1.

2 Remote Sensing Concept
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Solar radiation from
the sun
Data transmission
Platform (satellite)
Ground receiving station &
data warehouse
DATA ACQUISITION
DATA PRE-PROCESSING DATA PROCESSING & ANALYSIS
Atmospheric correction
Radiometric correction
Geometric correction
etc.
Earth
Sun
Algorithm development
Multi-spectral classification
Spatial data modeling along
with other GIS dataset
Example in optical Remote Sensing
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1.3 Components in Remote Sensing
Platform
The vehicle which carries a sensor. i.e. satellite, aircraft, balloon, etc...
Sensors
Device that receives electromagnetic radiation and converts it into a signal that can be
recorded and displayed as either numerical data or an image.
Platform Name Sensor Name
Landsat TM Thematic Mapper
(Passive: Optical sensor)
Landsat ETM Enhanced Thematic Mapper
(Passive: Optical sensor)
ALOS PRISM (Passive: Optical sensor)
AVNIR-2 (Passive: Optical sensor)
PALSAR (Active: Microwave sensor)
One platform can carry more than
one sensor. For example:
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Platform
Sensor
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1.4 Types of Remote Sensing
Passive Remote Sensing and Active Remote Sensing
Active Remote Sensing
Remote sensing methods that provide
their own source of electromagnetic
radiation to illuminate the terrain.
Radar is one example.
Passive Remote Sensing
Remote sensing of energy naturally
reflected or radiated from the terrain.
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Own energy source
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1.5 Multistage Remote Sensing Data Collection
Satellite based remote sensing
Advantages: Less geometric errors (platform is stable)
Disadvantages: Need to wait a time for certain event
Fixed spatial resolution
Aerial surveying
Advantages: Acquire any times any events
Variable spatial resolution by
changing flight altitude and camera focal length
Disadvantages: High geometric errors;
require sophisticated geometric correction model
Costly for specific area, specific purpose
Ground based remote sensing GBRS or
Low Altitude Remote Sensing
Scientific experiment purposes
(e.g. study about canopy, soil contamination, etc.)
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Earth surface
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Some satellites capable to acquire stereo pair images that can be achieved when
two images of the same area are acquired on different days from different orbits,
one taken East of the other (i.e., East or West of the nadir). For this to occur, there
must be significant differences in the inclination angles.
Stereo Pair Images
Different days from different orbits
e.g. IKONOS’s pointing system
Onboard two or more inclined sensors
e.g. SPOT5, ALOS PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-
sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping)
Swath width : 35Km
1.6 Stereo Pair Remote Sensing Data Collection
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Nadir
West pointed East pointed
Nadir
Forward
Backward
Nadir (2.5m)
Forward
Backward
ALOS PRISM
SPOT-5
ALOS PRISM Sensor
DEM Digital Elevation Model can be
generated from stereo pair images by using
Photogrammetric technology.
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1.7 Types and Uses of Satellites
Types of satellites can be classified by their orbit characteristics.
Type 1: Low Earth Orbits/Satellites: Normally used in spy satellite (Military purposes)
Type 2: Sun-synchronous Orbits/Satellites: a polar orbit where the satellite always
crosses the Equator at the same local solar time. Most of the earth resources
satellites are sun-synchronous orbit.
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Examples
Landsat TM/ETM
SPOT
ALOS
IKONOS
QuickBird
Earth rotation
Satellite orbit
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Type 3: Geostationary Orbits/Satellites: Satellites at very high altitudes, which
view the same portion of the Earth's surface at all times. Especially
used in metrological applications.
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• Fixed position on specific location
• Same speed as earth rotation speed
• Wide area coverage
• Especially designed for weather monitoring
Earth rotation
Satellite orbit
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2.1Electromagnetic Waves Used in Remote Sensing
2. Remote Sensing Data Acquisition
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Gamma X-rays Ultraviolet Visible IR (Infrared) Microwave Radio-wave
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-14
10
-12
10
-8
10
-6
10
-4
10
-2
1 (wavelength in meter)
SUN
Electromagnetic spectrum
400 500 600 700 (wavelength in nanometer)
Optical remote sensing (Passive Remote Sensing)
Microwave remote sensing (Active Remote Sensing)
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2.2Properties of Electromagnetic Waves
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Incident energy
Reflected energy
Transmitted energy
or Refracted energy
Emitted energy
(Emitted by substance;
e.g. Surface Temperature)
Use in Passive Remote Sensing
Absorbed energy
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2.3 Spectral Reflectance and Earth Surface Interaction
Surface category Low reflectance High reflectance
Water N-IR (Near -Infrared) Blue (Visible)
Vegetation M-IR (Mid-Infrared) N-IR (Near-Infrared)
Soil Blue (Visible) M-IR (Mid-Infrared)
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0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.5
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%
BGR (VISIBLE)
wavelength
in um
N-IR (Near-Infrared M-IR (Mid-Infrared)
Reflectance form water
Reflectance form vegetation
Reflectance form soil
Spectral reflectance and earth surface interaction
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60
50
40
30
20
10
0
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2.4 Multi-spectral Remote Sensing Data (Image)
• Composed with more than one spectral band and each band represents specific wavelength
• Example in Landsat TM (Total 7 bands, Band 6 Thermal band omitted in here)
TM Band 1: High reflectance in water TM Band 4: High reflectance in vegetation TM Band 7: High reflectance in bare land (soil)
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0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.5
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%
B1 B2 B3 B4 B7 B5
VISIBLE
Wavelength in um
N-IR
M-IR
Reflectance form water
Reflectance form vegetation
Reflectance form soil
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2.4 Multi-spectral Remote Sensing Data (Image) (Continued)
Example in Landsat TM/ETM (Band 6 omitted)
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Band 1 : Blue (0.450 ~ 0.515 um) Band 2 : Green (0.525 ~ 0.605 um) Band 3 : Red (0.630 ~ 0.690 um)
Band 4 : Near-Infrared(0.750 ~ 0.900 um) Band 5 : Mid-Infrared (1.550 ~ 1.750 um) Band 7 : Mid-Infrared (2.090 ~ 2.350 um)
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2.5 Spectral Properties and Principal Applications
Example in Landsat TM/ETM
Band Wavelength (um) Principal applications
B-1 0.45 - 0.52 (Blue) This band is useful for mapping coastal water areas,
differentiating between soil and vegetation, forest type mapping,
and detecting cultural features.
B-2 0.52 - 0.60 (Green) This band corresponds to the green reflectance of healthy
vegetation. Also useful for cultural feature identification.
B-3 0.63 - 0.69 (Red) This band is useful for discriminating between many plant
species. It is also useful for determining soil boundary and
geological boundary delineations as well as cultural features.
B-4 0.76 - 0.90 (Near-Infrared) This band is especially responsive to the amount of vegetation
biomass present in a scene. It is useful for crop identification
and emphasizes soil/crop and land/water contrasts.
B-5 1.55 - 1.75 (Mid-Infrared ) This band is sensitive to the amount of water in plants, which is
useful in crop drought studies and in plant health analyses. This
is also one of the few bands that can be used to discriminate
between clouds, snow, and ice.
B-6 10.4 - 12.5 (Thermal Infrared) This band is useful for vegetation and crop stress detection, heat
intensity, insecticide applications, and for locating thermal
pollution. It can also be used to locate geothermal activity.
B-7 2.08 - 2.35 (Mid-Infrared) This band is important for the discrimination of geologic rock
type and soil boundaries, as well as soil and vegetation moisture
content.
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2.6 Spectral Reflectance to DN (Digital Number)
In fact, remote sensing data is converting of spectral reflectance value to digital number
(DN) known as a pixel. Each spectral wavelength represents as a single layer in remote
sensing data called “Band” or “Channel”. The more bands or channels present, the more
spectral properties in remote sensing data.
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Low DN Darker
High DN Brighter
DN = 0 255
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2.7 Structure of Remote Sensing Data (Example in Landsat TM)
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6167 pixels per line (approx. 185Km)
5965 lines
Total 7 bands
30m x 30m
8-bit(0~256)
Blue (0.45 ~ 0.52um)
Green (0.52 ~ 0.60um)
Red (0.63 ~ 0.69um)
Near-Infrared(0.76 ~ 0.90um)
Mid-Infrared (1.55 ~ 1.75um)
Mid-Infrared (2.08 ~ 2.35um)
Thermal-Infrared (10.40 ~ 12.50um)
Nadir-point
FOV Field Of View
15.4°
Altitude: 705Km
Swath width: 185Km
Example in Landsat TM
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2.8 Resolutions in Remote Sensing
There are four types of resolutions in Remote Sensing.
(a) Spatial Resolution: The detail discernible in an image is dependent on the spatial
resolution of the sensor and refers to the size of the smallest possible feature that can be
detected.
Example: Landsat TM Spatial resolution 30mx30m, QuickBird 67cm x 67cm
Landsat TM 30m x 30m QuickBird 67cm x 67cm
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(b) Spectral Resolution: Spectral resolution describes the ability of a sensor to
define fine wavelength intervals. The finer the spectral resolution, the narrower
the wavelength range for a particular channel or band.
Example: Landsat TM has 7 Bands, QuickBird/IKONOS Multispectral has 4 Bands, etc.
23
VISIBLE NEAR IR MID - IR THERMAL IR
0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 1.0 1.3 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
NOAA AVHRR
Landsat TM/ETM
sensor
band
1 2 3 4
QuickBird/IKONOS
Wavelength in um
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(c) Temporal Resolution: Also important to consider in a remote sensing system, refers
to the length of time it takes for a satellite to complete one entire orbit cycle. The revisit
period of a satellite sensor is usually several days except Geostationary satellites.
Example: Landsat TM 16 days, SPOT 26 days, etc.
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16 days for
next orbit at
same place
Landsat ETM
Landsat ETM
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(d) Radiometric Resolution: The radiometric resolution of an imaging system
describes its ability to discriminate very slight differences in energy.
The finer the radiometric resolution of a sensor, the more sensitive it is to detecting
small differences in reflected or emitted energy.
Example: Landsat TM 8 bits, SPOT 8 bits, IKONOS 11 bits. However, most computer
programs do not support 11-bit, so it will convert to 16-bit.
8-bit : 2
8
= maximum 256 color levels or DN values (commonly used)
16-bit : 2
16
= maximum 65536 color levels or DN values (especially used in elevation
data, e.g. DEM, DSM, DTM, etc.)
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8-bit
16-bit
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3. Remote Sensing Data Processing and Analysis
3.1 Remote Sensing Data Pre-processing
(a) Atmospheric correction
(b) Radiometric correction
(c) Geometric correction
However, most remote sensing data can be acquired or purchased
atmospheric, radio metric and geometric corrected data.
Here, we will introduce briefly.
Haze reducing
Small haze can be removed in Landsat TM/ETM.
But not clouds. Because B4 (IR) can penetrate the haze.
(b) Radiometric correction (a) Atmospheric correction
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(c) Geometric correction
Geometric distortion due to Earth rotation.
Methods of Geometric correction
1.Using satellite header file (satellite onboard GPS)
2.Image to image registration
3.Image to map registration
4.Manually entered GCPs (Ground Control Points)
Earth direction
Satellite direction
Pixel unit
Geographical unit
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3.2 Visual Interpretation (Band combination)
First step interpretation and to distinguish various land covers into different colors
Example:
RGB 321 in Landsat
TM/ETMgives natural
color. Assign band 3 to
red channel, band 2 to
green channel and
band 1 to blue channel
in computer display.
To see landscape in
realistic view.
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Landsat TM5 Tokyo (Ashikaga, Isezaki)
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Example:
RGB 543 in Landsat
TM/ETM gives false
color. Assign band 5 to
red channel, band 4 to
green channel and
band 3 to blue channel
in computer display.
To discriminate
between soil,
vegetation and water.
3.2 Visual Interpretation (Band combination) continued
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Landsat TM5 Tokyo (Ashikaga, Isezaki)
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Example:
RGB 432 in Landsat
TM/ETM gives false
color. Assign band 4 to
red channel, band 3 to
green channel and
band 2 to blue channel
in computer display.
To determine
vegetation stress and
vigor.
3.2 Visual Interpretation (Band combination) continued
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Landsat TM5 Tokyo (Ashikaga, Isezaki)
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Example:
RGB 541 in Landsat
TM/ETM gives false
color. Assign band 5 to
red channel, band 4 to
green channel and
band 1 to blue channel
in computer display.
To assess water
quality. Turbid water
gives bright blue and
clear water gives dark
blue.
turbid water (water with more
sediment particles)
Clear water (water with less
sediment particles)
3.2 Visual Interpretation (Band combination) continued
31
Landsat TM5 Tokyo (Hachioji)
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3.3 Apply Algorithms
We can manipulate between bands (playing with DN Digital Numbers) and extract
meaningful information.
(a) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index)
Perhaps, well known and useful algorithm is NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation
Index). Vegetation is low reflectance in Red band and high reflectance in Infrared band.
By normalizing this two bands, we can measure vegetation stress and vigor.
General formula NDVI = (Infrared – Red) / (Infrared + Red)
The value is between +1 (vigor) ~ -1 (stress)
NOAA AVHRR NDVI = (B2 – B1) / (B2 + B1)
Landsat TM/ETM NDVI = (B4 – B3) / (B4 + B3)
IKONOS/QuickBird NDVI = (B4 – B3) / (B4 + B3)
(b) NBR (Normalized Burn Ratio)
Landsat TM/ETM NBR = (B4 – B7) / (B4 + B7)
These two bands provide the best contrast between photosynthetically healthy and burned
vegetation (Howard et al. 2002).
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Example:
Vegetation index
(NDVI) stretched to 8-
bit.
0 (low) 255 (high)
3.3 Apply Algorithms (continued)
33
Landsat TM5 Tokyo (Hanno)
-1 (low) +1 (high)
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cloud
3.3 Apply Algorithms (continued)
34
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(c) Surface Temperature
Some satellites carry thermal sensors. For example, Landsat TM/ETM, NOAA AVHRR
ASTER, MODIS, etc.
Thermal band records thermal emissive from the land surface objects. This band is
good to study between surface temperature (Ts) and other land covers. For example, some
researchers use surface temperature an NDVI to classify the land use land cover.
Thermal band spatial resolution is normally coarser than other bands because temperature
does not change very well within the small area. Example: Landsat ETM thermal band
spatial resolution is 60m compares to other bands (30m).
Landsat ETM Thermal Band 6 (Low gain)
Landsat ETM Thermal Band 6 (High gain)
Mt. Tsukuba Mt. Tsukuba
3.3 Apply Algorithms (continued)
35
Forest Urban(mixed) Bare land
NDVI Ts
max
max
min min
NDVI vs. Ts
© 2008 Ko Ko Lwin
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Tsukuba City surface temperature map generated from
Landsat TM5 satellite acquired by 1987-05-21,
11:00AM Local Time (JST)
Step1. Conversion of the Digital Number (DN) to
Spectral Radiance (L)
L = LMIN + (LMAX - LMIN) * DN / 255
Where
L = Spectral radiance
LMIN = 1.238 (Spectral radiance of DN value 1)
LMAX = 15.600 (Spectral radiance of DN value 255)
DN = Digital Number
Step2. Conversion of Spectral Radiance to
Temperature in Kelvin
Where
K
1
= Calibration Constant 1 (607.76)
K
2
= Calibration Constant 2 (1260.56)
T
B
= Surface Temperature
Step3. Conversion of Kelvin to Celsius
T
B
= T
B
-273
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
1 ln
1
2
L
K
K
T
B

3.3 Apply Algorithms (continued)
36
© 2008 Ko Ko Lwin
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3.4 Multi-spectral Classification
Multi-spectral Classification
Unsupervised
Classification
Supervised
Classification
Multi-spectral Classification
The process of assigning individual pixels of an image to categories, generally on the
basis of spectral reflectance characteristics. Two kinds of multi-spectral classifications.
Unsupervised Classification
Digital information extraction technique in which the computer assigns pixels
to categories with no instructions from the operator. Also known as Isodata Classification.
Supervised Classification
Digital-information extraction technique in which the operator provides training-site
information that the computer uses to assign pixels to categories.
Computer oriented User oriented
37
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Unsupervised Classification (ERDAS Imagine Approach)
1
2
3
4
5
Insert classify image
Give out put file name
Set numbers of classes
Set Maximum iteration
Click OK to start to classify
Unsupervised classification is sometime use to know general clustered
information from the image.
3.4 Multi-spectral Classification (continued)
38
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Supervised Classification (ERDAS Imagine Approach)
Signature:
Any characteristic or series of characteristics by which a material or object may be
recognized in an image, photo, or data set.
Workflow
Select training region
Calculate region statistics
Evaluate the class
Do again for other classes
Setup classification rule
Start to classify
Draw polygon on an image
Compare signature statistics with other classes
-Avoid overlapping each other (signature separation)
Evaluate the selected class (pre-view)
Do again for other land use classes same as above
Setup classification rule
(e.g. Maximum Likelihood Classifier)
Start to classify an image
Signature
collection steps
3.4 Multi-spectral classification (continued)
39
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40
Step 1 : Select training region
Training region or signature Signature Collection Tool
Step 2: Calculate region statistics
Forest
Urban Dense
Step 3: Evaluate the class Step 4: Do for other classes
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Step 5: Setup classification rule Step 6: Start to classify
Land use land cover is commonly used in spatial
data modeling processes such as Hydrological
Modeling, Soil Erosion and Land Degradation,
Monitoring of Deforestation Process, Land Use
Changes, etc.
41
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3.5 Scene Selection Criteria for Multi-spectral Classification
Scene should be:
1.Cloud free (if possible)
2.Plants growing season
3.Low solar zenith angle period
42
Image acquired in June
Image acquired in November
Z
H
North
SUN
Z = Zenith angle
A = Azimuth angle
H = Solar elevation angle
A
Dec 21
Sep 21
June 21
H = 26.5º
H = 50º
H = 73.5º
Z = 90 - H
Normallyeffected in high rise mountain area and
require additional “Topographic Normalization” process.
Solar zenith angle impact on terrain
Object
© 2008 Ko Ko Lwin
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Part II: Remote Sensing Data
Applications in GIS
43
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4.1 Eco-friendly Walk Score Calculator
44 © 2008 Ko Ko Lwin
Web based interactive eco-friendly walk score calculator for Tsukuba City.
Eco-friendly Walk Score measures the degree of greenness (green density) by user defined
geographic patterns based on Normalized Different Vegetation Index (NDVI).
NDVI was calculated from Advanced Land Observation Satellite ALOS AVNIR-2 sensor
(ground resolution at 10m).
Green spaces:
Forest, paddy fields and grass lands
Non Green Spaces:
Bare lands, water surface, roads and
building footprints
0 113 255
Non green
spaces
Green
spaces
ALOS NDVI
Threshold
Search Radius: 500.06 m
Search Area: 78.56 Ha
Greenness Score: 55
Choosing a Place to Live with GIS
Eco-friendly Walk Score Calculator for Tsukuba City
http://land.geo.tsukuba.ac.jp/ecowalk/default.aspx
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4.2 Visualization of UHI (Urban Heat Island)
Spatial relationship between satellite generated surface temperature and land use
categories (Visualization of UHI Urban Heat Island)
45
A: Tsukuba surface temperature map generated from Landsat TM5 satellite
acquired by 987-05-21, 11:00AM (JST)
B: Tsukuba Land Use Map in 1984 (Source: GSI Geological Survey Institute,
Japan)
C: Spatial relationship between surface temperature and land use categories
using Zonal Statistic (Spatial Analysis)
A B C
© 2008 Ko Ko Lwin
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4.3 Monitoring of Deforestation Process
46
1989 1995
1988 Land use map 1995 Land use map Deforested areas
Monitoring of annual deforestation
process using Landsat TM and NOAA
AVHRR 10-day composite NDVI
images (case study in Myanmar).
1989 1991 1992
1993 1994 1995
© 2008 Ko Ko Lwin
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4.4 Viewshed Analysis and Resort Site Selection
47
Viewshed and line of sight
analysis based on DEM (Digital
Elevation Model) and Aerial
Photos for resort site selection.
(Data source: ERDAS imagine)
© 2008 Ko Ko Lwin
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4.5 Watershed and Environmental Impact Assessment
48
Watershed and
environmental impact
assessment. Aerial photos
orthorectification,
mosaicking and watershed
delineated from DEM.
© 2008 Ko Ko Lwin
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Appendix A Remote Sensing Learning Resources
BOOKS
Beginners
Remote Sensing: Principles and Interpretations (Hardcover)
by Floyd F. Sabins (Author)
Intermediate
Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation (Hardcover)
by Thomas M. Lillesand (Author), Ralph W. Kiefer (Author),
Jonathan W. Chipman (Author)
Advanced
The one who wants to develop own image processing algorithms…
Remote Sensing, Third Edition: Models and Methods for Image
Processing (Hardcover) by Robert A. Schowengerdt (Author)
49
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PD

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Platform The vehicle which carries a sensor. i.e. satellite, aircraft, balloon, etc... Sensors Device that receives electromagnetic radiation and converts it into a signal that can be recorded and displayed as either numerical data or an image.
Platform

One platform can carry more than one sensor. For example:
Platform Name Sensor Name Thematic Mapper (Passive: Optical sensor) Enhanced Thematic Mapper (Passive: Optical sensor) PRISM (Passive: Optical sensor) AVNIR-2 (Passive: Optical sensor) PALSAR (Active: Microwave sensor) Landsat TM Landsat ETM ALOS

Sensor

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1.3 Components in Remote Sensing

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1.4 Types of Remote Sensing
Passive Remote Sensing and Active Remote Sensing Passive Remote Sensing Remote sensing of energy naturally reflected or radiated from the terrain. Active Remote Sensing Remote sensing methods that provide their own source of electromagnetic radiation to illuminate the terrain. Radar is one example.
Own energy source

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© 2008 Ko Ko Lwin

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Satellite based remote sensing
Advantages: Less geometric errors (platform is stable) Disadvantages: Need to wait a time for certain event Fixed spatial resolution

Aerial surveying
Advantages: Acquire any times any events Variable spatial resolution by changing flight altitude and camera focal length Disadvantages: High geometric errors; require sophisticated geometric correction model Costly for specific area, specific purpose

Ground based remote sensing GBRS or Low Altitude Remote Sensing
Scientific experiment purposes (e.g. study about canopy, soil contamination, etc.)

Earth surface
© 2008 Ko Ko Lwin

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1.5 Multistage Remote Sensing Data Collection

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d o c u -tr a c k O W ! w o . ALOS PRISM (Panchromatic Remotesensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) ALOS PRISM Sensor Forward Nadir SPOT-5 Nadir East pointed West pointed Backward ALOS PRISM Backward DEM Digital Elevation Model can be generated from stereo pair images by using Photogrammetric technology. Stereo Pair Images .d o c u -tr a c k Some satellites capable to acquire stereo pair images that can be achieved when two images of the same area are acquired on different days from different orbits. there must be significant differences in the inclination angles. IKONOS’s pointing system Onboard two or more inclined sensors e. East or West of the nadir).g. Nadir (2.g.6 Stereo Pair Remote Sensing Data Collection w . SPOT5..5m) Forward Swath width : 35Km 11 o m w w w . one taken East of the other (i.e.c Different days from different orbits e. For this to occur.PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W lic C m C lic 1.c N y bu to k k to bu y N w .

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PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N y bu to k lic C w . which view the same portion of the Earth's surface at all times.c Earth rotation Satellite orbit • Fixed position on specific location • Same speed as earth rotation speed • Wide area coverage • Especially designed for weather monitoring 13 o m w w w w . Especially used in metrological applications.d o c u -tr a c k ! o . m C lic k to bu y N w O W .c Type 3: Geostationary Orbits/Satellites: Satellites at very high altitudes.d o c u -tr a c k .

c 2.d o c u -tr a c k .d o c u -tr . Remote Sensing Data Acquisition y bu to k lic C C lic k to bu y N O W ! w w w w .1Electromagnetic Waves Used in Remote Sensing SUN SUN Electromagnetic spectrum Gamma 10-14 X-rays 10-12 Ultraviolet 10-8 Visible 10-6 IR (Infrared) 10-4 Microwave 10-2 Radio-wave 1 (wavelength in meter) 400 500 600 700 (wavelength in nanometer) Optical remote sensing (Passive Remote Sensing) Microwave remote sensing (Active Remote Sensing) © 2008 Ko Ko Lwin 14 o m 2.PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N m w . ack c w o .

PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N y bu to k lic C m C lic k to bu y N .c SUN Incident energy Emitted energy (Emitted by substance.d o c u -tr a c k ! w o .g. Surface Temperature) Use in Passive Remote Sensing Reflected energy Absorbed energy Transmitted energy or Refracted energy © 2008 Ko Ko Lwin 15 o m w w w w .d o c u -tr a c k 2. e.c O W w .2Properties of Electromagnetic Waves .

c Spectral reflectance and earth surface interaction 70 60 50 Reflectance form soil Reflectance % 40 30 20 10 0 Reflectance form water Reflectance form vegetation 0.7 0.3 2.d o c u -tr .PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N y C m C w .3 1.9 1. ack c w o .5 0.9 2.5 wavelength in m BGR (VISIBLE) Surface category Water Vegetation Soil © 2008 Ko Ko Lwin N-IR (Near-Infrared Low reflectance N-IR (Near -Infrared) M-IR (Mid-Infrared) Blue (Visible) M-IR (Mid-Infrared) High reflectance Blue (Visible) N-IR (Near-Infrared) M-IR (Mid-Infrared) 16 o m 2.1 2.5 1.1 1.3 Spectral Reflectance and Earth Surface Interaction bu to k lic lic k to bu y N O W ! w w w w .7 1.d o c u -tr a c k .

5 Wavelength in m Reflectance form water 0.9 2.7 1.d o c u -tr a c k O W ! w o .c N-IR B4 Reflectance form vegetation B5 M-IR B1 B2 B3 B7 Reflectance form soil 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.1 1.4 Multi-spectral Remote Sensing Data (Image) ! O W bu to k lic C m C lic k to bu © 2008 Ko Ko Lwin w w N y y N .5 17 TM Band 1: High reflectance in water TM Band 4: High reflectance in vegetation TM Band 7: High reflectance in bare land (soil) o m w w w .c • Composed with more than one spectral band and each band represents specific wavelength • Example in Landsat TM (Total 7 bands.9 1.3 1.5 1. Band 6 Thermal band omitted in here) VISIBLE 70 60 Reflectance % .7 0.3 2.1 2.d o c u -tr a c k .PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er 2.

515 m) Band 2 : Green (0.750 m) Band 7 : Mid-Infrared (2.PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N y bu w o .900 m) Band 5 : Mid-Infrared (1.090 ~ 2.750 ~ 0.4 Multi-spectral Remote Sensing Data (Image) (Continued) to k lic C m C lic k to bu y N w m O W ! w w w w .d o c u -tr a c k .630 ~ 0.c Example in Landsat TM/ETM (Band 6 omitted) Band 1 : Blue (0.525 ~ 0.690 m) Band 4 : Near-Infrared(0.d o c u -tr a c k .550 ~ 1.605 m) Band 3 : Red (0.350 m) © 2008 Ko Ko Lwin 18 o 2.450 ~ 0.c .

75 (Mid-Infrared ) B-6 10. and for locating thermal pollution.d o c u -tr a c k O W ! w o .12.5 (Thermal Infrared) B-7 2. It is also useful for determining soil boundary and geological boundary delineations as well as cultural features. It can also be used to locate geothermal activity.0.4 . and detecting cultural features. B-2 B-3 0. This band is especially responsive to the amount of vegetation biomass present in a scene.0. as well as soil and vegetation moisture content.d o c u -tr a c k . which is useful in crop drought studies and in plant health analyses. This band corresponds to the green reflectance of healthy vegetation.5 Spectral Properties and Principal Applications w .c Example in Landsat TM/ETM Band B-1 Wavelength (m) 0.2.69 (Red) B-4 0. This is also one of the few bands that can be used to discriminate between clouds.0.35 (Mid-Infrared) 19 o m w w w . insecticide applications.52 . This band is useful for vegetation and crop stress detection.52 (Blue) Principal applications This band is useful for mapping coastal water areas. This band is useful for discriminating between many plant species.08 . snow. and ice.76 . forest type mapping.63 . Also useful for cultural feature identification.45 . It is useful for crop identification and emphasizes soil/crop and land/water contrasts.1. This band is sensitive to the amount of water in plants. This band is important for the discrimination of geologic rock type and soil boundaries.0.55 .60 (Green) 0. differentiating between soil and vegetation.PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W lic C m C lic 2.90 (Near-Infrared) B-5 1. heat intensity.c N y bu to k k to bu y N w .

Low DN  Darker High DN  Brighter © 2008 Ko Ko Lwin DN = 0 255 20 o m w w w w . Each spectral wavelength represents as a single layer in remote sensing data called “Band” or “Channel”.PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N y bu to w .d o c u -tr a c k . remote sensing data is converting of spectral reflectance value to digital number (DN) known as a pixel. The more bands or channels present. the more spectral properties in remote sensing data.d o c u -tr a c k ! o .6 Spectral Reflectance to DN (Digital Number) k lic C m C lic k to bu y N w O W .c In fact.c 2.

08 ~ 2.50m) Mid-Infrared (2.PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N lic C m C lic 2.c Blue (0.63 ~ 0.52m) Green (0. 185Km) Red (0.45 ~ 0.60m) 30m x 30m 8-bit(0~256) 6167 pixels per line (approx.35m) FOV Field Of View 15.7 Structure of Remote Sensing Data (Example in Landsat TM) w .69m) Near-Infrared(0.55 ~ 1.c y bu to k k to bu y N w O W .76 ~ 0.90m) Mid-Infrared (1.d o c u -tr a c k ! w o .d o c u -tr a c k .40 ~ 12.4° Altitude: 705Km Nadir-point Swath width: 185Km Example in Landsat TM © 2008 Ko Ko Lwin 21 o m w w w .75m) 5965 lines Total 7 bands Thermal-Infrared (10.52 ~ 0.

PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W k lic C m C lic k 2.c N y bu to to bu y N w . QuickBird 67cm x 67cm Landsat TM 30m x 30m © 2008 Ko Ko Lwin QuickBird 67cm x 67cm 22 o m w w w .d o c u -tr a c k O W ! w o . (a) Spatial Resolution: The detail discernible in an image is dependent on the spatial resolution of the sensor and refers to the size of the smallest possible feature that can be detected.c There are four types of resolutions in Remote Sensing.8 Resolutions in Remote Sensing w .d o c u -tr a c k . Example: Landsat TM Spatial resolution 30mx30m.

7 1.0 VISIBLE NEAR IR MID .d o c u -tr a c k ! o .0 3.PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N y bu to k w .3 2. the narrower the wavelength range for a particular channel or band.0 7.0 14.0 1.0 8. Wavelength in m band sensor 0.d o c u -tr a c k .0 10.0 6.0 9.4 0. The finer the spectral resolution.6 0.0 12. QuickBird/IKONOS Multispectral has 4 Bands.5 0. etc.IR THERMAL IR NOAA AVHRR 1 2 3 4 5 Landsat TM/ETM 1 2 3 4 5 7 6 QuickBird/IKONOS 1 2 3 4 23 o m w w w w .0 13.c Example: Landsat TM has 7 Bands.c (b) Spectral Resolution: Spectral resolution describes the ability of a sensor to define fine wavelength intervals.0 11. lic C m C lic k to bu y N w O W .0 5.0 4.

C lic k to C lic k m to bu y N w O W . refers to the length of time it takes for a satellite to complete one entire orbit cycle. etc. SPOT 26 days.PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N y bu w . ack c (c) Temporal Resolution: Also important to consider in a remote sensing system.c Example: Landsat TM 16 days. The revisit period of a satellite sensor is usually several days except Geostationary satellites.d o c u -tr a c k ! o . 16 days for next orbit at same place Landsat ETM Landsat ETM 24 o m w w w w .d o c u -tr .

so it will convert to 16-bit.d o c u -tr a c k ! o .d o c u -tr . most computer programs do not support 11-bit. IKONOS 11 bits. DEM. 8-bit : 28 = maximum 256 color levels or DN values (commonly used) 16-bit : 216 = maximum 65536 color levels or DN values (especially used in elevation data. e. SPOT 8 bits. DSM. The finer the radiometric resolution of a sensor. the more sensitive it is to detecting small differences in reflected or emitted energy.) 16-bit 8-bit 25 o m w w w w . to k lic C m C lic k to bu y N w O W .PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N y bu w . However. ack c (d) Radiometric Resolution: The radiometric resolution of an imaging system describes its ability to discriminate very slight differences in energy.c Example: Landsat TM 8 bits. DTM. etc.g.

c 3.PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N y bu to w .1 Remote Sensing Data Pre-processing (a) Atmospheric correction (b) Radiometric correction (c) Geometric correction k lic C m C lic k to bu y N w O W .d o c u -tr a c k . But not clouds.c However. Because B4 (IR) can penetrate the haze. Remote Sensing Data Processing and Analysis 3. most remote sensing data can be acquired or purchased atmospheric. radio metric and geometric corrected data. 26 o m w w w w . we will introduce briefly.d o c u -tr a c k ! o . (a) Atmospheric correction (b) Radiometric correction Haze reducing Small haze can be removed in Landsat TM/ETM. Here.

d o c u -tr a c k .PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N y lic C m C lic (c) Geometric correction w .Image to map registration 4. Methods of Geometric correction 1.Using satellite header file (satellite onboard GPS) 2.c bu to k k to bu y N w O W .Manually entered GCPs (Ground Control Points) 27 o m w w w .Image to image registration 3.c Satellite direction Earth direction Pixel unit Geographical unit Geometric distortion due to Earth rotation.d o c u -tr a c k ! w o .

Assign band 3 to red channel. Landsat TM5 Tokyo (Ashikaga.c 3. To see landscape in realistic view.2 Visual Interpretation (Band combination) First step interpretation and to distinguish various land covers into different colors Example: k lic C m C lic k to bu y N w O W .c RGB 321 in Landsat TM/ETM gives natural color.d o c u -tr a c k .PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N y bu to w .d o c u -tr a c k ! o . Isezaki) 28 o m w w w w . band 2 to green channel and band 1 to blue channel in computer display.

Isezaki) 29 o m w w w w .c RGB 543 in Landsat TM/ETM gives false color.d o c u -tr a c k ! o . Landsat TM5 Tokyo (Ashikaga.PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N y bu to k w .d o c u -tr a c k . band 4 to green channel and band 3 to blue channel in computer display. vegetation and water. To discriminate between soil.c 3.2 Visual Interpretation (Band combination) continued Example: lic C m C lic k to bu y N w O W . Assign band 5 to red channel.

2 Visual Interpretation (Band combination) continued Example: lic C m C lic k to bu y N w O W . band 3 to green channel and band 2 to blue channel in computer display.c 3.d o c u -tr a c k ! o .c RGB 432 in Landsat TM/ETM gives false color. To determine vegetation stress and vigor. Assign band 4 to red channel.d o c u -tr a c k .PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N y bu to k w . Isezaki) 30 o m w w w w . Landsat TM5 Tokyo (Ashikaga.

To assess water quality.c 3.PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N y bu to k w . Assign band 5 to red channel.2 Visual Interpretation (Band combination) continued Example: lic C m C lic k to bu y N w O W . Turbid water gives bright blue and clear water gives dark blue.d o c u -tr a c k ! o .c turbid water (water with more sediment particles) RGB 541 in Landsat TM/ETM gives false color.d o c u -tr a c k . Clear water (water with less sediment particles) Landsat TM5 Tokyo (Hachioji) 31 o m w w w w . band 4 to green channel and band 1 to blue channel in computer display.

d o c u -tr a c k O W ! w o . General formula NDVI = (Infrared – Red) / (Infrared + Red) The value is between +1 (vigor) ~ -1 (stress) NDVI = (B2 – B1) / (B2 + B1) NDVI = (B4 – B3) / (B4 + B3) NDVI = (B4 – B3) / (B4 + B3) NOAA AVHRR Landsat TM/ETM IKONOS/QuickBird (b) NBR (Normalized Burn Ratio) Landsat TM/ETM NBR = (B4 – B7) / (B4 + B7) These two bands provide the best contrast between photosynthetically healthy and burned vegetation (Howard et al.c We can manipulate between bands (playing with DN Digital Numbers) and extract meaningful information. well known and useful algorithm is NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index).3 Apply Algorithms w . 2002). By normalizing this two bands. Vegetation is low reflectance in Red band and high reflectance in Infrared band.PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W to k lic C m C lic k to 3. 32 o m w w w . (a) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) Perhaps.d o c u -tr a c k .c N y bu bu y N w . we can measure vegetation stress and vigor.

3 Apply Algorithms (continued) bu to k lic C C lic k to bu y N O W ! w w w w .PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N y m w .d o c u -tr a c k . -1 (low) +1 (high) 0 (low) 255 (high) Landsat TM5 Tokyo (Hanno) 33 o m 3.d o c u -tr . ack c w o .c Example: Vegetation index (NDVI) stretched to 8bit.

ack c w o .c cloud 34 o m 3.d o c u -tr a c k .PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N y m w .d o c u -tr .3 Apply Algorithms (continued) bu to k lic C C lic k to bu y N O W ! w w w w .

NOAA AVHRR ASTER. some researchers use surface temperature an NDVI to classify the land use land cover.c N y bu bu y N w . Thermal band records thermal emissive from the land surface objects. Ts Bare land 35 o m w w w .c Some satellites carry thermal sensors.3 Apply Algorithms (continued) w . © 2008 Ko Ko Lwin max max Mt. Thermal band spatial resolution is normally coarser than other bands because temperature does not change very well within the small area.PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W to k lic C m C lic k to 3. For example. Example: Landsat ETM thermal band spatial resolution is 60m compares to other bands (30m).d o c u -tr a c k O W ! w o . MODIS.d o c u -tr a c k (c) Surface Temperature . Tsukuba NDVI Ts min min Forest Landsat ETM Thermal Band 6 (Low gain) Landsat ETM Thermal Band 6 (High gain) Urban(mixed) NDVI vs. Tsukuba Mt. This band is good to study between surface temperature (Ts) and other land covers. etc. Landsat TM/ETM. For example.

d o c u -tr a c k . Conversion of Spectral Radiance to Temperature in Kelvin TB  K2 K  ln  1  1  L  Where K1= Calibration Constant 1 (607.3 Apply Algorithms (continued) w w N y bu bu y N . Conversion of the Digital Number (DN) to Spectral Radiance (L) lic C m C lic k to 3.c L = LMIN + (LMAX .600 (Spectral radiance of DN value 255) DN = Digital Number Step2.LMIN) * DN / 255 Where L = Spectral radiance LMIN = 1.56) TB = Surface Temperature Step3. Conversion of Kelvin to Celsius TB = TB -273 Tsukuba City surface temperature map generated from Landsat TM5 satellite acquired by 1987-05-21.d o c u -tr a c k O W ! o .238 (Spectral radiance of DN value 1) LMAX = 15.c Step1.76) K2 = Calibration Constant 2 (1260. 11:00AM Local Time (JST) 36 © 2008 Ko Ko Lwin o m w w w .PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W to k w .

37 o m w w .PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N y C m C 3.c Multi-spectral Classification Unsupervised Classification Computer oriented Supervised Classification User oriented Multi-spectral Classification The process of assigning individual pixels of an image to categories. Also known as Isodata Classification. Supervised Classification Digital-information extraction technique in which the operator provides training-site information that the computer uses to assign pixels to categories.d o c u -tr a c k .d o c u -tr a c k O W ! w .c bu to k lic lic k to bu y N w .4 Multi-spectral Classification w w o . Two kinds of multi-spectral classifications. generally on the basis of spectral reflectance characteristics. Unsupervised Classification Digital information extraction technique in which the computer assigns pixels to categories with no instructions from the operator.

c bu to k lic lic k to bu y N w .c Unsupervised Classification (ERDAS Imagine Approach) Insert classify image 1 Give out put file name 2 Set numbers of classes 3 Set Maximum iteration 4 Click OK to start to classify 5 Unsupervised classification is sometime use to know general clustered information from the image.d o c u -tr a c k O W ! w . 38 o m w w .d o c u -tr a c k .PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N y C m C 3.4 Multi-spectral Classification (continued) w w o .

photo.d o c u -tr a c k .c y bu to k k to bu y N w .g. Maximum Likelihood Classifier) Start to classify Start to classify an image 39 o m w w w . or data set.4 Multi-spectral classification (continued) w .d o c u -tr a c k O W ! w o .c Supervised Classification (ERDAS Imagine Approach) Signature: Any characteristic or series of characteristics by which a material or object may be recognized in an image. Workflow Select training region Draw polygon on an image Signature collection steps Calculate region statistics Compare signature statistics with other classes -Avoid overlapping each other (signature separation) Evaluate the selected class (pre-view) Evaluate the class Do again for other classes Do again for other land use classes same as above Setup classification rule Setup classification rule (e.PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N lic C m C lic 3.

c Step 2: Calculate region statistics w w N y bu to to bu y N .PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W k lic C m C lic k Step 1 : Select training region o .d o c u -tr a c k O W ! w .d o c u -tr a c k .c Forest Urban Dense Training region or signature Signature Collection Tool Step 3: Evaluate the class Step 4: Do for other classes 40 o m w w w .

Monitoring of Deforestation Process.d o c u -tr a c k .d o c u -tr . 41 o m Step 5: Setup classification rule Step 6: Start to classify to k lic C C lic k to bu y N O W ! w w w w .PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N y bu m w . ack c w o . Soil Erosion and Land Degradation. Land Use Changes.c Land use land cover is commonly used in spatial data modeling processes such as Hydrological Modeling. etc.

5 Scene Selection Criteria for Multi-spectral Classification w .c Scene should be: 1.Plants growing season 3. © 2008 Ko Ko Lwin Solar zenith angle impact on terrain 42 o m w w w .PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N lic C m C lic 3.5º Z = 90 .Cloud free (if possible) 2.d o c u -tr a c k O W ! w o .5º Dec 21 Normally effected in high rise mountain area and require additional “Topographic Normalization” process.H H = 50º H = 26.c y bu to k k to bu y N w .Low solar zenith angle period SUN Z Z = Zenith angle A = Azimuth angle H = Solar elevation angle H Object A June 21 North Image acquired in November Sep 21 H = 73.d o c u -tr a c k Image acquired in June .

d o c u -tr a c k .PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N y bu to k lic C m C lic k to bu y N .c Part II: Remote Sensing Data Applications in GIS 43 o m w w w w .d o c u -tr a c k ! w o .c O W w .

roads and building footprints 0 113 ALOS NDVI Non green Green spaces spaces Threshold 255 Choosing a Place to Live with GIS Eco-friendly Walk Score Calculator for Tsukuba City http://land.jp/ecowalk/default.aspx © 2008 Ko Ko Lwin Search Radius: 500. NDVI was calculated from Advanced Land Observation Satellite ALOS AVNIR-2 sensor (ground resolution at 10m). paddy fields and grass lands Non Green Spaces: Bare lands.d o c u -tr a c k .geo.PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N y bu m w .c Eco-friendly Walk Score measures the degree of greenness (green density) by user defined geographic patterns based on Normalized Different Vegetation Index (NDVI). .ac. water surface. ack c w o Web based interactive eco-friendly walk score calculator for Tsukuba City.56 Ha Greenness Score: 55 44 o m 4.06 m Search Area: 78. Green spaces: Forest.1 Eco-friendly Walk Score Calculator to k lic C C lic k to bu y N O W ! w w w w .d o c u -tr .tsukuba.

11:00AM (JST) Tsukuba Land Use Map in 1984 (Source: GSI Geological Survey Institute.d o c u -tr . Japan) Spatial relationship between surface temperature and land use categories using Zonal Statistic (Spatial Analysis) 45 o m 4.c Spatial relationship between satellite generated surface temperature and land use categories (Visualization of UHI Urban Heat Island) A B C A: B: C: © 2008 Ko Ko Lwin Tsukuba surface temperature map generated from Landsat TM5 satellite acquired by 987-05-21. ack c w o .2 Visualization of UHI (Urban Heat Island) to k lic C C lic k to bu y N O W ! w w w w .d o c u -tr a c k .PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N y bu m w .

d o c u -tr a c k O W ! w .3 Monitoring of Deforestation Process w w o .PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N C m C 4.d o c u -tr a c k . 1993 1994 1995 © 2008 Ko Ko Lwin 46 o m w w .c y bu to k lic lic k to bu y N w .c 1989 1995 1988 Land use map 1995 Land use map Deforested areas 1989 1991 1992 Monitoring of annual deforestation process using Landsat TM and NOAA AVHRR 10-day composite NDVI images (case study in Myanmar).

(Data source: ERDAS imagine) © 2008 Ko Ko Lwin 47 o m w w w .c y bu to k k to bu y N w .d o c u -tr a c k .4 Viewshed Analysis and Resort Site Selection w .c Viewshed and line of sight analysis based on DEM (Digital Elevation Model) and Aerial Photos for resort site selection.d o c u -tr a c k O W ! w o .PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N lic C m C lic 4.

© 2008 Ko Ko Lwin 48 o m w w w w .c Watershed and environmental impact assessment. mosaicking and watershed delineated from DEM.c . Aerial photos orthorectification.d o c u -tr a c k .5 Watershed and Environmental Impact Assessment N y bu bu y N w .PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W to k lic C m C lic k to 4.d o c u -tr a c k O W ! w o .

Kiefer (Author). Sabins (Author) Intermediate Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation (Hardcover) by Thomas M. Ralph W. Lillesand (Author). Chipman (Author) Advanced The one who wants to develop own image processing algorithms… Remote Sensing.d o c u -tr a c k .d o c u -tr a c k ! o .PD PD F- XC h a n g e Vi e w F- XC h a n g e Vi e w er er ! O W N y bu to k lic w . Schowengerdt (Author) 49 o m w w w w .c Appendix A BOOKS Remote Sensing Learning Resources C m C lic k to bu y N w O W .c Beginners Remote Sensing: Principles and Interpretations (Hardcover) by Floyd F. Third Edition: Models and Methods for Image Processing (Hardcover) by Robert A. Jonathan W.

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