EVALUATION MANUAL Ian D. Greenwood Opus International Consultants Limited, New Zealand Christopher R. Bennett Highway and Traffic Consultants Limited, New Zealand Roger C.M. Dunn The University of Auckland, New Zealand Ian Greenwood completed his B.E (Civil) with first class honours in 1992, prior to taking up a position as an Assistant Engineer with Opus International Consultants (formerly Works Consultancy Services Ltd). He has been involved in numerous research projects in the road and transport fields within New Zealand. In 1995 he was seconded to N.D. Lea International in Malaysia for 9 months to take up the position of Researcher Traffic for the HDM-4 Technical Relationships Study. Following this he spent 3 months at the University of Birmingham as an Honorary Research Associate, where he was involved with implementation of his previous research. Ian has written several modules of the HDM-4 software including those on costing congestion and road works delay, and several calibration routines. He has spent time in Canada and Australia while working on Pavement Management Systems. He is currently completing his Ph.D. (Civil) at the University of Auckland. Christopher Bennett was Team Leader on the HDM-4 Technical Relationships Study and is a recognised international expert on the Highway Development and Management Model (HDM). He has carried out studies with HDM in India, Myanmar, Nepal and Thailand as well as incorporating HDM modelling relationships into several pavement management systems. He has prepared guidelines on the calibration of HDM to be published by the International Study of Highway Development and Management Tools (ISOHDM). He received a Ph.D. from the University of Auckland in 1994 for a project that developed a microscopic speed simulation model for two-lane highways in New Zealand. His M.Eng was also from Auckland and focused on vehicle operating costs for use in economic appraisals based on HDM-III. This lead to the development of the NZVOC model that is used by Transit NZ to prepare VOC tables for the Project Evaluation Manual. Roger Dunn began his professional career with 10 years in the Ministry of Works and Development NZ engaged on various aspects of roading - he then joined Freeman Fox Wilbur Smith & Associates (UK and France) on traffic planning and new town developments. In 1972 he returned to NZ to The University of Auckland. Current and recent projects have included the Highway Technical Relationships Study for HDM-4 (for Asian Development Bank in Malaysia), a Study on the Access Frequency and Accidents on Rural State Highways (for Transit New Zealand) and applications of ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems). He is a member of two international committees on the standardisation of traffic information and control systems.

The International Study of Highway Development and Management Tools (ISOHDM) began in 1993 with the objective of developing enhanced tools for road management systems. Funded principally by the Asian Development Bank, the World Bank, the U.K. Overseas Development Administration and the Swedish National Road Administration, this multinational project has undertaken a significant amount of research into road user costs and pavement deterioration modelling. This work will provide new relationships for the Highway Development and Management Model (HDM-4) as well as being adapted for other systems. In New Zealand road projects are financed based on an economic analysis carried out in accordance with the Transfund New Zealand Project Evaluation Manual (PEM) (1997). The PEM derives benefits primarily from three sources: reductions in vehicle operating costs (road user costs), reductions in travel time and reductions in accident costs. The PEM vehicle operating cost model is based on the results of the New Zealand Vehicle Operating Cost (NZVOC) model, which was developed following a review of international research in this field. The HDM-III research results formed a significant component of NZVOC and thus the current PEM (Bennett, 1989a). As the PEM draws extensively on work undertaken for the HDM-III study, which has been superseded by the work on HDM-4, an evaluation of the differences between the PEM and the results of the ISOHDM study should be made. In addition, an appreciation of the implications of the HDM-4 research on funding priorities needs to be considered. This paper presents the results of a subjective comparison of the New Zealand Vehicle Operating Cost (NZVOC) model and the vehicle operating cost (VOC) model within HDM-4. The objective of this paper is to present practitioners with a clear understanding of the implications that the HDM-4 research is likely to have on project evaluations in New Zealand. The paper provides a general overview of the models before providing a subjective comparison of those areas suspected of having the greatest differences. It should be noted that at no stage have the two models been utilised to generate a full set of VOC values for a range of pavement and vehicle characteristics.

In 1996 Transit New Zealand commissioned a small research project to compare the NZVOC and HDM-4 (Opus, 1996). The objective was to subjectively determine significant differences between the New Zealand Vehicle Operating Cost Model (NZVOC) and the comparable components in HDM-4. It is important to realise that there are three components to HDM-4: • The HDM-4 approach which is a deterministic modelling of VOC and road deterioration (RDME);

• •

The life-cycle analysis of VOC and RDME; and The technical relationships applied in HDM-4

The HDM-4 software is a platform which applies these components. Many other systems have been developed with do not use the HDM-4 software but which embody all three components. Others, such as NZVOC, use all or some of the technical relationships for a specific application. In the NZVOC model’s case it is used primarily to generate tables of VOC for use in the PEM, although it can also predict the VOC for individual sections of road. In terms of total functionality, HDM-4 is much more inclusive than NZVOC. It not only has a module to calculate VOC’s for the given road and traffic conditions, but also has modules to calculate vehicle speeds, delays at road works, predict accidents and carry out noise calculations, such that it can carry out full treatment selection analysis. This is in addition to predicting road deterioration and maintenance effects as well as undertaking life-cycle analyses. Figure 1 provides a simplistic comparison of the NZVOC model and the HDM-4 road user effects model. Although not entirely evident from Figure 1, HDM-4 has a much greater capability than the NZVOC model. It is a fair assessment to conclude that HDM-4 in its entirety has a similar capability to a combination of NZVOC, the RAMM treatment selection algorithm and the Project Evaluation Manual (PEM). As a result of this, some components, such as the effect of road works on road users and modelling of safety, are not and should not be in NZVOC. Owing to this difference in functionality, some items in HDM-4 that have been addressed in this paper do not have a comparable function in NZVOC and hence comparisons are not possible so they are not discussed here.

The objective here is to present practitioners with an indication of where the main differences in the models lies, and more importantly, what these differences are likely to mean to road project selection. This section details those areas of the two models that were identified as having significant differences between them. Each item identified is presented with a brief description of the item, followed by the differences observed between NZVOC and HDM-4, and what the likely effect would be of adopting the HDM-4 approach. 3.1 Maintenance Cost Modelling

One of the major components of vehicle operating costs is that of ongoing maintenance of the vehicle. Maintenance costs are modelled as being made up of two components — Parts and Labour — with the latter of these two being modelled as a function of the former. The independent variables affecting these costs are the roughness of the road and the age of the vehicle. In HDM-4 there are two major changes to predicting maintenance costs: • • The elimination of any benefits from reducing roughness below a certain level; A reduction in the effects of roughness on maintenance costs.

Figure 1: Overview of New Zealand Vehicle Operating Cost Model and HDM-4 Road User Cost Model

HDM-4, Road User Cost Module

New Zealand Vehicle Operating Cost Model

Required Input Data Road geometry and condition Vehicle characteristics Accident rates Unit costs Road geometry and conditions Vehicle characteristics Vehicle Speed Unit Costs

Computational Modules Speed prediction Congestion modelling Fuel consumption Vehicle maintenance - parts and labour Oil consumption Tyre consumption Accident prediction Road works effects Fuel consumption Maintenance costs - parts and labour Oil consumption Tyre consumption

Model Outputs Speed on section of road Running costs including roughness effects Accident costs Road works effects Running costs at given speed and gradient Additional cost for roughness

Recent research has found that modern vehicles are not as influenced by roughness as older vehicles and that the suspension systems dampen out most effects. The elimination * of roughness effects below 3 IRI m/km (78 NAASRA counts/km) was recommended in HDM-III and has been incorporated into the HDM-4 software. This was also incorporated into NZVOC as evidenced by the reduction in the marginal roughness costs below 80 NAASRA counts in the PEM.

Within this paper a conversion of 1 IRI = 26 NAASRA has been used.

The effect of this change is that justification for rehabilitating pavements with moderate roughness counts (< 80 NAASRA counts/km) and high traffic volumes are difficult to justify. The reduction in the effects of roughness on maintenance costs in HDM-4 will have a significant impact on the prioritisation of road projects. The default roughness effects for cars are approximately 1/3 what they were in HDM-III and other vehicles are also lower. The basis for this change was recommendations made at a workshop on HDM-4 where the delegates reported consistent overpredictions of the effects of roughness on maintenance and also pointed out deficiencies in the original data collection. This change will make it much more difficult to justify road improvement projects which result in roughness reductions. 3.2 Depreciation Costs

NZVOC uses the results of a study into New Zealand depreciation in the late 1980’s (Bennett, 1989b). This lead to a models which predicted depreciation as a function of vehicle age and distance travelled. For HDM-4 the ‘Optimal Life’ approach has been adopted. This predicts that the optimal time for scrapping a vehicle is a function of the time stream of maintenance and repair costs (Chesher and Harrison, 1987). Since the maintenance costs are a function of roughness, this serves to make the depreciation costs also a function of roughness. One implication of the HDM-4 approach is that all depreciation is due to the use of the vehicle. This is at variance with the NZVOC allocation of only part of the costs to use and some to time and could influence the types of projects selected in the PEM. 3.3 Congestion Modelling

Congestion, measured as an increase in traffic volume, has two major effects; firstly speeds decrease and secondly, vehicle speeds vary by a greater amount about the lower mean speed. Traditionally modellers have concentrated on the first of these two components, with the result been that congestion resulted in reduced speeds and hence the incurring of a delay cost. Other operating cost components are calculated at this lower speed, although the models used have always been based on the assumption of steady state travel. In reality, as the speeds decrease there is an increase in the accelerations and decelerations so the steady state Within HDM-4 both of the effects are modelled. The first is accounted for through a speed-

flow model, whilst the second through the modelling of acceleration noise . The acceleration noise component determines the marginal fuel when travelling with different levels of congestion over travelling at a steady state speed. This results in a factor which is used to adjust the other RUE components (tyres, maintenance and oil) for congestion effects. NZVOC contains a different set of calculations for rural and urban roads. The difference lies in the parameters used with the fuel consumption models. An examination of the PEM indicates that the result of these different models is reflected in a change to the VOC of approximately 1 per cent. This is much lower than that yielded by the HDM-4 model under the assumption that the rural conditions are free-flowing and the urban has moderate congestion. It is obvious to most people that driving in rural conditions are significantly different to that encountered in urban centres. Furthermore, it is expected that to maintain the same average speed over a long journey, one would require periods of much higher speeds to account for the time stopped at signals etc. Therefore, the conclusion is that substantially different VOC values should be obtained for the rural and urban environments. However, if a rural road is operating at capacity the costs would be similar to those for an urban road operating at capacity. This is modelled in the HDM-4 approach. The HDM-4 approach predicts that the effect of congestion is greater than that currently predicted by NZVOC, with differences in the range of 50 per cent not uncommon. If project evaluations in New Zealand moved to an HDM-4 type approach to congestion, then projects such as lane additions or shoulder widening, which increase capacity thus enabling a smoother flow of traffic, would be favoured. By smoothing the flow of traffic, Advance Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) can also be modelled within the HDM-4 approach, and their benefits accounted for. The refinement of the HDM-4 approach is considered by Greenwood (1998) who is expected to provide an enhanced model for the modelling of congestion based on data collected in New Zealand and overseas. 3.4 Effects of Road Works on VOCs


To account for the true costs of carrying out maintenance work on roads, the additional costs to road users caused by reduced capacity and diversions must be included. The basic items to be costed are: • • • Additional delay due to queues and/or reduced travel speed; Additional costs involved in speed change cycles through work zone; Additional emissions of pollutants owing to speed change cycles and delays.

Acceleration noise is equal to the standard deviation of accelerations. It is at a minimum on low-flow roads with good alignments and a maximum under severely congested conditions or on roads with poor alignments.


Although the inclusion of this disbenefit is a legitimate inclusion into project evaluation according to the PEM, the lack of a simple means to quantity this item has generally seen its exclusion for economic analyses. As part of the HDM-4 project a simulation program that enables the user to generate the cost of carrying out maintenance activities on the road was developed (Greenwood et al., 1995 and NDLI, 1995). This simulation model is to be utilised to calibrate a series of equations for predicting the additional delays and fuel consumption due to road works. These additional costs will be considered when generating pavement maintenance strategies for a network. NZVOC does not contain such a model, nor is it considered appropriate for it to have one included, as preparation of tables for the PEM to cover for every lane closure configuration and traffic volume would be nigh on impossible. However, costing of this item is considered to be very important in that roading activities that have longer construction periods generally have lower maintenance costs. Therefore, to truly compare two alternatives requires all costs to be included. The authors note that this is one of the major anomalies between the requirements of the PEM and the RAMM treatment selection algorithm, in that the PEM clearly indicates that this cost should be included, yet the treatment selection algorithm excludes this component. Two reports contain details of the HDM-4 approach, the first (Greenwood et al. 1995) provides a background to the modelling process used within HDM-4, while the second (NDLI 1995) contains a full description of the modelling process implemented. An additional report (Bennett 1996) provides details of the methodology used to calibrate the predictive equations from the simulation output. The size of delays typically increases with both traffic volumes and length of the work zone. It is expected that inclusion of this component of costs into the calculations will result in the favouring of maintenance activities that can be carried out either in a short period of time, or alternatively at very low frequencies (long life products). Although not quantified, this cost has been indirectly considered for several years on heavily trafficked routes through the adoption of night maintenance and rehabilitation works. The inclusion of this item may also make pavements requiring less maintenance such as concrete pavements appear more attractive to road controlling authorities. Greenwood et al. (1995 and 1996) present details of the HDM-4 model in greater depth, including the input parameters required. We recommend that a standard methodology be prepared for all projects, which includes the negative benefits to road users. As noted above, HDM-4 contains a simulation model that may be suitable to generate a range of tables for the PEM. These tables would then enable users to easily add in this cost component to their total project costing. Alternatively, Transfund could adopt the simulation program to cost this item. For inclusion into the RAMM treatment selection algorithm, a methodology similar to that been introduced into HDM-4 may be warranted. This option would require careful selection of typical AADT profiles over the 24-hour period, to ensure the suitability of the model to New Zealand conditions.


Free Speed Modelling

The NZVOC does not predict the speed of traffic, as tables of costs are presented for various combinations of speed and gradient. However, the PEM does provide a comprehensive approach to calculating the free speed of vehicles based on the highway capacity manual (HCM) prepared by the Transportation Research Board (1992). Therefore, this section has been included to illustrate the changes made to the free speed model within HDM-4 which is based on work from New Zealand (Bennett, 1994). Free speed models are used to predict the speeds of unimpeded vehicles on the road. The basic assumption of most free speed models is that a number of constraints act on a driver, with the resulting speed being some function of these. Typical factors deemed to affect free speeds are alignment, engine power, speed limits and roughness. Other factors such as roadside development (side friction) and the presence of slow moving transport are also considered in some models. The three most significant differences between the HDM-Iii and HDM-4 speed models are that HDM-4 has significantly altered the model for downgrade speeds, the desired speed component has been altered to include posted speed limit effects and finally the curvature speed is no longer a function of side friction. It should be noted that the speed model presented in the HDM-4 reports (NDLI, 1995) is not the same as will be implemented into HDM-4. The change to the downgrade speed is through the introduction of a critical gradient length, whereby vehicles travelling on downgrades less than this critical length will not show any reduction in speed. Once the downgrade exceeds this critical length the speed is determined by resolving a force balance equation. This downgrade critical length is expected to show a high degree of correlation to the time a vehicles wheel brakes can be applied before they overheat. HDM-4 will predict the cornering constraining speed as a function of radius only. The move away from using side friction to predict curvature constraining speeds is the result of research undertaken in both New Zealand and Australia, and thus some credence must be given to it for inclusion in to NZVOC. Although Bennett (1994) showed significant improvement in the prediction of the model through the incorporation of a term based on the speed of the preceding section of road, this model was not suitable for inclusion into the HDM-4 modelling approach. The change to the downgrade formulation and curvature speeds are especially relevant to New Zealand given the large number of medium to short downgrades on our roads and the number of curves on our roading system. The HCM deals with gradient effects through a series of adjustment factors depending on the road type. As much of the HDM-4 speed prediction model comes from research undertaken within New Zealand, it would seem appropriate to utilise the model for speed prediction within New Zealand, rather than the American developed HCM. 3.6 Rolling Resistance

The rolling resistance of a vehicle plays a role in determining the total forces opposing motion for a vehicle. At low speeds it can be the dominant component of the total forces. The HDM-4 model was developed based on work done New Zealand by Opus Central Laboratories (NDLI, 1995). NZVOC utilised the ARFCOM rolling resistance model up until version 3.3j, when it was decided to utilise an approach recommended in a draft HDM-4 report (Greenwood and Bennett 1995). This new approach allowed texture effects to be incorporated into the rolling resistance equation. Subsequent research led to a change in the HDM-4 approach that saw HDM-4 adopt the ARFCOM rolling resistance model. Changes were made to the surface parameter CR2 to account for surface texture and roughness on various pavement types (NDLI, 1995). In general, rolling resistance increases with increasing roughness and texture depth and with decreasing pavement strength. Week pavements effectively result in vehicles creating a bow wave in front of the tyres, which in turn results in higher rolling resistance as vehicles are essentially driving 'uphill' all the time. A further 'enhancement' was made to the ARFCOM model in HDM-4 to account for the effect of rain and/or snow on roads. This term, FCLIM, increases the rolling resistance on wet and/or snow covered roads over that encountered on a dry road by allowing for the percentage of driving undertaken within these weather conditions. Cenek (1994) highlighted the significance of texture effects on rolling resistance when he stated that a reduction in surface texture depth from 2.2 mm to 1.4 mm would have the same impact on fuel consumption (a reduction of 4 per cent) as reducing roughness from 5.7 IRI (150 NAASRA counts/km) to 2.7 IRI (70 NAASRA counts/km). The current rolling resistance model contained within NZVOC is not capable of differentiating between different wheel types (radial or bias-ply), number of wheels or diameter of wheels. It was this inability to discern between these parameters that resulted in HDM-4 adopting the ARFCOM model, with the aforementioned changes. The inclusion of texture effects is a major change, and when considered with the decreased domination of roughness at low levels a shift in maintenance activities is possible. This change is expected to be greatest on low roughness roads, and could well result in a shift away from coarse chip seals towards surface treatments with a much lower texture depth. This shift could however be offset to some degree by safety concerns raised by aquaplaning effects at speed in excess of 60 km/h. We recommend that due consideration of the effects of the model implemented be made. The current model, while dealing adequately with texture effects, has a major deficiency in its ability to handle other components involved in rolling resistance. For example, utilising the ARFCOM model a 30 per cent variation in the tyre type term, CR1, is observed between bias and radial tyres. With such large variations in rolling resistance not predicted by the current NZVOC model, it is strongly recommended that a review be carried out with the aim of replacing this model. If the HDM-4 approach to modelling rolling resistance were adopted, the resulting model would differentiate between pavement types. This would require separate tables in the PEM for

vehicle operating costs depending upon the type of surface the vehicle is travelling on. One option would be to develop tables for a 'standard' combination of tyre type and pavement, and then add factors to adjust for variations on the standard conditions. The default coefficients given for the HDM-4 rolling resistance formula should be calibrated to New Zealand road conditions. This is especially so for unsealed roads where the default values predict 20 per cent higher rolling resistances for unsealed roads in comparison to a sealed flexible pavement. With some 40 per cent of New Zealands roads been unsealed, to have models under-predicting rolling resistance by 20 per cent is considered unsatisfactory. By changing to the HDM-4 approach, it could be expected that the justifiable traffic volume for the sealing of currently unsealed roads would reduce from the current value of around 300 vehicles per day. 3.7 Engine Speed Predictions

The engine speed (RPM) is used within VOC models to assist in calculation of the engine drag and accessories power, and the operating efficiency of the engine. The engine drag and accessories power, in turn, feeds into the fuel consumption model and is discussed separately in the next section. NZVOC utilises the ARFCOM approach to predicting engine speed. This approach has two regimes, one for when a vehicle is in top gear, and the other for gears other than top. The predicted engine speed is a function of vehicle speed and power requirements. At the point where drivers are deemed to change gear there is a discontinuity that results in a sudden change in fuel consumption. Considering the variety in driving styles and the variation in vehicle speeds about the mean speed, it is considered somewhat inappropriate to have such a discontinuity. For HDM-4 a simulation program was written which resulted in a continuous function between vehicle speed and engine speed (Greenwood and Bennett, 1995). This model averts the problems of a discontinuity, and explicitly considers the variation in vehicle speeds about the mean speed. However, it does not consider the power requirements of the vehicle, and hence predicts the same engine speed for a given vehicle speed whether travelling up or down a significant grade. As noted in the preceding section, a sudden discontinuity is undesirable in VOC models. NZVOC would be expected to show a significant change in fuel consumption at the vehicle speed where all drivers are deemed to change gear, which is not considered appropriate by us. Although correction of this factor is unlikely to result in a substantial change to the output, it is considered that this issue needs to be rectified. We recommend that a detailed examination of the output from NZVOC made to ensure that the ARFCOM engine speed model is not causing a discontinuity. If the ARFCOM engine speed model is considered to be giving such a discontinuity, then research should be carried out to rectify this problem. As a starting point we suggest that the HDM-4 approach, wherein a continuous relationship is developed, should be used.


Engine Drag and Accessories Power

Engine drag and accessories power can account for a significant proportion of fuel consumption values, especially when a high level of idling time or low vehicle speeds are observed. Fuel consumption during congested periods of motoring, when both long idle times and low speeds are encountered is therefore highly dependent on this factor. NZVOC utilises the ARFCOM approach to predicting accessories power and a combination of ARFCOM and HDM-4 draft relationships for predicting engine drag. This combination of models arises out of the fact that the ARFCOM model does not yield sensible results for all vehicle types, and hence for HDM-4 Greenwood and Bennett (1995) constructed a model which addressed these problems. This draft HDM-4 model was later found to have deficiencies of its own, so HDM-4 contains a simple linear function between engine speed, engine drag and accessories power (Bennett and Greenwood 1996). This linear function is essentially the same as was incorporated in to HDM-III. However, HDM-III utilised a constant engine speed and hence the resulting power consumption was a constant for all conditions. It is considered that the draft HDM-4 model incorporated into NZVOC has been done so incorrectly. The NZVOC model appears to reference an incorrect engine speed. Moreover, HDM-4 research (Greenwood and Bennett 1995) indicated that the biggest problem with the ARFCOM model was for petrol engines, whereas NZVOC has retained the ARFCOM model for petrol engines and altered the diesel model. The magnitude of the differences on any results is difficult to estimate, however any change is expected to be relatively consistent across all road types and conditions and thus it is not anticipated that a change to the modelling of these components would dramatically effect treatment selection. 3.9 Modelling Safety

As HDM-4 has the ability to generate maintenance strategies for a road network, it was necessary to prepare a methodology for incorporating the accident costs in to the modelling process. The result was a series of look up tables that give the accident rate for a certain group of roads. When a maintenance activity is carried out, it is anticipated that the resulting road would fall into a different group (may be texture depth > 2 mm) with an associated change in accident rate. This approach while useful for a pavement management system, is not required with NZVOC. The PEM is considered to provide adequately for the estimation of accident costs for one off projects. However, consideration should be given to the inclusion of safety aspects into the RAMM treatment selection algorithm. As the treatment selection algorithm does not include this component, there is a significant discrepancy between the economic analysis undertaken by the algorithm, and that done in accordance with the PEM. Further consideration to the safety implications of maintenance treatments should be carried out. For one off projects, the PEM provides a methodology for determining these costs and

thus no new methods need be introduced. However, as noted, the RAMM treatment selection algorithm does not explicitly consider safety issues, and it is this omission that is considered to need addressing.

This paper has presented an overview of many of the variations between the HDM-4 models and those used in project evaluations within New Zealand. In general, the HDM-4 models result in a move towards congestion and safety works, at the expense of works to address roughness. As the HDM-4 work is the most recent research undertaken into vehicle operating cost modelling, and many of the relationships have been developed from New Zealand and Australian data, consideration should be given to adopting the HDM-4 models into the NZVOC model. The current documentation on the NZVOC model is also alarmingly poor, with little written documentation on what models are contained in the current version. The last report was for v 3.0 by Bennett (1989a). The NZVOC program is now up to version 3.3j, yet very little documentation on the refinements since 3.0 exists. During the work described within this paper, what appeared to be errors in the coding of relationships within the NZVOC model were observed. In order to clarify the models used.

This paper has presented a subjective comparison of the NZVOC and HDM-4 models, with the aim of advising practitioners as to what changes in project selections could be expected from moving to the HDM-4 approach. In some instances, the NZVOC model was found to contain interim research findings from the HDM-4 research, which were subsequently changed within HDM-4 but not NZVOC. In general the HDM-4 models give greater weighting to congestion and safety works, at the expense of rehabilitation work.

Bennett, C.R. 1989a. The New Zealand Vehicle Operating Cost Model. RRU Bulletin 82. Transit New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand. Bennett, C.R. 1989b. The Depreciation of Motor Vehicles in New Zealand. Occasional Paper, Transit New Zealand. Bennett, C.R. 1994. A Speed Prediction Model for Rural Two-Lane Highways. PhD Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Auckland, New Zealand.

Bennett, C.R. 1995. The HDM-4 Road User Effects Model. Briefing Paper for the ISOHDM Workshop on Road User Effects. Transport Research Laboratory. ISOHDM Secretariat, University of Birmingham, England. Bennett, C.R. 1996. Modelling Road User Effects in HDM-4. ISOHDM Secretariat, University of Birmingham, England. Bennett, C.R. and Greenwood, I.D. 1996. Specifications for the HDM-4 Road User Effects Model. Third Draft. Project Secretariat International Study of Highway Development and Management Tools. University of Birmingham, England. Cenek, P.D. 1994. Rolling Resistance Characteristics of New Zealand Roads. Transit New Zealand Research Report PR3-001. Wellington.. Chesher, A.D. and Harrison, R. 1987. Vehicle Operating Costs: Evidence from Developing Countries. World Bank Publications, Washington, D.C. Dempsey, N.C. 1995. The New Zealand vehicle Operating Cost model. Model Technical Reference, Milestones and Milestone Definition, Transit New Zealand Research Report PR30100 Draft Final Report. Wellington. Greenwood, I.D. 1998. Modelling the Effects of Congestion on Road Users, PhD Thesis. Civil and Resource Engineering, University of Auckland (due for completion in 1998, supervisors R.C.M. Dunn and R.R. Raine). Greenwood, I.D. and Bennett, C.R. 1995. HDM-4 Fuel Consumption Modelling. Preliminary Draft Report - Task 2020-3. Asian Development Bank RETA: 5549. Greenwood, I.D., Bennett, C.R. and Dunn R.C.M. 1996. The Effects of Roadworks on Users. Proceedings Roads 96 Conference, Part 4 pp 169 - 182, ARRB Transport Research. Greenwood, I.D., Bennett, C.R. and Rahman A. 1995. Effects of Pavement Maintenance on Road Users. Preliminary Draft Report - Task 2070. Asian Development Bank RETA: 5549. NDLI 1995. Modelling Road User Effects in HDM-4. International Study of Highway Development and Management Tools. RETA 5549-REG Final Report to the Asian Development Bank. Vancouver, B.C. Poleman, M.A. and Weir, R.P. 1992. Vehicle Fatigue Induced by Road Surface Roughness. Vehicle, Tire, Pavement Interface, ASTM STP 1164, J.J. Henry and J.C. Wambold, Eds., pp. 97-111. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia. Transportation Research Board, 1992. Highway Capacity Manual. Washington, D.C.

Much of the work described in this paper was undertaken as part of the Transit New Zealand

research project PR3-0184 "Comparison of NZVOC and HDM-4 VOC Models". The authors would like to acknowledge the permission of the General Manager of Transit New Zealand to present the research information. The authors would also like to acknowledge the input of Peter Cenek of Opus International Consultants for his input into both the ISOHDM and Transit New Zealand research project PR3-0184. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and not necessarily those of Transit New Zealand, Opus International Consultants Ltd., Highway and Traffic Consultants Ltd., or The University of Auckland.

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