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SJ-5112

Perancangan Geometrik Jalan

Grade Separation and Interchange

Introduction
The first interchange was constructed in
Woodbride, NJ in 1928
It was a Cloverleaf
AASHTO introduced the various forms of
interchange in A Policy on Geometric Design of
Highways and Streets
Interchange Categories
System Interchange:
o Interconnects two freeways
o Having free-flowing ramps with no intersections
Service Interchange:
o Connecting a freeways with a surface streets
o Having one or more ramp intersections with crosroad

Basic Interchange Forms


(AASHTO Standards)
Basic Interchange Forms
T and Y interchanges (three-leg interchanges);

Basic Interchange Forms


Diamond interchanges;
Basic Interchange Forms
Partial cloverleaf (ParClo) interchanges;
Cloverleaf interchanges;

Basic Interchange Forms


Directional interchanges (with or without loop
ramps)
T and Y Interchanges

T and Y Interchanges
They can be all directional
Or with one or two ramps
The configuration with one loop referred ro as
‘trumpet’ form
Trumpet Forms

A: the loop ramp is advance the crossroad


for the driver approaching the intersection B
B: the loop ramp is beyond the crossroad
for the driver approaching the intersection

A
Which one is better?

Trumpet Forms

C
Which one is better?
Two-Loops Forms

E
Capacity of 1,200 ∼ 1,400 v/h

F
Capacity of 1,500 ∼ 1,800 v/h

Two-Loops Forms
Ancol
Directional T and Y Interchanges
Common forms for freeways-freeways (system
interchanges)
The differences among the forms are related to:
o Geometry of the ramps
o Number of bridges
o Levels and right-of-way requirement
Little or no significant difference in capacity

A B
UNDESIRABLE

C D
RESTRICTION

E F
AT-GRADE

G
ARTERIAL
Diamond Interchanges

Diamond Interchanges
Rural diamond;
Compressed diamond;
Tight-urban diamond;
Single-point diamond;
Three-point diamond;
Roundabout diamond;
Three-level diamond
Diamond Interchange

Florida

Rural Diamond

o Can be found in rural area


o Service interchange
o Typically, the rural road passes over the freeway
o Problematic at the crossroad
Compressed Diamond

o Common form in suburban areas

Tight-Urban Diamond Interchange


Tight-Urban Diamond Interchange

Single-Point Diamond Interchange


Single-Point Diamond Interchange

Three-Point Diamond Interchange

o Having four ramps  2-exit and 2-entrance


o Similar to other diamond interchange
o Having three intersections instead two or one
Split Diamond Interchange

Roundabout Diamond Interchange


Three-Level Diamond Interchange

Cloverleaf Interchanges
Cloverleaf and Partial Cloverleaf
Most of them are system interchange
The main feature of cloverleaf and partial
cloverleaf interchange is to accommodate all or
some left-turning (right-turning, case of
Indonesia) movement by installing loop ramps
An interchange with a full complement of loop
ramps is designated as a cloverleaf

Cloverleaf Interchange
There is only one basic form of cloverleaf
 interchange with four loop ramps
Cloverleaf were common interchange prior to
1970s as system interchange
However,
o Experience gained relatively low capacity due to four
weaving sections between loop ramps and high accident
rates
Semangi,, Jakarta
Semangi

Cloverleaf Interchange, continue…


In the urban areas, right-of-way of cloverleaf
becomes extremely expensive
o Negative operational experience was gained
• e.g. reducing speed and incidents in ramps
o Nowadays, other forms were operationally better and
less right-of-way were needed
o Some old cloverleafs were reconstructed with auxiliary
lane to separate the weaving traffic
Cloverleaf Interchange, continue…
Cloverleaf might be appropriate for several
reasons as follow:
o Cost of land is not overly expensive in rural area;
o Traffic volumes in rural areas are not that great;
o Drivers on primary highways in rural areas are
conditioned and expert to operate in free-flow
environment, which the cloverleaf provides
• Drivers ‘ behavior that is related to high speed environment

Partial
Cloverleaf PARCLO-A
(2 QUAD)
PARCLO-A

PARCLO-B PARCLO-B
(2 QUAD)

PARCLO-AB PARCLO-AB
(2 QUAD)

SINGLE LOOP
(4 VARIATIONS)
Partial Cloverleaf (ParClo) A and B
Refers to the location of the loop ramps in relation to the
driver approaching the interchange on the freeway
ParClo A:
o The loop on the driver’s side of the freeway approaching
the cross road (cross point of road centre line) is in
advance of the cross road
ParClo B:
o The two loops ramps are in opposite and different
quadrants  beyond the cross road

ParClo A N
typical movements WS
WN

SE
NE

W E
SW

NW

EN

ES

S
N-S: Road
W-E: Freeway
ParClo B N
NE
typical movements
WN

SE
WS

W E
EN
NW

ES

SW

N-S: Road
S
W-E: Freeway

Comparison of Service Interchange


in urban area*

* Based on hundreds of interchange selection and design studies in more than 20 urban areas
Directional Interchanges

Directional Interchanges
Being used at the intersection of two freeways in
both rural and urban
System interchanges with free flow for all turning
and through traffic movements
They can be all directional or directional with
loops
Typical Traffic Movements

(Full) Directional Interchange


Circle Interchange, Chicago

Semi Directional Ramp


Albany, US
end of lectures