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# SJ-5112 Perancangan Geometrik Jalan

## Element of Design Sony Sulaksono Wibowo, Ph.D

Element of Design

o Sight Distance
o Horizontal Alignment
o Vertical Alignment
o Cross Section
Horizontal Alignment
Concept of Superelevation and Simple Horizontal Curves
Principles of Highway Alignment

## o The alignment of a highway is a three dimensional

problem with measurement in x, y, and z dimensions
Principles of Highway Alignment
POTONGAN PEKERJA AN OLEH TANGGAL

DIGAMBAR ANTO
BUKU UKUR
NOMOR KEMIRINGAN DIPERIKSA
PATOK-PATOK DIPERIKSA
NOTASI BANGUNAN DIPERIKSA
3 +3
50

STA
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
10.286

3+403,35
BVCS: 3+425 3+34+40
03.0
BVCE: 10.353 35

10.444
10.388 3 +4
03.3

7 .0 0 0 0 mVC
5

PVI 1
EVCS: 3+495
10.233 EVCE: 10.237
10.205

3+500
6,7 89
9,052
TC

2,263
PC

W
7,7 84
= 3+

6 (-)
6 (+)
500
PT .66 3+5
9.788 =3

2,263
+5 00
9.886 16

CT
.20

9,052
6,7 89
PI 1

0%
-2 %
3+
55
9.382
0
9.566

3+600
PC

3 1,432
41,90 9
=3
+5
64
.6
TC
5

10,477
3+600

W
3 4,782

6 (-)
6 (+)
PI 2

9.153
9.247 BVCS: 3+656.50 10,47 7
CT

BVCE: 9.205
41,909

631.60
PT = 3+
3 1,432

5 0 .0 0 0 mVC
0%
- 2%

3+650

PVI 2
9.062 MAKAM
9.139 EVCS: 3+706.50 ISLAM

3+700
BRG

EVCE: 9.165
3+7
00

3 +7
50

9.333
9.374
31,432
53,633

3+
BVCS: 3+764.39 80
PI 3

0
PC

TC

BVCE: 9.442
=

10 ,4 77
3+7

W
30,206

6 (-)
6 (+)

50

PT = 3+827.28
75 .5

. 0 0 0 mVC
4

10,477

1 6,093

PVI 3
CT

21,4 58

9.542
9.521

3+800
53,6 33

PC = 3+846.51
TC

3+850
31,432

EVCS: 3+814.39
5,364

W

3 +8 70
1 2,122

6 (-)
6 (+)

PT =
-2%
0%
PI 4

5,364
CT

21,458

9.495
16,093

9.414
0
3+90
0%
- 2%

9.405
9.293 0
3+900

3+95

9.044
9.171 0
4+00

BVCS: 3+990

BVCE: 9.073
9.000
9.051
4+000
6 0 .0 0 0 0
m VC

PVI 4
VERTIKAL

HORIZONTAL

## 8.999 EVCE: 8.999

P ROYEK

KP2T JALAN/JEMBATAN

= 1 : 100
2006

= 1 : 1000
K P / THN

PROV INSI

## PENAMPANG MEMANJANG JALAN (SEKSI 02)

120
JML LEMBAR

13
LEMBAR NO
Horizontal Alignment

## o Design based on appropriate relationship between

design speed and curvature and their relationship
with side friction and superelevation
o Along circular path, vehicle attempts to maintain its
direction (via inertia)
o Turning the front wheels, side friction and
superelevation generate an acceleration to offset
inertia
Horizontal Alignment

## o ‘Components’ of Horizontal Alignment

 Tangents
 Curves  need superelevation
 Transitions
NC

RC
Horizontal Alignment

## o The critical aspect of horizontal alignment is the

horizontal curve that focuses on the design of the
directional transition of the roadway in the
horizontal plane.
o A horizontal curve provides a transition between the
straight (or tangent) sections of roadways.
Horizontal Alignment

## o The highway engineer must design a horizontal

alignment to accommodate a variety of vehicles
cornering capabilities that range from nimble sport
cars to ponderous trucks.
o Horizontal alignment deals with the positioning,
layout, and design of different types of curves and
their features (superelevation)
Horizontal Alignment
Horizontal Alignment

Gaya sentrifugal diimbangi gesekan ban dengan perkerasan saja
G = berat kendaraan; g = percepatan gravitasi

GV 2 V2
= f .G ⇒ f =
gR gR
g = 9,8 m / dtk 2 , V = km / jam
V2
∴f =
127R
Horizontal Alignment

Gaya sentrifugal diimbangi kemiringan melintang jalan

GV 2
cosα = G sin α
gR
V2
= sin α / cosα = tan α
gR
α << ⇒ tan α ≅ α ≡ e
V2 V2
= e →e =
gR 127R
Horizontal Alignment

Gaya sentrifugal diimbangi oleh gaya gesek melintang dan
kemiringan melintang jalan

GV 2
cos α = f G cos α + G sin α
gR
GV 2
= f G + G (sin α / cos α )
gR
V2
= f + tan α , bila tan α = e, maka
gR
V2 V2
= f + e → e + f =
gR 127R
Horizontal Alignment

V2
=e+ f
127 R
V2
o if the e + f increases the increases as well
127 R
o thus, for a value of V:
2
V
= emax + f max
127 Rmin

## how to determine superelevation since there are many possibilities of f values?

Side Friction Factor, f

## o Representing the lateral acceleration that acts on the

vehicle
o Wide variation in vehicle speed  unbalanced force
whether the curve is superelevated or not
o The upper limit  point at which the tire would begin to
skid (point of impending skid, ‘kondisi dimana
o Note that highway curves are design to avoid skidding
(‘slip’ in Indonesia terminology) condition with a margin
of safety
 The f in design should be substantially less than the coeff. of
friction at impending skid
Side Friction Factor, f

## o The side friction factor at impending skid depends on a

number of factors
 Speed of the vehicle
 Type and condition of the roadway surface
 Type and condition of the vehicle tires
o Study results:
 Max. side friction factors b/w new tires and wet concrete
pavements range from about 0.5 at 30 km/h to approx. 0.35 at
100 km/h
 Wet concrete pavements and smooth tires  about 0.35 at 70
km/h
 In all cases, a decrease in friction values as speeds increase
Side Friction Factor, f

## o Key consideration in selecting maximum side friction

 The condition that drivers experiences a feeling of
discomfort and reacting instinctively to avoid higher speed
 The speed on a curve (tikungan) at which discomfort
emerging could be accepted as a design control for the
maximum side friction factor
 Ball-bank indicator:
Various Values of Side Friction, f
Various Values of Side Friction, f
Recommended Values of Side Friction, f

## Recommended value of fmax is the thick line

o 0,17 for speed of 30 km/jam
o 0.14 for speed of 80 km/jam
o 0.08 for speed of 130 km/jam
Maximum Superelevation, e
o The maximum rates of superelevation (kemiringan permukaan
jalan) on highways are controlled by four factors:
 Climate condition, i.e. freq. and amount of snow and ice
 Terrain conditions, i.e. flat, rolling, or mountainous
 Type of area, i.e. rural or urban
 Freq. of very slow-moving vehicles
o Some notes (cited from AASHTO, 2001):
 Suggested value of emax : 4%; 6%; 8%; 10%; 12%
 Common use for highways is emax = 10%
 emax = 12%  where snow and ice do not exist
 emax = 12%  snow and ice exist
 emax = 4% to 6%  traffic congestion or a restriction of top speed
Maximum Superelevation, e
o Other notes:
 Several rates rather than a single rate of maximum superelevation
 A rate of 12% should not be exceeded
 A rate of 4% to 6% is applicable for urban design
 Superelevation may be omitted on low-speed urban streets where
severe constraints are present
o Common uses in Indonesia:
 Rural area: emax = 10%
 Urban area: emax = 6%
 In urban built-up areas might not need superelevation
 In toll road design, it is commonly used 8%
Notes on Superelevation

## o The minimum rate of cross slope (kemiringan

melintang jalan) applicable to the travelled way id
determined by drainage needs
 The minimum values range from 1.5% (high-type surfaces)
to 2.0% (low-type surfaces)
o Indonesia:
 Commonly use 2% for all surfaces
 3% to 4% might be applied on gravel roads (known in

## o The minimum radius is a limiting value of curvature

for a given design speed
o It is determined from maximum rate of
superelevation and the maximum side friction factor
o Based on a threshold of driver comfort, rather than
safety – why?
o An important control value for determination of
superelevation rates for flatter curve – how?
Minimum Radius for Design of Rural
Highway, Urban Freeways, and High-
Speed Urban Street using Limiting
value of e and f
Methods of
Distributing e and f
Methods of Distributing e and f
o Method 1:
 Superelevation and side friction are directly proportional to the inverse of the
radius (i.e. a straight-line relation exists between 1/R = 0 and 1/R = l/Rmin)
o Method 2:
 For sharper curves, f remains equal to fmax and superelevation is then used to
sustain lateral acceleration until e reaches emax. In this method, first f and then e
are increased in inverse proportion to the radius of curvature.
o Method 3:
 For sharper curves, e remains at emax and side friction is then used to sustain
lateral acceleration until, f reaches fmax. In this method, first e and then f are
increased in inverse proportion to the radius of curvature.
o Method 4:
 This method is the same as method 3, except that it is based on average running
o Method 5:
 Superelevation and side friction are in a curvilinear relation with the inverse of
the radius of the curve, with values between those of methods 1 and 3.
Methods of Distributing
Superelevation and Side Friction

## Method 5 Procedure for

Development of the
Finalized e Distribution
Design Superelevation Rates
Design Superelevation Tables

o Based on Method 5
o Vehicles can travel safely at speeds higher than the
design speed on horizontal curves with superelevation
rates indicated in the tables
o The use of side friction factors are generally considerably
less than can be achieved – why?
o “Normal cross slope” (NC)  curves that are so flat that
the elimination of adverse slope is not considered
o “Remove cross slope” (RC)  it is adequate to eliminate
the adverse cross slope by superelevating the entire
roadway at the normal cross slope
Tangent-to-Curve Transition

lurus):

## o Superelevation (Curvature) Runout Section

(potongan melintang bagian tikungan):
length of roadway is needed to
accomplish a change from normal
section to rotated section and back
to normal section
Superelevation

## o Transitions from crowned sections to

o Superelevation introduced and removed uniformly
over the length of the curve
o To superelevate – rotate about an axis on the cross-
section
Superelevation

## o Superelevation Transition Distance:

(jarak untuk merubah dari bentuk normal ke superelevasi)
Superelevation – runoff length

## o In AASHTO 1994, the runoff length should be at

least 2.0 sec. at the design speed
 This criterion gives small superelevation rates
 Problems associated with pavement drainage in the
transition section
 Some agencies (among US agencies) do not this control
o AASHTO 2001:
 It is comfortable and aesthetically pleasing runoff design
attaining by using maximum relative gradient or
suprelevation runoff rate
Superelevation

o Tangent Runout, Lt
 Tangent Runoff, Crown Runoff
 Gradual change from normal crowned section to a point
where the adverse cross slope is removed
 Adverse cross slope is removed when elevation of outside
of pavement is equal to the centerline elevation
 Inside pavement is unchanged
Superelevation - Tangent Runout
Superelevation - Tangent Runout

2001)
eNC
Lt = Lr
ed

##  eNC: Rate of Normal Cross Slope

 ed: Design Superelevation Rate
 Lr: Minimum Length of Superelevation Runoff
Superelevation

o Superelevation Runoff, Lr
 Gradual change from end of tangent runout to a cross
section that is fully superelevated
 Rate of transition, Relative Gradient = superelevation
runoff rate (SRR)
Superelevation - Superelevation Runoff
Superelevation - Superelevation Runoff

Lr =
( wnl )ed
(bw )

##  w: width of one travel lane, m

 nl: number of lane(s) rotated
 ed: Design Superelevation Rate
 bw: adjustment factor for number of lanes rotated
 ∆: Maximum Relative Gradient or superelevation runoff rate
(SRR)
Superelevation - Superelevation Runoff

Superelevation - Superelevation Runoff

## o Adjustment factor for number of lanes rotated, bw:

Superelevation Profile
Two-Lane Highway – Centerline Rotation
Normal Crown
Tangent Runout/Crown Runoff

Horizontal
Superelevation Runoff
Superelevation Achieved
Visual Effect of Having a Spiral Curve
before a simple horizontal curve

## The sharp “corners” at the

juncture of curve and tangent
section may become obvious to
from the driver’s seat especially

tangent to curve
Example:

## o A horizontal curve on radius of 800 meters has 3.6

meters lane and crown cross-slope of 0.02 m/m
(kemiringan melintang normal, NC, 2%). The design
speed is 80 km/h and according to the maximum
superelevation of 10%, the required superelevation is
0.043 (4.3%).
o Determine Superelevation Runoff and Tangent
Runout for two-lane and four-lane highway.
o Data:
 Vdesign = 80 km/h  ∆ = 0.50 (see the previous slide)
 emax = 10%
 eNC = 2%
 ed = 4.3%
 w = 3.6 m
 n1 for two-lane = 1  bw = 1.00 (see the previous slide)
 n1 for four-lane = 2  bw = (0.75
wn )e
Lr = l d
(bw )
o Formula: ∆
eNC
Lt =
Lr
 Superelevation Runoff:
ed
 Tangent Runout:

 Superelevation Runoff: Lr =
(wnl )ed (b ) = (3.6 ⋅1) ⋅ 4.3 (1.00) = 30.96 ≈ 31 meters
w
∆ 0.5
 two-lane:
Lr =
(wnl )ed (b ) = (3.6 ⋅ 2) ⋅ 4.3 (0.75) = 46.44 ≈ 46 meters
w
∆ 0.5
 four-lane:

##  Tangent Runout: eNC 2.0

Lt = Lr = (30.96) = 14.4 ≈ 14.0 meters
ed 4.3
 two-lane:
eNC 2.0
Lt = Lr = (46.44) = 21.6 ≈ 27.0 meters
 four-lane: ed 4.3
Tangent-to-Curve Transition
Diagrammatic of Attaining Superevelation
Applying the Superelevation
Simple Horizontal Curves

## o Based on how the final superelevation being

developed:
 Circular Curves
 Superelevation runoff developed 2/3 on tangent and 1/3 on curve
 Spiral Curves
 The superelevation runoff completely developed on length of
spiral
Circular Curve with Spiral (S-C-S)
Ls 360
θs =
2R 2π
∆c = ∆ − 2 θs
∆c
Lc = 2π R
360
Ls 2
Yc =
6R
Ls 3
Xc = Ls −
40 R 2
k = Xc − R sin θ s
p = Yc − R (1 − cos θ s )

Ts = ( R + p ) tan + k
2
Es =
(R + p )− R

cos
2
L total = Lc + 2 Ls
Diagrammatic of Attaining Superevelation
Full Spiral Curve (S-S)

1
θs = 2

∆c = 0
Lc = 0
Ls 2
Yc =
6R
Ls 3
Xc = Ls −
40 R 2
k = Xc − R sin θ s
p = Yc − R (1 − cos θ s )

Ts = ( R + p ) tan + k
2
Es =
(R + p )− R

cos
2
L total = 2 Ls
Diagrammatic of Attaining Superevelation
Simple Circular Curve (FC-Full Circle)

PI

Tc
Ec

CT
TC
Lc

Tc = R tan 12 ∆

R ∆/2 ∆/2 R Lc = 0
2π R
360
Ec = Tc tan 14 ∆
atau
O
Ec = Tc tan 14 ∆
Diagrammatic of Attaining Superevelation
Combined Curves
o Combined Curves atau Tikungan gabungan adalah dua atau
lebih tikungan yang bersebelahan
o Dapat dibedakan menjadi Tikungan Gabungan Searah dan
Tikungan Gabungan Balik Arah
 Tikungan Gabungan Searah yaitu gabungan dua atau lebih tikungan
dengan arah putar yang sama
 Tikungan Gabungan Balik Arah yaitu gabungan dua tikungan dengan
arah putar yang berbeda.
 Pada dasarnya tikungan gabungan searah kurang disarankan untuk
digunakan.
 Penggunaan tikungan gabungan searah pada kondisi khusus dapat
diterapkan dengan menyediakan bagian lurus atau spiral diantara dua
tikungan yang bersebelahan.
Stationing
Stationing and Stacking Out
o Stationing:
 Straight lines with distances continuous from the beginning to the end
 Specific station labels are given into vital points on the planned road
 The distances with interval of 50 m or 100 m
 Points of intersection (PI), Points of Vertical Intersection (PVI), Transition
points, etc.
 Format of stationing label: X+YYY,ZZZ km
 e.g.12+345,600 means a 12, 345.600 km away from the beginning.
o Stacking Out
 “A drawing” of station points on the land surface
 Locking in reference points  azimuth, distance, GPS coordinates
Stationing for Horizontal and Vertical Alignment

Horizontal Alignment

Vertical Alignment
Stasioning

## Tikungan 1 o Jarak A-PI1=d1, PI1-PI2=d2 dan PI2-D=d3

1
o A = titik awal dan D = titik akhir
o TS – SC = CS – ST = Ls
1
1 o SC – CS = Lc
d1
1 1 d2
o TS – PI = Ts

A
D

Stasioning:
o Sta A = 1+234,567
o Sta TS1= Sta A + d1– Ts1
o Sta SC1 = Sta TS1 + Ls1
o Sta CS1 = Sta SC1 + Lc1 Tikungan 2
o Sta ST1 = Sta CS1 + Ls1
Pelebaran Perkerasan Jalan di
Tikungan
Pelebaran Perkerasan (Jalur) di Tikungan
o Untuk memberikan kebebasan mengemudi di tikungan (jejak
kendaraan tetap di dalam tikungan dan dalam lajurnya).
o Besar Lebar total:
B = n (b' + C) + (n-1) Td + z
dimana :
n = Jumlah lajur Ialu lintas
b’ = Lebar lintasan truk di tikungan
T = Lebar melintang akibat tonjolan depan
z = Lebar tambahan akibat kelainan pengemudi
C = Kebebasan samping = 0,8 m
o Untuk B ada > B perlu  tidak perlu pelebaran
o Umunya terjadi bila R besar (>1200m) dan atau ∆ kecil (10°)
Pelebaran (Jalur) di Tikungan
Pelebaran (Jalur) di Tikungan
Pelebaran (Jalur) di Tikungan
Pelebaran (Jalur) di Tikungan
Pelebaran di Tikungan
Kebebasan Pandangan
Pandangan Bebas di Tikungan

## o Jarak yang diperlukan untuk memenuhi syarat jarak

pandang
o Panjangnya tergantung jari-jari (R ), Kecepatan
Pandangan Bebas di Tikungan


o Jarak pandangan < panjang  90 o S  
tikungan;

= R  1 − cos 
 
M
  π R
 

  90 o
S    90 o
S 
o S<L):Jarak Pandang > Panjang
M = R 1 − cos  Tikungan; S>L):
  + (S − L ) sin 
1 
  π R  2  πR 
   
dengan:
R:Jari-jari tikungan (m)
S:Jarak pandang henti (m)
L:Panjang Tikungan (m)
E:Jarak Pandangan Bebas (m)
Pandangan Bebas di Tikungan
Length of Superelevation Run Off
Special Notes
atau Lengkung Peralihan
Panjang Lengkung Peralihan, Ls
Panjang Lengkung Transisi, Panjang Lengkung Spiral

## o Panjang lengkung peralihan ditetapkan atas pertimbangan

bahwa:
 Untuk menghindari kesan perubahan mendadak, nilai Ls dibatasi dan
ditetapkan 3 detik dari kecepatan rencana.
Ls.
 Tingkat perubahan kelandaian melintang jalan (re) dari bentuk enormal
ke e rencana tidak boleh melebihi re-maks
o Tata Perencanaan Geometrik Jalan Antar Kota, Departemen
PU, Ditjen Bina Marga, 1997
 untuk kecepatan rencana < 70 km/jam, re-maks = 0,035 m/m/detik
 untuk kecepatan rencana > 80 km/jam, re-maks = 0,025 m/m/detik.
Panjang Lengkung Peralihan, Ls
Panjang Lengkung Transisi, Panjang Lengkung Spiral

o Percapaian kemiringan
 Panjang jalan yang diperlukan untuk melakukan
perubahan superelevasi jalan dari en (normal crown)
sampai ep (superelevasi penuh) atau sebaliknya.
o Panjang lengkung peralihan harus:
 Memenuhi kenyamanan dan keamanan pencapaian
kemiringan
 Pencapaian kemiringan terjadi secara teratur/seragam
 Tepi perkerasan kelihatan tidak patah-patah (appearance yg
bagus)
Panjang Lengkung Peralihan, Ls
Panjang Lengkung Transisi, Panjang Lengkung Spiral

## o Kelandaian relatif, (1/m), yaitu kemiringan tepi

perkerasan relatif terhadap sumbu putar perkerasan
jalan (sumbu jalan)
superelevasi penuh jalan maka panjang lengkung

Lsmin = b . m . e
Panjang Lengkung Peralihan, Ls
Konsep percapaian kemiringan

ep= h1 /b dan en = h2 /b
h = h1+ h2 = (ep + en).b
Kelandaian relatif, 1/m, = h / Ls
Ls = h.m = (ep + en).b.m
Metoda BM - lama
Panjang Lengkung Peralihan, Ls
Dengan konsep percapaian kemiringan

ep= h1 /b dan en = h2 /b
h = h1 = (ep).b
Kelandaian relatif, 1/m, = h / Ls

## Metoda BM - baru Ls = h.m = (ep ).b.m

Kelandaian Relatif
AASHTO, 2001

## Kecepatan Rencana Gradient relatif Kelandaian Relatitf

(km/jam) maksimum (%) maksimum

20 0,80 1 : 125
30 0,75 1 : 133
40 0,70 1 : 143
50 0,65 1 : 150
60 0,60 1 : 167
70 0,55 1 : 182
80 0,50 1 : 200
90 0,47 1 : 213
100 0,44 1 : 227
110 0,41 1 : 244
120 0,38 1 : 263
130 0,35 1 : 286
Konsep Lengkung Peralihan, Lsmin
AASHTO, 2001

w ⋅ nl ⋅ ed
Lr = ⋅ bw

dimana:
w : width of one travel lane, m
nl : number of lane(s) rotated
ed : Design Superelevation Rate
bw : adjustment factor for number of lanes rotated
∆ : Maximum Relative Gradient or
superelevation runoff rate (SRR)
Parameter Perhitungan Lsmin
AASHTO, 2001
Panjang Lengkung Peralihan, Ls
Konsep Perubahan Percepatan

## o Di sepanjang lengkung spiral, Ls, kendaraan

mengalami 2 macam perubahan, yaitu:
 perubahan gaya sentrifugal, atau tepatnya percepatan
sentrifugal karena massa tetap, dari nol di awal lengkung
peralihan menjadi sebesar V2/R di akhir lengkung
peralihan
 perubahan kedudukan dari datar (en) di awal lengkung
menjadi sebesar superelevasi penuh ep di akhir lengkung
peralihan.
Panjang Lengkung Peralihan, Ls
Konsep Perubahan Percepatan

## waktu sepanjang lengkung peralihan: t = Ls/V

V 2 /R V3 V3 V3
C= = atau Ls = = 0,021
Ls/V R ⋅ Ls R ⋅C R ⋅C
dengan V = kecepatan rencana , km/jam
R = jari-jari busur lingkaran, meter
C = perubahan percepatan, m/det3
Ls = panjang spiral, meter
Shortt Formula: umum digunakan di jalan rel
Panjang Lengkung Peralihan, Ls
Konsep Perubahan Percepatan dg Pengaruh Kemiringan

## percepatan arah radial, dg pengaruh superelevasi:

V2/R – g.k
k ≡ sin ? dan ? sudut kemiringan

## V 2 /R − g ⋅ k V3 gVk atau dg g = 9.81 m/s2

C= = −
Ls/V R ⋅ Ls Ls

V3 Vk
Ls = 0,021 − 2,725 Modified Shortt Formula
R ⋅C C Untuk jalan
Panjang Lengkung Peralihan, Ls
Metode-metode Perhitungan

## o Berdasarkan waktu tempuh di lengkung peralihan:

Vr dengan:
Ls = T Vr = kecepatan rencana (km/jam)
3 ,6 Ls = panjang lengkung peralihan (m)
T = waktu tempuh di Ls, diambil 3 detik

## o Berdasarkan perubahan gaya sentrifugal:

Vr Vr ⋅ e
Ls = 0 , 021 − 2 , 725
R .C C
dengan:
Vr = kecepatan rencana (km/jam)
Ls = panjang lengkung peralihan (m)
e = superelevasi penuh
R = jari-jari tikungan (m)
C = perubahan percepatan radial (m/s3)

## o Di Amerika nilai C berkisar antara 1,8 - 2,1 m/det3.

o Di Inggris digunakan nilai C = 0,3 m/det.
o Oleh Shortt nilai C dimaksudkan untuk jalan rel tanpa
memperhitungkan superelevasi.
o Untuk jalan, digunakan nilai C = 0,6 m/det.
o Rumus Modified Shortt dianjurkan nilai C = 0,4 m/det.
Panjang Lengkung Peralihan, Ls
Metode-metode Perhitungan

## o Berdasarkan tingkat pencapaian perubahan kelandaian

( e p − e n ) ⋅V r
Ls =
3 , 6 ⋅ re
dengan:
Vr = kecepatan rencana (km/jam)
Ls = panjang lengkung peralihan (m)
ep = superelevasi penuh
en = superelevasi normal (umumnya 2%)
re = tingkat pencapaian perubahan kemiringan melintang jalan,
Vrencana ≤ 70 km/jam re-maks = 0,035 m/m/detik
Vrencana ≥ 80 km/jam re-maks = 0,025 m/m/detik
Panjang Lengkung Peralihan, Ls
Metode-metode Perhitungan

## o Berdasarkan rumus spiral:

Ls = 2 ⋅ θ s ⋅ R dengan:
Ls = lengkung spiral,
θs = sudut spiral
R = jari-jari tikungan

## o Berdasarkan kelandaian relatif : Ls = b ⋅ m ⋅ (e n + e p )

dengan:
Ls = lengkung spiral,
b = lebar lajur,
m = kelandaian relatif
en = superelevasi normal,
ep = superelevasi penuh.
Lengkung Tertajam Tanpa Superelevasi
o Sesuai dengan tipe permukaan, superelevasi normal, en
antara 1,5% - 2,0%
o Superelevasi normal ditentukan oleh keperluan drainase
permukaan jalan
o Tikungan yang sangat tumpul (radius cukup besar) tidak
perlu superelevasi
o Untuk tikungan dengan en
 Mobil di jalur dalam tikungan mempunyai superelevasi positif
 Mobil di jalur luar tikungan mempunyai superelevasi negatif
Lengkung Tertajam Tanpa Superelevasi
o Makin tajam lengkungan, makin besar nilai superelevasi.
o Untuk kecepatan yang sama dan radius yang lebih kecil,
eneg dan percepatan lateral akan sama dengan nilai f yang
timbul
o Hubungan Superelevasi – Kecepatan – Lengkungan
digunakan untuk menentukan lengkung minimum yang
sudah memerlukan e atau lengkung maksimum dengan
en
 Untuk tiap kecepatan rencana ditentukan dengan pertimbangan
nilai lebih rendah faktor gesekan melintang dengan
memperhatikan en dan pergerakan kedua arah lalu-lintas
Lengkung Tertajam Tanpa Superelevasi

AASHTO, 2001
end of this part