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Lebanese university Faculty of Engineering Telecom Department

Planing and dimensioning of a PSTN network

Prepared by : Mohamad Tawba Rami Faour

2501 2488

Presented to : Dr. Ahmad Raad

Contents : Overview of the telephony network«««««««.««««..«««««««.3 Subject of project««««««««««««««««««««..««««««10 1.Teletrafic study and dimensioning the network«««««««..«««««.12 1.1 Used formuls««««««««««««««««««..«««««..12 1.2 Traffic and dimenioning «««««««««««««.«««««13 2. Switching««««««««««««««««««««««««.««««..18 2.1 Switching overview««««««««««««««««.«««««18 2.2 Design of switching system ««««««««««««««««.«..18 3. Intelligent network««««««««««««««««««««««««.23 3.1 IN architecture««««««««««««««««««..««.««..23 3.2 benefits of intelligent network«««««««««««««««««.25 3.3 inportant IN services«««««««««««««««««««««.26 3.4 Design of IN network«««««««««««««««««««««27 4. Transmission«««««««««««««««««««««««««.«.31 4.1 Transmission overview««««««««««««««««««««.31 4.2 Transmission network««««««««««««««««««..««33 4.3 Design of transmission systems«««««««««««««..«««35 5. Financial Study«««««««««««««««««««««««««47 5.1 Network cost«««««««««««««««««««««.««..47 5.2 Tariffing«««««««««««««««««««««««.«..«50 6. Next generation network««««««««««««««««««..«...54 6.1 NGN functional architecture««««««««««..«.««.««.54 6.2 NGN components««««««««««««««««««.«.««57 6.3 migration to PSTN««««««««««««««««««««.«57 6.4 advantges of NGN«««««««««««««««.«««.«.«..60 7 conclusion««««««««««««««««««««««««.««62

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Overview of the telephony network
I. The Evolution of the Telephone system

The discovery of the telephone can be attributed to Alexander Graham Bell who in 1876 discovered that if a battery is applied across an electrical circuit (the wires) while the user speaks, the sound wave produced by the human voice could be carried across this same pair of wires to a receiving end set up to accept this electrical current and convert the electricity back into sound. Within a few decades (NOT a long duration at that time) of Bell¶s discovery, the first telephone sets were being sold. The first telephone sets were sold in pairs: each telephone was connected to one and only one other telephone via a dedicated wire. This meant that if I wanted the capability to be able to call 10 people, I had to have 10 telephones on my desk. Furthermore, each telephone came with its own battery and a crank used to ring the far-end telephone. Obviously, this was not a very scalable model. Hence, the next step in the evolution was the development of the central office. In this model, a user needed only one telephone set, which was connected by a single wire to the central office. This reduced the demand on the infrastructure dramatically. To use the telephone, the user would simply pick up the phone handset. This would connect him to the human operator sitting at the central office. The user would then tell the human operator who he wished to be connected to and the operator would use a patch-cord system on the telephone panel to connect him to the destination party. Though much more efficient and scalable than the one-to-one model, the model was limited in its capacity because of the human intervention required. As the demand for telephone service grew and technology evolved, digital computers eventually replaced the manual operators. This not only increased the speed of switching but also led to an increase in the effective capacity of the network. This eventually led to the evolution of the telephone network, aka PSTN, in its current form. For this to happen, the analog voice signal needs to be converted to the digital world.

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Digitizing Speech The human voice produces an analog signal. Every 125 s (1/8000th of a second). 8 bits. This value is typically a number between 0 and 255 (i. Ten. before sampling. The continuous curve of the wave accommodates infinity of possible values. The height of the wave represents intensity (loudness).. most of the information conveyed in speech does not exceed 4 kHz. an analog-digital converter samples the value of the analog signal repeatedly and encodes each result in a set of bits. This exploits the fact that. Once speech is digitized.e. which are increasingly using digital components.II. including corporate networks. and the shape of the wave represents frequency (pitch). These pulses produce small variations in air pressure that result in an analog signal. 12 and 16 bit sampling is also popular. and the human ear will not hear distortion. the Internet. the result is a faithful representation of the original signal. the ³filtered´ voice signal is sampled at 8000 Hz so that frequencies up to 4000 Hz can be recorded. In conventional PSTN telephony. the value (magnitude) of the analog voice signal is recorded as a digital value. the converter filters the signal so that most of it lies between 300 and 3400 Hz. which is the basic unit of storage on modern-day computers). When a speaker pushes air out of the lungs through the glottis. Nyquist¶s Theorem states that the sampling frequency must be at least twice as high as the highest input frequency for the result to closely resemble the original signal. while humans can hear frequencies as high as 20 kHz. using a process called digitization. Thus. By sampling this often. a computer can store speech on a hard drive and transmit speech across digital networks. To digitize speech. continuous curve. A computer must convert these values into a set of discrete values.1 The sampling process uses a theorem developed by the American physicist Harry Nyquist in the 1920s. Human speech can be represented as an analog wave that varies over time and has a smooth. and telephone-company networks. 4 . air pulses escape through the mouth and sometimes the nose.

´ 5 . ³Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a digital representation of an analog signal where the magnitude of the signal is sampled regularly at uniform intervals. then quantized to a series of symbols in a digital (usually binary) code. From Wikipedia.As the digital samples are collected. modern telephony systems may convert them into a digital representation using pulse-code modulation or PCM.

the PSTN really consists of two logically separate networks: the signaling 6 . For international calls. Since many telephones (often in a single geographical area) connect to a central office. which can be thought of as huge capacity pipes. we have discussed the PSTN architecture that carries voice calls.. which in turn will route it to the end telephone.e. However. another level of hierarchy comes into play. or the access network. The local office is connected to long-distance offices via trunks. it is possible for calls made within a geographical area to be completed within the access network. This Class 4 switch is then responsible for routing this call to the appropriate Class 5 switch. When a local office determines that the call is meant for a telephone not connected directly to it. This connects via a dedicated pair of wires (often known as twisted pair) to the local office (aka central office).III. but the basic idea of hierarchical routing remains the same. Thus far. the media network. i. long-distance offices (aka Class 4 switches) come into play. for calls destined to far-away geographical areas. However. it routes the call to the appropriate Class 4 switch. This part of the network that connects the end user to the local office is also known as the local loop. PSTN Architecture The customer premises equipment (CPE) is typically a telephone.

Supervision. dialing digits.network and the media network. The media network comes into play only after the call is connected and is used for carrying the voice. which connects subscribers to the local exchange and supporting all type of telecommunication services. When 2 subscribers having an access between each other. consider what happens when you pick up your telephone and make a call. IV. successful calls. getting a dial tone. getting a ring back and finally getting a call connected. To understand the difference between signaling and media. then for each user we have a voice channel allocated: y y Voice channel 1: sent from subscriber A to subscriber B. Signaling refers to the overall process of going off hook. dial digits. These two logically separate networks are implemented as two physically separate networks in the PSTN. Notice that a whole lot of things happen before the voice actually starts fl owing. we should have a good service quality. We have 3 principle functions: y y y Set-up. Release. The operation and maintenance of such traditional network is about 50% of the total cost for running the whole telephony network. The Access network is a modern term used for the network. 7 . You get a dial tone. the Telephony Network: The Access network and the Trunk network are two main parts of the telephony network. The access network is also known as subscriber network or local network or local loop. The quality of service is identified by #of tries. The access network should detect if a certain subscriber holds his apparatus and then give a tone. hear a ring-back tone and are then connected to the called party if (s)he answers the call. The structure of the access network is generally a ³tree structure´ meaning that it can be spread out to a large area. Voice channel 2: sent from subscriber B to subscriber A.

a route selection hierarchy is used.In Access network we don¶t use copper (noise. 8 . The Trunk network supports the transfer of telephone traffic between different local exchanges. cost«). In very big cities. the transit exchanges normally only transfer the traffic between the local exchanges. If this route is completely occupied the secondary route will be selected.O. In parallel with the hierarchical structure. Since we need high capacity in spite of their high cost. M. The tandem exchange. The use of a tandem exchange eliminates the need for direct routes between all local exchanges in a metropolitan area. attenuation. also called local transit. there are a lot of interconnected tandem exchanges in cooperation. High life time. The structure of the trunk network was formed in hierarchical structure of local and transit exchanges. ATM. these are characterized by: y y y High bandwidth. In turn. DSL modem. F. wave. The trunk cables are usually F. The shorted and fasted route is called the ³primary route´ and it will be selected first. exists in metropolitan areas. we use coax. ISDN (integrated service digital network).O.. High bit rate. cross talk. there is at least two or more route to a given destination. At each level.

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objective The abstract of this project is to planning . the country consists of 6 big cities and 26 small cities and villages 2. and dimensioning of PSTN network for a given country . Big cities subscribers are considered to be 70 % residential and 30 % business .5 ms Incoming 10 ms y y y y y y Maximum CP load : 75 % Congestion : 1 % Capacity of transit Exchange : 7000 Erlangs Maximum capacity of RSU : 2048 Lines 40 % of traffic is interzone taffic Links between LE and RSU : 3 E1/1000 Lines This project is devided into 6 parts : 10 . input data y y y y y y y y Originating traffic for residential subscribers : 500 KBHCC Terminating traffic for residential subscribers is 66 % of originating one .9 ms y Outgoing 12. designing .(the total number of companies is about 2500 ). while small cities and villages subscribers are 80 % residential and 20 % business . Mean holding time (business ) = 120 %. Terminating traffic for business subscribers is 66 % of originating one . Originating traffic for business subscribers : 250 KBHCC. Portion of internal calls pint = 30 % Mean holding time (residential ) = 90 seconds . Central processor (CP)-Execution time : Internal 6.Subject of project 1.

3.capacity . Proposition of a solution to migrate the PSTN network to NGN network .«) Design of transmission system (Architecture. 11 . type. nodes. 5. capacity . 6.1.type . Design of switching system ( Architecture . 2. 4.exchanges . Teletraffic study and dimensioning of the desired network (loss System ).«) Design of IN Platform (Architecture . capacity .«) Financial study of the network . exchanges . type.

subscriber. y                           y LE traffic in = incoming call intensity * mean holding time =                         y        y y y y y y y y CP load (%) = [(LE traffic int+ LE traffic orig+ LE traffic term)*Rcp]/Sb *100. Transit traffic: LE traffic out + LE traffic in. Used formulas y Incoming call intensity: Yit = (N*At-N*Ao*P int) / S. While N is the number of subscribers. and A is the traffic (A= Y*S). Teletraffic study and dimensioning the network : 1. E1 out: is the number of E1 corresponding to the Circuits LE_TE out E1 out = circuit LE_TE out / 30 E1 in: is the number of E1 corresponding to the Circuits LE_TE in E1 in = circuit LE_TE in /30 Interzone traffic out is the 40 % of traffic out. y Outgoing call intensity: Yot = N*Ao*(1-P int) / S. Ao is the originating traffic per terminating traffic per subscriber. and At Is the While n is the number of circuits.1. while A utilized is the LE Traffic out. Erlang B formula: the congestion E= An/n! ™ Ai /i! .8 ms (=0.0098 sec). 12 .1. y Internal call intensity: Yint = N*Ao*P int / S. while A utilized is the LE Traffic in.9+12. Interzone traffic in is the 40 % of traffic in. and i is a counter from 0 to n. Circuits LE_TE in: Is the number of circuits given by the Erlang B formula. Circuits LE_TE out: Is the number of circuits given by the Erlang B formula. y y The average value of the Central Processor ± Execution time: Rcp= (6.5+10)/3 ms= 9.

Note that the residential subscribers in the big cities are equal to 70 % of the subscribers .0384 E The terminating residential traffic(Atr) = 0. we obtain : 13 .1.0644 E The terminating business traffic(Atb) = 0. The CP load = CP load (residential) + CP load (business ) y y - Calculation of originating and terminating traffic for residential and business per subscriber : y y y The total number of subscribers = 453453 subscriber The total residential subscribers = 344847 subscriber The total business subscribers = 137278 subscriber Originating traffic per residential           Terminating traffic per residential=0. Note that the number of subscribers in the big cities are equal to 50 % of the estimated population.66* Originating traffic per residential y y y y The originating residential traffic (Aor) = 0. and the number of subscribers in the small cities are equal to 20 % of the estimated population. The residential subscribers and the business subscribers . and 80 % in the small cities . we associate each big city with the nearest small cities .2.0253 E The originating business traffic(Aob) = 0. The population of each city after 5 years The numbers of subscribers .0425 E In our project we have 6 big cities and 26 small cities . Traffic and dimensioning The following information are used to calculate the zones tables : y y y The population of each city .

14 .Also we devide our country into 3 zones .

After the calculations in each zone . we summarize the results in the following tables : ZONE1 15 .

ZONE 2 16 .

ZONE 3 : 17 .

In addition.2 Design of Switching system : Zone 1 : The capacity of transit Exchange = 7000 Erlangs The transit traffic per zone = 7480.1 Switching overview : y The role of switching is to multiplex user channels together and enable subscribers of the same area (belonging to the same exchange) to communicate together.985383 % < 75 % . The CP load of C = 25. For multiplexing the channels. Switching 2.. then we need 1 local switch in C .217084 % < 75 %. we calculate the 18 . In Digital communication. Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) technique is adopted. and TT1 . Also the maximum CP load : 75 % The CP load of A = 55. we have known PCM as a coding technique converting an analog signal into digital data or bits. then we need 1 local switch in A . The maximum capacity of RSU : 2048 Lines and the links between LE and RSU : 3 E1/1000 lines. Semiconductors allow us to get rid of the thermal noise and therefore the power will be zero (P = V*I = 0).53654 Erlangs > 7000 Erlangs So we need to use 2 transit switches per zone T1 .. y y y 2. Its name is derived from semiconductors materials that played a big role in the progress of digital transmission. it is responsible for analog to digital conversion since the line from the subscriber carries an analog signal and it has to be transmitted in a digital format to other switches.2. For each small city we need an RSU to connect with the local switch . This technique is adopted in PSTN network for analog to digital conversion.

These results let us know the data flow in zone 1 : we used a 70 % protection for each transit switch . we are using a load balancing between the 2 transit switches T1 and TT1 Zone 2 : The capacity of transit Exchange = 7000 Erlangs The transit traffic per zone = 7921.number of RSU needed in each city . and the LE ± TE traffic coming from T1 or TT1 are equal to 70 % of the total LE ± TE traffic out maximal . and we find the number of E1¶s used in each small city (we need 3 E1 for each 1000 lines ) The details are calculated in the zone1¶s table described above .48724 Erlangs > 7000 Erlangs 19 . so the LE ± TE traffic going to T1 or TT1 are equal to 70 % of the LE ± TE traffic IN maximal .

then we need 1 local switch in F . For each small city we need an RSU to connect with the local switch .232985 % < 75 %. then we need 1 local switch in D . Also the maximum CP load : 75 % The CP load of F = 29.. These results let us know the data flow in zone 2 : we used a 70 % protection for each transit switch . and TT2 .So we need to use 2 transit switches per zone T2 . we calculate the number of RSU needed in each city .465401 % < 75 % . and we find the number of E1¶s used in each small city (we need 3 E1 for each 1000 lines ) The details are calculated in the zone2¶s table described above . The maximum capacity of RSU : 2048 Lines and the links between LE and RSU : 3 E1/1000 lines. so the LE ± TE traffic going to T1 or TT1 are equal to 70 % of the LE ± TE traffic IN maximal . The CP load of D = 58. 20 ..

and we find the number of E1¶s used in each small city (we need 3 E1 for each 1000 lines ) The details are calculated in the zone3¶s table described above . The CP load of B = 32.481302 % < 75 % .720596 % < 75 %.. then we need 1 local switch in D . These results let us know the data flow in zone 3 : 21 . For each small city we need an RSU to connect with the local switch .05152 Erlangs > 7000 Erlangs So we need to use 2 transit switches per zone T3 . we calculate the number of RSU needed in each city . and TT3 . The maximum capacity of RSU : 2048 Lines and the links between LE and RSU : 3 E1/1000 lines. we are using a load balancing between the 2 transit switches T2 and TT2 Zone 3 : The capacity of transit Exchange = 7000 Erlangs The transit traffic per zone = 7990. Also the maximum CP load : 75 % The CP load of E= 48.. then we need 1 local switch in F .and the LE ± TE traffic coming from T1 or TT1 are equal to 70 % of the total LE ± TE traffic out maximal .

22 . so the LE ± TE traffic going to T1 or TT1 are equal to 70 % of the LE ± TE traffic IN maximal .we used a 70 % protection for each transit switch . and the LE ± TE traffic coming from T1 or TT1 are equal to 70 % of the total LE ± TE traffic out maximal . we are using a load balancing between the 2 transit switches T3 and TT3 .

e. Customized services to users. exchanges. Rapid service creation and deployment. capacity. ± Network independence. type. markets and customers. Centralized service management. Rapid adaptation to market needs and competition. new services. ‡ 23 .. New opportunities to make business i.3. Intelligent Network offers added value ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Open standards. Source of Competitive Advantage. IN has been applied in telephone and voice services. using computer technology .) 3.Definition: Intelligent Network (IN) : IN is based on the existing PSTN network . The Intelligent Network is a universal service platform providing: ± Service independence. it build on overlay intelligent network . but today its meaning is also growing in the service integration of mobile and fixed telephone networks and as gateway to Internet based networks. to control the telecommunication network providing value added service.1 IN architecture: I. vendor independence.Intelligent Network : (Architecture. ‡ Originally.

supports flexible information interactions between user and network. SSCP: Service Switching and Control Point . SN: Service Node .Functionally contains SCF.Example of specialised resources: DTMF digit collection. AD: Adjunct . SNAP: Service management Access Point .contains service logic programs (SLPs) used to provide IN services. audio conference bridge. voice/speech recognition devices. SCEP: Service Creation Environment Point .7. IP: Intelligent Peripheral . develop and test IN services. trunk connection (CCF)   Switching capabilities (local/transit exchange).may access data in SDP directly or through SS No. . SDP: Service Data Point . SDF and CCF/SSF. to communicate with SCF   Service switching capabilities.The main nodes that compose the IN platform are : SSP: Service Switching Point .. . .used to define.. .7.provides service managers. 24 .Functionally equivalent to the SCP but directly connected to SSP via a high speed interface.contains data used by SLPs. text to speech synthesis.contains mechanisms to detect IN services.provides user access to network (CCAF). SDF.Functionally contains SCF. tone generator. SRF and CCF/SSF. SCP: Service Control Point .is connected to IP via SSP relay function or through SS No.2 . customised voice announcement.

To meet these objectives. network data collection. To accomplish this.performs data base administration. 25 . Create open interfaces Open interfaces allow service providers to introduce network elements quickly for individualized customer services. The software must interface with other vendors' products while still maintaining stringent network operations standards.2 benefits of intelligent networks The main benefit of intelligent networks is the ability to improve existing services and develop new sources of revenue. Provide service customization Service providers require the ability to change the service logic rapidly and efficiently. providers require the ability to accomplish the following: y y y y Introduce new services rapidly IN provides the capability to provision new services or modify existing services throughout the network with physical intervention. suppliers must integrate commercially available software to create the applications required by service providers. Service providers are no longer relying on one or two vendors to provide equipment and software to meet customer requirements. network monitoring.SMP: Service Management Point . network testing. 3. Customers are also demanding control of their own services to meet their individual needs. Establish vendor independence A major criterion for service providers is that the software must be developed quickly and inexpensively. network traffic management.

allowing the customer not only to roam within the fixed telephone network. This card provides the user with specific amount of prepaid calling time. o Number Portability: The ability for a customer to change his telephone network provider without being forced to change his telephone number is the basis of the number portability service. etc. by using a scratch card which represents certain amount of prepaid charging units. To subscribe to this service. trough various channels and points of sales. The extra charges collected are forwarded to the information service provider.3. Number portability is increasingly viewed as an essential of competition among public telephone service providers. The problems posed by changing number. otherwise dissuade change of telephone network provider. while simultaneously creating a call-charge record of the call receiver¶s account. o Tele-voting: This service is conceived to complement television games shows in which viewers are invited to call different telephone numbers to register their vote for the best participant. o Universal access number service: This service enable the subscribers to publish a single national number and have incoming calls routed to different destinations based on criteria such as location. but also connect to mobile telephones and other networks. At the call setup. allowing the SSP to complete the call set-up. o Universal personal telephone service: It is an extension of the universal number service. The public network thus appears to the corporate customer much as a private network with a µtailored¶ company numbering plan. There is a provision of private numbering plan and the call charging is on the basis of duration of usage o Free phone: The intelligent network converts dialed free phone number to standard telephone number. intelligent network verifies the card¶s account number and requests caller¶s authorization by means of his personal identification number (PIN). time and date of the call. which are sold on the market. o Prepaid calling card service: This service enables card holders to make calls from any telephone in the public network. 26 . traffic information. o Premium rate service: The ability to charge a premium rate for calls besides the normal telephone charges enables charging the caller for services such as weather information.3 inportant IN services : o Virtual private network: It is a network specific to a company (a telephone closed user group with a specific telephone numbering plan) which is created for individual corporate customers of the public network. invoicing call charges to their personal calling card account.

business subscribers .The table below shows the paying party for every service: IN services Free phone service Universal Access Number Virtual private network Pre-paid calling Card Premium rate services Tele-voting charging to caller Tele-voting not charging to caller Number Portability Universal personal telephone service Paying Party Called party Calling party Group ID authority Calling party through card Calling Calling Called ____ Called 3.4 design of IN network In our network . but only by residential subscribers and non subscribed people by a defined percentage : y y y 15 % of residential subscriber 30 % of non subscriber 0 % of business 27 .residential subscribers . we will use : 1.The prepaid calling card service : In our network .non subscribed people the prepaid calling card will not be used by the business subscribers . we have three type of people : .

Note that number of persons = nb of residential using IN + number of non subscriber using IN .05896 1 nb of companies 562 408 288 593 502 147 2500 The number of subscribers = number of residential subscribers + number of business subscribers.115116 0. 28 .237248 0.224614 0. Traffic out = Aor * nb of persons .0384 E .The following table determine the number of companies according to the number of subscribers in each zone local A B C D E F Total nb of sub 101852 74055 52200 107581 91029 26736 453453 % of sub 0. Now we will find the traffic out of the prepaid card service = residential traffic + non subscribers traffic .163313 0. Number of companies = % of subscribers * 2500 . % of subscribers =( number of subscribers / number of business ).200746 0. Originating traffic of non subscribers = Aor = 0.

The number of E1¶s = number of lines / 30 . So the total number of E1¶s used for non subscribers = 63 E1 We will add this traffic to the traffic between transits .Now we will calculate the number of E1¶s needed for non subscribers from each zone to SSP .0425 E .2 Using B formula we find the number of lines . We suppose that each company uses 1 free phone then Traffic = % of companies uses free phones * Atb 29 . First we find traffic out of non subscriber = Aor * number of non subscriber uning IN * 0. This service is used by business companies so we have Atb = 0. 2 free phone service : We suppose that 15 % of the companies uses 5 free phone .

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1 transmission overview : Before describing the transmission section.4. After the switching section. we can conclude that the sampling frequency must be more than twice of the signal frequency. 31 . Let¶s describe each device in this block diagram: 1. the signal that enters the transmission section is the PCM signal. the two samples of the same signal are separated by 125 s.S/H: using shanon theorem. What¶s the PCM signal? PCM means pulse code modulation Analog signal S/H (sampler and holder) Quantization Coder PCM To block the aliasing. we can put a low pass filter before the S/H. Fs >= 2*Fm As we know the voice frequency is limited between 300HZ and 3400 HZ So for more security. Fs was been taken 8KHZ. let¶s give a little description for some characteristics of the signal that uses this section. In the PCM signal. transmission 4.

The final step to get the PCM signal is the coding. the next step is the quantization. we reserve 64 Kbits/s. 2.Then. Actually. we have many types of coding. 3.1 sample (8 bits) 64 kbits/s 125 s 1s So for each customer. In this step the sample takes a number by approximation. Those types are: y y y y y RZ NRZ Manchester Differential HDB3( This the type used by OGERO) Switch or Data network Switch or Data network DDF DDF TX ADM RX Optical fiber cable RX ADM TX y y DDF: digital distribution frame ADM: add drop multiplex (transmission equipment for multiplexing) 32 .

In this section.048 Mbits/s In multiplexing.As we see. y Coaxial cables. So what¶s the E1 signal: We describe that each user is given 64Kbits/s. we have two types of hierarchy: y y PDH Hierarchy. we have two methods: y y TDM : time division multiplexing FDM : frequency division multiplexing 4. the transmission equipment is based on multiplexing. Transmission network In this part we are interested into two parts: Transmission lines: y fiber optics cables.2. SDH Hierarchy PDH Hierarchy: 33 . so the rate of the E1 signal is: 64 K bits/s * 32 = 2. and the E1 signal is a group of 32 user of 64Kbits/s. And the signal coming from the switch to the ADM is an E1 (European system) signal.

52 Mbps [155 Mbps]).e. this exchange can¶t just pass data through.. The basic unit of transmission in SONET is at 51. SDH Hierarchy: The original SDH standard defined the transport of 1. 155. it is obliged to demultiplex then multiplex it.Drawbacks of PDH: Whenever I need to Add or Remove an E1 at the stage of switches. we have to DeMultiplex and then Multiplex all the E1¶s in a hierarchal order. so this consumes time. that¶s mean the standard bit rate is: 63 * 2.84 Mbps. SDH is based on three times this (i. Multiplexing and DeMultiplexing several times weakens the signal and may introduce error bits to the structure of signal. The standard rate for the SDH is the STM1(synchronous transport mode) which contains 63 E1. a subset of SDH is compatible with a subset of SONET. Repeatance. If data passes by an exchange that is just on the path and not an end of the communication. since same E1¶s might be multiplexed and demultiplexed several times upon drop or insertion including the E1¶s that need not to be dropped or inserted. within rates that are integer multiples of 155. Through an appropriate choice of options. Interworking for alarms and performance management is generally not possible between SDH and SONET systems. therefore.5/2/6/34/45/140 Mbps within a transmission rate of 155. It is only possible in a few cases for some features between vendors of SDH and slightly more between vendors of SONET. traffic inter working is possible. such as asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) and Internet protocol (IP).048 Mbits/s = 155 Mbits/s 34 .52 Mbps.52 Mbps and is being developed to carry other types of traffic. but in order to carry 140 Mbps.

STM1(first rate) : 63 * 2 Mbits/s = 155 Mbits/s (in 125 s) STM4(four STM1) : 4 * 155 = 622 Mbits/s (in 125 s) STM16(four STM4) : 4 * 622 = 2.2 and 3 are as follows : Ab1 Ab2 Ab3 154052 134317 165084 35 . The following formula calculates the E1 transit traffic from zone I to zone j The number of subscriber of the zonez 1.5 Gbits/s (in 125 s) STM64(four STM16) : 4 * 2.3 design of transmission systems : 4. Ti: number of outgoing E1 from zone i (1 i 3).5 Gbits/s (in 125 s) 4. Let : Abi: number subscriber of the zone i (1 i 3).3.1. transmission between zones : We calculated in the first part the interzone traffic out and the interzone traffic in from each transit .

y Traffic calculation of zone 1 :        y Traffic calculation of the zone 2 :     y Traffic calculation of the zone 3 :     Results : T1 T1 T2 T3 35 E1 39 E1 T2 31 E1 34 E1 T3 37 E1 37 E1 36 .

and we protect them with a 139 Mb/s PDH microwave links . T2-1= max (T12. We add the number of E1 s used in the prepaid card service . T31) = 39 E1. T32) = 37 E1.We know that : Maximum capacity of an STM-1 = 63 E1 Maximum capacity of an STM-4 = 252 E1 Maximum capacity of an STM-16 = 1008 E1 T1-2 = max (T12. T3-2 = max (T23. T1-3 = max (T13. The number of E1 out of the zone 2 is : 35 E1 + 37 E1 = 72 E1 > 63 E1 Then we need to use an ADM of type STM-4. The total number of E1 s used by the bus are : 74 + 72 + 76 = 223 E1 . T31) = 39 E1. The number of E1 out of the zone 1 is : 35 E1 + 39 E1 = 74 E1 > 63 E1 Then we need to use an ADM of type STM-4 . T21) = 35 E1. we obtain the total number of E1 s equal to 223 E1 + 63 E 1 = 286 E1 > 252 E1 We need to use an ADM of type STM-4 and an ADM of type STM-1 The backbone connecting each zone with the other zones is a bus connection . T32) = 37 E1. T2-3 = max (T23. T21) = 35 E1. 37 . T3-1= max (T13. we use an SDH and ADM to connect all the transit switchs . The number of E1 out of the zone 3 is : 39 E1 + 37 E1 = 76 E1 > 63 E1 Then we need to use an ADM of type STM-4.

For transit T1 : There are 2 local exchange A and C connected to the transit T1 . We will find the summation of the incoming and outgoing E1 sand based on the determined value we will decide what STM level to use or what conbination too use .The ring connection means that all the E1 lines are sent over all LEs in a ring or circular schema and in both directions. Sum of incoming and outgoing E1¶s = 0.2. We will use fiber optics .3. we will not make protection with microwave links because the ring connection is protected . We will use a ADM multiplexer . transmission inside each zone : In this part we will describe the transmission between the local exchange and the transit exchange .4. The ring between T1 and the 2 local exchange A and C is described in the following schematic : 38 . we will use a ring connection .7*(110+57+57+30)=178 E1 So we need 1 STM-4 connection .

1 S TM-4 178 E 1 For transit TT1 : There are 2 local exchange A and C connected to the transit TT1 .7*(110+57+57+30)=178 E1 So we need 1 STM-4 connection . The ring between TT1 and the 2 local exchange A and C is described in the following schematic : 1 S TM -4 178 E 1 39 . Sum of incoming and outgoing E1¶s = 0.

For transit T2 : There are 2 local exchange F and D connected to the transit T2 . The ring between TT2 and the 2 local exchange F and D is described in the following schematic : 40 . Sum of incoming and outgoing E1¶s = 0.7*(61+32+116+61)=190 E1 So we need 1 STM-4 connection . The ring between T2 and the 2 local exchange F and D is described in the following schematic : For transit TT2 : There are 2 local exchange F and D connected to the transit TT2 . Sum of incoming and outgoing E1¶s = 0.7*(61+32+116+61)=190 E1 So we need 1 STM-4 connection .

7*(99+51+80+42)=191 E1 So we need 1 STM-4 connection . The ring between T3 and the 2 local exchange E and B is described in the following schematic : 1 S TM-4 191 E 1 41 .For Transit T3 : There are 2 local exchange E and B connected to the transit T3 . Sum of incoming and outgoing E1¶s = 0.

Sum of incoming and outgoing E1¶s = 0. The ring between TT3 and the 2 local exchange E and B is described in the following schematic : 42 .7*(99+51+80+42)=191 E1 So we need 1 STM-4 connection .For Transit TT3 : There are 2 local exchange E and B connected to the transit TT3 .

then each village takes its lines and sends the rest over PDH according bit rates. For Local exchange A : We use PDH equipment on fiber in a loop connection. and if not we use 139Mbps PDH.3 trasmission between local and RSU¶s : Now we will discuss the transmission between the local exchange and the RSU¶s.3. so we use PDH 139Mbps for the total. For local exchange C : 43 . The total line send to the first city j is 38 E1. if less than 34 Mbps we use 34Mbps PDH.4.

The total line send to the first city d is 23 E1 in first loop and The total line send to the first city i is 23 E1 in second loop. 44 . then each village takes its lines and sends the rest over PDH according bit rates. For local Exchange F : We use PDH equipment on fiber in 2 loop connection.For Local exchange D : The village k is very far so we connect it to the LE with a microwave connection using PDH 39 Mb/s . if less than 34 Mbps we use 34 Mbps PDH. so we use PDH 139Mbps for the total. and if not we use 139 Mbps PDH.

For local exchange E : For local exchange B : 45 .

46 .

In our project we are using seven switches. to define the tariffs and finally to give the scale of charge that will lead us to get our money back in 4 years . 30% in second year and 20% in the third year and 10% during the last one. one oh them used to the intelligent network . 1. y PDH : 150 MU/2 Mbits/s. y Mean holding time per subscriber per day= 10 min ( residential ) . Network cost: A-Prices of switches: The price of the layer of communication is the sum of the price of transits and the local switches. Equipment price: y Transit exchange : 400 MU/E. y +50% of price of transmission for the FO and MW. y +7% or O&M (TMN) per year. y +6% of total network price for IN platform. y Local exchanges cost: 47 . Financial Study Objective: y The objective is to determine the total costs of the established network . y Local exchange: 30 MU/line ( RSU included ) y SDH STM-4: 120000 MU/unit.5. y 40% of the installed lines in the first year . Cost of transit exchanges = 7*7000*400=19600000 MU. 25 min ( business). y Transit exchanges cost The cost of transit depend on the number of swiches used . y +40% of the total price of local loop. y SDH STM-1: 35000 MU/unit.each switch have a capacity of 7000 . y Four years network damping. y +10% of the revenues added as income from international calls.

It is pointed out that we have 6 local switches and that the price of this kind of switch depends on the number of lines (30 MU/lines). However each line corresponds to only one subscriber. Thus the total price of each switch is worth 30 * the number of subscribers=30*482101=14463030 MU. the total price of the switches is equal to the sum of the transit and local switches: 19600000+14463030=34063030 MU.

B-Transmission cost: The price of transmission is the sum of the prices of BACKBONE, RINGS, LOOPS and FO&MW. One will then determine the price spent on the BACKBONE then on the BOXING RINGS. a. BACKBONE: In this layer, one is interested in the transits. We used 8 SMT-4 and 8 STM-1 . y 4 SMT-4 and 4 STM-1 for the bus connection y 4 SMT-4 and 4 STM-1 for the microwave backup connection. The total price is: 8*120000+8*35000=1240000 MU.

b. RING: In the ³rings´, we still use equipment SDH. Thus the price of each ring depends on the type of the node SDH which one will use (STM-1 or STM-4). In our project, there are 6 rings STM-4 in each one 3 ADMs. Total SDH price: 6*3*120000=2160000 MU. c. Loop cost: We used PDH to connect LEs to RSUs in Loops or junctions: 36 PDH 139Mbps 32 PDH 34 Mbps The total price is = 36*(139/2)*150+32*(34/2)*150 = 36*69.5*150+32*17*150=456900 MU. The Total transmission cost is: 1240000+2160000+456900=3856900 MU.

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C-Equipments cost:  Fiber optics and microwaves cost: The price of the links between the equipments(F.O. & M.W.) Given the price of the links equals to 50% of the price of the transmission equipments. Price of Fo & MW = 0.5*price of transmission =0.5*3856900 =1928450 MU.  Local loop cost: The price of the local loop is given as 40% of the total price. Total price =34063030+3856900+1928450=39848380 MU. Local loop price = 40%*total price =0.4*39848380 =15939352 MU.  New total cost of the network The total price of the network=34063030+3856900+1928450+15939352 =55787732 MU.  IN cost: The price of IN platform is 60% of the total cost of the network. IN cost = 0.06*55787732=3347264 MU.  New total cost of the network = 55787732+ 3347264= 59134996 MU.  TMN cost :  First year: 0.07*0.4*59134996 = 1655780  Second year: 0.07*0.7*59134996 = 2897615  Third year: 0.07*0.9*59134996 = 3725505  Fourth year: 0.07*1*59134996 = 4139449 The cost of management and operation of the network , At the end of the four specified years is: TMN=0.07*(0.4+0.7+0.9+1)* 59134996=12418349 MU. Thus the price total of the network which the operator must cover after four years is the sum of the cost of maintenance and operation during the four years with the price of the network: Total network price =12418349+59134996=71553345 MU.

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2. TARIFFING: In this part, we will determine the cost of installation, inscription monthly magazine, and the tariff of a call. Moreover we will offer to the subscribers some services IN, it is then necessary to define their tariffs. Tariffing must be done in a way to have after four years an income able to cover the total costs of the network. 1. Calculation of the income: The income in our project comes from the several types of income:  National  Inscription  Price of installation  Returned of the intelligent network. Conversation in the first 4 years: We suppose that M is the price of a minute of subscriber¶s conversation. We have to calculate the total number of spent minutes in conversation: % of installed lines * (business subscriber x Mean holding time per subscriber per day + residential subscriber x Mean holding time per residential subscriber per day) * number of days per year. First Year: 0.4 x (137278 x 25mn + 344847 x 10mn) x 365 = 1 004 541 320 mn Second Year: 0.7 x (137278 x 25mn + 344847 x 10mn) x 365 = 1 757 947 310 mn Third Year: 0.9 x (137278 x 25mn + 344847 x 10mn) x 365 = 2260 217 970 mn Fourth Year: 1 x (137278 x 25mn + 344847 x 10mn) x 365 = 2 511 353 300 mn

2. National income: total number of min =1004541320+1757947310+2260217970+2511353300 =7 534 059 900 mn. the income from minutes spoken during the four years is : 7 534 059 900*M. 3. Monthly subscription income: Assume that S is the cost of a month subscription. In the first year, subscribers will pay 48 subscriptions in 4 years. In the second year, subscribers will pay 36 subscriptions in 3 years. In the third year, subscribers will pay 24 subscriptions in 2 years. In the fourth year, subscribers will pay 12 subscriptions in 1 year. Then the total revenue of subscription will be:
50

Total revenue of subscription = total subscx40%x4yearsxS + total subscx70%x3yearsxS + total subscx90%x2year1xS + total subscx100%x1yearxS = 482101*0.3*nonsubscribers)*6*200*M=189988794 0*M b. we suppose that 375 company take this service each of the 4 years. a.7*S*12 +482101*0.15*residential+0.7+0. Prepaid calling card service: Tariff/min: National=2*M International=7*M Local GSM=6*M Card Price=200*M We suppose that we have 15% of our residential subscribers and 30 % of non subscribers that take this service each year. but only 40% of the company take this services for the first year and 70% in the second year. universal access number and free phone. In 3 years we get as revenue from this service: Revenue from this service= (0.4+0. Income of installation: Assume that INS is the income from installation then the total income is: 482101*INS 5.9*S*12 +482101*5*S*12 = 17355636 S = T2 4. in the third year 90% of the company 51 .4*S*12 +482101*0. Income from IN network: In our project we have 3 services: prepaid calling card.9+1)*(0. Free phone service: Tariff/min=M Initial fees per year=I Monthly Subscription=4*S We have 2500 company in our country.

Our total Revenue from this service=375*The cost paid by the company +our cost sharing with this company =[375*3*(12*4*S +I ) +0. 52 . we share 55% of the cost paid by these companies. Each year the company must pay all the subscriptions (in each month) and the initial fees if it wants to renew or to newly subscribe in this service.7M = 7714052792M + 483226 I + 17396136 S This must equal the total cost 71553345 MU.9+1)*((12*4*S +I )*nb of company+ residential subscribers * Mean of % of residential subscribers that use this service per year*Mean number of minutes talked every day per each subscriber *M*365) We have supposed that: Mean of % of residential subscribers that use this service per year is 65% Mean of Number of minutes talked every day per each subscriber 4 minutes As operator.7M Total IN revenue: Adding up all IN revenue we obtain a total of: 40500S+1125I+1089641840M Total revenue = National income + subscription income + income installation + income IN =7 534 059 900*M+17355636 S+ 482101*INS +54000S+1125I+179992891.7+0.55*residential subscribers * 0.4+0.65*4*M* 365)]=54000S+1125I+179992891.take this services. finally in the fourth all the company that need to take this services take it. Cost paid by each Business company that take this service= (0.

then we get M*Mean number of minutes used by a subscriber in a month=4*S o o o M*30*(residential subscriber* Mean holding time per subscriber per day for residential subscriber+ business subscriber* Mean holding time per subscriber per day for business subscriber) = 4*S S=107*M I=2140.13 * 10^-3 MU 53 . and we propose a cost of month conversation equals to a 4 times the monthly subscription.65 M + 17396136 *107M = = 10609857080 M 0.65*M Then the total IN revenue = 7714052792 M +483226*2140.1 of the total IN revenue is a international calls so : Replacing each term we obtain: 10609857080 M * 1.We suppose that I=20S.1 =71553345 MU o.1 of the total then M = 6.

the NGN architecture supports the delivery of multimedia services and content delivery services. NGN Architecture According to Y. NEXT GENERATION NETWORK (NGN) 6.2012.6. 54 .2012. including video streaming and broadcasting. An aim of the NGN is to serve as an PSTN and ISDN replacement. NGN Functional Architecture The NGN architecture as defined by the ITU and ETSI borrows heavily from the work done by 3GPP. The diagram below shows the architecture that has been defined for the NGN in ITU-T Rec. Y.1.

The NGN architecture defines a Network-Network Interface (NNI). The NACF and RACF are two components of the NGN. get permission to access certain resources. receive an IP address. etc. IMS access. Perhaps this makes sense for legacy PSTN equipment. and access to "other multimedia components". but what about newer IP devices? Are all IP devices. terminals will communicate directly or indirectly with the Resource and Admission Control Functions (RACF) in order to get desired QoS for communication. So. In this author's opinion. There are a number of components within this architecture which would suggest a "freedom of services" to users. NGN devices? They are not. Users would potentially have access to RTSP-based streaming services. User-Network Interface (UNI). the very fact that these components are listed as the components of the NGN suggests that the service providers behind this effort wish to have too much control. Note that "legacy" terminals (user devices) must pass through a gateway device. including the Network Attachment Control Functions (NACF) and Resource and Admission Control Functions (RACF). according to those trying to define the NGN. Once attached to the network. etc. The Transport stratum provides IP connectivity services to NGN users under the control of Transport control functions. what are IP devices we use today? Are they exclused from the NGN or locked into tight control with 55 . get configuration information. A more detailed component view of the NGN is shown in the following figure: NGN Components Terminals that talk to the NGN will authenticate with the Network Attachment Control Functions (NACF). PSTN access. and an Application Network Interface (ANI). by default.

once network access is granted. the kinds and types of services accessible to the user should be virtually unlimited (though that does not equate to "free". However.325. That kind of business model is dated and needs to be replaced with something more forward-looking. in any way. Specifically.limited access? It would seem so. Through these components. while certainly suitable for wireless networks. The only interesting aspect of the NGN architecture as proposed by the ITU and ETSI is the "other multimedia" components. it might be possible for terminal equipment manufacturers to provide equipment that might deliver the services that users expect today. In a "next generation" network. IMS Functional Architecture Model The primary purpose of IMS is to provide control over telephone calls. The NASS and RACS layers are quite reasonable. as well as new kinds of services that users might want. access and service should be separated and IMS really has no business being a core part of the NGN. Y. the ITU has initiated work on a new multimedia system called H.325 will allow a user to use multiple 56 . You can look at IMS as nothing more than a means of maintaining the current legacy telephone company business model of counting minutes and charging for minutes of use.2001. In fact. understand). Below is a diagram that shows the functional architecture of the NGN with interfaces to the various functional elements. as access to the network must necessarily be controlled. Through the "other multimedia" components. it might be possible to truly deliver a new kind of network that users may find useful. try to specify how the phone system internals should function? According to ITU-T Rec. which promises to deliver on the promises of the NGN. The IMS layer. why would it be that the access provider would. H. suggesting that the NGN is at odds with the Internet and a threat to the Internet as we know it. is very much a restrictive component within any kind of "next generation" fixed network.

1.325 terminal. collaborate on a document through a PC ("screen sharing" or "application sharing"). for example.325 is designed to work on the Internet as it is today. Internet Service Providers. The possibilities are amazing. A very important distinction between the work on H. and receive a file to a mobile handheld device. Look at H. any application developer could create an application that simply "plug in" to the H. Service Control Elements  Policy Control Framework for subscriber policy tracking and enforcement  Application level policy enforcement  µAAA¶ servers for billing and accounting & Authentication 3. 6. The user could. combined Mobile/ PDA/ Pocket PC/IAD 6.325 as a big step forward in terms of communication capabilities. see a video feed on an LCD screen. software and hardware vendors etc. The migration to PSTN y NGN Relevance for different service providers Migration to NGN has different implications for fixed line operators. Each of them sees a different combination of these benefits and risks. As the system is envisaged. all within the context of a call to another person.2.3. without all of the complexity of the NGN architecture.devices togther with multiple applications in order to communicate with another person. mobile operators. The implication of the move to NGN is clear from the ITU definition: ³NGN is about multi-platform access and a network 57 . NGN Components NGN architecture breaks the hierarchy-based architecture of the Traditional Networks and advocates flat hierarchy for the NGN network. End User Devices (CPE)  Converged devices can be intelligent TVs. use a mobile phone to talk on a phone.325 and IMS is that H. cable television operators. Network Elements  Converged IP/ MPLS Core (Soft switch/ media gateway controllers)  Intelligent Provider Edge (PE) devices for service enablement (media gateway)  Ethernet based Access infrastructure to aggregate business and residential users  Diverse set of access architectures in the last mile  Home gateway or CPE 2.

NTT and KPN all have plans to switch off some or all of their PSTN over the period to 2009. Low-cost Customer Premises Equipment/ non-PC-based IP terminals will be needed to make a viable business case for NGN migration in the access layer.  Wait and watch: Incumbents may choose to postpone any core NGN program. The service layer requires far less investment compared to other layers and offers scope to roll-out new services viz. Mobile telecom operators. This definition suggests that there is a role for multiple players within the NGN context. and avoiding the teething problems of early NGN..  Other value-added service providers. These could potentially include:     Fixed telecom operators. operators across multiple access technologies. TelekomAustria. y Timeframe for migration The general view from the initial feedback obtained from major operators is that the transport backbone is nearly ready and service layer should be ripe for transition next year. lowrisk move. The test is whether or not an operator has announced plans to retire their public switched telecoms network (PSTN). This is a low-cost.  Gradual with narrower scope: Operators can take limited steps towards a core NGN upgrade. thus offering operators a chance to reap their NGN investment. especially in the 3G environment. at present. access migration is most capital intensive. gaming. but can provide significant cost savings. but with few benefits other than the learning process. IPTV etc. mobility. which implies the removal of the installed circuit switches. voice. messaging. waiting to see how other operators succeed with their projects. is a much more risky project. In contrast the retirement of the PSTN. y Timing for migration to NGN  Full steam ahead: BT¶s 21CN project is the most prominent example of an early. Operators in this category are Telecom Italia and TeliaSonera. for example by using IP for transport in the core PSTN. VSAT operators and other service providers (OSP). Internet Service Providers. Cable television operators. there is limited drive to extend rollout beyond the metros and major cities. rapid and inclusive upgrade program. like in India.  Vendors for both infrastructure and Customer Premises Equipment. With low PC and broadband penetration. The transition to NGN access takes the most time because of the following factors: y y y Of all the layers. BT. both incumbents and new entrants. which in some countries have greaterhousehold penetration than fixed telephony. 58 .where service provisioning is independent of the underlying network´.

However. Most operators believe that the transition to NGN is the single largest investment and business change they will be making. mainly expressed by operators in Europe and Far East Asia is that the transition to NGN is a complete shift in the business model for telecom industry moving away from a well-established practice of charging by time and distance (miles and minutes) to charging by capacity and quality of service. y Establishing Viable Competition There are two related but contrary competition positions that can develop within the NGN context: 59 . It is indeed true that both operators and regulators must understand clearly the risks and the benefits involved with NGN regulation. views are split on the issue of ³light touch´ regulation. regulatory intervention in the developing NGN environment has the risk of delaying innovation. On the other hand. applications and service-packages will operate. One view. they cannot make informed choices based only on a theoretical understanding of the technology and economic conditions in which the new networks. believes that regulation could kill innovation in the NGN context. In what timeframe is the migration in other layers like access and service layer likely to be achieved? What could be the NGN migration time frames in urban and rural areas? y Regulatory Initiative Regulatory clarity can help reduce risks for operators and help make the transition less difficult. which manages the Internet domain names and addresses. Third-party service providers are able to provide services to customers connected by telecom operators without much revenue accruing to the network infrastructure provider. However. because services and business models are not yet established in the market. ³Light Touch´ Regulation in the NGN Context: Regulators across the world are looking to move away from detailed ex-ante regulation to ³light-touch´ that focuses on the main principles and leaves specific compliance to ³ex-post´ activities and general law relevant to the sector. A body such as ICANN. Telecom operators are becoming media companies and vice-versa. internationally. The issue is about whether and why there is a need for regulatory initiatives within the NGN context.The issue for consideration in this regard is the likely time frame for a country to achieve complete migration to NGN core. an international body.

Network operators are basing their NGN business plans on some estimation of service revenues and cost. and such an open service scenario could well make their business unviable.(a) Service-level competition: Open services access can result in the situation where third-party service providers are able to ride on a telecom operator¶s network to directly serve customers. Customer-friendly features of proven PSTN ‡ Advantages for service providers  Reduced CAPEX due to integrated and efficient IP-based technology (Packetized Network)  Reduced OPEX due to transmission cost saving. functions within the service layer and on the nature of interconnection products to be offered in the NGN context. The incumbent has the maximum clout in terms of deciding the network specifications. There is a possibility that in this scenario.4 Advantages of NGN NGN makes use of best of both the worlds (flexibility. Security. WiMax. (b) Network-level competition: NGN offers the most benefits to those with the largest scale. less space requirement. BT estimates annual Opex benefits of £1b on a Capex incurred of £3b-£4b. power line). for example. less O&M costs  Ability to offer increased range of services  More flexibility increasing market penetration by offering personal service customization and management  Single network layer for management  There is no need for separate voice and data networks ‡ Advantages for subscribers 60 . customer being able to buy services from many IP telephony providers or television/education/gaming providers that are independent of the network operator).g. as typically upwards of 50 per cent termination occurs on the incumbent¶s network. One way to get over this problem is to offer incentives to alternate access paths (cable television. network operators see themselves becoming pure connectivity providers and thus suffering a huge erosion of revenues. Access-level competition will prove to be the most difficult in the non-local loop-unbundling environment. less power consumption. Reliability. benefits to competitive operators estimated to be about 20 per cent of BT¶s. efficiency & Innovativeness of IP and QOS. 6. Incumbents also gain immense advantage in being able to dictate the transition plan for the entire industry. This can result in intense service-level competition (e.

mobile (Quad play)  Better QoS  Faster speed  Availability of BW on Demand 61 . Reduced call charges  New innovative services  Single connection and bill for voice. data. video.

it is difficult to realize this kind of network practically because there¶s no enough details about the country (geographical notes. And increase the cost of the minute during the day time. 62 .e. thus enhancing the distribution of the usage of the phone to the following figure: This study is done to decrease the congestion of the lines during the day time. Conclusion At the end of our project and after all the studies we have done ..e. considered that the cost of the minute is constant. annual population rate. That distribution is shown in the following figure: So to improve that figure an offer is done like a night schedule that will be make a 50% discount for example from 10:00PM to 2:00AM.Our study is only theoretical. Finally. in our studies we respect the evolution of technology i. the usage of the phone according to the day time differs from the usage of the phone during the night time. but in reality the cost of the minute must not be constant. in some cases our need is only by two or more STM-1 but we put a STM-4 taking in consideration the feature subscriber and for the data network proposed (high bit rate).«.) Add to this. i.7. Concerning the bill. That will cause the subscribers to use the lines equally during the day. We know that phone is not used 24 hours a day. To encourage the subscribers a certain offer must be done. we can say that the results are acceptable and realizable.

63 .