Unit 8 IDS 1.

Domino Theory: 1957 - It stated that if one country fell to Communism, it would undermine another and that one would fall, producing a domino effect. B.The Cold War “containment” notion was born of the Domino Theory, which held that if one country fell under communist influence or control, its neighboring countries would soon follow. Containment was the cornerstone of the Truman Doctrine as defined by a Truman speech on March 12, 1947. C.The Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, NATO and the United Nations then became the foundation of American foreign policy through the Reagan administration and beyond, for about 50 years. 2. House Un-American Activities Committee: Committee in the House of Representatives founded on a temporary basis in 1938 to monitor activities of foreign agents. Made a standing committee in 1945. During World War II it investigated pro-fascist groups, but after the war it turned to investigating alleged communists. From 19471949, it conducted a series of sensational investigations into supposed communist infiltration of the U.S. government and Hollywood film industry. B.The HUAC blacklisted many people. Blacklisting means putting people on a list of suspected communists. It meant that their professional reputation was destroyed, and that no one would hire them for fear of being thought a communist. The HUAC and Joseph McCarthy forced many people to testify at their hearings. They asked if the people had ever been communists, they asked if they were communists now, and they asked them for the names of people who could be communists. Most people did not want to answer, because they felt that it was a violation of both their civil rights and any people they might name. C.Even while the HUAC hearings were going on, in the height of the "˜red' scare', many people knew that the hearings were unfair, and they knew that the blacklists were wrong. Could a government that would allow unfair practices be fair in other ways? It put a strong doubt in people's minds.This hunt for scapegoats is a dark spot on America's history.The national anthem calls this the land of the free. People here

Military-Industrial Complex: Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned American against it in his last State of the Union Address.Began federal funding for an interstate highway system. Eisenhower saw the German advantage that resulted from their autobahn highway network. entrenching and expanding a powerful federal state to pursue social and national security. when they fought their way into Germany. Eisenhower made it clear that he was ready to turn his attention to the nation's highway problems. B.S. These relationships perpetuate excessive . as transportation in our daily lives. B. During World War II. 1954. if not directly as motorists. The MIC has harmful effects on U. and some are later appointed to important civilian positions in the Pentagon. The Interstate System has been called the Greatest Public Works Project in History. President Eisenhower considered it one of the most important achievements of his two terms in office. From the day President Dwight D. All of America forgot that. policy through a revolving-door relationship in which retired military officers become consultants to defense contractors." C. Every citizen has been touched by it. 1956-established an interstate highway system in the United States. 4. He considered it important to "protect the vital interest of every citizen in a safe and adequate highway system.are allowed to hold any belief that they want. Eisenhower signed the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. 3. and as an integral part of the American way of life. on those same highways. These experiences significantly shaped Eisenhower's views on highways and their role in national defense . and historians agree. and he also noted the enhanced mobility of the Allies. He feared that the combined lobbying efforts of the armed services and industries that contracted with the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending. then indirectly because every item we buy has been on the Interstate System at some point. the Interstate System has been a part of our culture—as construction projects. C.During his State of the Union Address on January 7. Interstate Highway Act: 1944 . Eisenhower's primary concern was how the complex would alter American domestic order over time.

C Washington gave the new science curriculum an infusion of more than a billion dollars when it passed the National Defense Education Act in 1958. Americans were shocked. whereas the previous conventional wisdom had been that child rearing should focus on building discipline. 7.g.After October 4. blinking its way across the American sky. 6. published in 1946. His ideas about childcare influenced several generations of parents to be more flexible and affectionate with their children.Sputnik revived the interest in science and technology education in the United States.S.In a single stroke. Benjamin Spock: was an American pediatrician whose book Baby and Child Care. the observable reality of Sputnik..Drawn up br FDR and Churchill with eight main principles: Renunciation of territorial agression No territorial changes without the consent of the peoples concerned Restoration of sovereign rights and self-government Access to raw material for all nations World economic cooperation Freedom from fear and want Freedom of the seas Disarmament of aggressors 8. industry. and that.the era also saw the beginning of a new federal involvement in education that would spread out in all directions in the coming years.The first artificial satellite sent into space. launched by the Soviets. Atlantic Charter: August 1941 . American First Committee verses interventionists:1940 .military spending and hinder arms reduction efforts. and military power. this 184-pound object brought into question the United States' pre-eminence in science. and to treat them as individuals. B. 1957 . Sputnik I: October. is one of the biggest best-sellers of all time. going to war.Formed by die-hard isolationists who feared the U. 5. resulting in the Space Race. e. Its revolutionary message to mothers was that "you know more than you think you do. . babies should not be "spoiled" by picking them up when they cried. made Soviet missile superiority undeniable.

1941 to prohibit discrimination in the armed forces. he felt that the best way to keep Communism out of Europe was to confront the Russians wherever they tried to spread their power. attitude toward the countries of Latin America. Earl Warren: Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Catholic spirituality.S. forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism. 11.jazz. His liberal attitudes led conservative groups to brand him a communist and lobby for his impeachment. 13.S. 15. and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism. Good Neighbor Policy:Franklin Roosevelt described his foreign policy as that of a "good neighbor. Wade decisions. Executive Order 8802: It required companies with government contracts not to discriminate on the basis of race or religion. The Board of Education of Topeka. Fair Employment Practices Commission:Enacted by executive order 8802 on June 25. Kerouac is recognized for his spontaneous method of writing covering topics such as.. Earl Warren used the Court's authority to support civil rights and individual liberties. 12. Under Roosevelt's "Good Neighbor Policy. Fascism: a governmental system led by a dictator having complete power. 14. It was intended to help African Americans and other minorities obtain jobs in the home-front industry. and speed the economic recovery of Europe 10. commerce. 44 nations at war with the Axis powers met to create a world bank to stabilize international currency. took the lead in promoting good will among these nations. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism.9. 17. . 16. Kansas and Roe v. Eisenhower Doctrine: Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U. He authored Brown v. increase investment in underdeveloped areas. Used in the Middle East." The phrase came to be used to describe the U. George Kennan and containment: A member of the State Department. etc. Bretton Woods Agreement: The common name for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held in New Hampshire." the U. Jack Kerouac: He is considered a literary iconoclast and a pioneer of the Beat Generation. regimenting all industry.S.

Buddhism drugs. the Korematsu ruling concerning the creation of exclusion orders has never been overturned. over suspicion he was a Communist sympathizer. atomic bomb project in Los Alamos. African. he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism. California between American sailors and Marines stationed throughout the city and Latino youths. he headed the U. Korematsu Case :The Korematsu decision was significant because it ruled that the United States government had the right to exclude and forcibly move people from designated areas based on their race. Marshall Plan: Introduced by Secretary of State George G. who were recognizable by the zoot suis they favored. New Mexico. Manhattan Project and Oppenheimer:A secret U. although removed for a time the late 1950's. lend. . to send supplies and ammunition to the Allies without technically becoming a co-belligerent. Marshall in 1947. Berkeley and CalTech. Lend-lease:Authorized the president to transfer. poverty.S. project for the construction of the atomic bomb. The decision was 6-3 that the need to protect the United States from espionage and other wartime acts was more important than Korematsu's individual rights. 20.promiscuity.American and Filipino/ Filipino-American youth were also targeted. 19. He feared that the combined lobbying efforts of the armed services and industries that contracted with the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending. While Mexican Americans were the primary targets of military servicemen.S. He later served on the Atomic Energy Commission. and travel. Oppenheimer (1904-1967) Physics professor at U. Even though Korematsu's conviction was eventually overturned in 1983. Military-Industrial Complex: Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned American against it in his last State of the Union Address.S.S. 18. or lease any article of defense equipment ot any government whose defense was deemed vital to the defense of the U.C. 23. 22. Allowed the U. Los Angles Zoot-Suit Riot: The Zoot Suit Riots were a series of riots in 1943 during World War 2 that erupted in Los Angeles. 21.

24. and Great Britain signed the Munich Pact. 28. but allowed Russia to occupy Finland. 29. worked to promote patriotism. Estonia. 26. NATO and Warsaw Pact:Chartered April. It was one of the most significant statements of American policy in the Cold War. Also gave Russia an excuse for garrisoning troops in these countries. NSC-68:a 58-page formerly-classified report issued by the United States National Security Council on April 14. the Soviets formed this military organization with the nations of Eastern Europe.S. Hitler intended to break the pact. Granted Western Poland ot Germany. Orval Faubus and Little Rock Nine:The Little Rock Nine were a group of African-American students who were enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957. and. To counter the NATO buildup. On Sept. Italy. 27. Office of War Mobilization: was U. British Prime Minister Chamberlain justified the pact with the belief that appeasing Germany would prevent war 25. Nazi-Soviet Pact 1939 : Germany and Russia agreed not to attack each other. The ensuing Little Rock Crisis. warned about foreign spies and attempted to recruit women into war work 30. and Eastern Poland. foreign policy in the Cold War for the next 20 years. Germany. It operated from June 1942 until September 1945. it was top secret until the 1970s when it was made public. 1949. Written during the formative stage of the Cold War. It is an international military force for enforcing its charter. It coordinated the release of war news for domestic use. 29. NSC-68 largely shaped U. Munich Conference:Hitler wanted to annex the Sudetenland. Truman. France. government agency created during World War 2 to consolidate government information services. 1950.using posters and radio broadcasts. which gave Germany the Sudetenland. Latvia. which allowed Hitler to open up a second front in the West without worrying about defending against Russia. Office of Price Administration (OPA): Government agency which successful combatted inflation by fixing price ceilings on commodities and introducing rationing programs during World War II.S. in which the students were initially prevented from entering the racially . a portion of Czechoslovakia whose inhabitents were mostly Germanspeaking. during the presidency of Harry S. The 11 member nations agreed to fight for each other if attacked.

Alabama. 34. The book was widely read and inspired widespread public concerns with pesticides and pollution of the environment. Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once. Servicemen‟s Readjustment Act (GI Bill of Rights):944 Servicemen's Readjustment Act.and prohibited unions from making contributions in federal elections 36. 35. they would face total destruction. 1943 .I. ranging from educational grants to housing and other services to assist with the readjustment to society after demobilization. On their first day of school.he book documented detrimental effects of pesticides on the environment. Granted $13 billion in aid for former servicemen. particularly on birds. . 32. 33. troops from the Arkansas National Guard would not let them enter the school and they were followed by mobs making threats to lynch 31. 1945 .segregated school by Arkansas Governor .Orval Faubus and then attended after the intervention of President Eisenhower is considered to be one of the most important events in the African-American Civil Rights Movement.A meeting between FDR. Rachel Caron‟s Silent Spring:The book is widely credited with helping launch the environmental movement. also called the G. Bill of Rights. Smith-Connally War Labor Disputes Act:he Act allowed the federal government to seize and operate industries threatened by or under strikes that would interfere with war production. 1955 .Allied leaders Truman. Rosa Parks:December. Potsdam Conference and Declaration:July 26.In Montgomery. Silent Spring facilitated the ban of the pesticide in 1972 in the United States. she refused to give up her bus seat for a White man as required by city ordinance. It started the Civil Rights Movement and an almost nationwide bus boycott lasting 11 months. they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war's conclusion to help ensure international peace. Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany. Tehran Conference: December.

They announced the decision to divide Germany into three post-war zones of occupation. He had traveled in Europe. Often called the George Washington of North Vietnam.After Cuba and then the United States denied these refugees entry. for Havana. and was an ardent Communist. Cuba. 1939. arrange the post-war fate of Germany. . Vietminh and Ho Chi Minh: North Vietnamese leader who had lead the resistance against the Japanese during WW II and at the end of the war had led the uprising against the French Colonial government. Germany. the German transatlantic liner St.S. Louis was forced to return to Europe on June 6. On the voyage were 937 passengers.Stated that the U. educated in Moscow. is illustrated by the voyage of the St. 1939 38. The voyage of the St.Roosevelt. Truman Doctrine:1947 . Louis sailed from Hamburg. and discuss the proposal for creation of the United Nations as a successor to the League of Nations.37. Yalta Conference: February. Almost all were Jews fleeing from the Third Reich. persecuted at home and unwanted abroad. in exchange for the Kuril Islands and half of the Sakhalin Peninsula. would support any nation threatened by Communism.The plight of German-Jewish refugees. 1945 . Became President of the North Vietnamese government established after the French withdrawal. Louis. 39. Louis: On May 13. Russia also agreed to enter the war against Japan. Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta to make final war plans. although a fourth zone was later created for France. the St. 40.

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