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Changes for version 1.1 included the insertion of a new chapter 5 for the 2007 specification and some minor mathematical corrections in chapters 2 and 4. Please note that these are not side-barred. Changes for version 1.2 include further corrections to chapter 4 and a correction to the numbering of the exercises in chapter 5. Changes for version 1.3 include mathematical corrections to exercises and answers.

GCE Mathematics (6360) Further Pure unit 2 (MFP2) Textbook

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Copyright © 2007 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.

**klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370)
**

Further Pure 2: Contents

Chapter 1: Complex numbers 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook

4 5 5 6 8 9 10 11 13 14 15 21 22 22 24 27 28 31 32 33 38 39 40 45 48 53 54 56 60 69 71 74 77

Introduction The general complex number The modulus and argument of a complex number The polar form of a complex number Addition, subtraction and multiplication of complex numbers of the form x + iy 1.6 The conjugate of a complex number and the division of complex numbers of the form x +iy 1.7 Products and quotients of complex numbers in their polar form 1.8 Equating real and imaginary parts 1.9 Further consideration of |z2 – z1| and arg(z2 –z1) 1.10 Loci on Argand diagrams

Chapter 2: Roots of polynomial equations 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Introduction Quadratic equations Cubic equations Relationship between the roots of a cubic equation and its coefficients Cubic equations with related roots An important result Polynomial equations of degree n Complex roots of polynomial equations with real coefficients

Chapter 3: Summation of finite series 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Introduction Summation of series by the method of differences Summation of series by the method of induction Proof by induction extended to other areas of mathematics

Chapter 4: De Moivre’s theorem and its applications 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 De Moivre’s theorem Using de Moivre’s theorem to evaluate powers of complex numbers Application of de Moivre’s theorem in establishing trigonometric identities Exponential form of a complex number The cube roots of unity The nth roots of unity The roots of z n = α , where α is a non-real number

continued overleaf

2

**klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370)
**

Further Pure 2: Contents (continued)

Chapter 5: Inverse trigonometrical functions 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook

85 86 89 91 94 96 102 103 104 105 106 110 111 114 115 116 119 122 125 131 132 133 137 143

Introduction and revision The derivatives of standard inverse trigonometrical functions Application to more complex differentiation Standard integrals integrating to inverse trigonometrical functions Applications to more complex integrals

Chapter 6: Hyperbolic functions 6.1 Definitions of hyperbolic functions 6.2 Numerical values of hyperbolic functions 6.3 Graphs of hyperbolic functions 6.4 Hyperbolic identities 6.5 Osborne’s rule 6.6 Differentiation of hyperbolic functions 6.7 Integration of hyperbolic functions 6.8 Inverse hyperbolic functions 6.9 Logarithmic form of inverse hyperbolic functions 6.10 Derivatives of inverse hyperbolic functions 6.11 Integrals which integrate to inverse hyperbolic functions 6.12 Solving equations Chapter 7: Arc length and area of surface of revolution 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Arc length 7.3 Area of surface of revolution Answers to the exercises in Further Pure 2

3

know how to add.8 1.6 Introduction The general complex number The modulus and argument of a complex number The polar form of a complex number Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Addition.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Chapter 1: Complex Numbers 1. you will: • • • • • • know what is meant by a complex number. know how to solve equations using real and imaginary parts. 4 .3 1.10 Loci on Argand diagrams This chapter introduces the idea of a complex number.7 1.2 1. multiply and divide complex numbers. understand what an Argand diagram is.5 1. know how to sketch loci on Argand diagrams.4 1. know what is meant by the modulus and argument of a complex number.1 1. subtraction and multiplication of complex numbers of the form x + iy The conjugate of a complex number and the division of complex numbers of the form x + iy Products and quotients of complex numbers in their polar form Equating real and imaginary parts Further consideration of z2 − z1 and arg( z2 − z1 ) 1. subtract.9 1. When you have completed it.

" . This is because real numbers are actually numbers of the form x + 0i. both (+8) 2 and (−8) 2 are equal to 64. ! (with which you are familiar). The term x + iy is a complex number with x being the real part and iy the imaginary part. is really a subset of the set of complex numbers. −1 = i It follows that i 2 = −1 −64 = 64 × −1 = 64 × −1 = 8i. For example. 5 . if you use a calculator to evaluate −64 you get an error message. The set of real numbers. a symbol is used to denote it – the symbol used is i. where x and y are real numbers. As −1 cannot be evaluated. So.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 1. both 2 + 3i and −1 − 4i are complex numbers. This is because squaring every real number gives a positive value.2 The general complex number The most general number that can be written down has the form x + iy . 1.1 Introduction Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook You will have discovered by now that some problems cannot be solved in terms of real numbers.

3 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The modulus and argument of a complex number Just as real numbers can be represented by points on a number line. are negative. 6 . –π). The argument of a complex number z is given y by arg z = θ . The point P(x.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 1. arg z. y) r θ O x If the complex number x + iy is denoted by z. Thus z = OP = r. y) in the plane of coordinates with axes Ox and Oy represents the complex number x + iy and the number is uniquely represented by that point. and hence z = x + iy. where tan θ = x You must be careful when x or y. The modulus of a complex number z is given by z = x 2 + y 2 The argument of z. The diagram of points in Cartesian coordinates representing complex numbers is called an Argand diagram. is defined as the angle between the line OP and the positive x-axis – usually in the range (π. y P(x. or both. complex numbers can be represented by points in a plane. z (‘mod zed’) is defined as the distance from the origin O to the point P representing z.

O −1 x 3 Note that when tan θ = − 3. is shown on the diagram. Give your answers for arg z in radians to two decimal places. Find the modulus and argument of each of the following complex numbers: (a) −3 + i . (c) −1 − 7 i . Solution y P − 1. This is why you need to be careful when evaluating the argument of a complex number. 2. 7 . 2 ( 3) Exercise 1A 1. (d) − 3 − i . (b) 3i. the sketch clearly shows 3 3 that θ lies in the second quadrant.3. θ could equal + 2π or − π . arg z = 2π . (b) 3 + 4 i . θ −1 Therefore.1 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Find the modulus and argument of the complex number −1 + 3i. However. Find the modulus and argument of each of the following complex numbers: (a) 1 − i. z = (−1) 2 + ( ) 3 = 2 and tan θ = 3 = − 3. 3 The point P representing this number.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 1. Give your answers for arg z in radians to two decimal places. z. (c) −4.

it follows that z may be written in the form r cos θ + ir sin θ . where z = r and arg z = θ For brevity. 3 3 ( ) 8 . θ). Write the complex numbers given in Exercise 1A in polar coordinate form. Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook y P(x. r (cosθ + i sin θ ) can be written as (r.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 1. or modulus–argument. 4 4 ( ) (b) 4 cos − 2π + i sin − 2π . Find. This is called the polar.4 The polar form of a complex number In the diagram alongside. 2. If P is the point representing the complex number z = x + iy. the complex numbers given in polar coordinate form by: (a) z = 2 cos 3π + i sin 3π . in the form x + iy. y) r θ O x A complex number may be written in the form z = r (cosθ + i sin θ ). form of a complex number. x = r cos θ and y = r sin θ . Exercise 1B 1.

(b) z1 − z2 and (c) z1 z2 . (b) z1 = −2 + 6i and z2 = 1 + 2i.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 1. (since i 2 = −1) In general. subtraction and multiplication of complex numbers of the form x + iy Complex numbers can be subjected to arithmetic operations. z1 + z2 = (a1 + a2 ) + i(b1 + b2 ) z1 − z2 = (a1 − a2 ) + i(b1 − b2 ) z1 z2 = a1a2 − b1b2 + i(a2b1 + a1b2 ) Exercise 1C 1.5. 9 . Find z1 + z2 and z1 z2 when: (a) z1 = 1 + 2i and z2 = 2 − i.1 Given that z1 = 3 + 4i and z2 = 1 − 2i. (c) z1 z2 = (3 + 4i)(1 − 2i) (b) z1 − z2 = (3 + 4i) − (1 − 2i) = 2 + 6i. Consider the example below. = 3 + 4i − 6i − 8i 2 = 3 − 2i + 8 = 11 − 2i. if z1 = a1 + ib1 and z2 = a2 + ib2 . find (a) z1 + z2 . Example 1. Solution (a) z1 + z2 = (3 + 4i) + (1 − 2i) = 4 + 2i.5 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Addition.

(1 + 2i) 2 so that the product of the denominator becomes a real number z 1. z z* = z 2 Division of two complex numbers demands a little more care than their addition or multiplication – and usually requires the use of the complex conjugate. 2 Solution 3 + 4i = (3 + 4i)(1 + 2i) 1 − 2i (1 − 2i)(1 + 2i) = 3 + 4i + 6i + 8i2 1 − 2i + 2i − 4i = −5 + 10i 5 = −1 + 2i. i. Exercise 1D 2 z multiply the numerator and denominator of z1 by z2* . 10 .1 z Simplify z1 . the point representing the complex number z* is the reflection of the point representing z in the x-axis. On an Argand diagram.6.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 1.e. Thus. find z1 where 2 (a) z1 = 4 + 2i and z2 = 2 − i. the conjugate of −3 + 2i is −3 − 2i. For the sets of complex numbers z1 and z2 . (b) z1 = −2 + 6i and z2 = 1 + 2i.6 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The conjugate of a complex number and the division of complex numbers of the form x + iy The conjugate of a complex number z = x + iy (usually denoted by z* or z ) is the complex number z* = x − iy. The most important property of z* is that the product z z* is real since z z* = ( x + iy )( x − iy ) = x 2 + ixy − ixy − i 2 y 2 = x2 + y 2 . and that of 2 − i is 2 + i. Example 1. where z1 = 3 + 4i and z2 = 1 − 2i.

7. (a) Find z1 if z1 = 2 cos π + i sin π and z2 = 3 cos π − i sin π . and the argument of z1 z2 is the sum of the arguments of z1 and z2 .7 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Products and quotients of complex numbers in their polar form If two complex numbers are given in polar form they can be multiplied and divided without having to rewrite them in the form x + iy. it follows that the modulus of z1 z2 is the product of the modulus of 6 z1 and the modulus of z2 . 3 3 6 6 z2 z (b) What can you say about the modulus and argument of z1 ? 2 ( ) ( ) 11 . Example 1.1 Find z1 z 2 if z1 = 2 cos π + i sin π and z2 = 3 cos π − i sin π . 6 6 3 3 Solution ( ) ( ) z1 z2 = 2 cos π + i sin π × 3 cos π − i sin π 3 3 6 6 ( ) ( ) = 6 ( cos π cos π + i sin π cos π − i sin π cos π − i sin π sin π ) 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 6 = 6 ⎡cos π cos π + sin π sin π + i ( sin π cos π − cos π sin π ) ⎤ ⎢ 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 6 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 2 = 6 ⎡cos π − π + i sin π − π ⎤ ⎢ 3 6 3 6 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ = 6 cos π + i sin π . 6 6 ( ( ) ) ( ) Using the identities: cos( A − B ) ≡ cos A cos B + sin A sin B sin( A − B) ≡ sin A cos B − cos A sin B Noting that arg z2 is − π .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 1. Exercise 1E 1.

θ 2 ) then z1 = ⎜ r1 . θ1 ) and z2 = (r2 . θ1 + θ 2 if θ1 + θ 2 is outside the permitted range for θ There is a corresponding result for division – you could try to prove it for yourself. θ1 − θ 2 ⎟ – with the 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ same proviso regarding the size of the angle θ1 − θ 2 12 . θ 2 ) then z1 z2 = (r1r2 . Solution z1 z2 = r1 (cos θ1 + i sin θ1 ) r2 (cos θ 2 + i sin θ 2 ) = r1r2 ⎡ cos θ1 cosθ 2 + i( sin θ1 cos θ 2 + cosθ1 sin θ 2 ) + i 2 sin θ1 sin θ 2 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ = r1r2 [ (cosθ1 cosθ 2 − sin θ1 sin θ 2 ) + i( sin θ1 cos θ 2 + cos θ1 sin θ 2 ) ] = r1r2 [ cos(θ1 + θ 2 ) + i sin(θ1 + θ 2 ) ] . θ1 ) and z2 = ( r2 . z ⎛r ⎞ If z1 = (r1 .7. If z1 = (r1 . θ1 + θ 2 ) – with the proviso that 2π may have to be added to. or subtracted from.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 1. θ 2 ) . θ1 ) and z2 = (r2 .2 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook If z1 = ( r1 . show that z1 z2 = r1r2 [ cos(θ1 + θ 2 ) + i sin(θ1 + θ 2 ) ] .

Then. ( π ) and z = ( 2. Multiplying out. it is still a valid method. It also illustrates the concept of equating real and imaginary parts. then z* = (a − ib). Suppose we let a + ib = Thus b = 2 and a = −1. If z1 = 3.8 Equating real and imaginary parts Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook z Going back to Example 1. 13 (c) z + i = 2 z* − 1. 2a + 3b = 13. . z = 2 + 3i. giving −1 + 2i as the answer to a + ib as in Example 1. where a. So. (3 − 4i)(a + ib) − (1 + i)(a − ib) = 13 + 2i. 2 (c) z12 . Solution Let z = (a + ib). so the real parts can be equated and the imaginary parts can also be equated: a + 2b = 3 and b − 2a = 4. b. then a = c and b = d Example 1. Hence. in polar form. While this method is not as straightforward as the method used earlier. If a + ib = c + id .1 Find the complex number z satisfying the equation (3 − 4i) z − (1 + i) z* = 13 + 2i.6. 2π 3 (a) z1 z2 . Find the complex number satisfying each of these equations: z (b) z1 .1. (d) z13 . 2 3 + 4i . Thus. c and d are real. 3a − 4ia + 3ib − 4i 2b − a − ia + ib + i 2b = 13 + 2i.6.1. Exercise 1F 1. z1 can be simplified by another method. −5a + 4b = 2. a = 2 and b = 3. 2a + 3b + i(−5a + 4b) = 13 + 2i. 1 − 2i (1 − 2i)(a + ib) = 3 + 4i ⇒ a + 2b + i(b − 2a) = 3 + 4i. z12 2. a and b are real and the complex number on the left hand side of the equation is equal to the complex number on the right hand side. the complex numbers 2 z2 . Simplifying. (e) (a) (1 + i) z = 2 + 3i. − 6 ) . (b) ( z − i)(3 + i) = 7i + 11.8. find. Equating real and imaginary parts. Now.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 1.

**klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370)
**

1.9

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook

Further consideration of z2 − z1 and arg( z2 − z1)

Section 1.5 considered simple cases of the sums and differences of complex numbers. Consider now the complex number z = z2 − z1 , where z1 = x1 + iy1 and z2 = x2 + iy2 . The points A and B represent z1 and z2 , respectively, on an Argand diagram.

y

A ( x1 , y1 )

B ( x2 , y 2 )

C

O

x

**Then z = z2 − z1 = ( x2 − x1 ) + i( y2 − y1 ) and is represented by the point C ( x2 − x1 , y2 − y1 ). This makes OABC a parallelogram. From this it follows that
**

z2 − z1 = OC = ⎡ ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 ) 2 ⎤ , ⎣ ⎦

1 2

that is to say z2 − z1 is the length AB in the Argand diagram. Similarly arg( z2 − z1 ) is the angle between OC and the positive direction of the x-axis. This in turn is the angle between AB and the positive x direction. If the complex number z1 is represented by the point A, and the complex number z2 is represented by the point B in an Argand diagram, then

z2 − z1 = AB, and arg( z2 − z1 ) is the angle between AB and the positive

→

**direction of the x-axis
**

Exercise 1G

1. Find z2 − z1 and arg( z2 − z1 ) in (a) z1 = 2 + 3i, z2 = 7 + 5i, (b) z1 = 1 − 3i, z2 = 4 + i, (c) z1 = −1 + 2i, z2 = −4 − 5i.

14

**klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370)
**

1.10 Loci on Argand diagrams

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook

A locus is a path traced out by a point subjected to certain restrictions. Paths can be traced out by points representing variable complex numbers on an Argand diagram just as they can in other coordinate systems. Consider the simplest case first, when the point P represents the complex number z such that z = k . This means that the distance of P from the origin O is constant and so P will trace out a circle.

z = k represents a circle with centre O and radius k

If instead z − z1 = k , where z1 is a fixed complex number represented by the point A on an Argand diagram, then (from Section 1.9) z − z1 represents the distance AP and is constant. It follows that P must lie on a circle with centre A and radius k.

z − z1 = k represents a circle with centre z1 and radius k

Note that if z − z1 ≤ k , then the point P representing z can not only lie on the circumference of the circle, but also anywhere inside the circle. The locus of P is therefore the region on and within the circle with centre A and radius k. Now consider the locus of a point P represented by the complex number z subject to the conditions z − z1 = z − z2 , where z1 and z2 are fixed complex numbers represented by the points A and B on an Argand diagram. Again, using the result of Section 1.9, it follows that AP = BP because z − z1 is the distance AP and z − z2 is the distance BP. Hence, the locus of P is a straight line.

z − z1 = z − z2 represents a straight line – the perpendicular

bisector of the line joining the points z1 and z2 Note also that if z − z1 ≤ z − z2 the locus of z is not only the perpendicular bisector of AB, but also the whole half plane, in which A lies, bounded by this bisector. y All the loci considered so far have been related to distances – there are also simple loci in Argand diagrams involving angles. O α The simplest case is the locus of P subject to the condition that arg z = α , where α is a fixed angle.

P

x

15

klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370)

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook

This condition implies that the angle between OP and Ox is fixed (α ) so that the locus of P is a straight line. arg z = α represents the half line through O inclined at an angle α to the positive direction of Ox Note that the locus of P is only a half line – the other half line, shown dotted in the diagram above, would have the equation arg z = π + α , possibly ±2π if π + α falls outside the specified range for arg z. In exactly the same way as before, the locus of a point P satisfying arg( z − z1 ) = α , where z1 is a fixed complex number represented by the point A, is a line through A. arg( z − z1 ) = α represents the half line through the point z1 inclined at an angle α to the positive direction of Ox

y P A O α

x

Note again that this locus is only a half line – the other half line would have the equation arg( z − z1 ) = π + α , possibly ±2π. Finally, consider the locus of any point P satisfying α ≤ arg( z − z1 ) ≤ β . This indicates that the angle between AP and the positive x-axis lies between α and β , so that P can lie on or within the two half lines as shown shaded in the diagram below.

y

A O

β

α

x

16

Sketch on Argand diagrams the regions where: (a) z − 3i ≤ 3. 4 2. (c) z − 2 − i = 5. 4 4. Sketch on an Argand diagram the region satisfying both z − 1 − i ≤ 3 and 0 ≤ arg z ≤ π . Sketch on an Argand diagram the locus of points satisfying both z − i = z + 1 + 2i and z + 3i ≤ 4. Sketch on Argand diagrams the locus of points satisfying: (a) z = 3. (b) π ≤ arg( z − 4 − 2i) ≤ 5π . 6 2 3. (b) arg( z − 1) = π .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 1H Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 1. 17 .

find the complex number z which satisfies the equation z + 2 z* = 1 + i . giving your answers in the form a + ib. [NEAB March 1998] 3. z * . Find the complex number which satisfies the equation 2 z + iz* = 4 − i. Find the two possible values of z. [NEAB June 1998] 18 . (a) Find z in the form a + ib. (b) Mark the point P on C at which z is a minimum. The complex number z satisfies the equation zz* − 3z − 2 z* = 2i. Find this maximum value. By putting z = x + iy. (c) Mark the point Q on C at which arg z is a maximum. where z [AQA Specimen] 5. where z* denotes the complex conjugate of z. where a and b are real. (c) Find the values of z and z − z* . [AQA March 2000] 4.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Miscellaneous exercises 1 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 1. The complex number z satisfies the equation 3 ( z − 1) = i ( z + 1) . (a) Sketch on an Argand diagram the circle C whose equation is z − 3 − i = 1. where z* denotes the complex conjugate of z. [AQA June 2001] 2. (b) Mark and label on an Argand diagram the points representing z and its conjugate. Find this minimum value. 2+i * denotes the complex conjugate of z.

(a) Sketch on a common Argand diagram (i) the locus of points for which z − 2 − 3i = 3. The complex number z is defined by z = 1 + 3i . (b) The complex number z1 has modulus 2 2 and argument − 7π . 4 [AQA June 2001] Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 7. the region for which z − 2 − 3i < 3 and arg z < 1 π. 6 (ii) Mark on an Argand diagram the points P and P2 which represent z1 and z2 . 1 [AQA June 2000] 19 . 1 − 2i (a) (i) Express z in the form a + ib. by shading. (i) Show that z2 = 4 and arg z2 = π . (iii) Find. The complex number 12 z2 is defined by z2 = z z1. the distance between P and P2 . in surd form. (ii) the locus of points for which arg z = 1 π. 1 respectively.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 6. 4 (b) Indicate. giving your answer for the argument in the form pπ where −1 < p ≤ 1. (ii) Find the modulus and argument of z.

(b) (i) Write down the modulus and argument of each of the complex numbers 4 + 2i and 3 − i. where a and b are real. show that the triangle OPQ is right-angled. (a) Indicate on an Argand diagram the region of the complex plane in which 0 ≤ arg ( z + 1) ≤ 2π . (i) Calculate the value of z A . (a) The complex numbers z and w are such that z = ( 4 + 2i )( 3 − i ) and w = 4 + 2i . Give each modulus in an exact surd form and each argument in radians between − π and π. 3 (b) The complex number z is such that 0 ≤ arg ( z + 1) ≤ 2π 3 π ≤ arg z + 3 ≤ π. respectively. 3−i Express each of z and w in the form a + ib. (ii) Express z A in the form a + ib. 4 + 2i and 3 − i. (ii) The points O. and ( ) 6 (i) Sketch another Argand diagram showing the region R in which z must lie. (c) At the point A defined in part (b)(ii).klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 8. (ii) Mark on this diagram the point A belonging to R at which z has its least possible value. [AEB June 1997] 20 . Find the exact length of PQ and hence. z = z A . [AQA March 1999] 9. P and Q in the complex plane represent the complex numbers 0 + 0i. or otherwise.

know how to extend these results to polynomials of higher degree.1 2. be able to form cubic equations with related roots. know that there is a relationship between the number of real roots and form of a polynomial equation. 21 .2 2. know the relationship between the roots of a cubic equation and its coefficients. and be able to sketch graphs. When you have completed it.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 2.8 Introduction Quadratic equations Cubic equations Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Chapter 2: Roots of Polynomial Equations Relationship between the roots of a cubic equation and its coefficients Cubic equations with related roots An important result Polynomial equations of degree n Complex roots of polynomial equations with real coefficients This chapter revises work already covered on roots of equations and extends those ideas.6 2.7 2. know that complex conjugates are roots of polynomials with real coefficients.4 2.5 2. you will: • • • • • • know how to solve any quadratic equation.3 2.

2. even if this section is familiar to you it provides a suitable base from which to move on to equations of higher degree. by the quadratic formula. However.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 2. 0) x (0. In this chapter you are going to study the properties of the roots of these equations and investigate methods of solving them. which are x = 2 and − 4. You will know. one with x 4 as the highest power of x is called a quartic equation. –8) The roots of this quadratic equation are those of ( x − 2)( x + 4) = 0. Similarly. a polynomial equation of degree 3 has x 3 as the highest power of x and is called a cubic equation. 0) (2. a sketch of part of y = x 2 + 2 x − 8 is shown below. 22 . one with x 2 as the highest power of x. For example. that quadratic equations of the type you have met have two roots (which may be coincident). A polynomial equation of degree 2. y (–4.2 Quadratic equations You should be familiar with quadratic equations and their properties from your earlier studies of pure mathematics. There are normally two ways of solving a quadratic equation – by factorizing and.e. the roots of the equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 are the points of intersection of the curve y = ax 2 + bx + c and the line y = 0 (i. for example. the x-axis).1 Introduction Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook You should have already met the idea of a polynomial equation. in cases where this is impossible. Graphically. is called a quadratic equation.

(0. using ideas from 2 4 ± 2i or 2 ± i. The quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 . It follows that the equation x 2 − 4 x + 5 = 0 does have Chapter1. 0) x In this case.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) y Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook A sketch of part of the curve y = x 2 − 4 x + 4 is shown below. the curve touches the x-axis. y (0. 4) O (2. 2 ⎛ ⎞ Certainly. has complex roots if b 2 − 4ac < 0 23 . 1) O x This curve does not touch the x-axis so the equation x 2 − 4 x + 5 = 0 cannot have real roots. this becomes 2 two roots. You may also have observed that whether a quadratic equation has real or complex roots depends on the value of the discriminant b 2 − 4ac. where a. This leads to x = 4 ± 16 − 20 and. The equation x 2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 may be written as ( x − 2) 2 = 0 and x = 2. 5) (2. In fact the two roots are complex conjugates. b and c are real. Not all quadratic equations are as straightforward as the ones considered so far. a repeated root. A sketch of part of the curve y = x 2 − 4 x + 5 is shown below. but they are both complex numbers. x 2 − 4 x + 5 will not factorize so the quadratic formula ⎜ x = −b ± b − 4ac ⎟ has to 2a ⎝ ⎠ be used to solve this equation.

3 Cubic equations As mentioned in the introduction to this chapter. Solve the equations (a) x 2 + 6 x + 10 = 0. Also. Hence the curve must cross the line y = 0 at least once. 24 . If a < 0. as x → ∞. (b) x 2 + 10 x + 26 = 0. 2. the term ax3 becomes the dominant part of the expression and ax3 → ∞ (if a > 0) .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 2A Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 1. whilst ax3 → −∞ when x → −∞. All cubic equations have at least one real root – and this real root is not always easy to locate. equations of the form ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d = 0 are called cubic equations. The reason for this is that cubic curves are continuous – they do not have asymptotes or any other form of discontinuity. and ax3 → ∞ as x → −∞ and this does not affect the result. then ax3 → −∞ as x → ∞.

Example 2. Therefore x − 1 is a factor of f(x). the cubic equation will have two complex roots as well as the single real root.3.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) y Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook A typical cubic equation. –3 and –1. (b) Sketch a graph of y = x3 + 3x 2 − x − 3. ∴ f ( x) = ( x − 1)( x 2 + 4 x + 3) = ( x − 1)( x + 3)( x + 1). can look like any of the sketches below. Solution (a) y 4 If f ( x) = x3 + 3x 2 − x − 3. The equation of this curve has three real roots because the curve crosses the line y = 0 at three points. the curve crosses the line y = 0 just once. (b) 2 -5 0 0 5 x -2 25 . O x y y O x O x In each of the two sketch graphs above.1 (a) Find the roots of the cubic equation x3 + 3x 2 − x − 3 = 0. then f (1) = 1 + 3 − 1 − 3 = 0. y = ax3 + bx 2 + cx + d with a > 0. Hence the roots of f(x) = 0 are 1. In both cases. indicating just one real root.

Therefore x − 2 is a factor of f(x). Solution Let f ( x) = x3 + 4 x 2 + x − 26. Exercise 2B 1. so using the quadratic formula on x 2 + 6 x + 13 = 0. (c) x3 + 2 x 2 − 3x − 10 = 0. and f ( x) = ( x − 2)( x 2 + 6 x + 13). Solve the equations (a) x3 − x 2 − 5 x − 3 = 0. Then f (2) = 8 + 16 + 2 − 26 = 0.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 2. 26 . (b) x3 − 3x 2 + 4 x − 2 = 0.3. The quadratic in this expression has no simple roots.2 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Find the roots of the cubic equation x3 + 4 x 2 + x − 26 = 0. 2 x = −b ± b − 4ac 2a = −6 ± 36 − 52 2 = −6 ± 4i 2 = −3 ± 2i. Hence the roots of f ( x) = 0 are 2 and −3 ± 2i.

Find ∑ α . ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d ≡ a ( x − α )( x − β )( x − γ ) ≡ ax 3 − a(α + β + γ ) x 2 + a (αβ + βγ + γα ) x − a αβγ . The roots of a cubic equation are α . Thus. it follows that if the general cubic equation ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d = 0 has roots α . which may be real or complex. 2. Exercise 2C 1. then b ∑α = − a . β and γ . ∑ αβ and αβγ for the following cubic equations: (a) x3 − 7 x 2 + 12 x + 5 = 0. 27 . it may be written as a( x − α )( x − β )( x − γ ) = 0. ∑ αβ = 7 and αβγ = −5.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 2. c ∑ αβ = a . αβγ = − d a Note that ∑ α means the sum of all the roots.4 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Relationship between the roots of a cubic equation and its coefficients As a cubic equation has three roots. β and γ . and that ∑ αβ means the sum of all the possible products of roots taken two at a time. If ∑ α = 3. (b) 3x 3 + 4 x 2 − 7 x + 2 = 0. If the cubic equation ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d = 0 has roots α . Note that the factor a is required to ensure that the coefficients of x 3 are the same. and also the number terms. The two sides are identical so the coefficients of x 2 and x can be compared. b = −a(α + β + γ ) c = a(αβ + βγ + γα ) d = −a αβγ . on expanding the right hand side of the identity. β and γ . so making the equations identical. state 2 the cubic equation.

(b) roots α − 2. Example 2. (c) roots 1 . 28 . (α − 2)( β − 2)(γ − 2) = αβγ − 2∑ αβ + 4∑ α − 8 = −4 − 0 + 12 − 8 = 0. Hence the equation of the cubic must be x3 + 3x 2 = 0. (b) ∑ (α − 2) = ( ∑ α ) − 6 = 3 − 6 = −3 ∑ (α − 2)( β − 2) = ∑ αβ − 2∑ α − 2∑ β + (4 × 3) = ∑ αβ − 4∑ α + 12 = 0 − 12 + 12 = 0.5 Cubic equations with related roots Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The example below shows how you can find equations whose roots are related to the roots of a given equation without having to find the actual roots.1 The cubic equation x3 − 3 x 2 + 4 = 0 has roots α . Find the cubic equations with: (a) roots 2α .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 2. From which the equation of the cubic must be x3 − 6 x 2 + 0 x + 32 = 0 or x 3 − 6 x 2 + 32 = 0. α β γ Solution: method 1 From the given equation. β − 2 and γ − 2. Two methods are given.5. 2 β and 2γ . 1 and 1 . β and γ . (a) Hence ∑ 2α = 2∑ α = 6 ∑ 2α ⋅ 2 β = 4∑ αβ = 0 2α ⋅ 2 β ⋅ 2γ = 8αβγ = −32. ∑α = 3 ∑ αβ = 0 αβγ = −4.

4 −4 1 ⋅ 1 ⋅1 = 1 = −1.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) (c) 1 1 1 1 ∑α = α + β + γ ∑αβ = Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook αβγ = 0 = 0. α β γ −4 4 So that the cubic equation with roots 1 . 1 and 1 is α β γ or x3 − 0 x 2 − 3 x + 1 = 0 4 4 3 4 x − 3 x + 1 = 0. −4 1⋅1 = 1 + 1 + 1 ∑ α β αβ βγ γα = αβγ ∑α = 3 = − 3. 29 .

5. Repeat Question 1 above using the second method described above. 2 β and 2γ .1 is shown below. but when you can it is much quicker than the first. (c) 2 . ( ) ( ) Exercise 2D 1. Now. if X = 2 x.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Solution: method 2 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The second method of finding the cubic equations in Example 2. this gives 1− 3X + 4 X 3 = 0 or 4 X 3 − 3X +1 = 0 as before. X = x − 2 gives x = X + 2 and substituting into x 3 − 3x 2 + 4 = 0 gives ( X + 2)3 − 3( X + 2) 2 + 4 = 0 which reduces to X 3 + 3 X 2 = 0. 2 and 2 . It is not always possible to use this second method. β + 1 and γ + 1. (a) As the roots are to be 2α . As the equation in x is x3 − 3x 2 + 4 = 0. The cubic equation x3 − x 2 − 4 x − 7 = 0 has roots α . (b) α + 1. β and γ . it follows that. (c) In this case you use the substitution X = 1 or x = 1 . Repeat Questions 1 and 2 above for the cubic equation 2 x3 − 3 x 2 + 6 = 0. find the cubic equations whose roots are (a) 3α . if you put X = x − 2 in x3 − 3 x 2 + 4 = 0. if you substitute x = X the equation in X becomes 2 3 2 X − 3 X + 4 = 0. then a cubic equation in X must have roots which are twice the roots of the cubic equation in x. X X 3 On multiplying by X . 3β and 3γ . 3. α β γ 2. 2 2 3 or X − 6 X 2 + 32 = 0 as before. ( ) ( ) (b) In this case. Using the first method described above. then any root of an equation in X must be 2 less than the corresponding root of the cubic in x. 30 . For x 3 − 3x 2 + 4 = 0 this gives x X 3 2 1 − 3 1 + 4 = 0.

or 2 ∑ α 2 = ( ∑ α ) − 2∑ αβ for three numbers α .6. and γ with γα . 2 ∑ α 2 β 2 = ( ∑ αβ ) − 2∑ αβ . β 2 and γ 2 . Example 2. (b) roots α 2 . 2 β with βγ . β and γ . αβ ⋅ βγ ⋅ γα = α 2 β 2γ 2 = (−1) 2 = +1.1 The cubic equation x3 − 5 x 2 + 6 x + 1 = 0 has roots α .] Solution (a) ∑α = 5 ∑ αβ = 6 αβγ = −1 ∑ αβ ⋅ βγ = ∑ αβ 2γ = αβγ ∑ β = αβγ ∑ α = −1× 5 = −5. α 2 β 2γ 2 = (−1)2 = 1. ( ∑α ) 2 = ∑ α 2 + 2∑ αβ .6 An important result If you square α + β + γ you get (α + β + γ ) 2 = (α + β + γ )(α + β + γ ) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook = α 2 + αβ + αγ + βα + β 2 + βγ + γα + γβ + γ 2 = α 2 + β 2 + γ 2 + 2αβ + 2 βγ + 2γα . (b) ∑ α 2 = ( ∑ α ) − 2∑ αβ = 52 − ( 2 × 6 ) = 13. 31 . Hence the cubic equation is x3 − 13x 2 + 46 x − 1 = 0. Find the cubic equations with (a) roots βγ . Thus ∑ α 2 β 2 = ( ∑ αβ ) − 2∑ αβ 2γ 2 2 = ( ∑ αβ ) − 2αβγ ∑ α = 36 − (2 × −1× 5) = 46. γα and αβ . [Note that the direct approach illustrated below is the most straightforward way of solving this type of problem.βγ using the same result but replacing α with αβ .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 2. Hence the cubic equation is x3 − 6 x 2 − 5 x − 1 = 0. So. β and γ This result is well worth remembering – it is frequently needed in questions involving the symmetric properties of roots of a cubic equation.

(b) ∑ αβ . Suppose the equation ax n + bx n −1 + cx n −2 + dx n −3 … + k = 0 has n roots α . a Remember that ∑ αβ is the sum of the products of all possible pairs of roots. c ∑ αβ = a . one of degree 3 has three roots – so an equation of degree n has n roots. Write down (a) ∑ α .6 can be extended to any number of letters. γ and δ . (c) Hence find ∑ α . you are unlikely to meet equations of degree higher than 4 so this section concludes with an example using a quartic equation. An equation of degree 2 has two roots. (−1) n k until. the product of the n roots αβγ … = . This shows that the ‘important result’ in Section 2. (b) ∑ αβ = αβ + βγ + γδ + δα + αγ + βδ = −6 = −3. Example 2. In practice. 32 . 2 Solution −4 ∑ α = α + β + γ + δ = 2 = −2. β . Hence ∑ α 2 = ( ∑ α ) − 2∑ αβ 2 = (−2) 2 − 2(−3) = 10.… then b ∑α = − a .7. 2 2 2 (c) Now ( ∑ α ) = (α + β + γ + δ ) (a) = α 2 + β 2 + γ 2 + δ 2 + 2(αβ + βγ + γδ + δα + αγ + βδ ) = ∑ α 2 + 2∑ αβ . ∑ αβγ is the sum of the products of all possible combinations of roots taken three at a time. β . γ . and so on. finally.7 Polynomial equations of degree n Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The ideas covered so far on quadratic and cubic equations can be extended to equations of any degree.1 The quartic equation 2 x 4 + 4 x3 − 6 x 2 + x − 1 = 0 has roots α . d ∑ αβγ = − a .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 2.

p − iq. if p and q are real. = u − iv since −i raised to an even power is real and is the same as +i raised to an even power. 33 . Using the ideas from Chapter 1. Thus. . making the real part of f ( p − iq ) the same as the real part of f ( p + iq). u − iv = 0 making f ( p − iq ) = 0 and p − iq a root of f ( x) = 0. it follows that u + iv = 0 and so u = 0 and v = 0. is a root of the polynomial. If a polynomial equation has real coefficients and if p + iq. this result does not apply. where p and q are real. n f ( p − iq ) = a ( p − iq ) + b( p − iq )n −1 + … + k Now. 2.8 Complex roots of polynomial equations with real coefficients Consider the polynomial equation f ( x) = ax n + bx n −1 + cx n − 2 … + k . and odd powers of i comprise the imaginary part of f ( p − iq ). the imaginary part of f ( p − iq ) is −1 times the imaginary part of f ( p + iq ). But −i raised to an odd power is the same as +i raised to an odd power multiplied by −1 . The quartic equation 2 x 4 − 3x 2 + 5 x − 8 = 0 has roots α . where u and v are real. β γ (a) Find the equation with roots α . Hence. β . γ and δ . 2 2 2 2 2 (b) Find ∑ α .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 2E Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 1. Now if p + iq is a root of f ( x) = 0. f ( p + iq) = a( p + iq) n + b( p + iq ) n −1 + … + k = u + iv . and δ . then its complex conjugate. If f ( x) = 0 has complex coefficients. is also a root of the equation It is very important to note that the coefficients in f ( x) = 0 must be real.

8. (2 − i) + (2 + i) + γ = − −3 = 3. To find k. 15 = 3b b = 5. Solution As the coefficients of the quartic are real. − k = αβγ = (2 − i )(2 + i )(−1) = −5. Hence the quartic equation may be written as ( x 2 − 2 x + 5)( x 2 + 4 x + 3) = 0 ( x 2 − 2 x + 5)( x + 3)( x + 1) = 0. 34 . Solution As the coefficients of the cubic equation are real. Considering the number terms. Example 2. 2= a−2 a = 4. Hence [ x − (1 + 2i) ][ x − (1 − 2i) ] is a quadratic factor of the quartic. [ x − (1 + 2i)][ x − (1 − 2i)] = x 2 − x(1 + 2i) − x(1 − 2i) + (1 + 2i)(1 − 2i) = x 2 − 2 x + 5. Considering the sum of the roots of the equation.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 2. if γ is the third root. − 3 and − 1.8.2 The quartic equation x 4 + 2 x3 + 14 x + 15 = 0 has one root equal to 1 + 2i. k = 5. and the four roots are 1 + 2i. Find the other two roots and the value of k. Find the other three roots. Therefore x 4 + 2 x 3 + 14 x + 15 = ( x 2 − 2 x + 5)( x 2 + ax + b). where k is real. Now. it follows that 2 + i is also a root. it follows that 1 − 2i is also a root. Comparing the coefficients of x3.1 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The cubic equation x3 − 3 x 2 + x + k = 0. has one root equal to 2 − i. 1 − 2i. Hence x 2 − 2 x + 5 is a factor of x 4 + 2 x 3 + 14 x + 15. 1 γ = −1.

35 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 2F Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 1. Find the other two roots. Find the other three roots. A cubic equation has real coefficients. The cubic equation x3 − 2 x 2 + 9 x − 18 = 0 has one root equal to 3i. The quartic equation 4 x 4 − 8 x3 + 9 x 2 − 2 x + 2 = 0 has one root equal to 1 − i. 2. 3. Find the cubic equation in the form x 3 + ax 2 + bx + c = 0. One root is 2 and another is 1 + i.

where p.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Miscellaneous exercises 2 1. and (a) Show that α + β + γ = 0. βγ and γα . 2 x3 + 3x + 4 = 0 (a) Write down the values of α + β + γ . The roots of the cubic equation are α . [NEAB June 1998] 2. has roots α − β . β and γ . The equation x 3 − 3x 2 + px + 4 = 0. [AQA June 200] 3. (a) Find the values of α and β . 7 x 3 − 8 x 2 + 23x + 30 = 0 (a) Write down the value of α + β + γ . (i) Given that α = 3 + 4i and that γ is real. obtain β and γ . where β > 0. (iii) Write down. αβ + βγ + γα and αβγ . β and γ satisfy the equations α 2 + β 2 + γ 2 = 22 αβ + βγ + γα = −11. (b) The numbers α . q and r. α and α + β . (ii) Calculate the product of the three roots. find the other two roots. (b) Given that 1 + 2i is a root of the equation. with integer coefficients. β and γ are also the roots of the equation x3 + px 2 + qx + r − 0. [AQA Specimen] 36 . q and r are real. having roots αβ . the values of p. β and γ . The numbers α . The roots of the equation are α . [AQA March 2000] 4. Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook where p is a constant. (b) Find the cubic equation. or determine. (b) Find the value of p.

The roots of the cubic equation x 3 + px 2 + qx + r = 0. β and γ . (i) Find the real root. are α . (a) Given that α + β + γ = 3. (ii) Find the value of r. When g ( x ) is divided by x − i. (i) find the value of q.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 5. where i = −1. (c) One of the two non-real roots of the cubic equation is 3 − 4i. write down the value of p. (b) Given also that α 2 + β 2 + γ 2 = −5. (b) The polynomial g ( x ) is defined by g ( x ) = 16 x 5 + px 3 + qx 2 − 12 x − 1. q and r are real. (ii) explain why the equation must have two non-real roots and one real root. (a) Prove that when a polynomial f ( x ) is divided by x − a. (i) Find the values of p and q. the remainder is f ( a ) . where p and q are real constants. Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook where p. [AQA March 1999] 6. the remainder is 3. the remainder is −6i. (ii) Show that when g ( x ) is divided by 2 x − i. [AQA June 1999] 37 .

When you have completed it.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 3.1 3.2 3. to other kinds of series. be able to apply the method of induction in circumstances other than in the summation of series. understand an important method known as the method of induction. 38 . know which method is appropriate for the summation of a particular series. with which you are familiar from earlier studies.3 3. you will: • • • • know new methods of summing series.4 Introduction Summation of series by the method of differences Summation of series by the method of induction Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Chapter 3: Summation of Finite Series Proof by induction extended to other areas of mathematics This chapter extends the idea of summation of simple series.

2 + 6 + 18 + 54 + 162 + 486 is a series of 6 terms. Thus. For instance. The two series above are examples of finite series. the sum of an arithmetic progression is a series. That is. 39 . with common ratio 3. 2 + 5 + 8 + 11 + 14 is a series of 5 terms. you multiply by a fixed number (called the common ratio). with common difference 3.1 Introduction Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook You should already be familiar with the idea of a series – a series is the sum of the terms of a sequence.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 3. in geometric progression. A finite series is a series with a finite number of terms. the sum of a number of terms where the terms follow a definite pattern. The sum of a geometric progression is also a series. Instead of adding a fixed number to find the next consecutive number in the series. In this case each term is bigger than the preceeding term by a constant number – this constant number is usually called the common difference. Thus. in arithmetic progression.

On the right 40 . nearly all the terms cancel out: f ( 2 ) . adding these terms gives u1 + u2 + u3 + … + un −1 + un = f (1) − f ( 2 ) +f ( 2 ) − f ( 3) +f ( 3) − f ( 4 ) +f ( 4 ) … + f ( n − 1) − f ( n ) +f ( n ) − f ( n + 1) .2 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Summation of series by the method of differences 1 + 1 + 1 +… + 1 . which will be a function of r (just as r ( r + 1) expressed as f ( r ) − f ( r + 1) . then r =1 r=2 r =3 u1 = f (1) − f (1) u2 = f ( 2 ) − f ( 3 ) u3 = f ( 3) − f ( 4 ) $ r = n −1 r=n $ un −1 = f ( n − 1) − f ( n ) un = f ( n ) − f ( n + 1) Now. If this idea is extended to the whole series. as the difference of two expressions in r of the same form. Suppose you want to find the sum. n hand side.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 3. f (1) − f ( n + 1) as the sum of the series. for example sum the series In others you have to show that the sum of a series is a specific number or a given expression. … . 1× 2 2 × 3 3 × 4 n ( n + 1) Some problems require you to find the sum of a given series. f ( 4 ) . The aim in the method of differences is to express 1 is the r th term of the first series the r th term. An example of this kind of problem is 1 = 1− 1 . If you can express ur in this way. or possibly f ( r + 1) − f ( r ) . it can be seen that setting r = 1 and then r = 2 gives u1 + u2 = f (1) − f ( 2 ) + f ( 2 ) − f ( 3) above). f ( n ) all cancel leaving just r =1 ∑ ur . where f ( r ) is some function of r. r =1 ∑ ur . In other words. The left hand side of this expression is the required sum of the series. show that 1 + 1 + 1 + … + 1× 2 2 × 3 3 × 4 n +1 n ( n + 1) The method of differences is usually used when the sum of the series is not given. ur is = f (1) − f ( 3) . of a series u1 + u2 + u3 + … + un n where the terms follow a certain pattern. f ( 3) .

Hence B = −1 and 1 ur = =1− 1 . etc. r ( r + 1) r r + 1 Hence. terms 2 3 cancel. such as an arithmetic or geometric series. the r th term. Comparing the constant terms. and so r r +1 on. namely the first left hand side term and the last r n +1 right hand side term.1 Find the sum of the series 1 + 1 + 1 +… + 1 . 1 . with f ( r + 1) = 1 . 1× 2 2 × 3 3 × 4 n ( n + 1) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Solution Clearly. Hence. The only As above. Now. ur . r ( r + 1) r r + 1 Then. A = 1. writing down the series term by term. Nor is the answer given. is given by r r ( r + 1) 1 in partial fractions. Comparing the coefficients of r. the right hand side becomes 1 − 1 . = n +1 = 41 . in this case the f ( r ) mentioned previously would be 1 .2. Suppose sensible way to do this is to express r ( r + 1) 1 = A+ B . A + B = 0. r =1 r=2 r =3 $ r = n −1 r=n 1 =1− 1 =1− 1 1× 2 1 1 + 1 1 2 1 =1− 1 = 1−1 2× 3 2 2 +1 2 3 1 =1− 1 =1−1 3× 4 3 3 +1 3 4 $ $ $ 1 1 = 1 − = 1 −1 (n − 1)n n − 1 (n − 1) + 1 n − 1 n 1 =1− 1 n(n + 1) n n +1 Adding the columns. n 1 Because the 1 . 1 = A(r + 1) + Br. We need to try to split up u . 1 . n 1 1 ∑ r (r + 1) = 1 − n + 1 r =1 (n + 1) − 1 n +1 n .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 3. the left hand side becomes r =1 ∑ r (r + 1) . this is not a familiar standard series. So it seems that the method of differences can be applied.

n Solution The left hand side of the identity has a common factor. it can be seen that the left hand side is ( 4 × 13 + 4 × 23 + 4 × 33 + % + 4n3 = 4 ∑ n3 . then 2 f (r + 1) = ( r + 1 − 1) ( r + 1) 2 2 = r 2 ( r + 1) . Listing the terms in columns. 2 Hence. Hence find 2 2 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook r =1 ∑ r 3. r =1 2 ) ( n ) ( ) ) n Summing the right hand side. 2 2 2 2 r 2 ( r + 1) − ( r − 1) r 2 ≡ r 2 ⎡( r + 1) − ( r − 1) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 2⎡ 2 2 = r r + 2 r + 1 − r − 2r + 1 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ = r 2 ⎡ r 2 + 2r + 1 − r 2 + 2r − 1⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) ( ) = r 2 ( 4r ) = 4r 3 . r =1 r=2 r =3 $ r = ( n − 1) r=n 4 ×13 4 × 23 4 × 33 $ 3 ( ) ( ) = ( 2 × 3 ) − (1 × 2 ) = (3 × 4 ) − ( 2 × 3 ) = 12 × 22 − 02 ×12 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 $ 2 2 2 4 × ( n − 1) = ( n − 1) n 2 − ( n − 2 ) ( n − 1) 4 × n3 = n 2 ( n + 1) − ( n − 1) n 2 . 42 . so the sum is n 2 ( n + 1) − 02 × 12 .2 Show that r 2 ( r + 1) − ( r − 1) r 2 ≡ 4r 3 . if f (r ) = ( r − 1) r 2 . all the terms cancel out except those shaded in the scheme above. as required.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 3.2. r 2 .2. r =1 ∑ r 3 = 4 n2 ( n + 1) n 1 2 . 2 2 Adding the columns. 2 so that 4r 3 is of the form f ( r + 1) − f (r ). 4 ∑ r 3 = n 2 ( n + 1) − 02 ×12 2 r =1 ( ( ) = n 2 ( n + 1) . Hence. as in Example 3. Now.1.

2. ( 2r − 1)( 2r + 3) Multiplying both sides by ( 2r − 1)( 2r + 3) .2.2. 4 2n − 1 4 2n + 3 1 1 −1 =1 4 2n − 5 4 2n − 1 .1 and 3.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook In both Examples 3. Let 1 = A + B . Some series may be such that a term in one line cancels with a term on a line two rows below it. Thus.2.1. Example 3. so A = − B. 3. the way forward is to express ( 2n − 1)( 2n + 3) 1 in partial fractions. one term on each line cancelled out with a term on the next line when the addition was done.2. 2. Comparing the constant terms. Hence A = 1 and B = − 1 . 2r − 1 2r + 3 1 ≡ A ( 2r + 3) + B ( 2r − 1) .% 1 1 −1 1 . 4 4 ( 2r − 1)( 2r + 3) Now substitute r = 1. 1 = 3 A − B. =1 4 2r − 1 4 2r + 3 ( ) ( ) 1 =1 1 −1 1 1× 5 4 1 4 5 1 =1 1 −1 1 r=2 3× 7 4 3 4 7 [note that nothing will cancel at this stage] r =1 r =3 () () () () () () () ( ) [note that 1 1 will cancel on the first row and the third row] 4 5 1 =1 1 −1 1 r=4 7 × 11 4 7 4 11 $ $ $ r = ( n − 2) r = ( n − 1) r=n () 1 5×9 =1 1 −1 1 4 5 4 9 ( 2n − 5)( 2n − 1) ( 2n − 3)( 2n + 1) ( 2n − 1)( 2n + 3) 43 1 1 1 ( ) ( ) = 1( 1 )− 1( 1 ) 4 2n − 3 4 2n + 1 = 1 ( 1 ) − 1 ( 1 ). 2 A + 2 B = 0. 1× 5 3 × 7 5 × 9 ( 2n − 1)( 2n + 3) Solution As in Example 3. Comparing the coefficients of r.3 1 Sum the series 1 + 1 + 1 + … + .

r (r + 1)(r + 2) (r + 1)(r + 2)(r + 3) r (r + 1)(r + 2)(r + 3) (b) Hence sum the series ∑ r(r + 1)(r + 2)(r + 3) . = 1 −⎜ 3 ⎝ ( 2n + 1)( 2n + 3) ⎟ ⎠ Exercise 3A 1. Likewise. Therefore. 3 3 (b) Deduce r =1 ∑ r 2. (b) Use your result to obtain r =1 ∑ r. addition gives () () 1 + 1 + 1 +… + 1 1 −1 1 =1 1 +1 1 −1 1× 5 3 × 7 5 × 9 ( 2n − 1)( 2n + 3) 4 1 4 3 4 2n − 1 4 2n + 3 () () ( ) ( = 1 ⎡1 + 1 − ( 1 + 1 ) ⎤ 4 ⎢ 3 2n + 1 2 n + 3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ) ⎡ ⎛ ⎞⎤ = 1 ⎢ 4 − ⎜ 2n + 3 + 2n + 1 ⎟ ⎥ 4 ⎢ 3 ⎝ ( 2n + 1)( 2n + 3) ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ ⎛ ⎞⎤ 4 ( n + 1) = 1 ⎢4 −⎜ ⎟⎥ 4 ⎢ 3 ⎝ ( 2n + 1)( 2n + 3) ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ ⎞ n +1 . 1 1 and 1 1 . n 2. (a) Simplify r ( r + 1) − ( r − 1) r.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook There will be two terms left at the beginning of the series when the columns are added. r =1 n 1 3. there will be two terms left at the end of the series – the right 4 1 4 3 hand part of the r = n − 1 and r = n rows. (a) Show that ( r + 1) − ( r − 1) = 6r 2 + 2. (a) Show that 1 1 3 − = . n 44 .

the sum has exactly the same form as S(n) but with n replaced by k + 1. the next term in the series. then you are assuming that the sum of the first k terms is S(k). You may think that this rather begs the question but it must be understood that the result is assumed to be true for only one value of n. the examples worked in Section 3. say. To summarise: 1 Assume that the result of the summation is true for n = k and prove that it is true for n = k + 1 2 Prove that the result is true for n = 1 Statement 1 shows that.3 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Summation of a series by the method of induction The method of induction is a method of summing a series of. it can be said that the summation result is true for all positive integers n. it is demonstrated that the result is true for n = 1. Suppose you have to show that the sum of n terms of a series is S(n). by putting k = 1 (which is known to be true from Statement 2). and Statement 1 shows that by putting k = 2 the result must be true for n = 3. 1 + 1 + 1 +… + 1 1 1 . and so on. where k < n.2 are used again here. namely n = k . say k. the result must be true for n = 2. Finally.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 3. + = k + 1× 2 2 × 3 3 × 4 k ( k + 1) ( k + 1)( k + 2 ) k + 1 ( k + 1)( k + 2 ) Then k +1 1 k 1 ∑ r r +1 = k +1 + k +1 k + 2 ( ) ( )( ) r =1 = k ( k + 2) + 1 ( k + 1)( k + 2 ) 2 = k + 2k + 1 ( k + 1)( k + 2 ) 45 . By building up the result. ( r + 1) n + 1 Solution Assume that the result is true for n = k . If you assume that the summation is true for one particular integer. You then use this assumption to prove that the sum of the series to k + 1 terms is S ( k + 1) – that is to say that by adding one extra term. There is a formal way of writing out the method of induction which is shown in the examples below. and comparison. that is to say 1 + 1 + 1 +… + 1 = k . For convenience. Example 3.1 Show that r =1 ∑r n 1 = n .3. n terms when the sum is given in terms of n. 1× 2 2 × 3 3 × 4 k ( k + 1) k + 1 Adding the next term to both sides.

that is to say r =1 ∑ r 3 = 1 k 2 ( k + 1) .2 4 ∑ r 3 = 1 k 2 ( k + 1) 4 2 k Then. if the result is true for n = k . Therefore the result is true for all positive integers by induction. Solution Assume that the result is true for n = k . and the 1× 2 2 1 = 1 . But it is true for n = 1 because the left hand side is 1 = 1 . it is true for n = k + 1. But it is true for k = 1 because the left hand side is 13 = 1.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) = Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ( k + 1)( k + 1) ( k + 1)( k + 2 ) = k +1 k +2 = k +1 . it is true for n = k + 1.2 Show that r =1 ∑ r 3 = 4 n 2 ( n + 1) n 1 2 . Hence. ( k + 1) + 1 which is of the same form but with k + 1 replacing k. Therefore the result is true for all positive integers by induction. Hence. if the result is true for n = k . 4 46 . and the right hand side is 1 ×12 × 22 = 1.3. ⎣ ⎦ 4 which is of the same form but with k + 1 replacing k. adding the next term to both sides k +1 r =1 + ( k + 1) 3 2 = 1 ( k + 1) ⎡ k 2 + 4 ( k + 1) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 4 2 = 1 ( k + 1) ⎡ k 2 + 4k + 4 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 4 2 2 = 1 ( k + 1) ( k + 2 ) 4 2 2 = 1 ( k + 1) ⎡( k + 1) + 1⎤ . right hand side is 1+1 2 Example 3.

**klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370)
**

Exercise 3B

1. Prove the following results by the method of induction:

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook

(a) (1× 2 ) + ( 2 × 3) + ( 3 × 4 ) + … + n ( n + 1) = 1 n ( n + 1)( n + 2 ) . 3 (b) 12 + 22 + 32 + … + n 2 = 1 n ( n + 1)( 2n + 1) . 6 (c) (d)

r =1 n

∑ r ( r + 2 ) = 6 n ( n + 1)( 2n + 7 ). ∑ r × r ! = ( n + 1)!− 1.

n

1

r =1

47

**klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370)
**

3.4

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook

Proof by induction extended to other areas of mathematics

The method of induction is certainly useful in the summation of series but it is not confined to this area of mathematics. This chapter concludes with a look at its use in three other connections – sequences, divisibility and de Moivre’s theorem for positive integers.

**Example 3.4.1 – application to sequences
**

A sequence u1 , u2 , u3 , … is defined by u1 = 3

n +1 Prove by induction that for all n ≥ 1, un = 2 n − 1 . 2 −1

un +1 = 3 − 2 un

( n ≥ 1) .

Solution

Assume that the result is true for n = k , that is to say

k +1 uk = 2 k − 1 . 2 −1

**Then, using the relationship given, uk +1 = 3 − 2 uk = 3− 2 −1 2k − 1
**

k +1

2

= 3− =

=

2 2k − 1

(

) )

3 2k +1 − 1 − 2 2k − 1

(

2k +1 − 1

) (

(

2k +1 − 1 3 × 2k +1 − 3 − 2k +1 + 2

)

( 2 × 2 ) −1 =

k +1

2k +1 − 1

2k +1 − 1 k +2 = 2 k +1 − 1 2 −1

k +1 +1

( ) = 2 k +1 − 1 . 2 −1

**which is of the same form as uk but with k + 1 replacing k. Hence, if the result is true for
**

1+1 n = k , it is true for n = k + 1. But when k = 1, u1 = 2 1 − 1 = 3 as given. Therefore the 2 −1 result is true for all positive integers n ≥ 1 by induction.

48

**klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370)
**

Example 3.4.2 – application to divisibility

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook

Prove by induction that if n is a positive integer, 32 n + 7 is divisible by 8.

Solution

The best approach is a little different to that used so far. Assume that the result is true for n = k , in other words that

2 k +1 2 k +1 When n = k + 1 the expression is 3 ( ) + 7. Consider 3 ( ) + 7 − 32 k + 7 , the difference

32 n + 7 is divisible by 8.

(

)

between the values when n = k and n = k + 1. This expression is equal to 32( k +1) − 32 k = 32 k + 2 − 32 k = 32 k × 32 − 32 k = 32 k 32 − 1 = 8 × 32 k . Thus, if 32 k + 7 is divisible by 8, and clearly 8 × 32 k is divisible by 8, it follows that 2 k +1 3 ( ) + 7 is also divisible by 8. In other words, if the result is true for n = k , it is true for

n = k + 1. But for n = 1, 32 + 7 = 16 and is divisible by 8. Hence, 32 n + 7 is divisible by 8 for all positive integers n by induction.

(

(

)

)

**Example 3.4.3 – application to de Moivre’s theorem for positive integers.
**

Prove by induction that for integers n ≥ 1, ( cosθ + i sin θ ) = cos nθ + i sin nθ .

n

Solution

Assume that the result is true for n = k , that is to say

( cosθ + i sin θ )

k

k

= cos kθ + i sin kθ .

Multiplying both sides by cosθ + i sin θ ,

( cosθ + i sin θ ) ( cosθ + i sin θ ) = ( cos kθ + i sin kθ )( cosθ + i sin θ ) k +1 ( cosθ + i sin θ ) = cos kθ cosθ + i sin kθ cosθ + i sin θ cos kθ + i2 sin kθ sin θ = ( cos kθ cos θ − sin kθ sin θ ) + i ( sin kθ cos θ + cos kθ sin θ ) = cos ( k + 1)θ + i sin ( k + 1)θ ,

which is of the same form but with k + 1 replacing k. Hence, if the result is true for n = k it is true for n = k + 1. But when k = 1,

⎡i 2 = −1⎤ ⎣ ⎦

( cosθ + i sin θ )

1

= cos θ + i sin θ . Therefore the result is

true for all positive integers n by induction. 49

**klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370)
**

Exercise 3C

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook

1. Prove the following results by the method of induction – in all examples n is a positive integer: (a) n3 − n is divisible by 6. (b) 12n + 2 × 5n−1 is divisible by 7. [Hint: consider f ( n + 1) − 5f ( n ) where f ( n ) = 12n + 2 × 5n−1 ] (c) d x n = nx n −1. [Hint: use the formula for differentiating a product] dx (d) x n − 1 is divisible by x − 1.

( )

50

(a) Use the identity to show that 4r 3 = r 2 ( r + 1) − ( r − 1) r 2 2 ∑ 4r r =1 n r =1 n 3 = n 2 ( n + 1) . Prove by induction that for all integers n ≥ 0. 4 4 [AQA March 1999] 4. Prove by induction. 2 giving your answer as a product of three factors in terms of n. Use the identity to show that [AQA June 1999] Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 1 =1− 1 r ( r + 1) r r + 1 ∑ r ( r1+ 1) = n n 1. or otherwise. Use mathematical induction to prove that ∑ ( r −1)(3r − 2) = n ( n −1) 2 n r =1 for all positive integers n.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Miscellaneous exercises 3 1. [AQA June 2000] 3. + r =1 n 2. that ∑ ( r × r !) = ( n + 1)!−1. Prove by induction that ∑ r =1 n n r × 3r −1 = 1 + 3 ( 2n − 1) . [AQA Specimen] 6. 2 (b) Hence find ∑ 2r ( 2r + 1) . 7 n + 2 is divisible by 3. r =1 n [NEAB June 1998] 5. [AEB June 1997] 51 .

2 2 r =1 n [AEB January 2000] 10. Verify the identity 2r − 1 − 2 r + 1 ≡ 2 . 3 − ∑ r ( r +r1)( r2 + 2) = A − ( n +31n)(+n2+ 2). determine the value of A. r =1 n (a) By setting n = 1. % is defined by u1 = 2. n [AQA June 1999] Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook n ≥ 1. un Prove by induction that for all n ≥ 1. un +1 = 2 − 1 . r ( r − 1) r ( r + 1) ( r − 1)( r + 1) Hence.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 7. using the method of differences. (c) Deduce the sum of the infinite series 1 + 4 + 7 +% + 3n − 2 +% . For some value of the constant A. or otherwise. The function f is defined for all non-negative integers r by f ( r ) = r 2 + r − 1. 1× 2 × 3 2 × 3 × 4 3 × 4 × 5 n ( n + 1)( n + 2 ) [AEB June 2000] 52 . (a) Verify that f ( r ) − f ( r − 1) = Ar for some integer A. u2 . stating the value of A. (b) Hence. prove that ∑ r = 1 ( n + n ). n +1 r =2 n [AEB January 1998] 9. A sequence u1 . un = n + 1 . u3 . (b) Use mathematical induction to prove the result for all positive integers n. using the method of differences. prove that 2 3 ∑ ( r −1)( r + 1) = 2 − n2(n + 1). 8.

7 De Moivre’s theorem Using de Moivre’s theorem to evaluate powers of complex numbers Application of de Moivre’s theorem in establishing trigonometric identities Exponential form of a complex number The cube roots of unity The nth roots of unity The roots of z n = α . in particular. 53 .6 4. know how to work out the nth roots of unity and. be able to find shorter ways of working out powers of complex numbers. be able to solve certain types of polynomial equations. know a new way of expressing complex numbers. When you have completed it.5 4.2 4.1 4. where α is a non-real number This chapter introduces de Moivre’s theorem and many of its applications.4 4. the cube roots.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Chapter 4: De Moivre’s Theorem and its Applications 4.3 4. discover alternative methods for establishing some trigonometric identities. you will: • • • • • • know the basic theorem.

p Taking the q th root of both sides. then ( cosθ + i sin θ ) n = cos nθ + i sin nθ . [q is an integer] But p is also an integer and so cos pθ + i sin pθ = ( cos θ + i sin θ ) . If n is a fraction. p p cos θ + i sin θ = ( cos θ + i sin θ ) q . the numerator and denominator are multiplied by the complex conjugate of the denominator. but also when it is negative and even when it is fractional. q q p 54 . In order to remove i from the denominator of the expression above.1 De Moivre’s theorem Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook In Chapter 3 (section 3. Thus. Then k is a positive integer and ( cosθ + i sin θ )n = ( cosθ + i sin θ )− k = = 1 ( cosθ + i sin θ )k 1 . Let n be a negative integer and suppose n = − k . then q q p p ⎞ pθ pθ ⎛ ⎜ cos q θ + i sin q θ ⎟ = cos q q + i sin q q ⎝ ⎠ = cos pθ + i sin pθ . say p where p and q are integers. if n is a positive integer. in this case cos kθ − i sin kθ . 1 1 = × cos kθ − i sin kθ cos kθ + i sin kθ cos kθ + i sin kθ cos kθ − i sin kθ cos kθ − i sin kθ = 2 cos kθ + i sin kθ cos kθ − i sin kθ cos kθ − i 2 sin 2 kθ = cos kθ − i sin2kθ cos 2 kθ + sin kθ = cos kθ − i sin kθ = cos ( − kθ ) + i sin ( − kθ ) = cos nθ + i sin nθ . as required.4). It was proved by induction that.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 4. cos kθ + i sin kθ Some of the results obtained in Chapter 1 can now be put to use. De Moivre’s theorem holds not only when n is a positive integer. you saw a very important result known as de Moivre’s theorem.

6. then ( cos π + i sin π ) But ( cos π + i sin π ) = −1 1 1 2 1 2 = cos 1 π + i sin 1 π 2 2 = i. and −1 = ± i. q different values of ( cos π + i sin π ) q and this will be shown in section 4. in fact. and fractional values of n 55 . A simple example will illustrate this. ( cosθ + i sin θ ) n = cos nθ + i sin nθ for positive and negative integers. p = 1 and q = 2. There are.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) ( cosθ + i sin θ ) p q Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook p p It is important to point out at this stage that cos θ + i sin θ is just one value of q q . So i is only one value p ( cos π = −1 and sin π = 0 ) of ( cos π + i sin π ) 2 . If θ = π.

( cos π + i sin π 6 6 ) = cos 3π + i sin 3π 6 6 3 = cos π + i sin π 2 2 = 0+i = i. 6 6 ( ) 3 Solution It would. be possible to multiply cos π + i sin π by itself three times. The method for doing this will be illustrated through examples. Example 4.2. Instead. but this would 6 6 be laborious and time consuming – even more so had the power been greater than 3. of course.1 Simplify cos π + i sin π . 56 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 4.2 n Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Using de Moivre’s theorem to evaluate powers of complex numbers One very important application of de Moivre’s theorem is in the addition of complex numbers of the form ( a + ib ) .

4) can be used to express it in polar form. ) 3+i ( 3) ( 2 Thus.# y On an Argand diagram. 3 + i is represented by the point whose Cartesian coordinates are Now. and + 12 = 2 and tan θ = 1 so that θ = π . A technique introduced in Chapter 1 (section 1.2. r = ( 3. ( ( ) ) x 10 [ note that 2 is raised to the power 10 as well] ) ( ) 57 .1 . De Moivre’s ) theorem could provide an alternative method but it can be used only for complex numbers in the form cosθ + i sin θ .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 4. 6 3 3 + i = 2 cos π + i sin π 6 6 r θ O 3 1 ( 3 +i ) 10 = 210 cos π + i sin π 6 6 = 210 cos 10π + i sin 10π 6 6 ⎛ ⎞ = 1024 ⎜ 1 − i 3 ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝2 = 512 1 − i 3 . and 3 + i is not in this form.2 Find Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ( 3 +i ) 10 in the form a + ib. Solution Clearly it would not be practical to multiply ( 3 + i by itself ten times.

Note that it is apparent from this example that ( cosθ − i sin θ ) = cos nθ − i sin nθ .2. 58 . 6 6 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ( ) 3 Solution De Moivre’s theorem applies only to expressions in the form cosθ + i sin θ and not cosθ − i sin θ . 6 6 ( ) ( ) π π π (cos π − i sin 6 ) = ⎡⎢⎣cos ( − 6 ) + i sin ( − 6 )⎤⎥⎦ 6 = cos ( − 3π ) + i sin ( − 3π ) 6 6 = cos ( − π ) + i sin ( − π ) 2 2 3 3 = cos π − i sin π 2 2 = −i. It is very n important to realise that this is a deduction from de Moivre’s theorem and it must not be quoted as the theorem.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 4.3 Simplify cos π − i sin π . so the expression to be simplified must be written in the form cos − π + i sin − π .

64 ( ( ) ) −3 ( ) Exercise 4A 1. Express each of the following in the form a + ib : (a) ( cos 3θ + i sin 3θ ) 6 5 (b) (e) ( cos π + i sin π 5 5 4 ) 10 (d) (1 + i ) (g) ( 2 − 2i ) (c) cos π + i sin π 4 4 1 (f) ( ) 2 (1 + 3i ) 5 ( 3 + 3i ) 9 59 . 2 3 ) r α O θ x Solution The complex number −2 + 2 3 i is represented by the point whose Cartesian coordinates are −2. Prove that ( cosθ − i sin θ ) = cos nθ − i sin nθ .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 4.2. y ( −2. r = ( −2 ) 2 + 2 3 1 ( ) 2 = 16 = 4. and tan θ = − tan α = − 2 3 so that θ = 2π .4 Find Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ( −2 + 2 3 i ) 1 3 in the form a + ib. Thus 2 3 3 ( −2 + 2 3 i ) = −2 + 2 3 i ( ) −3 = ⎡ 4 cos 2π + i sin 2π ⎤ ⎢ 3 3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ = 4−3 ⎡cos −3 × 2π + i sin −3 × 2π ⎤ ⎢ 3 3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ = 1 ⎡cos ( −2π ) + i sin ( −2π ) ⎤ ⎦ 64 ⎣ = 1 (1 + 0 ) 64 = 1 . n 2. ( ) Hence. 2 3 on the Argand diagram shown here.

⎣ ⎦ Now cos 3θ is the real part of the left-hand side of the equation. Similarly. The expansion of cos ( A + B ) can be used to express cos 2θ in terms of cos θ setting A = θ and B = θ .1 Show that cos 3θ = 4 cos3 θ − 3cos θ . cos 3θ = cos3 θ − 3cos θ sin 2 θ = cos3 θ − 3cosθ 1 − cos 2 θ = 4 cos3 θ − 3cos θ . the expansion of cos ( 2θ + θ ) can be used to give cos 3θ in terms of cos θ . 60 . Example 4.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 4.3 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Application of de Moivre’s theorem in establishing trigonometric identities One way of showing how these identities can be derived is to use examples. Using de Moivre’s theorem gives a straightforward alternative method. ( ) ⎡since cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ = 1⎤ ⎣ ⎦ Note that this equation will also give sin 3θ by equating the imaginary parts of both sides of the equation. The same principles are used whichever identity is required.3. cos 3θ + i sin 3θ = ( cosθ + i sin θ ) 3 2 3 = cos3 θ + 3cos 2 θ ( i sin θ ) + 3cosθ ( i sin θ ) + ( i sin θ ) ⎡ using the binomial expansion of ( p + q )3 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ = cos3 θ + 3i cos 2 θ sin θ − 3cos θ sin 2 θ − i sin 3 θ ⎡ using i 2 = −1⎤ . and the real parts of both sides can be equated. Solution There are several ways of establishing this result.

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Solution tan 4θ = sin 4θ so expressions for sin 4θ and cos 4θ in terms of sin θ and cos θ must be cos 4θ established to start with. tan 4θ = sin 2 θ + sin 4 θ 1− 6 cos 2 θ cos 4 θ But tan θ = sin θ so cos θ 3 tan 4θ = 4 tan θ 2− 4 tan θ . Using de Moivre’s theorem. tan 4θ = sin 4θ cos 4θ 3 3 = 4 cos θ sin θ2 − 4 cos θ sin θ .3.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 4. cos 4 θ − 6 cos θ sin 2 θ + sin 4 θ Dividing every term by cos 4 θ gives 3 4 sin θ − 4 sin 3 θ cos θ cos θ . Now. 1 − 6 tan θ + tan 4 θ 61 . cos 4θ = cos 4 θ − 6 cos 2 θ sin 2 θ + sin 4 θ . and equating the imaginary parts. cos 4θ + i sin 4θ = ( cosθ + i sin θ ) 4 2 3 4 = cos 4 θ + 4 cos3 θ ( i sin θ ) + 6 cos2 θ ( i sin θ ) + 4 cosθ ( i sin θ ) + ( i sin θ ) [ using the binomial expansion ] = cos 4 θ + 4i cos3 θ sin θ − 6 cos 2 θ sin 2 θ − 4i cosθ sin 3 θ + sin 4 θ ⎡ using i 2 = −1⎤ ⎣ ⎦ Equating the real parts on both sides of the equation. sin 4θ = 4 cos3 θ sin θ − 4 cos θ sin 3 θ .2 Express tan 4θ in terms of tan θ .

2. Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 62 . 4. Express sin 3θ in terms of sin θ . Express tan 3θ in terms of tan θ . Show that cos 6θ = cos6 θ − 3cos 4 θ + 3cos 2 θ − 1.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 4B 1. Express sin 5θ in terms of sin θ . 3.

= cos θ − i sin θ z = cosθ + i sin θ ( = z ). z− z If z = cos θ + i sin θ z + 1 = 2 cos θ z z − 1 = 2i sin θ z Also. De Moivre’s theorem can be used to express powers of sin θ . cos nθ and tan nθ have been expressed in terms of sin θ . zn z n + 1 = 2 cos nθ . Then −1 z −1 = 1 = ( cosθ + i sin θ ) z = cos ( −θ ) + i sin ( −θ ) So. so make a point of remembering this result carefully. zn If z = cos θ + i sin θ . z Adding. zn z n − 1 = 2i sin nθ . cos θ and tan θ in terms of sines. Suppose z = cos θ + sin iθ . cosines and tangents of multiple angles. 63 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook So far sin nθ . z n = ( cos θ + i sin θ ) = cos nθ + i sin nθ n z − n = 1 = ( cos θ + i sin θ ) z = cos ( − nθ ) + i sin ( − nθ ) −n = cos nθ − i sin nθ . First some important results must be established. z + 1 = 2 cos θ . z 1 = 2i sin θ . z n + 1 = 2 cos nθ zn z n − 1 = 2i sin nθ zn A common mistake is to omit the i in 2i sin nθ . and subtracting. 1 = cosθ + i sin θ . Combining z n and 1 as before. cos θ and tan θ .

z z z ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤ 32 cos θ = ⎢ z + ( ) ⎥ + ⎢5z + 5 ( ) ⎥ + ⎢10 z + 10 ( ) ⎥ z ⎦ ⎣ z ⎦ ⎣ z ⎦ ⎣ ⎡ ⎡ 1 ⎤ 1 ⎤ 1 ⎤ ⎡ = ⎢ z + ( ) ⎥ + 5 ⎢ z + ( ) ⎥ + 10 ⎢ z + ( ) ⎥ . ⎥ 16 ⎢ 5 3 ⎣ ⎦ ( ) where c is an arbitrary constant. 64 .3. z3 z + 1 = 2 cos θ . 16 as required.3 Show that cos5 θ = 1 ( cos 5θ + 5cos 3θ + 10 cosθ ) . ∫ cos θ = ∫ 16 ( cos 5θ + 5cos 3θ + 10 cosθ ) 5 1 = 1 ⎡ sin 5θ + 5sin 3θ + 10sin θ ⎤ + c. z5 z 3 + 1 = 2 cos 3θ .3.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 4. Example 4. 16 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Solution Suppose Then and z = cos θ + i sin θ . z Hence 32 cos 5θ = 2 cos 5θ + 5 ( 2 cos 3θ ) + 10 ( 2 cos θ ) cos5 θ = 1 ( cos 5θ + 5cos 3θ + 10 cos θ ) . 1 = 2 cos θ z+ z ( 2 cosθ ) 5 = z+1 z So () () () () = z + 5 z + 10 z + 10 ( 1 ) + 5 ( 1 ) + ( 1 ) . One very useful application of the example above would be in integrating cos5 θ . z 5 + 1 = 2 cos 5θ .4 (a) Show that cos3 θ sin 3 θ = 1 ( 3sin 2θ − sin 6θ ) 32 (b) Evaluate ∫ π 2 0 cos3 θ sin 3 θ dθ . z ⎦ z ⎦ z ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎣ = z 5 + 5 z 4 1 + 10 z 3 1 z z 5 3 2 ( ) 5 () 5 + 10 z 2 1 z 3 3 + 5z 1 z 5 4 + 1 z 5 5 5 3 3 5 5 3 3 Using the results established earlier.

32 as required. cos3 θ sin 3 θ = − 1 sin 6θ + 3 sin 2θ 32 32 = 1 ( 3sin 2θ − sin 6θ ) . z ( 2 cosθ ) 3 = z+1 z 3 3 3 Multiplying these. (b) ∫ π 2 0 cos3 θ sin 3 θ = 1 32 ∫ π 2 0 ( 3sin 2θ − sin 6θ ) dθ π 2 = 1 ⎡ − 3cos 2θ + cos 6θ ⎤ 32 ⎢ 2 6 ⎥0 ⎣ ⎦ = 1 ⎡3 − 1 − − 3 + 1 ⎤ 32 ⎢ 2 6 2 6 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ = 1 ×8 = 1 . ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ z6 ⎠ ⎝ z2 ⎠ ⎝ Now z 6 − 1 = 2i sin 6θ and z 2 − 12 = 2i sin 2θ . 32 3 12 ( ) This section concludes with an example which uses the ideas introduced here and extends into other areas of mathematics.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Solution (a) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ( ) ( 2sin θ ) = ( z − 1 ) . Dividing both sides by −64i. 8cos3 θ 8i3 sin 3 θ = z + 1 z 3 3 ( )( ) −64i cos θ sin θ = ⎡( z + 1 )( z − 1 ) ⎤ ⎢ z z ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 3 z−1 z 3 3 = ⎛ z2 − 1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ z2 ⎠ ⎝ = z 3 ( ) 2 3 −3 z ( ) 2 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ + 3 z2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ − ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ 2⎟ ⎜ 2⎟ ⎜ 2⎟ ⎝z ⎠ ⎝z ⎠ ⎝z ⎠ ( ) 2 3 = z 6 − 3z 2 + 3 ⎛ 12 ⎞ − 1 ⎜ ⎟ 6 ⎝z ⎠ z = ⎛ z6 − 1 ⎞ − 3⎛ z2 − 1 ⎞. z6 z Thus. 65 . −64i cos3 θ sin 3 θ = 2i sin 6θ − 3 ( 2i sin 2θ ) = 2i sin 6θ − 6i sin 2θ .

5 (a) Show that cos 5θ = cos θ 16 cos 4 θ − 20 cos 2 θ + 5 . it equates to the real part of the right-hand side.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 4. since i 2 = −1 and is real. 2 3 4 5 Not every term of this expression has to be simplified. Thus. 10 π cos 2 3π = 5 . cos 5θ + i sin 5θ = ( cos θ + i sin θ ) .3. 5 Using the binomial theorem for expansion. cos 5θ = cos5 θ + 10 cos3 θ ( i sin θ ) + 5cos θ ( i sin θ ) 2 4 ( ) = cos θ + 10 cos θ ( −1 + cos θ ) + 5cos θ (1 − cos θ ) = cos5 θ + 10 cos3 θ − sin 2 θ + 5cos θ sin 4 θ 5 3 2 2 2 using cos θ + sin θ = 1 2 2 = cos5 θ − 10 cos3 θ + 10 cos5 θ + 5cos θ − 10 cos3 θ + 5cos5 θ = 16 cos5 θ − 20 cos3 θ + 5cosθ = cosθ 16 cos 4 θ − 20 cos 2 θ + 5 . 7 and 9. 3. ( ) 66 . (c) Deduce that cos 2 10 10 16 Solution (a) Using the ideas introduced at the beginning of this section. The real part of the right-hand side of the equation comprises those terms with even powers if i in them. Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ( ) (b) Show that the roots of the equation 16 x 4 − 20 x + 5 = 0 are cos rπ for r = 1. the right-hand side of this equation becomes cos5 θ + 5cos4 θ ( i sin θ ) + 10 cos3 θ ( i sin θ ) + 10 cos2 θ ( i sin θ ) + 5cosθ ( i sin θ ) + ( i sin θ ) . As cos 5θ is the real part of the left-hand side of the equation.

klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370)

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook

(b) Now when cos 5θ = 0, either cos θ = 0 or 16 cos 4 θ − 20 cos 2 θ + 5 = 0. So, putting

x = cosθ , the roots of 16 x 4 − 20 x + 5 = 0 are the values of cos θ for which cos 5θ = 0, provided cos θ ≠ 0. 5θ = π , 3π , 5π , 7π , 9π , 11π , 13π , % But if cos 5θ = 0, 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 so that θ = π , 3π , 5π , 7π , 9π , 11π , 13π , % . 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Also, cos 11π is the same as cos 9π , and cos 13π is the same as cos 7π , so that, 10 10 10 10 although there is an infinite number of values of θ , there are only five distinct values of cos θ and these are cos π , cos 3π , cos 5π , cos 7π and cos 9π . 10 10 10 10 10

Now cos 5π = cos π = 0 and π is, of course, a root of cosθ = 0, so that the roots of the 10 2 2 4 equation 16 x − 20 x + 5 = 0 are cos π , cos 3π , cos 5π , cos 7π and cos 9π . 10 10 10 10 10 The roots may be written in a slightly different way as cos 7π = cos π − 3π 10 10 = − cos 3π , 10 and cos 9π = cos π − 9π 10 10 = − cos π . 10

(

)

(

)

Thus the four roots of the quartic equation 16 x 4 − 20 x + 5 = 0 can be written as ± cos π 10 3π . and ± cos 10

(c) From the ideas set out in Chapter 2 (section 2.7), the product of the roots of the quartic equation 16 x 4 − 20 x + 5 = 0 is 5 so that 16

cos π − cos π cos 3π − cos 3π = 5 . 10 10 10 10 16 And hence, cos 2 π cos 2 3π = 5 . 10 10 16

(

)

(

)

67

**klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370)
**

Exercise 4C

1. If z = cos θ + i sin θ write, in terms of z: (b) cos 7θ (c) sin 6θ (a) cos 4θ 2. Prove the following results: (a) cos 4θ = 8cos 4 θ − 8cos 2 θ + 1 (b) sin 5θ = 16sin 5 θ − 20sin 3 θ + 5sin θ (c) sin 6θ = sin θ 32 cos 5 θ − 32 cos3 θ + 6 cos θ (d) tan 3θ = 3 tan θ − tan θ 1 − 3 tan 2 θ

3

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook

(d) sin 3θ

(

)

68

**klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370)
**

4.4 Exponential form of a complex number

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook

Both cos θ and sin θ can be expressed as an infinite series in powers of θ , provided that θ is measured in radians. These are given by

cos θ = θ − θ + θ − θ + ...(−1) n −1 θ + ... 2! 4! 6! ( 2n − 2 ) !

2 4 6 2n−2

and

sin θ = θ − θ + θ − θ + ...(−1) n −1 θ + ... 3! 5! 7! ( 2n − 1)!

3 5 7

2 n −1

**There is also a series for e x given by
**

2 3 4 n −1 e x = 1 + x + x + x + x + ... + x + ... 2! 3! 4! ( n − 1)!

**If iθ is substituted for x in the series for e x , e
**

iθ

( iθ )2 + ( iθ )3 + ( iθ )4 + ... + ( iθ )n−1 + ... = 1 + iθ + 2! 3! 4! ( n − 1)!

= 1 + iθ − θ − iθ + θ + ... . 2! 3! 4!

2 3 4

Regrouping,

2 4 3 ⎛ ⎞ e iθ = 1 − θ + θ − % + i ⎜ θ − θ + % ⎟ , 2! 4! 3! ⎝ ⎠

**and, using the previous results for sin θ and cosθ ,
**

eiθ = cos θ + i sin θ .

It is also important to note that if z = cosθ + i sin θ , then

z n = ( cos θ + i sin θ )

= e niθ ,

n

= cos nθ + i sin nθ

and if z = r ( cosθ + i sin θ ) , then z = reiθ and z n = r n e niθ . If z = r ( cos θ + i sin θ ) , then z = reiθ and z n = r n e niθ 69

2 y θ = − tan −1 2 =−π.1 Express 2 − 2i in the form reiθ . Hence. e −iθ = cos ( −θ ) + isin ( −θ ) = cosθ − isin θ .4. iθ − iθ cosθ = e + e . 2 4 − πi 4. So. −2 ) Exercise 4D 1. iθ − iθ sin θ = e − e . −2 ) on an Argand diagram. Another result can be derived from the exponential form of a complex number: eiθ = cos θ + i sin θ . and so that r = 22 + ( −2 ) = 8. 2 or Subtracting gives eiθ − e−iθ = ( cosθ + isin θ ) − ( cosθ − isin θ ) = 2isin θ . Solution The complex number 2 − 2i is represented by the point with the coordinates ( 2. 2i iθ − iθ cos θ = e + e 2 iθ − iθ sin θ = e − e 2i or Example 4. 2 O r θ x 2 2 − 2i= 8 e ( 2.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The form reiθ is known as the exponential form of a complex number and is clearly linked to the polar form very closely. Adding these eiθ + e−iθ = ( cosθ + isin θ ) + ( cosθ − isin θ ) = 2cosθ . Express the following in the form reiθ : (a) 1 + i b) 3 − i (c) 3 + 3i (d) −2 3 + 2i 70 .

( ) Now z 3 − 1 = 0 is a cubic equation and so has three roots. then w2 = −1 + i 3 . one root of z 3 − 1 is z = 1 so that z − 1 must be a factor of z 3 − 1. w and w2 . as w3 = 1 since w is a solution of z 3 = 1. satisfy the equation z 3 − 1 = 0. therefore. w and w2 . w can be expressed in the form a + ib by solving z 2 + z + 1 = 0 using the quadratic formula: −1 ± 12 − ( 4 ×1×1) 2 = −1 ± −3 2 = −1 ± i 3 . 2 It doesn’t matter whether w is labelled as −1 + i 3 or as −1 − i 3 because each is the square 2 2 of the other. The other two come from the quadratic equation z 2 + z + 1 = 0. Substituting w2 into the left-hand side of z 3 = 1 gives w2 ( ) 3 = w6 = w3 ( ) 2 = 12 = 1. If one of these is denoted by w. 2 2 The cube roots of unity are 1. Factorising. Thus the three cube roots of 1 are 1. one of which is z = 1. where w3 = 1 1 + w + w2 = 0 and the non-real roots are −1 ± i 3 2 71 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 4. They must. the other root. if w = −1 + i 3 then 2 z= ⎛ ⎞ w2 = ⎜ −1 + i 3 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ = 2 1 − 2i 3 + i 3 ( ) 2 4 = 1 − 2i 3 − 3 4 = −2 − 2i 3 4 = −1 − i 3 . 2 If w = −1 − i 3 . where w and w2 are non-real. Of course. It can also be shown that if w is a root of z 3 = 1.5 The cube roots of unity Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The cube roots of 1 are numbers such that when they are cubed their value is 1. In other words. then w satisfies z 2 + z + 1 = 0 so that w2 + w + 1 = 0. z 3 − 1 = ( z − 1) z 2 + z + 1 = 0. then w2 is also a root – in fact. Clearly.

r = ⎜ 3 ⎟ + 1 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 () 2 = 1. and θ = π − α . = (w ) × w =1 × w = w . where w is a complex cube root of 1. Thus.0 ) x Example 4.5. 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 ∴ w7 + w8 = w + w2 = −1 ( because 1 + w + w2 = 0 ) . 4πi ⎛ 2πi ⎞ The other root is w = ⎜ e 3 ⎟ = e 3 and can also be written as ⎝ ⎠ y Plotting the three cube roots of unity on an Argand diagram shows three points equally spaced (at intervals of 2π ) round a circle of 3 radius 1 as shown in the diagram alongside. Solution w7 = w6 × w = w3 w8 = w6 × w2 ( ) × w = 1 × w = w ( because w = 1) . 72 . 2πi 3 . ⎝ ⎠ Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ( −1.1 Simplify w7 + w8 . w can be represented 2 2 by the point whose Cartesian coordinates are ⎛ 1 3⎞ ⎜ − 2 . where tan α = 2 2 3 1 2 = 3.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Both w and w2 can be expressed in exponential form. 3 2 2 ) r α −1 2 y 3 2 θ O x ⎛ ⎞ From the diagram. 2 ⎟ on an Argand diagram. 2 α = π . 2π 3 2π 3 (1. θ = 2π and w = e 3 3 e − 2πi 3 . Take w = − 1 + i 3 .

So the denominators of the left-hand side of the equation can be replaced to simplify to 1 2 + 1 + 1 . Exercise 4E 1. and so on. − w −1 −w Multiplying the first term of this expression by w in the numerator and denominator.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 4.2 Show that 1 + 1 + 1 = 0. 1 + w 1 + w2 w + w2 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Solution 1 + w + w2 = 0 so 1 + w = − w2 . find the value of (a) w10 + w11 (b) (1 + 3w ) 1 + 3w2 ( ) (c) 1 + 3w + w2 ( ) 3 73 . and the second term by w2 similarly gives w + w2 − 1 − w3 − w3 = − w − w2 − 1 ( as w3 = 1) =0 ( as 1 + w + w 2 =0 ).5. If w is a complex cube root of 1.

Indeed 1 = e2 kπi where k is any integer. e which is the same root as that given by k = 0. ( n − 1) 74 . = the same root as that given by k = 1. 2 ( n − 1) π . but if n is even z = −1 is also a real root because −1 raised to an even power is +1. % . and so on. 4π . All the roots lie on the circle z = 1 because the modulus of every root is 1. But also. 1. 2. To find the remaining roots. Similarly. the amplitudes of the complex numbers representing the roots are 2π . if k is set equal to n + 1. Taking the nth root of both sides gives z = e n . In exponential form. n n 2 nπi n n = 0. but it actually has many more. the right-hand side of the equation z n = 1 has to be examined.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 4. k = 0 gives e0 = 1.6 The nth roots of unity Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The equation z n = 1 clearly has at least one root. 2 kπi k = 1 gives e 2πi n 4πi n = cos 2π + i sin 2π . namely z = 1. n − 1 gives the n distinct roots of the equation z n = 1. = e 2πi = cos 2π + i sin 2π = 1. 1 = e2πi because e 2πi = cos 2π + i sin 2π = 1 + i0 = 1. In other words. Also. Different integer values of k will give rise to different roots. 2πi 2πi ×e n 2πi = 1× e n There are no more roots because if k is set equal to n. 6π . as shown below. 0 ) – the point representing the real root z = 1. 1 = e0 because e0 = cos 0 + i sin 0 = 1 + i0 = 1. the n n n n roots are represented by n points equally spaced around the unit circle at angles of 2π starting at n (1. z = e 2 kπi n = cos 2 ( n − 1) π 2 ( n − 1) π + i sin . The n roots of z = 1 can be illustrated on an Argand diagram. % . if n is odd z = 1 is the only real root. n 2( n +1) πi e n 2 nπi e n 2πi ×e n =e = 2πi en which is 4πi n e 6πi n e e 2π n 2 πi n 2π n 2π n 2π n e 0 e 2 ( n −1) πi n The equation z n = 1 has roots z=e 2 kπi n k = 0. % . 2. n n = cos 4π + i sin 4π . In fact. most of which (if not all) are complex. 1. Substituting the right-hand side of the equation z n = 1 by this term gives z n = e2 kπi . n n 2( n −1) πi n k = 2 gives e and so on until k = n − 1 gives e Thus.

a given equation may not involve unity – for example. 2. 3. 5. 3. ± 2.6. Secondly. e3 –1 1 x 4πi 3 e e 5πi 3 Two further points are worth noting. ± 1. k = 3. in the form a + ib. the six roots are z = ±1. k = 4. Solution z 6 = 1 = e 2 kπi Therefore z=e =e 2 kπi 6 kπi 3 k = 1. 5 and the only difference would be that the modulus of each root would be 2 instead of 1. the solution would have been written z 6 = 64 z 6 = 26 e 2 kπi z = 2e 6 k = 0. 1. Firstly.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 4.1 had concerned z 6 = 64. 4. 4.6. z = ± 1 ± i 3 and these are illustrated on 2 2 the Argand diagram alongside. you may need to give the arguments of the roots between − π and + π instead of between 0 and 2π.1 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Find. k = 2.6. if example 4. k = 1. the roots would be given as z = e kπi 3 for k = 0. with the consequence that the six roots of z 6 = 64 would lie on the circle z = 2 instead of z = 1.1. In example 4. Hence the roots are k = 0. k = 5. 2. the roots of the equation z 6 = 1 and illustrate these roots on an Argand diagram. 3. 2 kπi 75 . z =1 z = e 3 = cos π + i sin π = 1 + i 3 3 3 2 2 = cos 2π + i sin 2π = − 1 + i 3 3 3 2 2 z = e πi = cos π + i sin π = −1 z=e z=e z=e 4πi 3 5πi 3 2πi 3 πi = cos 4π + i sin 4π = − 1 − i 3 3 3 2 2 = cos 5π + i sin 5π = 1 − i 3 3 3 2 2 e 2πi 3 y πi To summarise.

By considering the roots of z 5 = 1. 6 1 + z 2 + z 3 + z 4 + z 5 = z 5 − 1 = 0. 4. in the form a + ib. 2 2 Exercise 4F 1. show that cos 2π + cos 4π + cos 6π + cos 8π = −1. In each case. Summing the left-hand side of the equation.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Of course. Write. Solve the equation z 4 + z 3 + z 2 + z + 1 = 0. 2. 3. z −1 2 3 4 5 so that the five roots of 1 + z + z + z + z = 0 are five of the roots of z 6 − 1 = 0. The root to 6 be excluded is the root z = 1 because z − 1 is indeterminate when z = 1. This looks daunting but if you can recognise the left-hand side as a geometric progression with common ratio z. the roots of: (a) z 4 = 1 (b) z 5 = 32 (c) z10 = 1. Solve the equation 1 − 2 z + 4 z 2 + 8 z 3 = 0. show the roots on an Argand diagram. So the roots of z −1 1 + z 2 + z 3 + z 4 + z 5 = 0 are z = ± 1 ± i 3 and − 1. For example. when written in the form a + ib. there are variations on the above results. it becomes more straightforward. you may need to find the roots of the equation 1 + z 2 + z 3 + z 4 + z 5 = 0. 5 5 5 5 76 .

n 1 2π n 2π n 1 iπ n n r e The equation z n = α . z n = α = reiθ + 2 kπi and. z = r n e n and this intervals of n could be taken as the starting point for the intervals of 2π .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 4. taking the nth root of both sides. %. 2. 3.7 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The roots of zn=α where α is a non-real number Every complex number of the form a + ib can be written in the form reiθ . So. z = r ne 1 ( iθ + 2 kπi ) n 1 i(θ + 2 kπ ) = r ne n k = 0. where r is real and θ lies in an interval of 2π (usually from 0 to 2π or from − π to + π). ( n − 1) . 2. % . 1. All lie on the circle z = r n and are equally spaced around the circle at 1 iθ 2π .1. has roots z = 1 i(θ + 2 kπ ) r ne n k = 0. 2πi ) ) eiθ + 2 kπi = eiθ × e2 kπi = eiθ also. 1 (θ + 2 π ) n n r e These roots can be illustrated on an Argand diagram as before. Now eiθ + 2πi = eiθ × e 2πi = eiθ Similarly ( using e ( because e p+q = e p × eq =1 . where α = reiθ . When k = 0. Suppose that α = r e iθ . ( n − 1) 77 .

it is tempting to use the binomial expansion on ( z + 1) but this generates a 5 quartic equation (the terms in z 5 cancel) which would be difficult to solve.7.7. 78 . k = 1. tan θ = 1. Taking the cube root of each side. Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Solution First. 2 ) x So. z3 = 8 e ( π + 2 kπi 4 ). Example 4. z= 2e = 2e So the roots are k = 0. and θ = π . πi z = 2 e12 z = 2 e 12 9πi z = 2 e 12 The roots can also be written − 7πi ⎞ ⎛ 12 . Hence. y From the diagram alongside. k = 2. the equation can be written as ( z + 1) 5 = e 2 kπi z 5 . 2.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 4. 12 12 17πi ( ) This chapter closes with one further example of the use of the principles discussed.2 Solve the equation ( z + 1) = z 5 giving your answers in the form a + ib. 1. ( πi +2kπi ) 4 3 (1+8k ) πi 12 k = 0. ⎜ or 2 e ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 cos π + i sin π when k = 0. Instead.1 Find the three roots of the equation z 3 = 2 + 2i. 2 + 2i must be expressed in exponential form. 4 r θ πi ( 2. 5 Solution At first sight. 2 + 2i = 8 e 4 . r = 22 + 22 = 8. and so on. because e2 kπi = 1.

z = 2 kπi e 5 −1 k = 1. 4. 4 or The next step is new to this section and is well worth remembering. So z= − kπi 5 πi πi ⎛ e 2 kπi e − k5 ⎞ − e − k5 ⎜ 5 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = e iθ − iθ But e − e = sin θ so that e 2i kπi 5 e − kπi 5 − kπi 5 −e − kπi 5 . 2. 2. 3. Solving the equation for z. The term e 5 can be written as cos 2kπ + i sin 2kπ making the denominator have the form p + iq. 3. 2. −e − kπi 5 = 2i sin kπ and so.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Taking the fifth root of each side. and in any case as the equation is really a quartic equation it will have only four roots. As p would then equal cos 2kπ − 1 and q would equal 5 2kπ . 2 kπi Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook z +1 = e 5 z k = 1.3. 5 z= e − kπi 5 cos − kπ + i sin − kπ 5 5 = 2i sin kπ 5 ( ) 2i sin kπ 5 ( ) ( ) = − 1 − 1 i cot ( kπ ) 2 2 5 = 1 cot kπ − 1 2i 5 2 k = 1. the numerator and sin 5 denominator of the right-hand side of the equation are multiplied by e will be apparent later). Instead. Thus. − kπi 5 2 kπi (for reasons which z= e 1 2 kπi 5 −1 e . The numerator 5 5 and denominator of the right-hand side of the equation can then be multiplied by p − iq to remove i from the denominator. 4 as required 79 . 2 kπi 1 = z ⎛ e 5 − 1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 . this would be a rather cumbersome method. Note that k = 0 is excluded because this would give z + 1 = z.

klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 4G 1. Solve the following equations: (b) z 3 = 1 − i (a) z 4 = 16i (d) z 2 = −1 (e) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook (c) z 8 = 1 − 3 i (f) ( z + 1) 3 = 8i ( z − 1) 5 = z5 80 .

(c) Express each of these four roots in the form a + ib and show. with the aid of a diagram. (c) Deduce the exact values of sin π and sin 2π . show that sin 5θ ≡ sin θ 16sin 4 θ − 20sin 2 θ + 5 . where r > 0 and − π < θ ≤ π. (a) By considering z = cos θ + i sin θ and using de Moivre’s theorem. where r > 0 and − π < θ ≤ π. (b) Hence solve the equation z 4 + 64 = 0 giving your answers in the form r ( cos θ + i sin θ ) . where a and b are real numbers to be determined to two decimal places. (a) Write down the modulus and argument of the complex number −64. [AEB June 1996] 2. (b) Using your answers to part (a). (b) Find the exact values of the solutions of the equation 16 x 4 − 20 x 2 + 5 = 0. 2 2 z 3 = (1 + i ) ( 3 −i ) giving your answers in the form a + ib. [AQA January 2002] ( ) 81 . (a) Express each of the complex numbers 1+ i and 3 −i in the form r ( cos θ + i sin θ ) . (i) show that (ii) solve the equation ( 3 −i ) 5 (1 + i ) 10 = − 1 + 3 i. that the points in the complex plane which represent them form the vertices of a square. explaining clearly the reasons for your 5 5 answers.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Miscellaneous exercises 4 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 1. [AQA June 2001] 3.

Show that these roots lie on a circle. (iii) Express p and q as integer multiples of cos 2π and cos 4π . 82 . 5 5 [NEAB June 1998] 2πi 5 . (ii) Write down the quadratic equation. (c) Mark on an Argand diagram the points corresponding to the five roots of the equation. with integer coefficients. Find the possible values of a. where w = e (i) Show that p + q = −1 and pq = −1. w3 and w4 . respectively. where a and b are integers to be determined. whose roots are p and q. (ii) Show that the other fifth roots of unity are 1. (a) (i) Show that w = 2πi e5 is one of the fifth roots of unity. (a) Verify that is a root of the equation z1 = 1 + e 5 πi ( z − 1) 5 = −1. (d) By considering the Argand diagram. 2 2 2 a −ω +ω a +ω −ω where ω is one of the non-real cube roots of unity. (b) Let p = w + w4 and q = w2 + w3 . [AQA June 2000] 5. 5 5 (iv) Hence obtain the values of cos 2π and cos 4π in surd form. (b) Find the other four roots of the equation. w2 . Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 4. and state the centre and radius of the circle.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) z 2 + z + 1 = 0. find (i) arg z1 in terms of π. (ii) z1 in the form a cos π . b [AQA Specimen] 6. (a) Show that the non-real cube roots of unity satisfy the equation (b) The real number a satisfies the equation 1 1 + = 1.

[AQA March 2000] 83 . in the form eiθ where − π < θ ≤ π. z4 − 1 where z1 . (ii) By substituting z = cos θ + i sin θ in the above identity. (a) (i) Use de Moivre’s theorem to show that if z = cos θ + i sin θ . (i) Explain why the equation has only five roots in all. or otherwise. zn (ii) Write down the corresponding result for z n − 1 . (iv) Deduce that the points in an Argand diagram that represents the roots of equation (*) lie on a straight line. z3 and z4 are the non-real roots of the equation z 6 = 1. z+1 z 3 z−1 z 3 6 2 6 2 where A and B are numbers to be determined. z1 − 1 1 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 7. iθ 2 2 2 e −1 ( e θ ≠ 1) . show that 1 = − 1 − i cot θ . for the four non-real roots of the equation z 6 = 1. (a) (i) Express e 2 − e iθ − iθ 2 in terms of sin θ . (iii) Show that the non-real roots are 1 . z2 . 32 [AQA June 2000] 8. (c) The equation ( ) =1 w +1 w 6 ( *) has one real root and four non-real roots. z2 − 1 1 . z3 − 1 1 . i (b) Derive expressions. deduce that cos3 θ sin 3 θ = 1 ( 3sin 2θ − sin 6θ ) . 2 (ii) Hence. zn (b) (i) Show that ( ) ( ) = A ⎛⎜⎝ z − z1 ⎞⎟⎠ + B ⎛⎜⎝ z − z1 ⎞⎟⎠ . (ii) Find the real root. then z n + 1 = 2 cos nθ .

(d) Find the area of the triangle ABC. α . B and C corresponding to the three roots found in part (b). where r is a surd and − π < θ ≤ π. and find the other two roots giving your answers in the form reiθ . B and C. (e) The point P lies on the circle through A. β and γ the complex numbers represented by P. A. show that πi ( w − α )2 + ( w − β )2 + ( w − γ ) 2 [AQA June 1999] = 6. Denoting by w. (c) Indicate on an Argand diagram points A. giving your answer in surd form. (a) Express the complex number 2 + 2i in the form reiθ .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) (b) Show that one of the roots of the equation z 3 = 2 + 2i Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 9. where r > 0 and − π < θ ≤ π. 84 . is 2 e12 . respectively. B and C.

be able to rewrite more complicated expressions in a form that can be reduced to standard integrals. be able to recognise algebraic expressions which integrate to standard integrals. you will: • • • • be able to recognise the derivatives of standard inverse trigonometrical functions. When you have studied it. be able to extend techniques already familiar to you to differentiate more complicated expressions.3 5.2 5.1 5.4 5. 85 .5 Introduction and revision The derivatives of standard inverse trigonometrical functions Applications to more complex differentiation Standard integrals integrating to inverse trigonometrical functions Applications to more complex integrals This chapter revises and extends work on inverse trigonometrical functions.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Chapter 5: Inverse Trigonometrical Functions 5.

but for any given value of y there are infinitely many values of x . Note that sin −1 y is not cosec y which would normally be written as (sin y ) −1 when expressed in terms of sine. 86 . we write x = sin −1 y (or arc sin y ) . However. for a given value of x .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 5. y = sin −1 x has infinitely many values. The use of the superscript -1 is merely the convention we use to denote an inverse in the same way as we say that f −1 is the inverse of the function f . For any given value of x there is only one corresponding value of y . In order to overcome this obstacle. As it stands. but if we wish to describe sin −1 x as a function. If y = sin x . The graph of y = sin −1 x being the inverse. we restrict the range of y to − π ≤ y ≤ π so that the 2 2 −1 sketch of y = sin x becomes the sketch shown. is the reflection of y = sin x in the line y = x and a sketch of it is as shown.1 Introduction and revision Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook You should have already met the inverse trigonometrical functions when you were studying the A2 specification module Core 3. and for the sake of completeness some revision is included in this section. The sketch of y = sin x will be familiar to you and is shown below. in order to present a clear picture. we must make sure that the function has precisely one value.

klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook By doing this. The sketches of y = cos x and y = cos −1 x are shown below. 2 2 Notice that the gradient of y = sin −1 x is always greater than zero. This value is usually called the principal value. 87 . sin −1 x is the angle between − 1 π and 1 π inclusive whose sine is x. we ensure that for any given value of x there is a unique value of y for which y = sin −1 x . We can define cos −1 x in a similar way but with an important difference.

klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook In this case. When it comes to tan −1 x we can restrict the range to − π and π . cos −1 x is the angle between 0 and π inclusive whose cosine is x. it would not be sensible to restrict y to values between − π and π since for 2 2 every value of x ≥ 0 there would be two values of y and for values of x < 0 there would be no value of y. Instead we choose the range 0 ≤ x ≤ π and the sketch is as shown. 2 2 The sketch of y = tan −1 x is shown below. Exercise 5A 1. Express in terms of π the values of: (a) tan −1 1 (d) cos −1 0 (b) cos −1 3 2 ⎛ ⎞ (e) tan −1 ⎜ − 1 ⎟ 3⎠ ⎝ (c) sin −1 − 1 2 ( ) (f) cos −1 (−1) 88 . 2 2 tan −1 x is the angle between − π and + π inclusive whose tangent is x.

this time choosing dx 1 − x2 the negative sign of the square root as the graph of y = cos −1 x always has a gradient less than zero. This is due to the fact that the gradient of the graph of y = sin −1 x is always greater than zero as was shown earlier.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 5.2 Suppose then and. cos y dy =1 dx Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The derivatives of standard inverse trigonometrical functions y = sin −1 x sin y = x thus dy = 1 dx cos y 1 = 1 − sin 2 y 1 = 1 − x2 using cos 2 y + sin 2 y = 1 Note that we choose the positive square root. differentiating implicitly. If y = sin −1 x dy 1 = dx 1 − x2 For y = cos −1 x using similar working we would arrive at dy = − 1 . If y = cos −1 x dy =− 1 dx 1 − x2 89 .

dx 1 − x2 90 . Prove that if y = cos −1 x then dy =− 1 . or dy =1 dx dy = 12 dx sec y 1 = 1 + tan 2 y using sec 2 y = 1 + tan 2 y dy = 1 dx 1 + x 2 If y = tan −1 x dy = 1 dx 1 + x 2 Exercise 5B 1. sec2 y Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook y = tan −1 x tan y = x . differentiating implicitly.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) If then we write and.

We will complete this section by using the rules with functions involving inverse trigonometrical functions. Set u = e x and let y = sin −1 e x so that y = sin −1 u dy 1 du = e x = dx du 1− u2 and using the function of a function rule.3 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Applications to more complex differentiation Some methods of differentiation you should already be familiar with. Example 5.3. These would include the function of a function rule. dy dy du 2 = × = dx d u d x 1− u2 2 = 1 − (2 x − 1) 2 (using the function of a function rule). dx Solution Set u = 2 x − 1 then y = sin −1 u 1 du = 2 and dy = dx du 1− u2 Thus.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 5. find dy . and the product and quotient rules.1 If y = sin −1 (2 x − 1) .2 Differentiate sin −1 e x . 2 = 4 x − 4 x2 2 = 2 x − x2 1 = x − x2 Example 5.3. dy dy du = × = ex × 1 dx du d x 1− u2 x = e 1 − e2 x 91 .

4 −1 Differentiate cos x 1 − x2 −1 If y = cos x 1 − x2 Then. ⎛ 1 − x2 ⎜ − 1 ⎜ 2 dy ⎝ 1− x = dx ⎞ 1 2 −1 ⎟ − cos x × 2 1 − x ⎟ ⎠ 1 − x2 ( ) −1 2 × ( −2 x ) ( ) −1 = −1 2 + x cos x . set u = 2 x then d tan −1 2 x = d tan −1 u × du dx dx du dx = 1 ×2 1+ u2 = 2 2 1 + 4x ( ) ( ) ( ) Thus 2 dy = 2 x tan −1 2 x + 2 x 2 . 3 1− x 2 2 1− x ( ) 92 .3 If y = x 2 tan −1 2 x . using the quotient rule. dx Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook This time we need to use the product rule and the function of a function rule. dx 1 + 4x Example 5.3.3. find dy .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 5. y = x 2 tan −1 2 x dy = 2 x tan −1 2 x + x 2 d tan −1 2 x dx dx ( ) For d tan −1 2 x .

(a) sin 3 3x x Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook (b) cos −1 ( 3 x − 1) (b) e x cos −1 2 x tan −1 3 x 2 + 1 1+ x 2 (c) sin −1 2x (c) x 2 sin −1 ( 2 x − 3) (b) ( ) 4. (a) x tan −1 x −1 3.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 5C Differentiate the following: 1. (a) sin −1 ( ax + b ) (b) tan −1 ( ax + b ) where a and b are positive numbers. 93 . (a) tan −1 3x 2.

∫ a 2 + x 2 = a tan The second integral is dx 1 −1 x +c a ∫ dx a − x2 2 This interval also requires a substitution Let x = a sin θ Then ∫ dx a −x 2 2 = dx = a cos θ dθ a cos θ dθ ∫ = ∫ a cos θ d θ a cos θ =θ +c = sin −1 x + c a a 2 − a 2 sin 2 θ () ∫ dx a −x 2 2 = sin −1 x + c a () 94 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 5. formulae from the Formulae and Statistical Tables Booklet supplied for each AS and A2 module apart from MPC1 can be quoted without proof. However. this does not preclude a question requiring a proof of a result from this booklet being set.4 Standard integrals integrating to inverse trigonometrical functions Generally speaking. There are two standard results. the proofs of which are given here and the methods for these proofs should be committed to memory. as you have been taught. The first one is ∫ a 2 + x2 Let x = a tan θ so that dx = a sec2 θ dθ Then dx = a sec 2 θ dθ ∫ a 2 + x 2 ∫ a 2 + a 2 tan 2 θ 2 = ∫ a sec θ2dθ a 2 sec θ = ∫ 1 dθ a 1θ +c = a 1 tan −1 x + c = a a dx This integral requires a substitution.

∫− 1 3 3 95 . ∫ 0 1 + x2 1 5.2 Evaluate ∫ 3 2 0 dx 9 − x2 We have ∫ 3 2 0 = 9 − x2 ⎛3⎞ −1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ = sin ⎜ ⎟ − sin −1 0 ⎜3⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = sin −1 1 − sin −1 0 2 π −0 = 6 =π 6 dx ⎡sin −1 x ⎤ 2 ⎢ 3 ⎥0 ⎣ ⎦ () 3 Exercise 5D Integrate the following. leaving your answers in terms of π . dx x +1 2 ∫ −3 4 dx 25 − x 2 4. dx ∫1 2 1 3dx 1− x 2 3.4. Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Example 5.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) We now give two examples of definite integrals.1 Evaluate ∫0 2 dx 4 + x2 We have dx −1 x ⎤ ⎡1 ∫ 0 4 + x 2 = ⎢ 2 tan 2 ⎥ 0 ⎣ ⎦ = 1 tan −1 1 − 1 tan −1 0 2 2 1× π −0 = 2 4 =π 8 2 2 Example 5. ∫1 3 2dx 1 + x2 2.4. 1.

klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 5. a method you will no doubt have used many times before in other contexts.5. therefore 1 tan −1 u + c or expressing it in terms of x . Example 5.2 Find ∫ u2 + 4 du a standard form.5. 2 dx Now x 2 + 4 x + 8 = ( x + 2 ) + 4 on completing the square so that ∫ x 2 + 4 x + 8 = ∫ ( x + 2 )2 + 4 The substitution u = x + 2 gives du = dx and becomes dx dx ( x + 2) + c . standard integrals. Most will involve completing the square of a quadratic expression. 1 tan −1 2 2 2 2 Example 5. dx The substitution u = 2 x + 1 gives du = 2dx and the integral becomes 1 du ∫ u22 + 1 = 1 tan −1 u + c 2 = 1 tan −1 ( 2 x + 1) + c or substituting back 2 96 .5 Applications to more complex integrals Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook In this section we will show you by means of examples how unfamiliar integrals can often be reduced to one or perhaps two. We will begin by using examples of integrals which in whole or part reduce to dx ∫ a2 + x2 . The result is ∫ 4 x2 + 4 x + 2 2 dx We write 4 x 2 + 4 x + 2 = ( 2 x + 1) + 1 so that we have ∫ ( 2 x + 1)2 + 1 .1 Find ∫ x2 + 4 x + 8 .

You should have been taught this result when studying the module Core 3. In order to tackle this integral you need to remember that integrals of the form ∫ f ( x) integrate to ln f ( x ) + c .5.3 Find Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ∫ x4 + 9 xdx Here the substitution u = x 2 transforms the given integral into standard form for if u = x 2 1 du du = 2 xdx and we have ∫ 2 u2 + 9 = 1 × 1 tan −1 u + c 2 3 3 2 = 1 tan −1 x + c 6 3 Finally we give a slightly harder example of an integral which uses ∫ a2 + x2 dx in its solution.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 5. Example 5.4 Find ∫ x 2 + 6 x + 12 dx .5. x+5 Integrals of this type where the numerator is a linear expression in x and the denominator is a quadratic in x usually integrate to ln p ( x) + tan −1 q ( x) where p ( x) and q ( x) are functions of f ' ( x ) dx x. So to start evaluating this integral we have to note that the derivative of x 2 + 6 x + 12 is 2 x + 6 and we rewrite the numerator of the integral as 1 ( 2 x + 6 ) + 2 so that the integral becomes 2 ∫ 1 2x + 6 + 2 ( ) 2 dx x 2 + 6 x + 12 and separating it into two halves we write it again as ∫ 1 2 x + 6 dx ( ) 2 + ∫ 2 2dx 2 x + 6 x + 12 x + 6 x + 12 97 .

5. a 2 − x2 Example 5.5 Find ∫ dx 4x − x 2 . As in previous examples. we need to complete the square on 4x − x 2 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) ( ) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The first integral integrates to 1 ln x 2 + 6 x + 12 whilst in the second we complete the square 2 in the denominator and write it as ∫ ( x + 3)2 + 3 The substitution u = x + 3 leads to 2dx ∫ u2 + 3 = 2 tan −1 u 3 3 ⎛ ⎞ = 2 tan −1 ⎜ x + 3 ⎟ 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ So that 2du ∫ x 2 + 6 x + 12 dx ∫ x+5 = 1 ln x 2 + 6 x + 12 + 2 tan −1 ⎛ x + 3 ⎞ + c ⎜ ⎟ 2 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ( ) The final part of this section will show you how integrals can sometimes be reduced to dx . This will be done by means of examples. and we write 4 x − x2 = 4 − ( x − 2) 2 So that the interval becomes ∫ dx 4 − ( x − 2) 2 98 .

∫ dx 1 + 6 x − 3x 2 = ∫ dx 4 − 3 ( x − 1) 2 The substitution of u = 3 ( x − 1) reduces the integral to 3 4 − u2 = 1 sin −1 u + c 2 3 3 ( x − 1) = 1 sin −1 +c 2 3 One final example shows how more complicated expressions may be integrated using methods shown here and other results which you should have met studying earlier modules. In this particular context the result you will need is that ∫ du ∫ f ( x ) dx and the integral becomes f ' ( x) = 2 f ( x) + c [This result can be easily verified using the substitution u = f ( x ) . du = f ' ( x ) dx ∫ du ]. since then. In order to complete the square in the denominator.6 Find ∫ dx 1 + 6 x − 3x2 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) ∫ du 4 − u2 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The substitution u = x − 2 simplifies the result to the standard form = sin −1 u + c 2 = sin −1 ( x − 2) + c 2 Example 5. we write 6 x − 3x 2 = 3 2 x − x 2 = 1 + 3 1 − ( x − 1) = 4 − 3 ( x − 1) 2 ( ( 2 ) ) Thus. u 99 .5.

obtain ∫ 2 4 16 − ( x + 3) Hence. we 3dx which integrates to 3sin −1 x + 3 using the substitution u = x + 3 . and so integrates to 7 − 6x − x 2 . Now the derivative of 7 − 6x − x 2 is −6 − 2x so we write x as − 1 ( 6 + 2 x ) + 3 and the integral 2 becomes − 1 (6 + 2x) + 3 dx −∫ 2 7 − 6 x − x2 or separating the integral into two parts − 1 (6 + 2x) −∫ 2 7 − 6 x − x2 The first integral is of the form f ' ( x) − ∫ 3dx 7 − 6 x − x2 ∫ f ( x ) dx apart from a scaler multiplier. ∫ xdx 7 − 6x − x 2 = − 7 − 6 x − x 2 − 3sin −1 x + 3 + c 4 ( ) 100 .5.7 Find Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ∫ xdx 7 − 6x − x 2 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 5. whilst completing the square on the denominator of the second integral.

Integrate (a) 1 x + 4x + 5 2 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook (b) 1 2x − 4x + 5 2 (c) 1 x −x+2 2 2. Find (a) ∫ x + 1 dx 1 − x2 (b) ∫ 3x − 2 3 + 2 x − x2 dx (c) ∫ (1 − x ) 1 − x − x2 dx 101 . Integrate (a) 3.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 5E 1. Find (a) 2x x + 2x + 3 2 (b) x x + x +1 2 ∫ dx 7 + 6x − x 2 (b) ∫ dx 3 + 2x − x 2 (c) ∫ dx x (1 − 2 x ) 4.

be able to differentiate and integrate them. understand what inverse hyperbolic functions are and how they can be expressed in alternative forms.2 6.3 6.10 Derivatives of inverse hyperbolic functions 6. be able to sketch inverse hyperbolic functions.5 6.11 Integrals which integrate to inverse hyperbolic functions 6.1 6.9 Definitions of hyperbolic functions Numerical values of hyperbolic functions Graphs of hyperbolic functions Hyperbolic identities Osborne’s rule Differentiation of hyperbolic functions Integration of hyperbolic functions Inverse hyperbolic functions Logarithmic form of inverse hyperbolic functions Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 6.12 Solving equations This chapter introduces you to a wholly new concept. be able to sketch them.7 6. 102 .8 6. be able to solve equations involving hyperbolic functions. you will: • • • • • • • • know what hyperbolic functions are.4 6. be able to differentiate inverse hyperbolic functions and recognise integrals which integrate to them. have learned some hyperbolic identities. When you have completed it.6 6.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Chapter 6: Hyperbolic Functions 6.

e +e or. 103 . e − e− x x Exponential forms for sech x and coth x can be found in a similar way. 2x tanh x = e2 x − 1 . e +1 Again. cosech x = 1 sinh x 1 = x −x 1 2 e −e ( ) = 2 . ‘than x’ ‘cosheck x’ ‘sheck x’ ‘coth x’ tanh x = sinh x cosh x = 1 2 1 2 (e (e x x − e− x + e− x ) ) x −x = e x − e− x . The definitions of sinh x and cosh x (often called hyperbolic sine and hyperbolic cosine – pronounced ‘shine x’ and ‘cosh x’) are: sinh x = 1 e x − e − x 2 1 e x + e− x cosh x = 2 ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ) There are four other hyperbolic functions derived from these.1 Definitions of hyperbolic functions Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook It was shown in Chapter 4 that sin x = 1 eix − e −ix and cos x = 1 eix +e −ix . just as there are four trigonometric functions. Hyperbolic 2i 2 functions are defined in a very similar way. They are: tanh x = sinh x cosh x cosech x = 1 sinh x sech x = 1 cosh x coth x = 1 tanh x In terms of exponential functions.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 6. on multiplying the numerator and denominator by e x .

2 2 −0 0 cosh 0 = e + e = 1 + 1 = 1.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 6A 1. Express. It is worth remembering that 0 −0 sinh 0 = e − e = 1 − 1 = 0. ‘hyp’ and ‘sin’ buttons in the appropriate order.3. 2 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook (d) cosech 3x. (b) tanh 1. 6. Use a calculator to evaluate. (e) cosh (– 0. 2 −1. for example.97 (to two decimal places).6.3 1.2 Numerical values of hyperbolic functions When finding the value of trigonometric functions. sinh x. for convenience most scientific calculators have a ‘hyp’ button and sinh 2 can be obtained directly by pressing the ‘2’.3 = e + e = 1. (c) sech 2. 2 You can work out these values on a calculator using the e x button. (d) tanh (– 0. (f) coth 4 104 . However. the angle x must be given in degrees (or radians).3 : 2 −2 sinh 2 = e − e = 3. It is quite in order to speak about sinh 2 or cosh1. to two decimal places: (a) sinh 0. 2 2 Exercise 6B 1. in terms of exponentials: (a) sech x. There is no unit for x when evaluating.6). (c) tanh 1 x. (b) coth x.63 (to two decimal places).3).3 cosh1. for example sin x.1.

so tanh x → 1 as x → ∞. ⎝ 1+ e ⎠ Now. from which it can be deduced that tanh x < 1. It would also be worthwhile committing the general shapes of y = sinh x. it follows that the numerator of this fraction is less than its denominator. 1+ e −2 x As e > 0 for all values of x. So the graph of y = tanh x has an asymptote at x = 1. y y y = sinh x 0 x y = cosh x 1 0 x The sketch of y = tanh x requires a little more consideration.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 6. it follows that the numerator in the bracketed expression above is less than its denominator. so that tanh x > −1. So the graph of y = tanh x has an asymptote at y = −1. y = cosh x and y = tanh x to memory. e 2 x → 0 and tanh x → − 1 = −1. In Section 5.1. and has y = ±1 as asymptotes. as x → −∞. Some sketches are given below but it would be a good exercise to make a table of values and confirm the general shapes for yourself.3 Graphs of hyperbolic functions Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The graphs of hyperbolic functions can be sketched easily by plotting points. as e 2 x > 0 for all values of x. It can also be deduced that as e −2 x → 0 as x → ∞. y = tanh x y −2 x 1 0 –1 x 105 . Hence the curve y = tanh x lies between y = +1 and y = −1. if the numerator and denominator of tanh x are divided by e 2 x . tanh x = 1 − e −2 x . it was shown that tanh x could be written as 2x tanh x = e2 x − 1 e +1 2x ⎞ ⎛ = − ⎜ 1 − e2 x ⎟ . 1 () Now. Also.

dividing both sides by sinh 2 x instead. sech 2 x = 1 − tanh 2 x Or again. cosh 2 x − sinh 2 x = 1 sinh 2 x sinh 2 x sinh 2 x coth 2 x − 1 = cosech 2 x. (c) y = coth x. 2 ⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 2 ( ) ⎛ x −x ⎞ and sinh x = ⎜ e − e ⎟ = 1 e2 x − 2 + e −2 x 2 ⎠ 4 ⎝ from which. (b) y = cosech x. cosh 2 x − sinh 2 x = 1 ( ) ( Dividing both sides of this equation by cosh 2 x. Sketch the graphs of (a) y = sech x. cosech 2 x = coth 2 x − 1 106 .4 Hyperbolic identities Just as there are trigonometric identities such as cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ = 1 and cos 2θ = 2 cos 2 θ − 1. 2 2 ( ) ) cosh 2 x − sinh 2 x = 1 e 2 x + 2 + e −2 x − 1 e2 x − 2 + e −2 x 4 4 = 1. there are similar hyperbolic identities. by subtraction.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 6C 1. it follows that cosh 2 x − sinh 2 x = 1 2 2 cosh x cosh x cosh 2 x 1 − tanh 2 x = sech 2 x. For example. Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 6. ⎛ x −x ⎞ cosh x = ⎜ e + e ⎟ = 1 e2 x + 2 + e−2 x .

Show that (a) sinh ( x − y ) = sinh x cosh y − cosh x sinh y.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) ( Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Now consider sinh x cosh y + cosh x sinh y = 1 e x − e− x 1 e y − e− y + 1 e x + e− x 1 e y − e− y 2 2 2 2 1 e x e y − e− x e y + e x e− y − e− x e− y + e x e y + e− x e y − e x e− y − e− x e− y = 4 = 1 2e x e y − 2e − x e − y 4 = 1 e x e y − e− x e− y 2 − x+ y = 1 ex+ y − e ( ) [using the laws of indices] 2 = sinh ( x + y ) . and so on. sinh ( x ± y ) = sinh x cosh y ± cosh x sinh y cosh ( x ± y ) = cosh x cosh y ± sinh x sinh y Exercise 6D 1. cosh ( x + y ) and cosh ( x − y ) can be worked out. The hyperbolic formulae given above help to find corresponding results for hyperbolic functions. expressions for sinh ( x − y ) . cos 2 x. (b) cosh ( x ± y ) = cosh x cosh y ± sinh x sinh y. You will probably remember that the basic trigonometric formulae for sin ( x + y ) and cos ( x + y ) can be used to find expressions for sin 2 x. 107 . ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ( ( ) ) ( ) In exactly the same way.

cosh ( x + x ) = cosh x cosh x + sinh x sinh x. sinh 2 x = 2sinh x cosh x. Using cosh 2 x − sinh 2 x = 1. sinh 2 x = 2sinh x cosh x cosh 2 x = cosh 2 x + sinh 2 x = 2 cosh 2 x − 1 = 1 + 2sinh 2 x Some examples will illustrate extensions of these results. Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook or Using putting y = x. putting y = x. or cosh 2 x = cosh 2 x + sinh 2 x. because sinh ( x + y ) = sinh x cosh y + cosh x sinh y. cosh 2 x = 1 + sinh 2 x + sinh 2 x or = 1 + 2sinh 2 x cosh 2 x = 2 cosh 2 x − 1. 108 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) For example. cosh ( x + y ) = cosh x cosh y + sinh x sinh y. sinh ( x + x ) = sinh x cosh x + cosh x sinh x.

2 cosh x + sinh x Dividing the numerator and denominator by cosh 2 x.4. 2sinh x cosh x cosh 2 x tanh 2 x = cosh 2 x + sinh 2 x cosh 2 x 2sinh x = cosh x 2 1 + sinh 2 x cosh x 2 tanh x .2 Show that cosh 3x = 4 cosh 3 x − 3cosh x. 109 . = 1 + tanh 2 x Example 6. ( ) ( ) [using cosh x − sinh x = 1] 2 2 Exercise 6E 1. Express cosh 4x in terms of cosh x.1 x Show that tanh 2 x = 2 tanh 2 . show that sinh 3 x = 3sinh x + 4sinh 3 x.4. 2. Using the expansion of sinh ( 2 x + x ) . 1 + tanh x Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Solution tanh 2 x = sinh 2 x cosh 2 x x = 2sinh x cosh 2 . Solution cosh 3x = cosh ( 2 x + x ) = cosh 2 x cosh x + sinh 2 x sinh x = 2 cosh 2 x − 1 cosh x + 2sinh x cosh x sinh x = 2 cosh 3 x − cosh x + 2 cosh 2 x − 1 cosh x = 2 cosh 3 x − cosh x + 2 cosh 3 x − 2 cosh x = 4 cosh 3 x − 3cosh x.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 6.

as the next example shows. It must not be used in a proof – for example. cos 2 x = 1 − 2sin 2 x cosh 2 x = 1 + 2sinh 2 x. In fact the only differences are those of sign – for example.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 6. because sin 2 x is a product of two sines. 110 .5 Osborne’s rule Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook It should be clear that the results and identities for hyperbolic functions bear a remarkable similarity to the corresponding ones for trigonometric functions. To change a trigonometric function into its corresponding hyperbolic function.4 must be used for that. There is a rule for obtaining the identities of hyperbolic functions from those for trigonometric functions – it is called Osborne’s rule. care must be exercised in using this rule. whereas cos 2 x + sin 2 x = 1. It is known that sec 2 x = 1 + tan 2 x but sech 2 x = 1 − tanh 2 x The reason that the sign has to be changed here is that a product of sines is implied because 2 tan 2 x = sin 2 x . cos x It should be noted that Osborne’s rule is only an aid to memory. The method shown in Section 5. where a product of two sines appears change the sign of the corresponding hyperbolic term For example. because then Note also that because then cos ( x + y ) = cos x cos y − sin x sin y cosh ( x + y ) = cosh x cosh y + sinh x sinh y. However. that cosh 2 x − sinh 2 x = 1. the corresponding hyperbolic identity is cosh 2 x − sinh 2 x = 1.

y = sinh x = 1 e x − e− x . dx ( ) As hyperbolic functions can be expressed in terms of e.6 Differentiation of hyperbolic functions Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook You will already have met the derivative of ekx . it follows that their differentiation is straightforward. ( ( ) ) 111 . ( ) ) And if y = sinh kx = 1 e kx − e − kx .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 6. dy 1 x − x = e +e dx 2 = cosh x. 2 ( ) Therefore. d e kx = ke kx . Just to remind you. 2 ( then dy 1 = ke kx +ke − kx dx 2 = k 1 e kx +e − kx 2 = k cosh kx. For example.

klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook You can differentiate cosh x and cosh kx in exactly the same way. dx dx Example 6. d ( cosh x ) = + sinh x. dy = k cosh kx dx dy = k sinh kx dx dy = k sech 2 kx dx Note that the derivatives are very similar to the derivatives of trigonometric functions. y = tanh x.1 Differentiate sinh 1 x. y = cosh x.6. y = tanh kx. tanh x can be differentiated by treating it as the derivative of the quotient sinh x . y = cosh kx. dy = cosh x dx dy = sinh x dx dy = sech 2 x dx Generally: y = sinh kx. 2 2 ( ) 112 . The following results cosh x should be committed to memory: y = sinh x. 2 Solution y = sinh 1 x 2 dy = cosh 1 x × 1 dx 2 2 = 1 cosh 1 x. except that whereas d ( cos x ) = − sin x.

klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 6. (f) sech x [hint: write sech x as ( cosh x ) ] . (b) cosh 2 3x. (c) x 2 cosh x. (d) cosh 2 x . Differentiate the following expressions: (a) cosh 3 x. x (g) cosech x.2 Differentiate x cosh 2 x + cosh 4 3 x. dy 3 = (1× cosh 2 x ) + ( x sinh 2 x × 2 ) + 4 ( cosh 3x ) × sinh 3 x × 3 dx = cosh 2 x + 2 x sinh 2 x + 12sinh 3 x cosh 3 3 x. (e) x tanh x. 4 Using the product and chain rules for differentiation.6. −1 113 . Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Solution y = x cosh 2 x + cosh 4 3 x = x cosh 2 x + ( cosh 3x ) . ( ) Exercise 6F 1.

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook You will already have met the integral of e kx . ∫ tanh x dx = ln cosh x + c ∫ coth x dx = ln sinh x + c Exercise 6G 1. Evaluate the following integrals: (a) (c) ∫ cosh 3x dx. cosh x ∫ ∫ Putting u = cosh x. Just to remind you. generally ∫ sinh kx = 1 cosh kx + c. ∫ x sinh 2 x dx.7 Integration of hyperbolic functions 1 kx kx ∫ e dx = k e . 2 114 . As hyperbolic functions can be expressed in terms of e. a substitution is needed as follows: tanh x dx = sinh x dx. k For the integration of tanh x. it follows that their integration is straightforward.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 6. (b) (d) ∫ cosh ∫ tanh 2 x dx. and as it is the reverse of differentiation. x dx. ∫ sinh x dx = cosh x + c ∫ cosh x dx = sinh x + c 2 ∫ sech x dx = tanh x + c Of course. du ∫ tanh x dx = ∫ u = ln u + c = ln cosh x + c. So that du = sinh x dx.

say. and hence an inverse. sinh −1 2 using a calculator.3) you will see that for every value of y > 1 there are two values of x. and the range for the inverse will be y ≥ 0. This is because the mapping f : x → cosh x is not a one-to-one mapping. so there are inverse hyperbolic functions. y = tanh y = sinh −1 ( ) y −1 x y x 0 x –1 0 1 x Note also that y = cosh x does not have an inverse. They are defined in a similar way to inverse trigonometric functions – so.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 6. in the line y = x. respectively. If you look at the graph of y = cosh x (in Section 5. then y = sinh −1 x. These sketches are shown below. . The sketches of y = sinh −1 x and y = tanh −1 x are the reflections of y = sinh x and y = tanh x. cos −1 x. you use it in the same way as you would if it was a trigonometric function (pressing the appropriate buttons for hyperbolic functions).8 Inverse hyperbolic functions Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Just as there are inverse trigonometric functions sin −1 x. if the domain of y = cosh x is restricted to x ≥ 0 there will be a one-to-one mapping. etc. 115 . and likewise for the other five hyperbolic functions. if x = sinh y. However. Note that the curve y = tanh −1 x has asymptotes at x = ±1. To find the value of.

if y = cosh −1 x. 0 = e 2 y − 2 xe y + 1. then x = cosh y y −y x = e +e 2 y 2 x = e + e− y . Taking the logarithm of each side. x −1).9 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Logarithmic form of inverse hyperbolic functions The inverse hyperbolic functions cosh −1 x. 2 xe y = e 2 y + 1 Multiplying by e y .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 6. sinh −1 x and tanh −1 x can be expressed as logarithms. This is a quadratic equation in e y and can be solved using the quadratic formula: 2 e y = 2x ± 4x − 4 2 = x ± x 2 − 1. 2 2 116 . Now. y = ln x ± x 2 − 1 . Thus x − x2 − 1 = (x + 1 x −1 2 . ( ) ( x + x2 − 1 x − x2 − 1 = x2 − )( ) ( ) x2 − 1 ) 2 = x2 − x2 + 1 = 1. For example. ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ and ⎛ ⎜ 1 ln x − x − 1 = ln ⎜ 2 ⎜ x + x −1 ⎝ ( 2 so that ( = − ln ( x + y = ± ln ( x + ) ) x −1) .

klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) However.8. It is straightforward to obtain the logarithmic form of y = tanh −1 x if. cosh y cosh −1 x = ln x + x 2 − 1 sinh −1 2 ( ) ( ) ( x = ln ( x + tanh −1 x = 1 ln 1 + x 2 1− x ( ) ) x + 1) 117 . from Section 5. Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ( ) A similar result for y = sinh −1 x can be obtained by writing x = sinh y and then expressing sinh y in terms of e y . tanh y is written as . but as x − x 2 + 1 ≤ 0 the negative sign has to be rejected because the logarithm of a negative number is non-real. Thus sinh −1 x = ln x + x 2 + 1 . after writing sinh y tanh y = x. This gives y = ln x ± x 2 + 1 . if y ≥ 0 then y = cosh −1 x = + ln x + x 2 − 1 .

9. 4 Solution 2 ⎛ ⎞ sinh −1 3 = ln ⎜ 3 + 3 + 1 ⎟ 4 4 ⎜4 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ = ln ⎜ 3 + 9 + 1 ⎟ 16 ⎠ ⎝4 () ⎛ ⎞ = ln ⎜ 3 + 25 ⎟ 4 16 ⎠ ⎝ = ln 3 + 5 4 4 = ln 2. 2. (b) tanh −1 1 . sinh −1 3 . 2 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Solution ⎛ 1+ 1 ⎞ 2 tanh −1 1 = 1 ln ⎜ 1 ⎟ 2 2 ⎜ 1− 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛3⎞ 2 = 1 ln ⎜ 1 ⎟ 2 ⎜2⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = 1 ln 3 2 = ln 3. 3 12 ( ) ( ) 118 . Show that sinh −1 x = ln x + x 2 + 1 . Express the following in logarithmic form: (a) cosh −1 1. ( ) Exercise 6H 1. Example 6.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 6. in logarithmic form. 2 1− x 3. (c) sinh −1 5 .1 Find. in logarithmic form.5.9.2 Find. tanh −1 1 . Show that tanh −1 x = 1 ln 1 + x .

() () Example 6. 2 a + x2 The derivatives of cosh −1 x and cosh −1 x . dx ( ) Solution y = tanh −1 x tanh y = x sech 2 y dy =1 dx dy = 12 dx sech y = 1 2 1− x ⎡using sech 2 y + tanh 2 y = 1⎤ . Differentiating with respect to x.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 6. and also tanh −1 x and tanh −1 x are obtained a a in exactly the same way. cosh y dx dy So that = 1 dx cosh y 1 ⎡using cosh 2 y − sinh 2 y = 1⎤ = ⎣ ⎦ 2 1+ x Again. ⎣ ⎦ 119 .10 Derivatives of inverse hyperbolic functions As already seen. a sinh y = x .10. dx a dy 1 = dx a cosh y 1 = 2 a 1 + x2 a 1 = .1 Find the derivative of d tanh −1 x . a and Thus cosh y dy 1 = . dy = 1. if y = sinh −1 then sinh y = x. if y = sinh −1 x .

2 Differentiate cosh −1 x . dy 1 = dx 1 + x2 dy 1 = dx x2 − 1 dy = 1 dx 1 − x 2 Generally. 120 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) y = sinh −1 x : y = cosh −1 x : y = tanh −1 x : Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook It is suggested that you work through the remaining results yourself. y = sinh −1 x : a y = cosh −1 x : a y = tanh −1 x : a dy 1 = 2 dx a + x2 dy 1 = 2 dx x − a2 dy = 1 dx a 2 − x 2 Example 6. 3 Solution y = cosh −1 x 3 dy 1 = 2 dx x − 32 = 1 x2 − 9 .10.

If y = x cosh −1 x. 2 dx 2 2 + x2 So. find when x = 2. (d) e x sinh −1 x. 4 dy when x = 2.3 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook dy If y = x 2 sinh −1 x . 121 . x 2. when x = 2 dy 1 = 4sinh −1 1 + 4 2 dx 2 + 22 = 4 ln 1 + 1 + 1 + 4 8 = 4 ln 1 + 2 + 4 8 8× 8 ( ( ) ) ( ) = 4 ln (1 + 2 ) + = 4 ln (1 + 2 ) + Exercise 6I = 4 ln 1 + 2 + 4 8 8 8 2 2. giving your answer in the form a + ln b. (b) sinh −1 x . 3 3 (e) 1 cosh −1 x 2 . find (c) cosh −1 x . where a dx and b are irrational numbers.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 6. Differentiate the following: (a) tanh −1 x .10. giving your answer in the form a + b ln c. 2 y = x 2 sinh −1 x 2 dy 1 = 2 x sinh −1 x + x 2 . 2 dx Solution Differentiate x 2 sinh −1 x as a product . 1.

help to widen the ability to integrate.11. Example 6. in particular.11 Integrals which integrate to inverse hyperbolic functions Integration can be regarded as the reverse of differentiation so it follows. 1 px + qx + r 2 In fact. The examples which follow show how this can be done. from the results in Section 6.1 Find ∫ dx 16 + x 2 . or . 4 ∫ dx 2 () 122 . these results can be used to integrate any expression of the form even sx + t px + qx + r 2 . that: ∫ ∫ ∫ The integrals of 1 a +x 2 2 = sinh −1 x + c a a +x dx = cosh −1 x + c a x2 − a2 2 2 dx = 1 tanh −1 x + c a a a −x 2 2 dx and 1 x − a2 2 .10. Solution ∫ dx 16 + x 2 = 4 + x2 = sinh −1 x + c. where p > 0.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 6.

∫ ∫ dx x2 + 2 x − 3 = ∫ ∫ dx ( x + 1) − 4 2 . 2 ⎝ 3⎠ Example 6.2 Find Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ∫ dx 6 + 2 x2 . 2 () ( ) 123 .11.11. Solution In order to evaluate this integral. Substituting z = x + 1.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 6. x2 + 2 x − 3 = x2 + 2 x + 1 − 4 = ( x + 1) − 4. you must complete the square in the denominator. 2 ( ) Hence.3 Find ∫ dx x + 2x − 3 2 . Solution ∫ dx 6 + 2x 2 = ∫ 2 3 + x2 ( dx dx ) = 1 2 ∫ 3 + x2 ⎛ ⎞ = 1 sinh −1 ⎜ x ⎟ + c. 2 z −4 x + 2x − 3 = cosh −1 z + c 2 = cosh −1 x + 1 + c. gives dx = 2dz . for which dz = dx.

11. Therefore.4 Find Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ∫ 2x + 5 x + 6 x + 10 2 dx. dx ( ) But and 2x + 5 = 2x + 6 −1 ∫ 2x + 5 x + 6 x + 10 2 dx = x + 6 x + 10 = I1 − I 2 . ∫ 2x + 6 2 dx − ∫ 1 x + 6 x + 10 2 dx. the complete integral is I1 − I 2 = 2 x 2 + 6 x + 10 − sinh −1 ( x + 3) + c. then for I1 the substitution z = x 2 + 6 x + 10 gives dz = 2 x + 6 and consequently dx I1 = dz z ∫ ∫ = z 2 dz 2 = z1 1 −1 2 = 2 x 2 + 6 x + 10. the integral is split into two by writing one integral with a numerator which is the derivative of x 2 + 6 x + 10. say.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 6. 2 So that I2 = ∫ ( x + 3)2 + 1. completing the square in the denominator. dx The substitution u = x + 3 will give du = 1. 124 . Now. For I 2 . Solution In this case. d x 2 + 6 x + 10 = 2 x + 6. Because the derivative of x 2 + 6 x + 10 is 2 x + 6. dx du I = and 2 ∫ u2 +1 = sinh −1 u = sinh −1 ( x + 3) . x 2 + 6 x + 10 = x 2 + 6 x + 9 + 1 = ( x + 3) + 1.

The methods for solving them are quite different. or a similar linear combination of hyperbolic functions. Solution x −x x −x Using the definitions sinh x = e − e and cosh x = e + e . Multiplying throughout by e x . e = −3 or e = 2. 2 2 x −x ⎞ x −x ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 7 ⎜ e − e ⎟ − 5 ⎜ e + e ⎟ = −1 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 7e x − 7e − x − 5e x − 5e − x = −1 2 2 2 2 x e − 6e − x = −1. (e) ∫ ∫ ( x + 1) dx 2 2 +4 ( x − 2) 2 − 16 (g) x + 4x + 5 . (h) x − 2x − 2 . Example 6. Evaluate the following integrals: dx . This is a quadratic equation in e x and factorizes to (e x + 3 e x − 2 = 0. (a) (b) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ∫ x +9 dx 2 2 ∫ dx x − 16 dx 2 . 6.1 Solve the equation 7 sinh x − 5cosh x = −1. or e 2 x + e x − 6 = 0. )( ) Hence. x x 125 . . e 2 x − 6 = −e x .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 6J 1. The only solution possible is x = ln 2 because e x ≠ −3 since e x > 0 for all values of x.12. .12 Solving equations You are likely to meet two types of equations involving hyperbolic functions. (c) (f) ∫ ∫ dx 4 x + 25 dx 2 . The first type has the form a cosh x + b sinh x = c. (d) ∫ ∫ 9 x + 49 dx 2 . The correct method for solving this type of equation is to use the definitions of sinh x and cosh x to turn the equation into one involving e x (frequently a quadratic equation).

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Solution The identity cosh 2 x − sinh 2 x = 1 is used here.9: sinh −1 5 = ln 5 + 52 + 1 = ln 5 + 26 . (c) cosh 2 x − 3sinh x = 5.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 6.2 – this would generate a quartic equation in e x which would be difficult to solve. and and sinh x = 5 or sinh x = −1 x = sinh −1 5 or x = sinh −1 − 1. the original equation is reduced to one involving sinh x only. This is a quadratic equation in sinh x which factorizes to ( sinh x − 5)( sinh x + 1) = 0. The reason for this can be seen on substitution – instead of having an equation involving cosh x and sinh x. (d) cosh 2 x − 3cosh x = 4. Hence.12.88 (to two decimal places). 1 + sinh 2 x = 4sinh x + 6 sinh 2 x − 4sinh x − 5 = 0.31 or x = −0. ( ) ( ) ( ) Examples 6K 1. (e) tanh x = 7sech x + 3. Solve the equations: (a) 4sinh x + 3e x = 9.12. using the results from Section 5. 2 (b) 3sinh x + 4 cosh x = 4. ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Note that it is not advisable to use the definitions of sinh x and cosh x when attempting to solve the equation in Example 5. 126 . The answers can also be expressed in terms of logarithms.2 Solve the equation cosh 2 x = 4sinh x + 6. 2 sinh −1 − 1 = ln ⎛ −1 + ( −1) + 1 ⎞ = ln 2 − 1 . x = 2.

solve the equation 8sinh x = 3sech x. leaving your answers in terms of natural logarithms. ( ) ( ) (b) Hence. (a) Using the definitions prove that cosh x = 1 e x + e− x and sinh x = 1 e x − e − x . or otherwise. or otherwise. prove that sinh −1 x = ln x + 1 + x 2 . [AQA June 2001] 127 . giving your answer as a natural logarithm. [AEB January 1997] 3. (b) Hence solve the equation 14sinh x − 10 cosh x = 5. (a) By considering sinh y = x. cosh x + sinh x 2. leaving your answer in terms of natural logarithms. (b) Hence evaluate [AQA March 1999] Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ∫ ∞ 0 1 dx. (a) Express cosh x + sinh x in terms of e x .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Miscellaneous exercises 6 1. 2 2 2sinh x cosh x = sinh 2 x. (a) Show that the equation can be expressed as 14sinh x − 10 cosh x = 5 2e 2 x − 5e x − 12 = 0. (b) Solve the equation ( ) 2 cosh 2θ − 5sinh θ − 8 = 0. [AEB January 1996] 4.

dx (b) (i) Find ∫ ( tanh x − tanh x ) dx. 2 1− x where −1 < x < 1. (ii) Hence. show that (b) Hence show that the substitution x = cosh t transforms the equation 16 x3 − 12 x = 5 cosh 3t = 5 . (a) Starting from the definition of cosh t in terms of et . giving your answer in the form 2 p + 2q . ( ) [AEB June 1999] 7. (a) Using the definitions of sinh θ and cosh θ in terms of exponentials. [AQA March 1999] 6. where p and q are rational numbers to be found. Obtain this root. (a) By expressing tanh x in terms of sinh x and cosh x. into 4 (c) The above equation in x has only one real root. e +1 (b) Hence prove that tanh −1 x = 1 ln 1 + x . or otherwise. find tanh ∫ 3 3 x dx. Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 5. (ii) d tanh x = sech 2 x. [AQA March 2000] 128 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 4 cosh 3 t − 3cosh t = cosh 3t. show that 2θ tanh θ = e2θ − 1 . show that (i) tanh 2 x = 1 − sech 2 x.

(a) Explain. show that 1 − x2 tanh −1 x = 1 ln 1 + x . (ii) Evaluate y at the stationary point. 1 and 2. (a) Prove that d tanh x = sech 2 x. 2 1− x ( ) (d) Show that ∫ [AQA June 1990] 1 2 0 tanh −1 x dx = a ln b 2 . or otherwise. where n is an integer. by means of a sketch. 129 . [NEAB March 1998] 10. giving your answer in the form p − ln q. [AQA March 2000] 9. where a is to be determined. (b) Given that cosh x = 17 and sinh y = 4 . dx 1 − x2 ( ) (c) By expressing 1 in partial fractions and integrating. prove that d tanh −1 x = 1 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 8. k = 1 and k > 1 are 0. (a) State the values of x for which cosh −1 x is defined. (ii) show that one of the possible values of x + y is ln12 and find the other possible value in the form ln a. (b) A curve C is defined for these values of x by the equation y = x − cosh −1 x. respectively. ( ) 1 − x2 where a and b are numbers to be determined. where p and q are numbers to be determined. 8 3 (i) express y in the form ln n. ( ) dx (b) Hence. (i) Show that C has just one stationary point. why the numbers of distinct values of x satisfying the equation cosh x = k in the cases k < 1.

The diagram shows a region R in the x–y plane bounded by the curve y = sinh x. 2k B x (ii) Show that the area of the region R is 2 . ⎦ 4⎣ (ii) Hence find. the volume swept out when the region R is rotated through an angle of 2π radians about the x-axis.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) y Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 11. 4 2 (b) (i) Show that cosh ( ln k ) = k + 1 . correct to three significant figures. show that OB = ln 3. the x-axis and the line AB which is perpendicular to the x-axis. A R O (a) Given that AB = 3 . 3 (c) (i) Show that ∫ ln 3 0 sinh 2 x dx = 1 ⎡sinh ( ln 9 ) − ln 9 ⎤ . [NEAB June 1998] 130 .

know a formula which can be used to evaluate the length of an arc when the equation of the curve is given in parametric form.2 7. you will: • • • know a formula which can be used to evaluate the length of an arc when the equation of the curve is given in Cartesian form.3 Introduction Arc length Area of surface of revolution Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Chapter 7: Arc Length and Area of Surface of Revolution This chapter introduces formulae which allow calculations concerning curves.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 7.1 7. know methods of evaluating a curved surface area of revolution when the equation of the curve is given in Cartesian or in parametric form. When you have completed it. 131 .

the area under the curve y = f ( x ) above the x-axis and between the lines x = a and x = b is given by A = Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook y ∫a b y dx. ∫ b a πy 2 dx which gives the volume of the solid 132 . For example. differentiation and manipulation of algebraic. the skills needed to solve them do not concern the formulae themselves but involve integration. as with many problems. O a b x You will also be familiar with the formula V = of revolution when that part of the curve between the lines x = a and x = b is rotated about the x-axis. The formulae to be introduced in this chapter should be committed to memory.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 7. You should also realise that.1 Introduction You will probably already be familiar with some formulae to do with the arc length of a curve and the area of surface of revolution. trigonometric and hyperbolic functions – many of which have been introduced in earlier chapters.

⎜ dx ⎟ dx ⎝ ⎠ Thus. 2 2 ≈ (δ x ) + (δ y ) . δ s is the arc length between the points P and Q on the curve y = f ( x ) . y + δ y ) and PN is parallel to the x-axis so that angle PNQ is 90º. ⎝δx⎠ ⎛ dy ⎞ = 1+ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ dx ⎠ 2 In the limit as δ x → 0.2 Arc length Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The arc length of a curve is the actual distance you would cover if you travelled along it. it follows that PN = δ x and QN = δ y. Q has coordinates y P y O a δs δx Q δy N y b x ( x + δ x. ( ) 2 ds = 1 + ⎛ dy ⎞ . ⎝ dx ⎠ 2 If y = f ( x ) . In the diagram alongside. 2 2 2 ( ) δs δx ds dx 2 ⎛δ y ⎞ ≈ 1+ ⎜ ⎟ . Now. if P and Q are fairly close to each other then the arc length δ s must be quite short and PQN be approximately a right-angled triangle. Using Pythagorus’ theorem.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 7. If P has the coordinates ( x. (δ s ) Dividing by (δ x ) . s= 2 ∫ b a ⎛ dy ⎞ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ dx. the length of the arc of curve from the point where x = a to the point where x = b is given by s= ∫ b a ⎛ dy ⎞ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ dx ⎝ dx ⎠ 2 133 . y ) .

2 2 As δ x → 0. ≈ (δ x ) + (δ y ) . ⎝ δt ⎠ 2 2 2 2 2 2 t2 2 2 t1 where t1 and t2 are the values of the parameter at each end of the arc length being considered. ⎝ dt ⎠ 2 where t1 and t2 are the values of the parameter at each end of the arc The use of these formulae will be demonstrated through some worked examples. As before. Suppose that x and y are both functions of a parameter t.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) (δ s ) Dividing by (δ t ) . δs δt 2 ≈ δx δt 2 ⎛δ y⎞ +⎜ ⎟ . 134 . δ t → 0 and ( ) ( ) ( ddst ) = ( ddxt ) + ⎛⎜⎝ ddyt ⎞⎟⎠ ds = dx + ⎛ dy ⎞ ( dt ) ⎜⎝ dt ⎟⎠ dt ⎛ dy ⎞ dx s= ∫ ( dt ) + ⎜⎝ dt ⎟⎠ dt. 2 2 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook A corresponding formula for curves given in terms of a parameter can also be derived. The length of arc of a curve in terms of a parameter t is given by s= ∫ ( ) t2 t1 dx dt 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ + ⎜ ⎟ dt.

⎝ dx ⎠ 2 2 Now.2. Solution y = cosh x dy = sinh x. 135 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 7. s= ∫ = cosh x dx ∫ 0 2 0 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ dx ⎝ dx ⎠ 2 = [sinh x ]0 2 = sinh 2 − sinh 0 = sinh 2. ⎛ dy ⎞ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ = 1 + sinh 2 x ⎝ dx ⎠ = cosh 2 x ⎛ dy ⎞ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ = cosh x.1 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Find the length of the curve y = cosh x between the points where x = 0 and x = 2. dx Therefore.

2 s= 2 ∫ ( ) = 2a sin θ dθ ∫ 2 = ⎡ 2a −2cos θ ⎤ ⎣ ( 2)⎦ 2π 0 dx dθ 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ +⎜ ⎟ dθ ⎝ dθ ⎠ 2 2π 0 2π = −4a cos π − ( −4a cos 0 ) = 8a. dθ Therefore.2 y = a (1 − cos θ ) between θ = 0 and θ = 2π is 8a.2. ( ) dx dθ 2 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ 2 2 2 +⎜ ⎟ = a (1 − cos θ ) + a sin θ dθ ⎠ ⎝ 2 = a 2 1 − 2 cos θ + cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ = a 2 (1 − 2 cos θ + 1) = a 2 ( 2 − 2 cos θ ) = 2a 2 (1 − cos θ ) = 2a 2 2sin 2 θ 2 ( ) 2 2 (using sin θ + cos θ = 1) (using 2 sin θ = 1 − cos 2θ ) 2 ( ) dx dθ Now.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 7. 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ +⎜ = 4a 2 sin 2 θ dθ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ = 2a sin θ . 0 136 . Solution dx = a 1 − cos θ ( ) dθ dy = a sin θ . Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Show that the length of the curve (called a cycloid) given by the equations x = a (θ − sin θ ) .

it follows that 2πyδ s < δ A < 2π ( y + δ y ) δ s 2πy < δ A < 2π ( y + δ y ) . respectively. δs Now as δ x → 0. If the actual area generated by the rotation of arc PQ about the x-axis is denoted by δA. dA = 2πy ds A= = or. Using the formula S = 2πrh for the area of the curved surface of a cylinder. and the length of arc PQ is δs. are taken on the curve y = f ( x ) . P and Q. the area of the former is 2πyδ s and that of the latter is 2π ( y + δ y ) δ s. The area of this surface is known as the ‘curved surface area’ or ‘area of surface of revolution’. Therefore. This arc is rotated about the x-axis by 2π radians. it forms a surface.3 Area of surface of revolution Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook If an arc of a curve is rotated about an axis. but smaller than the area of the cylinder width δs obtained by rotating the point Q about the same axis. δ y → 0 and δ s → 0 so that the right-hand side of the inequality tends to 2πy. The coordinates of P and Q are ( x. Suppose two closely spaced points. You can see from the diagram that the curved surface generated by the rotation is larger than that of the cylinder of width δs obtained by rotating the point P about the x-axis. y + δ y ) . y ) and y P y O a b δs δx y x Q δy ( x + δ x.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 7.2) The area of surface of revolution obtained by rotating an arc of the curve y = f ( x ) through 2π radians about the x-axis between the points where x = a and x = b is given by A= ∫ ⎛ dy ⎞ 2πy 1 + ⎜ ⎟ dx a ⎝ dx ⎠ b 2 137 . dividing by δs. ∫ ∫ b a 2πy ds 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ 2πy 1 + ⎜ ⎟ dx a ⎝ dx ⎠ b (from section 6.

3.1 – from there ⎛ dy ⎞ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ = cosh x.1 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Find the area of surface of revolution when the curve y = cosh x is rotated through 2π radians about the x-axis. ⎝ dx ⎠ Hence. Solution This was the curve used in example 6. 3 138 . A= 2 ∫ = ∫ ⎛ dy ⎞ 2πy 1 + ⎜ ⎟ dx 0 ⎝ dx ⎠ 2 0 2 2 2 2 2π cosh x cosh x dx ∫ cosh x dx = 2π 1 (1 + cosh 2 x ) dx ∫2 = 2π 0 2 0 = π ⎡ x + sinh 2 x ⎤ ⎢ 2 ⎥0 ⎣ ⎦ 2 = π ⎡ 2 + 1 sinh 4 ⎤ − π ⎡0 + 1 sinh 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ = π ⎡ 2 + 1 sinh 4 ⎤ . y = a (1 − cos θ ) is rotated through 2π radians about the x-axis is 64 πa 2 .3.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 7.2. ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ ⎦ Example 7.2 Show that the area of surface of revolution when the cycloid curve given by the equations x = a (θ − sin θ ) .

consider du = − 1 sin θ dθ 2 2 and the integral becomes 3 u 2 ( −2du ) = − 2u 3 ∫ cos 2 θ sin θ dθ . The substitution u = cos θ gives 2 2 2 ∫ =− Integrating for A. 2π A = 8πa 2 ⎡ −2 cos θ + 2 cos3 θ ⎤ ⎢ 2 3 2 ⎥0 ⎣ ⎦ 3 ⎤⎫ ⎧ ⎡ = 8πa 2 ⎨ ⎡ −2 cos π + 2 cos3 π ⎤ − ⎢ −2 cos 0 + 2 cos 0 ⎥ ⎬ ⎥ ⎣ 3 3 ⎦⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩⎢ = 8πa 2 ⎡ 2 − 2 + 2 − 2 ⎤ ⎢ 3 3⎥ ⎣ ⎦ = 64 πa 2 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Solution This was the curve used in example 6. ⎝ dθ ⎠ 2 ∫ = ∫ 2π 0 2π 2πy ( ) dx dθ 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ +⎜ ⎟ dθ ⎝ dθ ⎠ 2 ∫ {1 − ( 2 cos 2 −1)}sin 2 dθ θ θ θ = 4πa ∫ ( 2sin 2 − 2 cos 2 sin 2 ) dθ = 8πa (sin θ2 − cos θ2 sin θ2 ) dθ . 3 139 . 2 cos3 θ 2 3 .2.2 – from there Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ( ) dx dθ Now. A= 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ θ +⎜ ⎟ = 2a sin 2 . ∫ = 4πa 2 2 2π 2 0 2πa (1 − cos θ ) 2a sin θ dθ 2 θ θ (using cos 2 x = 2 cos 2 x − 1) 0 2π 2 2 0 2π 2 0 Now.

(i) Show that y = sechθ . (b) The arc of the curve with equation y = cosh x. ( ) dθ d = sechθ = −sechθ tanh θ . ( ) dx dθ 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ +⎜ = tanh 2 θ .1) to a general point with parameter θ is s. (a) Show that (i) (ii) d tan θ = sech 2θ . [AQA Specimen] 2. Show that S = π ln 9 + p 4 for some rational number p whose value you should state. y = e − s . 4 (ii) establish the identities cosh 2 x ≡ 2 cosh 2 2 x − 1 sinh 2 x ≡ 2sinh x cosh x. [AEB June 2000] ( ) 140 . (a) Using only the definitions of cosh x and sinh x in terms of exponentials. dθ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (ii) The length of arc C measured from the point ( 0.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Miscellaneous exercises 7 1. for any point on curve. where α = ln 9 . ( ) dθ Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook (b) A curve C is given parametrically by x = θ − tanh θ . (i) determine the exact values of cosh α and sinh α . θ ≥ 0. is rotated through one full turn about the x-axis to form a surface of 4 revolution with area S. between the points where x = 0 and x = ln 9 . Find s in terms of θ and deduce that.

141 . ( ) 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ +⎜ = 4 cos 2 θ . (a) (i) Using only the definitions prove the identity cosh 2 θ − sinh 2 θ = 1. Determine the value of the constant k for which S =k [AEB June 1996] θ θ ∫ (1 − sin 2 ) cos 2 dθ . (a) Prove that dx dθ y = 1 + cos θ . between the points when θ = 0 and θ = π is rotated 2 about the x-axis through 2π radians. 25 [AEB June 1997] 4. 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π. (b) A curve C has parametric representation x = sechθ . Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook cosh θ = 1 eθ + e−θ and sinh θ = 1 eθ − e −θ . π 2 2 0 and hence evaluate S exactly.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 3. 2 2 ( ) ( ) (ii) Deduce a relationship between sechθ and tanh θ . (i) Show that y = tanh θ . dθ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 (b) The arc of this curve. ( ) dx dθ 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ +⎜ = sech 2θ . dθ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (ii) The arc of the curve between the points where θ = 0 and θ = ln 7 is rotated through one full turn about the x-axis. Show that the area of the surface generated is 36 π square units. The area of the surface generated is denoted by S. A curve has parametric representation x = θ + sin θ .

3 where t is a parameter. (ii) the area of the surface generated when L is rotated through 2π radians about the x-axis [AEB January 1998] 6. 8 [AEB January 2000] 142 . The length of the arc of curve between the points where x = 0 and x = 1 is denoted by L.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 5. Show that L = 5ln 5 + 12 . (a) Show that dx dt Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ( ) 2 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ + ⎜ ⎟ = t2 +1 . The curve C is defined parametrically by the equations x = 1 t 3 − t. ⎝ dt ⎠ 2 ( ) (b) The arc of C between the points where t = 0 and t = 3 is denoted by L. dx () (b) A curve has the equation y = sinh −1 x + x 1 + x 2 . y = t 2 . (a) Given that a is a positive constant and that y = a 2 sinh −1 x + x a 2 + x 2 . Determine (i) the length of L. a use differentiation to determine the value of the constant k for which dy = k a 2 + x2 .

07. (a) 2 cos π + i sin π 3 2 2 ( ) (b) z z1 ⎛z ⎞ = 1 and arg ⎜ 1 ⎟ = arg z1 − arg z2 z2 z2 ⎝ z2 ⎠ 143 . 4 + 3i (b) −1 + 8i . (a) 1 ( 6 + 8i ) 5 (b) 2 + 2i Exercise 1E 1. –1. (a) 3. 2.82 (b) 5. − 14 + 2 i Exercise 1D 1. 0.93 Exercise 1B 1. π (c) 7. (a) 3 + i . (a) 2 cos − π + i sin − π 4 4 ( ) (c) 4 ( cos π + i sin π ) 2.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Chapter 1 Exercise 1A 1. − π 4 (b) 3.16.71 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Answers to Exercises – Further Pure 2 (d) 2. (a) 2. π 2 (c) 4. − 5π 6 2. (a) − 2 + 2 i (b) −2 − 2 3 i (b) 3 cos π + sin π 2 2 (d) 2 cos − 5π + i sin − 5π 6 6 ( ( ) ) Exercise 1C 1.

0 ) x O x y 2.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 1F π 1. −2 ) x ( −3.1) 4. ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2 6 ⎠ −5 π ⎞ (e) ⎛ 2 .1) O x O (1. (a) ⎛ 6 . ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝ Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook (d) ( 27 .1) (1. (a) y (b) y π 4 (c) y 3 ( 2. (a) 5.98 Exercise 1H 1. x ( −1.2 ) O x y O x y 3. (a) y (b) ( 0.62.38 (b) 5. ⎜ ⎟ ⎝9 6 ⎠ 4π ⎞ (c) ⎛ 9 . 0. (a) 2. 3) ( 4.93 (c) 7. ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ 3 5π ⎞ (b) ⎛ . 0 ) 2.5i (b) 4 + 2i (c) 1 − 1 i 3 Exercise 1G 1. –1. O P ( 0.39.0) Q The locus is the line PQ 144 . 0.5 + 0.

− 7π 12 ) x P2 (b) y A −1. (a) y Q 3. (a)(i) −1 + i (ii) ( ) 4. 0 x arg z = 1 π 4 z − 2 − 3i = 3 O 2. 0 −1. − 0. 0 x −3. 4. 1 − 2i. 1 (1 − i ) 5 5.− 3 5 5 (c) 1. (a) 1 ( 4 + 3i ) 5 3.3 5 5 4 .2 P (b) 3 (c) π 3 O 6. π 6 (iii) 2 10 ( 8.32 (ii) 10 145 .46 and 10.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Miscellaneous exercises 1 1. 1. 0 x 9. 0. (a) y 2 2. (a) 14 + 2i. y 2. 3 − 2i 2. 3 3.1 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook y (b) O z 4 − 2i z* ( ) x ( ) 4. 3π 4 (b)(ii) y O P1 7. 1+i (b)(i) 20. 0 x 2.

–5 (b) −4 . 1 + i.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Chapter 2 Exercise 2A 1. (a) 2 x3 − 9 x 2 + 162 = 0 (b) x3 − 4 x 2 + x − 5 = 0 (b) 2 x3 − 9 x 2 + 12 x + 1 = 0 (c) 7 x3 + 8 x 2 + 4 x − 8 = 0 Exercise 2E 1. 2. 1 ± i (c) 2. 3 (b) 1. (a) −3 ± i (b) −5 ± i Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Exercise 2B 1. (a) 16 x 4 − 6 x 2 + 5 x − 4 = 0 (b) 3 Exercise 2F 1. 2 x3 − 6 x 2 + 7 x + 10 = 0 Exercise 2D 1&2 (a) x3 − 3 x 2 − 36 x − 189 = 0 3. 12. (a) 7. −7 . (a) −1. − 1. −2 3 3 3 2. ± i 2 146 . –3i 3. − 2 ± i Exercise 2C 1. x3 − 4 x 2 + 6 x − 4 = 0 2.

γ = −6 (ii) −150 (iii) 0. (b) (i) p = 4. (a) 8 7 (b) 1 − 2i . (a) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ∑ α = 0 ∑ αβ = 3 2 αβγ = −2 (b) 2 x3 − 3 x 2 − 8 = 0 4. (b) (i) β = 3 − 4i. β = 5 (b) −2 2. −6 7 5. 150 3.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Miscellaneous exercises 2 1. (a) α = 1. – 11. q = −4 147 . (a) p = −3 (b) (i) q = 7 (ii) ∑α 2 < 0 (c) (i) – 3 (ii) 75 6.

(a) 2 10. (a) 1 (c) 1 ( ) 148 . (b) 1 n ( n + 1)( n + 2 ) 6 Miscellaneous exercises 3 2. (a) 2r (b) 1 n ( n + 1) 2 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 1 2. (b) n ( n + 1) n 2 + n + 1 9.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Chapter Chapter33 Exercise 3A 1. (b) 1 − 18 3 ( n + 1)( n + 2 )( n + 3) 3.

(a) –1 (b) 7 (c) 8 Exercise 4F 1. ± 4. cos 2kπ + i sin 2kπ . ± 2. ± 3. 1 . 3 tan θ − tan θ 1 − 3 tan 2 θ 3. 5 5 k = 0 ± 1. 5 k = ±1. (a) 1 ⎛ z 4 + 1 ⎞ ⎟ 2⎜ z4 ⎠ ⎝ (b) 1 ⎛ z 7 + 1 ⎞ ⎟ 2⎜ z7 ⎠ ⎝ (c) 1 ⎛ z 6 − 1 ⎞ ⎟ 2i ⎜ z6 ⎠ ⎝ (d) 1 ⎛ z 3 − 1 ⎞ ⎟ 2i ⎜ z3 ⎠ ⎝ Exercise 4D 1. 5 5 2. (a) ±1. 3sin θ − 4sin 3 θ 3 2. 16sin 5 θ − 20sin 3 θ + 5sin θ Exercise 4C 1.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Chapter 4 Exercise 4A 2. 5 5 3. ± i (b) 2 cos 2kπ + i sin 2kπ . ± 1 i 2 2 149 . (a) 2e 4 πi (b) 2e − πi 6 (c) 12e 6 π (d) 4e 6 5π Exercise 4E 1. ± 2 (c) cos kπ + i sin kπ . ± 2 ( ) k = 0 ± 1. (a) cos15θ + i sin15θ (e) −64 (b) 1 (f) − 1 64 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ( 3 +i ) (c) i (g) −41472 3 (d) −8i Exercise 4B 1.

4 −1 − 5 4 k = ±1.60 − 1. radius 1 1 x 6. 2. B = −3 (b) e kπi 3 (iv) −1 + 5 . 2. 3 (b) k = 1.12i. 2 cos− π + i sin − π 4 4 6 6 (b)(ii) 1. ± 1. +π (b) 2 2 cos π + i sin π . (a)(ii) 2i sin nθ 8. (b) ± 5 ± 5 8 4. 2 cos 4π 5 5 (b)(i) A = 1.16i. 8 (d) ± 1 ( i − 1) 2 (f) − 1 cot kπ − i 2 5 ( 4 k +1) πi (e) 2e 6 − 1 k = 0. 1. 2 cos − π + i sin − π 4 4 6 6 (c) ±2 (1 + i ) . 2 Miscellaneous exercises 4 1. (a)(i) 2sin θ 2 (iii) 2 cos 2π . ± 2 (1 − i ) ( ) ( 2. (b) z = 1 + e (d)(i) π 10 k = ±1. 1. % .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 4G (1+ 2 k ) πi 1 ( 8 k −1) πi 2 6 e 12 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 1. (b) 1.81 + 1. (a) 2 cos π + i sin π . (b)(ii) x 2 + x − 1 = 0 7. − 0. 3 1 ( 6 k −1) πi 2 8 e 24 k = 1. − 7πi 2e 12 (ii) − 1 2 y 2 9. − 0. (a) 2e (c) 8 k = 0. (a) 64. (b) (c) B A 2 (d) 3 3 2 x 2 C 2 150 . ± 2 (c)(i) coefficients of w6 cancel 3πi 2e 4 . 3. 8 5+ 5 8 y πi(1+2k ) 5 ( ) ( ) 3. 2.28i (c) 5− 5 . 2 ( ) ) k = 0. 3 5. ± 2 (ii) 2 cos π 10 (c) centre z = 1.41 + 0.

klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Chapter 5 Exercise 5A 1. (a) x3 −1 − 3sin 4 3 x x 1 − 9 x2 (b) ⎛ (1 + x ) ⎜1 + (3x ⎝ 2 6x 2 2 ⎞ +1 ⎟ ⎠ ) − 2 x tan −1 3 x 2 + 1 (1 + x ) 2 ( ) 2 4. (a) π 4 (b) π 6 (c) − π 6 (d) π 2 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook (e) − π 6 (f) π Exercise 5C 1. (a) (b) e x cos −1 2 x − (c) 2 x sin −1 ( 2 x − 3) + 3 3. (a) 3 1 + 9x 2 x + tan −1 x 1 + x2 2e x 1 − 4 x2 2 x2 −8 + 12 x − 4 x 2 (b) −3 6x − 9x 2 (c) 2 1 − 4x 2 2. (a) a 1 − ( ax + b ) 2 (b) a 2 1 + ( ax + b ) 151 .

(a) ln x 2 + 2 x + 3 − 2 tan −1 ⎜ x + 1 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ( ) ⎛ ⎞ (b) 1 ln x 2 + x + 1 − 1 tan −1 ⎜ 2 x + 1 ⎟ 2 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ( ) 3. 4. π 4 5. 2 5 5 2 4.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 5D 1. 5 right-angled triangle]. π 6 2. (a) tan −1 ( x + 2 ) (b) 1 tan −1 2 x − 1 ( ) 3 6 (c) 2 tan −1 2 x − 1 7 7 ⎛ ⎞ 2. π [note that sin −1 4 + sin −1 3 = π by drawing a 3. (a) sin −1 x − 3 4 ( ) (b) sin −1 x − 1 2 ( ) (c) 1 sin −1 4 x − 1 ( ) 2 4. (a) sin −1 x − 1 − x 2 (b) −3 3 + 2 x − x 2 + sin −1 x − 1 2 (c) ( ) ⎛ ⎞ 1 − x − x 2 + 3 sin −1 ⎜ 2 x + 1 ⎟ 2 ⎝ 5 ⎠ 152 . π Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 3. π 2 Exercise 5E 1.

klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Chapter 6 Exercise 6A 1.54 (e) 1. (a) 0. (a) 2 x e + e− x 2x (b) e 2 x + 1 e −1 x (c) e x − 1 e +1 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook (d) 2 e − e−3 x 3x Exercise 6B 1. 8cosh 4 x − 8cosh 2 x + 1 Exercise 6F 1. (a) 3sinh 3x (d) 2 x sinh 2 x2− cosh 2 x x (g) −cosech x coth x (b) 6sinh 3 x cosh 3 x (e) tanh x + x sech 2 x (c) 2 x cosh x + x 2 sinh x (f) −sech x tanh x 153 .24 (d) –0.86 (c) 0.05 (f) 1. (a) y y 1 O y x (b) O x (c) 1 O x –1 Exercise 6E 2.00 Exercise 6C 1.64 (b) 0.

(a) 1 sinh 3 x + c 3 (c) 1 x cosh 2 x − 1 sinh 2 x + c 2 4 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook (b) 1 x + 1 sinh 2 x + c 2 2 (d) x − tanh x ( ) Exercise 6H 3. (a) ln 2 (d) ln 5 + 21 2 (b) 1. (a) ln 1 3 + 5 2 ( ) (b) e x (b) 1 ln 2 2 (c) ln1.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 6G 1. − ln 7 (e) 0 (c) ln ( 2 − 1 . (a) sinh −1 x + c 3 1 sinh −1 3 x + c (d) 3 7 (g) sinh −1 ( x + 2 ) + c Exercise 6K 1. (a) 3 9 − x2 1 9+ x 2 (c) (e) 1 x − 16 2 − 1 cosh −1 x 2 2 4 x −1 x 2 (d) e x sinh −1 x + 1 + x2 2. 2 3 + ln 2 + 3 3 ( ) (b) cosh −1 x + c 4 −1 x + 1 (e) sinh +c 2 (h) cosh −1 x − 1 + c 3 (c) 1 sinh −1 2 x + c 2 5 −1 x − 2 (f) cosh +c 4 Exercise 6J 1. ln 4 + 15 ) ( ) 154 .5 Exercise 6I 1.

1 ln 2 2 3. (d) 1 ( ln 3) 8 (b)(ii) 2 − ln ( 2 +1 ) 11. − 4 3 3 7.76 155 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Miscellaneous exercises 6 1. (c) − 2 . y Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook (b) 1 ( ) (ii) ln cosh x − 1 tanh 2 x 2 (b)(i) ln 3 two roots one root no roots x (ii) ln 3 4 1 O 9. (c)(ii) 1. ln 2 + 5 4. (a) x ≥ 0 2 10. (b) − ln 2. (b)(i) 1 tanh 2 x 2 8. (a) e x 2. (b) ln 4 5.

(b)(ii) s = ln cosh θ (a)(i) 97 . 5. 4. 3. (b)(i) 12 (a) 2 20 2π 3 (ii) 576 π 5 156 . 6. 2. 72 65 72 (b) 6305 5184 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook (a)(ii) 1 − tanh 2 θ = sech 2θ (b) k = 8π.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Chapter 7 Miscellaneous exercises 7 1.

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