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East and West Berlin: 27 mi / 43.1 km Border between West Berlin and East Germany: 69 mi / 111.9 km Border through residential areas in Berlin: 23 mi / 37 km Concrete segment wall: 3.6m (11.81 ft.) high, 66 mi / 106 km Wire mesh fencing: 41 mi / 66.5 km Anti-vehicle trenches: 65 mi / 105.5 km Contact or signal fence: 79 mi / 127.5 km Column track: 6-7 m (7.33 yd) wide, 77 mi / 124.3 km Number of watch towers: 302 Number of bunkers: 20 Persons killed on the Berlin Wall: 192 Persons injured by shooting: ca. 200 Bibliogaphy: The Wall, Press and Information Office of Land Berlin 2000/2001 Bilanz der Todesopfer, Checkpoint Charlie Museum, 1999 Die Berliner Mauer, Flemming/Koch, 1999 Die Grenze, Lapp/Ritter,1999
Berlin Wall History: Facts The Berlin Wall was erected in the night of August 13, 1961. It was a weekend and most Berliners slept while the East German government begun to close the border. In the early morning of that Sunday most of the first work was done: the border to West Berlin was closed. The East German troups had begun to tear up streets and to install barbed wire entanglement and fences through Berlin. The first concrete elements and large square blocks were used first on August 15, 1961. Within the next months the first generation of the Berlin Wall was build up: a wall consisting of concrete elements and square blocks. A second Wall was build in June 1962 in order to prevent from escaping to the West. The first Wall was improved during the next years and it's difficult to distinguish between the first and the second generation of the Wall. These two first generations were removed by the third generation beginning about 1965. The third generation of Wall consisted of concrete slabs between steel girder and concrete posts with a concrete sewage pipe on top of the Wall. From the year 1975 the third generation of Wall was replaced by the fourth generation. New concrete segements were used which were easy to build up and were more resistant to breakthroughs and to environmental polutions. System of Berlin Wall
The system of the Berlin Wall at the end of the 70s From right to left:
Total purchase price: norms.Backland Wall 4 . 1946 June 23. 1948 June 24. 1963 December 17. 1963 . 1949 End of Berlin blockade Segment of the fourth generation of Berlin Wall May 24. The document is an original document of the East German border troops. barriers are built Brandenburg Gate is closed All crossing points are closed for West Berlin citizens President J. 1961 June 26.07 st. Thanks to Hagen Koch for the copy of the this document. watchtowers and barrieres The area between the Backland Wall (3) and the Last Wall (11) was the so-called death strip.04 Mark The Western Powers waive the Interzonenpass. 1948 June 25.11 (West Germany) Height: (without tube) September 30. 120 cm / 3. Berlin is divided into two different currency zones Begin of the Berlin blockade Berlin Airlift begins October 29. New concrete segments were used which were easy to build up and more resistant to breakthroughs and to World War II ispolutions. the Soviet Berlin Wall Timeline Union follows but East German citizen need a permission to travel to the West Leaving East Germany without permission is forbidden and violations are prosecuted with prison up to three years The Berlin sectorial border between East and West Berlin is closed. 1948 May 12. suppression by imposition of increased working 16 Million Mark (16 155 000 Mark) Red Army tanks Price of one bread: 1. F.Signal fence 5 . Border between East and West Germany and between 359 Mark each segment East Germany and West Berlin is closed.East Berlin 2 . the Berlin Wall was a complex system of walls.Border area 3 . Only the border (East West Berlin is between East andGerman Mark) still opened Uprising of About 45 000 pieces workers against the East Berlin building were used in Berlin. 1949 Width: October 7.Watch towers 7 . Berlin is divided into 4 sectors: May 8.81 ft. German Democratic Republic is founded (East Germany) 2750 kg / 433. 1949 Federal Republic of Germany is founded Official name: Stützwandelement UL 12.1 .Different kind of barriers 6 . 1949 Weight: (without tube) May 26. This last Wall is known as the Berlin Wall. French in the West and This kind of Berlin Wall was also called "Grenzmauer 75" (Border Wall 75). 1953 December 11. British.Lighting system 8 .Border 13 . 1961 August 26. 1946 At the instigation of the Soviet Military administration the demarcation line between East and West Germany is safeguarded A 30 day valid Interzonenpass is required to travel between the sectors in Germany Currency reform in Berlin. 1945 environmental over and the American. From the year 1975 the third generation of Berlin Wall was replaced by the fourth generation. I only added the numbers and West/East Berlin into the document.Column track 9 .Control track 10 .Last Wall. Kennedy visits Berlin and says: "Ich bin ein Berliner.937 ft.Anti-vehicle trenches 11 . fences. Fourth Generation of Berlin Wall Soviet in the East the June 30.West Berlin The whole border area was on the territory of East Berlin/East Germany. However.") West Berliner citizen may visit East Berlin the first time November 14. The border between East and West Berlin was after the last Wall. 1953 360cm / End of Berlin Airlift11. 1957 August 13. 1952 Selling price: Numbers: June 17." ("I am a Berliner. 1961 August 14. known as the "Wall" 12 .
1971 June 12. East Germany and Berlin and within Berlin. Many East German citizen went to East Berlin and from there to West Berlin. one year after the end of the World War II the Soviet Military administration begun to safeguard the demarcation lines of the Soviet sectors to the West. Hungarian government opens border for East German refugees Berlin Wall is opened Brandenburg Gate is opened Germany is reunited Why the Berlin Wall was built up Until 1961 East German citizen were allowed to travel to West Berlin. .after more than two years September 3. 1989 November 9. 1989 October 3. East Germany lost too many skilled workers in these years. However. 1987 September 10. At the beginning people tried to climb over the Wall or the fences. 1952 the East German government decided to close the border and to build up a frontier area between East and West Germany and between West Berlin and East Germany. 1990 Four Power's Agreement over Berlin visiting becomes easier for West Berliners President Ronald Reagan visits Berlin and urges Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall. Once arrived in West Berlin they stayed there or were fled out to West Germany. Although many border crossing points were closed in Berlin and controls at the border happened.6 million East Germans escaped to West Berlin or West Germany from 1949 to 1961 (total population of East Germany was about 17 million!). 1961 the East German government decided to close the 'last gap' in the border to West Berlin and the Berlin Wall was build up. The Wall was erected in 1961 because more than 2. Thousands of East German citizen had escaped to the West over the borders between East and West Germany. In May 1952 the open border (Zonengrenze) between East and West Germany was closed by the East German government. After May 26. 1989 December 22. However. Travelling to West Germany became difficult after closing the border between East and West Germany in 1952. bought a S-Bahn (suburban train) or U-Bahn (subway) ticket and left East Berlin. 1952 there was only one quite safe way to escape to the West: Berlin. During the first days several people lost their live or were killed by the Eastern border guard . Günter Litwin was the first victim who was shot down by East German border guard in Berlin on August 24. In East Germany a communist system was established and many people had to suffer under repressions of the Communist party. during the first days many people could escape through the border but day by day it became more dangerous. Traveling between all sectors of Germany was restricted and an "Interzonenpass" (Inter-zone passport) was required to travel from one sector to another. it was quite easy to leave the Eastern sector of Berlin to the Western sector. they jumped out of the houses which were in the border area or tunnels were build to escape. West Germany including West Berlin had got financial help through the Marshallplan from the USA. Many East German citizen went to Berlin. Crossing the border between East and West Germany without permission was possible but became more and more dangerous. Another big problem were the two currencies in Germany and especially in Berlin. The life in the West was much better than in the East after 1948. Berlin Wall History: Escape Attempts to the West In 1946. 1961. In the years after 1952 it became more difficult and dangerous to escape to the West over this border. The Interzonenpass was 30 days valid and travellers had to apply for that pass at the authorities which could refuse the application. On August 13. 1961. East German citizen were not allowed to leave the country without permission. People with West German DM could get goods very cheaply in the Eastern part of Berlin. On May 26. West German DM had been exchanged into East German DM at a rate of 1:4 (1 DM West = 4 DM Ost) in West Berlin. the sectorial borders between East and West Berlin were not closed. The East German government saw no other way to prevent from escaping to the West via Berlin than closing the border between East and West Berlin on August 13.
2000. The German authorities in West and East Berlin were not allowed to check any members of the Allied Military Forces in Berlin and in Germany. Until the mid 60s houses were on this area but were demolished in order to get a manageable border area. In 1999. district Mitte. The empty area is seen on the photograph. Foreign tourists were also informed but not checked in the West. shops. diplomats and the military personnel of the Western Powers were only allowed to enter East Berlin via the crossing point at Berlin Friedrichstrasse. a field of 1. Years later the houses were pulled down. for more than 28 years the place was dead land in the citie's heart and at night the lamps of the Berlin Wall enlighted the Potsdamer Platz area to prevent East German citizen from escaping to West Berlin. 1989. the Berlin government demolished most part of the remaining Wall at Potsdamer Platz. 1961 tourists from abroad. the houses' walls were the border to the West and people jumped out of their flats into the West in the first days. A copy of the American guardhouse was errected on the original place on August 13. 1961. Berlin Wall History: Checkpoint Charlie Ten days after closing the border on August 13. It became unpossible to meet friends. 1990. 1961 and November 9. In the Bernauer Strasse. neighbours or relatives who lived on the other site of the street. galeries and restaurants invite consumers to stay here. The former Allied guardhouses are now located in the Allied Museum. 2004 and nearby. Every day thousands of tourists and Berliners visit this area to view the changing and growing of a new city part in the center of Berlin. Dreilinden Checkpoint Bravo and the checkpoint at Friedrichstrasse got the name Charlie. . However. From that moment nobody could cross the street. The separation of the city and its streets begun in the early morning of August 13. Signs marked the sector border but nobody didn't take care of these signs. 2000. After World War II Mitte became part of the Soviet sector and Wedding of the French sector. Checkpoint Charlie was removed on June 22. Berlin Wall History: Potsdamer Platz Berlin's life is pulsating at Potsdamer Platz. The East German watch tower at Checkpoint Charlie was demolished by the property owner Checkpoint Charlie Service Company on December 9. Cinemas. The main function of the checkpoint was to register and inform members of the Western Military Forces before entering East Berlin. Soon the US military police opened the third checkpoint at Friedrichstrasse. People could move from one part of the street to the other.171 people were killed or died attempting to escape at the Berlin Wall between August 13. After opening the border in 1989 the wall was very quickly demolished and only some segments of the backland wall and a watchtower survived. A 140 meter long section of the Berlin Wall was re-erected by the museum on October 31. The other two checkpoints were Helmstedt at the West German-East German border and Dreilinden at the West Berlin and East Germany border. Based on the phonetic alphabet the Helmstedt checkpoint was called Alpha. Today empty areas lend the Eastern part of the street its character. Berlin Wall History: Bernauer Strasse It is one of these typical streets which separates two Berlin's districts: Mitte in the East and Wedding in the West.065 crosses represents all victims of the East German border system. ten years later. But soon the windows were walled up and occupants had to leave their flats. East German army and police blocked the streets and houses in the streets and begun to built a wall.
especially in Poland and Hungary. immediately. Months before East German tourists used their chance to escape to Austria from Hungary and in September 1989 more than 13 000 East German escaped via Hungary within three days. In 1989 the first free labor union was founded in the communist Poland. The end of the communist system had begun.30 pm the border was opened there. The reforms in the Soviet Union also had its effects on the other communist countries.The Fall of the Berlin Wall The fall of the Berlin Wall had begun with the building of the Wall in 1961.. Budapest 1956 or Prague 1968 will never been forgotten. It was the first mass exodus of East Germans after the erection of the Berlin Wall in 1961. East Germany's head of state. Perestroika and Glasnost should renew the stalinistic system in the Soviet Union but not replace the communist system. straightaway. Soon other border crossing points opened the gates to the West In that night the deadly border was opened by East Germans peacefully. Gorbatshov's reforms. That moment meant the end of the Berlin Wall. Several times people in the Communist countries rised up against the Communist system but they failed. At 06. The Soviet Union could control their satellites yet but with the new leader Gorbatshov their politics changed in 1984. . Erich Honecker.. . On August 23. had to resign on October 18. The new governement prepared a new law to lift the travel restrictions for East German citizen." Thousands of East Berliners went to the border crossings. He answered: "Well. 1989. 1989 a member of the new East German government was asked at a press conference when the new East German travel law comes into force. However it took about three decades until the Wall was torn down. Mass demonstrations against the government and the system in East Germany begun at the end of September and took until November 1989. 1989 Hungary opened the iron curtain to Austria.53 pm on November 9. At Bornholmer Strasse the people demanded to open the border and at 10. The victims of the uprisings against the Communist dictatorship in Berlin 1953. as far as I can see.
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