive diversity and transmit spatial multiplexing are categorized into the spacetime coding techniques. By the time that 4G is deployed. Independent streams can then be transmitted simultaneously from all the antennas. called MIMO (as a branch of intelligent antenna). Whereas earlier standards largely used Phase-shift keying. gained importance for its bandwidth conservation and power efficiency. Spatial multiplexing involves deploying multiple antennas at the transmitter and at the receiver. IPv6 removes the need for network address translation (NAT). This will require low-latency data transmission. These access schemes offer the same efficiencies as older technologies like CDMA. [edit] IPv6 support Main articles: Network layer. the reliability in transmitting high speed data in the fading channel can be improved by using more antennas at the transmitter or at the receiver. IFDMA is being considered for the uplink since OFDMA contributes more to the PAPR related issues and results in nonlinear operation of amplifiers. This technology. which does not necessarily require the channel knowledge at the . in the context of 4G. By contrast.20 standard. multiplies the base data rate by (the smaller of) the number of transmit antennas or the number of receive antennas. However. improved modulation techniques are being used.[27] [edit] Advanced antenna systems Main articles: MIMO and MU-MIMO The performance of radio communications depends on an antenna system. Recently. IPv6 support is essential in order to support a large number of wireless-enabled devices. and IPv6 Unlike 3G. MC-CDMA is in the proposal for the IEEE 802. This is called transmit or receive diversity. and long range communications. OFDMA is used for the downlink. a method of sharing a limited number of addresses among a larger group of devices. to cater for the growing data rate needs of data communication. For the next generation UMTS. Apart from this. By increasing the number of IP addresses. many transmission schemes were proposed. They also make it possible to control the bandwidth and form the spectrum in a flexible way. spatial multiplexing. scalability and higher data rates can be achieved. As of June 2009[update]. In the early 1990s.frequency domain equalization. the process of IPv4 address exhaustion is expected to be in its final stages. multiple antenna technologies are emerging to achieve the goal of 4G systems such as high rate. Verizon has posted specifications that require any 4G devices on its network to support IPv6. IFDMA provides less power fluctuation and thus avoids amplifier issues. they require advanced dynamic channel allocation and traffic adaptive scheduling. Therefore. WiMax is using OFDMA in the downlink and in the uplink. more efficient systems such as 64QAM are being proposed for use with the 3GPP Long Term Evolution standards. resulting in a lower number of multiplications per second. Similarly. Apart from this. high reliability. termed smart or intelligent antenna. Internet protocol. One technology. 4G will be based on packet switching only. This is an added advantage especially in the MIMO environments since the spatial multiplexing transmission of MIMO systems inherently requires high complexity equalization at the receiver. In addition to improvements in these multiplexing systems. which is based on two parallel infrastructures consisting of circuit switched and packet switched network nodes respectively. The other important advantage of the above mentioned access techniques is that they require less complexity for equalization at the receiver.

and Time Warner announced a pooling of an average of 120 MHz of spectrum. including WiMAX. Comcast. Bright House. Sprint. OFDMA transmission technology is chosen as candidate for the HSOPA downlink. On May 7. the final form of a 4G device will constitute various standards. EU commissioner Viviane Reding suggested re-allocation of 500– 800 MHz spectrum for wireless communication. KT demonstrated mobile WiMAX service in Busan.[38] In 2008. In January 2008. 2008. NTT DoCoMo completed a trial in which they reached a maximum packet transmission rate of approximately 5 Gbit/s in the downlink with 12x12 MIMO using a 100 MHz frequency bandwidth while moving at 10 km/h. the Japanese companyNTT DoCoMo tested a 4G communication system prototype with 4x4 MIMO called VSF-OFCDM at 100 Mbit/s while moving.transmitter. NTT Docomo demonstrated e-UTRA data rates of 200 Mbit/s with power consumption below 100 mW during the test.[31] and is planning on releasing the first commercial network in 2010.[39] . Imagine. Google. In 2005.[33] Both of these companies have stated their intention of supporting LTE. 2008 . KT started the world's first commercial mobile WiMAX service in Seoul. that have resulted in steep quarterly losses. Intel.[32] In January 2008. and 1 Gbit/s while stationary. Since that time Sprint has faced many setbacks. the biggest share of the spectrum went to Verizon Wireless and the next biggest to AT&T. [28] In June 2006. Sprint merged its XohmWiMAX division with Clearwire to form a company which will take the name "Clear". the strategic vision for 4G—which ITU designated as IMT-Advanced—was laid out. Sprint Nextel announced that it would invest about US$5 billion in a WiMAX technology buildout over the next few years[29] ($5. later renamed 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) air interface E-UTRA. Since 4G is a collection of wireless standards. In November 2005.[2] In mid-2006. [35][36][37] • • • • • • • In April 2008. [edit] Software-defined radio (SDR) SDR is one form of open wireless architecture (OWA).45 billion in real terms[30]).S. South Korea. South Korea. which is categorized to the area of the radio convergence. This can be efficiently realized using SDR technology. In September 2007. LG and Nortel demonstrated e-UTRA data rates of 50 Mbit/s while travelling at 110 km/h.Skyworks Solutions released a front-end module for e-UTRAN. In February 2007. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) spectrum auction for the 700 MHz former analog TV frequencies began. [edit] History of 4G and pre-4G technologies • • • • • In 2002. As a result. ITU-R established the detailed performance requirements of IMT-Advanced. a U. which require channel knowledge at the transmitter. The other category is closed-loop multiple antenna technologies. by issuing a Circular Letter calling for candidate Radio Access Technologies (RATs) for IMT-Advanced.[34] February 15.

the major Canadian cdmaOne and EV-DO carriers. Verizon Wireless has said that they will start their rollout by the end of 2010. Latvia's LMT opened LTE "4G" network working in test regime 50% of territory. TeliaSonera branded the network "4G". 2007. despite average download speeds of only 3–6 Mbit/s with peak speeds of 10 Mbit/s (not available in all markets).[5] On 25 February 2010. Sprint began advertising "4G" service in selected cities in the United States.3 Mbit/s uplink in Stockholm. Introductory tests showed a TCPthroughput of 42. The modem devices on offer were manufactured by Samsung (dongle GT-B3710). On December 9. the first commercial LTE deployment was in the Scandinavian capitals Stockholm and Oslo by the Swedish-Finnish network operator TeliaSonera and its Norwegian brandnameNetCom (Norway). On July 2010.[48] Telus and Bell Canada. an Irish fixed and wireless broadband company.[44] On 25 August 2010. and single-in-single-out. just after receiving the circular letter. or US$58.• April 2008. South Korea announced plans to spend 60 billion won. Uzbekistan's MTS deployed LTE in Tashkent. Sprint Nextel released the first 4G Smartphone. On 3 March 2009.[43] On 4 June 2010.[45] • • • • • • • • • [edit] Deployment plans In May 2005. the ITU stated that LTE. On 6 December 2010. TeliaSonera plans to roll out nationwide LTE across Sweden. the HTC Evo 4G. an evolution of current LTE standard.8 Mbit/s downlink and 5. with the goal of having the highest mobile phone market share by 2012. This service will be issued the mobile code 088 in Ireland and will be used for the provision of 4G Mobile communications. have announced that they will be cooperating towards building a fourth generation (4G) LTE wireless . ComReg.[4][42]TeliaSonera used spectral bandwidth of 10 MHz. the 3GPP organized a workshop on IMT-Advanced where it was decided that LTE Advanced. On July 7. on developing 4G and even 5G technologies. and the hope of an international standard. Digiweb. VivaCell-MTS launches in Armenia 4G/LTE commercial test network with a live demo conducted in Yerevan. WiMax and similar "evolved 3G technologies" could be considered "4G". 2008.[40] In December 2009. will meet or even exceed IMT-Advanced requirements following the ITU-R agenda. Norway and Finland. Lithuania's LRTC announcing the first operational "4G" mobile WiMAX network in Baltic states. which should provide physical layer net bitrates of up to 50 Mbit/s downlink and 25 Mbit/s in the uplink.[46][47]Digiweb launched a mobile broadband network using FLASH-OFDM technology at 872 MHz. 2009. at the ITU World Radiocommunication Seminar 2010. Verizon Wireless announced plans for a joint effort with the Vodafone Group to transition its networks to the 4G standard LTE.[41] On December 14. 2008.000. announced that they had received a mobile communications license from the Irish Telecoms regulator. and the network infrastructure created by Huawei (in Oslo) and Ericsson (in Stockholm). Since then. Estonia's EMT opened LTE "4G" network working in test regime. On September 20. Verizon Wireless announced their intentions to build and begin to roll out an LTE network by the end of 2009.[6] On 12 December 2010.000.

or any other future access technology. In the United Kingdom.21). In June 2010. and Finnish cities during 2010.int/ITU-R/index. Huawei was given the contract the network is set to go fully commercial by the end of Q1 of 2011 [edit] Beyond 4G research Main article: 5G A major issue in 4G systems is to make the high bit rates available in a larger portion of the cell. Swedish television companies used 4G to broadcast live television from the Swedish Crown Princess' Royal Wedding. a telecommunication company in East& Central Africa.[54] Safaricom. It is currently deploying to additional markets and is the first US carrier to offer a WiMAX phone. Telefónica O2 is to use Slough as a guinea pig in testing the 4G network and has called upon Huawei to install LTE technology in six masts across the town to allow people to talk to each other via HD video conferencing and play PlayStation games while on the move. EDGE. In June 2010 the FCC released a comprehensive white paper which indicates that the 10 MHz of dedicated spectrum currently allocated from the 700 MHz spectrum for public safety will provide adequate capacity and performance necessary for normal communications as well as serious emergency situations.[50] Verizon Wireless has announced that it plans to augment its CDMA2000-based EV-DO 3G network in the United States with LTE. also known as group cooperative relay. this issue is addressed by macro-diversity techniques. Michael Joseph. and also by beam-division multiple access. ^http://www. FCC is exploring the possibility of deployment and operation of a nationwide 4G public safety network which would allow first responders to seamlessly communicate between agencies and across geographies. [41] It delivers rates up to 10 Mbit/s. regardless of devices. has chosen to migrate toward LTE from 2G/GSM and 3G/HSPA by 2011.[52] The U. IEEE 802.S. and in several Swedish. Included in this concept is also smart-radio (also known as cognitive radio technology) to efficiently manage spectrum use and transmission power as well as the use of mesh routing protocols to create a pervasive network.[55] Pervasive networks are an amorphous and at present entirely hypothetical concept where the user can be simultaneously connected to several wireless access technologies and can seamlessly move between them (See vertical handoff. [edit] References 1. As a transitional measure. especially to users in an exposed position in between several basestations. In current research.asp?category=information&rlink=imt-advanced&lang=en .[51] Sprint Nextel has deployed WiMAX technology which it has labeled 4G as of October 2008. AT&T.[49] Sprint offers a 3G/4G connection plan. along with Verizon Wireless. currently available in select cities in the United States.e it failed to perform to expectations.[53] TeliaSonera started deploying LTE (branded "4G") in Stockholm and Oslo November 2009 (as seen above).broadband network in Canada. UMTS. they are implementing 3G UMTS that went live in November 2009.itu. . began it's setup of a 4G network in October 2010 after the now retired& Kenya Tourist Board Chairman. regarded their 3G network as a white elephant i. These access technologies can be Wi-Fi. Norwegian.

November 13th. 2006). "LTE Advanced – Evolving LTE towards IMT-Advanced" (PDF). Ylva.html. says 'Let AT&T and Verizon yak about maps and 3G coverage'". 2006-06-30.php/jcm/article/view/0403146154/49. Kim. Retrieved 2010-03-24. 21 October 2010 14. http://www.academypublisher. http://ojs. J. Kambiz (21–24 September 2008). . Retrieved 26 November 2010. 8. 12–13.com/index. Erik. Jading.^3GPP specification: Requirements for further advancements for E-UTRA (LTE Advanced) 12. ^ abc"South Korea launches WiBro service".pdf. ^ ab"Light Reading Mobile . ITU Press Release.org/10.aspx. Anders.2134. ^Moray Rumney. http://delivery. (2010.itu.^"Sprint announces seven new WiMAX markets. ^ abVilches. Artech House 2006. 3. Approved in Nov 2008 9.com/document.1145/1150000/1142698/a14-hussain. Zara Hamid and Naveed S. Retrieved 2010-04-08.^.jhtml?articleID=189800030. Magnus. April 29). "Mobility Management Challenges and Issues in 4G Heterogeneous Networks".^Parkvall.^Nomor Research Newsletter: The way of LTE towards 4G 11. Dahlman. Unstrung. http://www. ^ ab"Teliasonera First To Offer 4G Mobile Services". David (April 2009). ACM Proceedings of the first international conference on Integrated internet ad hoc and sensor networks. "IMT-Advanced: 4G Wireless Takes Shape in an Olympic Year". http://www. Prasad. Reuters. Olsson.engadget. "ITU paves way for next-generation 4G mobile technologies". ISBN 1-58053-931-9. Stefan. 4G Roadmap and Emerging Communication Technologies. 16. September 2008 10. 18.eetimes. 2009-12-14. ^ abDaily Mobile Blog 6. Stefan. Engadget.^SadiaHussain. ^ abcITU-R. Retrieved 2007-03-26. Agilent Measurement Journal.ericsson. Astely.int/net/pressoffice/press_releases/2010/48. TechSpot. Requirements related to technical performance for IMTAdvanced radio interface(s).^Qualcomm halts UMB project. Furuskär. Ramjee (2006). Vehicular Technology Conference Fall 2008. http://www.4G/LTE — Ericsson. http://online.com/news/latest/showArticle. Samsung Make LTE Connection — Telecom News Analysis".com. Everything you need to know about 4G Wireless Technology. 15. 7. 2008 19.com/res/thecompany/docs/journal_conference_papers/wireless_access/V TC08F_jading.wsj. 4. Report M.com/article/BT-CO-20091214-707449.com/2010/03/23/sprint-announces-seven-new-wimax-markets-says-letatandt-and-ver/. 20.^[1] The Draft IEEE 802. ^ ab"ITU World Radiocommunication Seminar highlights future communication technologies". Khattak (May 30–31. Journal of Communications4 (3): 146–154. Stefan.^ ab Young Kyun. pp. 2008-04-20] 17. Zangi. EE Times.acm.2. 2010-03-23. [dead link] 5.asp? doc_id=183528&. Retrieved 2010-06-23.16m System Description Document. Stockholm: Ericsson Research. The Wall Street Journal. http://www.^3GPP Technical Report: Feasibility study for Further Advancements for E-UTRA (LTE Advanced) 13. "The evolution of LTE toward LTE Advanced".pdf? key1=1142698&key2=8898704611&coll=GUIDE&dl=&CFID=15151515&CFTOKEN=618 4618.unstrung.^Parkvall. Wänstedt.

Hoboken. Wireless Networking Complete. WWRF. 2008.com. P. http://www.electronicsweekly.. Davie. WirelessWeek.ipv6tf. zdnetasia. February 14.)". "Verizon mandates IPv6 support for next-gen cell phones".accessmylibrary.pdf. 2007-02-09. "NTT DoCoMo develops low power chip for 3G LTE handsets". FCC. Retrieved 2010-04-08.^Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2008..com/coms2/summary_0286-33896688_ITM.fcc.00. A. 38. 34. A. http://www. http://wireless. "High Throughput WLAN/WPAN" (PDF). "The Path To 4G Will Take Many Turns". Southern Gate.^"Skyworks Rolls Out Front-End Module for 3. 36.wsdmag. Derek (2009-06-09).org/fileadmin/sites/default/files/about_the_forum/WG/WG5/Briefings/WG5-br2High_Throughput_WLAN_WPAN-V2004. England: John Wiley & Sons.html. "Mobile Communications Beyond 3G in the Global Context" (PDF). NTT DoCoMo Press. 31.gov/auctions/default. Bonneville. WiMAX Forum.html. http://www2. February 15. 29.cu. Wireless Systems Design. (UK). 11 FEB 2008.sprint.^Morr. (Skyworks Solutions Inc.. (2009).^"Skyworks Introduces Industry's First Front-End Module for 3.^ Noah Schmitz (March 2005). B.com.do?id=1260. http://www. http://www. (2003). 23. Ltd. 2003 26. Chichester. 28. 2008". http://www. Retrieved December 7.". 2008.^"KT Launches Commercial WiBro Services in Korea".zdnetasia. http://www. (2007).com/coms2/summary_0286-33869434_ITM.wimaxforum.psu.^ Mishra. sprint.com/news/communications/0.^"4G Mobile Broadband". Siemens mobile.org/news/831. 35.^ abc Werner Mohr (2002). E.com/News_Briefs021508.^Zheng. Retrieved 2010-06-23. 27. Electronics Weekly.62021021. Retrieved 2008-0914. West Sussex PO19 8SQ.^Nicopolitidis. 30..com/Articles/ArticleID/10001/10001. http://www.^Nortel and LG Electronics Demo LTE at CTIA and with High Vehicle Speeds :: WirelessWatch Community . Morgan Kaufmann 25. NJ : John Wiley & Sons.personal. http://www. Retrieved 2009-06-10. Retrieved 2008-0914. Retrieved 2008-09-14. England .pdf.accessmylibrary.com/mr/cda_pkDetail.. Retrieved 2008-01-08. P. In Advanced Cellular Network Planning and Optimisation: 2G/2. R.nttdocomo. WIRELESS NETWORKS (p.htm.9G Wireless Applications.^ G.htm. K. 22. 24. W.39044192. Chichester.^"European Commission proposes TV spectrum for WiMax".21. 33. Fettweis. http://www. L. Gosse.^"Wireless News Briefs — February 15. Peterson. Schott. M.^"Auctions Schedule".5G/3G.Evolution to 4G. de Courville (2004).htm? job=auctions_sched.html.^"DoCoMo Achieves 5 Gbit/s Data Speed". http://www.com/Articles/2007/09/14/42179/ntt-docomo-develops-lowpower-chip-for-3g-lte-handsets. Retrieved 2008-01-08. 32. 190). Wireless News. H.Skyworks press release (Free with registration).wireless-worldresearch. Retrieved 2007-0326.9G Wireless Applications.edu/dvm105/blogs/ipv6/2009/06/verizon-mandates-ipv6support.org/pdf/werner_mohr.com/pr/2007/001319. 2005-11-15.wirelessweek. 37. Melanie (2007-09-14). The Atrium. http://www. &Farrel. 2010.^ Reynolds.aspx. Zimmermann. Retrieved 2008-03-12. Retrieved 2007-0326. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.

html.com.ee/? id=229584. "Research Directions for Fourth Generation Wireless" (PDF).com/network/. 54.^WiMAX Forum (3 March 2009). 2007-09-21.^ IT R&D program of MKE/IITA: 2008-F-004-01 “5G mobile communication systems based on beam-division multiple access and relays with group cooperation”. "Slough accepts the call to be 4G mobile phone trailblazer". Retrieved 26 November 2010. June 2010.4g/.com/2008/07/08/korea-to-start-working-on-5g/.^Neudorf.^VivaCell-MTS launches in Armenia 4G/LTE 46.sprint. HTC EVO™ 4G. Coming this Summer Exclusively from Sprint". 50. Performance and Cost".^"AT&T.com/en/stores/popups/4G_coverage_popup. Raigo (25 February 2010). Retrieved 26 November 2010. working on the concept of small cells Nomor Research: White Paper on LTE Advance the new 4G standard Brian Woerner (June 20–22.2134.^Neate. http://newsroom.cfm?article_id=1414. E24.shtml. A New Model For Capacity. "The Public Safety Nationwide Interoperable Broadband Network. Retrieved 2010-04-08. Electronista.^Sprint (23 March 2010). 2001).wimaxforum. http://www. 44.vodafone. 52. USA.and.no .pdf. Sprint. http://www.computer. Press release. http://www. Retrieved 2010-0408. TELUS.NetCom 4G (in English) 43.^ RTÉ News article: Ireland gets new mobile phone provider 48.ee. 42. Retrieved 26 November 2010. http://www. Vodafone to share same 4G network". http://www. http://www.^ ITU-R Report M.e24.^МТS kompaniyasiO’zbekistonda 4G tarmog’iishgatushirilishinie’lonqiladi (in Uzbek) 45. http://nextelonline.^ FCC White Paper.nextel. http://csdl2.telusmobility. “Requirements related to technical performance for IMT-Advanced radio interface(s). Verizon. "World's First 3G/4G Android Phone.” November 2008. 40. The Daily Telegraph (London).^ ab"4G Coverage and Speeds".^TeliaSonera website 55. unwiredview.electronista. 01) Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 26 November 2010. 53. Press release.^ TELUS (2008-10-10). "LRTC to Launch Lithuania’s First Mobile WiMAX 4G Internet Service".^"Korea to Begin Developing 5G". 51.unwiredview. (118kb) . "Next Generation Network Evolution". "EMT avas 4G testvõrgu".telegraph. 41. Retrieved 2010-0408. MA.org/news/837. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises (WET ICE ’ .com/articles/07/09/21/verizon. Cambridge.^ Press Release: Digiweb Mobile Takes 088 47. Rupert (2009-12-12). 49.org/comp/proceedings/wetice/2001/1269/00/12690060.^NetCom.uk/finance/newsbysector/mediatechnologyandtelecoms/6797198/Slo ugh-accepts-the-call-to-be-4G-mobile-phone-trailblazer.co.39. 2008-07-08. [edit] Additional resources • • • • 3GPP LTE Encyclopedia Alcatel-Lucent chair on Flexible Radio.com/article_display.

bbc. http://www. China) 41: 54. http://ieeexplore. Will Knight (2005-09-02). "High speed mobile network to launch in Jersey". Communications Magazine. of Hong Kong.1109/MCOM.co.bbc. http://www.1252799.ns?id=dn7943. http://4gservice. IEEE (City Univ.org. 2005-06-13.jhtml?repositoryItem=tcm%3A172262211635. "Caribbean telecoms to invest in 4G wireless networks". 2010-11-17.75G) GSM/3GPP HSCSD ·GPRS ·EDGE/EGPRS family 1G . Alcatel-Lucent. • • • • • • • Preceded by Succeeded by Mobile Telephony Generations 3rd Generation (3G) 5th Generation (5G) [hide]v·d·eMobile telephony standards 0G (radio MTS ·MTA · MTB · telephones) MTC ·IMTS ·MTD ·AMTS ·OLT ·Autoradiopuhelin AMPS AMPS ·TACS ·ETACS family OtherNMT ·Hicap ·Mobitex ·DataTAC GSM/3GPP GSM ·CSD family 2G 3GPP2 familyCdmaOne (IS-95) AMPS familyD-AMPS (IS-54 and IS-136) OtherCDPD ·iDEN ·PDC ·PHS 2G transitional (2.newscientist. "Challenges in the migration to 4G mobile systems".com/publications/abstract. "4G prototype testing". ISBN 978-0470824672 Suk Yu Hui.com/cgiscript/csArticles/articles/000021/002142.com/article. Caribbean Net News. "Date set for 4G airwaves auction".htm.2003. "Future use of 4G Femtocells".• • Sajal Kumar Das. 200606-27.uk/news/technology-11776901/.uk/local/jersey/hi/people_and_places/arts_and_culture/newsid_857 4000/8574436. http://www. doi:10.eu/.co.ieee. BBC News. New Scientist. http://www. 2010-03-19. 2010-03-10.caribbeannetnews. 2010-12-17.org/xpls/abs_all.stm. 2.5G. "4G service".alcatel. http://www. Kai HauYeung (December 2003). "4G Mobile".ict-befemto. John Wiley & Sons (April 2010): "Mobile Handset Design". http://news.jsp?arnumber=1252799&isnumber=28028.

75G.wikipedia. 3. 3.9G) 3GPP2 EV-DO Rev.3GPP2 familyCDMA2000 1xRTT (IS-2000) OtherWiDEN 3GPP family 3G (IMT-2000) 3GPP2 CDMA2000 1xEV-DO (IS-856) family 3GPP familyHSPA ·HSPA+ ·LTE (E-UTRA) 3G transitional (3.20 3GPP familyLTE Advanced 4G (IMT-Advanced) WiMAX IEEE 802. A ·EV-DO Rev.16e-2005) ·FlashOther OFDM ·IEEE 802. B family Mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.5G.16m family unconfirme unconfirmed d UMTS (UTRAN) ·WCDMA-FDD ·WCDMATDD ·UTRA-TDD LCR (TD-SCDMA) 5G History ·Cellular network theory ·List of standards ·Comparison of standards ·Channel access methods ·Spectral efficiency Related articles comparison table ·Cellular frequencies ·GSM frequency bands ·UMTS frequency bands ·Mobile broadband Retrieved from "http://en.org/wiki/4G" Categories: Emerging standards Hidden categories: All articles with dead external links | Articles with dead external links from September 2010 | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from December 2010 | Articles with unsourced statements from June 2010 | Articles with unsourced statements from January 2011 | Articles with unsourced statements from October 2010 | Articles containing potentially dated statements from June 2009 | All articles containing potentially dated statements Personal tools • • • Views Log in / create account Article Discussion Namespaces Variants • • Read Edit .

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