Uploaded by karthik_deven

Fluid DynamicsFluid MechanicsApplied And Interdisciplinary PhysicsContinuum MechanicsChemical Engineering

5.0 (1)

0

Theory Guide

April 2009

Copyright c 2009 by ANSYS, Inc. All Rights Reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or otherwise used in any form without express written permission from ANSYS, Inc.

Airpak, Mechanical APDL, Workbench, AUTODYN, CFX, FIDAP, FloWizard, FLUENT, GAMBIT, Iceboard, Icechip, Icemax, Icepak, Icepro, Icewave, MixSim, POLYFLOW, TGrid, and any and all ANSYS, Inc. brand, product, service and feature names, logos and slogans are registered trademarks or trademarks of ANSYS, Inc. or its subsidiaries located in the United States or other countries. All other brand, product, service and feature names or trademarks are the property of their respective owners. CATIA V5 is a registered trademark of Dassault Syst`mes. CHEMKIN is a registered e trademark of Reaction Design Inc. Portions of this program include material copyrighted by PathScale Corporation 2003-2004.

ANSYS, Inc. is certiﬁed to ISO 9001:2008

See the on-line documentation for the complete Legal Notices for ANSYS proprietary software and third-party software. If you are unable to access the Legal Notice, contact ANSYS, Inc.

Contents

Preface 1 Basic Fluid Flow 1.1 1.2 1.3

UTM-1 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-5 1-5 1-6 1-7 1-8 1-9 1-9

Overview of Physical Models in ANSYS FLUENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . Continuity and Momentum Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . User-Deﬁned Scalar (UDS) Transport Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 1.3.2 Single Phase Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiphase Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4

Periodic Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physics of Periodic Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.5

Swirling and Rotating Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11 1.5.1 1.5.2 Overview of Swirling and Rotating Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11 Physics of Swirling and Rotating Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14

1.6

Compressible Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16 1.6.1 1.6.2 When to Use the Compressible Flow Model . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17 Physics of Compressible Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18

1.7

Inviscid Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-19 1.7.1 Euler Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

TOC-1

CONTENTS

2 Flows with Rotating Reference Frames 2.1 2.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-1 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-6 2-8 2-8

Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 2.2.2 Equations for a Rotating Reference Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single Rotating Reference Frame (SRF) Modeling . . . . . . . .

2.3

Flow in Multiple Rotating Reference Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 2.3.2 The Multiple Reference Frame Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The Mixing Plane Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13 3-1 3-1 3-4

3 Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes 3.1 3.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Sliding Mesh Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1

The Sliding Mesh Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10

3.3

Dynamic Mesh Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11 3.3.1 3.3.2 Dynamic Mesh Update Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11 Six DOF (6DOF) Solver Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-31 4-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 4-3 4-3 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-6 4-7 4-8 4-8

4 Turbulence 4.1 4.2 Introduction

Choosing a Turbulence Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 Reynolds-Averaged Approach vs. LES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reynolds (Ensemble) Averaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boussinesq Approach vs. Reynolds Stress Transport Models . . .

4.3

Spalart-Allmaras Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5 4.3.6 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transport Equation for the Spalart-Allmaras Model . . . . . . . Modeling the Turbulent Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modeling the Turbulent Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Modeling the Turbulent Destruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10 Model Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10

TOC-2

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

CONTENTS

4.3.7 4.3.8 4.4

Wall Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10 Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11

Standard, RNG, and Realizable k- Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.4.4 4.4.5 4.4.6 4.4.7 Standard k- Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12 RNG k- Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14 Realizable k- Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18 Modeling Turbulent Production in the k- Models . . . . . . . . 4-22 Eﬀects of Buoyancy on Turbulence in the k- Models . . . . . . . 4-23 Eﬀects of Compressibility on Turbulence in the k- Models . . . 4-24 Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling in the k- Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24

4.5

Standard and SST k-ω Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26 4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 Standard k-ω Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26 Shear-Stress Transport (SST) k-ω Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-31 Wall Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-35

4.6

k-kl-ω Transition Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-37 4.6.1 4.6.2 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-37 Transport Equations for the k-kl-ω Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-37

4.7

Transition SST Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-41 4.7.1 4.7.2 4.7.3 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-42 Transport Equations for the Transition SST Model . . . . . . . . 4-42 Specifying Inlet Turbulence Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-46

4.8 4.9

The v 2 -f Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-47 Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-48 4.9.1 4.9.2 4.9.3 4.9.4 4.9.5 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-48 Reynolds Stress Transport Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-49 Modeling Turbulent Diﬀusive Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-50 Modeling the Pressure-Strain Term . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-50 Eﬀects of Buoyancy on Turbulence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-55

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

TOC-3

CONTENTS

4.9.6 4.9.7 4.9.8 4.9.9 4.9.10

Modeling the Turbulence Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-55 Modeling the Dissipation Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-56 Modeling the Turbulent Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-57 Wall Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-57 Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . 4-58

4.10 Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-58 4.10.1 4.10.2 4.10.3 Spalart-Allmaras Based DES Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-59 Realizable k- Based DES Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-60 SST k-ω Based DES Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-61

4.11 Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-61 4.11.1 4.11.2 4.11.3 4.11.4 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-62 Filtered Navier-Stokes Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-63 Subgrid-Scale Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-64 Inlet Boundary Conditions for the LES Model . . . . . . . . . . 4-68

4.12 Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows . . . . . . . . 4-71 4.12.1 4.12.2 4.12.3 4.12.4 4.12.5 4.12.6 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-71 Standard Wall Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-74 Non-Equilibrium Wall Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-79 Enhanced Wall Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-82 User-Deﬁned Wall Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-87 LES Near-Wall Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-88 5-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 5-2 5-2 5-6

5 Heat Transfer 5.1 5.2 Introduction

Modeling Conductive and Convective Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 5.2.2 Heat Transfer Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural Convection and Buoyancy-Driven Flows Theory . . . . .

TOC-4

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

CONTENTS

5.3

Modeling Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 5.3.5 5.3.6 5.3.7 5.3.8 5.3.9 Overview and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5-7 5-8

Radiative Transfer Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12 P-1 Radiation Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13 Rosseland Radiation Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17 Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM) Theory . . . . . . . 5-19 Discrete Ordinates (DO) Radiation Model Theory . . . . . . . . 5-22 Surface-to-Surface (S2S) Radiation Model Theory . . . . . . . . 5-43 Radiation in Combusting Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-46

Choosing a Radiation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-49 6-1 6-1 6-2 6-4

6 Heat Exchangers 6.1 The Macro Heat Exchanger Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 6.1.2 6.2 Overview and Restrictions of the Macro Heat Exchanger Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Macro Heat Exchanger Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The Dual Cell Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12 6.2.1 6.2.2 Overview and Restrictions of the Dual Cell Model . . . . . . . . 6-12 Dual Cell Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13 7-1 7-1 7-2 7-4

7 Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry 7.1 Volumetric Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.1 7.1.2 7.2 Species Transport Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Generalized Finite-Rate Formulation for Reaction Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Wall Surface Reactions and Chemical Vapor Deposition . . . . . . . . . 7-11 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.3 Surface Coverage Reaction Rate Modiﬁcation . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13 Reaction-Diﬀusion Balance for Surface Chemistry . . . . . . . . 7-14

Slip Boundary Formulation for Low-Pressure Gas Systems . . . . 7-15

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

TOC-5

CONTENTS

7.3

Particle Surface Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 7.3.4 7.3.5 7.3.6 7.3.7 General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17 ANSYS FLUENT Model Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-18 Extension for Stoichiometries with Multiple Gas Phase Reactants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-20 Solid-Solid Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-20 Solid Decomposition Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-21 Solid Deposition Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-21 Gaseous Solid Catalyzed Reactions on the Particle Surface . . . . 7-21 8-1 8-2 8-2 8-2 8-8

8 Non-Premixed Combustion 8.1 8.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Non-Premixed Combustion and Mixture Fraction Theory . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.2.4 Mixture Fraction Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modeling of Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction . . . . . . . . . .

Non-Adiabatic Extensions of the Non-Premixed Model . . . . . . 8-12 Chemistry Tabulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-15

8.3

Restrictions and Special Cases for Using the Non-Premixed Model . . . . 8-19 8.3.1 8.3.2 8.3.3 8.3.4 Restrictions on the Mixture Fraction Approach . . . . . . . . . . 8-19 Using the Non-Premixed Model for Liquid Fuel or Coal Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-20 Using the Non-Premixed Model with Flue Gas Recycle . . . . . . 8-23 Using the Non-Premixed Model with the Inert Model . . . . . . 8-24

8.4

The Laminar Flamelet Models Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-26 8.4.1 8.4.2 8.4.3 8.4.4 Restrictions and Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-26 The Flamelet Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-26 Flamelet Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-30 Flamelet Import . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-31

TOC-6

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

CONTENTS

8.5

The Steady Laminar Flamelet Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-32 8.5.1 8.5.2 8.5.3 8.5.4 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-33 Multiple Steady Flamelet Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-34 Steady Laminar Flamelet Automated Grid Reﬁnement . . . . . . 8-34 Non-Adiabatic Steady Laminar Flamelets . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-35

8.6

The Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-36 8.6.1 8.6.2 The Eulerian Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model . . . . . . . . . 8-36 The Diesel Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model . . . . . . . . . . 8-39 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-2 9-3 9-3 9-4 9-9

9 Premixed Combustion 9.1 Overview and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.1 9.1.2 9.2 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Zimont Turbulent Flame Closure Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.1 9.2.2 Propagation of the Flame Front . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Turbulent Flame Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9.3

Extended Coherent Flamelet Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.1 9.3.2

Closure for ECFM Source Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11 Turbulent Flame Speed in ECFM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13

9.4

Calculation of Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13 9.4.1 9.4.2 Adiabatic Temperature Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13 Non-Adiabatic Temperature Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13

9.5

Calculation of Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-14 10-1

10 Partially Premixed Combustion

10.1 Overview and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1 10.1.1 10.1.2 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

TOC-7

CONTENTS

10.2 Partially Premixed Combustion Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2 10.2.1 10.2.2 Calculation of Scalar Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2 Laminar Flame Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3 11-1

11 Composition PDF Transport

11.1 Overview and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1 11.2 Composition PDF Transport Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2 11.3 The Lagrangian Solution Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3 11.3.1 11.3.2 11.3.3 11.3.4 Particle Convection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4 Particle Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5 Particle Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6 The ISAT Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8

11.4 The Eulerian Solution Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-9 12 Engine Ignition 12-1

12.1 Spark Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1 12.1.1 12.1.2 Overview and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1 Spark Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2

12.2 Autoignition Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3 12.2.1 12.2.2 Overview and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-4 Ignition Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-5

12.3 Crevice Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-9 12.3.1 12.3.2 12.3.3 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-10 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-12 Crevice Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-13 13-1

13 Pollutant Formation

13.1 NOx Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1 13.1.1 13.1.2 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2 Governing Equations for NOx Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-3

TOC-8

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

CONTENTS

13.1.3 13.1.4 13.1.5 13.1.6 13.1.7 13.1.8 13.1.9

Thermal NOx Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-4 Prompt NOx Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8 Fuel NOx Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-12 NOx Formation from Intermediate N2 O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-24 NOx Reduction by Reburning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-26 NOx Reduction by SNCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-30 NOx Formation in Turbulent Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-36

13.2 SOx Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-39 13.2.1 13.2.2 13.2.3 13.2.4 13.2.5 13.2.6 13.2.7 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-40 Governing Equations for SOx Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-41 Reaction Mechanisms for Sulfur Oxidation . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-42 SO2 and H 2 S Production in a Gaseous Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-44 SO2 and H 2 S Production in a Liquid Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-44 SO2 and H 2 S Production from Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-44 SOx Formation in Turbulent Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-45

13.3 Soot Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-47 13.3.1 13.3.2 Overview and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-47 Soot Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-48 14-1

14 Aerodynamically Generated Noise

14.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1 14.1.1 14.1.2 14.1.3 Direct Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2 Integral Method Based on Acoustic Analogy . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2 Broadband Noise Source Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3

14.2 Acoustics Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-4 14.2.1 14.2.2 The Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings Model . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-5 Broadband Noise Source Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-7

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

TOC-9

CONTENTS

15 Discrete Phase 15.1 Introduction

15-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1

15.2 Particle Motion Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2 15.2.1 15.2.2 15.2.3 Equations of Motion for Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2 Turbulent Dispersion of Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6 Integration of Particle Equation of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-12

15.3 Laws for Drag Coeﬃcients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-15 15.3.1 15.3.2 15.3.3 15.3.4 15.3.5 15.3.6 Spherical Drag Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-15 Non-spherical Drag Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-15 Stokes-Cunningham Drag Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-16 High-Mach-Number Drag Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-16 Dynamic Drag Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-16 Dense Discrete Phase Model Drag Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-17

15.4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-18 15.4.1 15.4.2 15.4.3 15.4.4 15.4.5 15.4.6 Inert Heating or Cooling (Law 1/Law 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-19 Droplet Vaporization (Law 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-21 Droplet Boiling (Law 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-24 Devolatilization (Law 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-25 Surface Combustion (Law 5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-36 Multicomponent Particle Deﬁnition (Law 7) . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-42

15.5 Vapor Liquid Equilibrium Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-43 15.6 Wall-Jet Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-46

15.7 Wall-Film Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-47 15.7.1 15.7.2 15.7.3 15.7.4 15.7.5 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-47 Interaction During Impact with a Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-49 Splashing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-50 Separation Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-53

Conservation Equations for Wall-Film Particles . . . . . . . . . . 15-54

15.8 Particle Erosion and Accretion Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-59

TOC-10

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

CONTENTS

15.9 Atomizer Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-60 15.9.1 15.9.2 15.9.3 15.9.4 15.9.5 The Plain-Oriﬁce Atomizer Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-61 The Pressure-Swirl Atomizer Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-69 The Air-Blast/Air-Assist Atomizer Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-74 The Flat-Fan Atomizer Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-75 The Eﬀervescent Atomizer Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-76

15.10 Secondary Breakup Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-77 15.10.1 Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-78 15.10.2 Wave Breakup Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-83 15.11 Droplet Collision and Coalescence Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-86 15.11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-86 15.11.2 Use and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-87 15.11.3 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-88 15.12 One-Way and Two-Way Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-90 15.12.1 Coupling Between the Discrete and Continuous Phases . . . . . . 15-90 15.12.2 Momentum Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-91 15.12.3 Heat Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-91 15.12.4 Mass Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-92 15.12.5 Under-Relaxation of the Interphase Exchange Terms . . . . . . . 15-93 15.12.6 Interphase Exchange During Stochastic Tracking . . . . . . . . . 15-95 15.12.7 Interphase Exchange During Cloud Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . 15-95 16 Multiphase Flows 16.1 Introduction 16.1.1 16.1.2 16-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-2

Multiphase Flow Regimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-2 Examples of Multiphase Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-5

16.2 Choosing a General Multiphase Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-5 16.2.1 16.2.2 Approaches to Multiphase Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-6 Model Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-7

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

TOC-11

CONTENTS

16.2.3 16.2.4

Time Schemes in Multiphase Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-11 Stability and Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-12

16.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-13 16.3.1 16.3.2 16.3.3 16.3.4 16.3.5 16.3.6 16.3.7 16.3.8 16.3.9 Overview and Limitations of the VOF Model . . . . . . . . . . . 16-14 Volume Fraction Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-15 Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-20 Momentum Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-21 Energy Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-21 Additional Scalar Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-22 Time Dependence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-22 Surface Tension and Wall Adhesion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-22 Open Channel Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-25

16.3.10 Open Channel Wave Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-28 16.4 Mixture Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-30 16.4.1 16.4.2 16.4.3 16.4.4 16.4.5 16.4.6 16.4.7 16.4.8 16.4.9 Overview and Limitations of the Mixture Model . . . . . . . . . 16-30 Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-32 Momentum Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-32 Energy Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-33 Relative (Slip) Velocity and the Drift Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . 16-33 Volume Fraction Equation for the Secondary Phases . . . . . . . 16-35 Granular Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-36 Granular Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-37 Interfacial Area Concentration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-38

16.4.10 Solids Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-41 16.5 Eulerian Model Theory 16.5.1 16.5.2 16.5.3 16.5.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-41

Overview and Limitations of the Eulerian Model . . . . . . . . . 16-42 Volume Fraction Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-43 Conservation Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-44 Interphase Exchange Coeﬃcients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-49

TOC-12

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

CONTENTS

16.5.5 16.5.6 16.5.7 16.5.8 16.5.9

Solids Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-57 Maximum Packing Limit in Binary Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . 16-60 Solids Shear Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-61 Granular Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-64 Interfacial Area Concentration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-66

16.5.10 Description of Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-66 16.5.11 Turbulence Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-67 16.5.12 Solution Method in ANSYS FLUENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-77 16.5.13 Dense Discrete Phase Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-78 16.5.14 Immiscible Fluid Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-81 16.6 Wet Steam Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-82 16.6.1 16.6.2 16.6.3 16.6.4 Overview and Limitations of the Wet Steam Model . . . . . . . . 16-82 Wet Steam Flow Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-83 Phase Change Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-85 Built-in Thermodynamic Wet Steam Properties . . . . . . . . . . 16-87

16.7 Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-89 16.7.1 16.7.2 16.7.3 16.7.4 16.7.5 Source Terms due to Mass Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-89 Unidirectional Constant Rate Mass Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-91 UDF-Prescribed Mass Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-91 Cavitation Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-92 Evaporation-Condensation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-104

16.8 Modeling Species Transport in Multiphase Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-107 16.8.1 16.8.2 16.8.3 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-108 Mass and Momentum Transfer with Multiphase Species Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-108 The Stiﬀ Chemistry Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-111

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

TOC-13

CONTENTS

17 Solidiﬁcation and Melting

17-1

17.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1 17.2 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2 17.3 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-3

17.4 Energy Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-3 17.5 Momentum Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-4 17.6 Turbulence Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-5 17.7 Species Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-5 17.8 Pull Velocity for Continuous Casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-7 17.9 Contact Resistance at Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-8 18 Solver Theory 18-1

18.1 Overview of Flow Solvers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1 18.1.1 18.1.2 Pressure-Based Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2 Density-Based Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-5

18.2 General Scalar Transport Equation: Discretization and Solution . . . . . 18-8 18.2.1 Solving the Linear System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-9

18.3 Discretization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-10 18.3.1 18.3.2 18.3.3 18.3.4 Spatial Discretization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-10 Temporal Discretization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-18 Evaluation of Gradients and Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-20 Gradient Limiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-23

18.4 Pressure-Based Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-25 18.4.1 18.4.2 18.4.3 18.4.4 18.4.5 Discretization of the Momentum Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-26 Discretization of the Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-28 Pressure-Velocity Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-29 Steady-State Iterative Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-35 Time-Advancement Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-36

TOC-14

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

. .1 18.6.4 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2 19. . . . . . . 18-51 18. . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Approach . . . . 18-67 19-1 19 Adapting the Mesh 19. . . . 19-13 Region Adaption Example . . .6. . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-11 19. . . . . . . . 19-5 19. . . . . 18-66 18. . . . . . . . . . .2 Deﬁning a Region . .CONTENTS 18. . January 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Isovalue Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2 19.2 Overview of FMG Initialization . . Inc. 18-40 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Boundary Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . .1 18. . . . . 18-40 Preconditioning . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-54 Algebraic Multigrid (AMG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 18. .1 19. 2009 TOC-15 . . . . .6 Region Adaption . . . . . . 19-5 19. . 19-13 Release 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 c ANSYS. . . . 18-41 Convective Fluxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. .6. . . . . . . . . . . .6. .7. . . . . . .5.4 Dynamic Gradient Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Density-Based Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .3 18. . . .6.5 Governing Equations in Vector Form . . .3 Gradient Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-9 19. . . . . . . . . . . . 19-9 19. . .7. . . . . . . .1 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Static Adaption Process . . . . .6. . . . . . . . 18-44 Steady-State Flow Solution Methods . . . . 18-48 18. . . . . . . .1. . 18-51 Multigrid Cycles . .2 18. . 18-64 18. .1 18. . . . . . . . . . 18-57 Full-Approximation Storage (FAS) Multigrid . . . .5. . . . . . .6 Multigrid Method .7 Full Multigrid (FMG) Initialization . . . 18-66 Limitations of FMG Initialization . . . . . 19-9 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-46 Unsteady Flows Solution Methods . . . . . . . . .1 Hanging Node Adaption . . . . . . . . 19-5 Example of Steady Gradient Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Gradient Adaption Approach . . . . .

. . . . .2. 20-6 20. . . . . .10 Geometry-Based Adaption . . . . . . 19-19 19. . . .8. 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Volume Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-24 20 Reporting Alphanumeric Data 20-1 20. . . . . . . . .1 Yplus/Ystar Adaption Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-15 Volume Adaption Example . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Forces on Boundaries . . . . January 29. . . . 19-16 19. . . 19-19 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-12 TOC-16 Release 12. . .9 Anisotropic Adaption . . . 19-16 19. . . . . . . . .0 c ANSYS. . . . . . . 20-3 20. . . .2 Volume Adaption Approach .7. . .1 19. . 20-2 20. .10. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Fluxes Through Boundaries . 20-11 20. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Computing Volume Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inc. . 19-15 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Computing Forces. . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . 19-16 19. . Moments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and the Center of Pressure . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-19 19. . . . . 20-7 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Computing Surface Integrals . . . . . . . . . .3 Surface Integration . . . . . . . . . .7 Volume Adaption . . .8 Yplus/Ystar Adaption . . .7. 20-2 20. . . . . . . . . . .1 Geometry-Based Adaption Approach . . . . . .

Using This Manual The Contents of This Manual The ANSYS FLUENT Theory Guide provides you with theoretical information about the models used in ANSYS FLUENT. Release 12. • Chapter 8: Non-Premixed Combustion. ANSYS. and inviscid ﬂows). • Chapter 2: Flows with Rotating Reference Frames. describes the premixed combustion model. is unable to distribute copies of the papers listed in the bibliography. describes the governing equations and physical models used by ANSYS FLUENT to compute ﬂuid ﬂow (including periodic ﬂow. describes the physical models used by ANSYS FLUENT to simulate the performance of heat exchangers. • Chapter 7: Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry. • Chapter 6: Heat Exchangers. • Chapter 5: Heat Transfer. 2009 UTM-1 . and international copyright law. describes the non-premixed combustion model. • Chapter 4: Turbulence. Inc. describes ANSYS FLUENT’s models for turbulent ﬂow. describes the physical models used by ANSYS FLUENT to compute heat transfer (including convective and conductive heat transfer. and periodic heat transfer). natural convection. multiple moving reference frames. describes single rotating reference frames. compressible ﬂows. i Under U. describes sliding and deforming meshes in ANSYS FLUENT.0 c ANSYS. radiative heat transfer. • Chapter 3: Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes. swirling and rotating ﬂows. Inc. Inc. This chapter also provides information about modeling species transport in non-reacting ﬂows. other than those published internally by ANSYS. • Chapter 9: Premixed Combustion. describes the ﬁnite-rate chemistry models in ANSYS FLUENT. A brief description of what is in each chapter follows: • Chapter 1: Basic Fluid Flow. January 29. and mixing planes in ANSYS FLUENT. Please use your library or a document delivery service to obtain copies of copyrighted papers.S.

• Chapter 12: Engine Ignition. • Chapter 15: Discrete Phase. • Chapter 14: Aerodynamically Generated Noise. describes the partially premixed combustion model. describes the solution-adaptive mesh reﬁnement feature in ANSYS FLUENT. describes the general multiphase models available in ANSYS FLUENT (VOF. SOx . mixture. 2009 .Using This Manual • Chapter 10: Partially Premixed Combustion. • Chapter 19: Adapting the Mesh. describes the acoustics model. • Chapter 13: Pollutant Formation. • Chapter 20: Reporting Alphanumeric Data. UTM-2 Release 12.0 c ANSYS. describes the ANSYS FLUENT solvers. describes the discrete phase models available in ANSYS FLUENT. • Chapter 18: Solver Theory. • Chapter 16: Multiphase Flows. • Chapter 11: Composition PDF Transport. describes the engine ignition models available in ANSYS FLUENT. January 29. forces. describes the models for the formation of NOx . describes the composition PDF transport model. • Chapter 17: Solidiﬁcation and Melting. describes how to obtain reports of ﬂuxes. surface integrals. and other solution data. describes ANSYS FLUENT’s model for solidiﬁcation and melting. Inc. and soot. and Eulerian).

and presents helpful tips in order for you to create a successfull CFD simulation. surface/iso-surface command). Models −→ Multiphase −→ Edit. Inc. • Diﬀerent type styles are used to indicate graphical user interface menu items and text interface menu items (e...0 c ANSYS. which leads you to a speciﬁc task page or dialog box. commentary. The information displayed on the screen is enclosed in a large box to distinguish it from the narrative text.Using This Manual The Contents of the Other Manuals In addition to this Theory Guide. which then opens the corresponding task page. • An informational icon ( i ) marks an important note. • The User’s Guide contains detailed instructions for using ANSYS FLUENT. indicates that Models is selected in the navigation pane. January 29. • A mini ﬂow chart is used to guide you through the navigation pane. • The UDF Manual contains information about writing and using user-deﬁned functions (UDFs).. Clicking the Edit. Release 12. and user inputs are often enclosed in smaller boxes. button opens the Multiphase dialog box.. The manual also includes information about accessing the ANSYS FLUENT manuals. Typographical Conventions Several typographical conventions are used in this manual’s text to facilitate your learning process.. Iso-Surface dialog box. and postprocessing of results. there are several other manuals available to help you use ANSYS FLUENT and its associated programs: • The Getting Started Guide describes the capabilities of ANSYS FLUENT. In the Models task page. provides an overview of the problem setup steps. • The Tutorial Guide contains a number of example problems with detailed instructions. Multiphase is selected from the list. • The text interface type style is also used when illustrating exactly what appears on the screen or exactly what you need to type into a ﬁeld in a dialog box. For example. 2009 UTM-3 .g. • The Text Command List provides a brief description of each of the commands in ANSYS FLUENT’s text interface.

and display −→mesh indicates that the mesh command is available in the display text menu.0 c ANSYS. For example. Boldfaced characters are reserved for vectors and matrices as they apply to linear algebra (e.. In Cartesian coordinates. for example. the identity matrix. or a screen illustration showing how to use the dialog box or command. tells you to choose the Materials. 2009 . Mathematical Conventions • Where possible.Using This Manual Also. for example. I). referred to as grad. A).. January 29. a. menu item from the Deﬁne pull-down menu.g. nabla.... • The operator . (v) = ∂ ∂ ∂ ı+ + k ∂x ∂y ∂z vx ı + vy + vz k UTM-4 Release 12. mini ﬂow charts usually precede a description of a dialog box or command... in Cartesian coordinates.. For example. menu item can be selected from the Deﬁne pull-down menu. represents the partial derivative of a quantity with respect to all directions in the chosen coordinate system. p= ∂p ∂p ∂p ı+ + k ∂x ∂y ∂z – The gradient of a vector quantity is a second-order tensor. a mini ﬂow chart is used to indicate the menu selections that lead you to a speciﬁc command or dialog box. or del. vector quantities are displayed with a raised arrow (e. is deﬁned to be ∂ ∂ ∂ ı+ + k ∂x ∂y ∂z appears in several ways: – The gradient of a scalar quantity is the vector whose components are the partial derivatives. indicates that the Injections..g.. Deﬁne −→Injections. • The menu selections that will lead you to a particular dialog box or task page are also indicated (usually within a paragraph) using a “/”. They allow you to look up information about a command or dialog box and quickly determine how to access it without having to search the preceding material. In this manual. Deﬁne/Materials. Inc.

v.Using This Manual This tensor is usually written as ∂vx ∂x ∂vy ∂x ∂vz ∂x ∂vx ∂y ∂vy ∂y ∂vz ∂y ∂vx ∂z ∂vy ∂z ∂vz ∂z – The divergence of a vector quantity. for example. Inc. and w instead of the conventional v with directional subscripts. for example. January 29. 2 and is known as the T = ∂2T ∂2T ∂2T + + 2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 T is diﬀerent from the expression ( T )2 . 2009 UTM-5 . ·v = ∂vx ∂vy ∂vz + + ∂x ∂y ∂z 2 – The operator · . you will also ﬁnd that some velocity vector components are written as u. In this chapter. where convention dictates the use of Cartesian tensor notation. which is usually written as Laplacian. which is deﬁned as ( T) = 2 ∂T ∂x 2 ∂T + ∂y 2 ∂T + ∂z 2 • An exception to the use of is found in the discussion of Reynolds stresses in Chapter 4: Turbulence.0 c ANSYS. which is the inner product between and a vector. Release 12.

Using This Manual Technical Support If you encounter diﬃculties while using ANSYS FLUENT. please write down the exact error message that appeared and note as much information as you can about what you were doing in ANSYS FLUENT. where the solutions can be searched by word or phrase. • Note what you were doing when the problem or error occurred. This is the best source that we can use to reproduce the problem and thereby help to identify the cause. and are listed by categories.link available from the product page.fluentusers.fluentusers. we invite you to log a technical support request (www. • Known defects for ANSYS FLUENT .com). Contacting Technical Support If none of the resources available on the User Services Center help in resolving the problem.com): • Installation and System FAQs .link available from the main page on the User Services Center. or from the User Services Center (www. If you encounter an error. and are available for general installation questions as well as for products. January 29. Then refer to the following resources available on the User Services Center (www. The defects can be searched by word or phrase. The FAQs can be searched by word or phrase. Inc. UTM-6 Release 12. or you have complex modeling projects. there is a link to the Search Solutions & Request Support page.0 c ANSYS. • Save a journal or transcript ﬁle of the ANSYS FLUENT session in which the problem occurred. there are a few things that we encourage you to do before logging a request: • Note what you are trying to accomplish with ANSYS FLUENT.com) to obtain further assistance. 2009 . From the Online Technical Support Portal page. The product documentation is available from the online help.fluentusers. please ﬁrst refer to the section(s) of the manual containing information on the commands you are trying to use or the type of problem you are trying to solve. • Online Technical Support . However.link available from the main page on the User Services Center.

4: Periodic Flows • Section 1. The discrete phase model is described in Chapter 15: Discrete Phase. January 29. see Chapter 7: Cell Zone and Boundary Conditions in the separate User’s Guide.3: User-Deﬁned Scalar (UDS) Transport Equations • Section 1. Models for ﬂows in moving zones (including sliding and dynamic meshes) are explained in Chapter 2: Flows with Rotating Reference Frames and Chapter 3: Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes.5: Swirling and Rotating Flows • Section 1. 2009 1-1 . general multiphase models are described in Chapter 16: Multiphase Flows. and the melting and solidiﬁcation model is described in Chapter 17: Solidiﬁcation and Melting. An overview of modeling species transport and reacting ﬂows is provided in Chapter 7: Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry. The information in this chapter is presented in the following sections: • Section 1. and models for heat transfer (including radiation) are presented in Chapter 5: Heat Transfer.Chapter 1. and models for pollutant formation are presented in Chapter 13: Pollutant Formation.2: Continuity and Momentum Equations • Section 1.1: Overview of Physical Models in ANSYS FLUENT • Section 1. porous jumps. Inc. details about models for species transport and reacting ﬂows are described in Chapters 7–11. Basic Fluid Flow This chapter describes the theoretical background for some of the basic physical models that ANSYS FLUENT provides for ﬂuid ﬂow.0 c ANSYS. and lumped parameter fans and radiators. For information on modeling porous media.7: Inviscid Flows Release 12. models for turbulence are described in Chapter 4: Turbulence.6: Compressible Flows • Section 1.

droplets. separation. conjugate heat transfer in turbomachinery and automotive engine components. and multiphase ﬂows in bubble columns and ﬂuidized beds. ﬂow through compressors. swirl. and Eulerian models. These include porous media. including coal and droplet combustion. Robust and accurate turbulence models are a vital component of the ANSYS FLUENT suite of models. These can be used for analysis of gas-liquid.1 Overview of Physical Models in ANSYS FLUENT ANSYS FLUENT provides comprehensive modeling capabilities for a wide range of incompressible and compressible. A time-accurate sliding mesh method. surface reaction. is also provided. porous media. useful for modeling multiple stages in turbomachinery applications. To permit modeling of ﬂuid ﬂow and related transport phenomena in industrial equipment and processes. mixture. and they include the eﬀects of other physical phenomena. and moving reference frame models. The turbulence models provided have a broad range of applicability. 2009 . streamwise-periodic ﬂow and heat transfer. and fans. 1-2 Release 12. including natural. For these types of problems. pumps. Steady-state or transient analyses can be performed. Various modes of heat transfer can be modeled. various useful features are provided. forced. lumped parameter (fan and heat exchanger). The DPM performs Lagrangian trajectory calculations for dispersed phases (particles. January 29. sprays. external aerodynamics. In ANSYS FLUENT. or bubbles).Basic Fluid Flow 1. a broad range of mathematical models for transport phenomena (like heat transfer and chemical reactions) is combined with the ability to model complex geometries.0 c ANSYS. Inc. Examples of multiphase ﬂows include channel ﬂows. The set of radiation models and related submodels for modeling participating media are general and can take into account the complications of combustion. for example. and mixed convection with or without conjugate heat transfer. A host of other models that are very useful for reacting ﬂow applications are also available. and cavitation. etc. pulverized coal combustion in utility boilers. ANSYS FLUENT provides the volume-of-ﬂuid (VOF). and gas-liquid-solid ﬂows. along with the mixing plane model for computing time-averaged ﬂow ﬁelds. The moving reference frame family of models includes the ability to model single or multiple reference frames. laminar and turbulent ﬂuid ﬂow problems. such as buoyancy and compressibility. Another very useful group of models in ANSYS FLUENT is the set of free surface and multiphase ﬂow models. and pollutant formation models. including coupling with the continuous phase. sedimentation. Examples of ANSYS FLUENT applications include laminar non-Newtonian ﬂows in process equipment. including eddy dissipation and probability density function models. A particular strength of ANSYS FLUENT is its ability to model combustion phenomena using a variety of models. gas-solid. Particular care has been devoted to addressing issues of near-wall accuracy via the use of extended wall functions and zonal models. as well as the discrete phase model (DPM). liquid-solid.

1. the continuity equation is given by ∂ ∂ ρvr ∂ρ + (ρvx ) + (ρvr ) + = Sm ∂t ∂x ∂r r (1.g. turbulence modeling.2 Continuity and Momentum Equations For all ﬂows. In this section. the conservation equations for laminar ﬂow in an inertial (non-accelerating) reference frame are presented. if the non-premixed combustion model is used. The Euler equations solved for inviscid ﬂow are presented in Section 1. ANSYS FLUENT solves conservation equations for mass and momentum. For 2D axisymmetric geometries. The source Sm is the mass added to the continuous phase from the dispersed second phase (e. 2009 1-3 .0 c ANSYS. The Mass Conservation Equation The equation for conservation of mass. a species conservation equation is solved or. Additional transport equations are also solved when the ﬂow is turbulent. For ﬂows involving heat transfer or compressibility. r is the radial coordinate. vx is the axial velocity.. or continuity equation.2-1) Equation 1. For ﬂows involving species mixing or reactions.2 Continuity and Momentum Equations 1. The conservation equations relevant to heat transfer.2-2) where x is the axial coordinate. due to vaporization of liquid droplets) and any user-deﬁned sources. conservation equations for the mixture fraction and its variance are solved. Release 12. and vr is the radial velocity.2-1 is the general form of the mass conservation equation and is valid for incompressible as well as compressible ﬂows. The equations that are applicable to rotating reference frames are presented in Chapter 2: Flows with Rotating Reference Frames. and species transport will be discussed in the chapters where those models are described. can be written as follows: ∂ρ + ∂t · (ρv) = Sm (1. an additional equation for energy conservation is solved. Inc.7: Inviscid Flows. January 29.

that arise from interaction with the dispersed phase).) 1-4 Release 12.2-7) 1 ∂ ∂vr 2 rµ 2 − ( r ∂r ∂r 3 · v) − 2µ vr 2 µ + ( r2 3 r · v) + ρ 2 vz + Fr r (1.2-3) where p is the static pressure. 2009 . The stress tensor τ is given by τ =µ ( v+ v T) − 2 3 · vI (1. and ρg and F are the gravitational body force and external body forces (e.2-6) and vz is the swirl velocity. and the second term on the right hand side is the eﬀect of volume dilation.2-5) and ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∂p 1 ∂ ∂vr ∂vx (ρvr ) + (rρvx vr ) + (rρvr vr ) = − + rµ + ∂t r ∂x r ∂r ∂r r ∂x ∂x ∂r + where ·v = ∂vx ∂vr vr + + ∂x ∂r r (1. the axial and radial momentum conservation equations are given by ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∂p 1 ∂ ∂vx 2 (ρvx ) + (rρvx vx ) + (rρvr vx ) = − + rµ 2 − ( · v) ∂t r ∂x r ∂r ∂x r ∂x ∂x 3 1 ∂ ∂vx ∂vr + rµ + + Fx r ∂r ∂r ∂x (1. I is the unit tensor.. F also contains other model-dependent source terms such as porous-media and user-deﬁned sources. Inc.Basic Fluid Flow Momentum Conservation Equations Conservation of momentum in an inertial (non-accelerating) reference frame is described by [17] ∂ (ρv) + ∂t · (ρvv) = − p + · (τ ) + ρg + F (1.0 c ANSYS. respectively.g.5: Swirling and Rotating Flows for information about modeling axisymmetric swirl.2-4) where µ is the molecular viscosity. (See Section 1. For 2D axisymmetric geometries. January 29. τ is the stress tensor (described below).

. ANSYS FLUENT will solve the equation − ∂ ∂φk (Γk ) = Sφk k = 1. ANSYS FLUENT solves the equation ∂ρφk ∂ ∂φk + (ρui φk − Γk ) = Sφk k = 1. Release 12. . Extra scalar transport equations may be needed in certain types of combustion applications or for example in plasma-enhanced surface reaction modeling.. 2009 1-5 . For the steady-state case.1: User-Deﬁned Scalar (UDS) Transport Equations in the separate User’s Guide.... Information in this section is organized in the following subsections: • Section 1.3.1.. Γk could be written as Γk I where I is the identity matrix.2: Multiphase Flow 1. The diﬀusion term is thus · (Γk · φk ) For isotropic diﬀusivity. Inc. N ∂xi ∂xi (1. see Section 9.0 c ANSYS. user-deﬁned scalar (UDS) in the same way that it solves the transport equation for a scalar such as species mass fraction. For more information about setting up user-deﬁned scalar transport equations in ANSYS FLUENT. ANSYS FLUENT allows you to deﬁne additional scalar transport equations in your model in the User-Deﬁned Scalars dialog box. N ∂t ∂xi ∂xi (1. . January 29.3-2) where Γk and Sφk are the diﬀusion coeﬃcient and source term supplied by you for each of the N scalar equations.3 User-Deﬁned Scalar (UDS) Transport Equations ANSYS FLUENT can solve the transport equation for an arbitrary. depending on the method used to compute the convective ﬂux: • If convective ﬂux is not to be computed. This section provides information on how you can specify user-deﬁned scalar (UDS) transport equations to enhance the standard features of ANSYS FLUENT.1 Single Phase Flow For an arbitrary scalar φk .3-1) where Γk and Sφk are the diﬀusion coeﬃcient and source term supplied by you for each of the N scalar equations. Note that Γk is deﬁned as a tensor in the case of anisotropic diﬀusivity.1: Single Phase Flow • Section 1.3.3 User-Deﬁned Scalar (UDS) Transport Equations 1.3. ANSYS FLUENT will solve one of the three following equations.

respectively..Basic Fluid Flow • If convective ﬂux is to be computed with mass ﬂow rate. φk .2 Multiphase Flow For multiphase ﬂows. and mixture diﬀusivity for the scalar k Γk are calculated according to m 1-6 Release 12.. . . Inc.. In this case..3. 1. mixture velocity um .3-5) where αl . ANSYS FLUENT solves transport equations for two types of scalars: per phase and mixture. January 29. which l you will need to specify. ANSYS FLUENT will solve the equation ∂ ∂φk (ρui φk − Γk ) = Sφk k = 1.. or is considered the same for each phase. ρl . and ul are the volume fraction. then you should consider this scalar as being associated with a mixture of phases.. scalar φk is associated only with one phase (phase-l) l and is considered an individual ﬁeld variable of phase-l. In this case. N l l l (1.3-4) where dS is the face vector area. ANSYS l FLUENT solves the transport equation inside the volume occupied by phase-l ∂αl ρl φk l + ∂t · (αl ρl ul φk − αl Γk φk ) = Slk k = 1. N m (1. In this case. For an arbitrary k scalar in phase-1. respectively.. denoted by φk . N ∂xi ∂xi (1.0 c ANSYS.. and velocity of phase-l.. 2009 .3-3) • It is also possible to specify a user-deﬁned function to be used in the computation of convective ﬂux.3-7) where mixture density ρm . The mass ﬂux for phase-l is deﬁned as Fl = αl ρl ul · dS (1.3-6) S If the transport variable described by scalar φk represents the physical ﬁeld that is shared l between phases. the generic transport equation for the scalar is ∂ρm φk + ∂t · (ρm um φk − Γk φk ) = S km k = 1. physical density. the user-deﬁned mass ﬂux is assumed to be of the form F = S ρu · dS (1. . Γk and Slk are the diﬀusion coeﬃcient and source term.

4. Information about streamwise-periodic ﬂow is presented in the following sections: • Section 1.16: Periodic Boundary Conditions in the separate User’s Guide.4. no pressure drop occurs across the periodic planes.2: Periodic Flows in the separate User’s Guide.3-10) Γk = m k Sm = l (1.1. Two types of periodic ﬂow can be modeled in ANSYS FLUENT. In the second type.0 c ANSYS. a pressure drop occurs across translationally periodic boundaries. you will need to specify individual diﬀusivities for each material associated with individual phases.4 Periodic Flows Periodic ﬂow occurs when the physical geometry of interest and the expected pattern of the ﬂow/thermal solution have a periodically repeating nature.1: Overview • Section 1.4.2: Limitations • Section 1. This section discusses streamwise-periodic ﬂow.3: Physics of Periodic Flows Release 12. 2009 1-7 . 1. and a description of streamwise-periodic heat transfer is provided in Section 13. A description of no-pressure-drop periodic ﬂow is provided in Section 7.3. Inc. January 29. For more information about setting up periodic ﬂows in ANSYS FLUENT.3-9) Fm = S rhom um · dS αl Γk l l (1.3-11) Slk (1. then mass ﬂuxes shown in Equation 1.4: Modeling Periodic Heat Transfer in the separate User’s Guide. Note that if the user-deﬁned mass ﬂux option is activated. In the ﬁrst type.3-10 will need to be replaced in the corresponding scalar transport equations.3-12) To calculate mixture diﬀusivity.3-8) ρm u m = l αl ρl ul (1.3-6 and Equation 1. resulting in “fully-developed” or “streamwise-periodic” ﬂow.4 Periodic Flows ρm = l αl ρl (1. see Section 9.

38e-03 2.15e-04 4. the geometry varies in a repeating manner along the direction of the ﬂow.09e-03 2.67e-03 1.19e-03 9.4.39e-04 1. 2009 . These ﬂows are encountered in a variety of applications.4.62e-03 2.77e-04 2.1: Example of Periodic Flow in a 2D Heat Exchanger Geometry 1-8 Release 12.57e-03 3.90e-03 1. with a constant pressure drop across each repeating module along the streamwise direction.1 depicts one example of a periodically repeating ﬂow of this type which has been modeled by including a single representative module.4. In such ﬂow conﬁgurations.14e-03 1.01e-06 Velocity Vectors Colored By Velocity Magnitude (m/s) Figure 1.Basic Fluid Flow 1.43e-03 1. These periodic conditions are achieved after a suﬃcient entrance length. which depends on the ﬂow Reynolds number and geometric conﬁguration. including ﬂows in compact heat exchanger channels and ﬂows across tube banks. 3.86e-03 2. January 29. leading to a periodic fully-developed ﬂow regime in which the ﬂow pattern repeats in successive cycles. Other examples of streamwise-periodic ﬂows include fully-developed ﬂow in pipes and ducts. Figure 1. Streamwise-periodic ﬂow conditions exist when the ﬂow pattern repeats over some length L.0 c ANSYS.1 Overview ANSYS FLUENT provides the ability to calculate streamwise-periodic—or “fully-developed”— ﬂuid ﬂow. Inc.53e-04 7.33e-03 3.

1. January 29. you can specify only the pressure jump. the local pressure gradient can be decomposed into two parts: Release 12. Inc. • The geometry must be translationally periodic. 2009 1-9 . • If one of the density-based solvers is used.4. the pressure drop between modules is periodic: ∆p = p(r) − p(r + L) = p(r + L) − p(r + 2L) = · · · (1.2).0 c ANSYS.2 Limitations The following limitations apply to modeling streamwise-periodic ﬂow: • The ﬂow must be incompressible.4. the pressure is not periodic in the sense of Equation 1.4-1) Deﬁnition of the Streamwise-Periodic Pressure For viscous ﬂows. (1. Reacting ﬂows are not permitted.4 Periodic Flows 1. you can specify either the pressure jump or the mass ﬂow rate. For the pressure-based solver.3 Physics of Periodic Flows Deﬁnition of the Periodic Velocity The assumption of periodicity implies that the velocity components repeat themselves in space as follows: u(r) = u(r + L) = u(r + 2L) = · · · v(r) = v(r + L) = v(r + 2L) = · · · w(r) = w(r + L) = w(r + 2L) = · · · where r is the position vector and L is the periodic length vector of the domain considered (see Figure 1. Instead.4-1.4-2) If one of the density-based solvers is used. • Species can be modeled only if inlets/exits (without net mass addition) are included in the problem. • No net mass addition through inlets/exits or extra source terms is allowed.1. Note that transient simulations for fully-developed ﬂuid ﬂow are not valid with translational periodic ﬂow. ∆p is speciﬁed as a constant value. • Discrete phase and multiphase modeling are not allowed. for the pressure-based solver.4.

2. Because the value of β is not known a priori. it must be iterated on until the mass ﬂow rate that you have deﬁned is achieved in the computational model. The linearly-varying component of the pressure results in a force acting on the ﬂuid in the momentum equations.4. 2009 .pB Figure 1. The periodic pressure is the pressure left over after subtracting out the linearlyvarying pressure. β |L : L| p(r). For more information about setting up parameters for β in ANSYS FLUENT. or PISO algorithm where the value of β is updated based on the diﬀerence between the desired mass ﬂow rate and the actual one. Inc. and the gradient of a linearly-varying ˜ p(r) = β L |L| + p(r) ˜ (1. 1-10 Release 12.pA = pC . January 29.2: Setting Parameters for the Calculation of β in the separate User’s Guide.0 c ANSYS.2: Example of a Periodic Geometry the gradient of a periodic component. see Section 9. You have some control over the number of sub-iterations used to update β.Basic Fluid Flow → L → L A B C uA = uB = uC vA = vB = vC ∼ =∼ =∼ pA pB pC pB . SIMPLEC.4-3) where p(r) is the periodic pressure and β|r| is the linearly-varying component of the ˜ pressure. This correction of β occurs in the pressure correction step of the SIMPLE. component.

The remaining three.5. Inc.0 c ANSYS. 1. Swirling ﬂows are common in combustion. The assumption of axisymmetry implies that there are no circumferential gradients in the ﬂow. with swirl introduced in burners and combustors in order to increase residence time and stabilize the ﬂow pattern. Rotating ﬂows are also encountered in turbomachinery.1 and 1..2: Physics of Swirling and Rotating Flows For more information about setting up swirling and rotating ﬂows in ANSYS FLUENT. and a variety of other applications.5.e. you can model the ﬂow in 2D (i. which all involve “moving zones”.2. January 29. it is essential that you classify your problem into one of the following ﬁve categories of ﬂow: • axisymmetric ﬂows with swirl or rotation • fully three-dimensional swirling or rotating ﬂows • ﬂows requiring a rotating reference frame • ﬂows requiring multiple rotating reference frames or mixing planes • ﬂows requiring sliding meshes Modeling and solution procedures for the ﬁrst two categories are presented in this section.5.1 Overview of Swirling and Rotating Flows Axisymmetric Flows with Swirl or Rotation As discussed in Section 1. 2009 1-11 . When you begin the analysis of a rotating or swirling ﬂow.5 Swirling and Rotating Flows Many important engineering ﬂows involve swirl or rotation and ANSYS FLUENT is wellequipped to model such ﬂows. In this case.5 Swirling and Rotating Flows 1. but that there may be non-zero circumferential velocities.1. mixing tanks.5. Information about rotating and swirling ﬂows is provided in the following subsections: • Section 1.5.1: Overview of Swirling and Rotating Flows. see Section 9. Examples of axisymmetric ﬂows involving swirl or rotation are depicted in Figures 1. you can solve a 2D axisymmetric problem that includes the prediction of the circumferential or swirl velocity. solve Release 12.3: Swirling and Rotating Flows in the separate User’s Guide. are discussed in Chapter 2: Flows with Rotating Reference Frames.1: Overview of Swirling and Rotating Flows • Section 1.5. Your problem may be axisymmetric with respect to geometry and ﬂow conditions but still include swirl or rotation.

Inc.2: Swirling Flow in a Gas Burner 1-12 Release 12. 2009 .5.1: Rotating Flow in a Cavity Region to be modeled Ω Figure 1.Basic Fluid Flow Rotating Cover Ω Region to be modeled x y Figure 1. January 29.0 c ANSYS.5.

in which you can quickly determine the eﬀects of various modeling and design choices. v is the radial velocity. an initial 2D study.4: Deﬁning the Velocity in the separate User’s Guide. you should be aware of the setup constraints (Section 9. For more information. r is the radial coordinate.0 c ANSYS.3: Coordinate System Restrictions in the separate User’s Guide). as described in Section 7. that you may want to use the cylindrical coordinate system for deﬁning velocity-inlet boundary condition inputs. Release 12. Also.5 Swirling and Rotating Flows the axisymmetric problem) and include the prediction of the circumferential (or swirl) velocity. there may still be non-zero swirl velocities. you may ﬁnd the gradual increase of the rotational speed (set as a wall or inlet boundary condition) helpful during the solution process. u is the axial velocity.3. Momentum Conservation Equation for Swirl Velocity The tangential momentum equation for 2D swirling ﬂows may be written as 1 ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∂w 1 ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρw)+ (rρuw)+ (rρvw) = rµ + 2 r3 µ ∂t r ∂x r ∂r r ∂x ∂x r ∂r ∂r w r −ρ vw (1. there are no special inputs required during the problem setup and no special solution procedures. Inc. see Section 9. In addition.4: Improving Solution Stability by Gradually Increasing the Rotational or Swirl Speed in the separate User’s Guide.1. Because of the complexity of swirling ﬂows. you may wish to consider simpliﬁcations to the problem which might reduce it to an equivalent axisymmetric problem. especially for your initial modeling eﬀort.5-1) r where x is the axial coordinate. Note.3. i For 3D problems involving swirl or rotation. and w is the swirl velocity. January 29. 2009 1-13 . your swirling ﬂow prediction requires a three-dimensional model. however.3. Three-Dimensional Swirling Flows When there are geometric changes and/or ﬂow gradients in the circumferential direction. It is important to note that while the assumption of axisymmetry implies that there are no circumferential gradients in the ﬂow. can be very beneﬁcial. If you are planning a 3D ANSYS FLUENT model that includes swirl or rotation.

r axis Figure 1.Basic Fluid Flow Flows Requiring a Rotating Reference Frame If your ﬂow involves a rotating boundary which moves through the ﬂuid (e. Figure 1.1: The Multiple Reference Frame Model) or mixing planes (described in Section 2. 1. you can use multiple reference frames (described in Section 2.2: Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame. decreases (with w ﬁnally decaying to zero near r = 0 as viscous forces begin to dominate). January 29.g.3: Typical Radial Distribution of w in a Free Vortex It can be shown that for an ideal free vortex ﬂow. as you compute the distribution of swirl in your ANSYS FLUENT model. A tornado is one example of a free vortex. an impeller blade or a grooved or notched surface).5. you will also notice changes in the static pressure distribution and corresponding changes in the axial and radial ﬂow velocities. driving radial and axial ﬂows in response to the highly non-uniform pressures that result. in which the circumferential velocity. increases sharply as the radius. several impellers in a row). If you have more than one rotating boundary (e.3..3.2: The Mixing Plane Model). 2009 .3 depicts the radial distribution of w in a typical free vortex. the form of this radial pressure gradient also changes.2 Physics of Swirling and Rotating Flows In swirling ﬂows..0 c ANSYS. you will need to use a rotating reference frame to model the problem. the centrifugal forces created by the circumferential motion are in equilibrium with the radial pressure gradient: ∂p ρw2 = ∂r r (1.5.5. Such applications are described in detail in Section 2. w. r. It is this high degree of coupling between the swirl and the pressure ﬁeld that makes the modeling of swirling ﬂows complex.5-2) As the distribution of angular momentum in a non-ideal vortex evolves. Thus. 1-14 Release 12. Inc. conservation of angular momentum (rw or r2 Ω = constant) tends to create a free vortex ﬂow.g.

the motion of the wall tends to impart a forced vortex motion to the ﬂuid.38e-03 4. This is often referred to as “radial pumping”.08e-03 2. since the rotating wall is pumping the ﬂuid radially outward. Inc. An important characteristic of such ﬂows is the tendency of ﬂuid with high angular momentum (e.5.69e-04 0.15e-03 5.69e-03 6.4).1.1) Release 12.92e-03 6. 7. wherein w/r or Ω is constant. January 29.g.4: Stream Function Contours for Rotating Flow in a Cavity (Geometry of Figure 1.62e-03 3.. 2009 1-15 .0 c ANSYS. the ﬂow near the wall) to be ﬂung radially outward (Figure 1.5 Swirling and Rotating Flows In ﬂows that are driven by wall rotation.85e-03 3.31e-03 1.5.5.54e-03 7.00e+00 axis of rotation Contours of Stream Function (kg/s) Figure 1.

70e-01 3. Figures 1. and temperature. Inc. the variation of the gas density with pressure has a signiﬁcant impact on the ﬂow velocity.32e-01 1. January 29.0 c ANSYS.07e-01 4.6 Compressible Flows Compressibility eﬀects are encountered in gas ﬂows at high velocity and/or in which there are large pressure variations.95e-01 Contours of Mach Number Figure 1. Compressible ﬂows create a unique set of ﬂow physics for which you must be aware of the special input requirements and solution techniques described in this section. 2009 .82e-01 7.02e+00 8.6.1: Transonic Flow in a Converging-Diverging Nozzle 1-16 Release 12. pressure.45e-01 6.6.Basic Fluid Flow 1. 1.2 show examples of compressible ﬂows computed using ANSYS FLUENT.29e+00 1. When the ﬂow velocity approaches or exceeds the speed of sound of the gas or when the pressure change in the system (∆p/p) is large.43e+00 1.16e+00 1.1 and 1.57e+00 1.6.

2: Physics of Compressible Flows 1.1 or so).6-1) Release 12.07e+03 -1.95e+04 -5.68e+03 -3.6.0 c ANSYS.2: Mach 0.6-2) (1.02e+04 1. compressibility eﬀects are negligible and the γRT (1.1: When to Use the Compressible Flow Model • Section 1. When the Mach number is less than 1.24e+04 4. see Section 9.6. January 29.4: Compressible Flows in the separate User’s Guide.0.6.675 Flow Over a Bump in a 2D Channel For more information about setting up compressible ﬂows in ANSYS FLUENT.73e+04 Contours of Static Pressure (pascal) Figure 1.1 When to Use the Compressible Flow Model Compressible ﬂows can be characterized by the value of the Mach number: M ≡ u/c Here. the ﬂow is termed subsonic.6. At Mach numbers much less than 1.1.18e+04 -4.6 Compressible Flows 2.63e+04 -3. Inc. 2009 1-17 . c is the speed of sound in the gas: c= and γ is the ratio of speciﬁc heats (cp /cv ). Information about compressible ﬂows is provided in the following subsections: • Section 1.0 (M < 0.41e+04 -4.86e+04 -2.08e+04 -1.

with a sudden pressure rise and deceleration accomplished across the shock. and supersonic ﬂows. in the throat of a nozzle). or return to subsonic ﬂow conditions.5283. Basic Equations for Compressible Flows Compressible ﬂows are described by the standard continuity and momentum equations solved by ANSYS FLUENT.6-5) T0 γ−1 2 = 1+ M T 2 These relationships describe the variation of the static pressure and temperature in the ﬂow as the velocity (Mach number) changes under isentropic conditions. 1.6-3) p0 = p 1+ γ−1 2 M 2 γ/(γ−1) (1. compressibility eﬀects become important. and may contain shocks and expansion fans which can impact the ﬂow pattern signiﬁcantly.g. In the subsequent area expansion the ﬂow may either accelerate to a supersonic ﬂow in which the pressure will continue to drop. This choked ﬂow condition will be established at the point of minimum ﬂow area (e. For example.0 (which is referred to as the transonic ﬂow regime).6.. and should be activated whenever you are solving 1-18 Release 12.2 Physics of Compressible Flows Compressible ﬂows are typically characterized by the total pressure p0 and total temperature T0 of the ﬂow. The energy equation solved by ANSYS FLUENT correctly incorporates the coupling between the ﬂow velocity and the static temperature. ANSYS FLUENT provides a wide range of compressible ﬂow modeling capabilities for subsonic. transonic. 2009 . and you do not need to activate any special physical models (other than the compressible treatment of density as detailed below). If a supersonic ﬂow is exposed to an imposed pressure increase.0 c ANSYS. Equation 1. Inc. of 0. For air.6-4 can be used to estimate the exit Mach number which would exist in a one-dimensional isentropic ﬂow. January 29. For an ideal gas. As the Mach number approaches 1. Equation 1. When the Mach number exceeds 1. these quantities can be related to the static pressure and temperature by the following: p0 = exp( p For constant Cp .6-4 predicts a choked ﬂow (Mach number of 1.6-4) (1. p/p0 .0. given a pressure ratio from inlet to exit (total to static). a shock will occur. Equation 1.6-3 reduces to T0 Cp T T dT R ) (1. decelerating with a pressure rise.Basic Fluid Flow variation of the gas density with pressure can safely be ignored in your ﬂow modeling. the ﬂow is termed supersonic.0) at an isentropic pressure ratio.

R is the universal gas constant. will be computed from the energy equation. you should activate the viscous dissipation terms in Equation 5. In a case like this. For more information about setting up inviscid ﬂows in ANSYS FLUENT. Information about inviscid ﬂows is provided in the following subsections: • Section 1.0 c ANSYS. In addition. the viscous forces are important.6-6) where pop is the operating pressure deﬁned in the Operating Conditions dialog box. The temperature. January 29. Hence.1: Euler Equations Release 12. see Section 9. this is the only way to get the calculation started. and Mw is the molecular weight.1. the ideal gas law is written in the following form: ρ= pop + p R T Mw (1. which become important in high-Mach-number ﬂows. In a case like this. T . Another area where inviscid ﬂow analyses are routinely used is to provide a good initial solution for problems involving complicated ﬂow physics and/or complicated ﬂow geometry. Once the calculation has been started and the residuals are decreasing.7 Inviscid Flows a compressible ﬂow. if you are using the pressure-based solver. For some very complicated ﬂows. The Compressible Form of the Gas Law For compressible ﬂows.7 Inviscid Flows Inviscid ﬂow analyses neglect the eﬀect of viscosity on the ﬂow and are appropriate for high-Reynolds-number applications where inertial forces tend to dominate viscous forces. 2009 1-19 . you can perform a viscous analysis to include the eﬀects of the ﬂuid viscosity and turbulent viscosity on the lift and drag forces.7. One example for which an inviscid ﬂow calculation is appropriate is an aerodynamic analysis of some high-speed projectile. After the body shape has been modiﬁed to maximize the lift forces and minimize the drag forces.2-1. an inviscid analysis will give you a quick estimate of the primary forces acting on the body. 1.5: Inviscid Flows in the separate User’s Guide. you can turn on the viscous terms (by enabling laminar or turbulent ﬂow) and continue the solution to convergence. but in the early stages of the calculation the viscous terms in the momentum equations will be ignored. p is the local static pressure relative to the operating pressure. the pressure forces on the body will dominate the viscous forces. Inc.

ANSYS FLUENT solves the Euler equations. 2009 . forces that arise from interaction with the dispersed phase).g.. or continuity equation.g. the continuity equation is given by ∂ρ ∂ ∂ ρvr + (ρvx ) + (ρvr ) + = Sm ∂t ∂x ∂r r (1. due to vaporization of liquid droplets) and any user-deﬁned sources.1 Euler Equations For inviscid ﬂows. The equations that are applicable to non-inertial reference frames are described in Chapter 2: Flows with Rotating Reference Frames.7-1 is the general form of the mass conservation equation and is valid for incompressible as well as compressible ﬂows.0 c ANSYS.Basic Fluid Flow 1..7-1) Equation 1. Inc. F also contains other model-dependent source terms such as porous-media and userdeﬁned sources. can be written as follows: ∂ρ + ∂t · (ρv) = Sm (1. 1-20 Release 12. For 2D axisymmetric geometries. respectively. vx is the axial velocity. Momentum Conservation Equations Conservation of momentum is described by ∂ (ρv) + ∂t · (ρvv) = − p + ρg + F (1. r is the radial coordinate. the conservation equations for inviscid ﬂow in an inertial (non-rotating) reference frame are presented. The source Sm is the mass added to the continuous phase from the dispersed second phase (e. and vr is the radial velocity. In this section. The conservation equations relevant for species transport and other models will be discussed in the chapters where those models are described.7-3) where p is the static pressure and ρg and F are the gravitational body force and external body forces (e. but the momentum and energy conservation equations are reduced due to the absence of molecular diﬀusion.7-2) where x is the axial coordinate. The Mass Conservation Equation The equation for conservation of mass. January 29.7. The mass conservation equation is the same as for a laminar ﬂow.

the axial and radial momentum conservation equations are given by ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∂p (ρvx ) + (rρvx vx ) + (rρvr vx ) = − + Fx ∂t r ∂x r ∂r ∂x and ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∂p (ρvr ) + (rρvx vr ) + (rρvr vr ) = − + Fr ∂t r ∂x r ∂r ∂r where ·v = ∂vx ∂vr vr + + ∂x ∂r r (1. 2009 1-21 .7-7) Release 12.7-5) (1.7-6) (1.0 c ANSYS.7-4) Energy Conservation Equation Conservation of energy is described by ∂ (ρE) + ∂t · (v(ρE + p)) = − · j hj Jj + Sh (1.1. January 29. Inc.7 Inviscid Flows For 2D axisymmetric geometries.

0 c ANSYS. 2009 .Basic Fluid Flow 1-22 Release 12. January 29. Inc.

Flows with Rotating Reference Frames This chapter describes the theoretical background modeling ﬂows in rotating reference frames. The information in this chapter is presented in the following sections: • Section 2.2: Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame • Section 2. 2009 2-1 . by default. Such problems typically involve moving parts (such as rotating blades. By solving these equations in a steady-state manner. For more complex geometries. The use of the SRF approach is possible. When a moving reference frame is activated. you must break up the problem into multiple cell zones.2: Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame). there are many problems where it is advantageous to solve the equations in a moving (or non-inertial) reference frame.3: Flow in Multiple Rotating Reference Frames 2.1: Introduction • Section 2.0 c ANSYS.1 Introduction ANSYS FLUENT solves the equations of ﬂuid ﬂow and heat transfer. the ﬂow around the moving part can (with certain restrictions) be modeled as a steady-state problem with respect to the moving frame. In such cases. steady-state modeling methods for this class of problem: the multiple reference frame (or MRF) approach. In most cases. impellers. in a stationary (or inertial) reference frame. and it is the ﬂow around these moving parts that is of interest. the ﬂow around the moving parts can be modeled. January 29. The manner in which the interfaces are treated leads to two approximate. Inc. however. with well-deﬁned interfaces between the zones. For many problems. and similar types of moving surfaces). the equations of motion are modiﬁed to incorporate the additional acceleration terms which occur due to the transformation from the stationary to the moving reference frame. With a moving reference frame. provided the geometry meets certain requirements (as discussed in Section 2. ANSYS FLUENT’s moving reference frame modeling capability allows you to model problems involving moving parts by allowing you to activate moving reference frames in selected cell zones. it may be possible to refer the entire computational domain to a single moving reference frame.Chapter 2. This is known as the single reference frame (or SRF) approach. the moving parts render the problem unsteady when viewed from the stationary frame. However. and the mixing plane approach. it may not be possible to use a single reference frame. These approaches Release 12.

The sliding meshing model will be discussed in Chapter 3: Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes.Flows with Rotating Reference Frames will be discussed in Sections 2. vortex shedding from a rotating fan blade. Inc. By default. The information in this section is presented in the following: • Section 2. For a steadily rotating frame (i. for example.2.0 c ANSYS. you can employ the Sliding Mesh approach to capture the transient behavior of the ﬂow. it is possible to transform the equations of ﬂuid motion to the rotating frame such that steady-state solutions are possible.1: Equations for a Rotating Reference Frame • Section 2.2.1.1: Single Component (Blower Wheel Blade Passage) 2.3. ANSYS FLUENT permits the activation of a moving reference frame with a steady rotational speed. If unsteady interaction between the stationary and moving parts is important. The unsteadiness in this case is due to a natural ﬂuid instability (vortex generation) rather than induced from interaction with a stationary component. outlet periodic boundaries inlet Figure 2.2.2 Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame The principal reason for employing a moving reference frame is to render a problem which is unsteady in the stationary (inertial) frame steady with respect to the moving frame. the transformed equations will contain additional terms which are not included in ANSYS FLUENT’s formulation (although they can be added as source terms using user-deﬁned functions).. 2009 . the rotational speed is constant). January 29.2: Single Rotating Reference Frame (SRF) Modeling 2-2 Release 12. This would be necessary if you wanted to simulate. If the rotational speed is not constant. It should also be noted that you can run an unsteady simulation in a moving reference frame with constant rotational speed.e.3.1 and 2.

1 Equations for a Rotating Reference Frame Consider a coordinate system which is rotating steadily with angular velocity ω relative to a stationary (inertial) reference frame.2. January 29. as illustrated in Figure 2.2.2-1) The computational domain for the CFD problem is deﬁned with respect to the rotating frame such that an arbitrary point in the CFD domain is located by a position vector r from the origin of the rotating frame. The origin of the rotating system is located by a position vector r0 .2 Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame stationary zone interface rotating zone Figure 2. The ﬂuid velocities can be transformed from the stationary frame to the rotating frame using the following relation: v r = v − ur where ur = ω × r (2.2. The axis of rotation is deﬁned by a unit direction vector a such that ˆ ω = ωˆ a (2.2-2) Release 12. 2009 2-3 .1. Inc.1.0 c ANSYS.2-3) (2.2: Multiple Component (Blower Wheel and Casing) 2.

The exact forms of the governing equations for these two formulations will be provided in the sections below.Flows with Rotating Reference Frames Figure 2. Inc. It can be noted here that ANSYS FLUENT’s pressure-based solvers provide the option to use either of these two formulations.1: Choosing the Relative or Absolute Velocity Formulation (in the separate User’s Guide).2. For more information about the advantages of each velocity formulation. • Expressing the momentum equations using the absolute velocities as dependent variables in the momentum equations (known as the absolute velocity formulation).7. and ur is the “whirl” velocity (the velocity due to the moving frame). whereas the density-based solvers always use the absolute velocity formulation. 2-4 Release 12. the acceleration of the ﬂuid is augmented by additional terms that appear in the momentum equations [17]. the equations can be formulated in two diﬀerent ways: • Expressing the momentum equations using the relative velocities as dependent variables (known as the relative velocity formulation).0 c ANSYS. vr is the relative velocity (the velocity viewed from the rotating frame). January 29. Moreover. v is the absolute velocity (the velocity viewed from the stationary frame). When the equations of motion are solved in the rotating reference frame. see Section 10.1: Stationary and Rotating Reference Frames In the above. 2009 .

2-4 except that relative velocity derivatives are used. also known as the rothalpy. The energy equation is written in terms of the relative internal energy (Er ) and the relative total enthalpy (Hr ). Inc.2-9) Release 12.2-8) Absolute Velocity Formulation For the absolute velocity formulation. and the centripetal acceleration (ω×ω×r). 2009 2-5 .2-5) · ρvr = 0 (2.2-7) Hr = Er + (2.2 Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame Relative Velocity Formulation For the relative velocity formulation. January 29. the governing equations of ﬂuid ﬂow for a steadily rotating frame can be written as follows: Conservation of mass: ∂ρ + ∂t Conservation of momentum: ∂ ρv + ∂t · (ρvr v) + ρ(ω × v) = − p + ·τ +F (2. These variables are deﬁned as: Er = h − p 1 2 + (vr − ur 2 ) ρ 2 p ρ (2.2-6) The momentum equation contains two additional acceleration terms: the Coriolis acceleration (2ω×vr ).2-10) · ρvr = 0 (2.2-4) Conservation of energy: ∂ (ρEr ) + ∂t · (ρvr Hr ) = · (k T + τ r · vr ) + Sh (2. the governing equations of ﬂuid ﬂow for a steadily rotating frame can be written as follows: Conservation of mass: ∂ρ + ∂t Conservation of momentum: ∂ (ρvr ) + ∂t · (ρvr vr ) + ρ(2ω × vr + ω × ω × r) = − p + · τr + F (2. In addition. the viscous stress (τ r ) is identical to Equation 1.0 c ANSYS.2.

depending on which is more convenient.Flows with Rotating Reference Frames Conservation of energy: ∂ ρE + ∂t · (ρvr H + pur ) = · (k T + τ · v) + Sh (2.2. • Walls can be deﬁned which are non-moving with respect to the stationary coordinate system. This permits good resolution of the ﬂow around the blade without the expense of modeling all blades in the blade row (see Figure 2. the Coriolis and centripetal accelerations can be collapsed into a single term (ω × v).2 Single Rotating Reference Frame (SRF) Modeling Many problems permit the entire computational domain to be referred to a single rotating reference frame (hence the name SRF modeling). The no slip condition is deﬁned in the relative frame such that the relative velocity is zero on the moving walls. 2009 . the equations given in Section 2. 2. see Section 10. As an example. An example would be the blade surfaces associated with a pump impeller. For additional information on these and other boundary conditions. for a velocity inlet. but the surface must be periodic about the axis of rotation.2. in most cases. January 29.2. wall boundaries must adhere to the following requirements: • Any walls which are moving with the reference frame can assume any shape. Steady-state solutions are possible in SRF models provided suitable boundary conditions are prescribed. 2-6 Release 12. it is very common to model ﬂow through a blade row on a turbomachine by assuming the ﬂow to be rotationally periodic and using a periodic domain about a single blade.1: Equations for a Rotating Reference Frame are solved in all ﬂuid cell zones. be prescribed in either the stationary or rotating frames. For example. one can specify either the relative velocity or absolute velocity. An example of this type of boundary would be a cylindrical wind tunnel wall which surrounds a rotating propeller. In such cases. but these walls must be surfaces of revolution about the axis of rotation.0 c ANSYS.7: Setting Up a Single Rotating Reference Frame Problem and Chapter 7: Cell Zone and Boundary Conditions in the separate User’s Guide. Flow boundary conditions in ANSYS FLUENT (inlets and outlets) can. Inc. Here the so slip condition is deﬁned such that the absolute velocity is zero on the walls. Rotationally periodic boundaries may also be used. In particular.2).2-11) In this formulation.

2: Single Blade Model with Rotationally Periodic Boundaries Release 12.2.2 Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame Figure 2. January 29.0 c ANSYS. 2009 2-7 .2. Inc.

At the interfaces between cell zones. January 29. The ﬂow in each moving cell zone is solved using the moving reference frame equations (see Section 2. the simplest of the two approaches for multiple zones.3 Flow in Multiple Rotating Reference Frames Many problems involve multiple moving parts or contain stationary surfaces which are not surfaces of revolution (and therefore cannot be used with the Single Reference Frame modeling approach).3.2: Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame). a local reference frame transformation is performed to enable ﬂow variables in one zone to be used to calculate ﬂuxes at the boundary of the adjacent zone. inherently unsteady due to the motion of the mesh with time.3. 2. the mesh remains ﬁxed for the computation. It should be noted that the MRF approach does not account for the relative motion of a moving zone with respect to adjacent zones (which may be moving or stationary). with interface boundaries separating the zones. If the zone is stationary (ω = 0). the equations reduce to their stationary forms. Hence. This approach is discussed in Chapter 3: Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes. This is analogous to freezing the motion of the moving part in a speciﬁc position and observing the instantaneous ﬂowﬁeld with the rotor in that position.1: The Multiple Reference Frame Model) – Mixing Plane Model (MPM) (see Section 2. For these problems. 2009 .Flows with Rotating Reference Frames 2. and diﬀer primarily in the manner in which conditions at the interfaces are treated. The MRF interface formulation will be discussed in more detail in Section 2.3. These approaches will be discussed in the sections below.3. the MRF is often referred to as the “frozen rotor approach. whereas stationary zones can be solved with the stationary frame equations. It is a steady-state approximation in which individual cell zones can be assigned diﬀerent rotational and/or translational speeds. Zones which contain the moving components can then be solved using the moving reference frame equations (Section 2. The manner in which the equations are treated at the interface lead to two approaches which are supported in ANSYS FLUENT: • Multiple Rotating Reference Frames – Multiple Reference Frame model (MRF) (see Section 2.1: The MRF Interface Formulation.2. Inc. you must break up the model into multiple ﬂuid/solid cell zones.1: Equations for a Rotating Reference Frame).” 2-8 Release 12. perhaps.0 c ANSYS.2: The Mixing Plane Model) • Sliding Mesh Model (SMM) Both the MRF and mixing plane approaches are steady-state approximations. The sliding mesh model approach is. on the other hand.1 The Multiple Reference Frame Model Overview The MRF model [209] is.

1. Release 12. the MRF model can be used for turbomachinery applications in which rotor-stator interaction is relatively weak. (As noted above. density. and thus are passed locally without any change. Examples For a mixing tank with a single impeller. etc. turbulent kinetic energy.. Inc.2.3. if it is necessary to actually simulate the transients that may occur in strong rotor-stator interactions. You can also model a problem that includes more than one rotating reference frame. Figure 2. This eliminates the need for a startup calculation. (The dashes denote the interface between the two reference frames. and the ﬂow is relatively uncomplicated at the interface between the moving and stationary zones. since these vector quantities change with a change in reference frame. 2009 2-9 . it can provide a reasonable model of the ﬂow for many applications. Another potential use of the MRF model is to compute a ﬂow ﬁeld that can be used as an initial condition for a transient sliding mesh calculation.2 shows a geometry that contains two rotating impellers side by side.0 c ANSYS. It should be noted that the interface treatment applies to the velocity and velocity gradients.3. This problem would be modeled using three reference frames: the stationary frame outside both impeller regions and two separate rotating reference frames for the two impellers. large-scale transient eﬀects are not present and the MRF model can be used. In mixing tanks. For example. for example. The mesh does not move.3 Flow in Multiple Rotating Reference Frames While the MRF approach is clearly an approximation. An example of this conﬁguration is illustrated in Figure 2. the velocity at the interface must be the same (in absolute terms) for each reference frame.) Steadystate ﬂow conditions are assumed at the interface between the two reference frames. Scalar quantities. pressure. however. The speciﬁc approaches will be discussed below for each case. That is.) The MRF Interface Formulation The MRF formulation that is applied to the interfaces will depend on the velocity formulation being used.2: Sliding Mesh Theory). and use a stationary frame for the ﬂow outside the impeller region. such as temperature. January 29. The multiple reference frame model should not be used. do not require any special treatment. the sliding mesh model alone should be used (see Section 3. the dashes denote the interfaces between reference frames. you can deﬁne a rotating reference frame that encompasses the impeller and the ﬂow surrounding it. since the impeller-baﬄe interactions are relatively weak.

2: Geometry with Two Rotating Impellers 2-10 Release 12.3.1: Geometry with One Rotating Impeller Figure 2. 2009 .3. January 29.0 c ANSYS. Inc.Flows with Rotating Reference Frames Figure 2.

are simply obtained locally from adjacent cells. where a circumferential averaging technique is used.3-2) Note that scalar quantities such as density. static pressure. Thus.1: Equations for a Rotating Reference Frame.3 Flow in Multiple Rotating Reference Frames Interface Treatment: Relative Velocity Formulation In ANSYS FLUENT’s implementation of the MRF model.3-1. static temperature. the ﬂow in stationary and translating subdomains is governed by the equations in Section 1.3..3-1. At the boundary between two subdomains. Velocities and velocity gradients are converted from a moving reference frame to the absolute inertial frame using Equation 2. Release 12.2: Continuity and Momentum Equations. etc. the diﬀusion and other terms in the governing equations in one subdomain require values for the velocities in the adjacent subdomain (see Figure 2. to provide the correct neighbor values of velocity for the subdomain under consideration. while the ﬂow in rotating subdomains is governed by the equations presented in Section 2. v. Inc. The governing equations in each subdomain are written with respect to that subdomain’s reference frame. 2009 2-11 .2. For a translational velocity vt . we have v = vr + (ω × r) + vt (2.) When the relative velocity formulation is used.3-1) From Equation 2. each of which may be rotating and/or translating with respect to the laboratory (inertial) frame. January 29. velocities in each subdomain are computed relative to the motion of the subdomain. the calculation domain is divided into subdomains. the gradient of the absolute velocity vector can be shown to be v= vr + (ω × r) (2. ANSYS FLUENT enforces the continuity of the absolute velocity.2: The Mixing Plane Model.3. (This approach diﬀers from the mixing plane approach described in Section 2. species mass fractions.0 c ANSYS.2.3).

v interface vr . vr All velocities converted to absolute frame and applied to interface along with local scalars.Flows with Rotating Reference Frames stationary zone v. rotating zone Figure 2. 2009 .3. January 29.0 c ANSYS. Inc.3: Interface Treatment for the MRF Model 2-12 Release 12.

3. Flow-ﬁeld data from adjacent zones are passed as boundary conditions that are spatially averaged or “mixed” at the mixing plane interface. in a multistage turbomachine. The sliding mesh model (see Section 3. wakes. Moreover. and thus require signiﬁcantly more computation to achieve a ﬁnal.g. 2. shock waves. the governing equations in each subdomain are written with respect to that subdomain’s reference frame. Inc.2 The Mixing Plane Model The mixing plane model in ANSYS FLUENT provides an alternative to the multiple reference frame and sliding mesh models for simulating ﬂow through domains with one or more regions in relative motion. but in many situations it is not practical to employ a sliding mesh.3. 2009 2-13 . Release 12.. the resulting solutions can provide reasonable approximations of the time-averaged ﬂow ﬁeld. This section provides a brief overview of the model and a list of its limitations. the MRF model may not provide a physically meaningful solution. each ﬂuid zone is treated as a steady-state problem. Overview As discussed in Section 2. For example. For situations where using the sliding mesh model is not feasible. no special transformation is required at the interface between two subdomains. January 29. the MRF model is applicable when the ﬂow at the interface between adjacent moving/stationary zones is nearly uniform (“mixed out”). Despite the simpliﬁcations inherent in the mixing plane model. thus yielding a steady-state result. scalar quantities are determined locally from adjacent cells. Therefore. sliding mesh calculations are necessarily unsteady.2: Sliding Mesh Theory) may be appropriate for such cases. but the velocities are stored in the absolute frame. time-periodic solution.3 Flow in Multiple Rotating Reference Frames Interface Treatment: Absolute Velocity Formulation When the absolute velocity formulation is used.0 c ANSYS. This mixing removes any unsteadiness that would arise due to circumferential variations in the passage-to-passage ﬂow ﬁeld (e. the mixing plane model can be a cost-eﬀective alternative. if the number of blades is diﬀerent for each blade row.1: The Multiple Reference Frame Model. In the mixing plane approach.2. a large number of blade passages is required in order to maintain circumferential periodicity. If the ﬂow at this interface is not uniform. separated ﬂow). Again.

while Figure 2.3. a situation where the rotor is downstream of the stator is equally valid). each with their own inlet and outlet boundaries. In each case. 2009 . rotor rotor outlet: ps α r α t α z stator Rθ x stator inlet: p0 α r αt α z k ε mixing plane interface Figure 2.5 shows a constant θ plane within a mixed-ﬂow device. which is stationary. 2-14 Release 12.3.3. Figure 2. The ﬂow information between these domains will be coupled at the mixing plane interface (as shown in Figures 2. The order of the rotor and stator is arbitrary (that is. You can think of this system as a set of SRF models for each blade passage coupled by boundary conditions supplied by the mixing plane model. four blade passages can be coupled using three mixing planes.3.4 and 2.5) using the mixing plane model.3. each blade passage contains periodic boundaries.4 and 2.5. January 29. followed by the stator domain.0 c ANSYS. Note that you may couple any number of ﬂuid zones in this manner. Inc.3.4: Axial Rotor-Stator Interaction (Schematic Illustrating the Mixing Plane Concept) In a numerical simulation.3. which is rotating at a prescribed angular velocity.Flows with Rotating Reference Frames Rotor and Stator Domains Consider the turbomachine stages shown schematically in Figures 2. the stage consists of two ﬂow domains: the rotor domain.4 shows a constant radial plane within a single stage of an axial machine. each domain will be represented by a separate mesh. for example. i Note that the stator and rotor passages are separate cell zones.

3.5: Radial Rotor-Stator Interaction (Schematic Illustrating the Mixing Plane Concept) Release 12. 2009 2-15 .0 c ANSYS. January 29. Inc.2.3 Flow in Multiple Rotating Reference Frames stator stator inlet: p α α α k ε 0 r t z mixing plane r interface x rotor outlet: p α α α s r t z rotor Ω Figure 2.

5. The ANSYS FLUENT implementation gives you the choice of three types of averaging methods: area-weighted averaging.Flows with Rotating Reference Frames The Mixing Plane Concept The essential idea behind the mixing plane concept is that each ﬂuid zone is solved as a steady-state problem. αz ). Likewise. αt . direction cosines of the local ﬂow angles in the radial. 2009 . see Section 10.3. a proﬁle of static pressure (ps ). and mixed-out averaging. αz ). At some prescribed iteration interval. These proﬁles— which will be functions of either the axial or the radial coordinate. “proﬁles” of boundary condition ﬂow variables can be deﬁned. αt .10. mass averaging. depending on the orientation of the mixing plane—are then used to update boundary conditions along the two zones of the mixing plane interface. and axial directions (αr . and turbulence dissipation rate ( ) are computed at the rotor exit and used to update boundary conditions at the stator inlet. The coupling of an upstream outlet boundary zone with a downstream inlet boundary zone is called a “mixing plane pair”. total temperature (T0 ). Inc. turbulence kinetic energy (k).3. tangential.4 and 2. proﬁles of averaged total pressure (p0 ). are computed at the stator inlet and used as a boundary condition on the rotor exit. January 29. In order to create mixing plane pairs in ANSYS FLUENT. direction cosines of the local ﬂow angles in the radial. the ﬂow data at the mixing plane interface are averaged in the circumferential direction on both the stator outlet and the rotor inlet boundaries. the boundary zones must be of the following types: Upstream pressure outlet pressure outlet pressure outlet Downstream pressure inlet velocity inlet mass ﬂow inlet For speciﬁc instructions about setting up mixing planes. and axial directions (αr .2: Setting Up the Mixing Plane Model in the separate User’s Guide. By performing circumferential averages at speciﬁed radial or axial stations. tangential. Passing proﬁles in the manner described above assumes speciﬁc boundary condition types have been deﬁned at the mixing plane interface.0 c ANSYS. In the examples shown in Figures 2. 2-16 Release 12.

for solution stability purposes. January 29.2. it is best if you initiate the solution with area averaging.3 Flow in Multiple Rotating Reference Frames Choosing an Averaging Method Three proﬁle averaging methods are available in the mixing plane model: • area averaging • mass averaging • mixed-out averaging Area Averaging Area averaging is the default averaging method and is given by f= 1 A f dA A (2. Release 12. Therefore.0 c ANSYS. i Mass averaging averaging is not available with multiphase ﬂows. 2009 2-17 . Inc.3-3) i The pressure and temperature obtained by the area average may not be representative of the momentum and energy of the ﬂow. then switch to mass averaging after reverse ﬂow dies out. Convergence problems could arise if severe reverse ﬂow is present at the mixing plane.3-4) ρV · ndA ˆ This method provides a better representation of the total quantities than the areaaveraging method. Mass Averaging Mass averaging is given by f= where m= ˙ A 1 m ˙ f ρV · ndA ˆ A (2.

However. January 29. 2009 . Inc.0 c ANSYS. Therefore. the mixed-out average is considered a better representation of the ﬂow since it reﬂects losses associated with non-uniformities in the ﬂow proﬁles.3-5) P (ex · n)dA ˆ ˆ P (ey · n)dA ˆ ˆ P (ez · n)dA ˆ ˆ 1 2 ρ(V · n)(u2 + v 2 + w2 )dA ˆ A M1 = M2 = M3 = E = ρ(V · n)vdA + ˆ A A ρ(V · n)wdA + ˆ A A γR (γ − 1) ρ(V · n)T dA + ˆ A Because it is based on the principals of conservation. then switch to mixed-out averaging after reverse ﬂow dies out. momentum and energy: F = A ρ(V · n)dA ˆ ρ(V · n)udA + ˆ A A (2. i Mixed-out averaging is not available with multiphase ﬂows. Mixed-out averaging assumes that the ﬂuid is a compressible ideal-gas with constant speciﬁc heat. 2-18 Release 12. Cp . it is best if you initiate the solution with area averaging. convergence diﬃculties can arise when severe reverse ﬂow is present across the mixing plane.Flows with Rotating Reference Frames Mixed-Out Averaging The mixed-out averaging method is derived from the conservation of mass. like the mass-averaging method.

thus ensuring rigorous conservation of mass ﬂow throughout the course of the calculation. 4. Mass Conservation Note that the algorithm described above will not rigorously conserve mass ﬂow across the mixing plane if it is represented by a pressure outlet and pressure inlet mixing plane pair. Pass the proﬁles to the boundary condition inputs required for the stator exit and rotor inlet. This adjustment occurs at every iteration. The magnitude of this jump is usually small compared with total pressure variations elsewhere in the ﬂow ﬁeld. Average the ﬂow properties at the stator exit and rotor inlet boundaries. January 29. i Note that it may be desirable to under-relax the changes in boundary condition values in order to prevent divergence of the solution (especially early in the computation). ANSYS FLUENT will force mass conservation across the mixing plane. Update the ﬂow ﬁeld solutions in the stator and rotor domains.3 Flow in Multiple Rotating Reference Frames ANSYS FLUENT’s Mixing Plane Algorithm ANSYS FLUENT’s basic mixing plane algorithm can be described as follows: 1.0 c ANSYS. Repeat steps 1–3 until convergence. obtaining proﬁles for use in updating boundary conditions. 2. 3. The basic technique consists of computing the mass ﬂow rate across the upstream zone (pressure outlet) and adjusting the mass ﬂux proﬁle applied at the mass ﬂow inlet such that the downstream mass ﬂow matches the upstream mass ﬂow. since mass ﬂow is being ﬁxed in this case. i Note that. there will be a jump in total pressure across the mixing plane. Release 12. Inc. 2009 2-19 . ANSYS FLUENT allows you to control the under-relaxation of the mixing plane variables.2. If you use a pressure outlet and mass ﬂow outlet pair instead.

where the sum of the torques acting on the components should be zero. ANSYS FLUENT computes a proﬁle of tangential velocity and then uniformly adjusts the proﬁle such that the swirl integral is satisﬁed. Consider a control volume containing a stationary or rotating component (e.. T = S rvθ ρv · ndS ˆ (2. (The product rvθ is referred to as swirl. Applying Equation 2. Note that Equation 2. Note that interpolating the tangential (and radial) velocity component proﬁles at the mixing plane does not aﬀect mass conservation because these velocity components are orthogonal to the face-normal velocity used in computing the mass ﬂux. r is the radial distance from the axis of rotation. v is the total absolute velocity.3-7 to this zone and noting that. and is available in ANSYS FLUENT as a modeling option. vθ is the absolute tangential velocity. a pump impeller or turbine vane). Equation 2.) For a circumferentially periodic domain.3-6) where T is the torque of the ﬂuid acting on the component.3-6 becomes T = outlet rvθ ρv · ndS + ˆ inlet rvθ ρv · ndS ˆ (2. 2009 .g. enforcing swirl conservation across the mixing plane is essential. and S is the boundary surface. Now consider the mixing plane interface to have a ﬁnite streamwise thickness. with well-deﬁned inlet and outlet boundaries. sources or sinks of tangential momentum will be present at the mixing plane interface.3-7) where inlet and outlet denote the inlet and outlet boundary surfaces. Inc. That is. in the limit as the thickness shrinks to zero.0 c ANSYS.Flows with Rotating Reference Frames Swirl Conservation By default. the torque should vanish.3-8) downstream upstream where upstream and downstream denote the upstream and downstream sides of the mixing plane interface. the equation becomes rvθ ρv · ndS = ˆ rvθ ρv · ndS ˆ (2. Equation 2. otherwise. 2-20 Release 12. Ensuring conservation of swirl is important because. For applications such as torque converters. Using the moment of momentum equation from ﬂuid mechanics. January 29. ANSYS FLUENT does not conserve swirl across the mixing plane.3-8 applies to the full area (360 degrees) at the mixing plane interface. it can be shown that for steady ﬂow.3-8 provides a rational means of determining the tangential velocity component.

since mass ﬂow inlets are not permissible. for the Eulerian multiphase model. ANSYS FLUENT does not conserve total enthalpy across the mixing plane. Inc.3 Flow in Multiple Rotating Reference Frames Total Enthalpy Conservation By default. The procedure for ensuring conservation of total enthalpy simply involves adjusting the downstream total temperature proﬁle such that the integrated total enthalpy matches the upstream integrated total enthalpy.2. total enthalpy conservation across the mixing plane is very desirable. 2009 2-21 . conservation of the above quantities does not occur. For some applications. swirl. Release 12. conservation of mass. This is available in ANSYS FLUENT as a modeling option. and enthalpy are calculated for each phase.0 c ANSYS. January 29. because global parameters such as eﬃciency are directly related to the change in total enthalpy across a blade row or stage. For multiphase ﬂows. However.

Flows with Rotating Reference Frames 2-22 Release 12.0 c ANSYS. 2009 . Inc. January 29.

the sliding mesh model cannot neglect unsteady interactions. These interactions are illustrated in Figure 3.1 Introduction In sliding meshes. see Section 11.2: Sliding Mesh Theory • Section 3. Release 12. Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes This chapter describes the theoretical background of the sliding and dynamic mesh models in ANSYS FLUENT.3: Dynamic Mesh Theory 3. 2009 3-1 . thus neglecting unsteady interactions.2: Using Sliding Meshes in the separate User’s Guide. • Shock interactions: for transonic/supersonic ﬂow unsteadiness due to shock waves striking the downstream blade row.3: Using Dynamic Meshes in the separate User’s Guide. Where the multiple reference frame (MRF) and mixing plane (MP) models.0 c ANSYS. January 29. see Section 11. discussed in Chapter 2: Flows with Rotating Reference Frames. the relative motion of stationary and rotating components in a rotating machine will give rise to unsteady interactions.1: Introduction • Section 3.1. convecting downstream.1. To learn more about using sliding meshes in ANSYS FLUENT. Theoretical information about sliding and deforming mesh models is presented in the following sections: • Section 3.Chapter 3. Inc. are models that are applied to steady-state cases. The sliding mesh model accounts for the relative motion of stationary and rotating components. Also. for more information about using dynamic meshes in ANSYS FLUENT. and generally classiﬁed as follows: • Potential interactions: ﬂow unsteadiness due to pressure waves which propagate both upstream and downstream. • Wake interactions: ﬂow unsteadiness due to wakes from upstream blade rows.

1. 3-2 Release 12.0 c ANSYS. • A ﬂap moving with respect to an airplane wing. and to adjust the mesh accordingly.Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes Figure 3. For example • A piston moving with respect to an engine cylinder. The dynamic mesh model can also be used when boundaries deform or deﬂect. 2009 .1: Illustration of Unsteady Interactions The dynamic mesh model uses the ANSYS FLUENT solver to move boundaries and/or objects. January 29. • An artiﬁcial wall responding to the pressure pulse from the heart. Inc. For example • A balloon that is being inﬂated. The dynamic mesh model is used when boundaries move rigidly (linear or rotating) with respect to each other.

φ. The (n + 1)th time level volume V n+1 is computed from V n+1 = V n + dV ∆t dt (3.0 c ANSYS.j · Aj = δVj ∆t (3.1-2) where n and n + 1 denote the respective quantity at the current and next time level. as d dt (ρφV )n+1 − (ρφV )n ∆t ρφdV = V (3. The time derivative term in Equation 3. January 29.1-5) where δVj is the volume swept out by the control volume face j over the time step ∆t. In order to satisfy the mesh conservation law. 2009 3-3 . on an arbitrary control volume. whose boundary is moving can be written as d dt where ρφdV + V ∂V ρφ (u − ug ) · dA = Γ φ · dA + ∂V V Sφ dV (3.3.j · Aj on each control volume face is calculated from ug. Release 12.1-1) ρ is the ﬂuid density u is the ﬂow velocity vector ug is the mesh velocity of the moving mesh Γ is the diﬀusion coeﬃcient Sφ is the source term of φ Here ∂V is used to represent the boundary of the control volume V .j · Aj (3.1-4) where nf is the number of faces on the control volume and Aj is the j face area vector. V . Inc.1 Introduction Conservation Equations With respect to dynamic meshes.1-1 can be written. using a ﬁrst-order backward diﬀerence formula. the integral form of the conservation equation for a general scalar. the volume time derivative of the control volume is computed from dV = dt nf ∂V ug · dA = j ug.1-3) where dV /dt is the volume time derivative of the control volume. The dot product ug.

as shown in Figure 3.. simplifying the ﬂux transfers across the interfaces. the control volume remains constant. Inc.1).2. but also the most computationally demanding.2 Sliding Mesh Theory When a time-accurate solution for rotor-stator interaction (rather than a time-averaged solution) is desired. you can model other types of transients. January 29.1-2 can now be expressed as follows: d dt [(ρφ)n+1 − (ρφ)n ]V ∆t ρφdV = V (3.1-6) 3. As mentioned in Section 2.Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes In the case of the sliding mesh. the unsteady solution repeats with a period related to the speeds of the moving domains.1: Introduction. no moving reference frames are attached to the computational domain.0 c ANSYS.g. therefore from Equation 3. the sliding mesh model is the most accurate method for simulating ﬂows in multiple moving reference frames.1-3. In the sliding mesh formulation. However. dV = 0 dt and V n+1 = V n . the motion of moving zones is tracked relative to the stationary frame.1: Two Passing Trains in a Tunnel 3-4 Release 12. you must use the sliding mesh model to compute the unsteady ﬂow ﬁeld. the unsteady solution that is sought in a sliding mesh simulation is timeperiodic. Therefore.2. Equation 3. That is. two cars or trains passing in a tunnel. including translating sliding mesh zones (e. 2009 . Interface Figure 3. Most often.

2: Rotor-Stator Interaction (Stationary Guide Vanes with Rotating Blades) Release 12.3.0 c ANSYS.2. stationary vanes rotating blades ﬂow direction of motion Figure 3.2 Sliding Mesh Theory Note that for ﬂow situations where there is no interaction between stationary and moving parts (i. Inc. 2009 3-5 .3. as described in Sections 2.2 and 3.2. you must use sliding meshes..) When transient rotorstator interaction is desired (as in the examples in Figures 3. it is more eﬃcient to use a rotating reference frame. If you are interested in a steady approximation of the interaction. you may use the multiple reference frame model or the mixing plane model. when there is only a rotor). (See Section 2.2: Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame for details.2.2.3).1 and 2.e. January 29.3.

January 29. 3-6 Release 12. As the rotation or translation takes place.e.Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes Interface Figure 3.3. as described in Section 6. rotate or translate) relative to one another along the mesh interface in discrete steps. a time-dependent solution procedure is required.15: Reading Multiple Mesh/Case/Data Files in the separate User’s Guide.5 show the initial position of two meshes and their positions after some translation has occurred. The interface zones of adjacent cell zones are associated with one another to form a “mesh interface. 2009 .” The two cell zones will move relative to each other along the mesh interface. the cell zones slide (i. During the calculation. you will need to merge the mesh ﬁles prior to starting the calculation.2.) Each cell zone is bounded by at least one “interface zone” where it meets the opposing cell zone.4 and 3. node alignment along the mesh interface is not required.3: Blower The Sliding Mesh Technique In the sliding mesh technique two or more cell zones are used. Figures 3.2. Inc. (If you generate the mesh in each zone independently.0 c ANSYS.2. Since the ﬂow is inherently unsteady..

2 Sliding Mesh Theory Figure 3.2.2.5: Rotor Mesh Slides with Respect to the Stator Release 12.4: Initial Position of the Meshes Figure 3. 2009 3-7 .3.0 c ANSYS. Inc. January 29.

the mesh interface is designated by a dashed line.7 shows a circular-arc mesh interface. (The slanted. 2009 .) For an axial rotor/stator conﬁguration. Figure 3.2.7 was extruded to 3D.) Figure 3. provided that the two interface boundaries are based on the same geometry.6 shows an example with a linear mesh interface and Figure 3. in which the rotating and stationary parts are 3-8 Release 12. January 29. if Figure 3. (In both ﬁgures. Inc.2. Figure 3.0 c ANSYS. the resulting interface would be a cylinder.6 was extruded to 3D. the resulting sliding interface would be a planar rectangle.2.8 shows an example that would use a conical mesh interface.2.Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes Mesh Interface Shapes The mesh interface and the associated interface zones can be any shape. dashed lines represent the intersection of the conical interface with a 2D plane.2.2.6: 2D Linear Mesh Interface If Figure 3.

2. Inc.2 Sliding Mesh Theory Figure 3.7: 2D Circular-Arc Mesh Interface Figure 3.0 c ANSYS.2. 2009 3-9 .3.8: 3D Conical Mesh Interface Release 12. January 29.

2: Sliding Mesh Theory.4: NonConformal Meshes in the separate User’s Guide. Inc. This planar sector is a cross-section of the domain perpendicular to the axis of rotation at a position along the axis between the rotor and the stator.9). In doing so.Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes aligned axially instead of being concentric (see Figure 3.2. January 29. the mesh faces do not need to be aligned on the mesh interface. see Section 6. 2009 .2.0 c ANSYS.9: 3D Planar-Sector Mesh Interface 3. 3-10 Release 12.1 The Sliding Mesh Concept As discussed in Section 3. For information about how ANSYS FLUENT handles non-conformal interfaces.2. the interface will be a planar sector. the sliding mesh model allows adjacent meshes to slide relative to one another. portion of domain being modeled planar sector grid interface Figure 3. This situation requires a means of computing the ﬂux across the two non-conformal interface zones of each mesh interface.

which is what the six degree of freedom (6DOF) solver does (see Section 11. Furthermore. You can use the non-conformal or sliding interface capability in ANSYS FLUENT to connect the various zones in the ﬁnal model.1: Dynamic Mesh Update Methods • Section 3. The information in this section is presented in the following: • Section 3.7: Using the Six DOF Solver in the separate User’s Guide). The update of the volume mesh is handled automatically by ANSYS FLUENT at each time step based on the new positions of the boundaries. For more information on hanging node adaption.3.3 Dynamic Mesh Theory The dynamic mesh model in ANSYS FLUENT can be used to model ﬂows where the shape of the domain is changing with time due to motion on the domain boundaries.2: Six DOF (6DOF) Solver Theory 3. you need to provide a starting volume mesh and the description of the motion of any moving zones in the model.g. 2009 3-11 .3. or the Six Degree of Freedom solver (6DOF).1: Hanging Node Adaption.0 c ANSYS.. the linear and angular velocities are calculated from the force balance on a solid body. user-deﬁned functions (UDFs).. you can specify the linear and angular velocities about the center of gravity of a solid body with time) or an unprescribed motion where the subsequent motion is determined based on the solution at the current time (e. If the model contains moving and non-moving regions. Release 12. The dynamic mesh model can also be used for steady-state applications. with the exception of dynamic layering and face remeshing. you need to identify these regions by grouping them into their respective face or cell zones in the starting volume mesh that you generate. The motion can be a prescribed motion (e.3. To use the dynamic mesh model. see Section 19.g.1.3.3 Dynamic Mesh Theory 3. The boundary between the various regions need not be conformal. regions that are deforming due to motion on their adjacent regions must also be grouped into separate zones in the starting volume mesh. where it is beneﬁcial to move the mesh in the steady-state solver. January 29.3. Inc. ANSYS FLUENT expects the description of the motion to be speciﬁed on either face or cell zones.1 Dynamic Mesh Update Methods Three groups of mesh motion methods are available in ANSYS FLUENT to update the volume mesh in the deforming regions subject to the motion deﬁned at the boundaries: • smoothing methods • dynamic layering • local remeshing methods Note that you can use ANSYS FLUENT’s dynamic mesh models in conjunction with hanging node adaption. ANSYS FLUENT allows you to describe the motion using either boundary proﬁles.

3-2) At equilibrium. Using Hook’s Law.2 for a cylindrical cell zone where one end of the cylinder is moving. 3-12 Release 12. The spring-based smoothing is shown in Figures 3. At convergence. The spring constant for the edge connecting nodes i and j is deﬁned as kij = 1 | xi − xj | (3. the net force on a node due to all the springs connected to the node must be zero.3. A displacement at a given boundary node will generate a force proportional to the displacement along all the springs connected to the node.0 c ANSYS. the edges between any two mesh nodes are idealized as a network of interconnected springs. January 29. 2009 .3-1) where ∆xi and ∆xj are the displacements of node i and its neighbor j. the positions are updated such that xn+1 = xn + ∆xm. ni is the number of neighboring nodes connected to node i. Inc. The initial spacings of the edges before any boundary motion constitute the equilibrium state of the mesh. the force on a mesh node can be written as ni Fi = j kij (∆xj − ∆xi ) (3.1 and 3. This condition results in an iterative equation such that ∆xm+1 = i ni j kij ∆xm j ni kij j (3.3.3-4) where n + 1 and n are used to denote the positions at the next time step and the current time step.converged i i i (3. Equation 3.Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes Spring-Based Smoothing Method In the spring-based smoothing method. and kij is the spring constant (or stiﬀness) between node i and its neighbor j.3-3 is solved using a Jacobi sweep on all interior nodes.3-3) Since displacements are known at the boundaries (after boundary node positions have been updated). respectively.

January 29.3 Dynamic Mesh Theory Figure 3.0 c ANSYS.3.3.3.1: Spring-Based Smoothing on Interior Nodes: Start Figure 3. Inc.2: Spring-Based Smoothing on Interior Nodes: End Release 12. 2009 3-13 .

2009 . The node motion varies sinusoidally (Figures 3. For cases that have a Mesh Motion UDF (see Section 11. The computation of the node positions works as follows: → −m = xi ni j → −m xj ni (3. ANSYS FLUENT only relocates the vertex to the geometric center of its neighboring vertices if and only if there is an improvement in the mesh quality (i. 3-14 Release 12. This improved Laplacian smoothing can be enabled on deforming boundaries only (i.Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes Laplacian Smoothing Method Laplacian smoothing is the most commonly used and the simplest mesh smoothing method.0 c ANSYS. and ni is the number nodes neighboring node i.3. the boundary layer will deform according to the UDF that is applied to the face zone.5 and 3. To overcome this problem. where a UDF of the form DEFINE_GRID_MOTION provides the moving-deforming mesh model with the locations of the nodes located on the compliant strip on an idealized airfoil. January 29. in order to avoid skewness. of neighbor node of x i → The new node position − m+1 is then computed as follows: xi − m+1 = − m (1 − β) + − m β → → → xi xi xi where β is the boundary node relaxation factor. This method adjusts the location of each mesh vertex to the geometric center of its neighboring vertices. such that the cells adjacent to the deforming wall will also be deformed. − m is the node position xi xj → − m at iteration m. the zone with triangular elements in 3D and zones with linear elements in 2D).e. Inc. since repositioning a vertex by Laplacian smoothing can result in poor quality elements. both in time and space as seen by the deformation of the face zone and the respective boundary layer. the skewness has been improved).e.9: User-Deﬁned Motion in the separate User’s Guide) applied to a face zone with adjacent boundary layers. A deforming ﬂag is set on the adjacent cell zone. → This update only happens if the maximum skewness of all faces adjacent to − m+1 is xi m → − .6).. This smoothing method preserves the height of each boundary layer and can be applied to boundary layer zones of all mesh types (wedges and hexahedra in 3D.3. improved in comparison to x i (3.3. quadrilaterals in 2D).3-5) → → where − m is the averaged node position of node i at iteration m.3-6) Boundary Layer Smoothing Method The boundary layer smoothing method is used to deform the boundary layer during a moving-deforming mesh simulation. This method is computationally inexpensive but it does not guarantee an improvement on mesh quality.. Consider the example below.

9: Specifying Boundary Layer Deformation Smoothing (in the separate User’s Guide).7) is split or merged with the layer of cells next to it (layer i in Figure 3.3.3. Inc. you can use dynamic layering to add or remove layers of cells adjacent to a moving boundary. Figure 3. January 29.7) based on the height (h) of the cells in layer j. The layer of cells adjacent to the moving boundary (layer j in Figure 3. 2009 3-15 . The dynamic mesh model in ANSYS FLUENT allows you to specify an ideal layer height on each moving boundary.3.5).3. Dynamic Layering Method In prismatic (hexahedral and/or wedge) mesh zones. based on the height of the layer adjacent to the moving surface.3.3) prior to applying the Mesh Motion UDF to that mesh whose boundary layer has been deformed (Figure 3. see Section 11.3.3.3: The Mesh Prior to Applying Boundary Layer Smoothing To ﬁnd out how to set up a deforming boundary layer for smoothing.0 c ANSYS.3 Dynamic Mesh Theory Compare the original mesh (Figure 3. Release 12.

Inc.4: Zooming into the Mesh of the Compliant Strip Prior to Applying Boundary Layer Smoothing 3-16 Release 12. 2009 .Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes Figure 3.0 c ANSYS. January 29.3.

Inc. 2009 3-17 . January 29.5: The Mesh After Applying Boundary Layer Smoothing Release 12.3.3 Dynamic Mesh Theory Figure 3.3.0 c ANSYS.

0 c ANSYS.3.Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes Figure 3. Inc.6: Zooming into the Deformed Boundary Layer of the Compliant Strip Layer i Layer j Moving boundary h Figure 3. January 29.3. 2009 .7: Dynamic Layering 3-18 Release 12.

3-7 is met.9 show the result of splitting a layer of cells above a valve geometry using the height-based and ratio-based option. Remeshing Methods On zones with a triangular or tetrahedral mesh. When Release 12.. and αs is the layer split factor. 2009 3-19 . the cells are split based on the speciﬁed layering option. With the height-based option. the cells in layer j are merged with those in layer i.3. Note that ANSYS FLUENT allows you to deﬁne hideal as either a constant value or a value that varies as a function of time or crank angle. they can be compressed until hmin < αc hideal (3. When this condition is met. With the ratio-based option. hideal is the ideal cell height.3.3-7) where hmin is the minimum cell height of cell layer j.0 c ANSYS. When the condition in Equation 3.3. the spring-based smoothing method (described in Section 3. This option can be height based or ratio based.8: Results of Splitting Layer with the Height-Based Option If the cells in layer j are being compressed. the ratio of the new cell heights is exactly αs everywhere. the compressed layer of cells is merged into the layer of cells above the compressed layer. Figures 3. January 29.3.3. Figure 3.1: Spring-Based Smoothing Method) is normally used. the cells are split such that locally. i.e. Inc. the cell heights are allowed to increase until hmin > (1 + αs )hideal (3.3-8) where αc is the layer collapse factor.8 and 3.3 Dynamic Mesh Theory If the cells in layer j are expanding. the cells are split to create a layer of cells with constant height hideal and a layer of cells of height h − hideal .

face region remeshing. will lead to convergence problems when the solution is updated to the next time step. the mesh is locally updated with the new cells (with the solution interpolated from the old cells). January 29. ANSYS FLUENT includes several remeshing methods that include local remeshing. This will invalidate the mesh (e. Inc. Otherwise. local face remeshing (for 3D ﬂows only).g.0 c ANSYS.9: Results of Splitting Layer with the Ratio-Based Option the boundary displacement is large compared to the local cell sizes. and 2. ANSYS FLUENT agglomerates cells that violate the skewness or size criteria and locally remeshes the agglomerated cells or faces.5D surface remeshing (for 3D ﬂows only). where the available remeshing method only work on wedges extruded from triangular surfaces or hex meshes. 3-20 Release 12..5D model. result in negative cell volumes) and consequently. the cell quality can deteriorate or the cells can become degenerate. The available remeshing methods in ANSYS FLUENT work for triangulartetrahedral zones and mixed zones where the non-triangular/tetrahedral elements are skipped. If the new cells or faces satisfy the skewness criterion.Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes Figure 3. To circumvent this problem. The exception is the 2. 2009 .3. the new cells are discarded.

ANSYS FLUENT marks the region of faces on the deforming boundaries at the moving boundary based on minimum and maximum length scales. • It is smaller than a speciﬁed minimum length scale. For face region remeshing. they are allowed to contract until the minimum length scale is reached.3 Dynamic Mesh Theory Local Remeshing Method Using the local remeshing method.1: Feature Detection. Once marked. see Section 3.10).g.12.3. but also within a face zone. January 29.3. ANSYS FLUENT marks deforming boundary faces for remeshing based on moving and deforming loops of faces. above a moving piston). ANSYS FLUENT is able to remesh across multiple face zones. Inc.3. 2009 3-21 .0 c ANSYS.10).g. When this condition is met. if the layer is contracting. the compressed layer of faces is merged into the layer of faces above it. a single loop is generated at the bottom end of the cylinder (where the nodes are moving). Consider a simple tetrahedral mesh of a cylinder whose bottom wall is moving (see Figure 3.3. e. Release 12. ANSYS FLUENT analyzes the height of the faces connected to the nodes on the loop and subsequently. ANSYS FLUENT allows remeshing with symmetric boundary conditions. Using this method. If the faces in layer j are expanding. For more information. Face Region Remeshing Method In addition to remeshing the volume mesh.. ANSYS FLUENT evaluates each cell and marks it for remeshing if it meets one or more of the following criteria: • It has a skewness that is greater than a speciﬁed maximum skewness. ANSYS FLUENT automatically extracts loops on the boundary of the face zone whose nodes are moving or deforming.. ANSYS FLUENT remeshes the faces and the adjacent cells to produce a very regular mesh on the deforming boundary at the moving boundary (e. ANSYS FLUENT marks cells based on cell skewness and minimum and maximum length scales as well as an optional sizing function. and across multiple face zones which includes preserving features not only between the diﬀerent face zones. On the deforming boundary. Conversely. • Its height does not meet the speciﬁed length scale (at moving face zones. • It is larger than a speciﬁed maximum length scale. Figure 3. For 3D simulations. The face remeshing is illustrated in Figure 3. they are allowed to expand until the maximum length scale is reached. splits or merges the faces depending on the speciﬁed maximum or minimum length scale.3. ANSYS FLUENT also allows triangular and linear faces on a deforming boundary to be remeshed.

ANSYS FLUENT is able to remesh locally at deforming boundaries. Using this method. 3-22 Release 12.3.10: Remeshing at a Deforming Boundary Local Face Remeshing Method The local face remeshing method only applies to 3D geometries. January 29.Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes Deforming boundary Layer i Layer j h Moving boundary Figure 3. you are not able to remesh across multiple face zones. Using this method.0 c ANSYS. ANSYS FLUENT marks the faces (and the adjacent cells) on the deforming boundaries based on the face skewness. 2009 . however. Inc.

3 Dynamic Mesh Theory Figure 3.12: Expanding Cylinder After Region Face Remeshing Release 12. January 29.3.0 c ANSYS.3.11: Expanding Cylinder Before Region Face Remeshing Figure 3. Inc. 2009 3-23 .3.

0 c ANSYS. Inc. 2009 . Faces on a deforming boundary are marked for remeshing based on face skewness. minimum and maximum length scale and an optional sizing function.13: Close-Up of 2. Stationary Wall Moving Walls Moving Walls Figure 3.5D Surface Remeshing Method The 2.3.Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes 2.5D surface remeshing method only applies to extruded 3D geometries and is similar to local remeshing in two dimensions on a triangular surface mesh (not a mixed zone).5D Extruded Flow Meter Pump Geometry Before Remeshing and Laplacian Smoothing 3-24 Release 12. January 29.

2009 3-25 .5D Extruded Flow Meter Pump Geometry After Remeshing and Laplacian Smoothing Release 12.3. Inc.3.3 Dynamic Mesh Theory Remeshed Areas Figure 3.14: Close-Up of 2.0 c ANSYS. January 29.

Inc.3-10) 3-26 Release 12.3.18). ANSYS FLUENT then interpolates the value of the size function by calculating the distance LI from a given cell centroid P to the background mesh vertices that surround the cell (see Figure 3. The size function is then smoothed using Laplacian smoothing. This allows ANSYS FLUENT to create a background mesh. The size function is evaluated at the vertex of each individual background mesh. The intermediate value of the size function sizeb at the centroid is computed from 1 ΣSF I LI 1 Σ LI sizeb = (3. ANSYS FLUENT can also mark cells based on the size distribution generated by sizing functions.17.0 c ANSYS. Local remeshing using size functions can be used with the following remeshing methods: • local remeshing • 2.3-9) where DJ is the distance from vertex I on the background mesh to the centroid of boundary cell J and ∆sJ is the mesh size (length) of boundary cell J. ANSYS FLUENT draws a bounding box around the zone that is approximately twice the size of the zone.Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes Local Remeshing Based on Size Functions Instead of marking cells based on minimum and maximum length scales.16 demonstrates the advantages of using size functions for local remeshing: In determining the sizing function. January 29. The shortest feature length is determined by shrinking a second box around the object. ANSYS FLUENT then subdivides the bounding box based on the shortest feature length and the Size Function Resolution that you specify. 2009 .3. the local value of the size function SFI is deﬁned by 1 Σ DJ ∆sJ 1 Σ DJ SFI = (3.5D surface remeshing Figure 3. and locates the shortest feature length within each ﬂuid zone. As seen in Figure 3. You control the resolution of the background mesh and a background mesh is created for each ﬂuid zone. and then selecting the shortest edge on that box.3.

2009 3-27 .15: Mesh at the End of a Dynamic Mesh Simulation Without Size Functions Figure 3.0 c ANSYS.3.16: Mesh at the End of a Dynamic Mesh Simulation With Size Functions Release 12.3.3. Inc. January 29.3 Dynamic Mesh Theory Figure 3.

18: Interpolating the Value of the Size Function 3-28 Release 12.17: Size Function Determination at Background Mesh Vertex I Figure 3.3. Inc. 2009 . January 29.0 c ANSYS.Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes Figure 3.3.

3-11) Figure 3. the maximum cell size becomes sizeP. Inc. you can write the ﬁnal value sizeP of the size function at point P as sizeP = sizeb × (1 + α × d1+2β ) = sizeb × γ b where sizeb is the intermediate value of the size function at the cell centroid. 2009 3-29 . January 29.19: Determining the Normalized Distance Using the parameters α and β (the Size Function Variation and the Size Function Rate. Note that α is the size function variation. a single point Q is located within the domain (see Figure 3. Since the maximum value of db is one.19) that has the largest distance dmax to the nearest boundary to it.3 Dynamic Mesh Theory Next.3. The normalized distance db for the given centroid P is given by dP min dmax db = (3.3. α is really a measure of the maximum cell size. respectively). (3.3-13) (3.max = sizeb × (1 + α) = sizeb × γmax thus.3. Positive values mean that the cell size increases as you move away from the boundary.0 c ANSYS.3-12) Release 12.

3-15. A value of 0 indicates a linear variation of cell size away from the boundary. You can control the size distribution by specifying the Size Function Variation and the Size Function Rate. A set of default values (based on the current mesh) is automatically generated if you click Use Defaults. The size function is not used to govern the size of the cell during remeshing. the Size Function Resolution is 3 in 2D problems.Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes The factor γ is computed from γ = 1 + αd1+2β b γ = 1 + αdb 1 1−β if α > 0 if α < 0 (3. 3-30 Release 12.3-16) where γ is a factor deﬁned by Equation 3. You can also control the resolution of the sizing function with Size Function Resolution. Conversely.5 the size of the closest boundary cell. at most.3-14) (3. with the size computed from the cell volume by assuming a perfect (equilateral) triangle in 2D and a perfect tetrahedron in 3D. A positive value indicates a slower transition from the boundary to the speciﬁed Size Function Variation value. You can use Size Function Rate (or β) to control how rapidly the cell size varies from the boundary.99. January 29.3-14 and Equation 3. the sizing function is a distance-weighted average of all mesh sizes on all boundary faces (both stationary and moving boundaries). The resolution determines the size of the background bins used to evaluate the size distribution with respect to the shortest feature length of the current mesh.3-15) You can use Size Function Variation (or α) to control how large or small an interior cell can be with respect to its closest boundary cell. a negative value indicates a faster transition from the boundary to the Size Function Variation value. 2009 . γsizeb 5 4 (3. Inc.5 indicates that the cell size interior of the boundary can be half of that at the closest boundary cell.99 < β < +0. The sizing function is based on the sizes of the boundary cells. In summary. an α value of 0. Conversely.0 c ANSYS. The value of β should be speciﬁed such that −0. and 1 in 3D problems. Note that the size function is only used for marking cells before remeshing. an α value of −0. 1. ANSYS FLUENT will agglomerate a cell if size ∈ 5 4 γsizeb . A value of 0 indicates a constant size distribution away from the boundary. By default. If you have enabled the Sizing Function option. α ranges from −1 to ∞.5 indicates that the interior cell size can be.

you can indicate whether you want to include features of a speciﬁc angle by selecting Include Features under Feature Detection and setting the Feature Angle (the zonal feature angle α) in degrees.2 Six DOF (6DOF) Solver Theory The 6DOF solver in ANSYS FLUENT uses the object’s forces and moments in order to compute the translational and angular motion of the center of gravity of an object.3 Dynamic Mesh Theory Feature Detection For 3D simulations. The moments are transformed from inertial to body coordinates using − → − → M B = RM G where R is the following transformation matrix: Cθ Cψ Sφ Sθ Cψ − Cφ Sψ Cφ Sθ Cψ + Sφ Sψ Cθ Sψ Sφ Sθ Sψ + Cφ Cψ Cφ Sθ Sψ − Sφ Cψ -Sθ Sφ Cθ Cφ Cθ (3. 3. 2009 3-31 . and f G is ν˙G the force vector due to gravity. θ. Inc. and −B is the rigid ω body angular velocity vector. cos(β) < cos(α)).. The angles φ. ANSYS FLUENT allows you to preserve features on deforming zones not only between the diﬀerent face zones.3-17). −B . If the angle β between adjacent faces is bigger than the speciﬁed angle. January 29.3-18) − → → where L is the inertia tensor. → The angular motion of the object. The governing equation for the translational motion of the center of gravity is solved for in the inertial coordinate system (Equation 3. MB is the moment vector of the body.3-18).3. but also within a face zone. and ψ are Euler angles that represent the following sequence of rotations: Release 12. then the feature is recognized (i. is more easily computed using body coordinates ω˙ (Equation 3. m is the mass.3. Cχ = cos(χ) and Sχ = sin(χ). for any geometry deﬁnition. In the Geometry Deﬁnition tab of the Dynamic Mesh Zones dialog box.3-19) where. − = 1 → ν˙G m → − fG (3.e. −B = L−1 → ω˙ − → → → MB − −B × L−B ω ω (3.3-17) → − → where − is the translational motion of the center of gravity. in generic terms.0 c ANSYS.

. roll for airplanes) • rotation about the y-axis (e.0 c ANSYS. pitch for airplanes) • rotation about the z-axis (e. 3-32 Release 12. The angular and translational velocities are used in the dynamic mesh calculations to update the rigid body position. the rates are derived by numerical integration [328].. Inc.3-18.Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes • rotation about the x-axis (e.g. yaw for airplanes) Once the angular and the translational accelerations are computed from Equation 3.3-17 and Equation 3.g.. 2009 .g. January 29.

Turbulence This chapter provides theoretical background about the turbulence models available in ANSYS FLUENT.4: Standard.12: Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows For more information about using these turbulence models in ANSYS FLUENT. Information is presented in the following sections: • Section 4. the instantaneous (exact) governing equations can be time-averaged.0 c ANSYS. 2009 4-1 . 4. and cause the transported quantities to ﬂuctuate as well. Inc. or otherwise manipulated to remove the resolution of small scales.3: Spalart-Allmaras Model • Section 4. and species concentration.Models • Section 4.Chapter 4.2: Choosing a Turbulence Model • Section 4.8: The v 2 -f Model • Section 4. ensemble-averaged. resulting in a modiﬁed set of equations that are computationally less expensive to solve. Since these ﬂuctuations can be of small scale and high frequency.10: Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) • Section 4. and Realizable k.7: Transition SST Model • Section 4. energy.5: Standard and SST k-ω Models • Section 4. However.6: k-kl-ω Transition Model • Section 4.11: Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Model • Section 4. they are too computationally expensive to simulate directly in practical engineering calculations.9: Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) • Section 4.1: Introduction • Section 4. These ﬂuctuations mix transported quantities such as momentum. RNG. see Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence in the separate User’s Guide. Instead. the modiﬁed equations contain additional unknown Release 12. January 29.1 Introduction Turbulent ﬂows are characterized by ﬂuctuating velocity ﬁelds.

RANS model – SST k-ω RANS model • Large eddy simulation (LES) model.model – Renormalization-group (RNG) k.Turbulence variables.model • k-ω models – Standard k-ω model – Shear-stress transport (SST) k-ω model • Transition k-kl-ω model • Transition SST model • v 2 -f model (add-on) • Reynolds stress models (RSM) – Linear pressure-strain RSM model – Quadratic pressure-strain RSM model – Low-Re stress-omega RSM model • Detached eddy simulation (DES) model. – Spalart-Allmaras RANS model – Realizable k. 2009 .model – Realizable k.0 c ANSYS. – Smagorinsky-Lilly subgrid-scale model – WALE subgrid-scale model – Dynamic Smagorinsky model – Kinetic-energy transport subgrid-scale model 4-2 Release 12. which includes one of the following sub-scale models.models – Standard k. January 29. and turbulence models are needed to determine these variables in terms of known quantities. ANSYS FLUENT provides the following choices of turbulence models: • Spalart-Allmaras model • k. which includes one of the following RANS models. Inc.

1 Reynolds-Averaged Approach vs.2 Choosing a Turbulence Model 4. vortex-shedding. While it is impossible to state categorically which model is best for a speciﬁc application.0 c ANSYS. Two alternative methods can be employed to render the Navier-Stokes equations tractable so that the small-scale turbulent ﬂuctuations do not have to be directly simulated: Reynolds-averaging (or ensemble-averaging) and ﬁltering. k-ω and its variants. time-dependent boundary conditions or sources) or self-sustained (e. Inc. The RANS-based modeling approach therefore greatly reduces the required computational eﬀort and resources. with the whole range of the scales of turbulence being modeled.2: Reynolds (Ensemble) Averaging • Section 4.g. An entire hierarchy of closure models are available in ANSYS FLUENT including SpalartAllmaras.2. The computational eﬀort and cost in terms of CPU time and memory of the individual models is discussed. LES Time-dependent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for high Reynolds-number turbulent ﬂows in complex geometries which set out to resolve all the way down to the smallest scales of the motions are unlikely to be attainable for some time to come. Reynolds Stress Transport Models 4. the available computational resources.and its variants.g.4.. 2009 4-3 .. LES • Section 4.2.2 Choosing a Turbulence Model It is an unfortunate fact that no single turbulence model is universally accepted as being superior for all classes of problems. January 29. and is widely adopted for practical engineering applications. Both methods introduce additional terms in the governing equations that need to be modeled in order to achieve a “closure” for the unknowns. whose unsteadiness may be externally imposed (e. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations govern the transport of the averaged ﬂow quantities. k. and the RSM. the level of accuracy required. and the amount of time available for the simulation. you need to understand the capabilities and limitations of the various options.3: Boussinesq Approach vs. To make the most appropriate choice of model for your application. Release 12. The RANS equations are often used to compute time-dependent ﬂows.1: Reynolds-Averaged Approach vs. ﬂow instabilities). the established practice for a speciﬁc class of problem.2. Information is presented in the following sections: • Section 4.2. The choice of turbulence model will depend on considerations such as the physics encompassed in the ﬂow. The purpose of this section is to give an overview of issues related to the turbulence models provided in ANSYS FLUENT. general guidelines are presented to help you choose the appropriate turbulence model for the ﬂow you want to model.

the error introduced by turbulence modeling can be reduced.Turbulence LES provides an alternative approach in which large eddies are explicitly computed (resolved) in a time-dependent simulation using the “ﬁltered” Navier-Stokes equations. which are generally of most engineering interest.2 Reynolds (Ensemble) Averaging In Reynolds averaging. than the large eddies. to reduce the cost of LES for wall-bounded ﬂows. Substituting expressions of this form for the ﬂow variables into the instantaneous continuity and momentum equations and taking a time (or ensemble) average (and dropping the overbar on the mean velocity.s.2. For the velocity components: u i = u i + ui ¯ where ui and ui are the mean and ﬂuctuating velocity components (i = 1. It is also believed to be easier to ﬁnd a “universal” model for the small scales.2-1) 4-4 Release 12. Inc. ¯ They can be written in Cartesian tensor form as: (4. the solution variables in the instantaneous (exact) Navier-Stokes equations are decomposed into the mean (ensemble-averaged or time-averaged) and ﬂuctuating components. Filtering is essentially a mathematical manipulation of the exact Navier-Stokes equations to remove the eddies that are smaller than the size of the ﬁlter. Like Reynoldsaveraging. the ﬁltering process creates additional unknown terms that must be modeled to achieve closure. However. energy. can be collected during the time-dependent simulation. for pressure and other scalar quantities: ¯ φ=φ+φ where φ denotes a scalar such as pressure. Statistics of the time-varying ﬂow-ﬁelds such as time-averages and r. 2009 . or species concentration. Wall functions in combination with a coarse near wall mesh can be employed. often with some success. The rationale behind LES is that by modeling less of turbulence (and resolving more). values of the solution variables. ¯ Likewise. which is usually taken as the mesh size when spatial ﬁltering is employed as in ANSYS FLUENT. For the same reason (to accurately resolve the eddies). January 29.2-2) (4. 4. LES also requires highly accurate spatial and temporal discretizations. LES for high Reynolds number industrial ﬂows requires a signiﬁcant amount of computational resources. 3).m. This is mainly because of the need to accurately resolve the energycontaining turbulent eddies in both space and time domains. since they tend to be more isotropic and less aﬀected by the macroscopic features like boundary conditions. one needs to carefully consider the ramiﬁcation of using wall functions for the ﬂow in question.0 c ANSYS. 2. which becomes most acute in near-wall regions where the scales to be resolved become much smaller. u) yields the ensemble-averaged momentum equations.

2009 4-5 . −ρui uj . only one additional transport equation (representing turbulent viscosity) is solved.4. For variable-density ﬂows. which is not strictly true. An additional scale-determining equation (normally for ) is also required. with the velocities representing mass-averaged values.0 c ANSYS.2-4 can be interpreted as Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations [130]. The advantage of this approach is the relatively low computational cost associated with the computation of the turbulent viscosity. 4. ω) are solved.2-4 can be applied to density-varying ﬂows. Release 12.2-3 and 4.and k-ω models. k. .2-4 are called Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. As such. The disadvantage of the Boussinesq hypothesis as presented is that it assumes µt is an isotropic scalar quantity. or the speciﬁc dissipation rate. In the case of the Spalart-Allmaras model.2-3 and 4. The alternative approach.2 Choosing a Turbulence Model ∂ρ ∂ (ρui ) = 0 + ∂t ∂xi (4. Inc. and the k-ω models. must be modeled in order to close Equation 4. is to solve transport equations for each of the terms in the Reynolds stress tensor.2-3) ∂ ∂ ∂p ∂ ∂ui ∂uj 2 ∂ul (ρui )+ (ρui uj ) = − + µ + − δij ∂t ∂xj ∂xi ∂xj ∂xj ∂xi 3 ∂xl + ∂ (−ρui uj ) (4.2-5) The Boussinesq hypothesis is used in the Spalart-Allmaras model. µt . Additional terms now appear that represent the eﬀects of turbulence.2-4 are appropriately modeled.2-4. Reynolds Stress Transport Models The Reynolds-averaged approach to turbulence modeling requires that the Reynolds stresses in Equation 4.2-4) ∂xj Equations 4. In the case of the k.3 Boussinesq Approach vs.2-3 and 4. Equations 4. the k. A common method employs the Boussinesq hypothesis [130] to relate the Reynolds stresses to the mean velocity gradients: − ρui uj = µt ∂ui ∂uj + ∂xj ∂xi − 2 ∂uk ρk + µt δij 3 ∂xk (4. January 29. with the velocities and other solution variables now representing ensemble-averaged (or timeaveraged) values. They have the same general form as the instantaneous Navier-Stokes equations. and µt is computed as a function of k and or k and ω.models. two additional transport equations (for the turbulence kinetic energy. These Reynolds stresses. Equations 4. embodied in the RSM. This means that ﬁve additional transport equations are required in 2D ﬂows and seven additional transport equations must be solved in 3D. and either the turbulence dissipation rate.2.

3.3. 4. January 29. Information is presented in the following sections: • Section 4.7: Wall Boundary Conditions • Section 4.4: Modeling the Turbulent Production • Section 4. Such cases include highly swirling ﬂows and stress-driven secondary ﬂows.6: Model Constants • Section 4.3: Modeling the Turbulent Viscosity • Section 4.5: Setting Up the Spalart-Allmaras Model in the separate User’s Guide.3. Inc. models based on the Boussinesq hypothesis perform very well.3.3. It is also gaining popularity in the turbomachinery applications.1 Overview The Spalart-Allmaras model is a relatively simple one-equation model that solves a modeled transport equation for the kinematic eddy (turbulent) viscosity.3. However. see Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence and Section 12. and the additional computational expense of the Reynolds stress model is not justiﬁed.5: Modeling the Turbulent Destruction • Section 4.3.2: Transport Equation for the Spalart-Allmaras Model • Section 4.0 c ANSYS.3.3. 2009 . 4-6 Release 12.1: Overview • Section 4. This embodies a relatively new class of one-equation models in which it is not necessary to calculate a length scale related to the local shear layer thickness. The Spalart-Allmaras model was designed speciﬁcally for aerospace applications involving wall-bounded ﬂows and has been shown to give good results for boundary layers subjected to adverse pressure gradients. the RSM is clearly superior in situations where the anisotropy of turbulence has a dominant eﬀect on the mean ﬂow.8: Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling For details about using the model in ANSYS FLUENT. 4.Turbulence In many cases.3 Spalart-Allmaras Model This section describes the theory behind the Spalart-Allmaras model.

requiring the viscosity-aﬀected region of the boundary layer to be properly resolved.2-5 is ignored when estimating the Reynolds stresses. Inc. Sν is a userdeﬁned source term.3 Spalart-Allmaras Model In its original form. however.0 c ANSYS. Note that since the turbulence kinetic energy. Furthermore. the Spalart-Allmaras model is eﬀectively a low-Reynolds-number model. January 29. ν. The model proposed by Spalart and Allmaras [331] solves a transport equation for a quantity that is a modiﬁed form of the turbulent kinematic viscosity. such as might be necessary when the ﬂow changes abruptly from a wall-bounded to a free shear ﬂow. σν and Cb2 are the constants and ν is the molecular kinematic viscosity.3.4. Furthermore. the central issue is how the eddy viscosity is computed. is identical to the turbulent kinematic viscosity except in the near-wall (viscosity-aﬀected) region. 2009 4-7 . however. it cannot be relied on to predict the decay of homogeneous. For instance.1. The transport equation for ν is ∂ ∂ 1 ∂ (ρν) + (ρνui ) = Gν + ∂t ∂xi σν ∂xj ∂ν (µ + ρν) ∂xj ∂ν + Cb2 ρ ∂xj 2 − Yν + S ν (4. the near-wall gradients of the transported variable in the model are much smaller than the gradients of the transported variables in the k. Release 12. k. See Section 6. 4. In ANSYS FLUENT. This might make the model less sensitive to numerical errors when non-layered meshes are used near walls. On a cautionary note.3: Numerical Diﬀusion in the separate User’s Guide for a further discussion of the numerical errors. This might make it the best choice for relatively crude simulations on coarse meshes where accurate turbulent ﬂow computations are not critical. while the last term in Equation 4. is not calculated in the Spalart-Allmaras model. and Yν is the destruction of turbulent viscosity that occurs in the near-wall region due to wall blocking and viscous damping.3-1) where Gν is the production of turbulent viscosity. In turbulence models that employ the Boussinesq approach. one-equation models are often criticized for their inability to rapidly accommodate changes in length scale.or k-ω models. the Spalart-Allmaras model is still relatively new. isotropic turbulence.2 Transport Equation for the Spalart-Allmaras Model The transported variable in the Spalart-Allmaras model. and no claim is made regarding its suitability to all types of complex engineering ﬂows. the Spalart-Allmaras model has been implemented to use wall functions when the mesh resolution is not suﬃciently ﬁne.

Turbulence

4.3.3

Modeling the Turbulent Viscosity

The turbulent viscosity, µt , is computed from µt = ρνfv1 where the viscous damping function, fv1 , is given by fv1 = and χ≡ ν ν (4.3-4) χ3 3 χ3 + Cv1 (4.3-3) (4.3-2)

4.3.4

Modeling the Turbulent Production

The production term, Gν , is modeled as Gν = Cb1 ρS ν where S≡S+ and fv2 = 1 − χ 1 + χfv1 (4.3-7) ν fv2 κ2 d2 (4.3-6) (4.3-5)

Cb1 and κ are constants, d is the distance from the wall, and S is a scalar measure of the deformation tensor. By default in ANSYS FLUENT, as in the original model proposed by Spalart and Allmaras, S is based on the magnitude of the vorticity: S≡ 2Ωij Ωij (4.3-8)

where Ωij is the mean rate-of-rotation tensor and is deﬁned by Ωij = 1 2 ∂ui ∂uj − ∂xj ∂xi (4.3-9)

4-8

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

4.3 Spalart-Allmaras Model

The justiﬁcation for the default expression for S is that, in the wall-bounded ﬂows that were of most interest when the model was formulated, the turbulence production found only where vorticity is generated near walls. However, it has since been acknowledged that one should also take into account the eﬀect of mean strain on the turbulence production, and a modiﬁcation to the model has been proposed [65] and incorporated into ANSYS FLUENT. This modiﬁcation combines the measures of both vorticity and the strain tensors in the deﬁnition of S: S ≡ |Ωij | + Cprod min (0, |Sij | − |Ωij |) where Cprod = 2.0, |Ωij | ≡ with the mean strain rate, Sij , deﬁned as Sij = 1 2 ∂uj ∂ui + ∂xi ∂xj (4.3-11) 2Ωij Ωij , |Sij | ≡ 2Sij Sij (4.3-10)

Including both the rotation and strain tensors reduces the production of eddy viscosity and consequently reduces the eddy viscosity itself in regions where the measure of vorticity exceeds that of strain rate. One such example can be found in vortical ﬂows, i.e., ﬂow near the core of a vortex subjected to a pure rotation where turbulence is known to be suppressed. Including both the rotation and strain tensors more correctly accounts for the eﬀects of rotation on turbulence. The default option (including the rotation tensor only) tends to overpredict the production of eddy viscosity and hence overpredicts the eddy viscosity itself in certain circumstances. You can select the modiﬁed form for calculating production in the Viscous Model dialog box.

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

4-9

Turbulence

4.3.5

Modeling the Turbulent Destruction

**The destruction term is modeled as ν d
**

2

Yν = Cw1 ρfw where

(4.3-12)

6 1 + Cw3 fw = g 6 6 g + Cw3

1/6

(4.3-13)

g = r + Cw2 r6 − r ν Sκ2 d2

(4.3-14)

r≡

(4.3-15)

Cw1 , Cw2 , and Cw3 are constants, and S is given by Equation 4.3-6. Note that the modiﬁcation described above to include the eﬀects of mean strain on S will also aﬀect the value of S used to compute r.

4.3.6

Model Constants

The model constants Cb1 , Cb2 , σν , Cv1 , Cw1 , Cw2 , Cw3 , and κ have the following default values [331]: 2 Cb1 = 0.1355, Cb2 = 0.622, σν = , Cv1 = 7.1 3 Cw1 = Cb1 (1 + Cb2 ) + , Cw2 = 0.3, Cw3 = 2.0, κ = 0.4187 κ2 σν

4.3.7

Wall Boundary Conditions

At walls, the modiﬁed turbulent kinematic viscosity, ν, is set to zero. When the mesh is ﬁne enough to resolve the viscosity-dominated sublayer, the wall shear stress is obtained from the laminar stress-strain relationship: u ρuτ y = uτ µ (4.3-16)

4-10

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

4.4 Standard, RNG, and Realizable k- Models

If the mesh is too coarse to resolve the viscous sublayer, then it is assumed that the centroid of the wall-adjacent cell falls within the logarithmic region of the boundary layer, and the law-of-the-wall is employed: u 1 ρuτ y = ln E uτ κ µ

(4.3-17)

where u is the velocity parallel to the wall, uτ is the shear velocity, y is the distance from the wall, κ is the von K´rm´n constant (0.4187), and E = 9.793. a a

4.3.8

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling

In ANSYS FLUENT, turbulent heat transport is modeled using the concept of the Reynolds’ analogy to turbulent momentum transfer. The “modeled” energy equation is as follows: ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρE) + [ui (ρE + p)] = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj c p µt Prt ∂T + ui (τij )eﬀ + Sh ∂xj

k+

(4.3-18)

where k, in this case, is the thermal conductivity, E is the total energy, and (τij )eﬀ is the deviatoric stress tensor, deﬁned as ∂uj ∂ui + ∂xi ∂xj 2 ∂uk − µeﬀ δij 3 ∂xk

(τij )eﬀ = µeﬀ

4.4

**Standard, RNG, and Realizable k- Models
**

This section describes the theory behind the Standard, RNG, and Realizable k- models. Information is presented in the following sections: • Section 4.4.1: Standard k- Model • Section 4.4.2: RNG k- Model • Section 4.4.3: Realizable k- Model • Section 4.4.4: Modeling Turbulent Production in the k- Models • Section 4.4.5: Eﬀects of Buoyancy on Turbulence in the k- Models • Section 4.4.6: Eﬀects of Compressibility on Turbulence in the k- Models • Section 4.4.7: Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling in the k- Models

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

4-11

Turbulence

For details about using the models in ANSYS FLUENT, see Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence and Section 12.6: Setting Up the k- Model in the separate User’s Guide. This section presents the standard, RNG, and realizable k- models. All three models have similar forms, with transport equations for k and . The major diﬀerences in the models are as follows: • the method of calculating turbulent viscosity • the turbulent Prandtl numbers governing the turbulent diﬀusion of k and • the generation and destruction terms in the equation

The transport equations, the methods of calculating turbulent viscosity, and model constants are presented separately for each model. The features that are essentially common to all models follow, including turbulent generation due to shear buoyancy, accounting for the eﬀects of compressibility, and modeling heat and mass transfer.

4.4.1

Standard k- Model

Overview

The simplest “complete models” of turbulence are the two-equation models in which the solution of two separate transport equations allows the turbulent velocity and length scales to be independently determined. The standard k- model in ANSYS FLUENT falls within this class of models and has become the workhorse of practical engineering ﬂow calculations in the time since it was proposed by Launder and Spalding [180]. Robustness, economy, and reasonable accuracy for a wide range of turbulent ﬂows explain its popularity in industrial ﬂow and heat transfer simulations. It is a semi-empirical model, and the derivation of the model equations relies on phenomenological considerations and empiricism. As the strengths and weaknesses of the standard k- model have become known, improvements have been made to the model to improve its performance. Two of these variants are available in ANSYS FLUENT: the RNG k- model [384] and the realizable k- model [313]. The standard k- model [180] is a semi-empirical model based on model transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy (k) and its dissipation rate ( ). The model transport equation for k is derived from the exact equation, while the model transport equation for was obtained using physical reasoning and bears little resemblance to its mathematically exact counterpart. In the derivation of the k- model, the assumption is that the ﬂow is fully turbulent, and the eﬀects of molecular viscosity are negligible. The standard k- model is therefore valid only for fully turbulent ﬂows.

4-12

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

4.4 Standard, RNG, and Realizable k- Models

**Transport Equations for the Standard k- Model
**

The turbulence kinetic energy, k, and its rate of dissipation, , are obtained from the following transport equations: ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρk) + (ρkui ) = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj and µt σk ∂k + G k + G b − ρ − YM + S k ∂xj

µ+

(4.4-1)

∂ ∂ ∂ (ρ ) + (ρ ui ) = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj

µ+

µt σ

2 ∂ + C1 (Gk + C3 Gb ) − C2 ρ + S (4.4-2) ∂xj k k

In these equations, Gk represents the generation of turbulence kinetic energy due to the mean velocity gradients, calculated as described in Section 4.4.4: Modeling Turbulent Production in the k- Models. Gb is the generation of turbulence kinetic energy due to buoyancy, calculated as described in Section 4.4.5: Eﬀects of Buoyancy on Turbulence in the k- Models. YM represents the contribution of the ﬂuctuating dilatation in compressible turbulence to the overall dissipation rate, calculated as described in Section 4.4.6: Eﬀects of Compressibility on Turbulence in the k- Models. C1 , C2 , and C3 are constants. σk and σ are the turbulent Prandtl numbers for k and , respectively. Sk and S are user-deﬁned source terms.

**Modeling the Turbulent Viscosity
**

The turbulent (or eddy) viscosity, µt , is computed by combining k and µt = ρCµ where Cµ is a constant. k2 as follows: (4.4-3)

Model Constants

The model constants C1 , C2 , Cµ , σk , and σ have the following default values [180]: C1 = 1.44, C2 = 1.92, Cµ = 0.09, σk = 1.0, σ = 1.3 These default values have been determined from experiments with air and water for fundamental turbulent shear ﬂows including homogeneous shear ﬂows and decaying isotropic grid turbulence. They have been found to work fairly well for a wide range of wallbounded and free shear ﬂows.

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

4-13

Turbulence

Although the default values of the model constants are the standard ones most widely accepted, you can change them (if needed) in the Viscous Model dialog box.

4.4.2

RNG k- Model

Overview

The RNG k- model was derived using a rigorous statistical technique (called renormalization group theory). It is similar in form to the standard k- model, but includes the following reﬁnements: • The RNG model has an additional term in its equation that signiﬁcantly improves the accuracy for rapidly strained ﬂows. • The eﬀect of swirl on turbulence is included in the RNG model, enhancing accuracy for swirling ﬂows. • The RNG theory provides an analytical formula for turbulent Prandtl numbers, while the standard k- model uses user-speciﬁed, constant values. • While the standard k- model is a high-Reynolds-number model, the RNG theory provides an analytically-derived diﬀerential formula for eﬀective viscosity that accounts for low-Reynolds-number eﬀects. Eﬀective use of this feature does, however, depend on an appropriate treatment of the near-wall region. These features make the RNG k- model more accurate and reliable for a wider class of ﬂows than the standard k- model. The RNG-based k- turbulence model is derived from the instantaneous Navier-Stokes equations, using a mathematical technique called “renormalization group” (RNG) methods. The analytical derivation results in a model with constants diﬀerent from those in the standard k- model, and additional terms and functions in the transport equations for k and . A more comprehensive description of RNG theory and its application to turbulence can be found in [259].

4-14

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

4.4 Standard, RNG, and Realizable k- Models

**Transport Equations for the RNG k- Model
**

The RNG k- model has a similar form to the standard k- model: ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρk) + (ρkui ) = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj and ∂k ∂xj + G k + G b − ρ − YM + S k

αk µeﬀ

(4.4-4)

∂ ∂ ∂ (ρ ) + (ρ ui ) = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj

α µeﬀ

∂ ∂xj

2

+ C1

k

(Gk + C3 Gb ) − C2 ρ

k

− R + S (4.4-5)

In these equations, Gk represents the generation of turbulence kinetic energy due to the mean velocity gradients, calculated as described in Section 4.4.4: Modeling Turbulent Production in the k- Models. Gb is the generation of turbulence kinetic energy due to buoyancy, calculated as described in Section 4.4.5: Eﬀects of Buoyancy on Turbulence in the k- Models. YM represents the contribution of the ﬂuctuating dilatation in compressible turbulence to the overall dissipation rate, calculated as described in Section 4.4.6: Eﬀects of Compressibility on Turbulence in the k- Models. The quantities αk and α are the inverse eﬀective Prandtl numbers for k and , respectively. Sk and S are user-deﬁned source terms.

**Modeling the Effective Viscosity
**

The scale elimination procedure in RNG theory results in a diﬀerential equation for turbulent viscosity: ρ2 k d √ µ where = 1.72 √ ν ˆ dˆ ν − 1 + Cν

ν3 ˆ

(4.4-6)

ν = µeﬀ /µ ˆ Cν ≈ 100 Equation 4.4-6 is integrated to obtain an accurate description of how the eﬀective turbulent transport varies with the eﬀective Reynolds number (or eddy scale), allowing the model to better handle low-Reynolds-number and near-wall ﬂows.

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

4-15

Turbulence

In the high-Reynolds-number limit, Equation 4.4-6 gives µt = ρCµ k2 (4.4-7)

with Cµ = 0.0845, derived using RNG theory. It is interesting to note that this value of Cµ is very close to the empirically-determined value of 0.09 used in the standard kmodel. In ANSYS FLUENT, by default, the eﬀective viscosity is computed using the highReynolds-number form in Equation 4.4-7. However, there is an option available that allows you to use the diﬀerential relation given in Equation 4.4-6 when you need to include low-Reynolds-number eﬀects.

**RNG Swirl Modiﬁcation
**

Turbulence, in general, is aﬀected by rotation or swirl in the mean ﬂow. The RNG model in ANSYS FLUENT provides an option to account for the eﬀects of swirl or rotation by modifying the turbulent viscosity appropriately. The modiﬁcation takes the following functional form: k

µt = µt0 f αs , Ω,

(4.4-8)

where µt0 is the value of turbulent viscosity calculated without the swirl modiﬁcation using either Equation 4.4-6 or Equation 4.4-7. Ω is a characteristic swirl number evaluated within ANSYS FLUENT, and αs is a swirl constant that assumes diﬀerent values depending on whether the ﬂow is swirl-dominated or only mildly swirling. This swirl modiﬁcation always takes eﬀect for axisymmetric, swirling ﬂows and three-dimensional ﬂows when the RNG model is selected. For mildly swirling ﬂows (the default in ANSYS FLUENT), αs is set to 0.07. For strongly swirling ﬂows, however, a higher value of αs can be used.

**Calculating the Inverse Effective Prandtl Numbers
**

The inverse eﬀective Prandtl numbers, αk and α , are computed using the following formula derived analytically by the RNG theory: α − 1.3929 α0 − 1.3929

0.6321

α + 2.3929 α0 + 2.3929

0.3679

=

µmol µeﬀ

(4.4-9)

where α0 = 1.0. In the high-Reynolds-number limit (µmol /µeﬀ

1), αk = α ≈ 1.393.

4-16

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

4.4 Standard, RNG, and Realizable k- Models

**The R Term in the Equation
**

The main diﬀerence between the RNG and standard k- models lies in the additional term in the equation given by R = Cµ ρη 3 (1 − η/η0 ) 2 1 + βη 3 k (4.4-10)

where η ≡ Sk/ , η0 = 4.38, β = 0.012. The eﬀects of this term in the RNG equation can be seen more clearly by rearranging Equation 4.4-5. Using Equation 4.4-10, the third and fourth terms on the right-hand side of Equation 4.4-5 can be merged, and the resulting equation can be rewritten as ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρ ) + (ρ ui ) = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj

∗ where C2 is given by

α µeﬀ

∂ ∂xj

+ C1

k

∗ (Gk + C3 Gb ) − C2 ρ

2

k

(4.4-11)

∗ C2 ≡ C2 +

Cµ η 3 (1 − η/η0 ) 1 + βη 3

(4.4-12)

∗ In regions where η < η0 , the R term makes a positive contribution, and C2 becomes larger than C2 . In the logarithmic layer, for instance, it can be shown that η ≈ 3.0, ∗ giving C2 ≈ 2.0, which is close in magnitude to the value of C2 in the standard kmodel (1.92). As a result, for weakly to moderately strained ﬂows, the RNG model tends to give results largely comparable to the standard k- model.

In regions of large strain rate (η > η0 ), however, the R term makes a negative contribu∗ tion, making the value of C2 less than C2 . In comparison with the standard k- model, the smaller destruction of augments , reducing k and, eventually, the eﬀective viscosity. As a result, in rapidly strained ﬂows, the RNG model yields a lower turbulent viscosity than the standard k- model. Thus, the RNG model is more responsive to the eﬀects of rapid strain and streamline curvature than the standard k- model, which explains the superior performance of the RNG model for certain classes of ﬂows.

Model Constants

The model constants C1 and C2 in Equation 4.4-5 have values derived analytically by the RNG theory. These values, used by default in ANSYS FLUENT, are C1 = 1.42, C2 = 1.68

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

4-17

Turbulence

4.4.3

Realizable k- Model

Overview

The realizable k- model [313] is a relatively recent development and diﬀers from the standard k- model in two important ways: • The realizable k- model contains a new formulation for the turbulent viscosity. • A new transport equation for the dissipation rate, , has been derived from an exact equation for the transport of the mean-square vorticity ﬂuctuation. The term “realizable” means that the model satisﬁes certain mathematical constraints on the Reynolds stresses, consistent with the physics of turbulent ﬂows. Neither the standard k- model nor the RNG k- model is realizable. An immediate beneﬁt of the realizable k- model is that it more accurately predicts the spreading rate of both planar and round jets. It is also likely to provide superior performance for ﬂows involving rotation, boundary layers under strong adverse pressure gradients, separation, and recirculation. To understand the mathematics behind the realizable k- model, consider combining the Boussinesq relationship (Equation 4.2-5) and the eddy viscosity deﬁnition (Equation 4.4-3) to obtain the following expression for the normal Reynolds stress in an incompressible strained mean ﬂow: 2 ∂U u2 = k − 2 νt 3 ∂x (4.4-13)

Using Equation 4.4-3 for νt ≡ µt /ρ, one obtains the result that the normal stress, u2 , which by deﬁnition is a positive quantity, becomes negative, i.e., “non-realizable”, when the strain is large enough to satisfy k ∂U 1 > ≈ 3.7 ∂x 3Cµ (4.4-14)

Similarly, it can also be shown that the Schwarz inequality for shear stresses (uα uβ 2 ≤ u2 u2 ; no summation over α and β) can be violated when the mean strain rate is large. α β The most straightforward way to ensure the realizability (positivity of normal stresses and Schwarz inequality for shear stresses) is to make Cµ variable by sensitizing it to the mean ﬂow (mean deformation) and the turbulence (k, ). The notion of variable Cµ is suggested by many modelers including Reynolds [291], and is well substantiated by experimental evidence. For example, Cµ is found to be around 0.09 in the inertial sublayer of equilibrium boundary layers, and 0.05 in a strong homogeneous shear ﬂow.

4-18

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

4.4 Standard, RNG, and Realizable k- Models

Both the realizable and RNG k- models have shown substantial improvements over the standard k- model where the ﬂow features include strong streamline curvature, vortices, and rotation. Since the model is still relatively new, it is not clear in exactly which instances the realizable k- model consistently outperforms the RNG model. However, initial studies have shown that the realizable model provides the best performance of all the k- model versions for several validations of separated ﬂows and ﬂows with complex secondary ﬂow features. One of the weaknesses of the standard k- model or other traditional k- models lies with the modeled equation for the dissipation rate ( ). The well-known round-jet anomaly (named based on the ﬁnding that the spreading rate in planar jets is predicted reasonably well, but prediction of the spreading rate for axisymmetric jets is unexpectedly poor) is considered to be mainly due to the modeled dissipation equation. The realizable k- model proposed by Shih et al. [313] was intended to address these deﬁciencies of traditional k- models by adopting the following: • A new eddy-viscosity formula involving a variable Cµ originally proposed by Reynolds [291]. • A new model equation for dissipation ( ) based on the dynamic equation of the mean-square vorticity ﬂuctuation. One limitation of the realizable k- model is that it produces non-physical turbulent viscosities in situations when the computational domain contains both rotating and stationary ﬂuid zones (e.g., multiple reference frames, rotating sliding meshes). This is due to the fact that the realizable k- model includes the eﬀects of mean rotation in the deﬁnition of the turbulent viscosity (see Equations 4.4-17–4.4-19). This extra rotation eﬀect has been tested on single rotating reference frame systems and showed superior behavior over the standard k- model. However, due to the nature of this modiﬁcation, its application to multiple reference frame systems should be taken with some caution. See Section 4.4.3: Modeling the Turbulent Viscosity for information about how to include or exclude this term from the model.

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

4-19

Turbulence

**Transport Equations for the Realizable k- Model
**

The modeled transport equations for k and in the realizable k- model are

∂ ∂ ∂ (ρk) + (ρkuj ) = ∂t ∂xj ∂xj and

µ+

µt σk

∂k + G k + G b − ρ − YM + S k ∂xj

(4.4-15)

∂ ∂ ∂ (ρ ) + (ρ uj ) = ∂t ∂xj ∂xj where

µ+

µt σ

2 ∂ √ + C1 C3 Gb + S + ρ C1 S − ρ C2 ∂xj k+ ν k (4.4-16)

C1 = max 0.43,

η , η+5

k η=S ,

S=

2Sij Sij

In these equations, Gk represents the generation of turbulence kinetic energy due to the mean velocity gradients, calculated as described in Section 4.4.4: Modeling Turbulent Production in the k- Models. Gb is the generation of turbulence kinetic energy due to buoyancy, calculated as described in Section 4.4.5: Eﬀects of Buoyancy on Turbulence in the k- Models. YM represents the contribution of the ﬂuctuating dilatation in compressible turbulence to the overall dissipation rate, calculated as described in Section 4.4.6: Eﬀects of Compressibility on Turbulence in the k- Models. C2 and C1 are constants. σk and σ are the turbulent Prandtl numbers for k and , respectively. Sk and S are user-deﬁned source terms. Note that the k equation (Equation 4.4-15) is the same as that in the standard kmodel (Equation 4.4-1) and the RNG k- model (Equation 4.4-4), except for the model constants. However, the form of the equation is quite diﬀerent from those in the standard and RNG-based k- models (Equations 4.4-2 and 4.4-5). One of the noteworthy features is that the production term in the equation (the second term on the right-hand side of Equation 4.4-16) does not involve the production of k; i.e., it does not contain the same Gk term as the other k- models. It is believed that the present form better represents the spectral energy transfer. Another desirable feature is that the destruction term (the next to last term on the right-hand side of Equation 4.4-16) does not have any singularity; i.e., its denominator never vanishes, even if k vanishes or becomes smaller than zero. This feature is contrasted with traditional k- models, which have a singularity due to k in the denominator.

4-20

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

4.4 Standard, RNG, and Realizable k- Models

This model has been extensively validated for a wide range of ﬂows [167, 313], including rotating homogeneous shear ﬂows, free ﬂows including jets and mixing layers, channel and boundary layer ﬂows, and separated ﬂows. For all these cases, the performance of the model has been found to be substantially better than that of the standard k- model. Especially noteworthy is the fact that the realizable k- model resolves the round-jet anomaly; i.e., it predicts the spreading rate for axisymmetric jets as well as that for planar jets.

**Modeling the Turbulent Viscosity
**

As in other k- models, the eddy viscosity is computed from µt = ρCµ k2 (4.4-17)

The diﬀerence between the realizable k- model and the standard and RNG k- models is that Cµ is no longer constant. It is computed from Cµ = where U∗ ≡ and Sij Sij + Ωij Ωij (4.4-19) 1 ∗ A0 + As kU (4.4-18)

Ωij = Ωij − 2 ijk ωk Ωij = Ωij − ijk ωk where Ωij is the mean rate-of-rotation tensor viewed in a rotating reference frame with the angular velocity ωk . The model constants A0 and As are given by A0 = 4.04, As = where √ 1 Sij Sjk Ski cos−1 ( 6W ), W = , S= 3 S3 1 2 ∂uj ∂ui + ∂xi ∂xj √ 6 cos φ

φ=

Sij Sij , Sij =

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

4-21

Turbulence

It can be seen that Cµ is a function of the mean strain and rotation rates, the angular velocity of the system rotation, and the turbulence ﬁelds (k and ). Cµ in Equation 4.4-17 can be shown to recover the standard value of 0.09 for an inertial sublayer in an equilibrium boundary layer.

i

In ANSYS FLUENT, the term −2 ijk ωk is, by default, not included in the calculation of Ωij . This is an extra rotation term that is not compatible with cases involving sliding meshes or multiple reference frames. If you want to include this term in the model, you can enable it by using the define/models/viscous/turbulence-expert/rke-cmu-rotation-term? text command and entering yes at the prompt.

Model Constants

The model constants C2 , σk , and σ have been established to ensure that the model performs well for certain canonical ﬂows. The model constants are C1 = 1.44, C2 = 1.9, σk = 1.0, σ = 1.2

4.4.4

Modeling Turbulent Production in the k- Models

The term Gk , representing the production of turbulence kinetic energy, is modeled identically for the standard, RNG, and realizable k- models. From the exact equation for the transport of k, this term may be deﬁned as Gk = −ρui uj ∂uj ∂xi (4.4-20)

To evaluate Gk in a manner consistent with the Boussinesq hypothesis, G k = µt S 2 where S is the modulus of the mean rate-of-strain tensor, deﬁned as S≡ 2Sij Sij (4.4-22) (4.4-21)

i

When using the high-Reynolds number k- versions, µeﬀ is used in lieu of µt in Equation 4.4-21.

4-22

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

4.4 Standard, RNG, and Realizable k- Models

4.4.5

Effects of Buoyancy on Turbulence in the k- Models

When a non-zero gravity ﬁeld and temperature gradient are present simultaneously, the k- models in ANSYS FLUENT account for the generation of k due to buoyancy (Gb in Equations 4.4-1, 4.4-4, and 4.4-15), and the corresponding contribution to the production of in Equations 4.4-2, 4.4-5, and 4.4-16. The generation of turbulence due to buoyancy is given by Gb = βgi µt ∂T Prt ∂xi (4.4-23)

where Prt is the turbulent Prandtl number for energy and gi is the component of the gravitational vector in the ith direction. For the standard and realizable k- models, the default value of Prt is 0.85. In the case of the RNG k- model, Prt = 1/α, where α is given by Equation 4.4-9, but with α0 = 1/Pr = k/µcp . The coeﬃcient of thermal expansion, β, is deﬁned as β=− 1 ρ ∂ρ ∂T

(4.4-24)

p

For ideal gases, Equation 4.4-23 reduces to Gb = −gi µt ∂ρ ρPrt ∂xi (4.4-25)

It can be seen from the transport equations for k (Equations 4.4-1, 4.4-4, and 4.4-15) that turbulence kinetic energy tends to be augmented (Gb > 0) in unstable stratiﬁcation. For stable stratiﬁcation, buoyancy tends to suppress the turbulence (Gb < 0). In ANSYS FLUENT, the eﬀects of buoyancy on the generation of k are always included when you have both a non-zero gravity ﬁeld and a non-zero temperature (or density) gradient. While the buoyancy eﬀects on the generation of k are relatively well understood, the eﬀect on is less clear. In ANSYS FLUENT, by default, the buoyancy eﬀects on are neglected simply by setting Gb to zero in the transport equation for (Equation 4.4-2, 4.4-5, or 4.4-16). However, you can include the buoyancy eﬀects on in the Viscous Model dialog box. In this case, the value of Gb given by Equation 4.4-25 is used in the transport equation for (Equation 4.4-2, 4.4-5, or 4.4-16). The degree to which is aﬀected by the buoyancy is determined by the constant C3 . In ANSYS FLUENT, C3 is not speciﬁed, but is instead calculated according to the following relation [127]:

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

4-23

6 Effects of Compressibility on Turbulence in the k.4. deﬁned as k a2 (4.4-28) This compressibility modiﬁcation always takes eﬀect when the compressible form of the ideal gas law is used.Models In ANSYS FLUENT.models in ANSYS FLUENT. Neglecting the dilatation dissipation fails to predict the observed decrease in spreading rate with increasing Mach number for compressible mixing and other free shear layers.4-29) where E is the total energy. This term is modeled according to a proposal by Sarkar [300]: YM = 2ρ M2 t where Mt is the turbulent Mach number. C3 will become 1 for buoyant shear layers for which the main ﬂow direction is aligned with the direction of gravity. Inc. which is normally neglected in the modeling of incompressible ﬂows [379]. deﬁned as 4-24 Release 12. 4.7 Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling in the k. keﬀ is the eﬀective thermal conductivity. the dilatation dissipation term.4.Turbulence C3 = tanh v u (4. 4. To account for these eﬀects in the k.0 c ANSYS. C3 will become zero. YM . turbulent heat transport is modeled using the concept of Reynolds’ analogy to turbulent momentum transfer. For buoyant shear layers that are perpendicular to the gravitational vector. January 29.4-26) where v is the component of the ﬂow velocity parallel to the gravitational vector and u is the component of the ﬂow velocity perpendicular to the gravitational vector. The “modeled” energy equation is thus given by the following: ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρE) + [ui (ρE + p)] = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj ∂T + ui (τij )eﬀ + Sh ∂xj keﬀ (4. (4. In this way. 2009 .4-27) Mt = where a (≡ √ γRT ) is the speed of sound. is included in the k equation.Models For high-Mach-number ﬂows. compressibility aﬀects turbulence through so-called “dilatation dissipation”. and (τij )eﬀ is the deviatoric stress tensor.

4-9 works well across a very broad range of molecular Prandtl numbers. See Section 5. the eﬀective thermal conductivity is given by keﬀ = k + c p µt Prt where k. the eﬀective thermal conductivity is keﬀ = αcp µeﬀ where α is calculated from Equation 4.4-9 is α0 = 1/Sc. where Sc is the molecular Schmidt number. and Realizable k.7. in this case.models.models. depending on the physical models you are using. the eﬀective turbulent diﬀusivity for mass transfer is calculated in a manner that is analogous to the method used for the heat transport. Turbulent mass transfer is treated similarly. 2009 4-25 . but with α0 = 1/Pr = k/µcp . as in Equation 4.4-9. the default turbulent Schmidt number is 0. and is always computed in the density-based solvers. which allows heat transfer to be calculated in low-Reynolds-number regions. It is consistent with experimental evidence indicating that the turbulent Prandtl number varies with the molecular Prandtl number and turbulence [159]. For the RNG k. The fact that α varies with µmol /µeﬀ . from liquid metals (Pr ≈ 10−2 ) to paraﬃn oils (Pr ≈ 103 ). Equation 4.model. January 29. You can change the value of the turbulent Prandtl number in the Viscous Model dialog box. The default value of the turbulent Prandtl number is 0. The value of α0 in Equation 4.2.85. is the thermal conductivity. but it can be enabled in the Viscous Model dialog box.4.1: Heat Transfer Theory for more details.4-9 smoothly predicts the variation of eﬀective Prandtl number from the molecular value (α = 1/Pr) in the viscosity-dominated region to the fully turbulent value (α = 1. For the standard and realizable k. Release 12.4-9.0 c ANSYS. For the RNG model. Equation 4. is an advantage of the RNG kmodel.4 Standard.393) in the fully turbulent regions of the ﬂow.Models (τij )eﬀ = µeﬀ ∂uj ∂ui + ∂xi ∂xj ∂uk 2 − µeﬀ δij 3 ∂xk The term involving (τij )eﬀ represents the viscous heating. For the standard and realizable k. RNG. Inc. It is not computed by default in the pressure-based solver. Additional terms may appear in the energy equation. This default value can be changed in the Viscous Model dialog box.

which incorporates modiﬁcations for low-Reynolds-number eﬀects. Both models have similar forms. production terms have been added to both the k and ω equations.5.Turbulence 4. Inc.5 Standard and SST k-ω Models This section describes the theory behind the Standard and SST k-ω model.0 c ANSYS. and is described in Section 4. see Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence and Section 12. mixing layers. with transport equations for k and ω. This section presents the standard [379] and shear-stress transport (SST) [224] k-ω models. and is thus applicable to wall-bounded ﬂows and free shear ﬂows. and plane. Information is presented in the following sections: • Section 4.1: Standard k-ω Model • Section 4.5.5. round.7: Setting Up the k-ω Model in the separate User’s Guide. 4-26 Release 12. compressibility.2: Shear-Stress Transport (SST) k-ω Model. and radial jets.3: Wall Boundary Conditions For details about using the models in ANSYS FLUENT. The Wilcox model predicts free shear ﬂow spreading rates that are in close agreement with measurements for far wakes. 4. The major ways in which the SST model [225] diﬀers from the standard model are as follows: • gradual change from the standard k-ω model in the inner region of the boundary layer to a high-Reynolds-number version of the k. which can also be thought of as the ratio of to k [379]. and methods of calculating model constants and other terms are presented separately for each model.5. The standard k-ω model is an empirical model based on model transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy (k) and the speciﬁc dissipation rate (ω). 2009 . As the k-ω model has been modiﬁed over the years. methods of calculating turbulent viscosity. which have improved the accuracy of the model for predicting free shear ﬂows.5.2: Shear-Stress Transport (SST) k-ω Model • Section 4. and shear ﬂow spreading.1 Standard k-ω Model Overview The standard k-ω model in ANSYS FLUENT is based on the Wilcox k-ω model [379]. A variation of the standard k-ω model called the SST k-ω model is also available in ANSYS FLUENT. January 29.model in the outer part of the boundary layer • modiﬁed turbulent viscosity formulation to account for the transport eﬀects of the principal turbulent shear stress The transport equations.

2009 4-27 .5 Standard and SST k-ω Models Transport Equations for the Standard k-ω Model The turbulence kinetic energy. Gk represents the generation of turbulence kinetic energy due to mean velocity gradients. Inc. µt . k. is computed by combining k and ω as follows: µt = α ∗ ρk ω (4. Yk and Yω represent the dissipation of k and ω due to turbulence. The turbulent viscosity. are obtained from the following transport equations: ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρk) + (ρkui ) = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj and ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρω) + (ρωui ) = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj ∂ω ∂xj + G ω − Yω + S ω ∂k ∂xj + G k − Yk + S k Γk (4.5-2) In these equations. respectively.5-3) (4. respectively. and the speciﬁc dissipation rate.5-4) where σk and σω are the turbulent Prandtl numbers for k and ω.5-1) Γω (4. Sk and Sω are user-deﬁned source terms. Modeling the Effective Diffusivity The eﬀective diﬀusivities for the k-ω model are given by µt σk µt = µ+ σω Γk = µ + Γω (4. All of the above terms are calculated as described below.0 c ANSYS. Γk and Γω represent the eﬀective diﬀusivity of k and ω. Gω represents the generation of ω.4. January 29.5-5) Release 12. ω.

5-6) where Ret = Rk ∗ α0 βi ρk µω = 6 βi = 3 = 0. It is given by ∗ α∗ = α∞ ∗ α0 + Ret /Rk 1 + Ret /Rk (4.5-9) (4.Turbulence Low-Reynolds-Number Correction The coeﬃcient α∗ damps the turbulent viscosity causing a low-Reynolds-number correction. in the high-Reynolds-number form of the k-ω model. Inc.0 c ANSYS.5-11) To evaluate Gk in a manner consistent with the Boussinesq hypothesis. 4-28 Release 12. this term may be deﬁned as Gk = −ρui uj ∂uj ∂xi (4.model (see Equation 4.4-22).5-10) ∗ Note that.5-12) where S is the modulus of the mean rate-of-strain tensor.072 (4. January 29. deﬁned in the same way as for the k. G k = µt S 2 (4.5-7) (4.5-8) (4. From the exact equation for the transport of k. 2009 . α∗ = α∞ = 1. Modeling the Turbulence Production Production of k The term Gk represents the production of turbulence kinetic energy.

5-19) (4. Inc.5-15) fβ ∗ = where 1+680χ2 k 1+400χ2 k χk ≤ 0 χk > 0 (4.0 c ANSYS.5-6 and 4.5-18) (4. 2009 4-29 .4. Modeling the Turbulence Dissipation Dissipation of k The dissipation of k is given by Yk = ρ β ∗ fβ ∗ k ω where 1 (4.5 (4.5-11.5-17) β ∗ = βi∗ [1 + ζ ∗ F (Mt )] 4/15 + (Ret /Rβ )4 ∗ ∗ βi = β∞ 1 + (Ret /Rβ )4 ζ ∗ = 1. January 29. in the high-Reynolds-number form of the k-ω model.5-14) where Rω = 2. α∗ and Ret are given by Equations 4. The coeﬃcient α is given by α∞ α∗ α0 + Ret /Rω 1 + Ret /Rω (4.5-20) Release 12. respectively.95.5-16) χk ≡ and 1 ∂k ∂ω ω 3 ∂xj ∂xj (4. Note that. α = α∞ = 1.5-7.5 Standard and SST k-ω Models Production of ω The production of ω is given by ω Gω = α Gk k where Gk is given by Equation 4.5-13) α= (4.

5-30) (4.5-23) fβ = χω Ωij 1 + 70χω 1 + 80χω Ωij Ωjk Ski = ∗ (β∞ ω)3 1 ∂ui ∂uj = − 2 ∂xj ∂xi (4.5-27) βi∗ and F (Mt ) are deﬁned by Equations 4.3-11.09 where Ret is given by Equation 4. January 29. Also. 2009 .Turbulence Rβ = 8 ∗ β∞ = 0.5-31) 4-30 Release 12. is given by F (Mt ) = where 0 Mt ≤ Mt0 M2 − M2 Mt > Mt0 t t0 (4.5-28. β = βi 1 − βi∗ ∗ ζ F (Mt ) βi (4.5-7. respectively.5-22) (4. F (Mt ).5-24) (4. Sij is deﬁned in Equation 4.5-21) (4. Inc. Compressibility Correction The compressibility function.0 c ANSYS.5-28) M2 ≡ t Mt0 a = 2k a2 = 0.5-25) (4.5-29) (4.5-19 and 4. Dissipation of ω The dissipation of ω is given by Yω = ρ β fβ ω 2 where (4.5-26) The strain rate tensor.25 γRT (4.

Inc. but includes the following reﬁnements: • The standard k-ω model and the transformed k.0 c ANSYS.09. Rω = 2. These features make the SST k-ω model more accurate and reliable for a wider class of ﬂows (e.072. Mt0 = 0.95.model. Release 12.0 4. which activates the standard k-ω model. The blending function is designed to be one in the near-wall region. in the high-Reynolds-number form of the k-ω model. • The SST model incorporates a damped cross-diﬀusion derivative term in the ω equation. and zero away from the surface. σω = 2. January 29.. Rβ = 8 9 Rk = 6. α∞ = 0.4. • The deﬁnition of the turbulent viscosity is modiﬁed to account for the transport of the turbulent shear stress.2 Shear-Stress Transport (SST) k-ω Model Overview The shear-stress transport (SST) k-ω model was developed by Menter [224] to eﬀectively blend the robust and accurate formulation of the k-ω model in the near-wall region with the free-stream independence of the k. Model Constants 1 ∗ ∗ α∞ = 1. σk = 2. transonic shock waves) than the standard k-ω model.0. β∞ = 0.5. • The modeling constants are diﬀerent.model are both multiplied by a blending function and both models are added together.model in the far ﬁeld. Other modiﬁcations include the addition of a cross-diﬀusion term in the ω equation and a blending function to ensure that the model equations behave appropriately in both the near-wall and far-ﬁeld zones. To achieve this. 2009 4-31 . In the incompressible form. The SST k-ω model is similar to the standard k-ω model.52. βi = 0.g. βi∗ = β∞ . ζ ∗ = 1. α0 = .25. which activates the transformed k. airfoils.5 Standard and SST k-ω Models ∗ Note that. adverse pressure gradient ﬂows.5. β ∗ = βi∗ . the kmodel is converted into a k-ω formulation.

µt . respectively.2 1 = F1 /σω.5-34) (4. respectively.5-37) (4.5. Γk and Γω represent the eﬀective diffusivity of k and ω.1: Modeling the Turbulence Production. Gω represents the generation of ω.5-36) where S is the strain rate magnitude and 1 F1 /σk.5-35) where σk and σω are the turbulent Prandtl numbers for k and ω. Yk and Yω represent the dissipation of k and ω due to turbulence. SF2 α a1 ω (4. Inc. Gk represents the generation of turbulence kinetic energy due to mean velocity gradients.1 + (1 − F1 )/σω. Sk and Sω are user-deﬁned source terms.5. January 29.5.1 + (1 − F1 )/σk.Turbulence Transport Equations for the SST k-ω Model The SST k-ω model has a similar form to the standard k-ω model: ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρk) + (ρkui ) = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj and ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρω) + (ρωui ) = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj ∂ω ∂xj + G ω − Y ω + Dω + S ω ∂k ∂xj + G k − Yk + S k Γk (4. 2009 . calculated as described in Section 4.0 c ANSYS. Modeling the Effective Diffusivity The eﬀective diﬀusivities for the SST k-ω model are given by µt σk µt = µ+ σω Γk = µ + Γω (4. is computed as follows: µt = ρk 1 ω max 1∗ .1: Modeling the Turbulence Dissipation. which are calculated as described below.2 σk = σω (4.5-32) Γω (4. The turbulent viscosity. calculated as described in Section 4.5-38) 4-32 Release 12. calculated as described in Section 4. calculated as described below.1: Modeling the Turbulence Production. Dω represents the cross-diﬀusion term.5-33) In these equations.

5-6. 2009 4-33 . January 29.4.5-39) (4.5-42) (4.5-41) F2 = tanh Φ2 2 Φ2 = max 2 k 500µ .5-46) Release 12.2 Dω y 2 1 1 ∂k ∂ω = max 2ρ . 2 . The blending functions.5 Standard and SST k-ω Models α∗ is deﬁned in Equation 4.0 c ANSYS.2 ω ∂xj ∂xj √ (4. In the standard k-ω model.1 + (1 − F1 )α∞.5-44) See Sec- Note that this formulation diﬀers from the standard k-ω model. tion 4. 0. and is deﬁned as: Gk = min(Gk .5-52). α∞ is deﬁned as a constant (0. Inc. + 0.09ωy ρy ω σω. Production of ω The term Gω represents the production of ω and is given by Gω = α Gk νt (4. α∞ is given by α∞ = F1 α∞.52). 10−10 σω. The diﬀerence between the two models also exists in the way the term α∞ is evaluated. 10ρβ ∗ kω) where Gk is deﬁned in the same manner as in the standard k-ω model. are given by F1 = tanh Φ4 1 Φ1 = min max + Dω k 500µ 4ρk .5-43) + where y is the distance to the next surface and Dω is the positive portion of the crossdiﬀusion term (see Equation 4. F1 and F2 .1: Modeling the Turbulence Production for details. For the SST k-ω model.2 (4. Modeling the Turbulence Production Production of k The term Gk represents the production of turbulence kinetic energy.5-40) (4.5-45) (4.5.09ωy ρy 2 ω √ (4.

Inc. Modeling the Turbulence Dissipation Dissipation of k The term Yk represents the dissipation of turbulence kinetic energy. January 29.5-49) 4-34 Release 12. The diﬀerence is in the way the term fβ ∗ is evaluated.5-47) (4. For the SST k-ω model. βi is deﬁned as a constant (0.2 = βi. In the standard k-ω model. and is deﬁned in a similar manner as in the standard k-ω model (see Section 4.2 and F1 is obtained from Equation 4.2 β∞ (4.1: Modeling the Turbulence Dissipation). Thus.5-51) (4.5-24. (4. Yk = ρβω 2 Instead of having a constant value. fβ ∗ is a constant equal to 1. In the standard k-ω model.5-50) (4.41.1 κ2 − ∗ ∗ β∞ σw. For the SST k-ω model. βi is given by βi = F1 βi.1 β∞ βi. The diﬀerence is in the way the terms βi and fβ are evaluated.072) and fβ is deﬁned in Equation 4. and is deﬁned in a similar manner as in the standard k-ω model (see Section 4. fβ is a constant equal to 1. 2009 . Thus.1 + (1 − F1 )βi. Yk = ρβ ∗ kω Dissipation of ω The term Yω represents the dissipation of ω.0 c ANSYS.Turbulence where α∞.5.1 = α∞.5-48) where κ is 0.5.2 κ2 − ∗ ∗ β∞ σw.5-39.1: Modeling the Turbulence Dissipation). fβ ∗ is deﬁned as a piecewise function.

model has been transformed into equations based on k and ω. ζ ∗ .model. β∞ .5.31.0828 ∗ ∗ All additional model constants (α∞ .0 c ANSYS.5 Standard and SST k-ω Models Cross-Diffusion Modiﬁcation The SST k-ω model is based on both the standard k-ω model and the standard k. see Section 4.2 = 1. σω. while for the ﬁne meshes. Rβ . 2009 4-35 . 4. RNG. Inc.2 1 ∂k ∂ω ω ∂xj ∂xj (4. and Realizable k. σω. To blend these two models together. the standard k.0.models. Rω .075 βi.176.1 = 1.models.5-53) Release 12. which leads to the introduction of a cross-diﬀusion term (Dω in Equation 4. βi.0. January 29. Model Constants σk.4: Standard.5-52) For details about the various k. Dω is deﬁned as Dω = 2 (1 − F1 ) ρσω. This means that all boundary conditions for wall-function meshes will correspond to the wall function approach. the appropriate low-Reynolds-number boundary conditions will be applied.1 = 2. σk.4. and Mt0 ) have the same values as for the standard k-ω model (see Section 4.3 Wall Boundary Conditions The wall boundary conditions for the k equation in the k-ω models are treated in the same way as the k equation is treated when enhanced wall treatments are used with the k.2 = 0. α0 .1: Model Constants).5-33). In ANSYS FLUENT the value of ω at the wall is speciﬁed as ωw = ρ (u∗ )2 + ω µ (4. α∞ .1 = 0.2 = 1.5.168 a1 = 0. Rk .Models.

Turbulence The asymptotic value of ω + in the laminar sublayer is given by + ω + = min ωw . 2009 . 4-36 Release 12.5-54) where 50 + ks 100 + ks 2 + ks < 25 + ωw = (4. ρks u∗ µ (4.0 c ANSYS.5-56) and ks is the roughness height. 6 βi (y + )2 (4. the value of ω + is ω+ = 1 du+ turb ∗ dy + β∞ (4. ANSYS FLUENT will blend ω + between the logarithmic and laminar sublayer values. Inc. January 29.5-55) + ks ≥ 25 where + ks = max 1.5-58) Note that in the case of a wall cell being placed in the buﬀer region. In the logarithmic (or turbulent) region.5-57) which leads to the value of ω in the wall cell as ω= u∗ ∗ β∞ κy (4.0.

2009 4-37 .8: Setting Up the Transition k-kl-ω Model in the separate User’s Guide.6-4) −ui θ = αθ. January 29.1 Overview The k-kl-ω transition model [364] is used to predict boundary layer development and calculate transition onset. see Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence and Section 12.6-6) Release 12. λT ) where λT is the turbulent length scale and is deﬁned by (4. 4.6.0 c ANSYS.6-2) ν+ αT ∂ω αω ∂xj (4.2 Transport Equations for the k-kl-ω Model The k-kl-ω model is considered to be a three-equation eddy-viscosity type. This model can be used to eﬀectively address the transition of the boundary layer from a laminar to a turbulent regime. and the inverse turbulent time scale (ω) DkT ∂ = PKT + R + RN AT − ωkT − DT + Dt ∂xj αT αk ∂kT ∂xj ν+ (4. which includes transport equations for turbulent kinetic energy (kT ).4.6-5) λef f = M IN (Cλ d.6.6-1) DkL ∂ ∂kL = PKL − R − RN AT − DL + ν Dt ∂xj ∂xj √ Dω ω CωR ω kT ∂ 2 2 = Cω1 PkT + −1 (R+RN AT )−Cω2 ω +Cω3 fω αT fW 3 + Dt kT fW kT d ∂xj (4. For details about using the model in ANSYS FLUENT.T OT The eﬀective length is deﬁned as (4.6 k-kl-ω Transition Model 4. laminar kinetic energy (kL ).6-3) The inclusion of the turbulent and laminar ﬂuctuations on the mean ﬂow and energy equations via the eddy viscosity and total thermal diﬀusivity is as follows: −ui uj = νT OT ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi ∂θ ∂xi 2 − kT OT δij 3 (4.6 k-kl-ω Transition Model This section describes the theory behind the k-kl-ω Transition model. 4. Inc.

6-10) (4.s S 2 where the small-scale turbulent viscosity is νT.s λef f and Cµ = 1 A0 + As (S/ω) (4.6-12) (4.s = fν fIN T Cµ kT. Inc.s = fss fW kT (4.s Aν (4.6-15) A damping function deﬁning the turbulent production due to intermittency is given by fIN T = M IN kL .6-11) Note that the sum of Equations 4.s νT.6-9) Css νΩ fss = exp − kT The large scale energy is given by kT.s (4.6-8 and 4.Turbulence √ λT = and the small scale energy is deﬁned by k ω (4.1 CIN T kT OT (4.6-8) fW = λef f λT 2 (4.6-7) kT.0 c ANSYS. The turbulence production term generated by turbulent ﬂuctuations is given by PkT = νT.6-14) fν = 1 − exp − ReT.6-13) (4.6-11 yields the turbulent kinetic energy kT . 2009 . January 29.l = kT − kT.6-16) 4-38 Release 12.

1 where βT S from Equation 4.6-19 binds the realizability such that it is not violated in the two-dimensional developing boundary layer.6-20) The limit in Equation 4. 2009 4-39 .0 c ANSYS. The time-scale-based damping function fτ. Inc.6-21) φN AT = Near-wall dissipation is given by (4.s = 2 fW kT νω (4.6-22) kT.l S 2 The large-scale turbulent viscosity νT.6-24) (4.6-23) √ √ ∂ k T ∂ kT DT = 2ν ∂xj ∂xj √ √ ∂ kL ∂ kL DL = 2ν ∂xj ∂xj (4.1 ) S (4.1 .6-2.6 k-kl-ω Transition Model ReT.1 is modeled as ∗ νT.6-18) 0.1 = M IN νT.1 λef f + βT S C12 φN AT d2 Ω (4.6-19) where ∗ νT. PkL is the production of laminar kinetic energy by large scale turbulent ﬂuctuations. (4.4. January 29.crit .6-17) In Equation 4.1 2 λef f Ω2 (4.5(kL + kT.1 is fτ.1 = fτ. 0)2 AT S d2 Ω ν (4.6-25) Release 12. such that PkL = νT.1 C11 Ωλ2 f ef ν kT.6-20 is βT S = 1 − exp − M AX(φN AT − CT S.1 = 1 − exp −Cτ.

which is the threshold function controls the bypass transition process: βBP = 1 − exp − φBP ABP (4.6-26) φBP = M AX kT − CBP.6-1 – 4.6-4 and 4.crit .6-30) (4.6-28) The breakdown to turbulence due to instabilities is considered to be a natural transition production term.6-32) The total eddy viscosity and eddy diﬀusivity included in Equations 4.Turbulence In Equation 4. From Equation 4. R represents the averaged eﬀect of the breakdown of streamwise ﬂuctuations into turbulence during bypass transition: R = CR βBP kL ω/fW βBP .0 c ANSYS. 2009 .θ kT λef f P rθ (4.6-31) The use of ω as the scale-determining variable can lead to a reduced intermittency eﬀect in the outer region of a turbulent boundary layer.6-5 are given by νT OT = νT.crit = 1 − exp CN C kL d ν βN AT = 1 − exp − (4. Inc.6-3 is deﬁned as 4-40 Release 12. 0) AN AT √ fN AT. the following damping is deﬁned as λef f fω = 1 − exp −0.41 λT 4 (4.N AT βN AT kL Ω (4.6-34) The turbulent scalar diﬀusivity in Equations 4.6-29) M AX(φN AT − CN AT.6-27) (4.crit /fN AT.s + (1 − fW )Cα.T OT = fW (4.crit .6-3.s + νT. 0 νΩ (4. and consequently an elimination of the wake region in the velocity proﬁle. given by RN AT = CR.6-33) αθ. January 29.6-3.l kT kT OT νT.6-1 – 4.

Cα.3: Specifying Inlet Turbulence Levels For details about using the model in ANSYS FLUENT.17 4. CR = 0.0 × 10−10 .std kT.495.09 P rθ = 0. ABP = 0.θ = 0.44.7 Transition SST Model αT = fν Cµ. Cω2 = 0.std = 0.02 C11 = 3.crit = 1.s λef f (4.crit = 1250. Cµ.75. Cω1 = 0. σk = 1. As = 2. C12 = 1.12.7.1 = 4360.6-35) kT OT = kT + kL (4.5.5. CIN T = 0.1: Overview • Section 4. CR. 2009 4-41 . CN C = 0. Release 12.7.035 CSS = 1.9: Setting Up the Transition SST Model in the separate User’s Guide.12.75.6-36) Model Constants The model constants for the k-kl-ω transition model are listed below [364] A0 = 4.85.crit = 1000.4. Aν = 6. Inc.7 Transition SST Model This section describes the theory behind the Transition SST model. Information is presented in the following sections: • Section 4.3.92 Cω3 = 0.6 AN AT = 200.1 CN AT.7.0 c ANSYS.N AT = 0. January 29. AT S = 200.4 × 10−6 . Cτ. CBP. see Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence and Section 12. CωR = 1. σω = 1.04.2.2: Transport Equations for the Transition SST Model • Section 4. CT S. Cλ = 2.

one for the intermittency and one for the transition onset criteria. The destruction/relaminarization sources are deﬁned as follows: Pγ2 = (2cγ1 )ρΩγFturb Eγ2 = cγ2 Pγ2 γ (4.2 Transport Equations for the Transition SST Model The transport equation for the intermittency γ is deﬁned as: ∂(ργ) ∂(ρUj γ) ∂ + = Pγ1 − Eγ1 + Pγ2 − Eγ2 + ∂t ∂xj ∂xj The transition sources are deﬁned as follows: µt σγ ∂γ ∂xj µ+ (4. 4.7-1) Pγ1 = 2Flength ρS[γFonset ]cγ3 Eγ1 = Pγ1 γ (4.7. Inc. Flength is an empirical correlation that controls the length of the transition region. To learn how to set up the transition SST model. In addition. An ANSYS proprietary empirical correlation (Langtry and Menter) has been developed to cover standard bypass transition as well as ﬂows in low free-stream turbulence environments.9: Setting Up the Transition SST Model (in the separate User’s Guide). which can then be used to control the transition onset momentum thickness Reynolds number equation. a very powerful option has been included to allow you to enter your own user-deﬁned empirical correlation. 2009 .Turbulence 4.1 Overview The transition SST model is based on the coupling of the SST k − ω transport equations with two other transport equations.7-4) 4-42 Release 12.7-3) where Ω is the vorticity magnitude. in terms of momentum-thickness Reynolds number.0 c ANSYS.7. January 29.7-2) where S is the strain rate magnitude. see Section 12. The transition onset is controlled by the following functions: ReV RT = ρy 2 S µ ρk = µω (4.

4.193. January 29.5. 0) − RT 4 Fturb = e (4. cγ3 = 0. Both the Flength and Reθc correlations are functions of Reθt . The main diﬀerence is that the constant that controls the relation between Rev and Reθc was changed from 2. 0 Freattch . 2009 4-43 . 2. Fonset1 ).235Reθc γsep = min 2max Freattch = e γef f = max(γ. σγ = 1. γsep ) − RT 20 4 (4. while for an inlet. to 3.0.0) (4.5 = max(Fonset2 − Fonset3 . cγ2 = 50.7-7) The model constants in Equation 4.03. The constants for the intermittency equation are: cγ1 = 0.0 Separation Induced Transition Correction The modiﬁcation for separation-induced transition is: Rev − 1. its value for a Blasius boundary layer. [226] in order to improve the predictions of separated ﬂow transition.235. This occurs upstream of the transition Reynolds number Reθt and the diﬀerence between the two must be obtained from an empirical correlation.7-5) Fonset3 = max 1 − Fonset 4 RT 3 . the value at a separation point where the shape factor is 3. Inc.0 2. The boundary condition for γ at a wall is zero normal ﬂux.7-7 have been adjusted from those of Menter et al. 2 Fθt 3.7-8) Release 12.7-6) Reθc is the critical Reynolds number where the intermittency ﬁrst starts to increase in the boundary layer. γ is equal to 1.7 Transition SST Model Fonset1 = Fonset2 Rev 2.5 [226].193Reθc 4 = min(max(Fonset1 . The transport equation for the transition momentum thickness Reynolds number Reθt is ∂(ρReθt ) ∂(ρUj Reθt ) ∂ ∂ Reθt + = Pθt + σθt (µ + µt ) ∂t ∂xj ∂xj ∂xj (4.0 c ANSYS.

7-5. At present.0 The boundary condition for Reθt at a wall is zero ﬂux.7-10) θBL = Reθt µ ρU 15 δBL = θBL 2 50Ωy δ = δBL U ρωy 2 µ Reω 2 = e−( 1E+5 ) (4. and is used in Equation 4. ReΘt is the transition onset as observed in experiments.7-9) Fθt = min max Fwake e( 4 −y δ ) .7-9. This has been modiﬁed from Menter et al.0 − Fθt ) t 500µ t = ρU 2 (4.7-12) The model constants for the Reθt equation are: cθt = 0. 2009 . λ) Flength = f (ReΘt ) ReΘc = f (ReΘt ) (4.0 (4. ReΘc is the point where the model is activated in order to match both ReΘt and Flength . The boundary condition for Reθt at an inlet should be calculated from the empirical correlation based on the inlet turbulence intensity. [226] in order to improve the predictions for natural transition.0 − γ − 1/50 1.0 − 1/50 2 . The model contains three empirical correlations.03 σθt = 2.7-11) Reω = Fwake (4.0 c ANSYS.7-2. January 29.7-13) 4-44 Release 12. It is used in Equation 4. 1. 1. these empirical correlations are proprietary and are not given in this manual. Inc. Flength is the length of the transition zone and is substituted in Equation 4. ReΘt = f (T u.Turbulence The source term is deﬁned as follows: ρ Pθt = cθt (Reθt − Reθt )(1.

4.7-19) Ft = max(F1orig .0)Dk √ ρy k Ry = µ F3 = e− Ry 120 3 (4. The rationale behind the above model formulation is given in detail in Menter et al. In order to capture the laminar and transitional boundary layers correctly.1).7-17) (4. as follows: ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρk) + (ρuj k) = Pk − Dk + ∂t ∂xj ∂xj Pk = γef f Pk ∂k ∂xj (µ + σk µt ) (4.7-16) Dk = min(max(γef f . then the transition onset location moves upstream with increasing y + . Note that the production term in the ω-equation is not modiﬁed. T u. If the y + is too large (i.7-20) where Pk and Dk are the original production and destruction terms for the SST model and F1orig is the original SST blending function. 0.7 Transition SST Model The ﬁrst empirical correlation is a function of the local turbulence intensity.0 c ANSYS. (4. 1. Inc. 2009 4-45 . [226]. January 29.7-14) Coupling the Transition Model and SST Transport Equations The transition model interacts with the SST turbulence model.7-18) (4. the mesh must have a y + of approximately one. It is recommended to use the bounded second order upwind based discretization for the mean ﬂow.7-15) (4. F3 ) (4.e. and the Thwaites’ pressure gradient coeﬃcient λθ is deﬁned as λθ = (θ2 /v)dU/ds where dU/ds is the acceleration in the streamwise direction. Release 12. turbulence and transition equations. > 5).

e. the skin friction can deviate signiﬁcantly from the laminar value.7. Typically. January 29.3 Specifying Inlet Turbulence Levels It has been observed that the turbulence intensity speciﬁed at an inlet can decay quite rapidly depending on the inlet viscosity ratio (µt /µ) (and hence turbulence eddy frequency). the larger the inlet viscosity ratio.7-22) where x is the streamwise distance downstream of the inlet and V is the mean convective velocity.7.Turbulence 4.1). however.7-21) For the SST turbulence model in the freestream the constants are: β = 0. the turbulence intensity has decayed to the desired value. if too large a viscosity ratio is speciﬁed (i.e ≈1 – 10) inlet viscosity ratio and to estimate the inlet value of turbulence intensity such that at the leading edge of the blade/airfoil. 2009 .7-23) The decay of turbulent kinetic energy equation can be rewritten in terms of inlet turbulence intensity (Tuinlet ) and eddy viscosity ratio (µt /µ) as follows: 2 Tu = Tuinlet 2 3ρV xβTuinlet 1+ 2µ(µt /µ) −β ∗ β 0. However. The decay of turbulent kinetic energy can be calculated with the following analytical solution: k = kinlet (1 + ωinlet βt) −β ∗ β (4. There is experimental evidence that suggests that this eﬀect occurs physically.5 (4.09. the local turbulence intensity downstream of the inlet can be much smaller than the inlet value (see Figure 4.0828 The time scale can be determined as follows: t= x V (4. β ∗ = 0. For this reason. if possible. it is desirable to have a relatively low (i. at this point it is not clear how accurately the transition model reproduces this behavior. Inc. As a result. >100).7-24) 4-46 Release 12.. the smaller the turbulent decay rate. The eddy viscosity is deﬁned as: µt = ρk ω (4.0 c ANSYS.

fluentusers.7. Although the model was originally developed for attached or mildly separated boundary layers [82]. which can be thought of as the velocity ﬂuctuation normal to the streamlines.com) .1: Decay of Turbulence Intensity (Tu ) as a Function of Streamwise Distance (x) 4.8 The v 2 -f Model Figure 4. and therefore does not need to make use of wall functions.0 c ANSYS. The distinguishing feature of the v 2 -f model is its use of the velocity scale. has shown to provide the right scaling in representing the damping of turbulent transport close to the wall. For more information about the theoretical background and usage of the v 2 -f model. v 2 .8 The v 2 -f Model The v 2 -f model is similar to the standard k.model is typically used in such applications. instead of the turbulent kinetic energy.4. Release 12. k. a feature that k does not provide. v 2 . please visit the User Services Center (www. it also accurately simulates ﬂows dominated by separation [24].model. The v 2 -f model is a general low-Reynolds-number turbulence model that is valid all the way up to solid walls. A limitation of the v 2 -f model is that it cannot be used to solve Eulerian multiphase problems. Inc. January 29. 2009 4-47 . whereas the k. but incorporates near-wall turbulence anisotropy and non-local pressure-strain eﬀects. for evaluating the eddy viscosity.

The modeling of the pressure-strain and dissipation-rate terms is particularly challenging.4: Modeling the Pressure-Strain Term • Section 4. Abandoning the isotropic eddy-viscosity hypothesis.9.9.9. 178] is the most elaborate type of turbulence model that ANSYS FLUENT provides.9. together with an equation for the dissipation rate. 4.9: Wall Boundary Conditions • Section 4. it has greater potential to give accurate predictions for complex ﬂows.0 c ANSYS.7: Modeling the Dissipation Rate • Section 4. This means that ﬁve additional transport equations are required in 2D ﬂows. the RSM closes the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations by solving transport equations for the Reynolds stresses. Information is presented in the following sections: • Section 4.Turbulence 4.9.9.9.9 Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) This section describes the theory behind the Reynolds Stress model (RSM). the ﬁdelity of RSM predictions is still limited by the closure assumptions employed to model various terms in the exact transport equations for the Reynolds stresses. Since the RSM accounts for the eﬀects of streamline curvature. and rapid changes in strain rate in a more rigorous manner than one-equation and two-equation models.9. 2009 .9.10: Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling For details about using the model in ANSYS FLUENT. swirl.2: Reynolds Stress Transport Equations • Section 4.9.1 Overview The Reynolds stress model (RSM) [108.9. and often considered to be responsible for compromising the accuracy of RSM predictions. in comparison to seven additional transport equations solved in 3D.8: Modeling the Turbulent Viscosity • Section 4.5: Eﬀects of Buoyancy on Turbulence • Section 4. rotation. However. January 29.10: Setting Up the Reynolds Stress Model in the separate User’s Guide. Inc.1: Overview • Section 4.6: Modeling the Turbulence Kinetic Energy • Section 4. 177. see Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence and Section 12. 4-48 Release 12.3: Modeling Turbulent Diﬀusive Transport • Section 4.

The exact form of the Reynolds stress transport equations may be derived by taking moments of the exact momentum equation. and the stress-induced secondary ﬂows in ducts.4. φij . the product then being Reynoldsaveraged. several of the terms in the exact equation are unknown and modeling assumptions are required in order to close the equations. Among the examples are cyclone ﬂows.0 c ANSYS. rotating ﬂow passages.ij . Inc. 2009 4-49 . Pij .9-1) + ui um jkm + Fij ≡ Production by System Rotation User-Deﬁned Source Term Of the various terms in these exact equations.9 Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) The RSM might not always yield results that are clearly superior to the simpler models in all classes of ﬂows to warrant the additional computational expense. However.9. Unfortunately. use of the RSM is a must when the ﬂow features of interest are the result of anisotropy in the Reynolds stresses. DL. ρui uj . However. may be written as follows: ∂ ∂ ∂ ρ ui uj uk + p δkj ui + δik uj (ρ ui uj ) + (ρuk ui uj ) = − ∂xk ∂t ∂xk Local Time Derivative Cij ≡ Convection DT. Cij . and ij need to be modeled to close the equations. Release 12. This is a process wherein the exact momentum equations are multiplied by a ﬂuctuating property. Gij . January 29.ij ≡ Turbulent Diﬀusion + ∂ ∂ µ (u u ) ∂xk ∂xk i j DL.ij ≡ Molecular Diﬀusion − ρ ui u k ∂ui ∂uj + uj u k ∂xk ∂xk − ρβ(gi uj θ + gj ui θ) Gij ≡ Buoyancy Production Pij ≡ Stress Production + p ∂ui ∂uj + ∂xj ∂xi − ij 2µ ∂ui ∂uj ∂xk ∂xk φij ≡ Pressure Strain −2ρΩk uj um ikm ≡ Dissipation Suser (4. and Fij do not require any modeling. 4. DT. The following sections describe the modeling assumptions required to close the equation set.ij .2 Reynolds Stress Transport Equations The exact transport equations for the transport of the Reynolds stresses. highly swirling ﬂows in combustors.

4 Modeling the Pressure-Strain Term Linear Pressure-Strain Model By default in ANSYS FLUENT. 177].w is the wall-reﬂection term. φij. The classical approach to modeling φij uses the following decomposition: φij = φij. and φij.2 . also known as the return-to-isotropy term.2 is called the rapid pressure-strain term.1 is the slow pressure-strain term.0 c ANSYS. is computed using Equation 4. [104].9-33.1 ≡ −C1 ρ with C1 = 1.9-2) However. this equation can result in numerical instabilities. µt . in which σk = 1. φij. the pressure-strain term.1 + φij. is modeled as 2 ui uj − δij k k 3 (4.8.ij can be modeled by the generalized gradient-diﬀusion model of Daly and Harlow [67]: ∂ ku u ∂ui uj ρ k ∂xk ∂x DT.9-3) The turbulent viscosity.9-2. Note that this value of σk is diﬀerent from that in the standard and realizable kmodels. in Equation 4. 2009 .9. φij.2 + φij.ij = (4.ij = Cs (4. The rapid pressure-strain term. 4. Lien and Leschziner [194] derived a value of σk = 0.3 Modeling Turbulent Diffusive Transport DT. so it has been simpliﬁed in ANSYS FLUENT to use a scalar turbulent diﬀusivity as follows [194]: ∂ ∂xk µt ∂ui uj σk ∂xk DT.82 by applying the generalized gradient-diﬀusion model.9-5) 4-50 Release 12.0.Turbulence 4. to the case of a planar homogeneous shear ﬂow.1 .9.9-1 is modeled according to the proposals by Gibson and Launder [108]. is modeled as φij. Equation 4. The slow pressure-strain term. and Launder [176. Fu et al. Inc. January 29.9-4) where φij.w (4. φij .

2 ni nk 2 2 d (4.0067Ret )2 √ C2 = 0. the pressure-strain model needs to be modiﬁed. and C2 as functions of the Reynolds stress invariants and the turbulent Reynolds number. Fij . 2 2 The wall-reﬂection term.9-10) (4.4.9 Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) 2 φij. nk is the xk component of the unit normal to the wall.2 nj nk − φjk.4187). while enhancing the stresses parallel to the wall. φij. and C = Cµ /κ.3.60. Inc. and Cij are deﬁned as in Equation 4. 2009 4-51 .12.9-7) where C1 = 0. according to the suggestion of Launder and Shima [179]: C1 = 1 + 2.09 and κ is the von K´rm´n constant (= 0.w .9-6) 1 P . C2 . and C = 1 Ckk . C1 . A2 and A3 .9-9) (4. It tends to damp the normal stress perpendicular to the wall. Gij . 2 kk where C2 = 0. is responsible for the redistribution of normal stresses near the wall.0 c ANSYS. P = G = 1 Gkk .2 ≡ −C2 (Pij + Fij + 5/6Gij − Cij ) − δij (P + 5/6G − C) 3 (4.75 A 2 C1 = − C1 + 1.0 C2 (4. where Cµ = 0. This term is modeled as φij.25 1 − exp −(0.9-1. are deﬁned as Release 12.w is included by default in the Reynolds stress model.58AA2 0. The modiﬁcation used in ANSYS FLUENT speciﬁes the values of C1 .67 3 2 C2 − 1 6 C2 = max 3 . a a φij. The ﬂatness parameter A and tensor invariants.4: Two-Layer Model for Enhanced Wall Treatment.9-8) (4.w ≡ C1 3 3 C k 3/2 uk um nk nm δij − ui uk nj nk − uj uk ni nk k 2 2 d 3 3 C k 3/2 + C2 φkm. C2 = 0.5. Low-Re Modiﬁcations to the Linear Pressure-Strain Model When the RSM is applied to near-wall ﬂows using the enhanced wall treatment described in Section 4.9-11) with the turbulent Reynolds number deﬁned as Ret = (ρk 2 /µ ).2 nk nm δij − φik. d is 3/4 the normal distance to the wall. Pij . January 29.

This improved accuracy should be beneﬁcial for a wider class of complex engineering ﬂows.9-15) The modiﬁcations detailed above are employed only when the enhanced wall treatment is selected in the Viscous Model dialog box.9-12) (4. January 29. Quadratic Pressure-Strain Model An optional pressure-strain model proposed by Speziale. deﬁned as aij = − −ρui uj + 2 ρkδij 3 ρk (4. is deﬁned as Sij = 1 2 ∂uj ∂ui + ∂xi ∂xj −ρui uj + 2 ρkδij 3 2ρk (4.9-18) 4-52 Release 12.9-17) (4. particularly those with streamline curvature. including plane strain. and Gatski [334] is provided in ANSYS FLUENT. The quadratic pressure-strain model can be selected as an option in the Viscous Model dialog box.9-13) (4. This model is written as follows: ∗ φij = − (C1 ρ + C1 P ) bij + C2 ρ 1 ∗ bik bkj − bmn bmn δij + C3 − C3 bij bij ρkSij 3 2 + C4 ρk bik Sjk + bjk Sik − bmn Smn δij + C5 ρk (bik Ωjk + bjk Ωik ) 3 where bij is the Reynolds-stress anisotropy tensor deﬁned as bij = − The mean strain rate.Turbulence A ≡ 1− 9 (A2 − A3 ) 8 (4.9-16) (4. Inc.0 c ANSYS. Sarkar. This model has been demonstrated to give superior performance in a range of basic shear ﬂows. Sij .9-14) A2 ≡ aik aki A3 ≡ aik akj aji aij is the Reynolds-stress anisotropy tensor. rotating plane shear. 2009 . and axisymmetric expansion/contraction.

C1 and C2 .9-4 can be re-written for the low-Re stress-omega model such that wall reﬂections are excluded: φij = φij. C5 = 0. January 29.9-20) ˆ − β0 [Dij − 1/3Pkk δij ] − k γ0 [Sij − 1/3Skk δij ] ˆ where Dij is deﬁned as (4.2. is deﬁned by Ωij = The constants are ∗ ∗ C1 = 3. noted below. there are additional closure coeﬃcients.1 + φij. C2 = 4.1: Model Constants). The closure coeﬃcients are identical to the k-ω model (Section 4. ∗ φij = −C1 ρβRSM ω ui uj − 2/3δij k − α0 [Pij − 1/3Pkk δij ] ˆ (4.2 Therefore. This model is ideal for modeling ﬂows over curved surfaces and swirling ﬂows.9 Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) The mean rate-of-rotation tensor. It should be noted. that the quadratic pressurestrain model is not available when the enhanced wall treatment is selected in the Viscous Model dialog box. Equation 4.3.9-19) The quadratic pressure-strain model does not require a correction to account for the wall-reﬂection eﬀect in order to obtain a satisfactory solution in the logarithmic region of a turbulent boundary layer.9-21) Release 12. The low-Re stress-omega model resembles the k-ω model due to its excellent predictions for a wide range of turbulent ﬂows. Low-Re Stress-Omega Model The low-Re stress-omega model is a stress-transport model that is based on the omega equations and LRR model [379].4.4. Furthermore. however. C4 = 1.25. Ωij . The low-Re stress-omega model can be selected in the Viscous Model dialog box and requires no treatments of wall reﬂections. C3 = 0. 2009 4-53 .8. C3 = 1.4 1 2 ∂ui ∂uj − ∂xj ∂xi (4.5.0 c ANSYS.8. Inc. however. low Reynolds number modiﬁcations and surface boundary conditions for rough surfaces are similar to the k-ω model. C1 = 1.

C2 = 0. However. The only diﬀerence here is that the equation for fβ uses a value of 640 instead of 680. respectively. Rω = 6.9-22) ∗ The mean strain rate Sij is deﬁned in Equation 4.8 where α.5-22.0 c ANSYS. γ0 = ˆ 11 11 55 C1 = 1.8. The constants are ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Rβ = 12.9-21. This results in the following changes: α= ˆ 1 + α0 ReT /Rk ˆ 1 + ReT /Rk ˆ ˆ ReT /Rk β = β0 1 + ReT /Rk 0.9-18 and βRSM is deﬁned by ∗ βRSM = β ∗ fβ ∗ (4.Turbulence Dij = −ρ ui um ∂um ∂um + u j um ∂xj ∂xi (4.9-23) ∗ where β ∗ and fβ are deﬁned in the same way as for the standard k − ω.5-16. Inc.5-16 and 4. β. as in Equation 4. and γ would replace α0 .52 The above formulation does not require viscous damping functions to resolve the nearwall sublayer.20 Inclusion of the low-Re viscous damping is controlled by enabling Low-Re Corrections under k-omega Options in the Viscous Model dialog box. and γ0 in Equation 4.007 + ReT /Rk 1 + ReT /Rk 5/3 + ReT /Rk 1 + ReT /Rk γ = γ0 ˆ ˆ C1 = 1. Rk = 12. The constants are α0 = ˆ 8 + C2 ˆ 8C2 − 2 60C2 − 4 . β0 = . inclusion of the viscous damping function [379] could improve model predictions for certain ﬂows. 4-54 Release 12. January 29. 2009 . using Equa∗ tions 4. β0 .

2009 4-55 .9-28) t ∂xj 2 where σk = 0.9-28 is obtainable by contracting the modeled equation for the Reynolds stresses (Equation 4.4.9.0 c ANSYS.9-27) As described in Section 4. it is essentially identical to Equation 4. an option is available in ANSYS FLUENT to solve a transport equation for the turbulence kinetic energy in order to obtain boundary conditions for the Reynolds stresses. with a default value of 0. Equation 4.4-1 used in the standard k. given by Equation 4.9-1). In this case.4-24. 4. Using the deﬁnition of the coeﬃcient of thermal expansion.9 Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) 4.9. the following model equation is used: ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρk) + (ρkui ) = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj µ+ µt σk ∂k 1 + (Pii + Gii ) − ρ (1 + 2M2 ) + Sk (4. β. Release 12.9. Inc. the following expression is obtained for Gij for ideal gases: Gij = − µt ∂ρ ∂ρ gi + gj ρPrt ∂xj ∂xi (4.82 and Sk is a user-deﬁned source term. when the turbulence kinetic energy is needed for modeling a speciﬁc term.9-24) Ui θ = (4. January 29.9-25) where Prt is the turbulent Prandtl number for energy.5 Effects of Buoyancy on Turbulence The production terms due to buoyancy are modeled as Gij = (Ji Uj + Jj Ui ) = −β(gi uj θ + gj Ui θ) µt ∂T ( ) Prt ∂Xi (4. As one might expect.9: Wall Boundary Conditions.6 Modeling the Turbulence Kinetic Energy In general. it is obtained by taking the trace of the Reynolds stress tensor: 1 k = u i ui 2 (4.model.85.9-26) i Note that the buoyancy eﬀects are not included if low-Re omega based RSM model is used.

The turbulent Mach number in this term is deﬁned as k a2 Mt = (4. is modeled as 2 = δij (ρ + YM ) 3 (4.5: Eﬀects of Buoyancy on Turbulence in the k.0. 2009 . the dissipation tensor ij is modeled as ij ∗ = 2/3δij ρβRSM kω (4.9. This is a minor point.4. 4-56 Release 12. C 3 is evaluated as a function of the local ﬂow direction relative to the gravitational vector. The scalar dissipation rate. This compressibility modiﬁcation always takes eﬀect when the compressible form of the ideal gas law is used.0 c ANSYS. The dissipation tensor.9-27. In every other case.4: Modeling the Pressure-Strain Term and the speciﬁc dissipation rate ω is computed in the same way as for the standard k − ω model.9.9-30) √ where a (≡ γRT ) is the speed of sound. 4. January 29.9-29) ij where YM = 2ρ M2 is an additional “dilatation dissipation” term according to the model t by Sarkar [300].7 Modeling the Dissipation Rate ij . the values of k obtained are used only for boundary conditions. .5-2. since the values of k obtained with either method should be very similar. k is obtained from Equation 4. is computed with a model transport equation similar to that used in the standard k. C 1 = 1.9-32) ∗ Where βRSM is deﬁned in Section 4. as described in Section 4. and S is a user-deﬁned source term. C 2 = 1.Models.9-28 is solved globally throughout the ﬂow domain.model: ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρ ) + (ρ ui ) = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj µ+ µt σ 2 ∂ 1 C 1 [Pii + C 3 Gii ] − C 2 ρ + S (4. In the case when the Reynolds Stress model is coupled with the omega equation.Turbulence Although Equation 4. however.44. using Equation 4.9-31) ∂xj 2 k k where σ = 1. Inc.92.

ANSYS FLUENT computes the near-wall values of the Reynolds stresses and from wall functions (see Section 4. ANSYS FLUENT solves the transport equation of Equation 4. even though the values of k thus computed are needed only near the wall. the Reynolds stresses can be explicitly speciﬁed in terms of wall-shear stress. and Section 4. the Reynolds stresses at the wall-adjacent cells (assuming standard wall functions or non-equilibrium wall functions) are computed from u2 u u uτ2 u2 = 1. λ = 2.9 Wall Boundary Conditions The RSM model in ANSYS FLUENT requires boundary conditions for individual Reynolds stresses. − τ 2 η = 1.0 c ANSYS.9.09.9-1). By default.4: Enhanced Wall Functions).9-27. and λ is the binormal coordinate. Section 4. ui uj . (or ω if the low-Re stress-omega model is used).2: Standard Wall Functions.9 Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) 4. η is the normal coordinate.12.8 Modeling the Turbulent Viscosity The turbulent viscosity.255 k k k k (4. the values of the Reynolds stresses near the wall are ﬁxed using the values computed from Equation 4. January 29. Using a local coordinate system. At walls.098. k2 (4. λ = 0. − τ η = 0. These quantities can be input directly or derived from the turbulence intensity and characteristic length (Section 12. disregarding convection and diﬀusion in the transport equations for the stresses (Equation 4.655. Alternatively.0. the equation is solved globally. instead of k: u2 u u uτ2 u2 = 5. η = 1.0 2 2 2 uτ uτ uτ uτ (4. µt . For reasons of computational convenience.9-28.models: µt = ρCµ where Cµ = 0.3. 2009 4-57 . where τ is the tangential coordinate.9-35) Release 12.9-34. is computed similarly to the k. in the far ﬁeld k is obtained directly from the normal Reynolds stresses using Equation 4.9.9-1 are solved only in the bulk ﬂow region.9-34) To obtain k.3: NonEquilibrium Wall Functions.9-33) 4. Inc. ANSYS FLUENT applies explicit wall boundary conditions for the Reynolds stresses by using the log-law and the assumption of equilibrium.4. η = 0.1.12. and the transport equations in Equation 4.12.247.14.3: Reynolds Stress Model in the separate User’s Guide). and for the turbulence dissipation rate.

see Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence and Section 12. The “modeled” energy equation is thus given by the following: ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρE) + [ui (ρE + p)] = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj c p µt Prt ∂T + ui (τij )eﬀ + Sh ∂xj k+ (4. You can change the value of Prt in the Viscous Model dialog box.7.10 Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling With the Reynolds stress model in ANSYS FLUENT. Inc.9-36) where E is the total energy and (τij )eﬀ is the deviatoric stress tensor.1: Spalart-Allmaras Based DES Model • Section 4. but it can be enabled in the Viscous Model dialog box.10. and is always computed in the density-based solvers. It is not computed by default in the pressure-based solver. deﬁned as (τij )eﬀ = µeﬀ ∂uj ∂ui + ∂xi ∂xj 2 ∂uk − µeﬀ δij 3 ∂xk The term involving (τij )eﬀ represents the viscous heating. ANSYS FLUENT applies zero ﬂux wall boundary conditions to the Reynolds stress equations. 4-58 Release 12. When this option is chosen. This default value can be changed in the Viscous Model dialog box. Information is presented in the following sections: • Section 4.9. turbulent heat transport is modeled using the concept of Reynolds’ analogy to turbulent momentum transfer.Based DES Model • Section 4. 4.10.Turbulence where uτ is the friction velocity deﬁned by uτ ≡ τw /ρ.85. The default value of the turbulent Prandtl number is 0. 4.11: Setting Up the Detached Eddy Simulation Model in the separate User’s Guide. the k transport equation is not solved. Turbulent mass transfer is treated similarly.10 Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) This section describes the theory behind the Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) model. 2009 .0 c ANSYS. When using enhanced wall treatments as the near-wall treatment.2: Realizable k.3: SST k-ω Based DES Model For details about using the model in ANSYS FLUENT.10. January 29. where τw is the wall-shear stress. with a default turbulent Schmidt number of 0.

In ANSYS FLUENT. is less than LES computational costs. and 4.10-1) where the grid spacing. a new formulation [332] of DES Release 12. The empirical constant Cdes has a value of 0.3-15). the respective RANS models are recovered. y.10-1 will ensure that the DES model is in the RANS mode for the entire boundary layer.model. ∆. while the LES treatment is applied to the separated regions. and the SST k-ω model. In the near-wall region. where the cost of a near-wall resolving Large Eddy Simulation would be prohibitive. often referred to as the hybrid LES/RANS models combine RANS modeling with LES for applications such as high-Re external aerodynamics simulations. deﬁned as d = min(d. which plays a major role in determining the level of production and destruction of turbulent viscosity (Equations 4. January 29. however. but greater than RANS. 4. the DES model is based on the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras model. The DES models. Therefore. The DES model. 2009 4-59 . For a typical RANS grid with a high aspect ratio in the boundary layer. as a general guideline. as proposed by Shur et al.65. the DES models recover LES-like subgrid models. The computational costs.model. where the grid is not ﬁne enough to sustain resolved turbulence. 4. the realizable k.1 Spalart-Allmaras Based DES Model The standard Spalart-Allmaras model uses the distance to the closest wall as the deﬁnition for the length scale d. DES models have been speciﬁcally designed to address high Reynolds number wall bounded ﬂows. in case of an ambiguous grid deﬁnition. Equation 4. the DES limiter can activate the LES mode inside the boundary layer. The diﬀerence with the LES model is that it relies only on the required resolution in the boundary layers. where δ is the size of the boundary layer.3-12. the unsteady RANS models are employed in the boundary layer. is based on the largest grid space in the x. [314] replaces d everywhere with a new length scale d. The LES region is normally associated with the core turbulent region where large unsteady turbulence scales play a dominant role. the realizable k. and where the wall-parallel grid spacing usually exceeds δ. Inc. when using the DES models. where ∆ << δ. it is recommended that the conventional turbulence models employing the Reynolds-averaged approach be used for practical calculations. may still require signiﬁcant CPU resources and therefore. Cdes ∆) (4.0 c ANSYS.10. and the SST k-ω model.4. or z directions forming the computational cell.3-6. In this region.10 Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) Overview ANSYS FLUENT oﬀers three diﬀerent models for the detached eddy simulation: the Spalart-Allmaras model. However. In the DES approach. The application of DES.

lrke − Cdes ∆) (4.Based DES Model This DES model is similar to the Realizable k.Turbulence is available in ANSYS FLUENT to preserve the RANS mode throughout the boundary layer. the Realizable k.61 and ∆ is the maximum local grid spacing (∆x. ∆z). (4.2 Realizable k. This is known as the delayed option or DDES for delayed DES. The DES length ldes in Equation 4.10-6) (4.3: Realizable k.4.4.Model.model discussed in Section 4.RANS dissipation term is modiﬁed such that: ρk 2 Yk = ldes where ldes = min(lrke . d − Cdes ∆) where fd is given by: fd = 1 − tanh (8rd )3 This formulation is the default settings. with the exception of the dissipation term in the k equation.10.10-4) (4.3: Realizable k. the delayed concept can be applied as well to the Realizable DES model to preserve the RANS mode throughout the boundary layer.0 c ANSYS. Inc. 2009 . In the DES model.10-3) (4. The DES length scale d is re-deﬁned according to: d = d − fd max(0.Model): Yk = ρ Similarly to the Spalart-Allmaras model.10-2) 4. lles ) lrke = k 3 2 3 (4.10-7) lles = Cdes ∆ where Cdes is a calibration constant used in the DES model and has a value of 0.10-5) (4.10-8 is redeﬁned such that ldes = lrke − fd max(0.10-8) 4-60 Release 12. January 29. ∆y. For the case where ldes = lrke . you will obtain an expression for the dissipation of the k formulation for the Realizable k.model (Section 4.

11 Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Model 4. 1 (4. 2009 4-61 .1 (4.3: Subgrid-Scale Models • Section 4.3 SST k-ω Based DES Model The dissipation term of the turbulent kinetic energy (see Section 4.10-10) (4.4: Inlet Boundary Conditions for the LES Model Release 12.0 c ANSYS. This is achieved with the help of the zonal formulation of the SST model. 4.11.10-12) with FSST = 0.1: Overview • Section 4. The turbulent length scale is the parameter that deﬁnes this RANS model: k β ∗ω √ Lt = (4.61. Inc.4. January 29. F1 . where F1 and F2 are the blending functions of the SST model.2: Filtered Navier-Stokes Equations • Section 4.10-9) where Cdes is a calibration constant used in the DES model and has a value of 0. ∆y.10-11) The DES-SST model also oﬀers the option to “protect” the boundary layer from the limiter (delayed option).11. FDES is modiﬁed according to FDES = max Lt Cdes ∆ (1 − FSST ).11.1: Modeling the Turbulence Dissipation) is modiﬁed for the DES turbulence model as described in Menter’s work [225] such that Yk = ρβ ∗ kωFDES where FDES is expressed as FDES = max Lt Cdes ∆ . ∆ is the maximum local grid spacing (∆x. ∆z). F2 .10.5. The default settings use F2 .11 Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Model This section describes the theory behind the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model.11. Information is presented in the following sections: • Section 4.

tend to be more isotropic. the subgrid-scale turbulence models. • Large eddies are more problem-dependent. Resolving only the large eddies allows one to use much coarser mesh and larger timesstep sizes in LES than in DNS. and are consequently more universal. for high t Reynolds numbers. and the boundary conditions.Turbulence For details about using the model in ANSYS FLUENT. • Small eddies are less dependent on the geometry. the computational cost involved with LES is normally orders of magnitudes higher than that for steady RANS calculations in terms of memory (RAM) and CPU time. 4. It is possible. However. LES has to be run for a suﬃciently long ﬂow-time to obtain stable statistics of the ﬂow being modeled. They are dictated by the geometries and boundary conditions of the ﬂow involved. in theory. to directly resolve the whole spectrum of turbulent scales using an approach known as direct numerical simulation (DNS). The largest eddies are typically comparable in size to the characteristic length of the mean ﬂow. Clearly.11. No modeling is required in DNS. Large eddy simulation (LES) thus falls between DNS and RANS in terms of the fraction of the resolved scales. However. LES still requires substantially ﬁner meshes than those typically used for RANS calculations. the cost becomes prohibitive. January 29. high-performance computing (e. and other passive scalars are transported mostly by large eddies. Therefore. energy. parallel computing) is a necessity for LES. 4-62 Release 12.. large eddies are resolved directly. The cost required for DNS to resolve the entire range of scales is proportional to Re3 . • The chance of ﬁnding a universal turbulence model is much higher for small eddies. while small eddies are modeled. mass. where Ret is the turbulent Reynolds number. The rationale behind LES can be summarized as follows: • Momentum. especially for industrial applications. In LES.0 c ANSYS. DNS is not feasible for practical engineering problems involving high Reynolds number ﬂows. As a result.1 Overview Turbulent ﬂows are characterized by eddies with a wide range of length and time scales.12: Setting Up the Large Eddy Simulation Model in the separate User’s Guide. In addition.g. The smallest scales are responsible for the dissipation of turbulence kinetic energy. see Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence and Section 12. Inc. 2009 . The following sections give details of the governing equations for LES.

G(x. The resulting equations thus govern the dynamics of large eddies.11. x otherwise G(x. Filtering the Navier-Stokes equations. one obtains ∂ρ ∂ + (ρui ) = 0 ∂t ∂xi and ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂p ∂τij (ρui ) + (ρui uj ) = (σij ) − − ∂t ∂xj ∂xj ∂xi ∂xj where σij is the stress tensor due to molecular viscosity deﬁned by σij ≡ µ ∂ui ∂uj + ∂xj ∂xi 2 ∂ul − µ δij 3 ∂xl (4.11-4) Release 12.11-1) where D is the ﬂuid domain.11-3) The LES capability in ANSYS FLUENT is applicable to compressible ﬂows. A ﬁltered variable (denoted by an overbar) is deﬁned by φ(x) = D φ(x )G(x. The ﬁltering process eﬀectively ﬁlters out the eddies whose scales are smaller than the ﬁlter width or grid spacing used in the computations. x )dx (4.11-6) (4.11-2) where V is the volume of a computational cell. x ). the theory is presented here for incompressible ﬂows. and G is the ﬁlter function that determines the scale of the resolved eddies. The ﬁlter function. January 29. however. Inc. the ﬁnite-volume discretization itself implicitly provides the ﬁltering operation: φ(x) = 1 V φ(x ) dx .11 Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Model 4. implied here is then 1/V.2 Filtered Navier-Stokes Equations The governing equations employed for LES are obtained by ﬁltering the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations in either Fourier (wave-number) space or conﬁguration (physical) space. ν x ∈ν (4.11-5) (4. x ∈ ν 0.4. For the sake of concise notation.0 c ANSYS. x ) = (4. In ANSYS FLUENT. 2009 4-63 .

The compressible form of the subgrid stress tensor is deﬁned as: τij = ρui uj − ρui uj This term is split into its isotropic and deviatoric parts 1 1 τij = τij − τkk δij + τkk δij 3 3 isotropic deviatoric (4. January 29.11-5.11-10) The Favre Filtered Navier-Stokes equation takes the same form as Equation 4. it is convenient to introduce the density-weighted (or Favre) ﬁltering operator: ρφ ρ φ= (4.0 c ANSYS.Turbulence and τij is the subgrid-scale stress deﬁned by τij ≡ ρui uj − ρui uj (4. 2009 . The isotropic part of the subgrid-scale stresses τkk is not modeled.11-9) For compressible ﬂows. and require modeling. computing subgrid-scale turbulent stresses from 1 τij − τkk δij = −2µt S ij 3 (4. Inc.11-8) where µt is the subgrid-scale turbulent viscosity. but added to the ﬁltered static pressure term.11-13) 4-64 Release 12. The subgrid-scale turbulence models in ANSYS FLUENT employ the Boussinesq hypothesis [130] as in the RANS models.11.11-7) 4. S ij is the rate-of-strain tensor for the resolved scale deﬁned by S ij ≡ 1 2 ∂ui ∂uj + ∂xj ∂xi (4.3 Subgrid-Scale Models The subgrid-scale stresses resulting from the ﬁltering operation are unknown.11-11) The deviatoric part of the subgrid-scale stress tensor is modeled using the compressible form of the Smagorinsky model: 1 1 τij − τkk δij = 2µt (Sij − §kk δij ) 3 3 (4.11-12) (4.

4. this value was found to cause excessive damping of large-scale ﬂuctuations in the presence of mean shear and in transitional ﬂows as near solid boundary. the term involving τkk can be added to the ﬁltered pressure or simply neglected [89]. However. (4. In ANSYS FLUENT. In ANSYS FLUENT. 2009 4-65 . the dynamic Smagorinsky-Lilly model. ANSYS FLUENT oﬀers four models for µt : the Smagorinsky-Lilly model. ∆ is computed according to the volume of the computational cell using ∆ = V 1/3 (4.11 Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Model As for incompressible ﬂows. Indeed. is modeled using s subgrid-scale turbulent Prandtl number by qj = − where qj is the subgrid-scale ﬂux. a Cs value of around Release 12. the WALE model.11-14) Smagorinsky-Lilly Model This simple model was ﬁrst proposed by Smagorinsky [320]. January 29. this term can be re-written as τkk = γM 2 sgs p where Msgs is the subgrid Mach number. φ.11-15) 2S ij S ij .17 for Cs for homogeneous isotropic turbulence in the inertial subrange. and ∆ is the local grid scale.0 c ANSYS. Cs ∆) (4. d is the distance to the closest wall. Cs is not a universal constant. The subgrid-scale turbulent ﬂux of a scalar. In the Smagorinsky-Lilly model.11-16) where κ is the von K´rm´n constant.11-17) Lilly derived a value of 0. which is the most serious shortcoming of this simple model. and has to be reduced in such regions. µt ∂φ σt ∂xj (4. In the dynamic models. the eddy-viscosity is modeled by µt = ρL2 S s where Ls is the mixing length for subgrid scales and S ≡ Ls is computed using Ls = min (κd. In short. Cs is the a a Smagorinsky constant. Inc. This subgrid Mach number can be expected to be small when the turbulent Mach number of the ﬂow is small. Nonetheless. and the dynamic kinetic energy subgridscale model. the subgrid-scale turbulent Prandtl number or Schmidt number is obtained by applying the dynamic procedure originally proposed by Germano [106] to the subgrid-scale ﬂux.

The dynamic procedure thus obviates the need for users to specify the model constant Cs in advance.11-19 and Equation 4.11-21) Where Lij is computable from the resolved large eddy ﬁeld. C = Cs ). Both ﬁlters produce a resolved ﬂow ﬁeld. In ANSYS FLUENT.0 c ANSYS. Inc.Turbulence 0.11-20 into Equation 4. and is the default value in ANSYS FLUENT. the coeﬃcient C is asumed to be the same 2 and independent of the ﬁltering process (note that per Equation 4. assuming scale similarity: 1 τij = −2Cρ∆2 S|(Sij − Skk δij ) 3 1 Tij = −2C ρ∆2 |S|(S ij − S kk δij ) 3 (4. Dynamic Smagorinsky-Lilly Model Germano et al. Cs . the following expressions can be derived to solve for C with the contraction obtained from the least square analysis of Lilly (1992).11-20) In Equation 4.11-18) Both Tij and τij are modeled in the same way with the Smagorinsky-Lilly model. [106] and subsequently Lilly [197] conceived a procedure in which the Smagorinsky model constant.11-20. The information related to these scales is used to compute the model constant. At the test ﬁltered ﬁeld level.1 has been found to yield the best results for a wide range of ﬂows. the variable density formulation of the model is considered as explained below. is dynamically computed based on the information provided by the resolved scales of motion. the SGS stress tensor can be expressed as: Tij = ρui uj − (ρui ρuj /ρ) (4. The diﬀerence between the two resolved ﬁelds is the contribution of the small scales whose size is in between the grid ﬁlter and the test ﬁlter. Substituting the grid-ﬁlter Smagorinsky-Lilly model and Equation 4. The new ﬁlter width ∆ is equal to twice the grid ﬁlter width ∆.11-21. The concept of the dynamic procedure is to apply a second ﬁlter (called the test ﬁlter) to ˆ the equations of motion. 4-66 Release 12. The grid ﬁltered SGS and the test-ﬁltered SGS are related by the Germano identity [106] such that: 1 Lij = Tij − τij = ρui uj − (ρui ρuj ) ρ (4.11-19) (4. January 29. 2009 .11-25.

discussed previously. The underlying assumption is the local equilibrium between the transferred energy through the grid-ﬁlter scale and the dissipation of kinetic energy at small subgrid scales.11-22 are locally averaged (or ﬁltered) using the test-ﬁlter. With this spatial operator. are essentially algebraic models in which subgrid-scale stresses are parameterized using the resolved velocity scales. the default value of the WALE constant.4.325 and has been found to yield satisfactory results for a wide range of ﬂow.11 Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Model C= With (Lij − Lkk δij /3) Mij Mij (4. In ANSYS FLUENT. Wall-Adapting Local Eddy-Viscosity (WALE) Model In the WALE model [248]. both the numerator and the denominator in Equation 4. √ The Cs = C obtained using the dynamic Smagorinsky-Lilly model varies in time and space over a fairly wide range. Cs is also clipped at zero and 0. To avoid numerical instability. The rest of the notation is the same as for the Smagorinsky-Lilly model.11-26) In ANSYS FLUENT.11-23) More details of the model implementation in ANSYS FLUENT and its validation can be found in [165]. is 0. 2009 4-67 . Dynamic Kinetic Energy Subgrid-Scale Model The original and dynamic Smagorinsky-Lilly models. Inc. the WALE model is designed to return the correct wall asymptotic (y 3 ) behavior for wall bounded ﬂows.23 by default. The subgrid-scale turbulence can be better modeled by accounting for the transport of the subgrid-scale turbulence kinetic energy. Cw . Cw V 1/3 1 2 1 ∂ui g ij + g 2 − δij g 2 . g ij = ji kk 2 3 ∂xj (4.11-24) d where Ls and Sij in the WALE model are deﬁned. January 29. Release 12. as Ls = min κd.11-22) Mij = −2 ∆2 ρ |S|S ij − ∆2 ρ |S|Sij (4. the eddy viscosity is modeled by ρL2 s d d (Sij Sij )3/2 d d (S ij S ij )5/2 + (Sij Sij )5/4 µt = (4.11-25) d Sij = (4.0 c ANSYS. respectively.

4 Inlet Boundary Conditions for the LES Model This section describes the three algorithms available in ANSYS FLUENT to model the ﬂuctuating velocity at velocity inlet boundaries or pressure inlet boundaries. 2009 . The subgrid-scale kinetic energy is deﬁned as ksgs = 1 2 u − u2 k 2 k (4. The details of the implementation of this model in ANSYS FLUENT and its validation is given by Kim [165]. Ck and Cε . The subgrid-scale stress can then be written as 2 1/2 τij − ksgs δij = −2Ck ksgs ∆f S ij 3 ksgs is obtained by solving its transport equation k 3/2 ∂k sgs ∂uj k sgs ∂ui ∂ + = −τij − Cε sgs + ∂t ∂xj ∂xj ∆f ∂xj µt ∂ksgs σk ∂xj (4. Inc.11. This option is suitable only when the level of turbulence at the inﬂow boundaries is negligible or does not play a major role in the accuracy of the overall solution. No Perturbations The stochastic components of the ﬂow at the velocity-speciﬁed inlet boundaries are neglected if the No Perturbations option is used. are determined dynamically [168]. January 29.0.11-7.11-28) where ∆f is the ﬁlter-size computed from ∆f ≡ V 1/3 . µt . The subgrid-scale eddy viscosity.11-29) (4.0 c ANSYS. 4-68 Release 12.11-27) which is obtained by contracting the subgrid-scale stress in Equation 4. 4.Turbulence The dynamic subgrid-scale kinetic energy model in ANSYS FLUENT replicates the model proposed by Kim and Menon [168]. In such cases. the model constants. individual instantaneous velocity components are simply set equal to their mean velocity counterparts. σk is hardwired to 1.11-30) In the above equations. is computed using ksgs as 1/2 µt = Ck ksgs ∆f (4.

2009 4-69 . Inc.11-31) (4. Release 12. the amount of vorticity carried by a given particle i is represented by the circulation Γi and an assumed spatial distribution η: Γi (x. The parameter σ provides control over the size of a vortex particle.11-32) 1 2 2 2 2 2e−|x| /2σ − 1 2e−|x| /2σ 2 2πσ where k is the turbulence kinetic energy.11-34 is bounded by the local grid size.e. two-dimensional in the plane normal to the streamwise direction). where n is ﬁxed equal to 100 from numerical testing. y) 3N [2 ln(3) − 3 ln(2)] (4. With this approach. a perturbation is added on a speciﬁed mean velocity proﬁle via a ﬂuctuating vorticity ﬁeld (i. the size of the vortex was ﬁxed by an ad hoc value of σ. The vortex method is based on the Lagrangian form of the 2D evolution equation of the vorticity and the Biot-Savart law. January 29. To ensure that the vortex will always belong to resolved scales. The vortex method considers only velocity ﬂuctuations in the plane normal to the streamwise direction. σ is calculated from a known proﬁle of mean turbulence kinetic energy and mean dissipation rate at the inlet according to the following: ck 3/2 2 σ= (4. The resulting discretization for the velocity ﬁeld is given by 1 2π N u(x) = Γi i=1 ((xi − x) × z)(1 − e|x−x | |x − xi |2 2 /2σ 2 ) (4. the minimum value of σ in Equation 4.0 c ANSYS.16. y) = 4 η(x) = πAk(x. To make the vortex method generally applicable. or “vortex points” are convected randomly and carry information about the vorticity ﬁeld. a random 2D vortex method is considered.4. The sign of the circulation of each vortex is changed randomly each characteristic time scale τ . If N is the number of vortex points and A is the area of the inlet section. Originally [311]. a local vortex size is speciﬁed through a turbulent mixing length hypothesis. These particles.11 Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Model Vortex Method To generate a time-dependent inlet condition. In the general implementation of the vortex method.11-33) Where z is the unit vector in the streamwise direction. this time scale represents the time necessary for a 2D vortex convected by the bulk velocity in the boundary normal direction to travel along n times its mean characteristic 2D size (σm ). A particle discretization is used to solve this equation.11-34) where c = 0.

If the mean streamwise velocity U is considered as a passive scalar. January 29. [321]. instead of the default option K or Turbulence Intensity. i Since the vortex method theory is based on the modiﬁcation of the velocity ﬁeld normal to the streamwise direction. the velocity ﬂuctuations are expressed according to: √ < u i ui > ∗ u i = ui (4. With the rescaling procedure. a rescaling technique can be applied to the synthetic ﬂow ﬁeld in order to fulﬁll the normal statistic ﬂuctuations < uu >. < vv >. Farther downstream. Inc. it is imperative that you create an inlet plane normal (or as close as possible) to the streamwise velocity direction. if the distribution of the normal ﬂuctuations is known or can be prescribed at the inlet. When this mean velocity gradient is equal to zero. the correct ﬂuctuation distribution is recovered [219]. However. ﬂuctuating velocity components are computed by synthesizing a divergence-free velocity-vector ﬁeld from the summation of Fourier harmonics. 4-70 Release 12. and < ww > as given at the inlet. the number of Fourier harmonics is ﬁxed to 100. In this method.Turbulence In ANSYS FLUENT however. This rescaling procedure is used only if the Reynolds-Stress Components is speciﬁed as the Reynolds-Stress Speciﬁcation Method.11-36) 2/3k This also results in an improved representation of the turbulent ﬂow ﬁeld downstream of the inlet. In ANSYS FLUENT.11-35) where g is the unit vector aligned with the mean velocity gradient U . It is based on the random ﬂow generation technique originally proposed by Kraichnan [171] and modiﬁed by Smirnov et al. only the prescribed kinetic energy proﬁle can be fulﬁlled at the inlet of the domain. the ﬂuctuation u resulting from the transport of U by the planar ﬂuctuating velocity ﬁeld v is modeled by u = −v · g (4. It is derived from a linear model that mimics the inﬂuence of the two-dimensional vortex in the streamwise mean velocity ﬁeld. a random perturbation can be considered instead. Spectral Synthesizer The spectral synthesizer provides an alternative method of generating ﬂuctuating velocity components. a simpliﬁed linear kinematic model (LKM) for the streamwise velocity ﬂuctuations is used [219]. Since the ﬂuctuations are equally distributed among the velocity components.0 c ANSYS. 2009 .

the turbulence is also changed by the presence of the wall in non-trivial ways. the mean velocity ﬁeld is aﬀected through the no-slip condition that has to be satisﬁed at the wall. Release 12. 4.1 Overview Turbulent ﬂows are signiﬁcantly aﬀected by the presence of walls. Obviously.12.12. 2009 4-71 . For the pressure inlet. However. virtual body forces are employed in the momentum equations to add the reconstructed turbulent ﬂuctuations to the velocity ﬁeld. viscous damping reduces the tangential velocity ﬂuctuations. note that such unsteady boundary conditions are appropriate and eﬀective mainly for external aerodynamic ﬂows.5: User-Deﬁned Wall Functions • Section 4.12. Very close to the wall.2: Standard Wall Functions • Section 4.3: Non-Equilibrium Wall Functions • Section 4. Note also that whether the inlet will be fully or partly covered by a RANS zone will depend on the mesh and on the DES model. Unrealistic (“ﬂat”) turbulent proﬁles at inlets will generate unrealistic turbulent eddies at inlets. Both methods are also available for the DES models. the ﬂuctuations generated by both methods will be rapidly damped by the RANS turbulent eddy viscosity. if the inlet is inside a full RANS zone.4: Enhanced Wall Treatment • Section 4.12. These virtual body forces are considered only in the ﬁrst LES cells close to the inlet. the turbulence is rapidly augmented by the production of turbulence kinetic energy due to the large gradients in mean velocity.0 c ANSYS. while kinematic blocking reduces the normal ﬂuctuations. For internal ﬂows. January 29. the ﬂuctuations are added on the mean speciﬁed velocity. Toward the outer part of the nearwall region. Inc.12.6: LES Near-Wall Treatment 4. Finally it should be noted that both methods require realistic inlet conditions (U.12.12 Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows i Both the vortex method and the spectral synthesizer are available for velocity inlet and pressure inlet boundary conditions.1: Overview • Section 4.12. For the velocity inlet. However. however.4.12 Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows Information about near-wall tratments for wall-bounded turbulent ﬂows is presented in the following sections: • Section 4. proﬁles) which can be obtained from separate RANS simulations.k.

ρ 4-72 Release 12. the ﬂow in the regions somewhat far from walls). After all. Numerous experiments have shown that the near-wall region can be largely subdivided into three layers.models.1 illustrates these subdivisions of the near-wall region. deﬁned as τw . called the “viscous sublayer”. called the fully-turbulent layer. Inc. provided that the near-wall mesh resolution is suﬃcient.12.12. accurate representation of the ﬂow in the near-wall region determines successful predictions of wall-bounded turbulent ﬂows. there is an interim region between the viscous sublayer and the fully turbulent layer where the eﬀects of molecular viscosity and turbulence are equally important.. Figure 4. Therefore. Finally. and the (molecular) viscosity plays a dominant role in momentum and heat or mass transfer.1. inasmuch as walls are the main source of mean vorticity and turbulence. Consideration therefore needs to be given as to how to make these models suitable for wall-bounded ﬂows. turbulence plays a major role.Turbulence The near-wall modeling signiﬁcantly impacts the ﬁdelity of numerical solutions.12. the ﬂow is almost laminar. The Spalart-Allmaras and k-ω models were designed to be applied throughout the boundary layer.1: Subdivisions of the Near-Wall Region In Figure 4. 2009 . The k.e. and the momentum and other scalar transports occur most vigorously.0 c ANSYS. and the LES model are primarily valid for turbulent core ﬂows (i. Figure 4. In the innermost layer. plotted in semi-log coordinates. y + ≡ ρuτ y/µ. it is in the nearwall region that the solution variables have large gradients. January 29. where uτ is the friction velocity. In the outer layer. the RSM.

2: Near-Wall Treatments in ANSYS FLUENT In most high-Reynolds-number ﬂows. semi-empirical formulas called “wall functions” are used to bridge the viscosity-aﬀected region between the wall and the fully-turbulent region.12 Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows Wall Functions vs. robust. 2009 4-73 .0 c ANSYS. the turbulence models are modiﬁed to enable the viscosity-aﬀected region to be resolved with a mesh all the way to the wall. Instead. In one approach. Near-Wall Model Traditionally. January 29. and can be reasonably accurate. The wall-function approach is popular because it is economical. It is a practical option for the near-wall treatments for industrial ﬂow simulations. there are two approaches to modeling the near-wall region. the viscosity-aﬀected inner region (viscous sublayer and buﬀer layer) is not resolved. Figure 4. is inadequate in situations where the low-Reynoldsnumber eﬀects are pervasive and the assumptions underlying the wall functions cease to be valid. does not need to be resolved. Inc.12. For the purposes of discussion. The wall-function approach. this will be termed the “near-wall modeling” approach. including the viscous sublayer. Such situations require near-wall models that are valid in the viscosity-aﬀected region and accordingly integrable all the way to the wall. because the viscosity-aﬀected near-wall region.12. In another approach. however. Release 12.4. in which the solution variables change most rapidly. the wall function approach substantially saves computational resources. These two approaches are depicted schematically in Figure 4.2. The use of wall functions obviates the need to modify the turbulence models to account for the presence of the wall.

Turbulence ANSYS FLUENT provides both the wall-function approach and the near-wall modeling approach. They are provided as a default option in ANSYS FLUENT. and have been most widely used in industrial ﬂows. Momentum The law-of-the-wall for mean velocity yields U∗ = where 1/4 UP Cµ kP U ≡ τw /ρ ∗ 1/2 1 ln(Ey ∗ ) κ (4. 2009 .12-1) (4. Inc.0 c ANSYS.2 Standard Wall Functions The standard wall functions in ANSYS FLUENT are based on the work of Launder and Spalding [181].12-2) is the dimensionless velocity. ANSYS FLUENT oﬀers three to four choices of wall-function approaches: • Standard Wall Functions • Non-Equilibrium Wall Functions • Enhanced Wall Functions (as a part of EWT) • User-Deﬁned Wall Functions 4. 4-74 Release 12. Wall Functions Wall functions are a set of semi-empirical formulas and functions that in eﬀect “bridge” or “link” the solution variables at the near-wall cells and the corresponding quantities on the wall. January 29.12. The wall functions comprise • laws-of-the-wall for the mean velocity and temperature (or other scalars) • formulae for the near-wall turbulent quantities Depending on the choice of turbulent model.

12-4) It should be noted that. rather than y + (≡ ρuτ y/µ). oil) is much less than its momentum sublayer thickness. When the mesh is such that y ∗ < 11. it is much larger than the momentum sublayer thickness. or thermal viscous sublayer. the thickness of the thermal sublayer for a high-Prandtl-number ﬂuid (e.g.4.12-3) and κ E UP kP yP µ = = = = = = von K´rm´n constant (= 0. As in the law-of-the-wall for mean velocity.g.0 c ANSYS. y ∗ . on the contrary. Inc.. In ANSYS FLUENT. Energy Reynolds’ analogy between momentum and energy transport gives a similar logarithmic law for mean temperature. the log-law is employed when y ∗ > 11. January 29. ANSYS FLUENT applies the laminar stress-strain relationship that can be written as U ∗ = y∗ (4.225. in general.12 Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows 1/4 ρCµ kP yP y ≡ µ is the dimensionless distance from the wall.225 at the wall-adjacent cells. These quantities are approximately equal in equilibrium turbulent boundary layers. in ANSYS FLUENT. √ δ ≈ Pr δT (4. and changes from ﬂuid to ﬂuid. 2009 4-75 . the law-of-thewall for temperature employed in ANSYS FLUENT comprises the following two diﬀerent laws: • linear law for the thermal conduction sublayer.4187) a a empirical constant (= 9. where conduction is important • logarithmic law for the turbulent region where eﬀects of turbulence dominate conduction The thickness of the thermal conduction layer is. liquid metal).. For example.793) mean velocity of the ﬂuid at the near-wall node P turbulence kinetic energy at the near-wall node P distance from point P to the wall dynamic viscosity of the ﬂuid The logarithmic law for mean velocity is known to be valid for 30 < y ∗ < 300.12-5) Release 12. the laws-of-the-wall for mean velocity and temperature are based on the wall unit. diﬀerent from the thickness of the (momentum) viscous sublayer. For ﬂuids of low Prandtl numbers (e. ∗ 1/2 (4.

due to the heating by viscous dissipation.24 and kP ρ cp q ˙ TP Tw Pr Prt A Uc = = = = = = = = = = −1 1 + 0. January 29. The law-of-the-wall implemented in ANSYS FLUENT has the following composite form: 1/4 1/2 Pr y ∗ + 1 ρPr Cµ kP U 2 P 2 q ˙ Pr 1 ln(Ey ∗ ) + P + κ 1/4 1/2 1 C µ kP ρ q˙ 2 t 2 2 {Prt UP + (Pr − Prt )Uc } ∗ (y ∗ < yT ) (Tw − TP ) ρcp kP T ≡ q ˙ ∗ 1/2 = ∗ (y ∗ > yT ) (4. 2009 .0 c ANSYS.007Pr/Prt (4. 4-76 Release 12. the temperature wall functions include the contribution from the viscous heating [357]. the terms C 1/4 k 1 2 ρPr µ P UP 2 q ˙ and 1/4 1 Cµ kP ρ 2 q ˙ 1/2 2 2 Prt UP + (Pr − Prt )Uc 1/2 will be included in Equation 4. given the molecular Prandtl number of the ﬂuid being modeled. the temperature distribution in the near-wall region can be signiﬁcantly diﬀerent from that of low subsonic ﬂows. ∗ The non-dimensional thermal sublayer thickness.12-7) turbulent kinetic energy at the ﬁrst near-wall node P density of ﬂuid speciﬁc heat of ﬂuid wall heat ﬂux temperature at the ﬁrst near-wall node P temperature at the wall molecular Prandtl number (µcp /kf ) turbulent Prandtl number (0. yT . in Equation 4.85 at the wall) Van Driest constant (= 26) ∗ mean velocity magnitude at y ∗ = yT Note that. for the pressure-based solver.Turbulence In highly compressible ﬂows. Inc.12-6) where P is computed by using the formula given by Jayatilleke [150]: Pr Prt 3/4 P = 9. In ANSYS FLUENT.12-6 is computed as the y ∗ value at which the linear law and the logarithmic law intersect.12-6 only for compressible ﬂow calculations.28e−0.

∗ yT .w ∗ 1/2 = Sc y ∗ 1 Sct κ ln(Ey ∗ ) + Pc ∗ (y ∗ < yc ) ∗ (y ∗ > yc ) (4.12-6. is computed from the intersection of the linear and logarithmic proﬁles.3-42 in Section 7. The boundary condition for k imposed at the wall is ∂k =0 ∂n (4.w − Yi ) ρCµ kP Y ≡ Ji.6 P (4. ANSYS FLUENT assumes that species transport behaves analogously to heat transfer. ˙ The function for P given by Equation 4. Note that Pc and ∗ ∗ yc are calculated in a similar way as P and yT .695 Prough = 3. Sc and Sct are molecular and turbulent Schmidt numbers. and Ji. To ﬁnd a description of the roughness function fr . you may refer to Equation 7. During the iteration. this function is modiﬁed as follows: 0.359 E + E 0. either the linear or the logarithmic proﬁle in Equation 4. given the molecular Prandtl number.3. Then. the law-ofthe-wall for species can be expressed for constant property ﬂow with no viscous dissipation as 1/4 (Yi.14: Wall Roughness Eﬀects in Turbulent Wall-Bounded Flows in the separate User’s Guide. Inc.0 c ANSYS. For the rough walls.12-6 is applied to compute the wall temperature Tw or heat ﬂux q (depending on the type of the thermal boundary conditions).12-8) where E is the wall function constant modiﬁed for the rough walls.12 Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows The procedure of applying the law-of-the-wall for temperature is as follows. the thermal sublayer thickness. Similarly to Equation 4.4. deﬁned by E = E/fr .15Pr 1 1 − E E 0. depending on the y ∗ value at the near-wall cell. Once the physical properties of the ﬂuid being modeled are speciﬁed.w is the diﬀusion ﬂux of species i at the wall. and stored. Turbulence In the k. with the diﬀerence being that the Prandtl numbers are always replaced by the corresponding Schmidt numbers. however. Species When using wall functions for species transport. the k equation is solved in the whole domain including the wall-adjacent cells.models and in the RSM (if the option to obtain wall boundary conditions from the k equation is enabled). its molecular Prandtl number is computed.12-7 is relevant for the smooth walls. January 29. 2009 4-77 .12-9) where Yi is the local species mass fraction.12-10) Release 12.

they tend to become less reliable when the ﬂow situations depart from the ideal conditions that are assumed in their derivation.12-12) The equation is not solved at the wall-adjacent cells.9. However. are computed on the basis of the local equilibrium hypothesis. temperature. the production of k and its dissipation rate are assumed to be equal in the wall-adjacent control volume. The standard wall functions work reasonably well for a broad range of wallbounded ﬂows. Note that.0 c ANSYS. and its dissipation rate. Thus. Among others. the quality of the predictions is likely to be compromised. when the near-wall ﬂows are subjected to severe pressure gradients. are all taken care of by the wall functions. the production of k is based on the logarithmic law and is computed from G k ≈ τw and is computed from C 3/4 k = µ P κyP 3/2 ∂U τw = τw 1/2 ∂y κρkP yP (4. and . species concentration. .12-11) P (4.5.12-12. The non-equilibrium wall functions oﬀered as an additional option that can potentially improve the results in such situations.3 and 4. Accordingly. and when the ﬂows are in strong non-equilibrium. Therefore. the wall boundary conditions for the solution variables. you do not need to be concerned about the boundary conditions at the walls. as shown here.9. 2009 . i Standard wall functions are available with the following viscous models: • k. but instead is computed using Equation 4. Under this assumption. which are the source terms in the k equation. ω and Reynolds stress equations are solved as detailed in Sections 4.models • Reynolds Stress models 4-78 Release 12. at the wall-adjacent cells. the constant-shear and local equilibrium assumptions are the ones that most restrict the universality of the standard wall functions. The standard wall functions described so far are provided as a default option in ANSYS FLUENT. January 29.Turbulence where n is the local coordinate normal to the wall. including mean velocity. Gk . k. Inc. respectively. The production of kinetic energy.

The log-law for mean velocity sensitized to the pressure gradients is 1/4 1/4 U Cµ k 1/2 ρCµ k 1/2 y 1 = ln E τw /ρ κ µ (4. This is achieved by introducing a limiter in the y* calculations such that y∗ = M AX(y∗.3 Non-Equilibrium Wall Functions In addition to the standard wall function described above (which is the default near-wall treatment) a two-layer-based.12 Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows Scalable Wall Functions The purpose of scalable wall functions is to force the usage of the log law in conjunction with the standard wall functions approach.225. Inc. Scalable wall functions can be enabled only when the standard wall functions are used and only via the following text command: define/models/viscous/near-wall-treatment/scalable-wall-functions? 4.12. the y* formulation used for any standard wall function formula is replaced by y∗.12-13) where y∗limit = 11. y∗limit ) (4. non-equilibrium wall function [166] is also available. 2009 4-79 . • The two-layer-based concept is adopted to compute the budget of turbulence kinetic energy (Gk .12-14) where U =U− 1 dp yv y √ ln 2 dx ρκ k yv 2 y − yv yv √ + µ ρκ k + (4.0 c ANSYS. January 29. The use of Equation 4.4.12-13 in the context of the scalable wall functions concept is straightforward.12-15) and yv is the physical viscous sublayer thickness.e. The key elements in the non-equilibrium wall functions are as follows: • Launder and Spalding’s log-law for mean velocity is sensitized to pressure-gradient eﬀects. The law-of-the-wall for mean temperature or species mass fraction remains the same as in the standard wall functions described above. and is computed from Release 12. ) in the wall-neighboring cells. i.

Therefore. y < yv y > yv = 2νk . .12-18 and 4. which is needed to solve the k equation at the wall-neighboring cells. in eﬀect. and the cell-averaged dissipation rate. the cell-averaged production of k. y2 3/2 k . and yv is the dimensional thickness of the viscous sublayer. ∗ µyv ρCµ kP 1/4 1/2 (4. y 2 yv τt = kP . The wall-neighboring cells are assumed to consist of a viscous sublayer and a fully turbulent layer. triangular and tetrahedral grids).0 c ANSYS.225.12-16) The non-equilibrium wall function employs the two-layer concept in computing the budget of turbulence kinetic energy at the wall-adjacent cells.12-19) where yn is the height of the cell (yn = 2yP ). can be computed from the volume average of Gk and of the wall-adjacent cells. deﬁned in Equation 4. The nonequilibrium wall functions account for the eﬀect of pressure gradients on the distortion of the velocity proﬁles. which varies widely from cell to cell in highly non-equilibrium ﬂows.g. In such cases the assumption of local equilibrium. The following proﬁle assumptions for turbulence quantities are made: 0. y < yv k= τw . the turbulence kinetic energy budget for the wallneighboring cells is eﬀectively depends on the proportions of the viscous sublayer and the fully turbulent layer.Turbulence yv ≡ ∗ where yv = 11.12-19. the appropriate volume averages are used. 2009 . the non-equilibrium wall functions. For quadrilateral and hexahedral cells for which the volume average can be approximated with a depth-average. 4-80 Release 12. January 29. y > yv kP . Gk ≡ and 1 ≡ yn yn 0 1 yn yn 0 τt 2 ∂U 1 τw yn ln dy = 1/4 1/2 ∂y κyn ρCµ kP yv (4. For cells with other shapes (e.12-17) −3/4 where C ∗ = κCµ .12-16. partly account for the non-equilibrium eﬀects that are neglected in the standard wall functions. In Equations 4. is no longer valid.. Inc. C ∗y y < yv y > yv (4.12-18) 1 2ν kP yn dy = + ∗ ln kP yn yv C yv 1/2 (4. when the production of the turbulent kinetic energy is equal to the rate of its distruction. Gk . Using these proﬁles.

. improvements can be obtained. Non-Equilibrium Wall Functions Because of the capability to partly account for the eﬀects of pressure gradients. 2009 4-81 .12 Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows Standard Wall Functions vs. you must employ the near-wall modeling approach combined with the adequate mesh resolution in the nearwall region. Examples are as follows: • Pervasive low-Reynolds-number or near-wall eﬀects (e. low-velocity ﬂuid ﬂow). • High three-dimensionality in the near-wall region (e. reattachment. Ekman spiral ﬂow. and if it is considered critically important for the success of your simulation.g.g. particularly in the prediction of wall shear (skin-friction coeﬃcient) and heat transfer (Nusselt or Stanton number). Release 12. Inc. In such ﬂows. the nonequilibrium wall functions are recommended for use in complex ﬂows involving separation. ﬂow through a small gap or highly viscous. strongly skewed 3D boundary layers). If any of the above listed features prevail in the ﬂow you are modeling. • Strong body forces (e. and impingement where the mean ﬂow and turbulence are subjected to pressure gradients and rapid changes. ﬂow near rotating disks. January 29..models • Reynolds Stress Transport models Limitations of the Wall Function Approach The standard wall functions give reasonable predictions for the majority of high-Reynoldsnumber wall-bounded ﬂows. • Massive transpiration through the wall (blowing/suction). the above wall functions become less reliable when the ﬂow conditions depart too much from the ideal conditions underlying the wall functions.0 c ANSYS. however. buoyancy-driven ﬂows). The non-equilibrium wall functions further extend the applicability of the wall function approach by including the eﬀects of pressure gradient. i Non-equilibrium wall functions are available with the following turbulence closures: • k.g.. ANSYS FLUENT provides the enhanced wall treatment for such situations. This approach can be used with the k. • Severe pressure gradients leading to boundary layer separations.4.and the RSM models.

as described in the following sections. y deﬁned in this way is independent of the mesh topology. at the same time. Furthermore. January 29. then the enhanced wall treatment will be identical to the traditional two-layer zonal model (see below for details).12-20) where y is the wall-normal distance calculated at the cell centers. where the low-Reynold-number approach is adequate. To achieve the goal of having a near-wall modeling approach that will possess the accuracy of the standard two-layer approach for ﬁne near-wall meshes and that. 4-82 Release 12. the whole domain is subdivided into a viscosityaﬀected region and a fully-turbulent region. deﬁned as √ ρy k Rey ≡ µ (4. 2009 . excessive error should not be incurred for the intermediate meshes where the ﬁrst near-wall node is placed neither in the fully turbulent region. This interpretation allows y to be uniquely deﬁned in ﬂow domains of complex shape involving multiple walls. the restriction that the near-wall mesh must be suﬃciently ﬁne everywhere might impose too large a computational requirement. However. In addition. one would like to have a near-wall formulation that can be used with coarse meshes (usually referred to as wall-function meshes) as well as ﬁne meshes (low-Reynolds-number meshes).12. Ideally. The two-layer approach is an integral part of the enhanced wall treatment and is used to specify both and the turbulent viscosity in the near-wall cells. y is interpreted as the distance to the nearest wall: y ≡ min r − rw rw ∈Γw (4.4 Enhanced Wall Treatment Enhanced wall treatment is a near-wall modeling method that combines a two-layer model with so-called enhanced wall functions. ANSYS FLUENT can combine the two-layer model with enhanced wall functions. where the wall functions are suitable.Turbulence 4. The demarcation of the two regions is determined by a wall-distance-based. In this approach. and rw is the position vector of the wall boundary. will not signiﬁcantly reduce accuracy for wall-function meshes. If the near-wall mesh is ﬁne enough to be able to resolve the viscous sublayer (typically with the ﬁrst near-wall node placed at y + ≈ 1).12-21) where r is the position vector at the ﬁeld point. In ANSYS FLUENT. Γw is the union of all the wall boundaries involved. nor in the direct vicinity of the wall at y + ≈ 1. Rey .0 c ANSYS. Inc. Two-Layer Model for Enhanced Wall Treatment In ANSYS FLUENT’s near-wall model. the viscosity-aﬀected near-wall region is completely resolved all the way to the viscous sublayer. turbulent Reynolds number.

4 and 4. By deﬁning a width such that the value of λ will be within 1% of its far-ﬁeld value given a variation of ∆Rey .12 Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows In the fully turbulent region (Rey > Re∗ . the result is A= |∆Rey | artanh(0.9) are employed. is computed from √ µt.9 for the k. µt . the one-equation model of Wolfy stein [382] is employed. the k. January 29.12-22 is computed from [51] = yC ∗ µ 1 − e−Rey /Aµ (4.98) (4.4 and 4. Release 12.2layer = ρ Cµ µ k (4. 2009 4-83 . and Realizable k. as proposed by Jongen [153]: µt. A blending function. ∆Rey would be assigned a value that is between 5% and 20% of Re∗ .12-25) The constant A determines the width of the blending function. λ . the turbulent viscosity.4: Standard.enh = λ µt + (1 − λ )µt. The y main purpose of the blending function λ is to prevent solution convergence from being impeded when the value of µt obtained in the outer layer does not match with the value of µt returned by the Wolfstein model at the edge of the viscosity-aﬀected region.models or the RSM y y (described in Sections 4. The blending function has the following form: Rey − Re∗ 1 y λ = 1 + tanh 2 A (4.0 c ANSYS. However. In the one-equation model.12-24) where µt is the high-Reynolds-number deﬁnition as described in Section 4.9. In the viscosity-aﬀected near-wall region (Rey < Re∗ ).12-26) Typically. RNG.Models or 4.12-22) where the length scale that appears in Equation 4. is deﬁned in such a way that it is equal to unity away from walls and is zero in the vicinity of the walls.models or the RSM.4. in which the two-layer deﬁnition is smoothly blended with the high-Reynolds-number µt deﬁnition from the outer region.12-23) The two-layer formulation for turbulent viscosity described above is used as a part of the enhanced wall treatment. the momentum equations and the k equation are retained as described in Sections 4. Re∗ = 200). Inc.2layer (4.

12-27 are computed from Chen and Patel [51]: = yC ∗ 1 − e−Rey /A (4.12-30) a(y + )4 1 + by + (4. The constants in Equations 4. Similarly.12-28. A = 2C ∗ (4. are taken from [51] and are as follows: C ∗ −3/4 = κCµ .e.Turbulence The ﬁeld in the viscosity-aﬀected region is computed from k 3/2 = (4.. and fully-turbulent outer region) it is necessary to formulate the law-of-the wall as a single wall law for the entire wall region.12-29) Enhanced Wall Functions To have a method that can extend its applicability throughout the near-wall region (i.12-32) 4-84 Release 12. January 29. it is instead obtained algebraically from Equation 4. buﬀer region.12-31) is + 1 du du+ du+ = eΓ lam + e Γ turb dy + dy + dy + (4. Aµ = 70. ANSYS FLUENT achieves this by blending the linear (laminar) and logarithmic (turbulent) lawsof-the-wall using a function suggested by Kader [155]: u+ = eΓ u+ + e Γ u+ lam turb where the blending function is given by: Γ=− where a = 0.12-27. 2009 .12-28) If the whole ﬂow domain is inside the viscosity-aﬀected region (Rey < 200). Inc. is not obtained by solving the transport equation.12-27) The length scales that appear in Equation 4.0 c ANSYS.12-23 and 4.01 and b = 5. viscous sublayer. the general equation for the derivative du+ dy + 1 (4. ANSYS FLUENT uses a procedure for the blending of that is similar to the µt -blending in order to ensure a smooth transition between the algebraicallyspeciﬁed in the inner region and the obtained from solution of the transport equation in the outer region.

This formula also guarantees the correct asymptotic behavior for large and small values of y + and reasonable representation of velocity proﬁles in the cases where y + falls inside the wall buﬀer region (3 < y + < 10).12-38) Release 12.12 Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows This approach allows the fully turbulent law to be easily modiﬁed and extended to take into account other eﬀects such as pressure gradients or variable properties.4. The laminar law-of-the-wall is determined from the following expression: du+ lam = 1 + αy + dy + (4. Inc. The enhanced turbulent law-of-the-wall for compressible ﬂow with heat transfer and pressure gradients has been derived by combining the approaches of White and Cristoph [378] and Huang et al. ys = 60.12-37) + + where ys is the location at which the log-law slope is ﬁxed.12-35) (4. The coeﬃcient α in Equation 4. 2009 4-85 . β. Equation 4. and γ all equal 0.12-36) (4.0 c ANSYS. The enhanced wall functions were developed by smoothly blending an enhanced turbulent wall law with the laminar wall law. By default. [134]: du+ 1 turb = + S (1 − βu+ − γ(u+ )2 ) dy + κy where + 1 + αy + for y + < ys + + 1 + αys for y + ≥ ys 1/2 (4.12-34) α ≡ νw dp µ dp = 2 ∗ 3 τw u∗ dx ρ (u ) dx ∗ σt qw u σt qw β ≡ = cp τw Tw ρcp u∗ Tw σt (u∗ )2 γ ≡ 2cp Tw (4.12-33) S = and (4.12-33 is an ordinary diﬀerential equation and ANSYS FLUENT will provide an appropriate analytical solution. If α. January 29.12-33 represents the inﬂuences of pressure gradients while the coeﬃcients β and γ represent the thermal eﬀects. an analytical solution would lead to the classical turbulent logarithmic law-of-the-wall.

and the coeﬃcients a and b are deﬁned as in Equation 4. 2009 . January 29.0 c ANSYS. The uniﬁed wall thermal formulation blends the laminar and logarithmic proﬁles according to the method of Kader [155]: T+ ≡ (Tw − TP ) ρcp uT q ˙ + + = eΓ Tlam + e Γ Tturb 1 (4.12-43) + Tturb = Prt u+ + P + turb ρu∗ 2 Pr u − − 1 (u+ )2 (u∗ )2 c 2q ˙ Prt where the quantity u+ is the value of u+ at the ﬁctitious “crossover” between the laminar c and turbulent region. Integration of Equation 4. These eﬀects are neglected because they are thought to be of minor importance when they occur close to the wall.2: Energy). 4-86 Release 12. resulting in the following deﬁnition for turbulent and laminar thermal wall functions: + Tlam = Pr u+ + lam ρu∗ 2 u 2q ˙ (4. In this case. A similar procedure is also used for species wall functions when the enhanced wall treatment is used.12-43 are replaced by adequate Schmidt numbers. The function P is deﬁned in the same way as for the standard wall functions.12-42) (4.12-42 and 4.12-41) where Pr is the molecular Prandtl number. the enhanced thermal wall functions follow the same logic as for standard thermal wall functions (see Section 4.2: Species for details about the species wall functions.12-40.12-38 results in u+ = y + 1 + lam α + y 2 (4.12-6).12-39) Enhanced thermal wall functions follow the same approach developed for the proﬁle of u+ .12-40) where the notation for TP and q is the same as for standard thermal wall functions (see ˙ Equation 4. Inc. the Prandtl numbers in Equations 4. Apart from the formulation for T + in Equation 4. See Section 4.12-31. Furthermore. the blending factor Γ is deﬁned as Γ = − a(Pr y + )4 1 + bPr3 y + (4.12.Turbulence Note that the above expression only includes eﬀects of pressure gradients through α.12. while the eﬀects of variable properties due to heat transfer and compressibility on the laminar wall law are neglected.

For more information about user-deﬁned wall functions. However. Gk .based DES model • Reynolds Stress Transport models The enhanced wall functions are available with the following turbulence models: • Spalart-Allmaras model • k-ω models • k-ω based DES model • Large Eddy Simulation However. the production of turbulence kinetic energy. the enhanced wall functions are not available with SpalartAllmaras model.models • Realizable k. 2009 4-87 . 4.4.3.0 c ANSYS. i User-deﬁned wall functions are available with the following turbulence closures: • k.model is enabled. ensuring a formulation that is valid throughout the near-wall region.12-30 and 4.12-10). is computed using the velocity gradients that are consistent with the enhanced law-of-the-wall (Equations 4. Inc.28: DEFINE WALL FUNCTIONS in the separate UDF Manual. see Section 2.12-32). Selecting the UserDeﬁned Wall Functions under Near-wall Treatment allows you to hook a Law-of-the-Wall UDF.12 Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows The boundary conditions for the turbulence kinetic energy are similar to the ones used with the standard wall functions (Equation 4.5 User-Deﬁned Wall Functions This option is only available when one of the k. i The enhanced wall treatment is available with the following turbulence closures: • k.models Release 12. January 29.12.

and the law-of-the-wall is employed: u 1 ρuτ y = ln E uτ κ µ (4. B = 1/7 are the constants. who proposed an analytical integration of the power-law near-wall velocity distribution resulting in the following expressions for the wall shear stress: 2µ|up | ∆z 1+B 1−B 1−B A 2 for |up | ≤ 1+B µ ρ∆z |τw | = ρ + 1+B A B µ ρ∆z |up | 2 1+B 2 µ A 1−B 2ρ∆z 2 µ A 1−B 2ρ∆z for |up | > (4.6 LES Near-Wall Treatment When the mesh is ﬁne enough to resolve the laminar sublayer. the wall shear stress is obtained from the laminar stress-strain relationship: u ρuτ y = uτ µ (4.0 c ANSYS.12-46) where up is the wall-parallel velocity. there is an alternative near-wall approach based on the work of Werner and Wengle [375]. If the mesh is such that the ﬁrst a a near-wall point is within the buﬀer region. January 29. 2009 . The Werner-Wengle wall functions can be enabled using the define/models/viscous/ near-wall-treatment/werner-wengle-wall-fn? text command. A = 8.12-45) where κ is the von K´rm´n constant and E = 9. and ∆z is the near-wall control volume length scale. it is assumed that the centroid of the wall-adjacent cell falls within the logarithmic region of the boundary layer.12. Inc.3. For the LES simulations in ANSYS FLUENT.Turbulence 4. 4-88 Release 12.12-30.12-44) If the mesh is too coarse to resolve the laminar sublayer. then two above laws are blended in accordance with the Equation 4.793.

2: Modeling Conductive and Convective Heat Transfer • Section 5.3: Modeling Radiation. Physical models involving conduction and/or convection only are the simplest (Section 5. Release 12. 2009 5-1 . Heat transfer can occur by three main methods: conduction. Information is provided in the following sections: • Section 5.1: Introduction • Section 5.2. thus greatly reducing the required computational eﬀort in certain cases. and Section 13. Inc.1 Introduction The ﬂow of thermal energy from matter occupying one region in space to matter occupying a diﬀerent region in space is known as heat transfer. Section 13.2: Modeling Conductive and Convective Heat Transfer). 5.2: Modeling Conductive and Convective Heat Transfer. while buoyancy-driven ﬂow or natural convection (Section 5.3: Modeling Radiation) are more complex. Heat Transfer This chapter describes the theory behind heat transfer in ANSYS FLUENT. Depending on your problem.4: Modeling Periodic Heat Transfer in the separate User’s Guide). convection.4: Modeling Periodic Heat Transfer in the separate User’s Guide.3: Modeling Radiation For more information about using heat transfer in ANSYS FLUENT. see Section 13.2: Natural Convection and Buoyancy-Driven Flows Theory).Chapter 5. January 29. see Chapter 13: Modeling Heat Transfer in the separate User’s Guide. ANSYS FLUENT will solve a variation of the energy equation that takes into account the heat transfer methods you have speciﬁed. ANSYS FLUENT is also able to predict heat transfer in periodically repeating geometries (Section 13. For more information about using heat transfer models in ANSYS FLUENT.0 c ANSYS. and radiation. and radiation models (Section 5.

2. deﬁned according to the turbulence model being used). In Equation 5. • Section 5. where kt is the turbulent thermal conductivity. respectively.2.0 c ANSYS. Inc.1: Heat Transfer Theory • Section 5.2-3) and for incompressible ﬂows as 5-2 Release 12.2.Heat Transfer 5. species diﬀusion.2: Natural Convection and Buoyancy-Driven Flows Theory 5. and viscous dissipation. January 29. When your ANSYS FLUENT model includes heat transfer you will need to activate the relevant physical models.1 Heat Transfer Theory The Energy Equation ANSYS FLUENT solves the energy equation in the following form: ∂ (ρE) + ∂t · (v(ρE + p)) = · keﬀ T − j hj Jj + (τ eﬀ · v) + Sh (5. see Chapter 13: Modeling Heat Transfer in the separate User’s Guide.2-1) where keﬀ is the eﬀective conductivity (k + kt . 2009 .2-1.2 Modeling Conductive and Convective Heat Transfer ANSYS FLUENT allows you to include heat transfer within the ﬂuid and/or solid regions in your model. The ﬁrst three terms on the right-hand side of Equation 5.2-2) where sensible enthalpy h is deﬁned for ideal gases as h= j Yj hj (5. Information about heat transfer theory is presented in the following subsections. Problems ranging from thermal mixing within a ﬂuid to conduction in composite solids can thus be handled by ANSYS FLUENT. E =h− p v2 + ρ 2 (5. and input material properties that govern heat transfer and/or vary with temperature as part of the setup. and any other volumetric heat sources you have deﬁned.2-1 represent energy transfer due to conduction. and Jj is the diﬀusion ﬂux of species j. For information about setting up and using heat transfer in your ANSYS FLUENT model. supply thermal boundary conditions. Sh includes the heat of chemical reaction.

j cp. Release 12.5.2-3 and 5.15 K. ANSYS FLUENT solves the total enthalpy form of the energy equation: ∂ (ρH) + ∂t · (ρvH) = · kt H + Sh cp (5.j ) is the formation enthalpy of species j at the reference temperature Tref.0 c ANSYS. Tref cp. The total enthalpy H is deﬁned as H= j Yj H j (5. For this reason. Inc. January 29.j . Pressure work and kinetic energy are always accounted for when you are modeling compressible ﬂow or using the density-based solver.2 Modeling Conductive and Convective Heat Transfer h= j Yj hj + p ρ (5. When asked to include pressure work in energy equation? and include kinetic energy in energy equation?.j dT (5. use the define/models/energy? text command. If you wish to include these terms. 2009 5-3 .2-6) Under the assumption that the Lewis number (Le) = 1. j Inclusion of Pressure Work and Kinetic Energy Terms Equation 5. the conduction and species diﬀusion terms combine to give the ﬁrst term on the right-hand side of the above equation while the contribution from viscous dissipation appears in the non-conservative form as the second term.2-4.j ) j (5.2-8) h0 (Tref. respond by entering yes in the console window.2-5) The Energy Equation for the Non-Premixed Combustion Model When the non-adiabatic non-premixed combustion model is enabled.2-1 includes pressure work and kinetic energy terms which are often negligible in incompressible ﬂows.2-4) In Equations 5.j dT + h0 (Tref.2-7) where Yj is the mass fraction of species j and T Hj = Tref. the pressure-based solver by default does not include the pressure work or kinetic energy when you are solving incompressible ﬂow. Yj is the mass fraction of species j and T hj = where Tref is 298.

ANSYS FLUENT does not automatically activate the viscous dissipation if you have deﬁned a compressible ﬂow model. When the density-based solver is used. When the pressure-based solver is used. Br.2-1 and 5. 5-4 Release 12.0 c ANSYS. Inclusion of the Species Diffusion Term Equations 5. When your problem requires inclusion of the viscous dissipation terms and you are using the pressure-based solver. because it is included in the ﬁrst term on the right-hand side of Equation 5. you should activate the terms using the Viscous Heating option in the Viscous Model dialog box. this term is always included in the energy equation. approaches or exceeds unity. where 2 µUe Br = k∆T (5. however.2-6 both include the eﬀect of enthalpy transport due to species diﬀusion. When the pressure-based solver is used. the viscous dissipation terms are always included when the energy equation is solved. ANSYS FLUENT’s default form of the energy equation does not include them (because viscous heating is often negligible). Viscous heating will be important when the Brinkman number.2-6 include viscous dissipation terms. Note. Inc. Compressible ﬂows typically have Br ≥ 1. When the non-adiabatic non-premixed combustion model is being used. the term · j hj Jj is included in Equation 5. this term does not explicitly appear in the energy equation. you can disable the Diﬀusion Energy Source option in the Species Model dialog box.2-1 and 5.Heat Transfer Inclusion of the Viscous Dissipation Terms Equations 5.2-1 by default. If you do not want to include it. that when the pressure-based solver is used. January 29.2-9) and ∆T represents the temperature diﬀerence in the system. When the density-based solver is used.2-6. 2009 . which describe the thermal energy created by viscous shear in the ﬂow.

the heat of formation is included in the deﬁnition of enthalpy (see Equation 5.2: Solid Conditions in the separate User’s Guide).12.2.rxn = − j h0 j Rj Mj (5. Interphase Energy Sources It should be noted that the energy sources.2-1 or 5.2-7).2-6 also includes radiation source terms. See Section 5.2-1 include the source of energy due to chemical reaction: Sh. also include heat transfer between the continuous and the discrete phase. Release 12. the energy transport equation used by ANSYS FLUENT has the following form: ∂ (ρh) + ∂t where ρ h k T Sh · (vρh) = · (k T ) + Sh (5. 2009 5-5 . Inc.2-11 represents convective energy transfer due to rotational or translational motion of the solids. Sh in Equation 5. respectively.0 c ANSYS. In the energy equation used for non-adiabatic non-premixed combustion (Equation 5.1: Coupling Between the Discrete and Continuous Phases.2-10) where h0 is the enthalpy of formation of species j and Rj is the volumetric rate of creation j of species j. This is discussed further in Section 15. Sh .5. Energy Sources Due To Radiation When one of the radiation models is being used.3: Modeling Radiation for details. Energy Equation in Solid Regions In solid regions.2 Modeling Conductive and Convective Heat Transfer Energy Sources Due to Reaction Sources of energy.2-6). so reaction sources of energy are not included in Sh . in Equation 5. The velocity ﬁeld v is computed from the motion speciﬁed for the solid zone (see Section 7. The terms on the right-hand side of Equation 5. January 29. Sh .2-11) = density T = sensible enthalpy. Tref cp dT = conductivity = temperature = volumetric heat source The second term on the left-hand side of Equation 5.2-11 are the heat ﬂux due to conduction and volumetric heat sources within the solid.

2 Natural Convection and Buoyancy-Driven Flows Theory When heat is added to a ﬂuid and the ﬂuid density varies with temperature.2-13) 5-6 Release 12. By default.5. you may wish to specify the net inlet transport of energy rather than the inlet temperature.0 c ANSYS. To turn oﬀ inlet diﬀusion. however.5: Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity for Solids in the separate User’s Guide for details on specifying anisotropic conductivity for solid materials. If you are using the pressure-based solver. depends on the gradient of the computed temperature ﬁeld. Such buoyancy-driven ﬂows are termed natural-convection (or mixed-convection) ﬂows and can be modeled by ANSYS FLUENT.2-12) where kij is the conductivity matrix. In some cases. 2009 . ANSYS FLUENT allows you to specify anisotropic conductivity for solid materials. January 29. 5. See Section 8. a ﬂow can be induced due to the force of gravity acting on the density variations. use the define/models/energy? text command and respond no when asked to Include diffusion at inlets? Inlet diﬀusion cannot be turned oﬀ if you are using the density-based solver. The importance of buoyancy forces in a mixed convection ﬂow can be measured by the ratio of the Grashof and Reynolds numbers: gβ∆T L Gr 2 = v2 Re (5.2.Heat Transfer Anisotropic Conductivity in Solids When you use the pressure-based solver. Thus the diﬀusion component (and therefore the net inlet transport) is not speciﬁed a priori. you can do this by disabling inlet energy diﬀusion. Inc. The convection component is ﬁxed by the inlet temperature speciﬁed by you. Diffusion at Inlets The net transport of energy at inlets consists of both the convection and diﬀusion components. ANSYS FLUENT includes the diﬀusion ﬂux of energy at inlets. The conduction term for an anisotropic solid has the form · (kij T ) (5. The diﬀusion component.

3: Modeling Radiation in the separate User’s Guide.3 Modeling Radiation When this number approaches or exceeds unity. 2009 5-7 . January 29.4: Rosseland Radiation Model Theory • Section 5.3.9: Choosing a Radiation Model For information about setting up and using radiation models in ANSYS FLUENT. with transition to turbulence occurring over the range of 108 < Ra < 1010 .0 c ANSYS.2-16) 1 ρ ∂ρ ∂T (5. 5. the strength of the buoyancy-induced ﬂow is measured by the Rayleigh number: Ra = gβ∆T L3 ρ µα (5.3. Inc.2-15) p Rayleigh numbers less than 108 indicate a buoyancy-induced laminar ﬂow. see Section 13. In pure natural convection.2-14) where β is the thermal expansion coeﬃcient: β=− and α is the thermal diﬀusivity: α= k ρcp (5. you should expect strong buoyancy contributions to the ﬂow.3.6: Discrete Ordinates (DO) Radiation Model Theory • Section 5.7: Surface-to-Surface (S2S) Radiation Model Theory • Section 5.3.8: Radiation in Combusting Flows • Section 5.3.3. Conversely. buoyancy forces may be ignored in your simulation.3.5: Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM) Theory • Section 5.5.3: P-1 Radiation Model Theory • Section 5.1: Overview and Limitations • Section 5.3 Modeling Radiation Information about radiation modeling theory is presented in the following sections: • Section 5. Release 12.3.3. if it is very small.2: Radiative Transfer Equation • Section 5.

5-8 Release 12. Typically this will occur at high temperatures where the fourth-order dependence of the radiative heat ﬂux on temperature implies that radiation will dominate. convection. 282] In addition to these radiation models. glass ﬁber drawing. January 29. in your heat transfer simulations. with or without a participating medium.1 Overview and Limitations ANSYS FLUENT provides ﬁve radiation models which allow you to include radiation.3. 2009 . Inc. and/or conduction heat transfer • radiation through windows in HVAC applications. and cabin heat transfer analysis in automotive applications • radiation in glass processing. • Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM) [47. 4 4 Qrad = σ(Tmax − Tmin ). Heating or cooling of surfaces due to radiation and/or heat sources or sinks due to radiation within the ﬂuid phase can be included in your model using one of the following radiation models. Typical applications well suited for simulation using radiative heat transfer include the following: • radiative heat transfer from ﬂames • surface-to-surface radiant heating or cooling • coupled radiation. is large compared to the heat transfer rate due to convection or conduction. 315] • Rosseland Radiation Model [315] • Surface-to-Surface (S2S) Radiation Model [315] • Discrete Ordinates (DO) Radiation Model [56. ANSYS FLUENT also provides a solar load model that allows you to include the eﬀects of solar radiation in your simulation.Heat Transfer 5. and ceramic processing You should include radiative heat transfer in your simulation when the radiant heat ﬂux.0 c ANSYS. 312] • P-1 Radiation Model [52.

Advantages and Limitations of the P-1 Model The P-1 model has several advantages over the DTRM. the P-1 model can easily be applied to complicated geometries with curvilinear coordinates. Inc.0 c ANSYS. Release 12. • DTRM is not compatible with parallel processing. and it applies to a wide range of optical thicknesses. • There may be a loss of accuracy. if the optical thickness is small. January 29. For combustion applications where the optical thickness is large. In addition. • The implementation assumes gray radiation. • The eﬀect of scattering is not included.5. You should be aware of the following limitations when using the P-1 radiation model: • P-1 model assumes that all surfaces are diﬀuse. For the P-1 model.3-1) is a diﬀusion equation. • Solving a problem with a large number of rays is CPU-intensive. depending on the complexity of the geometry. The model includes the eﬀect of scattering. • The implementation assumes gray radiation. You should be aware of the following limitations when using the DTRM in ANSYS FLUENT: • DTRM assumes that all surfaces are diﬀuse. • P-1 model tends to over-predict radiative ﬂuxes from localized heat sources or sinks. This means that the reﬂection of incident radiation at the surface is isotropic with respect to the solid angle. the RTE (Equation 5. which is easy to solve with little CPU demand. • DTRM is not compatible with non-conformal interface or sliding meshes.3 Modeling Radiation Advantages and Limitations of the DTRM The primary advantages of the DTRM are threefold: it is a relatively simple model. the P-1 model works reasonably well. This means that the reﬂection of incident radiation at the surface is isotropic with respect to the solid angle. you can increase the accuracy by increasing the number of rays. 2009 5-9 .

The non-gray implementation in ANSYS FLUENT is compatible with all the models with which the gray implementation of the DO model can be used. However. Glass. The current implementation is restricted to either gray radiation or non-gray radiation using a gray-band model. However. Note also that the Rosseland model is not available when the density-based solver is being used. which absorb and emit energy at distinct wave numbers [234]. and particulate eﬀects. displays banded behavior of this type. 5-10 Release 12. Advantages and Limitations of the DO Model The DO model spans the entire range of optical thicknesses. it is available with the pressurebased solver. anisotropy. and memory requirements are modest. The weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model (WSGGM) cannot be used to specify the absorption coeﬃcient in each band. The implementation allows the speciﬁcation of spectral emissivity at walls. Thus. Since it does not solve an extra transport equation for the incident radiation (as the P-1 model does). some researchers [98] have used gray-band models to model gas behavior by approximating the absorption coeﬃcients within each band as a constant. The non-gray implementation in ANSYS FLUENT is intended for use with participating media with a spectral absorption coeﬃcient aλ that varies in a stepwise fashion across spectral bands. The modeling of non-gray gas radiation is still an evolving ﬁeld. the Rosseland model is faster than the P-1 model and requires less memory. and allows you to solve problems ranging from surface-to-surface radiation to participating radiation in combustion problems.0 c ANSYS. Computational cost is moderate for typical angular discretizations. January 29. the non-gray implementation assumes a constant absorption coeﬃcient within each wavelength band. semi-transparent media. The Rosseland model can be used only for optically thick media.Heat Transfer Advantages and Limitations of the Rosseland Model The Rosseland model has two advantages over the P-1 model. It also allows the solution of radiation at semi-transparent walls. Solving a problem with a ﬁne angular discretization may be CPU-intensive. The current implementation does not model the behavior of gases such as carbon dioxide or water vapor. The emissivity is assumed to be constant within each band. only. but varies smoothly within the band. It is recommended for use when the optical thickness exceeds 3. Inc. for example. 2009 . The implementation in ANSYS FLUENT can be used in this fashion if desired. it is possible to include scattering.

although the view factor calculation itself is CPU-intensive. You should be aware of the following limitations when using the S2S radiation model: • S2S model assumes that all surfaces are diﬀuse.g. • S2S model cannot be used to model participating radiation problems. This can be minimized by using a cluster of surface faces. hanging nodes.3 Modeling Radiation Advantages and Limitations of the S2S Model The surface-to-surface (S2S) radiation model is good for modeling the enclosure radiative transfer without participating media (e. radiative space heaters. In such cases. and automotive underhood cooling systems). This increased time for view factor calculation will be especially pronounced when the emitting/absorbing surfaces are the polygonal faces of polyhedral cells. Release 12. As compared to the DTRM and the DO radiation models. solar collector systems. Inc. spacecraft heat rejection systems. • The implementation assumes gray radiation.0 c ANSYS. • S2S model does not support non-conformal interfaces. 2009 5-11 . the methods for participating radiation may not always be eﬃcient. although the CPU time is independent of the number of clusters that are used.5. the S2S model has a much faster time per iteration. • S2S model with hemicube/adaptive view factor methods cannot be used if your model contains symmetry boundary conditions. or mesh adaption. • S2S model cannot be used if your model contains periodic boundary conditions. • The storage and memory requirements increase very rapidly as the number of surface faces increases.. January 29.

Inc.3. emitting.3-1) position vector direction vector scattering direction vector path length absorption coeﬃcient refractive index scattering coeﬃcient Stefan-Boltzmann constant (5. January 29. s ) Φ(s · s ) dΩ 0 (5. 2009 . Absorption and scattering loss: I (a+ σs) ds Outgoing radiation I + (dI/ds)ds Incoming radiation (I) Gas emission: (aσT 4 π) ds / Scattering addition ds Figure 5. Figure 5.669 × 10−8 W/m2 -K4 ) radiation intensity. which depends on position (r) and direction (s) local temperature phase function solid angle (a + σs )s is the optical thickness or opacity of the medium.1 illustrates the process of radiative heat transfer.Heat Transfer 5. The refractive index n is important when considering radiation in semi-transparent media. s) = an2 + ds π 4π where r s s s a n σs σ I T Φ Ω = = = = = = = = = = = = 4π I(r.3.3. and scattering medium at position r in the direction s is dI(r.2 Radiative Transfer Equation The radiative transfer equation (RTE) for an absorbing. s) σT 4 σs + (a + σs )I(r.0 c ANSYS.1: Radiative Heat Transfer 5-12 Release 12.

The P-1 Model Equations As mentioned above.3-2 simpliﬁes to qr = −Γ G The transport equation for G is · (Γ G) − aG + 4an2 σT 4 = SG (5. ANSYS FLUENT provides the weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model (WSGGM) for computation of a variable absorption coeﬃcient. and C is the linear-anisotropic phase function coeﬃcient.3-5) (5.3.1: Steps in Using the Radiation Models in the separate User’s Guide. The Rosseland model also requires you to enter a refractive index.3. path length.3. 5.8: Radiation in Combusting Flows for details. the following equation is obtained for the radiation ﬂux qr : qr = − 1 G 3(a + σs ) − Cσs (5. described below. Rosseland.3-4) 1 (3(a + σs ) − Cσs ) (5. 315].3 P-1 Radiation Model Theory The P-1 radiation model is the simplest case of the more general P-N model. a and the scattering coeﬃcient σs can be constants. See Section 5. the P-1 radiation model is the simplest case of the P-N model. The refractive index n of the medium must be provided as a part of the calculation for this type of problem.5. 2009 5-13 . Inc. January 29.3 Modeling Radiation The DTRM and the P-1. The discrete ordinates implementation can model radiation in semitransparent media. If only four terms in the series are used. and DO radiation models require the absorption coeﬃcient a as input.3-3) Release 12. see Section 13. σs is the scattering coeﬃcient. This section provides details about the equations used in the P-1 model. G is the incident radiation.3-2) where a is the absorption coeﬃcient.0 c ANSYS. and a can also be a function of local concentrations of H2 O and CO2 . For information about setting up the model. After introducing the parameter Γ= Equation 5. and total pressure. or use the default value of 1. which is based on the expansion of the radiation intensity I into an orthogonal series of spherical harmonics [52.

. and scattering particles.3-8) where Ep is the equivalent emission of the particles.0 c ANSYS. and scattering medium containing absorbing. emitting. you can include the eﬀect of particles in the P-1 radiation model.) For a gray. ap is the equivalent absorption coeﬃcient. s is the unit vector in the direction of scattering. and a negative value means that more radiant energy is scattered backward than forward. Anisotropic Scattering Included in the P-1 radiation model is the capability for modeling anisotropic scattering.3-6) The expression for − ·qr can be directly substituted into the energy equation to account for heat sources (or sinks) due to radiation. C ranges from −1 to 1. scattering that is equally likely in all directions). January 29. Particulate Effects in the P-1 Model When your ANSYS FLUENT model includes a dispersed second phase of particles. emitting. 2009 . the transport equation for the incident radiation can be written as · (Γ G) + 4π an2 σT 4 + Ep − (a + ap )G = 0 π (5. which is a property of the ﬂuid. (That is. You should modify the default value only if you are certain of the anisotropic scattering behavior of the material in your problem.3-5 yields the following equation: − · qr = aG − 4an2 σT 4 (5. C is the linear-anisotropic phase function coeﬃcient.Heat Transfer where n is the refractive index of the medium. A zero value deﬁnes isotropic scattering (i. A positive value indicates that more radiant energy is scattered forward than backward. Note that when particles are present. ANSYS FLUENT models anisotropic scattering by means of a linear-anisotropic scattering phase function: Φ(s · s) = 1 + Cs · s (5. Inc.3-4 and 5. and s is the unit vector in the direction of the incident radiation. Equation 5. ANSYS FLUENT solves this equation to determine the local radiation intensity when the P-1 model is active.3-7) Here. which is the default in ANSYS FLUENT. ANSYS FLUENT ignores scattering in the gas phase.3-8 assumes that all scattering is due to particles. Combining Equations 5.e. σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant and SG is a user-deﬁned radiation source. absorbing. These are deﬁned as follows: 5-14 Release 12. and n is the refractive index of the medium.

3-9 and 5. Inc. In Equation 5.5.3-9) N ap = lim V →0 pn n=1 Apn V (5. Apn .3 Modeling Radiation N Ep = lim and V →0 n=1 4 σTpn pn Apn πV (5.3-10.3-10) In Equations 5.3-8 is deﬁned as Γ= 1 3(a + ap + σp ) (5.3-13.3-12) where the equivalent particle scattering factor is deﬁned as N σp = lim V →0 (1 − fpn )(1 − n=1 pn ) Apn V (5.3-11) where dpn is the diameter of the nth particle. projected area. 2009 5-15 . The projected area Apn of particle n is deﬁned as Apn = πd2 pn 4 (5. The quantity Γ in Equation 5. These quantities are computed during particle tracking in ANSYS FLUENT.3-13) and is computed during particle tracking. and Tpn are the emissivity. fpn is the scattering factor associated with the nth particle. January 29.0 c ANSYS. and temperature of particle n. pn . Heat sources (sinks) due to particle radiation are included in the energy equation as follows: − · qr = −4π an2 σT 4 + Ep + (a + ap )G π (5. The summation is over N particles in volume V .3-14) Release 12.

3-15) (5.3-21) Equation 5. s) = w π (5. s) n · s dΩ = 0 fw (r.3-20) and Equa- If it is assumed that the walls are diﬀuse gray surfaces.3-17 and 5.3-17) (5.3-20 becomes qr.3-18 into Equation 5.w = − − (1 − ρw )Gw 2(1 + ρw ) w.3-21 is used to compute qr.Heat Transfer Boundary Condition Treatment for the P-1 Model at Walls To get the boundary condition for the incident radiation equation.3-16) Thus the ﬂux of the incident radiation.w = − w 4 4n2 σTw − Gw 2 (2 − w) (5.3-19) Substituting Equations 5. January 29.3-4 is computed: qr · n = −Γ G · n ∂G qr. (5. 2009 . then ρw = 1 − tion 5. at a wall is −qr. s) 4 n2 σTw + ρw I(r.3-18) where ρw is the wall reﬂectivity.w = −Γ ∂n (5.3-19 and performing the integrations yields 4π w 4 n2 σTw π qr. The wall radiative heat ﬂux is computed using the following boundary condition: Iw (r. s) n · s dΩ (5. G.0 c ANSYS. the dot product of the outward normal vector n and Equation 5. The Marshak boundary condition is then used to eliminate the angular dependence [262]: 2π 0 2π Iw (r.w for the energy equation and for the incident radiation equation boundary conditions. Inc.w . 5-16 Release 12. s) = fw (r. −s) fw (r.

3.0 (black body absorption) unless you choose to redeﬁne this boundary treatment. The Rosseland radiation model diﬀers from the P-1 model in that the Rosseland model assumes that the intensity is the black-body intensity at the gas temperature. For information about setting up the model.3-4: qr = −Γ G where Γ is given by Equation 5. Inc. and is recommended for use in problems where the optical thickness is greater than 3.3-22 yields qr = −16σΓn2 T 3 T (5.0 c ANSYS. Substituting this value for G into Equation 5. January 29. See Section 13. ANSYS FLUENT includes an option that allows you to use diﬀerent temperatures for radiation and convection at inlets and outlets.3.6: Deﬁning Boundary Conditions for Radiation in the separate User’s Guide for details. the radiative heat ﬂux vector in a gray medium can be approximated by Equation 5. 2009 5-17 .3 Modeling Radiation Boundary Condition Treatment for the P-1 Model at Flow Inlets and Exits The net radiative heat ﬂux at ﬂow inlets and outlets is computed in the same manner as at walls.1: Steps in Using the Radiation Models in the separate User’s Guide. 5. as described above.5. This can be useful when the temperature outside the inlet or outlet diﬀers considerably from the temperature in the enclosure.3-3. see Section 13.3. where n is the refractive index.4 Rosseland Radiation Model Theory The Rosseland or diﬀusion approximation for radiation is valid when the medium is optically thick ((a + σs )L 1).) Thus G = 4σn2 T 4 . It can be derived from the P-1 model equations.3-22) Release 12. (The P-1 model actually calculates a transport equation for G. This section provides details about the equations used in the Rosseland model. The Rosseland Model Equations As with the P-1 model.3-23) (5. with some approximations. ANSYS FLUENT assumes that the emissivity of all ﬂow inlets and outlets is 1.

Boundary Condition Treatment for the Rosseland Model at Walls Since the diﬀusion approximation is not valid near walls. The radiative heat ﬂux at the wall boundary. using the same phase function (Equation 5. Anisotropic Scattering The Rosseland model allows for anisotropic scattering. Equation 5. it is possible to write q = qc + qr = −(k + kr ) T kr = 16σΓn2 T 3 (5.3-27) where Tw is the wall temperature.3-28) where Nw is the conduction to radiation parameter at the wall: Nw = and x = log10 Nw .w = − ψ (5.01 0.3-26) where k is the thermal conductivity and kr is the radiative conductivity. and the slip coeﬃcient ψ is approximated by a curve ﬁt to the plot given in [315]: 1/2 3 ψ= 2x +3x2 −12x+7 54 0 Nw < 0. is deﬁned using the slip coeﬃcient ψ: 4 4 σ Tw − Tg qr.3. Inc.3-24) (5.w . 2009 .Heat Transfer Since the radiative heat ﬂux has the same form as the Fourier conduction law. k(a + σs ) 3 4σTw (5.3: Anisotropic Scattering. qr.3-29) 5-18 Release 12. Tg is the temperature of the gas at the wall. January 29.01 ≤ Nw ≤ 10 Nw > 10 (5.3-7) described for the P-1 model in Section 5. it is necessary to use a temperature slip boundary condition.3-24 is used in the energy equation to compute the temperature ﬁeld.3-25) (5.0 c ANSYS.

below). which is determined by the appropriate boundary condition (see the description of boundary conditions. 2009 5-19 . then I(s) can be estimated as I(s) = σT 4 (1 − e−as ) + I0 e−as π (5. This section provides details about the equations used in the DTRM.3.3-24. along a path. Release 12. If a is constant along the ray. the refractive index is assumed to be unity.3 Modeling Radiation Boundary Condition Treatment for the Rosseland Model at Flow Inlets and Exits No special treatment is required at ﬂow inlets and outlets for the Rosseland model. The accuracy of the model is limited mainly by the number of rays traced and the computational mesh.3-30) Here.2: Setting Up the DTRM in the separate User’s Guide. can be written as dI aσT 4 + aI = ds π where a I T σ = = = = gas absorption coeﬃcient intensity gas local temperature Stefan-Boltzmann constant (5. The DTRM integrates Equation 5.0 c ANSYS. The radiative heat ﬂux at these boundaries can be determined using Equation 5. see Section 13. ds. dI. The “ray tracing” technique used in the DTRM can provide a prediction of radiative heat transfer between surfaces without explicit view factor calculations.5 Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM) Theory The main assumption of the DTRM is that the radiation leaving the surface element in a certain range of solid angles can be approximated by a single ray.3-30 along a series of rays emanating from boundary faces. Inc.3.669 × 10−8 W/m2 -K4 ) (5. January 29. 5.5. For information about setting up the model. The DTRM Equations The equation for the change of radiant intensity.3-31) where I0 is the radiant intensity at the start of the incremental path. The energy source in the ﬂuid due to radiation is then computed by summing the change in intensity along the path of each ray that is traced through the ﬂuid control volume.

The volume clusters are formed by starting from a cell and simply adding its neighbors and their neighbors until a speciﬁed number of cells per volume cluster is collected. Since the radiation source terms are highly non-linear (proportional to the fourth power of temperature). These values are then distributed to the faces and cells in the clusters to calculate the wall and cell temperatures.2).2: Angles θ and φ Deﬁning the Hemispherical Solid Angle About a Point P Clustering DTRM is computationally very expensive when there are too many surfaces to trace rays from and too many volumes crossed by the rays. and the volume sources are calculated for the surface and volume clusters respectively. care must be taken to calculate the average temperatures of surface and volume clusters and distribute the ﬂux and source terms appropriately among the faces and cells forming the clusters.3. 2009 . Inc.0 c ANSYS. The incident radiation ﬂux. To reduce the computational time. n θ φ P t Figure 5. 5-20 Release 12.Heat Transfer Ray Tracing The ray paths are calculated and stored prior to the ﬂuid ﬂow calculation. qin . rays are ﬁred at discrete values of the polar and azimuthal angles (see Figure 5. Each ray is then traced to determine the control volumes it intercepts as well as its length within each control volume. which must be read in before the ﬂuid ﬂow calculations begin. surface clusters are made by starting from a face and adding its neighbors and their neighbors until a speciﬁed number of faces per surface cluster is collected. At each radiating face. This information is then stored in the radiation ﬁle. January 29. the number of radiating surfaces and absorbing cells is reduced by clustering surfaces and cells into surface and volume “clusters”. To cover the radiating hemisphere. Similarly. θ is varied from 0 to π and φ from 0 2 to 2π.3.

Af and Tf are the area and temperature of face f . ANSYS FLUENT incorporates the radiative heat ﬂux (Equation 5.3-34) s·n>0 where Ω is the hemispherical solid angle. Inc.3-33) where Tsc and Tvc are the temperatures of the surface and volume clusters respectively. as qin = Iin s · ndΩ (5.3-35) in the prediction of the wall surface temperature. The summations are carried over all faces of a surface cluster and all cells of a volume cluster. is then computed as a sum of the reﬂected portion of qin and the emissive power of the surface: qout = (1 − w )qin + 4 w σTw (5. qout . and Vc and Tc are the volume and temperature of cell c. Boundary Condition Treatment for the DTRM at Walls The radiation intensity approaching a point on a wall surface is integrated to yield the incident radiative heat ﬂux. Equation 5.3 Modeling Radiation The surface and volume cluster temperatures are obtained by area and volume averaging as shown in the following equations: f 4 Af Tf Af 1/4 Tsc = (5.3-35) where Tw is the surface temperature of the point P on the surface and w is the wall emissivity which you input as a boundary condition. and n is the normal pointing out of the domain.3-32) 1/4 Tvc = c Vc Tc4 Vc (5. January 29. The net radiative heat ﬂux from the surface.3-35 also provides the surface boundary condition for the radiation intensity I0 of a ray emanating from the point P . as I0 = qout π (5.0 c ANSYS.3-36) Release 12. Iin is the intensity of the incoming ray.5. qin . 2009 5-21 . s is the ray direction vector.

In the uncoupled case.6 Discrete Ordinates (DO) Radiation Model Theory The discrete ordinates (DO) radiation model solves the radiative transfer equation (RTE) for a ﬁnite number of discrete solid angles. y. analogous to choosing the number of rays for the DTRM. January 29.4: Setting Up the DO Model in the separate User’s Guide.0 c ANSYS. See Section 13. Inc. The solution method is identical to that used for the ﬂuid ﬂow and energy equations. The uncoupled implementation is sequential in nature and uses a conservative variant of the DO model called the ﬁnite-volume scheme [56. Instead. For information about setting up the model. assuming that spatial neighbors are known. Alternatively. z). assuming prevailing values for other variables. each associated with a vector direction s ﬁxed in the global Cartesian system (x. Unlike the DTRM. The ﬁneness of the angular discretization is controlled by you.3-1 into a transport equation for radiation intensity in the spatial coordinates (x. y. in the coupled ordinates method (or COMET) [220]. This can be useful when the temperature outside the inlet or outlet diﬀers considerably from the temperature in the enclosure. 282].3. the discrete energy and intensity equations at each cell are solved simultaneously.Heat Transfer Boundary Condition Treatment for the DTRM at Flow Inlets and Exits The net radiative heat ﬂux at ﬂow inlets and outlets is computed in the same manner as at walls. the equations for the energy and radiation intensities are solved one by one.6: Deﬁning Boundary Conditions for Radiation in the separate User’s Guide for details. 2009 .0 (black body absorption) unless you choose to redeﬁne this boundary treatment. Such applications slow down convergence drastically when the sequential approach is used. ANSYS FLUENT includes an option that allows you to use diﬀerent temperatures for radiation and convection at inlets and outlets. and its extension to unstructured meshes [242]. Two implementations of the DO model are available in ANSYS FLUENT: uncoupled and (energy) coupled.3. The DO model solves for as many transport equations as there are directions s. z). 5. see Section 13.3. however. ANSYS FLUENT assumes that the emissivity of all ﬂow inlets and outlets is 1. 5-22 Release 12. as described above. the DO model does not perform ray tracing. The advantages of using the coupled approach is that it speeds up applications involving high optical thicknesses and/or high scattering coeﬃcients. the DO model transforms Equation 5.

Boundary conditions for the non-gray DO model are applied on a band basis. and Ibλ is the black body intensity given by the Planck function. The total intensity I(r. The non-gray DO implementation divides the radiation spectrum into N wavelength bands. Inc. the radiant energy contained in the wavelength band ∆λ. s) = k Iλk (r. The treatment within a band is the same as that for the gray DO model. and correspond to values in vacuum (n = 1). the scattering phase function. s) = aλ n2 Ibλ + σs 4π 4π 0 Iλ (r. resulting in transport equations for the quantity Iλ ∆λ.3-40) where the summation is over the wavelength bands. which need not be contiguous or equal in extent.3-39) where F (0 → nλT ) is the fraction of radiant energy emitted by a black body [234] in the wavelength interval from 0 to λ at temperature T in a medium of refractive index n. s ) Φ(s · s ) dΩ (5. s) in each direction s at position r is computed using I(r. January 29.3 Modeling Radiation The DO Model Equations The DO model considers the radiative transfer equation (RTE) in the direction s as a ﬁeld equation. Thus. The RTE for the spectral intensity Iλ (r.0 c ANSYS. s)∆λk (5. Equation 5. aλ is the spectral absorption coeﬃcient. The RTE is integrated over each wavelength interval. 2009 5-23 .5. and the refractive index n are assumed independent of wavelength. Release 12. The scattering coeﬃcient. λ2 and λ1 are the wavelength boundaries of the band. The behavior in each band is assumed gray. s) = an2 σT 4 σs + π 4π 4π I(r.3-37) ANSYS FLUENT also allows the modeling of non-gray radiation using a gray-band model.3-1 is written as · (I(r.3-38) Here λ is the wavelength. s)s) + (a + σs )I(r. s) can be written as · (Iλ (r. The black body emission in the wavelength band per unit solid angle is written as [F (0 → nλ2 T ) − F (0 → nλ1 T )]n2 σT 4 π (5. s ) Φ(s · s ) dΩ 0 (5. s)s) + (aλ + σs )Iλ (r. The wavelength intervals are supplied by you.

Inc. This is typically encountered in glass-melting applications. 2009 .3-42) 5-24 Release 12. The energy equation when integrated over a control volume i. yields the discrete energy equation: N T µT Tj − βiT Ti − αi ij j=1 k=1 L Iik ωk − SiT Sih (5. yields [220]: Pi q i + r i = 0 (5.3-37 and the discretized energy equation. The discrete energy equations for the coupled method are presented below. resulting in strong coupling between directional radiation intensities.0 c ANSYS. This feature is advantageous when scattering is signiﬁcant. This DO model implementation is utilized in ANSYS FLUENT by enabling the DO/Energy Coupling option for the DO model in the Radiation Model dialog box.3-41. Equation 5.Heat Transfer Energy Coupling and the DO Model The coupling between energy and radiation intensities at a cell (which is also known as COMET) [220] accelerates the convergence of the ﬁnite volume scheme for radiative heat transfer.3-41) where T αi T βi SiT κ ∆V = κ∆Vi = 16κσTi∗3 ∆Vi = 12κσTi∗4 ∆Vi = absorption coeﬃcient = control volume The coeﬃcient µT and the source term Sih are due to the discretization of the convection ij and diﬀusion terms as well as the non-radiative source terms. January 29. This method results in signiﬁcant improvement in the convergence for applications involving optical thicknesses greater than 10. Combining the discretized form of Equation 5.

.3-45) Limitations of DO/Energy Coupling There are some instances when using DO/Energy coupling is not recommended or is incompatible with certain models: • DO/Energy coupling is not recommended for cases with weak coupling between energy and directional radiation intensities.3 Modeling Radiation where qi = Ii1 Ii2 : : IiL Ti (5... refer to Section 13. To ﬁnd out how to apply DO/Energy coupling. Release 12..0 c ANSYS. Typical cases would involve combustion modeling. • DO/Energy coupling is not available when solving enthalpy equations instead of temperature equations.3.βi2 : : T T T −αi ω1 −αi ω2 .3-43) Pi = 1 11 12 Mii + ηi + γi1 ω1 ηi + γi1 ω2 .3-44) ri = l µl Ij − Si1 − SiB ij : : N µT Tj + SiT + Sih j=1.4: Setting Up the DO Model in the separate User’s Guide. January 29. Inc. • DO/Energy coupling is not compatible with the shell conduction model.i=j ij N j=1.i=j (5.. 2009 5-25 .. This may result in slower convergence of the coupled approach compared to the sequential approach.Mii (5.5.βi1 21 2 22 ηi + γi2 ω1 Mii + ηi + γi2 ω2 .

it is possible to align the global angular discretization with the control volume face. and are measured with respect to the global Cartesian system (x. only four octants are solved due to symmetry. Inc. This is done through the use of pixelation [242].0 c ANSYS. The control volume face cuts the sphere representing the angular space at an arbitrary angle.4. It is important in these cases to correctly account for the overhanging fraction. January 29.5. Control angle overhang may also occur as a result of reﬂection and refraction. 4Nθ Nφ or 8Nθ Nφ equations are solved for each band. The angles θ and φ are the polar and azimuthal angles respectively.3. making a total of 4Nθ Nφ directions in all.3. For generalized unstructured meshes. z θ φ s y x Figure 5. Essentially. 2009 .3. z) as shown in Figure 5. Each overhanging control angle is divided into Nθp × Nφp pixels. as shown in Figure 5.3.6 shows a 3D example of a face with control angle overhang. y. as shown in Figure 5. In three-dimensional calculations. called control angles. In two-dimensional calculations. 5-26 Release 12. are constant. so that they are partially incoming and partially outgoing to the face. control angles can straddle the control volume faces. In the case of the non-gray model.3.3. control volume faces do not in general align with the global angular discretization.7. ∆θ and ∆φ. The θ and φ extents of the control angle. The line of intersection is a great circle.Heat Transfer Angular Discretization and Pixelation Each octant of the angular space 4π at any spatial location is discretized into Nθ × Nφ solid angles of extent ωi .3: Angular Coordinate System When Cartesian meshes are used. a total of 8Nθ Nφ directions are solved. leading to the problem of control angle overhang [242].3. Figure 5. however. as shown in Figure 5.

4: Face with No Control Angle Overhang overhanging control angle incoming directions C0 q q C1 outgoing directions face f Figure 5.5: Face with Control Angle Overhang n Release 12. Inc. 2009 5-27 .3.3 Modeling Radiation incoming directions C0 q n q C1 outgoing directions face f Figure 5.0 c ANSYS.3.5. January 29.

Inc.6: Face with Control Angle Overhang (3D) control angle ω i si control volume face pixel Figure 5.Heat Transfer outgoing directions z overhanging control angle y x incoming directions control volume face Figure 5.7: Pixelation of Control Angle 5-28 Release 12.3. January 29.3.0 c ANSYS. 2009 .

2009 5-29 . the scattered energy is restricted to stay within the band. The Delta-Eddington function takes the following form: Φ(s · s ) = 2f δ(s · s ) + (1 − f )(1 + Cs · s ) (5. The contribution of the particulate phase appears in the RTE as: σT 4 σp + Ep + π 4π · (Is) + (a + ap + σp )I(r. f is the forward-scattering factor and δ(s · s ) is the Dirac delta function. the DeltaEddington phase function will cause the intensity to behave as if there is no scattering at all.3-47) Particulate Effects in the DO Model The DO model allows you to include the eﬀect of a discrete second phase of particulates on radiation. The inﬂuence of overhang can thus be accounted for within the pixel resolution. ANSYS FLUENT assumes the phase function to be of the form Φ(s · s ) = 2f δ(s · s ) + (1 − f )Φ∗ (s · s ) The user-deﬁned function will specify Φ∗ and the forward-scattering factor f . The f term essentially cancels a fraction f of the out-scattering. When a user-deﬁned function is used to specify the scattering phase function. specular. (5. thus. You can choose an isotropic phase function. that increasing the pixelation adds to the cost of computation. a pixelation of 3 × 3 is recommended. ANSYS FLUENT will neglect all other sources of scattering in the gas phase. In this case. ANSYS FLUENT allows you to choose the pixel resolution.3-7.3-46) Here. C is the asymmetry factor.3-48) 0 Release 12.5. When the Delta-Eddington phase function is used. You should be aware. however. for f = 1. periodic. a Delta-Eddington phase function. or a user-deﬁned phase function.3 Modeling Radiation The energy contained in each pixel is then treated as incoming or outgoing to the face. The linear anisotropic phase function is described in Equation 5. January 29. For problems involving gray-diﬀuse radiation. Anisotropic Scattering The DO implementation in ANSYS FLUENT admits a variety of scattering phase functions. s ) Φ(s · s ) dΩ (5. The scattering phase functions available for gray radiation can also be used for non-gray radiation. you will specify values for f and C. However.0 c ANSYS. a linear anisotropic phase function. the default pixelation of 1 × 1 is usually suﬃcient. or semi-transparent boundaries. For problems involving symmetry. Inc. s) = an2 4π I(r.

3-10. Some of the radiant energy is reﬂected diﬀusely and specularly. emission. a Figure 5. depending on the diﬀuse fraction fd for side a of the wall that you specify as a boundary condition. January 29. Particulate emission and absorption terms are also included in the energy equation. and scattering due to the particulate phase are included in each wavelength band for the radiation calculation.0 c ANSYS.a on side a of an opaque wall. a reflected. is used in the scattering terms.3-9. only). The equivalent emission Ep is given by Equation 5.3-13.3.Heat Transfer where ap is the equivalent absorption coeﬃcient due to the presence of particulates. and is given by Equation 5.3. The equivalent particle scattering factor σp . or non-gray if the non-gray DO model is being used.3. For non-gray radiation.8 shows incident radiation qin. Figure 5. diffuse q in. 5-30 Release 12. deﬁned in Equation 5. 2009 . specular q emission q absorbed n q in. Inc. or external to the domain (with an adjacent ﬂuid or solid zone on one side. absorption.8 shows a schematic of radiation on an opaque wall in ANSYS FLUENT.8: DO Radiation on Opaque Wall The diagram in Figure 5. Opaque walls are treated as gray if gray radiation is being computed. Medium a Adjacent Fluid or Solid q in. a reflected. Boundary and Cell Zone Condition Treatment at Opaque Walls The discrete ordinates radiation model allows the speciﬁcation of opaque walls that are interior to a domain (with adjacent ﬂuid or solid zones on both sides of the wall).

σ is Boltzmann’s Constant. Gray Diffuse Walls For gray diﬀuse radiation. and Tw is the wall temperature. January 29.5. σ is Boltzmann’s Constant. fd is equal to 1 and there is no specularly reﬂected energy. depending on the diﬀuse fraction fd .3-49) s·n>0 The net radiative ﬂux leaving the surface is given by qout = (1 − w )qin + n2 4 w σTw (5.8. If qin is the amount of radiative energy incident on the opaque wall. you must specify internal emissivity for each wavelength band.0 c ANSYS. w is Note that although ANSYS FLUENT uses emissivity in its computation of radiation quantities.3. it is not available for postprocessing. at the wall is qin = Iin s · ndΩ (5. w is the wall emissivity. Release 12. 2009 5-31 . for a purely specular wall.3-50) where n is the refractive index of the medium next to the wall. The amount of incident radiation absorbed at the wall surface and the amount emitted back depends on the emissivity of that surface and the diﬀuse fraction. n is the refractive index of the adjacent medium. Radiation is not transmitted through an opaque wall. For non-gray DO models. Absorption at the wall surface assumes that the absorptivity is equal to the emissivity. This equation is also valid for specular radiation with emissivity = 0. Radiant incident energy that impacts an opaque wall can be reﬂected back to the surrounding medium and absorbed by the wall. A diﬀuse fraction between 0 and 1 will result in partially diﬀuse and partially reﬂected energy. the incident radiative heat ﬂux. The radiation that is reﬂected can be diﬀusely reﬂected and/or specularly reﬂected. qin . and Tw is the wall temperature. Similarly. fd is equal to 0 and there is no diﬀusely reﬂected energy.3 Modeling Radiation Some of the incident radiation is absorbed at the surface of the wall and some radiation is emitted from the wall surface as shown in Figure 5. the wall emissivity. then the following general quantities are computed by ANSYS FLUENT for opaque walls: • emission from the wall surface = n2 • diﬀusely reﬂected energy = fd (1 − 4 w σTw w )qin w )qin • specularly reﬂected energy = (1 − fd )(1 − • absorption at the wall surface = w qin where fd is the diﬀuse fraction. For a purely diﬀused wall. Inc.

For non-gray radiation. T ) provides the Planck distribution function. incident radiation can pass through the wall and be transmitted to the adjacent medium (and possibly refracted).λ = (1 − wλ )qin.3-52) qout π (5.Heat Transfer The boundary intensity for all outgoing directions s at the wall is given by I0 = Non-Gray Diffuse Walls There is a special set of equations that apply uniquely to non-gray diﬀuse opaque walls.3-53) where wλ is the wall emissivity in the band.λ s · ndΩ (5. Transmission and reﬂection can be diﬀuse and/or specular. and absorbed through the wall thickness.λ π∆λ (5. reﬂection. In the case of interior semi-transparent walls. semi-transparent wall boundary conditions are applied on a perband basis. Inc. the incident radiative heat ﬂux qin. F (n.3-51) s·n>0 The net radiative ﬂux leaving the surface in the band ∆λ is given by qout. You specify the diﬀuse fraction for all transmitted and reﬂected radiation. or refraction of radiant energy from one band to another. This deﬁnes the emittance for each radiation band as a function of the temperature of the source surface. The boundary intensity for all outgoing directions s in the band ∆λ at the wall is given by I0λ = qout. there is no transmission.λ in the band ∆λ at the wall is qin.λ + wλ [F (0 4 → nλ2 Tw ) − F (0 → nλ1 Tw )]n2 σTw (5. and refracted as in the gray case. there are two possible sources of radiation on the boundary wall: an irradiation beam from outside the computational domain and incident radiation from cells in adjacent ﬂuid or solid zones. For non-gray diﬀuse radiation. the rest is treated specularly. January 29. 5-32 Release 12.λ = ∆λ Iin. 2009 . For exterior semi-transparent walls. reﬂected.3-54) Cell Zone and Boundary Condition Treatment at Semi-Transparent Walls ANSYS FLUENT allows the speciﬁcation of interior and exterior semi-transparent walls for the DO model. The radiant energy within a band is transmitted. λ. it can be reﬂected back into the surrounding medium.0 c ANSYS. These equations assume that the absorptivity is equal to the emissivity for the wall surface.

Semi-Transparent Interior Walls Figure 5.0 c ANSYS. a q in. specular q in. a reflected. and treat the solid as a semi-transparent medium. Note that by default. a reflected. January 29. 2009 5-33 .9 shows a schematic of an interior (two-sided) wall that is treated as semitransparent in ANSYS FLUENT and has zero thickness.a can pass through the semi-transparent wall if and only if the contiguous ﬂuid or solid cell zones participate in radiation. Medium a Adjacent Fluid or Solid f (for side a) d f d (for side b) Medium b Adjacent Fluid or Solid q in. a transmitted. if you have an adjacent solid zone for your thin wall. specular. refracted n q in. Therefore. then you will need to model a semi-transparent wall as a solid zone with adjacent ﬂuid zone(s).3. Incident radiant energy depicted by qin. i If you are interested in the detailed temperature distribution inside your semi-transparent media. thereby allowing the radiation to be coupled.5. Radiation coupling is set when a wall is speciﬁed as semi-transparent.3. radiation is not coupled and you will need to explicitly specify radiation coupling on the interior wall by changing the boundary condition type to semi-transparent in the Wall dialog box (under the Radiation tab).3 Modeling Radiation By default the DO equations are solved in all ﬂuid zones. you will need to specify the solid zone as participating in radiation in the Solid dialog box as part of the boundary condition setup. Inc.9: DO Radiation on Interior Semi-Transparent Wall Release 12. diffuse (f used is for side a) d na nb Figure 5. a transmitted. diffuse (fd used is for side a) q in. but not in any solid zones. This is discussed in a subsequent section.

If the semi-transparent wall has thickness. due to deﬁned internal emissivity) except for the case when a speciﬁed temperature boundary condition is deﬁned. Reﬂected radiation can be reﬂected specularly and diﬀusely. We distinguish between the intensity Ia (s). If either the wall thickness or absorption coeﬃcient is set to 0. and the corresponding quantity on the side b.0 c ANSYS.3. Inc. January 29. The interface normal n is assumed to point into side a. when the diﬀuse fraction fd is equal to 0 and all of the transmitted and reﬂected radiant energy at the semi-transparent wall is purely specular. The fraction of diﬀuse versus specular radiation that is transmitted and reﬂected depends on the diﬀuse fraction for the wall.Heat Transfer Incident radiant energy that is transmitted through a semi-transparent wall can be transmitted specularly and diﬀusely. the intensity in the direction s on side a of the interface. The exception to this is when shell conduction is used (available in 3D only) in which case there is full correspondence between energy and radiation. surface b faces medium b. this can result in an energy imbalance and possibly an unexpected temperature ﬁeld. then the thickness and the absorption coeﬃcient determine the absorptivity of the ‘thin’ wall. The special cases of purely diﬀuse and purely specular transmission and reﬂection on semi-transparent walls is presented in the following sections. Ib (s).e.10 shows a ray traveling from a semi-transparent medium a with refractive index na to a semi-transparent medium b with a refractive index nb in the direction s. so that the direction of reﬂected radiation is given by sr = s − 2 (s · n) n (5. Figure 5. The reﬂection is specular.3-55) 5-34 Release 12. and the rest is transmitted. note that by default the absorbed radiation ﬂux does not aﬀect the energy equation except where shell conduction is used. similarly. Radiation can also be reﬂected at the interior wall back to the surrounding medium if the refractive index na for the ﬂuid zone that represents medium a is diﬀerent than the refractive index nb for medium b. Specular Semi-Transparent Walls Consider the special case for a semi-transparent wall. 2009 . ANSYS FLUENT does not include emission from the surface of semi-transparent walls (i. Although incident radiation can be absorbed in a semi-transparent wall that has thickness. A part of the energy incident on the interface is reﬂected. Surface a of the interface is the side that faces medium a. If the wall is expected to have signiﬁcant absorption/emission then it may be better to model the thickness explicitly with solid cells where practical. then the wall has no absorptivity.

5.0 c ANSYS.3.3 Modeling Radiation s’ medium b st θb medium a s θa n sr n b > na Figure 5. 2009 5-35 . Inc.10: Reﬂection and Refraction of Radiation at the Interface Between Two Semi-Transparent Media Release 12. January 29.

10. Thus Iw.3-59) where τb (s ) is the transmissivity of side b in direction s . January 29. is given by Iw.Heat Transfer The radiation transmitted from medium a to medium b undergoes refraction. Inc. as shown in Figure 5.3.3-60) For the case na < nb . the energy transmitted from medium a to medium b in the incoming solid angle 2π must be refracted into a cone of apex angle θc (see Figure 5. Iw.b (st ) = rb (s )Iw.a (s) + τb (s )Iw. is given by Snell’s law: sin θb = na sin θa nb (5. the outgoing intensity in the direction st on side b of the interface. Similarly.a (s) (5. 2009 .a (sr ) in the outgoing direction sr on side a of the interface is determined from the reﬂected component of the incoming radiation and the transmission from side b.3-61) 5-36 Release 12. The interface reﬂectivity on side a [234] 1 ra (s) = 2 na cos θb − nb cos θa na cos θb + nb cos θa 2 (5.3-58) represents the fraction of incident energy transferred from s to sr .3-57) 1 + 2 na cos θa − nb cos θb na cos θa + nb cos θb 2 (5.11) where θc = sin−1 na nb (5.10.b (s ) (5.3.a (sr ) = ra (s)Iw.b (s ) + τa (s)Iw.b (st ).3-56) where θa is the angle of incidence and θb is the angle of transmission.0 c ANSYS. The boundary intensity Iw. We also deﬁne the direction s = st − 2 (st · n) n shown in Figure 5. The direction of the transmitted energy. st .3.

3.12).3.3 Modeling Radiation medium b θc θb medium a θa n n b > na Figure 5. Release 12. When medium b is external to the domain as in the case of an external semi-transparent wall (Figure 5. total internal reﬂection occurs and all the incoming energy is reﬂected specularly back into medium b.0 c ANSYS. You supply this incoming irradiation ﬂux in terms of its magnitude. 2009 5-37 . For incident angles greater than θc . and the solid angle over which the radiative ﬂux is to be applied.5.9.b (s ) is given in Equation 5.3. The equations presented above can be applied to the general case of interior semi-transparent walls that is shown in Figure 5. January 29. Note that the refractive index of the external medium is assumed to be 1.11: Critical Angle θc Similarly. beam direction. Iw. the transmitted component of the radiant energy going from medium b to medium a in the cone of apex angle θc is refracted into the outgoing solid angle 2π. Inc.3-59 as a part of the boundary condition inputs.

For n = na /nb > 1.a = Similarly for side b. s·n≥0 When medium b is external to the domain as in the case of an external semi-transparent wall (Figure 5.3-66) (5. the interfacial reﬂectivity r(s) is assumed independent of s. beam direction. January 29. For such a case.0 c ANSYS.3-65) rd.b = 4π 4π Iw.a = 1 − rd.3-63) The boundary intensity for all outgoing directions on side a of the interface is given by Iw.b s · ndΩ.3-62) (5.a qin.b ) n2 n−1 1 (3n + 1)(n − 1) n2 (n2 − 1)2 + + ln − = 2 2 + 1)3 2 6(n + 1) (n n+1 2n3 (n2 + 2n − 1) 8n4 (n4 + 1) + 2 ln(n) (n2 + 1)(n4 − 1) (n + 1)(n4 − 1)2 (5.a = − qin.b are given by [316] rd. qin. You supply this incoming irradiation ﬂux in terms of its magnitude. Iw. In many engineering problems.a qin.a and rd.b π (5. the semi-transparent interface may be a diﬀuse reﬂector. s·n<0 (5.a s · ndΩ.a + τd.b + τd. 2009 .b qin.b (1 − rd.12).b qin. rd. Inc. and the solid angle over which the radiative ﬂux is to be applied. when the diﬀuse fraction fd is equal to 1 and all of the transmitted and reﬂected radiant energy at the semi-transparent wall is purely diﬀuse.Heat Transfer Diffuse Semi-Transparent Walls Consider the special case for a semi-transparent wall. 5-38 Release 12. Note that the refractive index of the external medium is assumed to be 1.b = where rd.3. and equal to the hemispherically averaged value rd .3-64) qin.b is given as a part of the boundary condition inputs.a π (5.3-67) Iw.

3 Modeling Radiation Partially Diffuse Semi-Transparent Walls When the diﬀuse fraction fd that you enter for a semi-transparent wall is between 0 and 1. 2009 5-39 . diffuse irrad n b n a n a not equal to nb Figure 5.12 shows the general case of an irradiation beam qirrad applied to an exterior semi-transparent wall with zero thickness and a non-zero absorption coeﬃcient for the material property.5.12: DO Irradiation on External Semi-Transparent Wall Release 12. Outside computational domain Medium A Adjacent Fluid or Solid Zone q irrad reflected.0 c ANSYS. ANSYS FLUENT includes the reﬂective and transmitted radiative ﬂux contributions from both diﬀuse and specular components to the deﬁning equations. Refer to the previous section for the radiation eﬀects of wall thickness on semi-transparent walls. In this case. Inc. specular q q irrad normal q irrad transmitted. Semi-Transparent Exterior Walls Figure 5.3. diffuse q θ irrad transmitted.3. specular & refracted q irrad reflected. the wall is partially diﬀuse and partially specular. January 29.

The transmitted radiation can be refracted (bent) and dispersed specularly and diﬀusely. beam direction... If this feature is not checked.12) into the adjacent ﬂuid or solid medium a.normal in its radiation calculation. depending on the refractive index and the diﬀuse fraction that you provide as a boundary condition input.normal for irradiation. January 29. Note that there is a reﬂected component of qirrad when the refractive index of the wall (nb ) is not equal to 1. The irradiation beam is deﬁned by the magnitude. If you select the feature Apply Direct Irradiation Parallel to the Beam in the Wall boundary condition dialog box. and beam width that you supply. Refer to the previous discussion on interior walls for details. There is an additional ﬂux beyond qirrad that is applied when the Mixed or Radiation wall boundary conditions are selected in the Thermal tab. Inc. The irradiation magnitude is speciﬁed in terms of an incident radiant heat ﬂux (W/m2 ).3.) Incident radiation can also occur on external semi-transparent walls. Note that this energy is distributed across the solid angles (i. then you must supply the surface normal ﬂux qirrad.12) and ANSYS FLUENT computes and uses the surface normal ﬂux qirrad.3-68) The fraction of the above energy that will enter into the domain depends on the transmissivity of the semi-transparent wall under consideration. Figure 5. Beam direction is deﬁned by the vector of the centroid of the solid angle. since the radiation eﬀects are the same. 2009 . The irradiation beam can be refracted in medium a depending on the refractive index that is speciﬁed for the particular ﬂuid or solid zone material.e. This external ﬂux at the semi-transparent wall is computed by ANSYS FLUENT as Qext = 4 external σTrad (5.3. Beam width is speciﬁed as the solid angle over which the irradiation is distributed (i.13 shows a schematic of the beam direction and beam width for the irradiation beam. You provide these inputs (in addition to irradiation magnitude) as part of the boundary conditions for a semi-transparent wall.3.e. the beam θ and φ extents). as shown.0 c ANSYS.Heat Transfer An irradiation ﬂux passes through the semi-transparent wall from outside the computational domain (Figure 5. 5-40 Release 12. The default beam width in ANSYS FLUENT is 1e − 6 degrees which is suitable for collimated beam radiation. then you supply qirrad for irradiation (Figure 5. similar treatment as diﬀuse component.

Z) Figure 5. Z) Beam Width ( θ ) z y ∆ θ /2 −∆ θ /2 Beam Direction (X.3.5. Y. 2009 5-41 .3 Modeling Radiation z External Beam Irradiation θ y ϕ x Beam Width ( ϕ ) y x ∆ ϕ /2 −∆ ϕ /2 Beam Direction (X. January 29. Y. Inc.0 c ANSYS.13: Beam Width and Direction for External Irradiation Beam Release 12.

it is important to use pixelation in order to ensure that radiant energy is correctly transferred between the periodic and shadow faces. Boundary Condition Treatment at Specular Walls and Symmetry Boundaries At specular walls and symmetry boundaries. A pixelation between 3 × 3 and 10 × 10 is recommended.Heat Transfer Limitations Where shell conduction is not active. In a 3-dimensional model this can be overcome by activating the shell conduction option for the respective thin wall. This is done by designating the solid zone to participate in radiation as part of the boundary condition setup.0 c ANSYS. the direction of the reﬂected ray sr corresponding to the incoming direction s is given by Equation 5. the use of semi-transparent thin walls can result in the prediction of unphysical temperatures in the numerical solution. In cases with signiﬁcant emission or absorption of radiation in a participating solid material. there is only limited support for absorbing and emitting semi-transparent thin walls. Therefore. Boundary Condition Treatment at Flow Inlets and Exits The treatment at ﬂow inlets and exits is described in Section 5. it is advisable to represent the solid wall thickness explicitly with one or more layers of cells across the wall thickness. Furthermore. Iw (sr ) = Iw (s) (5. January 29. such as the absorption of long wavelength radiation in a glass window. Inc. where possible. but not in any solid zones.5: Boundary Condition Treatment for the DTRM at Flow Inlets and Exits. Solid Semi-Transparent Media The discrete ordinates radiation model allows you to model a solid zone that has adjacent ﬂuid or solid zones on either side as a “semi-transparent” medium. By default however. Otherwise. 2009 .3. Modeling a solid zone as a semi-transparent medium allows you to obtain a detailed temperature distribution inside the semi-transparent zone since ANSYS FLUENT solves the energy equation on a per-cell basis for the solid and provides you with the thermal results. 5-42 Release 12. the DO equations are solved in ﬂuid zones.3-69) Boundary Condition Treatment at Periodic Boundaries When rotationally periodic boundaries are used.3-55. you will need to specify the solid zone as participating in radiation in the Solid dialog box as part of the boundary condition setup.

the reﬂectivity is independent of the outgoing (or incoming) directions. the surfaces can be considered opaque.k is the energy ﬂux leaving the surface. according to the gray-body model. that α + ρ = 1.k = 4 k σTk + ρk qin. It follows. The transmissivity. Gray-Diffuse Radiation ANSYS FLUENT’s S2S radiation model assumes the surfaces to be gray and diﬀuse. a fraction (αE) is absorbed. by Kirchoﬀ’s law [234]. The energy exchange between two surfaces depends in part on their size. since α = (emissivity). a fraction (ρE) is reﬂected.k (5. Thus. Since for most applications the surfaces in question are opaque to thermal radiation (in the infrared spectrum). only “surface-to-surface” radiation need be considered for analysis. as stated earlier. Also. For a diﬀuse surface. For information about setting up the model.3. These parameters are accounted for by a geometric function called a “view factor”. The main assumption of the S2S model is that any absorption.3-70) where qout.0 c ANSYS.3.5. therefore. and qin. Also.7 Surface-to-Surface (S2S) Radiation Model Theory The surface-to-surface radiation model can be used to account for the radiation exchange in an enclosure of gray-diﬀuse surfaces. or scattering of radiation can be ignored. Inc. which then can be expressed in terms of the energy ﬂux leaving all other surfaces. therefore. the exchange of radiative energy between surfaces is virtually unaﬀected by the medium that separates them. the emissivity equals the absorptivity ( = α).3 Modeling Radiation 5. The S2S Model Equations The energy ﬂux leaving a given surface is composed of directly emitted and reﬂected energy. and a fraction (τ E) is transmitted. k is the emissivity. and orientation. January 29. The energy reﬂected from surface k is qout. Release 12. Emissivity and absorptivity of a gray surface are independent of the wavelength. for applications of interest. from the conservation of energy. can be neglected. emission.k is the energy ﬂux incident on the surface from the surroundings. and ρ = 1 − .3: Setting Up the S2S Model in the separate User’s Guide. see Section 13. σ is Boltzmann’s constant. The reﬂected energy ﬂux is dependent on the incident energy ﬂux from the surroundings. The gray-diﬀuse model is what is used in ANSYS FLUENT. if a certain amount of radiant energy (E) is incident on a surface. 2009 5-43 . separation distance.

” Fjk .k = j=1 Fkj qout. and Ek represents the emissive power of surface k.k = j=1 Aj qout. 5-44 Release 12.3-72) qin. and E is the emissive power vector. .j (5. This represents N equations.3-76) where K is an N × N matrix. . using the view factor reciprocity relationship gives Aj Fjk = Ak Fkj for j = 1.3-74) N Jk = Ek + ρk j=1 Fkj Jj (5. The view factor Fjk is the fraction of energy leaving surface k that is incident on surface j.j (5. which can be recast into matrix form as KJ = E (5. 3. 2009 .k = which can be written as Fkj qout. N so that N (5. For N surfaces. Inc. 2.3-75) where Jk represents the energy that is given oﬀ (or radiosity) of surface k.0 c ANSYS.3-71) where Ak is the area of surface k and Fjk is the view factor between surface k and surface j.3-73) Therefore.j Fjk (5. J is the radiosity vector. N 4 k σTk + ρk j=1 qout.k can be expressed in terms of the energy ﬂux leaving all other surfaces as N Ak qin. . The incident energy ﬂux qin.Heat Transfer The amount of incident energy upon a surface from another surface is a direct function of the surface-to-surface “view factor. January 29.

3-78) where Tsc is the temperature of the surface cluster. January 29. J. If you wish to use the old algorithm. The summation is carried over all faces of a surface cluster. Release 12. The surface clusters are made by starting from a face and adding its neighbors and their neighbors until a speciﬁed number of faces per surface cluster is collected. These values are then distributed to the faces in the clusters to calculate the wall temperatures. 2009 5-45 . To reduce the computational time as well as the storage requirement.5. Inc.3 Modeling Radiation Equation 5. or mesh adaption. δij = 1 if dAj is visible to dAi and 0 otherwise. Clustering The S2S radiation model is computationally very expensive when there is a large number of radiating surfaces.3-76 is referred to as the radiosity matrix equation. the number of radiating surfaces is reduced by creating surface “clusters”.3-77) Ai Aj where δij is determined by the visibility of dAj to dAi . This algorithm is now the default. The radiosity. Since the radiation source terms are highly non-linear (proportional to the fourth power of temperature).0 c ANSYS. is calculated for the surface clusters. The surface cluster temperature is obtained by area averaging as shown in the following equation: f 4 Af Tf Af 1/4 Tsc = (5. and Af and Tf are the area and temperature of face f . care must be taken to calculate the average temperature of the surface clusters and distribute the ﬂux and source terms appropriately among the faces forming the clusters. you may use the TUI command but adaption and non-conformal interfaces will not be supported. hanging nodes. An algorithm has been implemented for the creation of surface clusters which is faster and supports non-conformal interfaces. The view factor between two ﬁnite surfaces i and j is given by Fij = 1 Ai cos θi cos θj δij dAi dAj πr2 (5.

The absorption coeﬃcient for i = 0 is assigned a value of zero to account for windows in the spectrum between spectral regions of high absorption ( I a .0 c ANSYS. p is the sum of the partial pressures of all absorbing gases. and Fji is the view factor between surfaces j and i. These values depend on gas composition. κi is the absorption coeﬃcient of the ith gray gas.Heat Transfer Smoothing Smoothing can be performed on the view factor matrix to enforce the reciprocity relationship and conservation. The basic assumption of the WSGGM is that the total emissivity over the distance s can be presented as I = i=0 a .i (T )(1 − e−κi ps ) (5. The reciprocity relationship is represented by Ai Fij = Aj Fji (5. Once the reciprocity relationship has been enforced.3-79) where Ai is the area of surface i.3-81) where a . and a .. i.i < 1) and the weighti=1 ing factor for i = 0 is evaluated from [326]: I a .i also depend on temperature.i (5.3-87). Fij is the view factor between surfaces i and j.e. and s is the path length. Fij = 1.i is the emissivity weighting factor for the ith ﬁctitious gray gas. January 29.0 = 1 − i=1 a . a least-squares smoothing method [175] can be used to ensure that conservation is satisﬁed.8 Radiation in Combusting Flows The Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases Model The weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model (WSGGM) is a reasonable compromise between the oversimpliﬁed gray gas model and a complete model which takes into account particular absorption bands. scaling rules for κi are used (see Equation 5. the bracketed quantity is the ith ﬁctitious gray gas emissivity.0 (5. For a .3.i and κi ANSYS FLUENT uses values obtained from [60] and [326].3-80) 5. 2009 . When the total pressure is not equal to 1 atm.3-82) 5-46 Release 12. Inc.

Inc.3-86 reduces to Equation 5.3-86 depends on s.j and κi are estimated by ﬁtting Equation 5.3-84) Comparing Equation 5. Since the coeﬃcients b . but. Equation 5.3-81. reﬂecting the non-gray nature of the absorption of thermal radiation in molecular gases.0 atm-m and 600 ≤ T ≤ 2400 K.0 c ANSYS.j and κi are slowly varying functions of ps and T . 70.3-85 and 5. a is estimated as a=− ln(1 − ) s (5.3-86 are practically identical (since Equation 5.i κi ps (5.5. assuming that the total pressure pT is 1 atm.i.j are the emissivity gas temperature polynomial coeﬃcients.3-81 to the table of total emissivities. 326].3-84 with the gray gas model with absorption coeﬃcient a.j T j−1 (5. a as deﬁned by Equation 5. the values of a predicted by Equations 5. Note that for s ≈ 10−4 m.i. This assumption is justiﬁed unless the medium is optically thin and the wall temperature diﬀers considerably from the gas temperature.i. it is assumed that = α [233].3 Modeling Radiation The temperature dependence of a . In the general case.3-85 is used when s ≤ 10−4 m and Equation 5.i = j=1 b . In [326] these constant coeﬃcients are presented for diﬀerent relative pressures of the CO2 and H2 O vapor.3-81 simpliﬁes to I = i=0 a . Release 12. 2009 5-47 .3-85) which does not depend on s.3-85 in the limit of small s). The absorptivity α of the radiation from the wall can be approximated in a similar way [326]. The coeﬃcients b .3-83) where b . coeﬃcient values suggested by [60] are used. they can be assumed constant for a wide range of these parameters. to simplify the problem. Equation 5.3-86 is used for s > 10−4 m.001 ≤ ps ≤ 10. obtained experimentally [60. If κi ps 1 for all i. it can be seen that the change of the radiation intensity over the distance s in the WSGGM is exactly the same as in the gray gas model with the absorption coeﬃcient I a= i=0 a . January 29. In ANSYS FLUENT.3-86) where the emissivity for the WSGGM is computed using Equation 5. For T > 2400 K. but the most common approximation is J a .i κi p (5. The values of the coeﬃcients shown in [326] are valid for 0.i.i can be approximated by any function.

combustion at high temperatures).8. as described above. If you do decide to use the WSGGM based on the characteristic cell size. scaling rules suggested in [84] are used to introduce corrections.3-87) where m is a non-dimensional value obtained from [84]. as well as on ptot .9 atm or ptot > 1.. ANSYS FLUENT can include the eﬀect of the soot concentration on the radiation absorption coeﬃcient. You can specify the mean beam length or have ANSYS FLUENT compute it. note that the predicted values of a will be mesh dependent (this is a known limitation of the model). the absorption coeﬃcient will be the same in all bands. The model based on the mean beam length is the recommended approach.1 atm. The generalized soot model estimates the eﬀect of the soot on radiative heat transfer by determining an eﬀective absorption coeﬃcient for soot. The absorption coeﬃcient of a mixture of soot and an absorbing (radiating) gas is then calculated as the sum of the absorption coeﬃcients of pure gas and pure soot: as+g = ag + as (5. If the WSGGM is used with the non-gray DO model. When ptot = 1 atm The WSGGM. i The WSGGM cannot be used to specify the absorption coeﬃcient in each band when using the non-gray DO model. especially when you have a nearly homogeneous medium and you are interested in the radiation exchange between the walls of the enclosure.3-85 are rescaled: κi → κi pm tot (5. January 29. When ptot < 0. 2009 . which depends on the partial pressures and temperature T of the absorbing gases.Heat Transfer ANSYS FLUENT allows you to specify s as the mean beam length or the characteristic cell size. The Effect of Soot on the Absorption Coefﬁcient When soot formation is computed.g.3-88) where ag is the absorption coeﬃcient of gas without soot (obtained from the WSGGM) and as = b1 ρm [1 + bT (T − 2000)] (5.3-89) 5-48 Release 12. Inc. See Section 8.1: Inputs for a CompositionDependent Absorption Coeﬃcient in the separate User’s Guide for details about setting properties for the WSGGM. the values for κi in Equations 5.0 c ANSYS. assumes that ptot —the total (static) gas pressure—is equal to 1 atm. In cases where ptot is not unity (e.3-81 and 5.

3. L is the diameter of the combustion chamber.8 × 10−4 K−1 ρm is the soot density in kg/m3 . See Section 23. approximation [326]. reﬂectivity. The coeﬃcients b1 and bT were obtained [302] by ﬁtting Equation 5. The particle emissivity. See Section 8. Release 12. Rosseland.4 m2 /kg and bT ≈ 4.5: Setting Material Properties for the Discrete Phase in the separate User’s Guide for more details on the input of radiation properties for the discrete phase.8: Radiation Properties and Section 21. Inc. you should use the “thick-limit” models. When the P-1 or DO model is active. your best alternatives are the P-1 and Rosseland models. the DTRM and the DO model. while the DTRM neglects it. For ﬂow in a combustor. P-1 and Rosseland.1: Using the Soot Models in the separate User’s Guide for information about including the soot-radiation interaction effects. provided that you are using either the P-1 or the DO model.9 Choosing a Radiation Model For certain problems one radiation model may be more appropriate than the others. and DO models account for scattering. The Effect of Particles on the Absorption Coefﬁcient ANSYS FLUENT can also include the eﬀect of discrete phase particles on the radiation absorption coeﬃcient. Since the Rosseland model uses a temperature slip condition at walls. and scattering eﬀects are then included in the calculation of the radiative heat transfer. For optically thin problems (aL < 1).0 c ANSYS. if the problem allows it. radiation absorption by particles can be enabled. L is an appropriate length scale for your domain. For high optical thickness cases. for example. are appropriate. it is insensitive to wall emissivity. The P-1 model should typically be used for optical thicknesses > 1.5.3. but are substantially more expensive to use. 2009 5-49 . • Scattering and emissivity: The P-1. For optical thickness > 3. Consequently. consider the following: • Optical thickness: The optical thickness aL is a good indicator of which model to use in your problem. The DTRM and the DO model work across the full range of optical thicknesses. Here. the Rosseland model is cheaper and more eﬃcient.3 Modeling Radiation with b1 = 1232. only. January 29. 5. When deciding which radiation model to use. a second-order discretization scheme for the DO model is recommended. If aL 1.3-89 to data based on the Taylor-Foster approximation [348] and data based on the Smith et al.

External Radiation If you need to include radiative heat transfer from the exterior of your physical model. you can include an external radiation boundary condition in your model (for details.3-8)... in principle. is also acceptable. 2009 .. The radiation models used with participating media may. 5-50 Release 12. The DO model is probably the best suited for computing radiation for this case. be used to compute the surface-to-surface radiation.14: Thermal Boundary Conditions at Walls in the separate User’s Guide). If you are not concerned with radiation within the domain. • Enclosure radiative transfer with non-participating media: The surface-to-surface (S2S) model is suitable for this type of problem. for dust-free mirror). • Specular walls: Only the DO model allows specular reﬂection (e.g.3.g. • Semi-transparent walls (interior and exterior): Only the DO model allows you to model semi-transparent walls of various types (e. with a suﬃciently large number of rays. January 29.0 c ANSYS.Heat Transfer • Particulate eﬀects: Only the P-1 and DO models account for exchange of radiation between gas and particulates (see Equation 5. although the DTRM. • Localized heat sources: In problems with localized sources of heat. the P-1 model may over-predict the radiative ﬂuxes. glass). but they are not always eﬃcient. this boundary condition can be used without activating one of the radiation models. Inc. see Section 7.g. • Non-gray radiation: Only the DO model allows you to compute non-gray radiation using a gray band model. • Partially-specular walls: Only the DO model allows specular reﬂection (e. dusty mirror).

and engine cooling systems typically contain tubular heat exchangers. Inc. lumped-parameter models are used to account for the pressure loss and auxiliary ﬂuid heat rejection. ANSYS FLUENT provides two heat exchanger models: the macro (ungrouped and grouped) models and the dual cell model.1 The Macro Heat Exchanger Models The following sections contain information about the theory behind the macro heat exchanger models: • Section 6. The following sections contain information about the theory behind the heat exchanger models: • Section 6. and overcomes some of the major limitations present in the macro model. Heat Exchangers Many engineering systems. the auxiliary ﬂuid may be single-phase or two-phase. However. climate control. namely the simple-eﬀectivenessmodel and the number-of-transfer-units (NTU) model. The macro model allows you to choose between two heat transfer models.2: Macro Heat Exchanger Model Theory Release 12. for most engineering problems.1. January 29. unlike the macro model.2: The Dual Cell Model 6. The dual cell model uses the NTU method for heat transfer calculations.1: Overview and Restrictions of the Macro Heat Exchanger Models • Section 6.1.0 c ANSYS.Chapter 6. where the auxiliary ﬂow is modeled as 1-D ﬂow. it is impractical to model individual ﬁns and tubes of a heat exchanger core. heat exchanger cores introduce a pressure drop to the primary ﬂuid stream and transfer heat to a second ﬂuid. referred to here as the auxiliary ﬂuid. a coolant. In principle. This model allows the solution of auxiliary ﬂow on a separate mesh (other than the primary ﬂuid mesh). 2009 6-1 . For more information about using the heat exchanger models. see Section 14: Modeling Heat Exchangers in the separate User’s Guide. The dual cell model also oﬀers more ﬂexibility as far as the shape of the heat exchanger is concerned. The models can be used to compute auxiliary ﬂuid inlet temperature for a ﬁxed heat rejection or total heat rejection for a ﬁxed auxiliary ﬂuid inlet temperature.1: The Macro Heat Exchanger Models • Section 6. In ANSYS FLUENT. including power plants. For the simple-eﬀectiveness-model.

1 Overview and Restrictions of the Macro Heat Exchanger Models Overview In a typical heat exchanger core. you must deﬁne one or more ﬂuid zone(s) to represent the heat exchanger core. This conﬁguration consists of 2 passes. etc. 2009 . and the auxiliary ﬂuid mass ﬂow rate of the heat exchanger group is divided among the zones in the ratio of the respective volumes. you will deﬁne the auxiliary ﬂuid path.g. In ANSYS FLUENT. For the purpose of auxiliary ﬂuid ﬂow. each pass having four rows and three columns of macros. auxiliary ﬂuid ﬂow rate. heat exchanger groups can also be connected in series. In this situation each ﬂuid zone acts as a separate heat exchanger core. January 29. 6-2 Release 12.Heat Exchangers 6. The heat exchanger models were designed for “compact” heat exchangers. The auxiliary ﬂuid inlet temperature to each macro is computed and then subsequently used to compute the heat rejection from each macro. the ﬂuid zone is sized to the dimension of the core itself. You can also combine several ﬂuid zones as a single heat exchanger group. which can optionally double back in a serpentine pattern to create a number of “passes”. The auxiliary ﬂuid is assumed to ﬂow through a large number of parallel tubes. see Section 14. and the physical properties and operating conditions of the core (pressure drop parameters.. the core is discretized into 3×4×2 macros. for pressure dependent properties) and a supplementary auxiliary ﬂuid stream entering or leaving it. heat exchanger eﬀectiveness.).0 c ANSYS. the auxiliary ﬂuid temperature is stratiﬁed in the direction of the auxiliary ﬂuid ﬂow. As a result. Typically. the number of macros. evenly distributed Hex/Wedge cells should be used for improved accuracy and a more robust solution process.1. Inc.1. i It is highly recommended that the free-form Tet mesh is not used in the macro heat exchanger model. Instead. a heat exchanger group can have an auxiliary ﬂuid pressure drop (e. the ﬂuid zone representing the heat exchanger core is subdivided into macroscopic cells or macros along the auxiliary ﬂuid path. as in Figure 6. In this ﬁgure. As part of the setup procedure. For more information on heat exchanger groups. This approach provides a realistic heat rejection distribution over the heat exchanger core.4: Using the Grouped Macro Heat Exchanger Model. the pass-to-pass direction and the external primary ﬂuid ﬂow direction. To use the heat exchanger models.1. heat rejection is not constant over the entire core. In addition. You can independently choose the principal auxiliary ﬂuid ﬂow direction. implying that the primary ﬂuid side ﬂow is unidirectional.

2009 6-3 . Inc. January 29.0 c ANSYS.1: Core Discretized Into 3 × 4×2 Macros Release 12.1 The Macro Heat Exchanger Models Coolant Passage Macro 0 Macro 1 Macro 2 Macro 21 Macro 2 2 Macro 23 Macro 3 Macro 4 Macro 5 Macro 18 Macro 19 Macro 20 Macro 6 Macro 7 Macro 8 Macro 15 Macro 16 Macro 17 Macro 9 Macro 10 Macro 11 Macro 12 Macro 13 Macro 14 Figure 6.6.1.

and heat transfer is modeled as a heat source in the energy equation. The simple-eﬀectiveness-model interpolates the eﬀectiveness from the velocity vs eﬀectiveness curve that you provide. An extra layer has to be created to avoid it. . Pressure loss is modeled as a momentum sink in the momentum equation. • Auxiliary ﬂuid ﬂow is assumed to be 1-D.1-1) must be aligned with one of the three orthogonal axes deﬁned by the rectangular core. • Accuracy is not guaranteed when the mesh is not structured or layered. • The pass width has to be uniform. Inc. ANSYS FLUENT provides two heat transfer models: the default ntu-model and the simpleeﬀectiveness-model. ANSYS FLUENT calculates the eﬀectiveness. • Accuracy is not guaranteed when there is upstream diﬀusion of temperature at the inlet/outlet of the core. 6. This curve will be used by ANSYS FLUENT to calculate the NTU for macros based on their size and primary ﬂuid ﬂow rate. the heat exchanger core is treated as a ﬂuid zone with momentum and heat transfer. 2009 . • The primary ﬂuid streamwise direction (see Equation 6. For the ntu-model. January 29. • Auxiliary ﬂuid phase change cannot be modeled using the ntu-model. the primary ﬂuid capacity rate must be less than the auxiliary ﬂuid capacity rate.Heat Exchangers Restrictions The following restrictions exist for the macro heat exchanger models: • The core must be approximately rectangular in shape. ANSYS FLUENT will automatically convert this heat transfer data to a primary ﬂuid mass ﬂow rate vs NTU curve (this curve will be piecewise linear).1. • Flow acceleration eﬀects are neglected in calculating the pressure loss coeﬃcient. • For the simple-eﬀectiveness-model.2 Macro Heat Exchanger Model Theory In ANSYS FLUENT.0 c ANSYS. 6-4 Release 12. from the NTU value that is calculated by ANSYS FLUENT from the heat transfer data provided by the user in tabular format. • The macro-based method requires that an equal number of cells reside in each macro of equal size and shape. • Non-conformal meshes cannot be attached to the inlet/outlet of the core.

2009 6-5 . • The model can be used to model heat transfer to the primary ﬂuid from the auxiliary ﬂuid and vice versa. • The auxiliary ﬂuid properties can be a function of pressure and temperature. • The model can be used with variable density of the primary ﬂuid. Inc. January 29.0 c ANSYS. • Transient proﬁles can be used for the auxiliary ﬂuid inlet temperature and for total heat rejection.4: Using the Grouped Macro Heat Exchanger Model). • The model can be used to model primary ﬂuid-side reverse ﬂow. • Transient proﬁles can be used for auxiliary mass ﬂow rates. • Transient proﬁles can be used for the auxiliary ﬂuid inlet temperature and for total heat rejection. • The model can be used by serial as well as parallel solvers. thus allowing phase change of the auxiliary ﬂuid. Release 12. The simple-eﬀectiveness-model provides the following features: • The model can be used to model heat transfer from the auxiliary ﬂuid to the primary ﬂuid. and takes the lesser of the two for the calculation of heat transfer. • The model can be used to make a network of heat exchangers using a heat exchanger group (Section 14. • Transient proﬁles can be used for auxiliary mass ﬂow rates.6. • The model can be used in either the serial or parallel ANSYS FLUENT solvers.1 The Macro Heat Exchanger Models The ntu-model provides the following features: • The model can be used to check the heat capacity for both the primary and the auxiliary ﬂuid.

January 29. pressure loss is used for both streams. pressure loss is modeled using the porous media model in ANSYS FLUENT. For the dual cell model (Section 6. The coeﬃcients can also be automatically computed (and updated) using a known pressure loss coeﬃcient as a function of some geometric parameters. the theory of which is deﬁned below: 1 2 ∆p = f ρm UAmin 2 where ∆p f ρm UAmin = streamwise pressure drop = streamwise pressure loss coeﬃcient = mean primary ﬂuid density = primary ﬂuid velocity at the minimum ﬂow area (6.0 c ANSYS. which you will specify for the cell zone conditions. Inc. 2009 . while for the macro model. The macro model provides an additional means of getting the coeﬃcients if the data is not available. However. The loss coeﬃcients of the porous media model are computed using curve ﬁtting of the pressure-versus-ﬂow rate data outside of ANSYS FLUENT.1-2) 6-6 Release 12.1-1) The pressure loss coeﬃcient is computed from f = (Kc + 1 − σ 2 ) − (1 − σ 2 − Ke ) where σ Kc Ke A Ac fc νe νi νm = = = = = = = = = minimum ﬂow to face area ratio entrance loss coeﬃcient exit loss coeﬃcient primary ﬂuid-side surface area minimum cross-sectional ﬂow area core friction factor speciﬁc volume at the exit speciﬁc volume at the inlet mean speciﬁc volume ≡ 1 (νe + νi ) 2 νe νe A νm +2 − 1 + fc νi νi Ac νi (6. in some cases. the data for curve-ﬁtting is not available.Heat Exchangers Streamwise Pressure Drop In both heat transfer models.2: The Dual Cell Model). it is used only for the primary side.

1 The Macro Heat Exchanger Models Kc and Ke are empirical quantities obtained from experimental data. 2009 6-7 . If the tubes are normal to the primary ﬂuid ﬂow.1-4) For a heat exchanger core. Note that UAmin can be calculated from UAmin = U σ (6. The Reynolds number in Equation 6. the core friction factor is deﬁned as fc = aReb min where a b Remin = core friction coeﬃcient = core friction exponent = Reynolds number for velocity at the minimum ﬂow area (6. You will need to specify these parameters based on graphs that are closest to the heat exchanger conﬁguration that you are setting up [160].6. These parameters are used to set up large resistances in the two non-streamwise directions. Release 12. eﬀectively forcing the primary ﬂuid ﬂow through the core to be unidirectional.1-3) a and b are empirical quantities obtained from experimental data.1-6) where U is the primary ﬂuid velocity and σ is the minimum ﬂow to face area ratio. the hydraulic diameter can be deﬁned as Dh = 4L Ac A (6.1-5) where L is the ﬂow length of the heat exchanger.1-3 is deﬁned as Remin = where ρm µm Dh UAmin = mean primary ﬂuid density = mean primary ﬂuid viscosity = hydraulic diameter = primary ﬂuid velocity at the minimum ﬂow area ρm UAmin Dh µm (6. In Equation 6. then L is the length in the primary ﬂuid ﬂow direction. January 29. You will need to specify the core friction coeﬃcient and exponent based on graphs that are closest to the heat exchanger models that you set up [160].1-2.0 c ANSYS. [158]. Inc. [158].

0 c ANSYS. ANSYS FLUENT calculates the eﬀectiveness of the entire heat exchanger from the ratio of heat capacity and the number of transfer units using the relation = 1 − exp − where Cr is the ratio of Cmin to Cmax . counter ﬂow. the heat-exchanger eﬀectiveness.1-7) The value of depends on the heat exchanger geometry and ﬂow pattern (parallel ﬂow. is deﬁned as q = Cmin (Tin.cold ) (6. cross ﬂow. For the ntu-model.1-9) (6. . the primary ﬂuid inlet temperature is calculated using the mass average of the incoming primary ﬂuid temperatures at the boundaries.22 0. the actual rate of heat transfer.hot − Tin.cold are the inlet temperatures of the hot and cold ﬂuids and Cmin = min[(mcp )hot . which is based on the full heat exchanger and uniform conditions.cold ) where Tin.1-8) (6. is deﬁned as the ratio of actual rate of heat transfer from the hot to cold ﬂuid to the maximum possible rate of heat transfer. For a core with a strong primary ﬂow variation. January 29. This automatically takes into account any reverse ﬂow of the primary ﬂuid at the boundaries. (mcp )cold ] ˙ ˙ Thus. The maximum possible heat transfer is given by qmax = Cmin (Tin.1-10) 6-8 Release 12. Inc. Even though the eﬀectiveness of the primary ﬂuid is computed using uniform conditions on the entire heat exchanger core. it is being applied to a small portion of the core represented by a computational cell. is scaled for each macro using the ratio of their volumes and minimum heat capacities. 2009 . For each macro. This NTU. where there is a strong variation in the primary ﬂow.Heat Exchangers Heat Transfer Effectiveness For the simple-eﬀectiveness-model.78 Ntu (1 − e−Cr Ntu ) Cr (6. The heat exchanger performance data should be speciﬁed for a number of auxiliary ﬂow rates so that ANSYS FLUENT can compute the number of transfer units versus the primary ﬂuid ﬂow rate for a number of auxiliary ﬂuid ﬂow rates. given the heat exchanger performance data (total heat rejection versus primary ﬂow rate) based on uniform test conditions. q. 1 0.). etc.hot and Tin.hot − Tin. This can make it less accurate for some heat exchanger cores. the NTU model must be used.

1-14) Release 12.primary = macro eﬀectiveness = macro auxiliary ﬂuid inlet temperature = macro primary ﬂuid inlet temperature (6. Inc.1-13) For the ntu-model.1-12) For the ntu-model. the heat transfer for a given cell is computed from qcell = qmacro Vcell Vmacro (6. 2009 6-9 .auxiliary − Tin. For the simple-eﬀectiveness-model.auxiliary Tin. the heat transfer for a macro is calculated from qmacro = Cmin (Tin.1-11) For the simple-eﬀectiveness-model.0 c ANSYS. the heat transfer for a given cell is computed from qcell = (mcp )g (Tin. Note that heat rejection from the auxiliary ﬂuid to primary ﬂuid can be either positive or negative. January 29.6.auxiliary − Tcell ) ˙ where (mcp )g ˙ Tin.primary ) where Tin.1 The Macro Heat Exchanger Models Heat Rejection Heat rejection is computed for each cell within a macro and added as a source term to the energy equation for the primary ﬂuid ﬂow. the heat rejection from a macro is calculated by summing the heat transfer of all the cells contained within the macro qmacro = all cells in macro qcell (6.auxiliary Tcell = = = = heat exchanger eﬀectiveness primary ﬂuid capacity rate (ﬂow rate × speciﬁc heat) auxiliary ﬂuid inlet temperature of macro containing the cell cell temperature (6.

1-13) is computed based on the energy balance of the auxiliary ﬂuid at a previous macro computation.1) are assumed to be where the auxiliary ﬂuid enters the heat exchanger core. January 29.auxiliary in Equations 6.1. The ﬁrst row of macros (Macros 0. the heat transfer for the ﬁrst row of macros are used to calculate their exit enthalpy.0 c ANSYS. and 2 in Figure 6.1-11 and 6. the inlet temperature to the ﬁrst row of macros is iteratively computed. At the end of each pass. the total heat rejection from the heat exchanger core is computed as the sum of the heat rejection from all the macros: qtotal = all macros qmacro (6. 1.1-16) where hin and hout are the inlet and outlet enthalpies of the auxiliary ﬂuid in the macro.1-17) Tout = f (hout .auxiliary constant speciﬁc heat method (6.Heat Exchangers For both heat exchanger models. 6-10 Release 12. 2009 . which becomes the inlet condition for the next row macros. For a given macro. Inc. p) UDF method where f p = user-deﬁned function = auxiliary ﬂuid pressure The values of hout and Tout then become the inlet conditions to the next macro. the outlet enthalpy of each macro (in the last row) is mass averaged to obtain the inlet condition for the next pass macros. qmacro = (m)auxiliary (hout − hin ) ˙ (6. When a ﬁxed auxiliary ﬂuid inlet temperature is speciﬁed. so that all of the equations are satisﬁed simultaneously. The auxiliary ﬂuid outlet temperature from the macro is calculated as hout cp. When the ﬁxed total heat rejection from the heat exchanger core is speciﬁed.1-15) The auxiliary ﬂuid inlet temperature to each macro (Tin.

refer to Section 14.1-21) To learn how to use the macro heat exchanger models. the mean pressure within each macro is calculated and passed to the user-deﬁned function as pj = pin + j + ¯ where j pin ∆p N = = = = macro row index inlet auxiliary ﬂuid pressure overall pressure drop across a heat exchanger group number of rows per pass × number of passes. Thus. after taking into account any auxiliary stream eﬀects.4: Using the Grouped Macro Heat Exchanger Model in the separate User’s Guide. the simple-eﬀectiveness-model allows you to simulate twophase auxiliary ﬂuid ﬂows and other complex auxiliary ﬂuid enthalpy relationships of the form h = h(T. At the outlet end of the group. 1 ∆p 2 N (6.3: Using the Ungrouped Macro Heat Exchanger Model and Section 14.1-19) With user-deﬁned functions. In this case.6. When pressure-dependent auxiliary ﬂuid properties are used. and the outlet auxiliary ﬂuid enthalpy is calculated on a massaveraged basis: ¯ h= i mi hi ˙ ˙ i mi (6.1 The Macro Heat Exchanger Models Macro Heat Exchanger Group Connectivity If the optional macro heat exchanger group is used. the auxiliary ﬂuid is assumed to ﬂow through these zones in parallel. Inc. Vi.1-20) where p is the absolute pressure and x is the quality (mass fraction of vapor) of a twophase vapor-liquid mixture. Within each zone. x) (6. a single heat exchanger may be consist of multiple ﬂuid zones. the auxiliary ﬂuid ﬂows through each macro in series as usual.0 c ANSYS. Release 12. 2009 6-11 . the parallel auxiliary ﬂuid streams through the individual zones are recombined. p.1-18) where mi is the total auxiliary mass ﬂow rate for the heat exchanger group. the auxiliary ﬂuid inlet mass ﬂow rate is automatically apportioned to each zone in the group as follows: k i mi = ˙ Vi.k refers ˙ to the volume of the kth ﬁnite volume cell within the ith ﬂuid zone.k m ˙ k Vi.k (6. January 29.

1: Overview and Restrictions of the Dual Cell Model • Section 6. • Multipass heat exchangers cannot be modeled. where the pass-to-pass is perpendicular to the primary ﬂow direction and the auxiliary ﬂow is uniform.2.2 The Dual Cell Model The following sections contain information about the theory behind the dual cell heat exchanger model: • Section 6. the total cell count for the primary and auxiliary core should approximately be the same. Moreover. the structured mesh may not be the obvious choice. the mesh should be uniform and structured.Heat Exchangers 6. • In the case of a heat exchanger core with non-matching meshes. However.1 Overview and Restrictions of the Dual Cell Model Overview The Macro Model is quite suitable for thin rectangular heat exchanger cores. This model allows the solution of both the primary and auxiliary ﬂow on separate co-located meshes and couples the two ﬂows only through heat transfer at the heat exchanger core. before reaching the core. 6-12 Release 12. may pass through arbitrary shaped inlet tanks.0 c ANSYS. This will require hooking a UDF.2. These shortcomings of the macro model can be easily overcome by using the dual cell heat exchanger model. It is quite possible that due to the complex shape of the core and or ease of meshing. which make them highly nonuniform. Restrictions The following restrictions exist for the dual cell heat exchanger models: • Heat transfer calculations are based on the NTU method only. 2009 . many practical heat exchangers have a non-rectangular core and the auxiliary ﬂuid. Inc.2. January 29.2: Dual Cell Model Theory 6.

(6. where heat transfer takes place. Heat transfer calculations in the dual cell model are based on the NTU method. The common region in each zone. namely a primary zone and an auxiliary zone. January 29. NTU Relations In a cross-ﬂow pattern. as shown in Figure 6. auxiliary zone cell and vice versa. a primary zone cell exchanges heat with one. and only one. For parallel ﬂow. The two zones are solved simultaneously and are coupled only through heat transfer. Therefore.1-10. The cells in the two cores should overlap completely in the physical space to ensure conservative heat transfer.0 c ANSYS. if one of the core (say primary) mesh is too coarse or ﬁne relative to the other core (say auxiliary) conservation of heat transfer is not ensured. In other words. (1 − ) 1 ln (Cr − 1) (1 − Cr ) is the eﬀectiveness. represents the heat exchanger core. the NTU values are calculated as in Equation 6. Inc. Heat transfer occurs between cells in close proximity based on the cell centroid. The cores for both primary and auxiliary zones occupy the same physical space.2.2 The Dual Cell Model 6. the NTU value is calculated as follows: NTU = −ln(1 − − Cr ) (Cr + 1) (6.2.6.2-2) 1− NTU = (6.2-1) and for counter ﬂow. the following equation is used: N T UCr =1 = Otherwise.2-3) where Cr is the heat capacity ratio and Release 12.2 Dual Cell Model Theory The dual cell heat exchanger consists of two porous ﬂuid zones.1. 2009 6-13 . The equation is solved iteratively using the Newton-Raphson.

Heat Exchangers Figure 6. 2009 .0 c ANSYS. January 29.1: Core with Matching Quad Meshes for Primary and Auxiliary Zones in a Cross-Flow Pattern 6-14 Release 12.2. Inc.

2 and the following equations: Figure 6.P ˙ (6. Inc.scaled = min[(Cp.2.2 The Dual Cell Model Heat Rejection Heat rejection is computed for each cell in the two cores (primary and auxiliary) and added as a source term to the energy equation for the respective ﬂows.P Ainlet. (Cp.cell mscale )|P .A Ainlet.6.2-5) Cmin. This is illustrated in Figure 6.A ˙ (6.2-6) Release 12.A = ρcell.0 c ANSYS.2: Core with Primary and Auxiliary Zones with Possible Overlap of Cells mscaled.P Vcell.P = ρcell. January 29.A Vcell. 2009 6-15 .cell mscale )|A ] ˙ ˙ (6.2.2-4) mscaled.

2-8) dq = qcell = where Tcell.P ) V olumecell (6.A Tcell.A − Tcell.scaled = = = = = (6. or it can be calculated using the supplied raw data and the eﬀectiveness-NTU relation that you specify. January 29.P . mscaled.2-9) auxiliary cell temperature primary cell temperature overall heat transfer coeﬃcient total heat transfer area scaled minimum heat capacity rate You can supply the NTU values.Heat Exchangers N T Uscaled = [N T Uf ull (mscaled.5: Using the Dual Cell Heat Exchanger Model in the separate User’s Guide. 2009 .A )]bilinearinterpolation ˙ ˙ (6.2-7) (U A)scaled = N T Uscaled Cmin.scaled (U A)scaled (Tcell.P U A Cmin. refer to Section 14. 6-16 Release 12.0 c ANSYS. Inc. To learn how to use the dual cell heat exchanges model.

and in the porous region.1 Volumetric Reactions Theoretical information about species transport and ﬁnite-rate chemistry as related to volumetric reactions is presented in this section. 7. Inc.2: The Generalized Finite-Rate Formulation for Reaction Modeling For more information about using species transport and ﬁnite-rate chemistry as related to volumetric reactions.1. are described in this chapter. see Chapter 15: Modeling Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry in the separate User’s Guide.1. the partially premixed approach (described in Chapter 10: Partially Premixed Combustion).1: Volumetric Reactions in the separate User’s Guide. Species transport modeling capabilities. the reaction progress variable approach (for premixed systems. both with and without reactions.1: Volumetric Reactions • Section 7. Additional information can be found in the following sections: • Section 7. January 29. diﬀusion. described in Chapter 9: Premixed Combustion). Release 12.1: Species Transport Equations • Section 7. 2009 7-1 . with reactions occurring in the bulk phase (volumetric reactions) and/or on wall or particle surfaces. see Section 15. Modeling multiphase species transport and ﬁnite-rate chemistry can be found in Chapter 16: Multiphase Flows.2: Wall Surface Reactions and Chemical Vapor Deposition • Section 7. or the composition PDF Transport approach (described in Chapter 11: Composition PDF Transport).0 c ANSYS. described in Chapter 8: NonPremixed Combustion). Multiple simultaneous chemical reactions can be modeled. Information is divided into the following sections: • Section 7. Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry ANSYS FLUENT can model the mixing and transport of chemical species by solving conservation equations describing convection. and reaction sources for each component species.3: Particle Surface Reactions For more information about using these models in ANSYS FLUENT. Note that you may also want to consider modeling your turbulent reacting ﬂame using the mixture fraction approach (for non-premixed systems.Chapter 7.

1.0 c ANSYS. By default. Since the mass fraction of the species must sum to unity. the N th species should be selected as that species with the overall largest mass fraction. For certain laminar ﬂows. Inc. ANSYS FLUENT predicts the local mass fraction of each species.m is the mass diﬀusion coeﬃcient for species i in the mixture.1-2) Here Di. 2009 . 7-2 Release 12. Ji is the diﬀusion ﬂux of species i. and full multicomponent diﬀusion is required. Yi . under which the diﬀusion ﬂux can be written as Ji = −ρDi. ANSYS FLUENT uses the dilute approximation (also called Fick’s law) to model mass diﬀusion due to concentration gradients. which arises due to gradients of concentration and temperature. January 29. This conservation equation takes the following general form: ∂ (ρYi ) + ∂t · (ρvYi ) = − · Ji + R i + Si (7. through the solution of a convectiondiﬀusion equation for the ith species. In such cases.i T T (7. see Section 8. such as N2 when the oxidizer is air. Mass Diffusion in Laminar Flows In Equation 7.Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry 7.1-1. the dilute approximation may not be acceptable.i is the thermal (Soret) diﬀusion coeﬃcient.9. the Maxwell-Stefan equations can be solved.m Yi − DT. To minimize numerical error.1-1) where Ri is the net rate of production of species i by chemical reaction (described later in this section) and Si is the rate of creation by addition from the dispersed phase plus any user-deﬁned sources. and DT. the N th mass fraction is determined as one minus the sum of the N − 1 solved mass fractions. An equation of this form will be solved for N − 1 species where N is the total number of ﬂuid phase chemical species present in the system.2: Full Multicomponent Diﬀusion in the separate User’s Guide for details.1 Species Transport Equations When you choose to solve conservation equations for chemical species.

5: Deﬁning Cell Zone and Boundary Conditions for Species in the separate User’s Guide. k is the thermal conductivity. ANSYS FLUENT computes the mass diﬀusion in the following form: Ji = − ρDi. and the speciﬁcation of detailed laminar diﬀusion properties in turbulent ﬂows is generally not necessary. 2009 7-3 . The default Sct is 0. however. only the convection component is included.7.i T T (7.m + µt Sct Yi − DT. ANSYS FLUENT will include this term by default.7. Note that turbulent diﬀusion generally overwhelms laminar diﬀusion.1. In Equation 7. Release 12.1-4. In particular. Diffusion at Inlets For the pressure-based solver in ANSYS FLUENT. For information about specifying the net inlet transport of species.) The convection component is ﬁxed by the inlet species mass fraction speciﬁed by you. Treatment of Species Transport in the Energy Equation For many multicomponent mixing ﬂows. neglecting this term can lead to signiﬁcant errors. depends on the gradient of the computed species ﬁeld at the inlet. when the Lewis number Lei = k ρcp Di.1 Volumetric Reactions Mass Diffusion in Turbulent Flows In turbulent ﬂows.1-3) µt where Sct is the turbulent Schmidt number ( ρDt where µt is the turbulent viscosity and Dt is the turbulent diﬀusivity). Thus the diﬀusion component (and therefore the net inlet transport) is not speciﬁed a priori. the transport of enthalpy due to species diﬀusion n · i=1 hi Ji can have a signiﬁcant eﬀect on the enthalpy ﬁeld and should not be neglected.0 c ANSYS. The diﬀusion component. see Section 15. the net transport of species at inlets consists of both convection and diﬀusion components.m (7.1-4) for any species is far from unity. Inc. (For the density-based solvers. January 29.

and ignores the eﬀects of turbulent ﬂuctuations. however.Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry 7.1. The model is exact for laminar ﬂames. but. and combustion systems with premixed. Consider the rth reaction written in general form as follows: N kf.r is the Arrhenius molar rate of creation/destruction of species i in reaction r. non-premixed.i is the molecular weight of species i and Ri.r (7. • Eddy-dissipation model: Reaction rates are assumed to be controlled by the turbulence. Reaction may occur in the continuous phase at wall surfaces.i r=1 ˆ Ri. The generalized ﬁnite-rate formulation is suitable for a wide range of applications including laminar or turbulent reaction systems. The Laminar Finite-Rate Model The laminar ﬁnite-rate model computes the chemical source terms using Arrhenius expressions. be acceptable for combustion with relatively slow chemistry and small turbulence-chemistry interaction. but is generally inaccurate for turbulent ﬂames due to highly non-linear Arrhenius chemical kinetics. Inc.r N kb. and reaction rates are determined by Arrhenius kinetic expressions. or partially-premixed ﬂames. by one of three models: • Laminar ﬁnite-rate model: The eﬀect of turbulent ﬂuctuations are ignored.2 The Generalized Finite-Rate Formulation for Reaction Modeling The reaction rates that appear as source terms in Equation 7. such as supersonic ﬂames. 2009 .1-6) 7-4 Release 12.r i=1 νi. The model is computationally cheap. The net source of chemical species i due to reaction is computed as the sum of the Arrhenius reaction sources over the NR reactions that the species participate in: NR Ri = Mw. for realistic results.0 c ANSYS. only one or two step heat-release mechanisms should be used. so expensive Arrhenius chemical kinetic calculations can be avoided. for turbulent ﬂows. • Eddy-dissipation-concept (EDC) model: Detailed Arrhenius chemical kinetics can be incorporated in turbulent ﬂames.r Mi i=1 νi.1-5) ˆ where Mw.1-1 are computed in ANSYS FLUENT. The laminar model may.r Mi (7. January 29. Note that detailed chemical kinetic calculations are computationally expensive.

1 Volumetric Reactions where N νi.r = Γ νi.r kb.r j=1 [Cj.7.r ηj.r ηj.r ) (7. is simply omitted. the molar rate of creation/destruction of species i in reaction r is given by N N ˆ Ri.r j=1 [Cj.1-6 are for all chemical species in the system.0 c ANSYS. but only species that appear as reactants or products will have non-zero stoichiometric coeﬃcients.r ]ηj. Γ represents the net eﬀect of third bodies on the reaction rate. 2009 7-5 . Hence. This term is given by N Γ= j γj.1. For a non-reversible reaction (that is.r kf.r − νi.1-8) Note that the rate exponent for the reverse reaction part in Equation 7. The summations in Equation 7.r ).r − kb. see Section 15.1-8 is always the product species stoichiometric coeﬃcient (νj.r (7.) For non-reversible reactions. Inc.1-9) Release 12.r +ηj.r ]νj.r = molar concentration of species j in reaction r (kgmol/m3 ) = rate exponent for reactant species j in reaction r = rate exponent for product species j in reaction r For a reversible reaction.r in Equation 7. (Reactions in ANSYS FLUENT are non-reversible by default.1-7) where Cj.r ] (ηj.r − νi.r Cj (7. the Include Backward Reaction button is disabled).r = = = = = = number of chemical species in the system stoichiometric coeﬃcient for reactant i in reaction r stoichiometric coeﬃcient for product i in reaction r symbol denoting species i forward rate constant for reaction r backward rate constant for reaction r Equation 7.r Mi kf. species that are not involved will drop out of the equation. ˆ the molar rate of creation/destruction of species i in reaction r (Ri. the backward rate constant. January 29.r = Γ νi. kb.1-5) is given by N ˆ Ri.3: Inputs for Reaction Deﬁnition in the separate User’s Guide.r νi. For information about inputting the stoichiometric coeﬃcients and rate exponents for both global forward (non-reversible) reactions and elementary (reversible) reactions.r kf.r .1-6 is valid for both reversible and non-reversible reactions.r j=1 [Cj.

r is the third-body eﬃciency of the jth species in the rth reaction.r − νi. The forward rate constant for reaction r. Inc. opt to include the eﬀect of third-body eﬃciencies if you have data for them. γj.Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry where γj.1-14) where Si0 and h0 are the standard-state entropy and standard-state enthalpy (heat of i formation). the backward rate constant for reaction r.r . βr . and its components are computed as follows: 0 ∆Sr = R N νi. however. Ar .r . kb.r .r during the problem deﬁnition in ANSYS FLUENT.r − νi.r i=1 N Si0 R h0 i RT (7. 2009 .1-12) where patm denotes atmospheric pressure (101325 Pa). By default.1-13) 0 ∆Hr = RT νi. ANSYS FLUENT does not include third-body eﬀects in the reaction rate calculation. If the reaction is reversible. ηj.r i=1 (7.1-11) where Kr is the equilibrium constant for the rth reaction. is computed from the forward rate constant using the following relation: kb. 7-6 Release 12. These values are speciﬁed in ANSYS FLUENT as properties of the mixture material.r ) i=1 (7.r .r = kf.1-10) You (or the database) will provide values for νi.r = Ar T βr e−Er /RT where Ar βr Er R = = = = pre-exponential factor (consistent units) temperature exponent (dimensionless) activation energy for the reaction (J/kgmol) universal gas constant (J/kgmol-K) (7.r . ηj. νi.r Kr (7. Er . computed from N 0 0 ∆Sr ∆Hr Kr = exp − R RT patm RT (νi. January 29. and.r . optionally. You can. The term within the exponential function represents the change in Gibbs free energy.0 c ANSYS. kf. is computed using the Arrhenius expression kf.r − νi.

January 29. There are three methods of representing the rate expressions in this fall-oﬀ region. If the function F in Equation 7.and low-pressure limits. the parameters for the high-pressure limit (k) and the low-pressure limit (klow ) are as follows: k = AT β e−E/RT klow = Alow T βlow e−Elow /RT The net rate constant at any pressure is then taken to be pr F 1 + pr (7. The simplest one is the Lindemann [198] form.0 c ANSYS.1-17) klow [M ] k (7. Arrhenius rate parameters are required for both the high. then this is the Lindemann form. Inc. A “fall-oﬀ” reaction is one in which the temperature and pressure are such that the reaction occurs between Arrhenius high-pressure and low-pressure limits. that provide a more accurate description of the fall-oﬀ region. In the Troe method.1-15) (7.1-16) knet = k where pr is deﬁned as pr = (7.7. The rate coeﬃcients for these two limits are then blended to produce a smooth pressuredependent rate expression. In Arrhenius form. 2009 7-7 .1-18) and [M ] is the concentration of the bath gas.1-19) Release 12. which can include third-body eﬃciencies. namely the Troe method and the SRI method. F is given by 2 −1 log pr + c log Fcent log F = 1 + n − d(log pr + c) (7. the Troe method [111] and the SRI method [339].1 Volumetric Reactions Pressure-Dependent Reactions ANSYS FLUENT can use one of three methods to represent the rate expression in pressuredependent (or pressure fall-oﬀ) reactions. There are also two other related methods. and thus is no longer solely dependent on temperature.1-17 is unity. ANSYS FLUENT provides two other forms to describe F .

i Chemical kinetic mechanisms usually contain a wide range of time scales and form a set of highly non-linear. T3 . In the SRI method.67 log Fcent n = 0.27 log Fcent d = 0. January 29. In premixed ﬂames. Inc.7: Solution Procedures for Chemical Mixing and Finite-Rate Chemistry in the separate User’s Guide.1.1-21) (7. and T1 are speciﬁed as inputs.1-23) Te (7. For solution procedure guidelines.75 − 1. and e in the F expression. T2 . In non-premixed ﬂames.14 and Fcent = (1 − α)e−T /T1 + αe−T /T2 + e−T3 /T The parameters α. Also. b. and the overall rate of reaction is controlled by turbulent mixing.1-25) In addition to the three Arrhenius parameters for the low-pressure limit (klow ) expression. you can import this mechanism into ANSYS FLUENT (see Section 15. you must also supply the parameters a. stiﬀ coupled equations. turbulence slowly convects/mixes fuel and oxidizer into the reaction zones where they burn quickly.1. c.4 − 0.9: Importing a Volumetric Kinetic Mechanism in CHEMKIN Format in the separate User’s Guide). if you have a chemical mechanism in CHEMKIN [161] format. d. see Section 15. The Eddy-Dissipation Model Most fuels are fast burning. where reaction 7-8 Release 12.Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry where c = −0.1-20) (7.0 c ANSYS.1-22) (7. 2009 . the blending function F is approximated as −b −T F = d a exp + exp T c where X= 1 1 + log2 pr X (7.1-24) (7. the turbulence slowly convects/mixes cold reactants and hot products into the reaction zones.

R Ri. This is usually acceptable for non-premixed ﬂames. based on the work of Magnussen and Hjertager [216]. Release 12. In the eddy-dissipation model.r . Once the ﬂame is ignited. The net reaction rate is taken as the minimum of these two rates. k/ .r Mw. The reason is that multi-step chemical mechanisms are based on Arrhenius rates. use the EDC model (described below). ANSYS FLUENT provides the ﬁnite-rate/eddy-dissipation model.1-27) the mass fraction of any product species.1-26 and 7.0 an empirical constant equal to 0. the eddy-dissipation rate is generally smaller than the Arrhenius rate. the reactants will burn as soon as they enter the computational domain.1 Volumetric Reactions occurs rapidly. where both the Arrhenius (Equation 7.1-8). the chemical reaction rate is governed by the large-eddy mixing time scale. To incorporate multi-step chemical kinetic mechanisms in turbulent ﬂows. The model cannot predict kinetically controlled species such as radicals. January 29. Ri. Inc. turbulent rate.r Mw. called the eddy-dissipation model. To remedy this. In such cases.r = νi. 2009 7-9 .1-26) k N j (7. the Arrhenius rate acts as a kinetic “switch”.1-27) reaction rates are calculated. and an ignition source is not required to initiate combustion. the combustion is said to be mixing-limited.j P (7. i Although ANSYS FLUENT allows multi-step reaction mechanisms (number of reactions > 2) with the eddy-dissipation and ﬁnite-rate/eddy-dissipation models. every reaction has the same. is given by the smaller (i. limiting value) of the two expressions below: YR Ri.1-26 and 7. preventing reaction before the ﬂame holder.0 c ANSYS. and therefore the model should be used only for one-step (reactant → product). which differ for each reaction. and the complex. as in the eddy-breakup model of Spalding [333]. chemical kinetic rates can be safely neglected. these will likely produce incorrect solutions.i Aρ min R k νR. and often unknown.r = νi. R an empirical constant equal to 4..5 In Equations 7.r Mw.r Mw.i ABρ where YP YR A B is is is is YP νj. but in premixed ﬂames. intermediate → product) global reactions. upstream of the ﬂame stabilizer. and eddy-dissipation (Equations 7. or two-step (reactant → intermediate.e.7. and reactions are mixing-limited.1-27. P the mass fraction of a particular reactant. The net rate of production of species i due to reaction r. Combustion proceeds whenever turbulence is present (k/ > 0). In practice. ANSYS FLUENT provides a turbulence-chemistry interaction model.

if you converge a mixing solution ﬁrst.1-27).1-30) where Cτ is a time scale constant equal to 0.7: Ignition in Combustion Simulations in the separate User’s Guide. It assumes that reaction occurs in small turbulent structures. called the ﬁne scales. This is calculated as −1 τsgs = 2Sij Sij (7.1-28) where −1 τsgs Sij = subgrid-scale mixing rate (s−1 ) 1 ∂ui = 2 ∂xj + ∂uj = strain rate tensor (s−1 ) ∂xi The Eddy-Dissipation-Concept (EDC) Model The eddy-dissipation-concept (EDC) model is an extension of the eddy-dissipation model to include detailed chemical mechanisms in turbulent ﬂows [215]. 7-10 Release 12. is replaced by the subgrid-scale mixing rate.1-26 and 7. you may then have to patch products into the reaction zone to ignite the ﬂame. For details. January 29.1.1-27.4082.0 c ANSYS. This is usually suﬃcient to start the reaction. ANSYS FLUENT sets all species mass fractions to a maximum of the user speciﬁed initial value and 0. However. Inc. the turbulent mixing rate. 2009 . When you initialize the solution for steady ﬂows. The length fraction of the ﬁne scales is modeled as [115] ξ ∗ = Cξ where Cξ ν ∗ ν k2 1/4 (7. see Section 15.01. where all product mass fractions are zero. Species are assumed to react in the ﬁne structures over a time scale τ ∗ = Cτ ν 1/2 (7.1377 kinematic viscosity The volume fraction of the ﬁne scales is calculated as ξ ∗ 3 . The Eddy-Dissipation Model for LES When the LES turbulence model is used.1-29) denotes ﬁne-scale quantities and = = volume fraction constant = 2. /k in Equations 7.Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry i The eddy-dissipation model requires products to initiate reaction (see Equation 7.

2. ISAT is very powerful. For surface reactions. such as modeling the slow CO burnout in rapidly quenched ﬂames. but requires some care.2. or the NO conversion in selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR). see Section 15. the reaction rate is deﬁned on a volumetric basis and the rate of creation and destruction of chemical species becomes a source term in the species conservation equations.1-1. Reactions proceed over the time scale τ ∗ .6. 2009 7-11 .2 Wall Surface Reactions and Chemical Vapor Deposition For gas-phase reactions.3.1.4. and are integrated numerically using the ISAT algorithm [277].2: Using ISAT Eﬃciently in the separate User’s Guide for details on using ISAT eﬃciently. For guidelines on obtaining a solution using the EDC model. Inc.7: Solution of Stiﬀ Laminar Chemistry Systems in the separate User’s Guide. Hence.1-8.3 and 11. The source term in the conservation equation for the mean species i.2. See Section 19.3. the rate of adsorption and desorption is governed by both chemical kinetics and diﬀusion to and from the surface. is modeled as ρ(ξ ∗ )2 Ri = ∗ (Yi∗ − Yi ) τ [1 − (ξ ∗ )3 ] where Yi∗ is the ﬁne-scale species mass fraction after reacting over the time τ ∗ . the model should be used only when the assumption of fast chemistry is invalid. Equation 7. (7.1-31) 7.2 Wall Surface Reactions and Chemical Vapor Deposition In ANSYS FLUENT. typical mechanisms are invariably stiﬀ and their numerical integration is computationally costly.1: Surface Coverage Reaction Rate Modiﬁcation • Section 7. The EDC model can incorporate detailed chemical mechanisms into turbulent reacting ﬂows.2: Reaction-Diﬀusion Balance for Surface Chemistry • Section 7. with initial conditions taken as the current species and temperature in the cell.0 c ANSYS.3: Slip Boundary Formulation for Low-Pressure Gas Systems Release 12.7. Information can be found in the following sections: • Section 7. governed by the Arrhenius rates of Equation 7. January 29. combustion at the ﬁne scales is assumed to occur as a constant pressure reactor. Wall surface reactions thus create sources and sinks of chemical species in the gas phase. Theoretical information about wall surface reactions and chemical vapor deposition is presented in this section. as well as on the reacting surface. However. Details about the ISAT algorithm may be found in Sections 11. oﬀering substantial reductions in run-times. ISAT can accelerate the chemistry calculations by two to three orders of magnitude.

r − bi. It is assumed that the reaction rate does not depend on concentrations of the bulk (solid) species. . bi. Nb . .r − si. . 3. .r are the stoichiometric coeﬃcients for each product species i.r is the rate exponent for the j th site species as reactant in the reaction.2-2) where [ ]wall represents molar concentrations of surface-adsorbed species on the wall.r Bi + i=1 si. 2.2: Wall Surface Reactions and Chemical Vapor Deposition in the separate User’s Guide. . and the surface-adsorbed (or site) species. .r are the stoichiometric coeﬃcients for each reactant species i.r .bulk = ˆ Ri. ηi.Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry For more information about using wall surface reactions and chemical vapor deposition.r kf. . the bulk (or solid) species. 2. 2. the net molar rate of production or consumption of each species i is given by ˆ Ri. Nb i = 1. Inc. Ng i = 1. .r )Rr r=1 The forward rate constant for reaction r (kf. gi.r ) is computed using the Arrhenius expression.s. Bi . and Ns are the total numbers of these species. . Hence.2-1) where Gi . Ng .r .gas = ˆ Ri. 3. January 29. Note that ANSYS FLUENT cannot model reversible surface reactions. Consider the rth wall surface reaction written in general form as follows: Ng Nb Ns Kr Ng Nb Ns gi. 3. and gi. and si. and si. 7-12 Release 12. bi.r .r )Rr r=1 Nrxn (si. 2009 . see Section 15.r Gi + i=1 i=1 bi.2-1 are for all chemical species in the system. . respectively. The rate of the rth reaction is Ns ηi.g.r Bi + i=1 si.r Gi + i=1 i=1 bi.r [Ci ]wall [Sj ]wall j=1 i=1 Ng Rr = (7. but only species involved as reactants or products will have non-zero stoichiometric coeﬃcients. . Kr is the overall forward reaction rate constant.site = Nrxn (gi. From this. and Si represent the gas phase species. The summations in Equation 7.r is the rate exponent for the ith gaseous species as reactant in the reaction and ηj.2-4) (7. .2-5) (bi.r Si (7. species that are not involved will drop out of the equation.r .r )Rr r=1 Nrxn i = 1.0 c ANSYS.s.r − gi.r Si gi.r ηj. Ns (7.2-3) (7.g.

2-7) In Equation 7.r (Zk µk. and Er . Release 12. In such cases. gi. and is deﬁned as. 2009 7-13 .r = Ar T βr e−Er /RT where Ar βr Er R = = = = pre-exponential factor (consistent units) temperature exponent (dimensionless) activation energy for the reaction (J/kgmol) universal gas constant (J/kgmol-K) (7. January 29. the three surface coverage rate modiﬁcation parameters for specie k in reaction r are ηk.0 c ANSYS. µk.2. refer to Section 15. βr .r ) e− k. kf.2.r . Zk = [Sk ]/ρsite (7.2-13).2-6) You (or the database) will provide values for gi. Section 15. To include the mass transfer eﬀects and model heat release. These parameters default to zero for reaction species that are not surface rate modifying.2-7.r Zk /RT (7.r = Ar T βr e−Er /RT ksite 10Zk ηk.r .5: Modeling the Heat Release Due to Wall Surface Reactions in the separate User’s Guide 7.r . Zk is the fraction of surface sites covered by specie k.7.2-8) where [Sk ] is the surface site concentration and ρsite is the surface site density (see Equation 7.4: Wall Surface Mass Transfer Eﬀects in the Energy Equation. si.r .2.2 Wall Surface Reactions and Chemical Vapor Deposition kf.r .r . bi.r . bi.r . si. and Section 15.r and k.1 Surface Coverage Reaction Rate Modiﬁcation ANSYS FLUENT has the option to modify the surface reaction rate as a function of species site coverages.2. the forward rate constant for the rth reaction is evaluated as. The surface (coverage) site fraction. Inc.3: Including Mass Transfer To Surfaces in Continuity. Ar .

(7.gas ˙ ∂n ∂ [Si ]wall ˆ = Ri. 2009 .2-13) 7-14 Release 12. Ns (7. 2. The eﬀective gas-phase reaction source terms are then available for solution of the gas-phase species transport Equation 7.i Ri.2-9) (7.1-1. and is deﬁned as [Si ]wall = ρsite Zi where ρsite is the site density and Zi is the site coverage of species i. ˙ Nb mdep = ˙ i=1 ˆ Mw.2-10) The wall mass fraction Yi. 2.0 c ANSYS.wall = Mw.e. surface-adsorbed (site) and bulk (solid) species. . .bulk (7.Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry 7. .wall and Zi using a point-by-point coupled Newton solver.2-9 and 7.i Ri. i.2-10 are solved for the dependent variables Yi.i (7.2-12) [Si ]wall is the site species concentration at the wall. .2.wall Mw. ρwall Di ∂Yi. 3. .wall ˆ − mdep Yi.2-11) mdep is the net rate of mass deposition or etching as a result of surface reaction. Ng i = 1. . Equations 7.2 Reaction-Diffusion Balance for Surface Chemistry Reactions at surfaces change gas-phase. 3. January 29. On reacting surfaces.site ∂t i = 1.. Inc. the mass ﬂux of each gas specie due to diﬀusion and convection to/from the surface is balanced with its rate of consumption/production on the surface. .wall is related to concentration by [Gi ]wall = ρwall Yi. .

Maxwell’s models are adopted for these physical phenomena in ANSYS FLUENT for their simplicity and eﬀectiveness.0 c ANSYS. The Knudsen number. respectively. and the gas temperature at the surface diﬀers from the wall temperature. At such low pressures. δ is the distance from cell center to the wall. Ng αv = i=1 Yi αi (7.2-18) σ = i=1 Yi σi σi is the Lennard-Jones characteristic length of species i.1) [28] In the slip regime. and deﬁned as the ratio of mean free path to a characteristic length scale of the system. • velocity slip Uw − Ug = 2 − αv ∂U 2 − αv Kn ≈ αv ∂n αv Vg ≡ (V · n)g = Vw λ (Ug − Uc ) δ (7. typically only a few millitorrs. the ﬂuid ﬂow is in the slip regime and the normally used no-slip boundary conditions for velocity and temperature are no longer valid. Since the mean free path increases as the pressure is lowered. w and c indicate gas.2-14) (7.01 < Kn < 0.7.38066 × 10−23 J/K. the gas-phase velocity at a solid surface diﬀers from the velocity at which the wall moves. is computed as follows: kB T λ = √ 2πσ 2 p Ng (7.2-15) Here. 1. Release 12.2-16) The mean free path. wall and cell-center velocities.2. January 29. λ.2-17) (7. denoted Kn. kB is the Boltzmann constant. is used to quantify continuum ﬂow regimes.2 Wall Surface Reactions and Chemical Vapor Deposition 7. Inc. the high end of Kn values represents free molecular ﬂow and the low end the continuum regime. U and V represents the velocity component that is parallel and normal to the wall. The range in between these two extremes is called the slip regime (0. The subscripts g. αv is the momentum accommodation coeﬃcient of the gas mixture and its value is calculated as massfraction weighted average of each gas species in the system.3 Slip Boundary Formulation for Low-Pressure Gas Systems Most semiconductor fabrication devices operate far below atmospheric pressure. 2009 7-15 .

Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry

Equations 7.2-14 and 7.2-15 indicate that while the gas velocity component normal to the wall is the same as the wall normal velocity, the tangential components slip. The values lie somewhere between the cell-center and the wall values. These two equations can be combined to give a generalized formulation: Vw + k [(Vw · n)n + Vc − (Vc · n)n] δ Vg = 1+ k δ where k≡λ • temperature jump Tw − Tg = 2 or equivalently Tg = where β= 2(2 − αT ) αT δ (7.2-23) Tw + βTc 1+β (7.2-22) 2 − αT αT Kn ∂T 2 − αT ≈2 ∂n αT λ (Tg − Tc ) δ (7.2-21) 2 − αv αv (7.2-20) (7.2-19)

αT is the thermal accommodation coeﬃcient of the gas mixture and is calculated as αT = Yi αT,i .

i

The low-pressure slip boundary formulation is available only with the pressure-based solver.

7-16

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

7.3 Particle Surface Reactions

7.3

**Particle Surface Reactions
**

As described in Section 15.4.5: The Multiple Surface Reactions Model, it is possible to deﬁne multiple particle surface reactions to model the surface combustion of a combusting discrete-phase particle. This section provides theoretical background about particle surface reactions. Information can be found in the following sections: • Section 7.3.1: General Description • Section 7.3.2: ANSYS FLUENT Model Formulation • Section 7.3.3: Extension for Stoichiometries with Multiple Gas Phase Reactants • Section 7.3.4: Solid-Solid Reactions • Section 7.3.5: Solid Decomposition Reactions • Section 7.3.6: Solid Deposition Reactions • Section 7.3.7: Gaseous Solid Catalyzed Reactions on the Particle Surface For more information about using particle surface reactions, see Section 15.3: Particle Surface Reactions in the separate User’s Guide.

7.3.1

General Description

The relationships for calculating char particle burning rates are presented and discussed in detail by Smith [324]. The particle reaction rate, R (kg/m2 -s), can be expressed as R = D0 (Cg − Cs ) = Rc (Cs )N where D0 Cg Cs Rc N = = = = = bulk diﬀusion coeﬃcient (m/s) mean reacting gas species concentration in the bulk (kg/m3 ) mean reacting gas species concentration at the particle surface (kg/m3 ) chemical reaction rate coeﬃcient (units vary) apparent reaction order (dimensionless) (7.3-1)

In Equation 7.3-1, the concentration at the particle surface, Cs , is not known, so it should be eliminated, and the expression is recast as follows: R D0

N

R = Rc Cg −

(7.3-2)

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

7-17

Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry

This equation has to be solved by an iterative procedure, with the exception of the cases when N = 1 or N = 0. When N = 1, Equation 7.3-2 can be written as R= Cg Rc D0 D0 + R c (7.3-3)

In the case of N = 0, if there is a ﬁnite concentration of reactant at the particle surface, the solid depletion rate is equal to the chemical reaction rate. If there is no reactant at the surface, the solid depletion rate changes abruptly to the diﬀusion-controlled rate. In this case, however, ANSYS FLUENT will always use the chemical reaction rate for stability reasons.

**7.3.2 ANSYS FLUENT Model Formulation
**

A particle undergoing an exothermic reaction in the gas phase is shown schematically in Figure 7.3.1. Tp and T∞ are the temperatures in Equation 15.4-78.

Cd,b Cd,s Concentration Tp Ck T∞ Temperature

Distance

Figure 7.3.1: A Reacting Particle in the Multiple Surface Reactions Model

Based on the analysis above, ANSYS FLUENT uses the following equation to describe the rate of reaction r of a particle surface species j with the gas phase species n. The reaction stoichiometry of reaction r in this case is described by particle species j(s) + gas phase species n → products and the rate of reaction is given as Rj,r = Ap ηr Yj Rj,r (7.3-4)

7-18

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

7.3 Particle Surface Reactions

Rj,r = Rkin,r where Rj,r Ap Yj ηr Rj,r pn D0,r Rkin,r Nr = = = = = = = = =

Rj,r pn − D0,r

N

(7.3-5)

rate of particle surface species depletion (kg/s) particle surface area (m2 ) mass fraction of surface species j in the particle eﬀectiveness factor (dimensionless) rate of particle surface species reaction per unit area (kg/m2 -s) bulk partial pressure of the gas phase species (Pa) diﬀusion rate coeﬃcient for reaction r kinetic rate of reaction r (units vary) apparent order of reaction r

The eﬀectiveness factor, ηr , is related to the surface area, and can be used in each reaction in the case of multiple reactions. D0,r is given by [(Tp + T∞ )/2]0.75 dp

D0,r = C1,r

(7.3-6)

The kinetic rate of reaction r is deﬁned as Rkin,r = Ar Tp βr e−(Er /RTp ) (7.3-7)

The rate of the particle surface species depletion for reaction order Nr = 1 is given by Rj,r = Ap ηr Yj pn For reaction order Nr = 0, Rj,r = Ap ηr Yj Rkin,r (7.3-9) Rkin,r D0,r D0,r + Rkin,r (7.3-8)

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

7-19

Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry

7.3.3

Extension for Stoichiometries with Multiple Gas Phase Reactants

When more than one gas phase reactant takes part in the reaction, the reaction stoichiometry must be extended to account for this case: particle species j(s) + gas phase species 1 + gas phase species 2 + . . . + gas phase species nmax → products To describe the rate of reaction r of a particle surface species j in the presence of nmax gas phase species n, it is necessary to deﬁne the diﬀusion-limited species for each solid particle reaction, i.e., the species for which the concentration gradient between the bulk and the particle surface is the largest. For the rest of the species, the surface and the bulk concentrations are assumed to be equal. The concentration of the diﬀusion-limited species is shown as Cd,b and Cd,s in Figure 7.3.1, and the concentrations of all other species are denoted as Ck . For stoichiometries with multiple gas phase reactants, the bulk partial pressure pn in Equations 7.3-4 and 7.3-8 is the bulk partial pressure of the diﬀusion-limited species, pr,d for reaction r. The kinetic rate of reaction r is then deﬁned as Rkin,r = where pn Nr,n = bulk partial pressure of gas species n = reaction order in species n Ar T βr e−(Er /RT ) (pr,d )Nr,d

nmax

pNr,n n

n=1

(7.3-10)

When this model is enabled, the constant C1,r (Equation 7.3-6) and the eﬀectiveness factor ηr (Equation 7.3-4) are entered in the Reactions dialog box (see Section 15.3.1: User Inputs for Particle Surface Reactions in the separate User’s Guide).

7.3.4

Solid-Solid Reactions

Reactions involving only particle surface reactants can be modeled, provided that the particle surface reactants and products exist on the same particle. particle species 1(s) + particle species 2(s) + . . . → products The reaction rate for this case is given by Equation 7.3-9.

7-20

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

7.3 Particle Surface Reactions

7.3.5

Solid Decomposition Reactions

The decomposition reactions of particle surface species can be modeled. particle species 1(s) + particle species 2(s) + . . . + particle species nmax (s) → gas species j + products The reaction rate for this case is given by Equations 7.3-4–7.3-10, where the diﬀusionlimited species is now the gaseous product of the reaction. If there are more than one gaseous product species in the reaction, it is necessary to deﬁne the diﬀusion-limited species for the particle reaction as the species for which the concentration gradient between the bulk and the particle surface is the largest.

7.3.6

Solid Deposition Reactions

The deposition reaction of a solid species on a particle can be modeled with the following assumptions: gas species 1 + gas species 2 + . . . + gas species nmax → solid species j(s) + products The theoretical analysis and Equations 7.3-4–7.3-10 are applied for the surface reaction rate calculation, with the mass fraction of the surface species set to unity in Equations 7.3-4, 7.3-8, and 7.3-9. In ANSYS FLUENT, for the particle surface species to be deposited on a particle, a ﬁnite mass of the species must already exist in the particle. This allows for activation of the deposition reaction selectively to particular injection particles. It follows that, to initiate the solid species deposition reaction on a particle, the particle must be deﬁned in the Set Injection Properties dialog box (or Set Multiple Injection Properties dialog box) to contain a small mass fraction of the solid species to be deposited. For details on deﬁning the particle surface species mass fractions, see Section 15.3.3: Using the Multiple Surface Reactions Model for Discrete-Phase Particle Combustion in the separate User’s Guide.

7.3.7

Gaseous Solid Catalyzed Reactions on the Particle Surface

Reactions of gaseous species catalyzed on the particle surface can also be modeled following Equations 7.3-4–7.3-10 for the surface reaction rate calculation, with the mass fraction of the surface species set to unity in Equations 7.3-4, 7.3-8, and 7.3-9. To apply this type of reaction, see Section 15.3.2: Modeling Gaseous Solid Catalyzed Reactions in the separate User’s Guide. For details on deﬁning the particle surface species mass fractions, see Section 15.3.3: Using the Multiple Surface Reactions Model for Discrete-Phase Particle Combustion in the separate User’s Guide.

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

7-21

Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry

7-22

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

Chapter 8.

Non-Premixed Combustion

In non-premixed combustion, fuel and oxidizer enter the reaction zone in distinct streams. This is in contrast to premixed systems, in which reactants are mixed at the molecular level before burning. Examples of non-premixed combustion include pulverized coal furnaces, diesel internal-combustion engines and pool ﬁres. Under certain assumptions, the thermochemistry can be reduced to a single parameter: the mixture fraction. The mixture fraction, denoted by f , is the mass fraction that originated from the fuel stream. In other words, it is the local mass fraction of burnt and unburnt fuel stream elements (C, H, etc.) in all the species (CO2 , H2 O, O2 , etc.). The approach is elegant because atomic elements are conserved in chemical reactions. In turn, the mixture fraction is a conserved scalar quantity, and therefore its governing transport equation does not have a source term. Combustion is simpliﬁed to a mixing problem, and the diﬃculties associated with closing non-linear mean reaction rates are avoided. Once mixed, the chemistry can be modeled as being in chemical equilibrium with the Equilibrium model, being near chemical equilibrium with the Steady Laminar Flamelet model, or signiﬁcantly departing from chemical equilibrium with the Unsteady Laminar Flamelet model. For more information about using the non-premixed combustion model, see Chapter 16: Modeling Non-Premixed Combustion in the separate User’s Guide. Theoretical information about the non-premixed combustion model is presented in the following sections: • Section 8.1: Introduction • Section 8.2: Non-Premixed Combustion and Mixture Fraction Theory • Section 8.3: Restrictions and Special Cases for Using the Non-Premixed Model • Section 8.4: The Laminar Flamelet Models Theory • Section 8.5: The Steady Laminar Flamelet Model Theory • Section 8.6: The Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model Theory

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

8-1

Non-Premixed Combustion

8.1

Introduction

Non-premixed modeling involves the solution of transport equations for one or two conserved scalars (the mixture fractions). Equations for individual species are not solved. Instead, species concentrations are derived from the predicted mixture fraction ﬁelds. The thermochemistry calculations are preprocessed and then tabulated for look-up in ANSYS FLUENT. Interaction of turbulence and chemistry is accounted for with an assumed-shape Probability Density Function (PDF).

8.2

**Non-Premixed Combustion and Mixture Fraction Theory
**

Information about non-premixed combustion and mixture fraction theory are presented in the following sections: • Section 8.2.1: Mixture Fraction Theory • Section 8.2.2: Modeling of Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction • Section 8.2.3: Non-Adiabatic Extensions of the Non-Premixed Model • Section 8.2.4: Chemistry Tabulation

8.2.1

Mixture Fraction Theory

**Deﬁnition of the Mixture Fraction
**

The basis of the non-premixed modeling approach is that under a certain set of simplifying assumptions, the instantaneous thermochemical state of the ﬂuid is related to a conserved scalar quantity known as the mixture fraction, f . The mixture fraction can be written in terms of the atomic mass fraction as [319] f= Zi − Zi,ox Zi,fuel − Zi,ox (8.2-1)

where Zi is the elemental mass fraction for element, i. The subscript ox denotes the value at the oxidizer stream inlet and the subscript fuel denotes the value at the fuel stream inlet. If the diﬀusion coeﬃcients for all species are equal, then Equation 8.2-1 is identical for all elements, and the mixture fraction deﬁnition is unique. The mixture fraction is thus the elemental mass fraction that originated from the fuel stream.

8-2

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

8.2 Non-Premixed Combustion and Mixture Fraction Theory

If a secondary stream (another fuel or oxidant, or a non-reacting stream) is included, the fuel and secondary mixture fractions are simply the elemental mass fractions of the fuel and secondary streams, respectively. The sum of all three mixture fractions in the system (fuel, secondary stream, and oxidizer) is always equal to 1: ffuel + fsec + fox = 1 (8.2-2)

This indicates that only points on the plane ABC (shown in Figure 8.2.1) in the mixture fraction space are valid. Consequently, the two mixture fractions, ffuel and fsec , cannot vary independently; their values are valid only if they are both within the triangle OBC shown in Figure 8.2.1.

fox

1

A 1 C

fsec

O 0 1

B

ffuel

Figure 8.2.1: Relationship of ffuel , fsec , and fox

ANSYS FLUENT discretizes the triangle OBC as shown in Figure 8.2.2. Essentially, the primary mixture fraction, ffuel , is allowed to vary between zero and one, as for the single mixture fraction case, while the secondary mixture fraction lies on lines with the following equation: fsec = psec × (1 − ffuel ) (8.2-3)

where psec is the normalized secondary mixture fraction and is the value at the intersection of a line with the secondary mixture fraction axis. Note that unlike fsec , psec is bounded between zero and one, regardless of the ffuel value.

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

8-3

Non-Premixed Combustion

1

C

p

sec

f sec

O 0

B

f fuel

1

Figure 8.2.2: Relationship of ffuel , fsec , and psec

8-4

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

8.2 Non-Premixed Combustion and Mixture Fraction Theory

An important characteristic of the normalized secondary mixture fraction, psec , is its assumed statistical independence from the fuel mixture fraction, ffuel . Note that unlike fsec , psec is not a conserved scalar. This normalized mixture fraction deﬁnition, psec , is used everywhere in ANSYS FLUENT when prompted for Secondary Mixture Fraction except when deﬁning the rich limit for a secondary fuel stream, which is deﬁned in terms of fsec .

**Transport Equations for the Mixture Fraction
**

Under the assumption of equal diﬀusivities, the species equations can be reduced to a single equation for the mixture fraction, f . The reaction source terms in the species equations cancel (since elements are conserved in chemical reactions), and thus f is a conserved quantity. While the assumption of equal diﬀusivities is problematic for laminar ﬂows, it is generally acceptable for turbulent ﬂows where turbulent convection overwhelms molecular diﬀusion. The Favre mean (density-averaged) mixture fraction equation is ∂ (ρf ) + ∂t · (ρvf ) = · µt f + Sm + Suser σt (8.2-4)

The source term Sm is due solely to transfer of mass into the gas phase from liquid fuel droplets or reacting particles (e.g., coal). Suser is any user-deﬁned source term. In addition to solving for the Favre mean mixture fraction, ANSYS FLUENT solves a conservation equation for the mixture fraction variance, f 2 [152]:

∂ ρf ∂t

2

+

· ρvf

2

=

·

µt f σt

2

+ Cg µt

f

2

− Cd ρ f 2 + Suser k

(8.2-5)

where f = f − f . The default values for the constants σt , Cg , and Cd are 0.85, 2.86, and 2.0, respectively, and Suser is any user-deﬁned source term. The mixture fraction variance is used in the closure model describing turbulence-chemistry interactions (see Section 8.2.2: Modeling of Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction).

2 For a two-mixture-fraction problem, ffuel and ffuel are obtained from Equations 8.2-4 and 2 8.2-5 by substituting ffuel for f and ffuel for f 2 . fsec is obtained from Equation 8.2-4 by 2 substituting fsec for f . psec is then calculated using Equation 8.2-3, and psec is obtained by solving Equation 8.2-5 with psec substituted for f . To a ﬁrst-order approximation, the variances in psec and fsec are relatively insensitive to ffuel , and therefore the equation for 2 2 psec is essentially the same as fsec .

i

2 2 The equation for psec instead of fsec is valid when the mass ﬂow rate of the secondary stream is relatively small compared with the total mass ﬂow rate.

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

8-5

Non-Premixed Combustion

**The Non-Premixed Model for LES
**

For Large Eddy Simulations, ransport equation is not solved for the mixture fraction variance. Instead, it is modeled as f where Cvar Ls = = constant subgrid length scale (see Equation 4.11-16)

2

= Cvar L2 | f | s

2

(8.2-6)

The constant Cvar is computed dynamically when the Dynamic Stress option is enabled in the Viscous dialog box, else a constant value (with a default of 0.5) is used. If the Dynamic Scalar Flux option is enabled, the turbulent Sc (σt in Equation 8.2-4) is computed dynamically.

**Mixture Fraction vs. Equivalence Ratio
**

The mixture fraction deﬁnition can be understood in relation to common measures of reacting systems. Consider a simple combustion system involving a fuel stream (F), an oxidant stream (O), and a product stream (P) symbolically represented at stoichiometric conditions as F + r O → (1 + r) P (8.2-7)

where r is the air-to-fuel ratio on a mass basis. Denoting the equivalence ratio as φ, where φ= (fuel/air)actual (fuel/air)stoichiometric (8.2-8)

the reaction in Equation 8.2-7, under more general mixture conditions, can then be written as φ F + r O → (φ + r) P (8.2-9)

Looking at the left side of this equation, the mixture fraction for the system as a whole can then be deduced to be f= φ φ+r (8.2-10)

8-6

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

8.2 Non-Premixed Combustion and Mixture Fraction Theory

Equation 8.2-10 allows the computation of the mixture fraction at stoichiometric conditions (φ = 1) or at fuel-rich conditions (e.g., φ > 1), or fuel-lean conditions (e.g., φ < 1).

**Relationship of f to Species Mass Fraction, Density, and Temperature
**

The power of the mixture fraction modeling approach is that the chemistry is reduced to one or two conserved mixture fractions. Under the assumption of chemical equilibrium, all thermochemical scalars (species fractions, density, and temperature) are uniquely related to the mixture fraction(s). For a single mixture fraction in an adiabatic system, the instantaneous values of mass fractions, density, and temperature depend solely on the instantaneous mixture fraction, f: φi = φi (f ) (8.2-11)

If a secondary stream is included, the instantaneous values will depend on the instantaneous fuel mixture fraction, ffuel , and the secondary partial fraction, psec : φi = φi (ffuel , psec ) (8.2-12)

In Equations 8.2-11 and 8.2-12, φi represents the instantaneous species mass fraction, density, or temperature. In the case of non-adiabatic systems, the eﬀect of heat loss/gain is parameterized as φi = φi (f, H) (8.2-13)

for a single mixture fraction system, where H is the instantaneous enthalpy (see Equation 5.2-7). If a secondary stream is included, φi = φi (ffuel , psec , H) (8.2-14)

Examples of non-adiabatic ﬂows include systems with radiation, heat transfer through walls, heat transfer to/from discrete phase particles or droplets, and multiple inlets at diﬀerent temperatures. Additional detail about the mixture fraction approach in such non-adiabatic systems is provided in Section 8.2.3: Non-Adiabatic Extensions of the NonPremixed Model. In many reacting systems, the combustion is not in chemical equilibrium. ANSYS FLUENT oﬀers several approaches to model chemical non-equilibrium, including the ﬁniterate (see Section 7.1.2: The Generalized Finite-Rate Formulation for Reaction Modeling),

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

8-7

Non-Premixed Combustion

EDC (see Section 7.1.2: The Eddy-Dissipation-Concept (EDC) Model), and PDF transport (see Chapter 11: Composition PDF Transport) models, where detailed kinetic mechanisms can be incorporated. There are three approaches in the non-premixed combustion model to simulate chemical non-equilibrium. The ﬁrst is to use the Rich Flammability Limit (RFL) option in the Equilibrium model, where rich regions are modeled as a mixed-but-unburnt mixture of pure fuel and a leaner equilibrium burnt mixture (see Section 16.2.5: Enabling the Rich Flammability Limit (RFL) Option in the separate User’s Guide). The second approach is the Steady Laminar Flamelet model, where chemical non-equilibrium due to diﬀusion ﬂame stretching by turbulence can be modeled. The third approach is the Unsteady Laminar Flamelet model where slow-forming product species that are far from chemical equilibrium can be modeled. See Sections 8.4 and 8.6 for details about the Steady and Unsteady Laminar Flamelet models in ANSYS FLUENT.

8.2.2

Modeling of Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction

Equations 8.2-11 through 8.2-14 describe the instantaneous relationships between mixture fraction and species fractions, density, and temperature under the assumption of chemical equilibrium. The ANSYS FLUENT prediction of the turbulent reacting ﬂow, however, is concerned with prediction of the averaged values of these ﬂuctuating scalars. How these averaged values are related to the instantaneous values depends on the turbulencechemistry interaction model. ANSYS FLUENT applies the assumed-shape probability density function (PDF) approach as its closure model when the non-premixed model is used. The assumed shape PDF closure model is described in this section.

**Description of the Probability Density Function
**

The Probability Density Function, written as p(f ), can be thought of as the fraction of time that the ﬂuid spends in the vicinity of the state f . Figure 8.2.3 plots the time trace of mixture fraction at a point in the ﬂow (right-hand side) and the probability density function of f (left-hand side). The ﬂuctuating value of f , plotted on the right side of the ﬁgure, spends some fraction of time in the range denoted as ∆f . p(f ), plotted on the left side of the ﬁgure, takes on values such that the area under its curve in the band denoted, ∆f , is equal to the fraction of time that f spends in this range. Written mathematically, p(f ) ∆f = lim 1 T →∞ T τi

i

(8.2-15)

where T is the time scale and τi is the amount of time that f spends in the ∆f band. The shape of the function p(f ) depends on the nature of the turbulent ﬂuctuations in f . In practice, p(f ) is unknown and is modeled as a mathematical function that approximates the actual PDF shapes that have been observed experimentally.

8-8

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

8.2 Non-Premixed Combustion and Mixture Fraction Theory

Figure 8.2.3: Graphical Description of the Probability Density Function, p(f )

**Derivation of Mean Scalar Values from the Instantaneous Mixture Fraction
**

The probability density function p(f ), describing the temporal ﬂuctuations of f in the turbulent ﬂow, can be used to compute averaged values of variables that depend on f . Density-weighted mean species mass fractions and temperature can be computed (in adiabatic systems) as

1

φi =

0

p(f )φi (f )df

(8.2-16)

**for a single-mixture-fraction system. When a secondary stream exists, mean values are calculated as
**

1 1 0

φi =

0

p1 (ffuel )p2 (psec )φi (ffuel , psec )dffuel dpsec

(8.2-17)

where p1 is the PDF of ffuel and p2 is the PDF of psec . Here, statistical independence of ffuel and psec is assumed, so that p(ffuel , psec ) = p1 (ffuel )p2 (psec ).

Release 12.0 c ANSYS, Inc. January 29, 2009

8-9

while the β-function most closely represents experimentally observed PDFs.2-20) with suitable bounding near f = 1 and f = 0. The Double Delta Function PDF The double delta function is given by 0.5. As noted above. can be computed as 1 = ρ for a single-mixture-fraction system. and its variance. The shape produced by this function depends solely on the mean mixture fraction. 2009 . the double delta function PDF is very easy to compute but is invariably less accurate than the alternate β-function PDF because it 8-10 Release 12. One example of the double delta function is illustrated in Figure 8.2-18) p1 (ffuel )p2 (psec ) dffuel dpsec ρ(ffuel . A detailed description of each function follows. is described in ANSYS FLUENT by one of two mathematical functions: • the double-delta function (two-mixture-fraction cases only) • the β-function (single.4. ρ. The Assumed-Shape PDF The shape of the assumed PDF. f 2 .5. f =f− f 2 2 p(f ) = 0.2-18 (or Equations 8.2-16 and 8. Using Equations 8. it remains only to specify the shape of the function p(f ) (or p1 (ffuel ) and p2 (psec )) in order to determine the local mean ﬂuid state at all points in the ﬂow ﬁeld. 0.and two-mixture-fraction cases) The double-delta function is the most easily computed. p(f ). January 29.2. psec ) is the instantaneous density obtained using the instantaneous species mass fractions and temperature in the ideal gas law equation.Non-Premixed Combustion Similarly. ρ(f ) or ρ(ffuel .2-19) when a secondary stream exists. and 1 = ρ 1 0 0 1 1 0 p(f ) df ρ(f ) (8. the mean time-averaged ﬂuid density.2-19). f . psec ) (8.0 c ANSYS. Inc.2-17 and 8. f =f+ f elsewhere (8.

2-5).2-21) α=f and f (1 − f ) −1 f2 (8. January 29. the assumed PDF shape can be computed and used as the weighting function to determine the mean values of species mass fractions.2-23) Importantly. Thus.2 Non-Premixed Combustion and Mixture Fraction Theory assumes that only two states occur in the turbulent ﬂow. f . namely the mean mixture fraction.4: Example of the Double Delta Function PDF Shape The β-Function PDF The β-function PDF shape is given by the following function of f and f 2 : f α−1 (1 − f )β−1 f α−1 (1 − f )β−1 df p(f ) = where (8. density. and the mixture fraction variance.8. given ANSYS FLUENT’s prediction of f and f 2 at each point in the ﬂow ﬁeld (Equations 8. and temperature using. For this reason.2-22) β = (1 − f ) f (1 − f ) −1 f2 (8. 2009 8-11 .5 0 0 f f Figure 8.2. it is available only for two-mixture-fraction simulations where the savings in computational cost is signiﬁcant. p(f) 0. Release 12.0 c ANSYS. the PDF shape p(f ) is a function of only its ﬁrst two moments. f 2 . Inc.2-4 and 8.

This logical dependence is depicted visually in Figure 8.5: Logical Dependence of Averaged Scalars φi on f .Non-Premixed Combustion Equations 8. f 2 . but also to the enthalpy.2-24) 8-12 Release 12. In such ﬂows the local thermochemical state is no longer related only to f .2-16 and 8. f ’2) Figure 8.e. 2009 . turbulent ﬂuctuations should be accounted for by means of a joint PDF.2-13.2-17 and 8. With this assumption. H)p(f )df (8. as in Equation 8.2.2. January 29. The system enthalpy impacts the chemical equilibrium calculation and the temperature and species of the reacting ﬂow. Inc. Single-Mixture-Fraction Systems) 8. is not practical for most engineering applications. heat losses do not signiﬁcantly impact the turbulent enthalpy ﬂuctuations). however. changes in enthalpy due to heat loss must be considered when computing scalars from the mixture fraction. Equations 8.2-18 (or.0 c ANSYS. H) = p(f )δ(H − H) and mean scalars are calculated as 1 φi = 0 φi (f. and the Chemistry Model (Adiabatic. The computation of p(f. Consequently. and/or particles. p(f. H. for a system with a secondary stream..2-19). The problem can be simpliﬁed signiﬁcantly by assuming that the enthalpy ﬂuctuations are independent of the enthalpy level (i. droplets. In such non-adiabatic systems. f ’ 2 ) Chemistry Model φ i (f ) 1 φ i = ∫ p(f ) φ i (f ) df o Look-up Table φi = φi (f .2. H).5 for a single mixture fraction.3 Non-Adiabatic Extensions of the Non-Premixed Model Many reacting systems involve heat transfer through wall boundaries. p(f. PDF Shape p(f ) = p (f . H).

psec .2-25) where Sh accounts for source terms due to radiation. and H in nonadiabatic single-mixture-fraction systems. January 29. Single-Mixture-Fraction Systems) When a secondary stream is included. Inc. density.2 Non-Premixed Combustion and Mixture Fraction Theory Determination of φi in the non-adiabatic system thus requires solution of the modeled transport equation for mean enthalpy: ∂ (ρH) + ∂t · (ρvH) = · kt H + Sh cp (8. H)p1 (ffuel )p2 (psec )dffuel dpsec (8. and heat exchange with the dispersed phase.2. 2009 8-13 .0 c ANSYS. and the Chemistry Model (Non-Adiabatic. f 2 . H. and temperature) on ANSYS FLUENT’s prediction of f .2. the mean values are calculated from 1 1 0 φi = 0 φi (ffuel . f 2 .6: Logical Dependence of Averaged Scalars φi on f . Figure 8. Figure 8. heat transfer to wall boundaries.2-26) Release 12.6 depicts the logical dependence of mean scalar values (species mass fraction.8.

2. In addition.g. the non-adiabatic model is required in systems that include multiple fuel or oxidizer inlets with diﬀerent inlet temperatures.. Finally.0 c ANSYS.7: Reacting Systems Requiring Non-Adiabatic Non-Premixed Model Approach 8-14 Release 12. 2009 . January 29.Non-Premixed Combustion As noted above. Figure 8. Liquid Fuel or Coal Combustion) Figure 8. the non-adiabatic extensions to the PDF model are required in systems involving heat transfer to walls and in systems with radiation included.g. Inc.7 illustrates several systems that must include the non-adiabatic form of the PDF model.. the non-adiabatic model is required in particleladen ﬂows (e. liquid fuel systems or coal combustion systems) when such ﬂows include heat transfer to the dispersed phase.2. Q wall or Q radiation Fuel Oxidant f=1 f=0 (a) Heat Transfer to Domain Boundaries and/or Radiation Heat Transfer Oxidant T = T1 Fuel Oxidant T = T2 (b) Multiple Fuel or Oxidant Inlets at Different Temperatures Oxidant Liquid Fuel or Pulverized Coal (c) Dispersed Phase Heat or Mass Transfer (e.

density. Given ANSYS FLUENT’s predicted value for f and f 2 at a point in the ﬂow domain.9.0 c ANSYS. and species fraction are functions of the f and f 2 only (see Equations 8. the mean temperature. Signiﬁcant computational time can be saved by computing these integrals once.2. and temperature). the mean value of mass fractions.2. a two-dimensional look-up table. adiabatic. 4D look-up tables can be created before the simulation and Release 12. Scalar Value Scaled Variance Mean Mixture Fraction Figure 8. In adiabatic systems. This two-dimensional table is illustrated in Figure 8.2-12).8: Visual Representation of a Look-Up Table for the Scalar φi as a Function of f and f 2 in Adiabatic Single-Mixture-Fraction Systems For systems with two mixture fractions. and the PDF integrations (see Equation 8.2.4 Chemistry Tabulation Look-Up Tables for Adiabatic Systems For an equilibrium.2.2 Non-Premixed Combustion and Mixture Fraction Theory 8. density. Inc. Figure 8. Figure 8.8. the creation and interpolation costs of fourdimensional look-up tables are computationally expensive.2-21).2-14) are performed at run-time. is the mathematical result of the integration of Equation 8. There is one look-up table of this type for each scalar of interest (species mass fractions. storing them in a look-up table. where the instantaneous enthalpy is a function of only the instantaneous mixture fraction.8. January 29. is all that is required. and retrieving them during the ANSYS FLUENT simulation.2-16. the instantaneous properties φi are tabulated as a function of the fuel mixture fraction ffuel and the secondary partial fraction psec (see Equation 8. or temperature (φi ) at that point can be obtained by table interpolation.8.2.8 illustrates the concept of the look-up tables generated for a single-mixturefraction system. single-mixture-fraction case.2-16 and 8. density. 2009 8-15 .2. Alternatively. By default. like that in Figure 8. The table.

2. the last slice corresponds to the maximum heat gain to the system. for single mixture fraction systems. The ﬁrst slice corresponds to the maximum heat loss from the system.10 is the visual representation of the integral in Equation 8. density. This three-dimensional table in Figure 8. is a three-dimensional look-up table. 8-16 Release 12. a look-up table is required for each possible enthalpy value in the system. but depends also on wall heat transfer and/or radiation. and the zero heat loss/gain slice corresponds to the adiabatic table. which consists of layers of two-dimensional tables. Slices interpolated between the adiabatic and maximum slices correspond to heat gain. f 2 .9: Visual Representation of a Look-Up Table for the Scalar φi as a Function of ffuel and psec in Adiabatic Two-Mixture-Fraction Systems 3D Look-Up Tables for Non-Adiabatic Systems In non-adiabatic systems.0 c ANSYS.2.2-24.Non-Premixed Combustion interpolated at run time (see Section 16.10. and temperature from calculated values of f .2.7. each one corresponding to a normalized heat loss or gain. and those interpolated between the adiabatic and minimum slices correspond to heat loss. and H. as illustrated in Figure 8. Inc. Instantaneous Scalar Value Secondary Partial Fraction Fuel Mixture Fraction Figure 8. The result.1: Full Tabulation of the Two-Mixture-Fraction Model in the separate User’s Guide). January 29. The three-dimensional look-up table allows ANSYS FLUENT to determine the value of each mass fraction. where the enthalpy is not linearly related to the mixture fraction. 2009 .

1: Full Tabulation of the Two-Mixture-Fraction Model in the separate User’s Guide).2-14. The one-time pre-generation the 5D look-up table is very expensive.8. Inc. January 29. Release 12. 5D look-up tables can be created before the simulation and interpolated at run time (see Section 16. 3D lookup tables of the instantaneous state relationship given by Equation 8. This is especially true for cases with a large number of cells that require many iteration or time-steps to converge. once built.2.2-14 are created. The mean density during the ANSYS FLUENT solution is calculated by integrating the instantaneous density over the fuel and secondary mixture fraction space (see Equation 8.2. Alternatively. two-mixture-fraction problems. it is very expensive to tabulate and retrieve Equation 8. interpolating the table during ANSYS FLUENT solution is usually signiﬁcantly faster than performing the integrations at run-time.2-26 since ﬁve-dimensional tables are required. 2009 8-17 . By default.2-26).10: Visual Representation of a Look-Up Table for the Scalar φi as a Function of f and f 2 and Normalized Heat Loss/Gain in Non-Adiabatic Single-Mixture-Fraction Systems For non-adiabatic.11 is the visual representation of Equation 8. but. The 3D table in Figure 8.0 c ANSYS.2 Non-Premixed Combustion and Mixture Fraction Theory normalized heat loss/gain n+1 normalized heat loss/gain n Scalar Value normalized heat loss/gainn-1 Scaled Variance Mean Mixture Fraction Figure 8.7.

Non-Premixed Combustion i Note that the computation time in ANSYS FLUENT for a two-mixturefraction case will be much greater than for a single-mixture-fraction problem. and Normalized Heat Loss/Gain in Non-Adiabatic Two-Mixture-Fraction Systems 8-18 Release 12. Inc. Also.11: Visual Representation of a Look-Up Table for the Scalar φi as a Function of ffuel . January 29. This expense should be carefully considered before choosing the two-mixture-fraction model. it is usually expedient to start a twomixture-fraction simulation from a converged single-mixture-fraction solution. 2009 .2. normalized heat loss/gain n+1 Instantaneous Scalar Value normalized heat loss/gain n normalized heat loss/gain n-1 Secondary Partial Fraction Fuel Mixture Fraction Figure 8. psec .0 c ANSYS.

one inlet of air and a second inlet of pure oxygen). In systems with a gas-coal or liquid-coal fuel mixture. Two or more oxidizer inlets with diﬀerent compositions are not allowed (e.g. Release 12. Valid systems are as follows: – Two fuel streams with diﬀerent compositions and one oxidizer stream.3 Restrictions and Special Cases for Using the Non-Premixed Model 8..1 Restrictions on the Mixture Fraction Approach The unique dependence of φi (species mass fractions.. The fuel may be made up of a burnt mixture of reacting species (e. Inc.2-11 or 8..g. • The Lewis number must be unity..g. one inlet of CH4 and one inlet of CO). the volatile and char oﬀ-gases are tracked separately as distinct fuel streams. or liquid-coal fuel mixtures with a single oxidizer. – Mixed fuel systems including gas-liquid. Similarly. January 29. or temperature) on f (Equation 8. one inlet of CH4 and one inlet of CO). 90% CH4 and 10% CO).3 Restrictions and Special Cases for Using the Non-Premixed Model 8. • When two mixture fractions are used.0 c ANSYS. but each fuel inlet must have one of the two deﬁned compositions (e. have the same composition.g.g. the following conditions must be met: – Only one type of fuel is involved. 2009 8-19 .. for coal combustion. in spray combustion systems or in systems involving reacting particles. The oxidizer may consist of a mixture of species (e.3. The multiple oxidizer inlets must. two or more fuel inlets with diﬀerent fuel composition are not allowed (e. You may include multiple inlets of each fuel stream. three streams can be involved in the system. (This implies that the diﬀusion coeﬃcients for all species and enthalpy are equal. The multiple fuel inlets must have the same composition. – Only one type of oxidizer is involved.2-13) requires that the reacting system meet the following conditions: • The chemical system must be of the diﬀusion type with discrete fuel and oxidizer inlets (spray combustion and pulverized fuel ﬂames may also fall into this category). • When a single mixture fraction is used. 90% CH4 and 10% CO) and you may include multiple fuel inlets. density. however. Each fuel stream may be made up of a mixture of reacting species (e. gas-coal. a good approximation in turbulent ﬂow). Alternatively. 21% O2 and 79% N2 ) and you may have multiple oxidizer inlets.g.. only one oﬀ-gas is permitted.8. the coal volatiles and char can be treated as a single composite fuel stream and the secondary stream can represent another fuel.

– A fuel stream. Figure 8.3. however. and char combustion laws governing the dispersed phase.5: Modeling Coal Combustion Using the Non-Premixed Model in the separate User’s Guide. fuel enters the gas phase within the computational domain at a rate determined by the evaporation.Non-Premixed Combustion – Two oxidizer streams with diﬀerent compositions and one fuel stream. one inlet of air and a second inlet of pure oxygen). Note. 8.g.3.g.3. Figures 8. • The ﬂow must be turbulent. Each oxidizer stream may consist of a mixture of species (e. as well as partially premixed ﬂames.. the volatiles and the products of char can be deﬁned as two diﬀerent types of fuel (using two mixture fractions) or as a single composite oﬀ-gas (using one mixture fraction). Inc. that an extended mixture fraction formulation. devolatilization.0 c ANSYS.3 shows a premixed conﬁguration that cannot be modeled using the non-premixed model. as described in Section 16.4. January 29. 21% O2 and 79% N2 ). It is important to emphasize that these restrictions eliminate the use of the non-premixed approach for directly modeling premixed combustion. the partially premixed model (see Chapter 10: Partially Premixed Combustion). In this case. 8-20 Release 12. but each oxidizer inlet must have one of the two deﬁned compositions (e.1 and 8. In the case of coal.2 Using the Non-Premixed Model for Liquid Fuel or Coal Combustion You can use the non-premixed model if your ANSYS FLUENT simulation includes liquid droplets and/or coal particles. and a non-reacting secondary stream. This is because the unburned premixed stream is far from chemical equilibrium. You may have multiple inlets of each oxidizer stream.2 illustrate typical reacting system conﬁgurations that can be handled by the non-premixed model in ANSYS FLUENT. 2009 . can be applied to non-premixed (with mixed-but-unburnt regions). an oxidizer stream.3.

3 Restrictions and Special Cases for Using the Non-Premixed Model 60% CH4 40% CO 21% O2 79% N2 f=1 f=0 (a) Simple Fuel/Oxidant Diffusion Flame 35% O 2 65% N 2 f=0 60% CH 4 40% CO 35% O2 65% N 2 f=1 f=0 (b) Diffusion System Using Multiple Oxidant Inlets 60% CH 4 20% CO 10% C3H8 10% CO2 21% O2 79% N2 60% CH 4 20% CO 10% C3H8 10% CO2 f=1 f=0 f=1 (c) System Using Multiple Fuel Inlets Figure 8.3. January 29. Inc.0 c ANSYS.1: Chemical Systems That Can Be Modeled Using a Single Mixture Fraction Release 12.8. 2009 8-21 .

3: Premixed Systems That Cannot Be Modeled Using the NonPremixed Model 8-22 Release 12.2: Chemical System Conﬁgurations That Can Be Modeled Using Two Mixture Fractions CH 4 O 2 N 2 Figure 8. 2009 .Non-Premixed Combustion CH 4/CO/C 3 8 H Oxidant CH 4/C 3 H 8 (a) System Containing Two Dissimilar Fuel Inlets 21% O2 Fuel 35% O2 (b) System Containing Two Dissimilar Oxidant Inlets Figure 8.3.0 c ANSYS.3. Inc. January 29.

4: Using the Non-Premixed Model with Flue Gas Recycle Release 12. mfuel is the mass ﬂow rate of the ˙ ˙ fuel inlet.3 Restrictions and Special Cases for Using the Non-Premixed Model 8. as depicted schematically in Figure 8.8.3. mox is the mass ﬂow rate of the oxidizer inlet. Inc.3 Using the Non-Premixed Model with Flue Gas Recycle While most problems you solve using the non-premixed model will involve inlets that contain either pure oxidant or pure fuel (f = 0 or 1).4. Such cases arise when there is ﬂue gas recirculation.3-4) fexit . the mixture fraction at the ﬂue gas recycle inlet can be computed as mfuel + mrecyc fexit = (mfuel + mox + mrecyc )fexit ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ or fexit = mfuel ˙ mfuel + mox ˙ ˙ (8.3-1) where fexit is the exit mixture fraction (and the mixture fraction at the ﬂue gas recycle inlet). m O f=1 f=0 fexit Figure 8.3-2) (8.3. ffuel.3. January 29.exit = and psec. ˙ If a secondary stream is included. mrecyc is the mass ﬂow rate of the recycle inlet. 2009 8-23 . Since f is a conserved quantity.exit = msec ˙ msec + mox ˙ ˙ .0 c ANSYS. m R mfuel ˙ mfuel ˙ + msec + mox ˙ ˙ (8.3-3) (8. m F . you can include an inlet that has an intermediate value of mixture fraction (0 < f < 1) provided that this inlet represents a completely reacted mixture.

and the inert tracer (YI ).instead.3-8) 8-24 Release 12. yet still be able to utilize previously built tables by straightforward lookup. because the problem is reduced to tracking a conserved scalar when it is assumed that the inert components have the same turbulent diﬀusivities. The mean mixture fraction and mixture fraction variance used to access the PDF table is given by: ¯ f 1 − YI f¯2 = (1 − YI )2 ¯ fI = f¯2 I (8. ANSYS FLUENT allows the introduction of an inert stream into the domain. Inc. however the cell enthalpy must be conditioned to account for the inert enthalpy. and density of the mixture. 2009 . speciﬁc heat.0 c ANSYS. but the PDF tables need to be accessed with conditioned variables. Conditioning is necessary to take into account the volume taken up by the inert fraction.3-7) The reaction progress variable c is not conditioned.3-6) (8. Unlike a secondary mixture fraction. the cell enthalpy (H. However the inert stream does aﬀect the solution due to its inﬂuence on enthalpy. January 29. The inert enthalpy and active enthalpy are obtained from the following relationships: H(T ) = (1 − YI )H pdf (T ) + YI H I (T ) (8.3-5) Equation 8.4 Using the Non-Premixed Model with the Inert Model To model the eﬀect of dilution on combustion without the expense of using two mixture fractions. when the partially premixed model is enabled).Non-Premixed Combustion 8. the reaction progress variable (c.3-5 has no sources or sinks. for non-adiabatic ﬂows).3. The mixture is modeled as a blend of inert and active species. The equation for conservation of inert is written as: ∂ρYI + ∂t where YI Sct µt ρ = = = = inert stream tracer turbulent Schmidt number turbulent viscosity density · (vρYI ) = · µt Sct (YI ) (8. its composition remains constant after mixing. Mixture Composition ¯ ¯ The mixture properties are computed from the mean (f ) and variance (f ) of the mixture fraction in the cell. the inert does not chemically equilibrate with the primary fuel and oxidizer .

Property Evaluation The speciﬁc heat of the mixture is evaluated by mixing the inert and active streams in the following way: pdf I Cp (T ) = (1 − YI )Cp (T ) + YI Cp (T ) (8. H pdf is the enthalpy of the active mixture-fraction stream and H I is the enthalpy of the inert stream.3-8 is solved for the temperature and for H pdf .7. The inert and PDF enthalpies are deﬁned further in Equation 31.5: Setting Up the Inert Model in the separate User’s Guide. which gives the partitioning of the energy between the inert and active streams. Release 12. To calculate the temperature in the cell. Here it is assumed that the inert and the active streams have the same temperature. Inc.3-10) The density of the mixture is calculated by using a harmonic average of the densities of the active and inert streams.3-9) where Yi refers to the mass fraction of specie i deﬁned in the inert stream. 2009 8-25 . the inert density (ρI ) is calculated from the ideal gas law. Cpi the speciﬁc heat of specie i.0 c ANSYS.4-13 in the separate User’s Guide.8.3 Restrictions and Special Cases for Using the Non-Premixed Model where H is the enthalpy of the cell at temperature T . The inert enthalpy is deﬁned as NI H I (T ) = i=0 T Yi T0 Cpi dT (8. and NI is the number of inert species.3-11) Here. For information on how to set up the inert model. weighted by the inert tracer: (1 − YI ) YI ρ(T ) = + I pdf (T ) ρ ρ (T ) −1 (8. January 29. see Section 16. Equation 8. T0 is the reference temperature. but diﬀerent enthalpies.

most commonly.4. 8-26 Release 12.4. locally one-dimensional ﬂamelet structures embedded within the turbulent ﬂow ﬁeld [36. laminar.2: The Flamelet Concept • Section 8. A common laminar ﬂame type used to represent a ﬂamelet in a turbulent ﬂow is the counterﬂow diﬀusion ﬂame. 267.1 Restrictions and Assumptions The following restrictions apply to all ﬂamelet models in ANSYS FLUENT: • Only a single mixture fraction can be modeled. and the governing equations can be simpliﬁed to one dimension along the axis of the fuel and oxidizer jets. axisymmetric fuel and oxidizer jets. • The mixture fraction is assumed to follow the β-function PDF.4. As the distance between the jets is decreased and/or the velocity of the jets increased. calculated. and scalar dissipation ﬂuctuations are ignored. Inc. 2009 . where complex chemistry calculations can be aﬀordably performed. • Empirically-based streams cannot be used with the ﬂamelet model.4 The Laminar Flamelet Models Theory Information about the ﬂamelet models are presented in the following sections: • Section 8. 8. two-mixture-fraction ﬂamelet models are not allowed.4.1: Restrictions and Assumptions • Section 8. 268] (see Figure 8. The species mass fraction and temperature ﬁelds can be measured in laminar counterﬂow diﬀusion ﬂame experiments.4.Non-Premixed Combustion 8. January 29.3: Flamelet Generation • Section 8.1).4. the ﬂame is strained and increasingly departs from chemical equilibrium until it is eventually extinguished.4: Flamelet Import 8. a self-similar solution exists.4. This geometry consists of opposed. For the latter.0 c ANSYS. or.2 The Flamelet Concept Overview The ﬂamelet concept views the turbulent ﬂame as an ensemble of thin.

4.8.0 c ANSYS. 2009 8-27 .4 The Laminar Flamelet Models Theory turbulent ﬂame laminar ﬂamelet structure (see detail below) ﬂame fuel x velocity (u fuel ) velocity gradient (a fuel ) temperature (T fuel ) fuel composition oxidizer velocity (u ox ) velocity gradient (a ox ) temperature (Tox ) oxidizer composition fuel-oxidizer distance Figure 8. Inc.1: Laminar Opposed-Flow Diﬀusion Flamelet Release 12. January 29.

Comprehensive reviews and analyses are presented in the works of Bray and Peters. and d is the distance between the jet nozzles. Inc. January 29.0 c ANSYS.2. f . The balance equations. the mixture fraction. and Dixon-Lewis [36. deﬁned in Equation 8. equivalently. denoted by χ. 2009 . 72]. where v is the relative speed of the fuel and oxidizer jets.4-2).Non-Premixed Combustion In the laminar counterﬂow ﬂame.4-2) scalar dissipation at f = fst characteristic strain rate stoichiometric mixture fraction inverse complementary error function 8-28 Release 12. (see Section 8. the scalar dissipation. the ﬂamelet strain rate as can be related to the scalar dissipation at the position where f is stoichiometric by [267]: as exp −2[erfc−1 (2fst )]2 π (8.1: Deﬁnition of the Mixture Fraction for deﬁnition) decreases monotonically from unity at the fuel jet to zero at the oxidizer jet. χ. and sample calculations of the counterﬂow laminar diﬀusion ﬂame can be found in several references.4-1) χst = where χst as fst erfc−1 = = = = (8. Strain Rate and Scalar Dissipation A characteristic strain rate for a counterﬂow diﬀusion ﬂamelet can be deﬁned as as = v/2d. the chemistry is reduced and completely described by the two quantities. The scalar dissipation is deﬁned as χ = 2D| f |2 where D is a representative diﬀusion coeﬃcient. they can be uniquely described by two parameters: the mixture fraction and the strain rate (or. If the species mass fraction and temperature along the axis are mapped from physical space to mixture fraction space. For the counterﬂow geometry. Instead of using the strain rate to quantify the departure from equilibrium. solution methods. χ. f and χ. Hence. and stored in look-up tables. Note that the scalar dissipation. varies along the axis of the ﬂamelet. By preprocessing the chemistry. computational costs are reduced considerably. it is expedient to use the scalar dissipation. This reduction of the complex chemistry to two variables allows the ﬂamelet calculations to be preprocessed.

The instantaneous stoichiometric scalar dissipation.0 c ANSYS. In the limit χst → 0 the chemistry tends to equilibrium. is modeled in ANSYS FLUENT as Cχ f k 2 χst = (8. Inc. the additional parameter of enthalpy is required. The temperature is then calculated from Equation 5. In ANSYS FLUENT. 2009 8-29 . density-weighted mean species mass fractions and temperature in the turbulent ﬂame can be determined from the PDF of f and χst as φ= φ(f. so the joint PDF p(f. The ﬁrst moment. namely the mean scalar dissipation.8. and as χst increases due to aerodynamic straining. the non-equilibrium increases. the species mass fraction and temperature in the laminar ﬂamelets are completely parameterized by f and χst . f 2 and χst . For non-adiabatic steady laminar ﬂamelets.4 The Laminar Flamelet Models Theory Physically. 240]. χst ) can be simpliﬁed as pf (f )pχ (χst ). χst . f and χst are assumed to be statistically independent. Heat gain/loss to the system is assumed to have a negligible eﬀect on the species mass fractions. Fluctuations in χst are ignored so that the PDF of χ is a delta function: pχ = δ(χ − χ). for adiabatic systems. Since. A β PDF shape is assumed for pf . January 29. χst )p(f. the integrations in Equation 8. and adiabatic mass fractions are used [27. χst ) df dχst (8. and transport equations for f and f 2 are solved in ANSYS FLUENT to specify pf . and the gradient of f at the stoichiometric position f = fst increases. For LES. For adiabatic ﬂows. the computational cost of modeling steady ﬂamelets over a range of enthalpies is prohibitive. as the ﬂame is strained. the width of the reaction zone diminishes. so some approximations are made.4-3) where φ represents species mass fractions and temperature. Embedding Laminar Flamelets in Turbulent Flames A turbulent ﬂame brush is modeled as an ensemble of discrete laminar ﬂamelets. ﬂamelet tables have three dimensions: f .4-3 are preprocessed and stored in look-up tables.4-4) where Cχ is a constant with a default value of 2.4-5) To avoid the PDF convolutions at ANSYS FLUENT run-time. Local quenching of the ﬂamelet occurs when χst exceeds a critical value. χst . the mean scalar dissipation is modeled as χst = Cχ (µt + µ) 2 | f| ρσt (8. is used as the essential non-equilibrium parameter. However. It has the dimensions s−1 and may be interpreted as the inverse of a characteristic diﬀusion time.2-7 Release 12.

An extension of Equation 8. temperature. not applied for the case corresponding to a scalar dissipation of zero. In ANSYS FLUENT. In ANSYS FLUENT. f 2 .3: Flamelet Generation and Section 8. however. a simpliﬁed set of the mixture fraction space equations are solved [272]. H. 8. you can either generate your own ﬂamelets. Here. must be modeled across the ﬂamelet. 16.i and cp are the ith species speciﬁc heat and mixture-averaged speciﬁc heat. Such a case is represented by the non-adiabatic equilibrium solution.4-2 to variable density is used [163]: as 3( ρ∞ /ρ + 1) χ(f ) = exp −2[erfc−1 (2f )]2 4π 2 ρ∞ /ρ + 1 where ρ∞ is the density of the oxidizer stream. T . The scalar dissipation. Inc. ANSYS FLUENT can import ﬂamelet ﬁles in OPPDIF format or standard ﬂamelet ﬁle format. 2 (8.i i (8. Yi . For χst = 0.4. N equations are solved for the species mass fractions. and H. Si is the ith species reaction rate. the species mass fractions are computed as functions of f . density. ρ.4-7) The notation in Equations 8. CFX-RIF [15. respectively.4-6 and 8. Accordingly.4.Non-Premixed Combustion for a range of mean enthalpy gain/loss. Such stand-alone codes include OPPDIF [210]. or import them as ﬂamelet ﬁles calculated with other stand-alone packages.0 c ANSYS. cp.4-6) ρ H i Si + i cp.4. and f are the ith species mass fraction. The approximation of constant adiabatic species mass fractions is. mean temperature and density PDF tables have an extra dimension of mean enthalpy. and Hi is the speciﬁc enthalpy of the ith species.4: Flamelet Import.3 Flamelet Generation The laminar counterﬂow diﬀusion ﬂame equations can be transformed from physical space (with x as the independent variable) to mixture fraction space (with f as the independent variable) [273]. January 29. ρ and one equation for temperature: ∂T 1 ∂2T 1 = ρχ 2 − ∂t 2 ∂f cp 1 ∂cp ρχ + 2cp ∂f ∂Yi ∂T ∂f ∂f 1 ∂ 2 Yi ∂Yi = ρχ 2 + Si ∂t 2 ∂f (8.4-7 is as follows: Yi . Instructions for generating and importing ﬂamelets are provided in Section 8.4-8) 8-30 Release 12. respectively. χ. 272] and RUN-1DL [270]. 2009 . and mixture fraction.

and construct look-up tables. the mixture fraction is calculated as f= where b=2 YC YH YO + 0. and YN.O (8. where fC and f H are the mixture fraction values based on the carbon and hydrogen elements. The ﬂamelet ﬁles can be generated in ANSYS FLUENT.4 The Laminar Flamelet Models Theory 8. [26]. or with separate stand-alone computer codes. The species and temperature must then be mapped from physical space to mixture fraction space. and oxygen atoms.C . hydrogen. and YO are the mass fractions of carbon. with diﬀerential diﬀusion. the mixture fraction can be deﬁned in a number of ways.H Mw. the species and temperature vary in one spatial dimension.ox YN.fuel is the mass fraction of nitrogen at the fuel inlet. 16. January 29. Mw. If the diﬀusion coeﬃcients of all species are equal.4: Standard Flamelet Files in the separate User’s Guide and in Peters and Rogg [270]. the mixture fraction is calculated as the mean value of fC and fH .4-3).C Mw.4-11) where YN is the elemental mass fraction of nitrogen along the ﬂamelet. and Mw.5 − Mw.8. and standard format ﬁles described in Section 16. ANSYS FLUENT provides four methods of computing the mixture fraction proﬁle along the laminar ﬂamelet: • Average of C and H: Following the work of Drake and Blint [77]. Three types of ﬂamelet ﬁles can be imported into ANSYS FLUENT: binary ﬁles generated by the OPPDIF code [210].4. • Nitrogen method: The mixture fraction is computed in terms of the mass fraction of the nitrogen species: f= YN − YN. convolute these ﬂamelets with the assumed-shape PDFs (see Equation 8.fuel − YN. a unique deﬁnition of the mixture fraction exists. • Hydrocarbon formula: Following the work of Bilger et al.4-10) b − box bfuel − box (8.ox (8. When ﬂamelets are generated in physical space (such as with OPPDIF). YN.4-9) YC . However.H .4 Flamelet Import ANSYS FLUENT can import one or more ﬂamelet ﬁles. box and bfuel are the values of b at the oxidizer and fuel inlets. and Mw. Inc. 2009 8-31 .ox is the mass fraction of nitrogen at the oxidizer inlet. YH .O are the molecular weights.0 c ANSYS. Release 12.7. ASCII ﬁles generated by the CFX-RIF code [15. 272].

the steady laminar ﬂamelet model is limited to modeling combustion with relatively fast chemistry. it will instead use the hydrocarbon formula method described above. • CFX-RIF format: A CFX-RIF ﬂamelet ﬁle contains multiple ﬂamelets at various strains and the ﬁle should not be modiﬁed manually. Using detailed chemical mechanisms. For either type of ﬁle. The ﬂamelet proﬁles in the multiple-ﬂamelet data set should vary only in the strain rate imposed. The chemistry can then be preprocessed and tabulated. Only one CFX-RIF ﬂamelet ﬁle should be imported. Inc. If ANSYS FLUENT does not ﬁnd mixture fraction data in the ﬂamelet ﬁle. The scalar dissipation will be calculated from the strain rate using Equation 8. and are obtained by experiments or calculations. However. The laminar ﬂamelets are then embedded in a turbulent ﬂame using statistical PDF methods. 2009 . the species and the boundary conditions should be the same. The ﬂame is assumed to respond instantaneously to the aerodynamic strain. When you import the set of ﬂamelet ﬁles. ANSYS FLUENT can calculate laminar opposed-ﬂow diﬀusion ﬂamelets for non-premixed combustion. In addition. For ﬂamelets generated in physical space. you can select one of the four methods available for the calculation of mixture fraction. January 29. and ANSYS FLUENT will merge them internally into a multiple-ﬂamelet ﬁle. If you choose this method. The formats for multiple ﬂamelets are as follows: • OPPDIF format: The multiple-ﬂamelet OPPDIF ﬁles should be produced using the CNTN keyword in the OPPDIF script. ANSYS FLUENT will search for and count the occurrences of the HEADER keyword to determine the number of ﬂamelets in the ﬁle. 8. The individual ﬂamelets are assumed to have the same structure as laminar ﬂames in simple conﬁgurations. it is recommended that an extinguished ﬂamelet is excluded from the multiple-ﬂamelet data set. and thus the 8-32 Release 12.0 c ANSYS. steady laminar ﬂames. ANSYS FLUENT will search for the mixture fraction keyword Z. you can import them all at the same time. ANSYS FLUENT will determine the number of ﬂamelet proﬁles and sort them in ascending strain-rate order. Alternatively.4-2.Non-Premixed Combustion • Read from a ﬁle (standard format ﬁles only): This option is for ﬂamelets solved in mixture fraction space. • Standard format: If you have a set of standard format ﬂamelet ﬁles. and retrieve the data. you can use ANSYS FLUENT to merge a number of single-ﬂamelet OPPDIF ﬁles into a multiple-ﬂamelet ﬁle. The advantage of the laminar ﬂamelet approach is that realistic chemical kinetic eﬀects can be incorporated into turbulent ﬂames. as speciﬁed in Peter and Roggs’s work [270].5 The Steady Laminar Flamelet Model Theory The steady laminar ﬂamelet approach models a turbulent ﬂame brush as an ensemble of discrete. oﬀering tremendous computational savings. called ﬂamelets.

6: The Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model Theory) • the trace species assumption in the NOx model (see Chapter 13: Pollutant Formation) • the Laminar Finite-Rate model (see Section 7. and slow chemistry (like NOx ).1: Introduction. January 29. as the ﬂame is stretched and strained by the turbulence. extinction.8. and the degree of local non-equilibrium increases. The species have less time to reach chemical equilibrium. however. is assumed to respond rapidly to this strain. the species can be considered to be in global chemical non-equilibrium. When the chemical time-scale is comparable to the ﬂuid mixing time-scale. see Section 8. they encounter high temperatures and radical species and ignite. Such cases include NOx formation and low-temperature CO oxidation.4: Non-Adiabatic Steady Laminar Flamelets For general information about the mixture fraction model. Inc. Instead.1: Overview • Section 8. The steady laminar ﬂamelet model is suited to predict chemical non-equilibrium due to aerodynamic straining of the ﬂame by the turbulence. More heat and radicals are generated in the reaction zone and some diﬀuse out.2: Multiple Steady Flamelet Libraries • Section 8.1 Overview In a diﬀusion ﬂame.5 The Steady Laminar Flamelet Model Theory model cannot capture deep non-equilibrium eﬀects such as ignition.5. the chemistry tends to equilibrium. Information pertaining strictly to the steady ﬂamelet model is presented in the following sections: • Section 8. so as the strain relaxes to zero.3: Steady Laminar Flamelet Automated Grid Reﬁnement • Section 8. 2009 8-33 . species and temperature gradients increase. and radicals and heat diﬀuse more quickly out of the ﬂame.5. fuel and oxidizer diﬀuse into the reaction zone. at the molecular level. However. In near-equilibrium ﬂames.2: The Generalized Finite-Rate Formulation for Reaction Modeling). The chemistry. the reaction rate is much faster than the diﬀusion rate. you can model slow chemistry using one of the following: • the Unsteady Laminar Flamelet model (see Section 8.5.1. where the turbulence-chemistry interaction is ignored. 8. Here. The steady laminar ﬂamelet model is not suitable for such slow-chemistry ﬂames. Release 12.5.0 c ANSYS.5.

2009 . as well as the change of slopes. |si − si+1 | > s (smax − smin ) (8. ANSYS FLUENT also has the option for Automated Grid Reﬁnement of steady ﬂamelets. When using automated grid reﬁnement. |vi − vi+1 | > v (vmax − vmin ) (8. If you specify the number of ﬂamelets to be greater than one.2 Multiple Steady Flamelet Libraries ANSYS FLUENT can generate multiple steady ﬂamelets over a range of strain rates to account for the varying strain ﬁeld in your multi-dimensional simulation. χ0 is the initial scalar dissipation. a steady solution is calculated on a coarse grid with a user speciﬁed Initial Number of Grid Points in Flamelet (default of 8). 1D ﬂamelet grids are discretized by clustering a ﬁxed number of points about the stoichiometric mixture fraction. ﬂamelets are generated at scalar dissipation values as determined by Equation 8.5-1. between successive grid points is less than user speciﬁed tolerances. Inc. and ∆χ is the scalar dissipation step. and vmax (vmin ) are the maximum (minimum) values over all grid points. In addition a grid point is added if.3 Steady Laminar Flamelet Automated Grid Reﬁnement By default.5.Non-Premixed Combustion • the EDC model (see Section 7.1. or the ﬂamelet extinguishes.5. a new grid point is inserted midway between a point i and its neighbor i + 1 if. Extinguished ﬂamelets are excluded from the ﬂamelet library.2: The Eddy-Dissipation-Concept (EDC) Model) • the PDF transport model (see Chapter 11: Composition PDF Transport). 10χi−1 for χi−1 < 1 s−1 (8.0 c ANSYS. January 29. Flamelets are generated until either the maximum number of ﬂamelets is reached. At convergence. where an adaptive algorithm inserts grid points so that the change of values. 8.5-2) where vi is the value for each temperature and species mass fraction at grid point i.5). which is approximated as the location of peak temperature.5-1) −1 χi = χi−1 + ∆χ for χi−1 ≥ 1 s where i ranges from 1 up to the speciﬁed maximum number of ﬂamelets.5-3) 8-34 Release 12. v is a user speciﬁed Maximum Change in Value Ratio (default of 0. 8.

4-4). f 2 . Also. The reﬁned ﬂamelet is reconverged. χ) During the ANSYS FLUENT solution. s is a user speciﬁed Maximum Change in Slope Ratio (default of 0. 240] and assumes that ﬂamelet species proﬁles are unaﬀected by heat loss/gain from the ﬂamelet. si = vi+1 − vi fi+1 − fi (8. or the user speciﬁed Maximum Number of Grid Points in Flamelet (default of 64) is exceeded. χ) Yi (f . January 29. No special non-adiabatic ﬂamelet proﬁles need to be generated. Release 12. the compatibility of ANSYS FLUENT with external steady ﬂamelet generation packages (e.5-3. H. the eﬀect of the heat loss on the extinction limits is not taken into account. and the reﬁnement process is repeated until no further grid points are added by Equations 8. mixture fraction variance. H) for χ = 0 (i. χ) for χ = 0 ρ(f . Inc..4 Non-Adiabatic Steady Laminar Flamelets For non-adiabatic steady ﬂamelets.. 2009 8-35 . f 2 .5-3 and 8.8.4-3. and then tabulated for look-up in ANSYS FLUENT.5-4.5-4) In Equations 8. RUN-1DL) is retained. f 2 . the ﬂamelet proﬁles are convoluted with the assumed-shape PDFs as in Equation 8. OPPDIF. ANSYS FLUENT follows the approach of [27. H. The disadvantage to this model is that the eﬀect of the heat losses on the species mass fractions is not taken into account. the equations for the mean mixture fraction. f 2 .5 The Steady Laminar Flamelet Model Theory where the slope si is deﬁned as. In addition.g. and fi is the mixture fraction value of grid point i. The scalar dissipation ﬁeld is calculated from the turbulence ﬁeld and the mixture fraction variance (Equation 8. avoiding a very cumbersome preprocessing step.5-2 and 8. The non-adiabatic PDF tables have the following dimensions: T (f . and species mass fraction are obtained from the PDF look-up table.0 c ANSYS. The mean values of cell temperature.e. After ﬂamelet generation. smax (smin ) are the maximum (minimum) slopes over all grid points. 8. CFX-RIF. density.5).5. and mean enthalpy are solved. equilibrium solution) Yi (f .

6.6. EDC or PDF Transport models where kinetics are calculated in two or three dimensions.2: The Diesel Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model 8.5.1 The Eulerian Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model The Eulerian unsteady laminar ﬂamelet model can be used to predict slow-forming intermediate and product species which are not in chemical equilibrium. which is the residence time since the species started accumulating after mixing in the combustor.5: The Steady Laminar Flamelet Model Theory). 2009 . steady ﬂamelet solution. Typical examples of slow-forming species are gas-phase pollutants like NOx . The unsteady laminar ﬂamelet model in ANSYS FLUENT can predict slow-forming species.6 The Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model Theory The steady laminar ﬂamelet model.1: The Eulerian Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model) and a diesel unsteady ﬂamelet model for predicting combustion in compression-ignition engines (described in Section 8. such as gaseous pollutants or product yields in liquid reactors. In many combustors the strain is small at the outlet and the steady ﬂamelet model predicts all species. and product compounds in liquid reactors.6. models local chemical non-equilibrium due to the straining eﬀect of turbulence.Non-Premixed Combustion 8.6.4 and 8. following the work of Barths et al. including slow-forming species like NOx . namely an Eulerian unsteady ﬂamelet model (described in Section 8. By reducing the chemistry computation to one dimension. The cause of this inaccuracy is the disparity between the ﬂamelet time-scale.6. In ANSYS FLUENT. to be near equilibrium.0 c ANSYS. detailed kinetics with multiple species and stiﬀ reactions can be economically simulated in complex 3D geometries. postprocesses an unsteady marker probability equation on a steady-state. more accurately than the steady laminar ﬂamelet model. converged ﬂow ﬁeld.1: The Eulerian Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model • Section 8. 8-36 Release 12. Information pertaining strictly to the unsteady ﬂamelet model is presented in the following sections: • Section 8. the eﬀect of the unsteady ﬂamelet species on the ﬂow-ﬁeld are neglected. which is the inverse of the scalar dissipation. described in Sections 8. Computationally expensive chemical kinetics are reduced to one dimension and the model is signiﬁcantly faster than the laminar-ﬁniterate. There are two variants of the unsteady laminar ﬂamelet model. January 29. the steady ﬂow solution must be computed with the steady laminar ﬂamelet model (see Section 8. and the slow-forming species time-scale. [16]. Since the unsteady ﬂamelet equations are postprocessed on a steady-state. Inc. The model.2: The Diesel Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model). which is often inaccurate.

at ignition. However. For liquid-phase chemistry. and V denotes the ﬂuid volume. All slow-forming species.4-6) are integrated simultaneously with the marker probability equation. Release 12. Inc. The unsteady ﬂamelet species equations (Equation 8. and hence the I ﬁeld decreases to zero with time as I is convected and diﬀused out of the domain (for cases with outlet boundaries). The slow-forming species are identiﬁed by the user before solution of the unsteady ﬂamelet equations.8. little time has elapsed for any signiﬁcant formation. and is initialized as 1 for f ≥ finit I= (8. t) ρ(x) χst 1/2 (x) dV (8. which should be set greater than the stoichiometric mixture fraction.0 c ANSYS. which should be approximately equal to the ﬂamelet extinction scalar dissipation (the steady ﬂamelet solver can be used to calculate this extinction scalar dissipation in a separate simulation). gas-phase chemistry invariably requires ignition. At inlet boundaries. as liquid reactions are assumed to proceed immediately upon mixing. This is calculated from the steady-state ANSYS FLUENT ﬁeld at each time step as a probability-weighted volume integral: V V χst (t) = I(x.6 The Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model Theory The transport equation for the unsteady ﬂamelet marker probability. 2009 8-37 . such as NOx .6-3. is ∂ (ρI) + ∂t · (ρvI) = · µt I σt (8. I.6-2) 0 for f < finit where f is the mean mixture fraction and finit is a user supplied constant.6-1) Equation 8.6-3) where χst is deﬁned in Equation 8. ANSYS FLUENT always sets I toward zero. are zeroed in this initial ﬂamelet proﬁle since. I. The scalar dissipation at stoichiometric mixture fraction (χst ) is required by the ﬂamelet species equation. ANSYS FLUENT provides the option of limiting χst to a user-speciﬁed maximum value. January 29. the initial ﬂamelet ﬁeld is the mixed-but-unburnt ﬂamelet. so the initial ﬂamelet ﬁeld is calculated from a steady ﬂamelet solution.6-1 is always solved unsteady. t) ρ(x) χst 3/2 (x) dV I(x.

Non-Premixed Combustion The unsteady ﬂamelet energy equation is not solved in order to avoid ﬂamelet extinction for high scalar dissipation.6-4) ξ(f.6-6) where Yk (f.4-6) are advanced together in time until the probability marker has substantially convected and diﬀused out of the domain. January 29. reaches steady-state as the probability marker I vanishes.6-1) and the ﬂamelet species equation (Equation 8. t) P (f ) df dt t 0 I ρ dt (8. • Relatively slow reactions and species far from chemical equilibrium. calculated from Equation 8. • High Schmidt number (Sc) and hence reduced molecular diﬀusion. When the Liquid Micro-Mixing model is enabled. The unsteady ﬂamelet mean species.6-3.6-5) In Equation 8. t) is the k’th species unsteady ﬂamelet mass fraction. t) is calculated at each time step from the steady ﬂamelet library at the probability-weighted scalar dissipation χst from Equation 8. The Eulerian unsteady laminar ﬂamelet model can be used to model liquid reactions. The probability marker equation (Equation 8. 8-38 Release 12. and P (f ) denotes the Beta PDF.0 c ANSYS. t) = I ρ T (x|f )/Tad (f.6-5. 2009 . Unsteady ﬂamelet mean species mass fractions in each cell are accumulated over time as t 0 Yk uf la = Iρ 1 0 Yk (f. t) ξ(f. For non-adiabatic cases. ANSYS FLUENT uses the volume-weightedmixing-law formula to calculate the density. the ﬂamelet temperature T ad (f.6-5. t) dV V I ρ dV (8. t) where V (8. T (x|f ) denotes the ANSYS FLUENT steady-state mean cell temperature conditioned on the local cell mixture fraction. t) = T ad (f. Liquid Reactions Liquid reactors are typically characterized by: • Near constant density and temperature. the ﬂamelet temperature at time t is calculated from T (f. Inc. For adiabatic cases. and to account for non-adiabatic heat loss or gain.

0. ∂ 2 ρfic + ∂t ∂ 2 ρfvc + ∂t 2 · ρvfic = · µt f 2 + C1 µt σt ic · f 2 2 − C2 ρ fic k (8. 0. and then auto-ignites as compression raises the temperature and pressure. the cell Schmidt number.2 The Diesel Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model In diesel engines. the volume-averaged scalar dissipation and pressure. is calculated as Sc = µ/ρD where µ is the viscosity. fuel sprayed into the cylinder evaporates. [272. Inc. which is modeled with the Turbulent Mixer Model [11].6-10) Release 12. To account for temperature rise during compression.6 The Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model Theory The eﬀect of high Sc is to decrease mixing at the smallest (micro) scales and increase the mixture fraction variance. 2 Three transport equations are solved for the inertial-convective (fic ).8.86.6-9. For the ﬂamelet fractional time-step. 15].303.4-6 and 8.4-7) are solved simultaneously with the ﬂow. 2 2 2 respectively.6-8) ∂ 2 ρfvd + ∂t 2 · ρvfvd = · µt C5 2 2 fvd + C3 ρ fvc − C4 + f2 σt ν Sc vd (8.6-7) 2 · ρvfvc = µt 2 f 2 + C2 ρ fic − C3 ρ f2 σt vc k ν vc (8. January 29. and then the ﬂow is advanced for the same fractional time-step using properties from the ﬂamelet. Sc. In Equation 8. The ﬂamelet equations are advanced for a fractional step using properties from the ﬂow. By reducing the costly chemical kinetic calculation to 1D. and viscous-diﬀusive (fvd ) subranges of the turbulent scalar spectrum. fvc and fvd . viscous-convective 2 2 (fvc ).4-7) has an additional term on the right-hand side as q= ˙ 1 ∂p cp ∂t (8.058. and Barths et al. the ﬂamelet energy equation (Equation 8. 8.0 c ANSYS. EDC or PDF Transport models. one-dimensional laminar ﬂamelet. ρ the density. The total mixture fraction variance is the sum of fic . substantial savings in run-time can be achieved over the laminar-ﬁnite-rate.6-9) where the constants C1 through C5 have values of 2. 1. 2009 8-39 . as well as the fuel and oxidizer temperatures. The ﬂamelet species and energy equations (Equations 8. The initial ﬂamelet condition at the start of the diesel simulation is a mixed-but-unburnt distribution. and D the mass diﬀusivity as deﬁned for the pdf-mixture material. mixes with the surrounding gases. and 17050.6. models the chemistry in a single. are passed from the ﬂow solver to the ﬂamelet solver. The diesel unsteady laminar ﬂamelet model. based on the work of Pitsch et al.

6: Using the Diesel Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model in the separate User’s Guide. Enabling the Diesel Unsteady Flamelet model is described in Section 16.4: Non-Adiabatic Steady Laminar Flamelets). Inc.0 c ANSYS. After the ﬂamelet equations have been advanced for the fractional time-step. 8-40 Release 12. the CFD ﬂow ﬁeld is then advanced for the same fractional time-step. the PDF Table is created as a Non-Adiabatic Steady Flamelet table (see Section 8. The diesel unsteady ﬂamelet approach can model ignition as well as formation of product. Using the properties of this table. This rise in ﬂamelet temperature due to compression eventually leads to ignition of the ﬂamelet. 2009 .Non-Premixed Combustion where cp is a the speciﬁc heat and p is the volume-averaged pressure in the cylinder.5. intermediate and pollutant species.3. January 29.

The large turbulent eddies tend to wrinkle and corrugate the ﬂame sheet.3: Extended Coherent Flamelet Model Theory • Section 9. Since practical laminar ﬂame thicknesses are of the order of millimeters or smaller. in turn.1: Overview and Limitations • Section 9.Chapter 9. resolution requirements are usually unaﬀordable. see Chapter 17: Modeling Premixed Combustion in the separate User’s Guide. leanpremixed gas turbine combustors.0 c ANSYS.2: Zimont Turbulent Flame Closure Theory • Section 9. 2009 9-1 . the overall rate of propagation of the ﬂame is determined by both the laminar ﬂame speed and the turbulent eddies.4: Calculation of Temperature • Section 9. fuel and oxidizer are mixed at the molecular level prior to ignition. The eﬀect of turbulence is to wrinkle and stretch the propagating laminar ﬂame sheet. propagating ﬂame that is stretched and contorted by turbulence. Combustion occurs as a ﬂame front propagating into the unburnt reactants.1. Inc. as well as the detailed chemical kinetics and molecular diﬀusion processes. Theoretical information about this model is provided in the following sections: • Section 9. Premixed combustion is much more diﬃcult to model than non-premixed combustion. the internal ﬂame structure would need to be resolved. Examples of premixed combustion include aspirated internal combustion engines. the eﬀective ﬂame speed. Premixed Combustion ANSYS FLUENT has premixed turbulent combustion models based on the reactionprogress variable approach.1 Overview In premixed combustion. For subsonic ﬂows. while the small turbulent eddies. Release 12. may penetrate the ﬂame sheet and modify the laminar ﬂame structure. The reason for this is that premixed combustion usually occurs as a thin. increasing the sheet area and. if they are smaller than the laminar ﬂame thickness. January 29. and gas-leak explosions.1 Overview and Limitations 9. For more information about using the premixed turbulent combustion model.5: Calculation of Density 9. To capture the laminar ﬂame speed. The laminar ﬂame speed is determined by the rate that species and heat diﬀuse upstream into the reactants and burn.

the fuel and oxidizer are intimately mixed before they enter the combustion device. The premixed combustion model is not available with either of the density-based solvers. a perfectly premixed system can be modeled with the partially premixed model (see Chapter 10: Partially Premixed Combustion). Only inert particles can be used with the premixed combustion model. it is possible to use the premixed combustion model.0 c ANSYS. • The premixed combustion model is valid only for turbulent. also called detonations. However. Partially premixed ﬂames exhibit the properties of both premixed and diﬀusion ﬂames. Premixed and partially premixed ﬂames can be modeled using ANSYS FLUENT’s ﬁniterate/eddy-dissipation formulation (see Chapter 7: Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry). 9. soot and NOx ) models. Inc.1. 2009 . Reaction then takes place in a combustion zone that separates unburnt reactants and burnt combustion products. If the ﬂame is perfectly premixed (all streams entering the combustor have the same equivalence ratio). the EDC model (see Section 7. which is inﬂuenced by both the laminar ﬂame speed and the turbulence. The essence of premixed combustion modeling lies in capturing the turbulent ﬂame speed. 9-2 Release 12. where the combustible mixture is ignited by the heat behind a shock wave. Explosions. • You cannot use the premixed combustion model to simulate reacting discrete-phase particles. January 29. They occur when an additional oxidizer or fuel stream enters a premixed system. • The premixed combustion model cannot be used in conjunction with the pollutant (i. in comparison. or when a diﬀusion ﬂame becomes lifted oﬀ the burner so that some premixing takes place prior to combustion. If ﬁnite-rate chemical kinetic eﬀects are important.1: Introduction).1. These types of ﬂames are called deﬂagrations. can be modeled with the ﬁnite-rate model using the density-based solver. see Chapter 10: Partially Premixed Combustion. In premixed ﬂames. See Chapter 7: Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry for information about the ﬁnite-rate model. which can be used with the pollutant models. the Laminar FiniteRate model (see Section 7. since these would result in a partially premixed system.e.. For information about ANSYS FLUENT’s partially premixed combustion model.2: The Eddy-Dissipation-Concept (EDC) Model) or the composition PDF transport model (see Chapter 11: Composition PDF Transport) can be used.1.Premixed Combustion Non-premixed combustion. can be greatly simpliﬁed to a mixing problem (see the mixture fraction approach in Section 8. as described in this chapter.2: The Laminar Finite-Rate Model).2 Limitations The following limitations apply to the premixed combustion model: • You must use the pressure-based solver. subsonic ﬂows.

involves the solution of a transport equation for the reaction progress variable. 393].0 c ANSYS. 391. converting unburnt premixed reactants to burnt products. denoted by c: ∂ (ρc) + ∂t where c Sct Sc = = = mean reaction progress variable turbulent Schmidt number reaction progress source term (s−1 ) · (ρvc) = · µt c + ρSc Sct (9.2-2) Yi.2-1) The progress variable is deﬁned as a normalized sum of the product species. [390.2. The ﬂame front propagation is modeled by solving a transport equation for the densityweighted mean reaction progress variable.2. The closure of this equation is based on the deﬁnition of the turbulent ﬂame speed.1: Propagation of the Flame Front • Section 9.eq = number of products = mass fraction of product species i = equilibrium mass fraction of product species i Release 12.2. separated by the ﬂame sheet. combustion takes place in a thin ﬂame sheet.1 Propagation of the Flame Front In many industrial premixed systems.2: Turbulent Flame Speed 9.2 Zimont Turbulent Flame Closure Theory The turbulent premixed combustion model.9. January 29.2 Zimont Turbulent Flame Closure Theory 9. combustion of unburnt reactants occurs. As the ﬂame front moves. The premixed combustion model thus considers the reacting ﬂow ﬁeld to be divided into regions of burnt and unburnt species.eq i=1 where n Yi Yi. n Yi c= i=1 n (9. Inc. Information in this section is provided in the following sections: • Section 9. 2009 9-3 . based on work by Zimont et al.

2009 .2 Turbulent Flame Speed The key to the premixed combustion model is the prediction of Ut . determined by the fuel concentration. The turbulent ﬂame speed is inﬂuenced by the following: • laminar ﬂame speed. as well as the detailed chemical kinetics • ﬂame front wrinkling and stretching by large eddies. and can be speciﬁed using userdeﬁned functions. The mean reaction rate in Equation 9. in turn.2-5) 9-4 Release 12.Premixed Combustion Based on this deﬁnition. Inc.2. c = 0 where the mixture is unburnt and c = 1 where the mixture is burnt: • c = 0: unburnt mixture • c = 1: burnt mixture The value of c is deﬁned as a boundary condition at all ﬂow inlets. It is usually speciﬁed as either 0 (unburnt) or 1 (burnt). temperature. 9. the Zimont turbulent ﬂame speed closure is computed using a model for wrinkled and thickened ﬂame fronts [391]: Ut = A(u )3/4 Ul α−1/4 τt 1/4 = Au τc 1/2 1/4 t (9. January 29. and ﬂame thickening by small eddies In ANSYS FLUENT.2-3) Many other models for turbulent ﬂame speed exist [36].2-1 is modeled as [391] ρSc = ρu Ut | c| where ρu Ut = density of unburnt mixture = turbulent ﬂame speed (9. More information about user-deﬁned functions can be found in the separate UDF Manual. and molecular diﬀusion properties.2-4) (9. the turbulent ﬂame speed normal to the mean surface of the ﬂame.0 c ANSYS. which is.

The turbulence length scale. and can be quantiﬁed by Karlovitz numbers. which cannot be captured in this model. January 29. resulting in a turbulent ﬂame speed expression that is purely in terms of the large-scale turbulent parameters. as occurs in most industrial combustors. This is called the thin reaction zone combustion region. Ka is deﬁned as v2 tl = η2 tη Ul Ka = where tl tη vη = (ν )1/4 ν (9.37 for CD should also be suitable for most premixed ﬂames.52 for A is recommended [391]. The default value of 0.2-6) t where is the turbulence dissipation rate. Ka. Flames that propagate for a long period of time equilibrate to a constant ﬂame width.9. The default value of 0. The model is based on the assumption of equilibrium small-scale turbulence inside the laminar ﬂame. and penetrate into the ﬂame zone. is computed from = CD (u )3 (9. and is suitable for most premixed ﬂames.2-7) = characteristic ﬂame time scale = smallest (Kolmogorov) turbulence time scale = Kolmogorov velocity = kinematic viscosity Lastly. Inc.2 Zimont Turbulent Flame Closure Theory where A u Ul α = k/ρcp t = = = = τt = t /u τc = α/Ul2 model constant RMS (root-mean-square) velocity (m/s) laminar ﬂame speed (m/s) molecular heat transfer coeﬃcient of unburnt mixture (thermal diﬀusivity) (m2 /s) = turbulence length scale (m) = turbulence time scale (s) = chemical time scale (s) t. greater than unity. Release 12.0 c ANSYS. 2009 9-5 . The model is strictly applicable when the smallest turbulent eddies in the ﬂow (the Kolmogorov scales) are smaller than the ﬂame thickness. the model is valid for premixed systems where the ﬂame brush width increases in time.

1) can be speciﬁed as constant. the large eddy length scale t is modeled as t = Cs ∆ (9.2-8) where Cs is the Smagorinsky constant and ∆ is the cell characteristic length. or as a user-deﬁned function. Ul.1-28.ref = C1 + C2 (φ − C3 )2 (9.2-12) The Meghalchi-Keck laminar ﬂame speeds are available for fuel-air mixtures of methane. In particular.2-10. The reference laminar ﬂame speed.Premixed Combustion Turbulent Flame Speed for LES For simulations that use the LES turbulence model. and C1 . 9-6 Release 12. is calculated from Ul. calculated as −1 u = t τsgs (9. A third option appears for non-adiabatic premixed and partiallypremixed ﬂames and is based on the correlation proposed by Meghalchi and Keck [227].2-4 is replaced by the subgrid velocity ﬂuctuation.2-11) where φ is the equivalence ratio ahead of the ﬂame front.ref = 1atm.ref = 298K and pu.2. Tu Tu. Tu and pu are the unburnt reactant temperature and pressure ahead of the ﬂame.ref pu pu.8(φ − 1) β = −0. C2 and C3 are fuelspeciﬁc constants.16 + 0.2-4) are replaced by their equivalent subgrid quantities.2-9) −1 where τsgs is the subgrid scale mixing rate (inverse of the subgrid scale time scale). iso-octane and indolene fuels. Inc. 2009 . Tu. Laminar Flame Speed The laminar ﬂame speed (Ul in Equation 9.2-10) In Equation 9. The exponents γ and β are calculated from. The RMS velocity in Equation 9.22(φ − 1) (9.18 − 0. the Reynolds-averaged quantities in the turbulent ﬂame speed expression (Equation 9. propane. given in Equation 7. methanol.ref γ Ul = Ul.ref β (9.0 c ANSYS. January 29.ref . γ = 2.

the probability that the ﬂame will be unquenched is 100%. G. To take this ﬂame stretching into account. and σ and σ is the standard deviation of the distribution of : L η σ = µstr ln (9.2-15) Release 12.1) and unburnt thermal diﬀusivity (α in Equation 9. Flame Stretch Effect Since industrial low-emission combustors often operate near lean blow-oﬀ. The stretch factor.2-14) where µstr is the stretch factor coeﬃcient for dissipation pulsation. such as in-cylinder combustion. : 1 1 ln G = erfc − 2 2σ cr σ + 2 cr (9.2. ﬂame stretching will have a signiﬁcant eﬀect on the mean turbulent heat release intensity. the source term for the progress variable (ρSc in Equation 9. and η is the Kolmogorov micro-scale. the unburnt density and thermal diﬀusivity are calculated as volume averages ahead of the ﬂame front.26 for µstr (measured in turbulent non-reacting ﬂows) is recommended by [391]. L is the turbulent integral length scale. Inc. January 29.2-5) are speciﬁed constants that are set in the Materials dialog box. for compressible cases. G [393].0 c ANSYS. and is suitable for most premixed ﬂames.2 Zimont Turbulent Flame Closure Theory Unburnt Density and Thermal Diffusivity The unburnt density (ρu in Equation 9. if there is no stretching (G = 1). 2009 9-7 .9.2-1) is multiplied by a stretch factor. is obtained by integrating the log-normal distribution of the turbulence dissipation rate. When the ideal gas model is selected for density. where erfc is the complementary error function. However.2-13) are deﬁned below. these can change signiﬁcantly in time and/or space. cr is the turbulence dissipation rate at the critical rate of strain [391]: 2 = 15νgcr cr (9. The default value of 0. This stretch factor represents the probability that the stretching will not quench the ﬂame.

[392]. laminar ﬂame speed. Recent arguments for the validity of the turbulent-ﬂame-speed model in such regimes can be found in Zimont et al. gcr is set to a very high value (1 × 108 ) so no ﬂame stretching occurs. 2009 .Premixed Combustion By default. In reality. where ρu . while values less than 1 decrease the ﬂame speed in the cells next to the wall boundary. ANSYS FLUENT includes a constant multiplier for the turbulent ﬂame speed. Wall Damping High turbulent kinetic energy levels at the walls in some problems can cause an unphysical acceleration of the ﬂame along the wall. and I are the unburnt and burnt densities. More information about user-deﬁned functions can be found in the separate UDF Manual. A reasonable model for the critical rate of strain gcr is gcr = BUl2 α (9. radical quenching close to walls decreases reaction rates and thus the ﬂame speed. and turbulence intensity. but is not included in the model. Equation 9. Gradient Diffusion Volume expansion at the ﬂame front can cause counter-gradient diﬀusion.2-16) where B is a constant (typically 0. Values of αw larger than 1 increase the ﬂame speed. 9-8 Release 12.2-16 can be implemented in ANSYS FLUENTusing a property user-deﬁned function. and the turbulence intensity is small. αw .5) and α is the unburnt thermal diﬀusivity. Ul .2-17) The default for this constant is 1 which does not change the ﬂame speed. Values of this ratio greater than one indicate a tendency for counter-gradient diﬀusion. which modiﬁes the ﬂame speed in the vicinity of wall boundaries: Ut = αw A τt τc 1/4 (9. Numerical models can suggest a range of physically plausible values [391]. It can be quantiﬁed by the ratio (ρu /ρb )(Ul /I). the critical rate of strain gcr should be adjusted based on experimental data for the burner. To approximate this eﬀect. and the premixed combustion model may be inappropriate. To include ﬂame stretching eﬀects. ρb .0 c ANSYS. or an appropriate value can be determined from experimental data. This eﬀect becomes more pronounced when the ratio of the reactant density to the product density is large. Inc. respectively. January 29.

3. Σ.2-1. but is less robust and requires greater computational eﬀort to converge. can be derived based on these assumptions [44]: ∂Σ + ∂t · (vΣ) = · µt Sct Σ ρ + (P1 + P2 + P3 ) Σ − D (9. so the eﬀect of turbulence is to wrinkle the laminar ﬂame sheet. denoted Σ. The range of applicability of the ECFM model is illustrated on the Borghi diagram in Figure 9. The increased surface area of the ﬂame results in increased net fuel consumption and an increased ﬂame speed.1. January 29. which is ultimately used to model the mean reaction rate in Equation 9.3 Extended Coherent Flamelet Model Theory The Extended Coherent Flamelet Model (ECFM) [274] is a more reﬁned premixed combustion model than the Zimont Turbulent Flame Closure. Typical Internal Combustion (IC) engines typically operate in this wrinkled ﬂamelet range.3-1) Release 12. ρSc .2: Turbulent Flame Speed in ECFM The ECFM model solves an additional equation for the ﬂame area density.2-19) | c| 9. It has theoretically greater accuracy.3 Extended Coherent Flamelet Model Theory ANSYS FLUENT will solve the transport equation for the reaction progress variable c (Equation 9. 2009 9-9 .2-1). where the wrinkled ﬂamelets regime is indicated below the Da = 1 line. however the internal laminar ﬂame proﬁle is not distorted. or ﬂame area density.9. An expression for the transport of the net ﬂame area per unit volume.2-18) (9.3. Inc.1: Closure for ECFM Source Terms • Section 9. Information in this section is provided in the following sections: • Section 9. The model assumes that the smallest turbulence length scales (Kolmogorov eddies) are larger than the laminar ﬂame thickness.3. based on the theory outlined above: ρSc = AGρu I 3/4 [Ul (λlp )]1/2 [α(λlp )]−1/4 = AGρu I τt τc (λlp ) 1/4 1/4 t | c| (9.0 c ANSYS. computing the source term.

January 29. 9-10 Release 12. 2009 .3-1 requires closure terms for the production and destruction terms for ﬂame area density.1: Borghi diagram for turbulent combustion where Σ Sct µt ρ P1 P2 P3 D = = = = = = = = mean ﬂame area density turbulent Schmidt number turbulent viscosity density Source due to turbulence interaction Source due to dilatation in the ﬂame Source due to expansion of burned gas Dissipation of ﬂame area Equation 9.Premixed Combustion T u /Ul 222 2 222 22 Thickened 222 222 Flames 22 Ka = 100 22 222 Thickened Flamelets 10 d d dRet = 1 d d d d Da = 1 1 Ka = 1 222 22222 2 d 22 87 d IC d Engines d Wrinkled Laminar d Flamelets Combustion d d d d 1 10 100 96 22 22 222 222 2 E 1000 lt /δl Figure 9. Inc. ANSYS FLUENT uses the closure described in the following section.3.0 c ANSYS. Several families of closure terms have been put forth in the literature [274].

can be speciﬁed either as a constant or calculated as a function 0 of the two parameters u /Ul and lt /δL . ANSYS FLUENT provides several options for the calculation of this quantity: • Constant (user-speciﬁed) value • Meneveau Flame Thickness [223] The laminar ﬂame thickness is calculated as δl0 = 2α Ul (9. and is modeled as P1 = α1 Kt = α1 [(1 − α0 ) + α0 ΓK ] k (9. for low turbulence levels at α0 = 1.9.6.3-2) where Kt is a turbulent time scale and α1 is a constant with a default value of 1. where u is the turbulent velocity ﬂuctuation.4))) σ1 s − 0. ΓK . and a straightforward turbulent time scale source when α0 = 0 for high turbulence levels.11 (s + 0.3. January 29.3 Extended Coherent Flamelet Model Theory 9. lt is the integral turbulent length scale and δL is the laminar ﬂame thickness. 2009 9-11 .4)) + (1 − exp (−(s + 0.3-3) where s is deﬁned as lt δl0 s = log10 and σ1 is u Ul (9.3-5) The ITNFS term. ΓK .1 Closure for ECFM Source Terms P1 represents the production of ﬂame area density by turbulent ﬂame stretching. is sensitive to the laminar ﬂame thickness.3-4) σ1 2 1 u = 1 − exp − 3 2 Ul 1 3 (9. The expression for ΓK is given by: log10 (ΓK ) = − 1 u exp (−(s + 0.0 c ANSYS. ΓK . The constant α0 (default of 1) is a user-speciﬁed linear blending between the Intermediate Turbulent Net Flame Stretch (ITNFS) term. Ul 0 is the laminar ﬂame speed.3-6) Release 12.4) Ul (9. Inc. The ITNFS term.

04s (0.36s) log10 (lt Ul /α) 3 lt Ul 1 log 2 δl u 1 − pq (9. Inc. The term P3 models the eﬀect of thermal expansion of the burned gas on the ﬂame area density.3-6 but an additional term. The term P2 in Equation 9.7 + es ) e−s + (1 + e−s ) (1 + 0.3-7) • Blint Correction Flame Thickness [30] This includes a correction due to rapid expansion of the gas: δl0 = 2 Tb Tu 0. 2009 . • Poinsot Flame Thickness [274] The ﬂame thickness is evaluated as in Equation 9.3-11) ρu 1 − c Ul Σ ρb c (9. Γp is added to ΓK .3-9) 9-12 Release 12.3-1 models the inﬂuence of dilatation on the production of ﬂame area density.3-8) where Tu is the unburned temperature. The ﬂame area destruction term D is modeled as D = βUl Σ2 1−c (9. and is given by P3 = α3 where α3 is 1 by default. and Tb denotes the burned temperature.Premixed Combustion where α is the local unburnt thermal diﬀusivity.7 α Ul (9. Γp is calculated as Γp = − where pq b gl s = = = = − 1 (1 + tanh (b3 /|b|)) 2 [log10 (u /Ul ) − gl ] /0. The term is given by P2 = α2 where the constant α2 has a default of 1.0 c ANSYS.3-10) 2 3 · (ρu) (9. January 29.

9.4 Calculation of Temperature The calculation method for temperature will depend on whether the model is adiabatic or non-adiabatic.3-3 for s = -0. Ul . This results in a small net turbulent ﬂame stretch term in laminar zones.0 c ANSYS. ANSYS FLUENT sets the production terms to zero when the laminar ﬂame speed is less than a very small value. the model can become singular for c = 0 and c = 1. As formulated.2-3) is as follows: Release 12. h. January 29. which is handled by limiting c. for the fully premixed fuel (see Equation 5.1 Adiabatic Temperature Calculation For the adiabatic premixed combustion model.2-1 is closed as ρSc = ρu Ul Σ (9.9. To prevent the singularity. 9. Tu . and ﬂame surface area density. Further.2 Turbulent Flame Speed in ECFM The mean reaction rate term in the reaction progress variable Equation 9.4 Calculation of Temperature where β is a constant with a default value of 1. laminar ﬂame speed.4) is limited to a small positive number. and the highest adiabatic burnt temperature Tad : T = (1 − c)Tu + cTad (9.4-1) 9. which is unphysical. Inc.3-12) which is the product of the unburnt density. The stability of the solution is enhanced by ensuring that the laminar ﬂame speed in the destruction term is always greater than a small. Σ. 9.3. the quantity (s + 0.2 Non-Adiabatic Temperature Calculation For the non-adiabatic premixed combustion model. These numerical limiting constants can be adjusted in the TUI. ρu .4 which can occur when the turbulent integral length scale is small compared to the laminar ﬂame thickness.4. ﬁnite value. the temperature is assumed to be a linear function of reaction progress between the lowset temperature of the unburnt mixture. The energy equation in terms of sensible enthalpy. the production terms P1 and P2 can be non-zero in regions where the mixture is outside the ﬂammability limits. ANSYS FLUENT solves an energy transport equation in order to account for any heat losses or gains within the system. 2009 9-13 . Accordingly.4. Inspection of the function for ΓK shows that a singularity exists in Equation 9.

For the non-adiabatic model. where R is the gas constant and pop is the operating pressure. If you want to include pressure ﬂuctuations for a compressible gas.5-1) where the subscript u refers to the unburnt cold mixture. the expression ρu RTu /pop may be considered to be the eﬀective molecular weight of the gas.4-2.4-3) 9. the unburnt temperature (Tu ). Equation 9. If you choose to ignore pressure ﬂuctuations. and the subscript b refers to the burnt hot mixture.chem + Sh.rad represents the heat losses due to radiation and Sh. pressure variations are neglected and the mean molecular weight is assumed to be constant. and the density will be calculated from the ideal gas equation of state. you will need to input the eﬀective molecular weight of the gas. January 29. The required inputs are the unburnt density (ρu ).4-2) Sh.chem = ρSc Hcomb Yfuel where Sc Hcomb Yfuel = = = normalized average rate of product formation (s−1 ) heat of combustion for burning 1 kg of fuel (J/kg) fuel mass fraction of unburnt mixture (9.rad cp (9. from the incompressible ideal gas equation. The burnt gas density is then calculated from the following relation: ρb Tb = ρu Tu (9.5-2) where T is computed from the energy transport equation. you can choose to either include or exclude pressure variations in the ideal gas equation of state.0 c ANSYS. Inc. and the burnt adiabatic ﬂame temperature (Tb ).5 Calculation of Density ANSYS FLUENT calculates the premxed density using the ideal gas law. The required inputs are the unburnt density (ρu ) and the unburnt temperature (Tu ). Note that. For the adiabatic model. 9-14 Release 12.Premixed Combustion ∂ (ρh) + ∂t · (ρvh) = · k + kt h + Sh.chem represents the heat gains due to chemical reaction: Sh. ANSYS FLUENT calculates the density from ρT = ρu Tu (9. 2009 .

For information about using the partially premixed combustion model.1. 10. assumptions. the mixture is burnt and the equilibrium or laminar ﬂamelet mixture fraction solution is used. Inc. See Sections 9. The two-mixture-fraction model extends the number of inlet streams to three. The premixed reaction-progress variable. c. determines the position of the ﬂame front. Within the ﬂame (0 < c < 1). The partially premixed model in ANSYS FLUENT is a simple combination of the nonpremixed model (Chapter 8: Non-Premixed Combustion) and the premixed model (Chapter 9: Premixed Combustion). the species mass fractions.1. and limitations of the non-premixed and premixed models apply directly to the partially premixed model.1: Overview and Limitations • Section 10. Such ﬂames include premixed jets discharging into a quiescent atmosphere. Information about the theory behind the partially premixed combustion model is presented in the following sections: • Section 10. pure oxidizer. or a mixture of fuel and oxidizer. the single-mixturefraction approach is limited to two inlet streams. which may be pure fuel.2 for additional limitations. temperature. but incurs a major computational overhead. In particular.2 Limitations The underlying theory. see Chapter 18: Modeling Partially Premixed Combustion in the separate User’s Guide. 2009 10-1 . Partially Premixed Combustion ANSYS FLUENT provides a partially premixed combustion model that is based on the non-premixed combustion model described in Chapter 8: Non-Premixed Combustion and the premixed combustion model described in Chapter 9: Premixed Combustion. and density are calculated from the mixed but unburnt mixture fraction. lean premixed combustors with diﬀusion pilot ﬂames and/or cooling air jets.1 Overview and Limitations Overview 10.0 c ANSYS. January 29. Behind the ﬂame front (c = 1). a linear combination of the unburnt and burnt mixtures is used.Chapter 10. Ahead of the ﬂame front (c = 0).2: Partially Premixed Combustion Theory 10. Release 12.1. and imperfectly premixed inlets.1 Partially premixed combustion systems are premixed ﬂames with non-uniform fuel-oxidizer mixtures (equivalence ratios).

the mean scalars are determined from 1 1 φ=c 0 φb (f )p(f ) df + (1 − c) 0 φu (f )p(f ) df (10. c) df dc (10. January 29. The unburnt scalars. respectively. Ahead of the ﬂame (c = 0). as well as the mean mixture fraction.2-2) where the subscripts b and u denote burnt and unburnt. the chemistry calculations and PDF integrations for the burnt mixture are performed in ANSYS FLUENT. φb . are functions of f only.1 Calculation of Scalar Quantities Density weighted mean scalars (such as species fractions and temperature). f 2 . φu . but this does not alter the basic formulation. the mixture is burnt. and behind the ﬂame (c = 1). and thermal diﬀusivity are ﬁtted in ANSYS FLUENT to third-order polynomials of f using linear least squares: 3 n φu = n=0 cn f (10.Partially Premixed Combustion 10. f and the mixture fraction variance. φb is also a function of enthalpy and/or strain. 10. but the mixture is not reacted. are calculated similarly by mixing a mass f of fuel with a mass (1 − f ) of oxidizer. denoted by φ. the fuel and oxidizer are mixed but unburnt. The burnt scalars. Just as in the non-premixed model. temperature. φu . The unburnt density. 2009 . Turbulent ﬂuctuations are neglected for the unburnt mixture. so that only unburnt reactants and burnt products exist. Inc. and look-up tables are constructed.0 c ANSYS. c (to determine the position of the ﬂame front). Access to polynomials is provided in case you want to modify them. these polynomial ﬁts are generally accurate. are functions of the mixture fraction and are calculated by mixing a mass f of fuel with a mass (1 − f ) of oxidizer and allowing the mixture to equilibrate. are calculated from the probability density function (PDF) of f and c as 1 1 φ= 0 0 φ(f. c)p(f.2 Partially Premixed Combustion Theory The partially premixed model solves a transport equation for the mean reaction progress variable.2-1) Under the assumption of thin ﬂames.2. so the mean unburnt scalars.2-3) Since the unburnt scalars are smooth and slowly-varying functions of f . 10-2 Release 12. speciﬁc heat. When non-adiabatic mixtures and/or laminar ﬂamelets are considered.

such as measurements from the relevant literature or detailed 1D simulations. Release 12. for unburnt temperatures from 298 K to 800 K. Although ANSYS FLUENT defaults to a methane-air mixture. and pressure of the unburnt mixture. The required inputs are values for the laminar ﬂame speed at ten mixture fraction (f ) points. Accurate laminar ﬂame speeds are diﬃcult to determine analytically. C2 H2 . and this must be taken into account. temperature. the reactant stream has one composition. and propane (C3 H8 ) fuels. then the curve ﬁts will be incorrect.10. C2 H6 . For adiabatic perfectly premixed systems as in Chapter 9: Premixed Combustion.2-4). ANSYS FLUENT ﬁts these curves to a piecewise-linear polynomial. CH4 . ethylene (C2 H4 ). and for pressures from 1 bar to 40 bars. and are usually measured from experiments or computed from 1D simulations. and C3 H8 . which depends strongly on the composition. and then input into ANSYS FLUENT. acetylene (C2 H2 ). They are valid for inlet compositions ranging from the lean limit through unity equivalence ratio (stoichiometric). ANSYS FLUENT uses ﬁtted curves obtained from numerical simulations of the laminar ﬂame speed [114]. The ﬁrst (minimum) and last (maximum) f inputs are the ﬂammability limits of the mixture and the laminar ﬂame speed is zero outside these value. However. the laminar ﬂame speed polynomial and the rich and lean limits are most likely incorrect for your speciﬁed fuel/oxidizer and unburnt temperature/pressure conditions. Mixtures leaner than the lean limit or richer than the rich limit will not burn. Inc. January 29. ethane (C2 H6 ).2 Partially Premixed Combustion Theory 10. The laminar ﬂame speed polynomial should be determined from other sources. i These ﬂame speed ﬁts are accurate for air mixtures with pure fuels of H2 . and the laminar ﬂame speed is constant throughout the domain. C2 H4 . in partially premixed systems. 2009 10-3 . methane (CH4 ).2.0 c ANSYS.2 Laminar Flame Speed The premixed models require the laminar ﬂame speed (see Equation 9. These curves were determined for hydrogen (H2 ). If an oxidizer other than air or a diﬀerent fuel is used. or if the unburnt temperature or pressure is outside the range of validity. the laminar ﬂame speed will change as the reactant composition (equivalence ratio) changes. and have zero ﬂame speed.

January 29. 2009 .Partially Premixed Combustion 10-4 Release 12.0 c ANSYS. Inc.

like the Laminar Finite-Rate (see Section 7. as well as ﬂame extinction and ignition.0 c ANSYS. With an appropriate chemical mechanism.4: The Eulerian Solution Method 11.2: Composition PDF Transport Theory • Section 11. A limitation that applies to the composition PDF transport model is that you must use the pressure-based solver as the model is not available with the density-based solver. should be used when you are interested in simulating ﬁnite-rate chemical kinetic eﬀects in turbulent reacting ﬂows. can be predicted. and it is recommended that you start your modeling with small meshes. For information about using the composition PDF transport model. and preferably in 2D.1 Overview and Limitations The composition PDF transport model. see Chapter 19: Modeling a Composition PDF Transport Problem in the separate User’s Guide.1: Overview and Limitations • Section 11.3: The Lagrangian Solution Method • Section 11. namely Lagrangian and Eulerian.2: The Laminar Finite-Rate Model) and EDC model (see Section 7. ANSYS FLUENT has two diﬀerent discretizations of the composition PDF transport equation. PDF transport simulations are computationally expensive. Information about the theory behind this model is presented in the following sections: • Section 11. The Lagrangian method is strictly more accurate than the Eulerian method. 2009 11-1 . Composition PDF Transport ANSYS FLUENT provides a composition PDF transport model for modeling ﬁnite-rate chemistry eﬀects in turbulent ﬂames.Chapter 11. Release 12. but requires signiﬁcantly longer run time to converge. January 29.1. Inc.1. kinetically-controlled species such as CO and NOx .2: The Eddy-DissipationConcept (EDC) Model).

treating turbulent convection as enhanced diﬀusion. its direct solution (where all turbulent scales are resolved) is far too expensive for practical turbulent ﬂows.g. denoted by P . temperature and pressure spaces.k (ρP ) + (ρui P ) + (ρSk P ) = − ρ ui |ψ P + ρ ψ P ∂t ∂xi ∂ψk ∂xi ∂ψk ρ ∂xi (11. which leads to unknown terms for the turbulent scalar ﬂux and the mean reaction rate. Inc. mean reaction rate) can be calculated. mean or RMS temperature.2 Composition PDF Transport Theory Turbulent combustion is governed by the reacting Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulent scalar ﬂux is modeled in ANSYS FLUENT by gradient diﬀusion. In Chapter 7: Species Transport and FiniteRate Chemistry. An alternative to Reynolds-averaging the species and energy equations is to derive a transport equation for their single-point. EddyDissipation or EDC Finite-Rate chemistry models. . denotes expectations. P has N + 2 dimensions for the N species. 11-2 Release 12. This PDF. modeling the mean reaction rate in a turbulent ﬂow is diﬃcult and prone to error. .Composition PDF Transport 11. 2009 . January 29. and A|B is the conditional probability of event A. From the PDF.0 c ANSYS. The composition PDF transport equation is derived from the Navier-Stokes equations as [276]: ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ 1 ∂Ji. joint probability density function (PDF).k = = = = = = = Favre joint PDF of composition mean ﬂuid density Favre mean ﬂuid velocity vector reaction rate for specie k composition space vector ﬂuid velocity ﬂuctuation vector molecular diﬀusion ﬂux vector The notation of .. can be considered to represent the fraction of the time that the ﬂuid spends at each species. Since the reaction rate is invariably highly non-linear. While this equation set is accurate. the species equations are Reynolds-averaged. any single-point thermo-chemical moment (e.2-1) where P ρ ui Sk ψ ui Ji. The mean reaction rate can be modeled with the Laminar. temperature and pressure state. given that event B occurs.

as described in Chapter 4: Turbulence. Inc. To solve the modeled PDF transport equation. A turbulence model. Since single-point PDFs are described.3. The two terms on the right-hand side represent the PDF change due to scalar convection by turbulence (turbulent scalar ﬂux).3 The Lagrangian Solution Method A Lagrangian Monte Carlo method is used to solve for the N + 1 dimensional PDF Transport equation. are unclosed and must be modeled. See Section 11. respectively. information about neighboring points is missing and all gradient terms. the particle masses are adjusted so that the number of particles in a cell is controlled to be approximately constant and uniform.2-2) where µt is the turbulent viscosity and Sct is the turbulent Schmidt number. January 29. and this determines µt . such as molecular mixing. while those on the righthand side are not and require modeling. the second term is the change of the PDF due to convection by the mean velocity ﬁeld. 2009 11-3 . The particles have mass and. is required for composition PDF transport simulations. and is the weakest link in the PDF transport approach.2-1. Since practical meshes have large changes in cell volumes. The disadvantage is that statistical errors are introduced. an analogy is made with a stochastic diﬀerential equation (SDE) which has identical solutions. on average. the terms on the left-hand side are closed. Release 12. The Monte Carlo algorithm involves notional particles which move randomly through physical space due to particle convection.0 c ANSYS. and is modeled in ANSYS FLUENT by the gradient-diﬀusion assumption − ∂ ∂ ρ ui |ψ P = ∂xi ∂xi ρµt ∂P Sct ∂xi (11. The mixing model is critical because combustion occurs at the smallest molecular scales when reactants and heat diﬀuse together. Modeling mixing in PDF methods is not straightforward. and these must be carefully controlled. The ﬁrst term on the left-hand side is the unsteady rate of change of the PDF. and also through composition space due to molecular mixing and reaction. and molecular mixing/diﬀusion. 11. The turbulent scalar ﬂux term is unclosed. The principal strength of the PDF transport approach is that the highly-nonlinear reaction term is completely closed and requires no modeling. and the third term is the change due to chemical reactions. the sum of the particle masses in a cell equals the cell mass (cell density times cell volume). Monte Carlo methods are appropriate for high-dimensional equations since the computational cost increases linearly with the number of dimensions.2: Particle Mixing for a description of the mixing models.11.3 The Lagrangian Solution Method In Equation 11.

local time steps are calculated for each cell as ∆t = min(∆tconv . Inc. consisting of two steps.1 Particle Convection A spatially second-order-accurate Lagrangian method is used in ANSYS FLUENT. all other sub-processes.3.3-1) For unsteady ﬂows. ∆tmix ) where ∆tconv ∆tdiﬀ ∆tmix ∆x = convection number × ∆x / (cell ﬂuid velocity) = diﬀusion number × (∆x)2 / (cell turbulent diﬀusivity) = mixing number × turbulent time scale = characteristic cell length = volume1/D where D is the problem dimension (11. including diﬀusion and reaction are treated.3.3.2: Particle Mixing • Section 11.3-2) After the ﬁrst convection step.3.3: Particle Reaction • Section 11. At the ﬁrst convection step. For information on the fractional step method. particles are advanced to a new position xi where xi = ui = ∆t = particle position vector Favre mean ﬂuid-velocity vector at the particle position particle time step 1/2 1 = x0 + u0 ∆t i 2 i (11. 2009 . refer to [45]. diﬀusion. For steady-state ﬂows. the particle time step is the physical time step. Finally. the second convection step is calculated as x1 = xi i where 1/2 1/2 + ∆t ui 1 1 ∂µt 2µt − u0 + + ξi i 2 ρSct ∂xi ρ∆tSct (11.3-3) 11-4 Release 12.1: Particle Convection • Section 11. and reaction are treated in fractional steps as described in the sections that follow.3. Information about this method is described in the following sections: • Section 11. ∆tdiﬀ .0 c ANSYS.4: The ISAT Algorithm 11. January 29.Composition PDF Transport The processes of convection.

a uniform random number ξ is selected and each particle’s composition φ is moved toward the pair’s mean composition by a factor proportional to ξ: (φ0 mi + φ0 mj ) j = (1 − +ξ i (mi + mj ) 0 (φ mi + φ0 mj ) j φ1 = (1 − ξ)φ0 + ξ i j j (mi + mj ) φ1 i ξ)φ0 i (11.2 Particle Mixing Molecular mixing of species and heat must be modeled and is usually the source of the largest modeling error in the PDF transport approach. the IEM model (which is sometimes called the LSME model) [75] and the EMST model [340].3-5) where φi and φj are the composition vectors of particles i and j.3-4) The algorithm in [250] is used for the general case of variable particle mass. The Modiﬁed Curl Model For the Modiﬁed Curl model.0 c ANSYS. 250]. Release 12. January 29.3. Inc. 2009 11-5 .5Cφ N ∆t τt (11.11. and their individual compositions are moved toward their mean composition.3 The Lagrangian Solution Method ρ ui µt Sct ξi = mean cell ﬂuid density = mean ﬂuid-velocity vector at the particle position = turbulent viscosity = turbulent Schmidt number = standardized normal random vector 11. For the special case of equal particle mass. a few particle pairs are selected at random from all the particles in a cell. and mi and mj are the masses of particles i and j. the number of particle pairs selected is calculated as Npair = where N Cφ τt = = = total number of particles in the cell mixing constant (default = 2) turbulent time scale (for the k.model this is k/ ) 1. For each particle pair. ANSYS FLUENT provides three models for molecular diﬀusion: the Modiﬁed Curl model [147.

. the reaction source term is integrated as φ1 = φ0 + 0 ∆t Sdt (11. T.3-6) ˜ where φ0 is the composition before mixing. Inc.0 c ANSYS.5Cφ /τt ˜ φ0 − φ (11. January 29. Details on the EMST model can be found in reference [340]. . the mixing constant default of Cφ = 2 overestimates the mixing rate. The Euclidean Minimum Spanning Tree (EMST) model mixes particle pairs that are close to each other in composition space. among reactants with low diﬀusivities (large Sc). but incurs a slightly greater computational expense.3. and φ is the Favre mean-composition vector at the particle’s location. . The EMST Model Physically. The Modiﬁed Curl and IEM mixing models take no account of this localness. Y2 . The EMST mixing model is more accurate than the Modiﬁed Curl and IEM mixing models. Since scalar ﬁelds are locally smooth.3-8) 11-6 Release 12. which is the minimum length of the set of edges connecting one particle to at least one other particle. 2009 . φ1 is the composition after mixing.3-7) where Yk is the kth specie mass fraction. the composition of all particles in a cell are moved a small distance toward the mean composition: φ1 = φ0 − 1 − e−0. For the reaction fractional step. particles that are close in composition space are likely to be close in physical space. The particle pairing is determined by a Euclidean Minimum Spanning Tree. Liquid Reactions Reactions in liquids often occur at low turbulence levels (small Re). mixing occurs between ﬂuid particles that are adjacent to each other.3 Particle Reaction The particle composition vector is represented as φ = (Y1 . T is the temperature and p the pressure. .Composition PDF Transport The IEM Model For the Interaction by Exchange with the Mean (IEM) model. The Liquid Micro-Mixing option interpolates Cφ from model turbulence [278] and scalar [103] spectra. which can be a source of error. p) (11. YN . For such ﬂows. 11.

In theory. Thus. the table must be built during the simulation. the accessed region is not known before the simulation and the table cannot be preprocessed. Most realistic chemical mechanisms consist of tens of species and hundreds of reactions. but then proceeds very quickly until reactants are consumed. 3D laminar simulations.e. suﬃcient to tabulate only this accessed region of the composition space. and this is referred to as in-situ tabulation. In ANSYS FLUENT. ANSYS FLUENT employs ISAT [277] to dynamically tabulate the chemistry mappings and accelerate the time to solution. hence. the reaction step (i. For example. molecular transport properties. Hence. For this reason. the calculation of φ1 ) can be performed either by Direct Integration or by In-Situ Adaptive Tabulation (ISAT). In fact. the table would contain 1010 entries.3-8. depends on the particular chemical mechanism. Equation 11. In practice. if a table could be built before the simulation. the full storage of the entire realizable space is very wasteful because most regions are never accessed.0 c ANSYS. on average. however. and boundary conditions. Instead.11. it is important to understand how ISAT works in order to use it optimally. on the order of 1 s. However. ISAT is a method to tabulate the accessed composition space region “on the ﬂy” (in-situ) with error control (adaptive tabulation). Release 12. and requires 1000 iterations to converge. and for a conservative estimate of M = 10 discretization points and N = 7 species.3 The Lagrangian Solution Method where S is the chemical source term. The accessed region. while others have much slower time scales. mappings must lie on a three dimensional manifold within the N + 3 dimensional composition space. a reaction does not occur until an ignition temperature is reached. This time-scale disparity results in numerical stiﬀness. the ﬁnal state φ1 depends only on φ0 and the mapping time ∆t. in the order of 10−10 s. When ISAT is used correctly. ﬂow geometry.3-8 may be considered as a mapping. The required table size is M N +3 . On closer examination. as described in the following paragraphs. Inc. the chemistry can be parameterized by the spatial position vector. accelerations of two to three orders of magnitude are typical. with 20 particles per cell. It is. temperature. Hence. this a priori tabulation is not feasible since a full table in N + 3 dimensions (N species. some reactions have very fast time scales. To illustrate this. the integrations could be avoided by table look-ups. covering all realizable φ0 states and time steps. the direct integration of the chemistry is extremely CPU-demanding. consider a structured table with M points in each dimension. at least 109 stiﬀ ODE integrations are required. Typically. which means that extensive computational work is required to integrate the chemical source term in Equation 11. For a given reaction mechanism. January 29. Since each integration typically takes tens or hundreds of milliseconds.. A typical steady-state PDF transport simulation in ANSYS FLUENT may have 50000 cells. 2009 11-7 . for steady-state. it would be unrealistic to ﬁnd a composition of YOH = 1 and T = 300K in a real combustor. With an initial composition vector φ0 . pressure and time-step) is required.

11-8 Release 12. For the ﬁrst reaction step.3. and the mapping is retrieved. then the original interpolation φ1 is accurate and the EOA is grown so as to include φ0 . a simulation that would take three months without ISAT can be run in one day. 2009 . Inc.3-9) The mapping gradient is hence used to linearly interpolate the table when queried. A composition vector φ0 will hence lie on either side of this q hyper-plane. If the query point φ1 is within the EOA. The ellipsoid of accuracy (EOA) is the elliptical space around the table point φ0 where the linear approximation to the mapping is accurate to the speciﬁed tolerance.4 The ISAT Algorithm ISAT is a powerful tool that enables realistic chemistry to be incorporated in multidimensional ﬂow simulations by accelerating the chemistry calculations. where the subscript q denotes a query. This power is apparent if one considers that with a 100-fold speed-up. a q q new table entry is added. When a new table entry is added. Typical speedups of 100-fold are common. B is a scaling DI q matrix). If not. the original leaf becomes a node with two leaves—the original leaf and the new entry. A cutting hyper-plane is created at the new node.3-9 q is suﬃciently accurate. a direct integration (DI) is performed and the mapping error = |B(φ1 − φ1 )| is calculated (here. then the linear interpolation by Equation 11.Composition PDF Transport 11. At the start of an ANSYS FLUENT simulation using ISAT. Equation 11. so that the two leaves are on either side of this cutting plane. The existing table q (consisting of one entry at this stage) is queried by interpolating the new mapping as φ1 = φ1 + A(φ0 − φ0 ) q q (11.3-8 is integrated with a stiﬀ ODE solver. January 29. Otherwise. This is called Direct Integration (DI). Table entries are stored as leaves in a binary tree. If this error is smaller than the speciﬁed error tolerance ( < tol ).0 c ANSYS. tol . the ISAT table is empty. The ﬁrst table entry is created and consists of: • the initial composition φ0 • the mapping φ1 • the mapping gradient matrix A = ∂φ1 /∂φ0 • a hyper-ellipsoid of accuracy The next reaction mapping is calculated as follows: The initial composition vector for this particle is denoted φ0 .

which is computationally economical. . then the mapping φ1 q q is retrieved using interpolation by Equation 11. t) = n=1 pn (x. . most operations are adds and grows. If the error is less than the tolerance. If the query composition φ0 lies within the EOA of the leaf. However. as more of the composition space is tabulated. 2.0 c ANSYS. Otherwise. 11. This presumed PDF has the following form: Ne Ns P (ψ.3-9. Since adds and grows are very slow whereas retrieves are relatively quick. retrieves become frequent. For each query φ0 the table is traversed to identify a leaf whose composition φ0 is q close to φ0 . Release 12. < φk >n is the conditional mean composition of specie k in the nth mode. t)] (11. The multi-dimensional PDF shape is assumed as a product of delta functions.11. the turbulent scalar ﬂux and molecular mixing terms must be modeled. As with the Lagrangian PDF model. q 3. The Eulerian PDF transport model overcomes these limitations by assuming a shape for the PDF. Stochastic errors are eliminated and the transport equations are solved implicitly. x. and a large number of iterations are necessary to reduce statistical errors and explicitly convect the particles through the domain. initial ANSYS FLUENT iterations are slow but accelerate as the table is built.) is the delta function. Inc. Otherwise.4-1) where pn is the probability in each mode. t) k=1 δ[ψk − < φk >n (x. The ISAT table is queried for every composition vector during the reaction step. The composition PDF of Ns + 1 dimension (Ns species and enthalpy) is represented as a collection of Ne delta functions (or modes). 4. and are closed with the gradient diﬀusion and the IEM models. It is computationally expensive since a large number of particles are required to represent the PDF.4 The Eulerian Solution Method The Lagrangian solution method solves the composition PDF transport equation by stochastically tracking Lagrangian particles through the domain. respectively. January 29. ψk is the composition space variable of specie k. then the ellipsoid of accuracy is grown and the DI result is returned. a new table entry is added. 2009 11-9 . Direct Integration (DI) is performed and the error between the DI and the linear interpolation is measured. and δ(. Later. which allows Eulerian transport equations to be derived.4 The Eulerian Solution Method The ISAT algorithm is summarized as follows: 1. the highly non-linear chemical source term is closed. At the start of the simulation.

using the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) approach [103.n ) + ρ(Mk.4-5) (11. and sk. for the two-mode DQMOM-IEM model. The resulting transport equations are: • Probability (magnitude of the nth delta function): ∂ρpn ∂ + (ρui pn ) = ∂t ∂xi (ρΓ pn ) (11. Mixing The micro-mixing term Mk. Sk. Reaction The reaction source term Sk.n ∂ + (ρui sk. Γ = µl + µt /Sct is the eﬀective turbulent diﬀusivity.2-2 and 11. 2009 . are determined by forcing lower moments of this transported PDF to match the RANS lower moment transport equations. 11-10 Release 12. the mixing terms for component k are.Composition PDF Transport The Eulerian PDF transport equations are derived by substituting Equation 11.n = pn < φk >n is the kth specie probability weighted conditional mean composition of the nth mode. pn and < φk >n . reaction and correction terms respectively. Note that only Ne − 1 probability equations are solved and the N th probability is calculated as one minus the sum of the Ne − 1 solved probabilities.4-2) • Probability weighted conditional mean of composition k: ∂ρsk.4-4) where τ is the turbulence time-scale and Cφ is the mixing constant. Hence.n and Ck.n + Ck.4-3) where pn is the probability of the nth mode. 218]. January 29.n ) (11. Inc.3-6).n = Cφ (< φk >n −ψk ) τ (11. The terms Mk.n represent mixing.n is modeled with the IEM mixing model: Mk. The unknown terms.n in Equation 11.0 c ANSYS.n .n = pn S(< φk >n )k where S()k is the net reaction rate for the kth component.2-1 with Equations 11.4-3 for the kth composition and the nth mode is calculated as.n + Sk.n ) = ∂t ∂xi (ρΓ sk. Sk.4-1 into the closed composition PDF transport equation (Equation 11.

1 = Mk.2 − p2 sk. the correction terms for the kth component are.n n (11. the correction terms Ck.1 − p1 sk. Ne φk = n=1 sk.4-10) and its variance is calculated as Ne 2 φk2 = ( n=1 sk.4-9) Calculation of Composition Mean and Variance The mean composition (specie k or energy) is calculated as.0 c ANSYS.11.4-7 is calculated as.1 = Ck.n = Γ (< φk >n ) · (< φk >n ) (11. Γ p1 ( < φk >1 − < φk >2 = −Ck.1 Ck. the Liquid Micro-Mixing option interpolates Cφ from model turbulence [278] and scalar [103] spectra.4-7) where mk are the non-negative integer lower moments (1. which is appropriate for gas-phase combustion. For reactions in liquids. Note that the condition of the matrix decreases with increasing mk .4-11) Release 12. The dissipation term ck. January 29.2 Cφ (p1 sk.4-3 for the kth composition are determined from the linear system. Inc.n = n Ne n=1 (mk − 1) < φk >mk −2 pn ck. 2009 11-11 . Ne n=1 < φk >mk −1 Ck.2 < φk >1 )2 + p2 ( < φk >2 )2 (11. where the diﬀusivities are much smaller than gases.2 ) τ (11.4-6) The default value of Cφ is 2.n < φk >n ) − φk (11.1 ) τ Cφ = (p2 sk.n (11.4 The Eulerian Solution Method Mk.Ne ) for each component k. which reduces the stability of higher mode simulations. Correction Using assumptions to ensure realizability and boundedness.4-8) For the two-mode DQMOM-IEM model.n in Equation 11.n in Equation 11.. ck.

Composition PDF Transport 11-12 Release 12. Inc. January 29. 2009 .0 c ANSYS.

Engine Ignition This chapter discusses the theory behind the engine ignition models available in ANSYS FLUENT.1 Spark Model The spark model in ANSYS FLUENT will be described in the context of the premixed turbulent combustion model. the ignition of a mixture at a point in the domain is more dependent on the local composition than on the spark energy (see Heywood [128]).1: Overview and Limitations • Section 12. January 29.2: Spark Model Theory 12. creating a spark. The spark event in typical engines happens very quickly relative to the main combustion in the engine.1 Overview and Limitations Initiation of combustion at a desired time and location in a combustion chamber can be accomplished by sending a high voltage across two narrowly separated wires.2: Autoignition Models • Section 12.1: Spark Model in the separate User’s Guide. Additionally. the energy from the spark event is several orders of magnitude less than the chemical energy release from the fuel. Despite the amount of research devoted to spark ignition physics and ignition devices.3: Crevice Model For information about using these ignition models.1.1: Spark Model • Section 12. for situations in which ANSYS FLUENT is utilized for combustion engine modeling. making it diﬃcult to accurately model the spark in the context of a multidimensional engine simulation.1. For information about using this model. Information can be found in the following sections.Chapter 12. 2009 12-1 . Thus. including internal combustion engines. The physical description of this simple event is very involved and complex. Inc. • Section 12. see Section 20. the Release 12. 12. see Chapter 20: Modeling Engine Ignition in the separate User’s Guide. Information regarding the theory behind this model is detailed in the following sections: • Section 12.1.0 c ANSYS.

1-1 ∂ρc + ∂t · (ρvc) = · (Dt c) + ρu Ut | c| (12.0 c ANSYS. Additionally. 12.1-3) where is ttd = t−tig and tig denotes the time at which the spark is initiated.1. The instability is susceptible to numerical errors which are increased when the mesh is not aligned with the ﬂame propagation. is given by Equation 12. the eﬀect of the instability decreases. 12-2 Release 12.1-2) where κ is the laminar thermal diﬀusivity and the eﬀective diﬀusivity Dtt is given by Dt 1 − exp Dt −ttd τ Dtt = if ttd ≥ 0 if ttd < 0 (12. but simply as the initiation of combustion over a duration. the spark model requires chemical reactions to be solved. The Spark Model used in ANSYS FLUENT is based on a one-dimensional analysis by Lipatnikov [203]. it may be most applicable to the premixed and partially premixed combustion models. Since spark ignition is inherently transient. Additionally. ρu is the density of the unburned mixture and Ut is the turbulent ﬂame speed. the Zimont model is modiﬁed such that ∂ρc + ∂t · (ρvc) = · ((κ + Dtt ) c) + ρu Ut | c| (12. The instabilities are inherent to the model and can be dependent on the mesh. the spark model is only available in the transient solver.1-1) where Dt is the turbulent diﬀusivity. Since the spark is often very small compared to the mesh size of the model and is often laminar in nature.2 Spark Model Theory The spark model in ANSYS FLUENT is based on the work done by Lipatnikov [203] and extended to other combustion models. especially near the beginning of the spark event when the model reduces diﬀusion to simulate the initial laminar spark kernel growth.Engine Ignition spark event does not need to be modeled in great detail. Zimont Premixed Flame Model The transport equation for the mean reaction progress variable. τ is an eﬀective diﬀusion time. c. however. The model is sensitive to perturbations and can be subject to instabilities when used in multi-dimensional simulations. January 29. which you will set. 2009 . As the spark kernel grows and the model allows turbulent mixing to occur. Inc. The spark model is available for all of the combustion models. which you can set. The derivation of the model can be done in the context of the Zimont premixed combustion model.

small changes in the diﬀusion time can change the result signiﬁcantly. The model’s use has been extended to be compatible with the other models. Other Combustion Models The spark model is compatible with all combustion models in ANSYS FLUENT. If the temperature exceeds 2500 K or the spark duration is exceeded. is ramped up as the spark grows. a burned state.2: Ignition Model Theory Release 12. which can be a nontrivial undertaking. The spark model can be used in models other than the premixed and partially premixed combustion models. This creates higher temperatures at the location of the spark and can cause convergence diﬃculties. Dtt . Because of these issues.2. 2009 12-3 .2. However. see Section 20. in some cases it simply creates a high temperature region and does not guarantee the initiation of combustion. 12.0 c ANSYS. however. the premixed and partially premixed models diﬀer in that the progress variable inside the spark region is set equal to 1. you must balance energy input and diﬀusivity to produce a high enough temperature to initiate combustion. however. and has a default value of 1e-5 seconds. Other combustion models have the energy input into the cell.12. The theory behind the autoignition models is described in the following sections: • Section 12.1: Overview and Limitations • Section 12. In addition to convergence diﬃculties.2 Autoignition Models Only turbulent scales that are smaller than the spark radius can contribute to turbulent spark diﬀusion. for the duration of the spark event. the diﬀusion time can be controlled by the you. January 29. no energy from the spark model will be added to the spark cells. so the expression for the eﬀective turbulent diﬀusivity. There are two types of autoignition models considered in ANSYS FLUENT: • knock model in spark-ignited (SI) engines • ignition delay model in diesel engines For information regarding using autoignition models.2: Autoignition Models in the separate User’s Guide. Inc.2 Autoignition Models Autoignition phenomena in engines are due to the eﬀects of chemical kinetics of the reacting ﬂow inside the cylinder.

Model Limitations The main diﬀerence between the knock model and the ignition delay model is the manner in which the model is coupled with the chemistry. Ignition delay depends on the composition of the gas in the cylinder. The sudden. As a result of the premature release of the energy. with the exception of the purely premixed models.1 Overview and Limitations Overview The concept of knock has been studied extensively in the context of premixed engines. mainly because it does not have such a sharply deﬁning impact on engine eﬃciency. and other factors. which in turn impacts eﬃciency and emissions.2. The knock model always releases energy from the fuel while the ignition delay model prevents energy from being released prematurely. Inc. The knock model in ANSYS FLUENT is compatible with the premixed and partially premixed combustion models. 2009 . the temperature and pressure of the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder also increase during the cycle compressions. hence the term “knock”. however. However. sharp rise in pressure inside the engine can be heard clearly through the engine block as a knocking sound. catastrophic damage to the engine components can occur. it can have a considerable amount of exhaust gas mixed in (or EGR) to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions (NOx). it is important to account for it in a diesel engine simulation. January 29. The autoignition model is compatible with any volumetric combustion model. as the compression ratio increases. For commonly available gasoline pumps. The autoignition models are inherently transient and so are not available with steady simulations.Engine Ignition 12. the temperature of the gas. The temperature and pressure increase can be large enough for the mixture to spontaneously ignite and release its heat before the spark plug ﬁres. By comparison. knock usually limits the highest practical compression ratio to less than 11:1 for premium fuels and around 9:1 for less expensive fuels. As the compression ratio increases. 12-4 Release 12. the turbulence level.0 c ANSYS. The fuel is injected into a gas which is usually air. as this results in the spark event no longer controlling the combustion. ignition delay in diesel engines has not been as extensively studied as SI engines. Since ignition delay changes the combustion phasing. The premature release of all of the energy in the air/fuel charge is almost never desirable. the eﬃciency of the engine as a function of the work extracted from the fuel increases. as it deﬁnes a limit in terms of eﬃciency and power production of that type of engine. Ignition delay in diesel engines refers to the time between when the fuel is injected into the combustion chamber and when the pressure starts to increase as the fuel releases its energy.

Once the model is calibrated to a particular engine conﬁguration. in that only a single transport equation is solved.12.2 Autoignition Models The autoignition models in general require adjustment of parameters to reproduce engine data and are likely to require tuning to improve accuracy. The τig term is a correlation of ignition delay with the units of time. January 29. They diﬀer from the eight step reaction models. which is given by ∂ρYig + ∂t · (ρvYig ) = · µt Yig + ρSig Sct (12. The single equation autoignition models are appropriate for the situation where geometric ﬁdelity or resolution of particular ﬂow details is more important than chemical eﬀects on the simulation. This approach is appropriate for large simulations where geometric accuracy is more important than fully resolved chemical kinetics. Inc. The source term in the transport equation is typically not stiﬀ. Detailed chemical kinetics may be more applicable over a wider range of conditions. and to obtain trends before utilizing more expensive and presumably more accurate chemical mechanisms in multidimensional simulations. Sct is the turbulent Schmidt number.2. 2009 12-5 . The term Sig is the source term for the ignition species which has a form t Sig = t=t0 dt τig where t0 corresponds to the time at which fuel is introduced into the domain. then diﬀerent engine speeds and loads can be reasonably well represented. 12.2-1) where Yig is a “mass fraction” of a passive species representing radicals which form when the fuel in the domain breaks down. Transport of Ignition Species Autoignition is modeled using the transport equation for an Ignition Species.0 c ANSYS. thus making the equation relatively inexpensive to solve. in that they share the same infrastructure. It is assumed that all the radical species represented by Yig diﬀuse at the same rate as the mean ﬂow.2 Ignition Model Theory Both the knock and the ignition delay models are treated similarly in ANSYS FLUENT. These models belong to the family of single equation autoignition models and use correlations to account for complex chemical kinetics. The model can be used on less resolved meshes to explore a range of designs quickly. Yig . though are more expensive to solve. such as Halstead’s “Shell” model [121]. Ignition has occurred when the ignition species reaches a value of 1 in the domain. Release 12.

1: Flame Front Showing Accumulation of Source Terms for the Knock Model When the ignition species reaches a value of 1 in the domain. Details of how the source term is treated are covered in the following sections. the source term is accumulated under appropriate conditions in a cell. January 29. Inc. the form of the correlation of ignition delay diﬀers between the two models. knock has occurred at that point.Engine Ignition Note that the source term for these radical species is treated diﬀerently for knock and ignition delay.2. One is given by Douaud [76]. values well above that can be obtained in a short time. while the other is a generalized model which reproduces several correlations. For the knock model. The ignition species accumulates only when there is fuel. Consider the one dimensional ﬂame in Figure 12. If the progress variable is 1. T Tb fuel = 0 Sig = 0 Tu ¦ T ¤ fuel > 0 Sig > 0 E E X Figure 12. In this ﬁgure. where c is the progress variable. the fuel is deﬁned as f uel = 1 − c. and the temperature is relatively low in front of the ﬂame and high behind the ﬂame. the mixture is considered unburned. 2009 . the ﬂame is propagating from left to right.0 c ANSYS. Modeling of the Source Term In order to model knock in a physically realistic manner. Furthermore. two correlations are built into ANSYS FLUENT.1. 12-6 Release 12. In the premixed model. In fact. If the progress variable has a value of zero. The value of the ignition species can exceed unity.2. respectively. The ignition species will continue to accumulate until there is no more fuel present. Knock Modeling When modeling knock or ignition delay. Tb and Tu represent the temperatures at the burned and unburned states. then the mixture is considered burned. chemical energy in the fuel is released when the ignition species reaches a value of 1 in the domain. given by Heywood [128]. Here.

2009 12-7 . a generalized model which reproduces several Arrhenius correlations from the literature. which burns the remaining fuel in that cell. two correlations are built into ANSYS FLUENT. January 29.2-3) where A is the pre-exponential (with units in seconds). These values are chosen to reﬂect single-step reaction rates appropriate for propane as described in Amsden [4]. Inc.402 τ = 0. the knock event is modeled by releasing the remaining fuel energy with a single-step Arrhenius reaction. is added to the rate term in the premixed model. The rate at which the fuel is consumed is limited such that a completely unburned cell will burn during three of the current time steps. and Ea = −15078. A generalized expression for τ is also available which can reproduce many existing Arrhenius correlations. The form of the correlation is τ =A ON 100 a pb T c RPMd Φd exp −Ea RT (12. Release 12.01768 p−1. Ignition Delay Modeling When modeling ignition delay in diesel engines. Limiting the reaction rate is done purely for numerical stability. The reaction rate is given by ω = A0 exp ˙ −Ea RT (12. p is the absolute pressure in atmospheres and T is the temperature in Kelvin.6 × 109 . RPM is the engine speed in cycles per minute and Φ is the fuel/air equivalence ratio.7 exp 3800 T (12. one given by Hardenburg and Hase [125] and the other.2-2) where ON is the octane number of the fuel. An additional source term.12.2 Autoignition Models Correlations An extensively tested correlation for knock in SI engines is given by Douaud and Eyzat [76]: ON 100 3.0 c ANSYS. For the ignition delay model. chemical reactions are allowed to occur when the ignition species reaches a value of 1 in the domain. Energy Release Once ignition has occurred in the domain.2-4) where A0 = 8.

Here. there are two built-in options in ANSYS FLUENT to calculate the local source term.2.4 ep τid = (12.Engine Ignition If the ignition species is less than 1 when using the ignition delay model. This approach is reasonable if you have a good high-temperature chemical model. Inc. Consider the one dimensional spray in Figure 12. but does not wish to solve for typically expensive low temperature chemistry. nevertheless. The ﬁrst correlation was done by Hardenburg and Hase and was developed at Daimler Chrysler for heavy duty diesel engines. the spray is propagating from left to right and the fuel mass fraction is Yf uel T ¤ fuel > 0 Sig > 0 ¦ fuel = 0 Sig = 0 E E X Figure 12. thus.22S p 1 1 21.2.2 exp Ea − + 6N RT 17. If there is no fuel in the cell. The correlation works over a reasonably wide range of conditions and is given by C1 + 0. the source term is accumulated under appropriate conditions in a cell. the model will set the local source term to zero. 190 p − 12. 2009 . the chemical source term is suppressed by not activating the combustion model at that particular time step. the value of Yig can be nonzero due to convection and diﬀusion. the energy release is delayed. Modeling of the Source Term In order to model ignition in a physically realistic manner.2: Propagating Fuel Cloud Showing Accumulation of Source Terms for the Ignition Delay Model relatively low in front of the spray and high behind the spray.2-5) 12-8 Release 12. January 29.2.0 c ANSYS. Correlations If fuel is present in the cell.

C1 .2: Limitations • Section 12. ignition has occurred and combustion is no longer delayed. is given by Equation 12.63 The second correlation. ep .3: Crevice Model in the separate User’s Guide.3: Crevice Model Theory For information regarding using the crevice model.3. CN . Release 12. January 29.0 c ANSYS.36. are accessible from the GUI. Note that the ignition species “mass fraction” can exceed 1 in the domain.36 ep 0. and cetane number. C1 is 0. pressure exponent.3 Crevice Model where τid is in seconds.1: Overview • Section 12. Information can be found in the following sections: • Section 12.840 CN 25 C1 0. it is not truly a mass fraction. therefore.3 Crevice Model This section describes the theory behind the crevice model.1: Default Values of the Variables in the Hardenburg Correlation Variable Default Ehh 618. The default values of these variables are listed in the table below.3.12.2. The ignition species acts as a switch to turn on the volumetric reactions in the domain. Energy Release If the ignition species is greater than or equal to 1 anywhere in the domain. Inc. The activation energy. 2009 12-9 . pre-exponential. 12. N is engine speed in revolutions per minute.3.2-3 and is available for ignition delay calculations. Ea is the eﬀective activation energy and ep is the pressure exponent. Ehh . The expression for the eﬀective activation energy is given by Ea = Ehh CN + 25 (12. Table 12. see Section 20. which is the generalized correlation. but rather a passive scalar which represents the integrated correlation as a function of time.2-6) where CN is the cetane number.

3.3. and energy from cells adjoining two boundaries and accounts for the storage of mass in the volumes of the crevices in the piston. and thus is available only for time-dependent simulations.1 Overview The crevice model implemented in ANSYS FLUENT is a zero-dimensional ring-ﬂow model based on the model outlined in Namazian and Heywood [245] and Roberts and Matthews [295].3. The model is geared toward in-cylinder speciﬁc ﬂows. Detailed geometric information regarding the ring and piston—typically a ring pack around the bore of an engine—is necessary to use the crevice model.1: Crevice Model Geometry (Piston) W r Tr Figure 12. The model takes mass.3.3. Inc.3.2: Crevice Model Geometry (Ring) 12-10 Release 12. momentum.1–12. directinjection (DI) diesel engines. January 29. and more speciﬁcally. Land length p 0 Cylinder wall 1 Ring spacing 2 3 1: Top gap 2: Middle gap 3: Bottom gap p 6 Piston to bore clearance Figure 12.Engine Ignition 12. An example representation is shown in Figures 12. 2009 .0 c ANSYS.

Typical values range from 1 to 3 mm for SI engines and 2 to 4 mm for DI engines.3. • The ring thickness is the variable Tr in Figure 12.g.5 mm for SI engines and 5 to 7 mm for DI diesel engines. wall.2. Cells that share a boundary with the top of the piston and the cylinder wall are deﬁned as the crevice cells. • The middle gap is the distance between the ring and the bore (10 to 40 µm). the cutout into the piston).3. Typical values are 4 to 4.5 mm for SI engines and 4 to 6 mm for DI diesel engines.e.2. • The land length is the depth of the ring land (i..1) in most in-cylinder simulations. January 29. Release 12.0 c ANSYS.3 Crevice Model p = cylinder pressure • 0 • p2 •p 4 • p = crankcase pressure 6 Ring 1 Ring 2 Ring 3 p 1• p• 3 p• 5 Figure 12.3: Crevice Model “Network” Representation Model Parameters • The piston to bore clearance is the distance between the piston and the bore. Inc. 2009 12-11 . Typical values of the ring spacing are 3 to 5 mm for SI engines and 4 to 8 mm for DI diesel engines. • The bottom gap is the clearance between the ring land and the bottom of the ring (40 to 80 µm).3. • The ring spacing is the distance between the bottom of one ring land and the top of the next ring land... wall-8) and the cylinder wall (e. • The ring width is the variable Wr in Figure 12. Typical values range from 3 to 3. • The shared boundary and leaking wall is the piston (e.12.g. always deeper than the width of the ring by about 1 mm. Typical values are 2 to 5 mil (80 to 120 µm) in a spark engine (SI) and 4 to 7 mil (100 to 240 µm) in some diesel engines (DI). • The top gap is the clearance between the ring land and the top of the ring (40 to 80 µm).

as any individual species would be instantly distributed over the entire ring pack. The overall mass ﬂow out of the ring pack (i.Engine Ignition The ring pack is the set of rings that seal the piston in the cylinder bore. during the compression stroke in a four-stroke cycle engine). the mass in each volume can be found using the ideal gas equation of state. the ODE solver may not be able to integrate the equations successfully. The formulation of the crevice ﬂow equations is inherently transient and is solved using ANSYS FLUENT’s stiﬀ-equation solver.. One solution to this problem is to decrease the ﬂow time step for several iterations. 12-12 Release 12.3.0 c ANSYS. transient. January 29. Inc. In this context. Additionally.e. If the lateral diﬀusion of species is important in the simulation. A zero-dimensional approach is used because it is diﬃcult to accurately predict lateral diﬀusion of species in the crevice. the crevice model solution is a stiﬀ initial boundary-value problem. Another solution is to start with initial conditions that are closer to the solution at the end of the time step. 2009 .2 Limitations The limitations of the crevice model are that it is zero dimensional. A steady problem with leakage ﬂow can be solved by running the transient problem to steady state. Since the temperature in the ring pack is ﬁxed and the geometry is known. as in when a spray plume in a DI engine is in close proximity to the boundary and the net mass ﬂow is into the crevice. 12. this approach does not speciﬁcally track individual species. and currently limited to two threads that share a boundary. it is recommended that the full multidimensional crevice geometry be simulated in ANSYS FLUENT using a nonconformal mesh. Ring dynamics are not explicitly accounted for. Additional limitations of the crevice model in its current form are that only a single crevice is allowed and only one thread can have leakage. The pressure distribution in the ring pack is modeled by assuming either fully-developed compressible ﬂow through the spaces between the rings and the piston.g. As the piston moves upward in the cylinder when the valves are closed (e. the ﬂow past the last ring speciﬁed) is also calculated at each discrete step in the ANSYS FLUENT solution. although ring positions can be set during the simulation. once a pressure distribution is calculated. The mass ﬂux into the domain from the crevice is assumed to have the same composition as the cell into which mass is ﬂowing. if the initial conditions are very far from the solution during a time step.. or choked compressible ﬂow between the rings and the cylinder wall. Thus. the pressure in the cylinder rises and ﬂow begins to move past the rings. The stiﬀness increases as the pressure diﬀerence between the ring crevices increases and also as the overall pressure diﬀerence across the ring pack increases.

3-6) (12. ρ is the gas density. The equation for the mass ﬂow through the top and bottom faces of the ring (i.52 where γ is the ratio of speciﬁc heats.3-8) Release 12.3-3) where hij is the cross-sectional area of the gap.3. January 29.3 Crevice Model Theory ANSYS FLUENT solves the equations for mass conservation in the crevice geometry by assuming laminar compressible ﬂow in the region between the piston and the top and bottom faces of the ring.5 pi pj > 0.3-5) (12. and by assuming an oriﬁce ﬂow between the ring and the cylinder wall. pi the upstream pressure and pj the downstream pressure.0 c ANSYS.e. and ηij is a compressibility factor given by 2 γ−1 pi pj 2 γ − pi pj γ−1 γ 0.. Aij is the gap area.52 (12.3-1) where Cd is the discharge coeﬃcient. Inc.3 Crevice Model 12. The equation for the mass ﬂow through the ring end gaps is of the form mij = Cd Aij ρcηij ˙ (12. The system of equations for a set of three rings is of the following form: dp1 dt dp2 dt dp3 dt dp4 dt dp5 dt = = = = = p1 m1 p2 m2 p3 m3 p4 m4 p5 m5 (m01 − m12 ) ˙ ˙ (m02 + m12 − m23 − m24 ) ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ (m23 − m34 ) ˙ ˙ (m24 + m34 − m45 − m46 ) ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ (m45 − m56 ) ˙ ˙ (12.3-4) (12.12. 2009 12-13 . c is the local speed of sound. T is the temperature of the gas and R is the universal gas constant. into and out of the volume behind the piston ring) is given by h2 p2 − p2 Aij ij i j 24Wr µgas RT mij = ˙ (12. µgas is the local gas viscosity.3-7) (12. Wr is the width of the ring along which the gas is ﬂowing.3-2) ηij = 2 γ−1 γ+1 2(γ−1) pi pj ≤ 0.

Engine Ignition where p0 is the average pressure in the crevice cells and p6 is the crankcase pressure input from the text interface. Thus.g. 2009 .3-2. 2-3.3-3 and expressions for the mass ﬂows for zones separated by two integers (e.0 c ANSYS. January 29.. 12-14 Release 12. 0-2. 0-1. The expressions for the mass ﬂows for numerically adjacent zones (e.3-1 and 12. 4-6) are given by Equations 12. there are 2nr − 1 equations needed for the solution to the ring-pack equations. Inc..g.) are given by Equation 12. where nr is the number of rings in the simulation. etc. 2-4. 1-2.

2: SOx Formation • Section 13. For information about using the NOx models in ANSYS FLUENT.1: Using the NOx Model in the separate User’s Guide.1.9: NOx Formation in Turbulent Flows Release 12.1. see Chapter 21: Modeling Pollutant Formation in the separate User’s Guide. Information is presented in the following sections: • Section 13.1: NOx Formation • Section 13.1.8: NOx Reduction by SNCR • Section 13.3: Soot Formation For information about using the models in ANSYS FLUENT.3: Thermal NOx Formation • Section 13.5: Fuel NOx Formation • Section 13. Pollutant Formation This chapter discusses the theory behind the models available in ANSYS FLUENT for modeling pollutant formation.Chapter 13.6: NOx Formation from Intermediate N2 O • Section 13.1. 13. January 29.1.1.1: Overview • Section 13.1. • Section 13.1. 2009 13-1 .0 c ANSYS.2: Governing Equations for NOx Transport • Section 13.7: NOx Reduction by Reburning • Section 13. see Section 21. Inc.1.4: Prompt NOx Formation • Section 13.1 NOx Formation The following sections present the theoretical background of NOx prediction.1.

13-2 Release 12. one can only expect results to be as accurate as the input data and the selected physical models. thermal NOx production doubles for every 90 K temperature increase when the ﬂame temperature is about 2200 K. prompt. NOx Modeling in ANSYS FLUENT The ANSYS FLUENT NOx model provides the capability to model thermal. NOx is postprocessed from a combustion simulation. and to a lesser degree nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O).1 Overview NOx emission consists of mostly nitric oxide (NO). NOx reduction using reagent injection. radiation and other submodels must be employed. When fuel NOx sources are present. NOx variation trends can be accurately predicted but the NOx quantity itself cannot be pinpointed. and reduce product development cost. The ANSYS FLUENT NOx model provides a tool to understand the sources of NOx production and to aid in the design of NOx control measures. contributes to acid rain. January 29. an additional transport equation for N2 O will be solved. can be modeled in ANSYS FLUENT along with an N2 O intermediate model which has also been incorporated. the power of CFD in general. in fact. and causes ozone depletion. NOx is a pollutant.Pollutant Formation 13. NOx is a precursor for photochemical smog. ANSYS FLUENT solves a transport equation for nitric oxide (NO) concentration. Under most circumstances. such as selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR). Appropriate turbulence. Accurate prediction of NOx parametric trends can cut down on the number of laboratory tests. In other words. ANSYS FLUENT solves additional transport equations for intermediate species (HCN and/or NH3 ). allow more design variations to be studied. Great care must be exercised to provide accurate thermophysical data and boundary condition inputs for the combustion model. Inc. It is thus evident that an accurate combustion solution becomes a prerequisite of NOx prediction. and fuel NOx formation as well as NOx consumption due to reburning in combustion systems. For example.0 c ANSYS. shorten the design cycle. To predict NOx emissions. Thus.1. 2009 . To be realistic. The NOx transport equations are solved based on a given ﬂow ﬁeld and combustion solution. chemistry. That is truly the power of the ANSYS FLUENT NOx model and. When the N2 O intermediate model is activated. It uses rate models developed at the Department of Fuel and Energy at The University of Leeds in England as well as from the open literature.

January 29. diﬀusion. ANSYS FLUENT solves a transport equation for the HCN. The reburning and SNCR mechanisms reduce the total NOx formation by accounting for the reaction of NO with hydrocarbons and ammonia.1-3) · (ρvYN2 O ) = · (ρDYN2 O ) + SN2 O (13.13. taking into account convection. fuel NOx formation. and intermediate N2 O. the fuel NOx mechanisms are more involved. NOx may also be formed from molecular nitrogen (N2 ) via N2 O. This approach is completely general. At elevated pressures and oxygen-rich conditions.1.1-4) Release 12. The tracking of nitrogen-containing intermediate species is important. prompt NOx formation.0 c ANSYS. Governing Equations for NOx Transport ANSYS FLUENT solves the mass transport equation for the NO species. a Lagrangian reference frame concept.1-1) As discussed in Section 13. and at the molecular level within turbulent ﬂames.5: Fuel NOx Formation. The eﬀect of residence time in NOx mechanisms. only the NO species transport equation is needed: ∂ (ρYNO ) + ∂t · (ρvYNO ) = · (ρD YNO ) + SNO (13. For thermal and prompt NOx mechanisms. Prompt NOx is produced by high-speed reactions at the ﬂame front. 2009 13-3 . the formation of NOx can be attributed to four distinct chemical kinetic processes: thermal NOx formation.1.1-2) · (ρvYNH3 ) = · (ρDYNH3 ) + SNH3 (13. respectively. NH3 or N2 O species in addition to the NO species: ∂ (ρYHCN ) + ∂t ∂ (ρYNH3 ) + ∂t ∂ (ρYN2 O ) + ∂t · (ρvYHCN ) = · (ρDYHCN ) + SHCN (13. and fuel NOx is produced by oxidation of nitrogen contained in the fuel.1 NOx Formation NOx Formation and Reduction in Flames In laminar ﬂames. production and consumption of NO and related species. Thermal NOx is formed by the oxidation of atmospheric nitrogen present in the combustion air. i 13. being derived from the fundamental principle of mass conservation. is included through the convection terms in the governing equations written in the Eulerian reference frame.2 The NOx models cannot be used in conjunction with the premixed combustion model. Inc.

3 [N][OH] − kr.1-7 is given by d[NO] = kf.8 × 104 T e−4680/T = 7.3 = 1.1 [O][N2 ] + kf. NH3 . N2 O.81 × 103 T e−20820/T = 1. and YNO are mass fractions of HCN.7 × 108 e−24560/T In the above expressions.8 × 107 e−425/T = 3.2 [N][O2 ] + kf.Pollutant Formation where YHCN . and kr. All of these rate constants have units of m3 /gmol-s.1 × 107 e−450/T kr. YNH3 .1-5–13. respectively. kf. To calculate the formation rates of NO and N.3 [NO][H] dt (13. These were selected based on the evaluation of Hanson and Salimian [124].0 c ANSYS.1-8) where all concentrations have units of gmol/m3 . 236]. The net rate of formation of NO via Reactions 13. kf. kr. H.1 .1 kf.1-5–13. YN2 O .1 kr. and OH are required.1 [NO][N] − kr. January 29.1-6) A third reaction has been shown to contribute to the formation of thermal NOx . The source terms SHCN . kf. The principal reactions governing the formation of thermal NOx from molecular nitrogen are as follows: O + N2 N + O2 N + NO O + NO (13. and SNO are to be determined next for diﬀerent NOx mechanisms. and the data obtained from these studies have been critically evaluated by Baulch et al.8 × 108 e−38370/T = 1. Inc.3 = 3.3 are the rate constants for the forward reactions 13. The expressions for the rate coeﬃcients for Equations 13.2 . the concentrations of O.2 [NO][O] − kr. [18] and Hanson and Salimian [124]. 2009 .3 Thermal NOx Formation The formation of thermal NOx is determined by a set of highly temperature-dependent chemical reactions known as the extended Zeldovich mechanism.2 . and NO in the gas phase. and D is the eﬀective diﬀusion coeﬃcient. and kf. 102.1 .2 kr.1-5) (13. particularly at near-stoichiometric conditions and in fuel-rich mixtures: N + OH H + NO (13.1-7.1-7 used in the NOx model are given below. 13. SN2 O . 13-4 Release 12.1-7) Thermal NOx Reaction Rates The rate constants for these reactions have been measured in numerous experimental studies [29. SNH3 .2 kf.3 are the corresponding reverse rate constants.1.1-5–13. and kr.

the rate of consumption of free nitrogen atoms becomes equal to the rate of its formation and therefore a quasi-steady state can be established. and OH radicals.0 c ANSYS.2 [O = 2kf. In fact.e. the thermal NOx production rate doubles for every 90 K temperature increase beyond 2200 K.13. based on the limiting rate described by kf. O2 . The results of these investigations indicate that the level of NOx emission can be underpredicted by as much as 28% in the ﬂame zone.1-9.1 .1 [O][N2 ] kr.1 [NO] dt 1 + kf. are observed to be more abundant than their equilibrium levels. Following the suggestion by Zeldovich. Release 12. It also appears that thermal NO formation should be highly dependent on temperature but independent of fuel type. 2009 13-5 . the thermal NOx formation mechanism can be decoupled from the main combustion process. However. the concentration of O atoms and the free radical OH will be required. N2 ). The eﬀect of partial equilibrium O atoms on NOx formation rate has been investigated [232] during laminar methane-air combustion. when assuming equilibrium O-atom concentrations. However.1 kr. O atoms.1-5.3 [OH] 2 (gmol/m3 -s) (13. stable species.1-9 it is clear that the rate of formation of NO will increase with increasing oxygen concentration. the activation energy for oxidation of N atoms is small. in addition to the concentration of stable species (i.2 [O2 ]+kf.1 [N2 ]k[NO] 2 ] d[NO] f. This eﬀect is represented by the high activation energy of reaction 13. Decoupled Thermal NOx Calculations To solve Equation 13. This assumption is valid for most combustion cases except in extremely fuel-rich combustion conditions. radical concentrations. Hence the NO formation rate becomes kr. January 29.1 NOx Formation The Quasi-Steady Assumption for [N] The rate of formation of NOx is signiﬁcant only at high temperatures (greater than 1800 K) because ﬁxation of nitrogen requires the breaking of the strong N2 triple bond (dissociation energy of 941 kJ/gmol). Inc. When there is suﬃcient oxygen..1-9) Thermal NOx Temperature Sensitivity From Equation 13. which makes it the rate-limiting step of the extended Zeldovich mechanism.2 1 − kf. by assuming equilibrium values of temperature. as in a fuel-lean ﬂame. O atoms in particular.

Inc. Therefore. Bilger et al. there is no deﬁnitive conclusion as to the eﬀect of partial equilibrium on NOx formation rates in turbulent ﬂames. the calculation of the thermal NOx formation rate is considerably simpliﬁed. the partial equilibrium approach. According to Westenberg [377]. The assumption of equilibrium can be justiﬁed by a reduction in the importance of radical overshoots at higher ﬂame temperature [78]. one approach would be to couple the extended Zeldovich mechanism with a detailed hydrocarbon combustion mechanism involving many reactions. Presently. January 29.0 c ANSYS. ANSYS FLUENT uses one of three approaches— the equilibrium approach. However. species. 2009 .97 × 105 T −1/2 [O2 ]1/2 e−31090/T where T is in Kelvin. this expression becomes [O] = 3. the thermal NOx formation process can often be decoupled from the main combustion reaction mechanism and the NOx formation rate can be calculated by assuming equilibration of the combustion reactions. To determine the O radical concentration. the equilibrium O-atom concentration can be obtained from the expression [O] = kp [O2 ]1/2 With kp included. gmol/m3 (13. and so most of the thermal NOx is formed after completion of combustion. and steps. This approach has been used previously for research purposes [229]. To overcome this possible inaccuracy. long computer processing time has made the method economically unattractive and its extension to turbulent ﬂows diﬃcult. the eﬀect of O atom overshoot on the NOx formation rate is very important. and the predicted concentration approach—in recognition of the ongoing controversy discussed above. [25] suggest that in turbulent diﬀusion ﬂames.Pollutant Formation Approaches for Determining O Radical Concentration There has been little detailed study of radical concentration in industrial turbulent ﬂames.1-10) 13-6 Release 12. Method 1: Equilibrium Approach The kinetics of the thermal NOx formation rate is much slower than the main hydrocarbon oxidation rate. but work [79] has demonstrated the existence of this phenomenon in turbulent diﬀusion ﬂames.1-11) (13. Peters and Donnerhack [269] suggest that partial equilibrium radicals can account for no more than a 25% increase in thermal NOx and that ﬂuid dynamics has the dominant eﬀect on NOx formation rate. Using this approach.

1-12) Equation 13. Method 1: Exclusion of OH Approach In this approach. Inc. [O] can be taken simply from the local O-species mass fraction.13.1-14) Release 12. the concentration of OH in the third reaction in the extended Zeldovich mechanism (Equation 13. 376] [OH] = 2. Method 2: Partial Equilibrium Approach In this approach. 2009 13-7 . the partial equilibrium approach. January 29.1-11 is then replaced by the following expression [367]: [O] = 36.64T 1/2 [O2 ]1/2 e−27123/T gmol/m3 (13.1-7) is assumed to be negligible through the following observation: k2 [O2 ]eq k3 [OH]eq This assumption is justiﬁed for lean fuel conditions and is a reasonable assumption for most cases. Approaches for Determining OH Radical Concentration ANSYS FLUENT uses one of three approaches to determine the OH radical concentration: the exclusion of OH from the thermal NOx calculation approach. and the use of the predicted OH concentration approach.1-7) is given by [19.0 c ANSYS.1-13) which generally leads to a higher partial O-atom concentration.1 NOx Formation Method 2: Partial Equilibrium Approach An improvement to method 1 can be made by accounting for third-body reactions in the O2 dissociation-recombination process: O2 + M O+O+M (13.129 × 102 T −0.57 e−4595/T [O]1/2 [H2 O]1/2 gmol/m3 (13. Method 3: Predicted O Approach When the O-atom concentration is well predicted using an advanced chemistry model (such as the ﬂamelet submodel of the non-premixed model). the third reaction in the extended Zeldovich mechanism (Equation 13.

as NOx emissions are reduced to very low levels by employing new strategies (burner design or furnace geometry modiﬁcation). Inc.1-9.1-1). Prompt NOx Combustion Environments The presence of a second mechanism leading to NOx formation was ﬁrst identiﬁed by Fenimore [91] and was termed “prompt NOx ”.0 c ANSYS.NO = Mw. thermal NOx formation rate is predicted by Equation 13.e. You will make the choice during problem setup. However. using Equation 13. when the OH radical concentration is well predicted using an advanced chemistry model such as the ﬂamelet model.Pollutant Formation Method 3: Predicted OH Approach As in the predicted O approach. There is good evidence that prompt NOx can be formed in a signiﬁcant quantity in some combustion environments.1-9. the relative importance of the prompt NOx can be expected to increase.1-15) where Mw. [OH] can be taken directly from the local OH species mass fraction.NO d[NO] dt (13.1-13 for a partial equilibrium assumption. 13. Summary To summarize. 13-8 Release 12. and gas turbines can create such conditions [13]. staged combustion systems.NO is the molecular weight of NO (kg/gmol). thermal NOx ).. 2009 .1-9 is computed using Equation 13.1-11 for the equilibrium assumption. such as in lowtemperature. the NO source term due to thermal NOx mechanisms is Sthermal. The O-atom concentration needed in Equation 13.1. the NOx formation rate can exceed that produced from direct oxidation of nitrogen molecules (i. January 29. At present the prompt NOx contribution to total NOx from stationary combustors is small. Surface burners. fuel-rich conditions and where residence times are short.4 Prompt NOx Formation It is known that during combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. In terms of the transport equation for NO (Equation 13. or using the local O-species mass fraction. and d[NO]/dt is computed from Equation 13.

and ﬁnally decreases due to a deﬁciency in oxygen.1-16) and CH2 .1-16 controls the prompt NOx formation rate.1 NOx Formation Prompt NOx Mechanism Prompt NOx is most prevalent in rich ﬂames. then passes a peak.. but the major contribution is from CH (Equation 13.1-21) Prompt NOx Formation Factors Prompt NOx formation is proportional to the number of carbon atoms present per unit volume and is independent of the parent hydrocarbon identity. CH. which in turn increases with equivalence ratio. In recent studies [304].1-16) (13. Assuming that Reaction 13.1-16 is of primary importance.13. As the equivalence ratio increases.1-20) The products of these reactions could lead to formation of amines and cyano compounds that subsequently react to form NO by reactions similar to those occurring in oxidation of fuel nitrogen..1-22) Release 12. indicating that the majority of the NOx at the ﬂame base is prompt NOx formed by the CH reaction. Inc.. 2009 13-9 . d[NO] = k0 [CH][N2 ] dt (13. The actual formation involves a complex series of reactions and many possible intermediate species. The quantity of HCN formed increases with the concentration of hydrocarbon radicals. January 29. C2 H). Primary Reaction Reaction 13.1-18) (13. via CH2 + N2 HCN + NH (13.1-19) A number of species resulting from fuel fragmentation have been suggested as the source of prompt NOx in hydrocarbon ﬂames (e. for example: HCN + N N2 + . prompt NOx production increases at ﬁrst. CH2 . (13.0 c ANSYS. C. comparison of probability density distributions for the location of the peak NOx with those obtained for the peak CH have shown close correspondence. The route now accepted is as follows: CH + N2 N + O2 HCN + OH CN + O2 HCN + N NO + O CN + H2 O NO + CO (13.1-17) (13.g.

1-16–13. R is the universal gas constant. Ea = 251151 J/gmol (13. 13-10 Release 12. however. the O concentration is high and the N radical almost exclusively forms NOx rather than nitrogen.2 × 107 (RT /p)a+1 . a global kinetic parameter derived by De Soete [69] is used. depends on experimental conditions. are extremely complex and costly to compute.0 c ANSYS.1-20. as mentioned previously. Therefore. From Reactions 13. The rate of prompt NOx formation is found to be of the ﬁrst order with respect to nitrogen and fuel concentration. He showed that overall prompt formation rate can be predicted from the expression d[NO] = (overall prompt NOx formation rate) − (overall prompt N2 formation rate) dt (13. Inc.1-23) In the early stages of the ﬂame.1-24) where a is the oxygen reaction order. a. January 29. In the present NOx model. 2009 . De Soete compared the experimental values of total NOx formation rate with the rate of formation calculated by numerical integration of the empirical overall reaction rates of NOx and N2 formation. uncertainties about the rate data for the above reaction. where prompt NOx is formed under fuel-rich conditions. Hydrocarbon combustion mechanisms involve many steps and. it can be concluded that the prediction of prompt NOx formation within the ﬂame requires coupling of the NOx kinetics to an actual hydrocarbon combustion mechanism. kpr = 1. but the oxygen reaction order. the prompt NOx formation rate will be approximately equal to the overall prompt NOx formation rate: d[NO] = kpr [O2 ]a [N2 ][FUEL]e−Ea /RT dt For C2 H4 (ethylene)-air ﬂames.Pollutant Formation Modeling Strategy There are. and p is pressure (all in SI units).

2009 13-11 . The predicted results indicated that the model performance declined signiﬁcantly under fuel-rich conditions and for higher hydrocarbon fuels.0 c ANSYS.1 NOx Formation Rate for Most Hydrocarbon Fuels Equation 13. To reduce this error and predict the prompt NOx adequately in all conditions.0819 n − 23. In complex geometries with multiple burners this may lead to some uncertainty in the speciﬁcation of φ. January 29. was developed.NO = Mw. Values of kpr and Ea were developed at the Department of Fuel and Energy at The University of Leeds in England.6 and 1. and air-to-fuel ratio for gaseous aliphatic hydrocarbons.2φ3 kpr = 6.1-25) Ea = 303474. A correction factor. number of carbon atoms. f = 4. rather than any spatially varying quantity in the ﬂow domain. the De Soete model was modiﬁed using the available experimental data. which incorporates the eﬀect of fuel type. the appropriate limit should be used. Inc. [9] for diﬀerent mixture strengths and fuel types. Here the concept of equivalence ratio refers to an overall equivalence ratio for the ﬂame.. since the contribution of prompt NOx to the total NOx emission is often very small. For values outside the range.125 J/gmol n is the number of carbon atoms per molecule for the hydrocarbon fuel.1-24 was tested against the experimental data obtained by Backmier et al. However. Equation 13.1-26) (13. and φ is the equivalence ratio.6. valid for aliphatic alkane hydrocarbon fuels (Cn H2n+2 ) and for equivalence ratios between 0. (13.1-27) d[NO] dt (13. Release 12.1-24 now becomes d[NO] = f kpr [O2 ]a [N2 ][FUEL]e−Ea /RT dt so that the source term due to prompt NOx mechanism is Sprompt. results are not likely to be signiﬁcantly biased.2φ + 32φ2 − 12.NO In the above equations. i.4 × 106 (RT /p)a+1 .13.75 + 0. f .e. The correction factor is a curve ﬁt for experimental data.

pyrroles. Inc. According to De Soete [69]. pyridine. oxygen reaction order is uniquely related to oxygen mole fraction in the ﬂame: 1. This fuel nitrogen is a particularly important source of nitrogen oxide emissions for residual fuel oil and coal. Studies have shown that most of the nitrogen in heavy fuel oils is in the form of heterocycles and it is thought that the nitrogen components of coal are similar [154]. The above free radicals (i. From the thermal decomposition of these compounds.1.0 c ANSYS. (aniline.) in the reaction zone.03 0. diﬀerent investigators seem to agree on a simpliﬁed model: NO O 2 ion dat oxi Fuel Nitrogen Nitrogen Intermediates red NO uct ion N2 13-12 Release 12. This chemical mechanism has been subject to several detailed investigations [230].11 × 10−2 < XO2 < 0. 2009 . XO2 ≥ 0. Reaction Pathways The extent of conversion of fuel nitrogen to NOx is dependent on the local combustion characteristics and the initial concentration of nitrogen-bound compounds. CN. Fuel-bound compounds that contain nitrogen are released into the gas phase when the fuel droplets or particles are heated during the devolatilization stage. Although the route leading to fuel NOx formation and destruction is still not completely understood. N.03 (13.1 × 10 −0.0.3–2% nitrogen by weight.e.35 − 0. It is believed that pyridine. −3.1-28) 13.. secondary intermediate nitrogen compounds) are subject to a double competitive reaction path. and NH can be formed and converted to NOx .5 Fuel NOx Formation Fuel-Bound Nitrogen It is well known that nitrogen-containing organic compounds present in liquid or solid fossil fuel can contribute to the total NOx formed during the combustion process. 4.Pollutant Formation Oxygen Reaction Order Oxygen reaction order depends on ﬂame conditions. radicals such as HCN.11 × 10−2 O2 . and amine type heterocyclic ring structures are of importance. January 29. 1. NH3 .1 ln XO2 . etc.1 × 10−3 −3 ≤ XO2 ≤ 1. quinoline. which typically contain 0.9 ln X a= XO2 ≤ 4.95 − 0.

In the ANSYS FLUENT NOx model. and SNO are determined for diﬀerent fuel types. However.1 NOx Formation Recent investigations [133] have shown that hydrogen cyanide appears to be the principal product if fuel nitrogen is present in aromatic or cyclic form.13.0 c ANSYS. Contributions from thermal and prompt mechanisms have been discussed in previous sections.1-1 and 13. Transport equations (13. The nitrogen-containing intermediates are grouped as HCN. 2009 13-13 . Fuel NOx from Gaseous and Liquid Fuels The fuel NOx mechanisms for gaseous and liquid fuels are based on diﬀerent physics but the same chemical reaction pathways. when fuel nitrogen is present in the form of aliphatic amines. NH3 .1-29) (13. SNH3 . after which the source terms SHCN . liquid and coal fuels are considered separately. sources of NOx emission for gaseous.1-3) are solved.HCN + SHCN−1 + SHCN−2 SNO = SNO−1 + SNO−2 (13.1-2 or 13. Fuel NOx from Intermediate Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) When HCN is used as the intermediate species: 1: O oxi dat 2 ion NO Fuel Nitrogen HCN red uct 2: N ion O N2 The source terms in the transport equations can be written as follows: SHCN = Spl. Inc. January 29.1-30) Release 12. or a combination of both. NH3 sources for SHCN and SNH3 . ammonia becomes the principal product of fuel nitrogen conversion. Discussions to follow refer to fuel NOx sources for SNO and intermediate HCN.

Rcf .HCN Rcf YN.fuel Mw.0 ×1010 s−1 3.HCN Sfuel YN.0 c ANSYS.HCN Mw.0 ×1012 s−1 280451.N (13.1-32) = source of HCN (kg/m3 -s) = rate of fuel release from the liquid droplets to the gas (kg/s) = mass fraction of nitrogen in the fuel = cell volume (m3 ) HCN Consumption The HCN depletion rates from reactions (1) and (2) in the above mechanism are the same for both gaseous and liquid fuels.HCN = where Spl.Pollutant Formation HCN Production in a Gaseous Fuel The rate of HCN production is equivalent to the rate of combustion of the fuel: Spl.fuel Mw.fuel Rcf YN.HCN = where Spl. Inc.1-34) R2 = A2 XHCN XNO e where R1 . 2009 .fuel V Sfuel YN. R2 T X A1 A2 E1 E2 = = = = = = = −E2 /RT conversion rates of HCN (s−1 ) instantaneous temperature (K) mole fractions 1. is calculated from the Magnussen combustion model.1-31) = source of HCN (kg/m3 -s) = mean limiting reaction rate of fuel (kg/m3 -s) = mass fraction of nitrogen in the fuel The mean limiting reaction rate of fuel. January 29. HCN Production in a Liquid Fuel The rate of HCN production is equivalent to the rate of fuel release into the gas phase through droplet evaporation: Spl. and are given by De Soete [69] as a R1 = A1 XHCN XO2 e−E1 /RT (13.95 J/gmol 251151 J/gmol 13-14 Release 12. so the gaseous fuel NOx option is available only when the generalized ﬁnite-rate model is used.HCN Mw.1-33) (13.N V (13.

NO Mw. is calculated from Equation 13.i Mw.13.HCN p RT (13.NO p = R1 Mw.1-36) SHCN−2 = −R2 where SHCN−1 SHCN−2 p T R = (13.NO p = −R2 Mw. January 29.1-38) SNO−2 = SHCN−2 Mw.1-29 are calculated as SHCN−1 = −R1 Mw. and are evaluated as follows: SNO−1 = −SHCN−1 Mw. Since mole fraction is related to mass fraction through molecular weights of the species (Mw. Xi = Yi Mw.1-30 are the same for a gaseous as for a liquid fuel.1-35) HCN Sources in the Transport Equation The mass consumption rates of HCN which appear in Equation 13.m ).1-39) Release 12. The sources for Equation 13. 2009 13-15 .HCN RT (13.1 NOx Formation The oxygen reaction order.1-28.0 c ANSYS.i ) and the mixture (Mw.m Yi = Mw. Inc.NO Mw.HCN RT (13.HCN p RT Mw.1-37) consumption rates of HCN in reactions 1 and 2 respectively (kg/m3 -s) = pressure (Pa) = mean temperature (K) = universal gas constant NOx Sources in the Transport Equation NOx is produced in reaction 1 but destroyed in reaction 2.i ρRT p (13. a.

13-16 Release 12. January 29.Pollutant Formation Fuel NOx from Intermediate Ammonia (NH3 ) When NH3 is used as the intermediate species: 1: O oxi dat 2 ion NO Fuel Nitrogen NH 3 red uct 2: N ion O N2 The source terms in the transport equations can be written as follows: SNH3 = Spl.1-42) = source of NH3 (kg/m3 -s) = mean limiting reaction rate of fuel (kg/m3 -s) = mass fraction of nitrogen in the fuel The mean limiting reaction rate of fuel.fuel Mw. 2009 .1-40) (13.NH3 Mw.NH3 = where Spl.1-41) (13.N (13.NH3 Rcf YN. Rcf . so the gaseous fuel NOx option is available only when the generalized ﬁnite-rate model is used.NH3 + SNH3 −1 + SNH3 −2 SNO = SNO−1 + SNO−2 NH3 Production in a Gaseous Fuel The rate of NH3 production is equivalent to the rate of combustion of the fuel: Spl. is calculated from the Magnussen combustion model.0 c ANSYS. Inc.fuel Rcf YN.

13.1 NOx Formation NH3 Production in a Liquid Fuel The rate of NH3 production is equivalent to the rate of fuel release into the gas phase through droplet evaporation: Spl.1-45) R2 = A2 XNH3 XNO e where R1 .NH3 Mw.95 J/gmol The oxygen reaction order.N V (13. and are given by De Soete [69] as a R1 = A1 XNH3 XO2 e−E1 /RT (13. Inc. a.fuel V = = = = Sfuel YN.NH3 = where Spl. R2 T X A1 A2 E1 E2 = = = = = = = −E2 /RT conversion rates of NH3 (s−1 ) instantaneous temperature (K) mole fractions 4.1-44) (13. January 29.2 J/gmol 113017. Xi can be calculated using Equation 13.1-35. Release 12.m ).i ) and the mixture (Mw.8 ×108 s−1 133947.fuel Mw. is calculated from Equation 13.NH3 Sfuel YN. Since mole fraction is related to mass fraction through molecular weights of the species (Mw.0 ×106 s−1 1.1-28. 2009 13-17 .0 c ANSYS.1-43) source of NH3 (kg/m3 -s) rate of fuel release from the liquid droplets to the gas (kg/s) mass fraction of nitrogen in the fuel cell volume (m3 ) NH3 Consumption The NH3 depletion rates from reactions (1) and (2) in the above mechanism are the same for both gaseous and liquid fuels.

two variations of fuel NOx mechanisms for coal are included. The sources for Equation 13.NO p = −R2 Mw.Pollutant Formation NH3 Sources in the Transport Equation The mass consumption rates of NH3 which appear in Equation 13.1-48) SNO−2 = SNH3 −2 Mw.NH3 p RT Mw. Since there is no reason to assume that N is equally distributed between the volatiles and the char the fraction of N in the volatiles and the char should be speciﬁed separately. When NH3 is used as the intermediate species. much like in the calculation of NOx production from the coal via HCN. January 29. Inc.NH3 RT (13.1-41 are the same for a gaseous as for a liquid fuel. 2009 .NO Mw. 13-18 Release 12. When HCN is used as the intermediate species.1-46) SNH3 −2 = −R2 where SNH3 −1 SNH3 −2 p T R (13. It is assumed that fuel nitrogen is distributed between the volatiles and the char.NH3 RT (13.1-47) = consumption rates of NH3 in reactions 1 and 2 respectively (kg/m3 -s) = pressure (Pa) = mean temperature (K) = universal gas constant NOx Sources in the Transport Equation NOx is produced in reaction 1 but destroyed in reaction 2.NH3 p RT (13.NO p = R1 Mw.1-49) Fuel NOx from Coal Nitrogen in Char and in Volatiles For the coal it is assumed that fuel nitrogen is distributed between the volatiles and the char.0 c ANSYS. and are evaluated as follows: SNO−1 = −SNH3 −1 Mw.NO Mw.1-40 are calculated as SNH3 −1 = −R1 Mw. two variations of fuel NOx mechanisms for coal are included.

The reaction pathway is described as follows: Char N 1: O 2 HCN 2: NO N2 With the ﬁrst scheme.13.1-51) = char burnout rate (kg/s) = mass fraction of nitrogen in char = cell volume (m3 ) Coal Fuel NOx Scheme B The second HCN mechanism assumes that all char N converts to NO directly [207].1-50) (13.char V Sc YN. Thus.HCN Mw. 3: Char NO Volatile N N2 Schar. January 29.char Mw.0 c ANSYS.N V = 0 (13.HCN = Schar. 2009 13-19 .1 NOx Formation Coal Fuel NOx Scheme A The ﬁrst HCN mechanism assumes that all char N converts to HCN which is then converted partially to NO [327]. The reaction pathway is described as follows: Char N 1: O 2 HCN 2: NO N2 NO 3: Char N2 Volatile N Release 12. Inc.NO where Sc YN. all char-bound nitrogen converts to HCN.

SNO−3 .HCN = 0 Sc YN.HCN . need to be considered.NO . The source terms for the transport equations are SHCN = Spvc.HCN + SHCN−1 + SHCN−2 SNO = Schar. SHCN−2 .1-56) The partial pressure pNO is calculated using Dalton’s law: pNO = pXNO 13-20 Release 12.485 J/gmol 230 gmol/m2 -s-atm BET mean temperature (K) (13. January 29. and SNO−2 are described previously. it is diﬃcult to say which one outperforms the other.1-55) Source contributions SHCN−1 . then Schar. Schar. and the HCN production source.NO Schar. If this approach is followed.0 c ANSYS.1-54) (13. however.1-53) The second HCN mechanism tends to produce more NOx emission than the ﬁrst. only the heterogeneous reaction source.char Mw. the char nitrogen is released to the gas phase as NO directly.1-52) (13. mainly as a desorption product from oxidized char nitrogen atoms. the char NOx source.Pollutant Formation According to Lockwood [207]. SNO−1 . 2009 . Spvc. NOx Reduction on Char Surface The heterogeneous reaction of NO reduction on the char surface has been modeled according to the following [190]: R3 = A3 e−E3 /RT pNO where R3 pNO E3 A3 T = = = = = rate of NO reduction (gmol/m2 -s) BET mean NO partial pressure (atm) 142737. In general.N V HCN Scheme Selection (13. Inc. Therefore.NO = Mw.NO + SNO−1 + SNO−2 + SNO−3 (13.

For coal.HCN ): Spvc. depending on the microscopic structure.1 NOx Formation The rate of NO consumption due to reaction 3 will then be SNO−3 = cs ABET Mw.vol V Svol YN.HCN ) and char contribution (Schar.000 m2 /kg which is used as the default in ANSYS FLUENT. The overall source of HCN (Spvc. the pore (BET) surface areas range from 100.HCN HCN from Volatiles The source of HCN from the volatiles is related to the rate of volatile release: Svol. Emmett and Teller [42]). The pore surface area is also known as the BET surface area due to the researchers who pioneered the adsorption theory (Brunauer.HCN ) is a combination of volatile contribution (Svol.NO R3 where ABET cs SNO−3 = BET surface area (m2 /kg) = concentration of particles (kg/m3 ) = NO consumption (kg/m3 -s) BET Surface Area The heterogeneous reaction involving char is mainly an adsorption process whose rate is directly proportional to the pore surface area. January 29. Release 12. For commercial adsorbents.vol Mw. Inc.N V = source of volatiles originating from the coal particles into the gas phase (kg/s) = mass fraction of nitrogen in the volatiles = cell volume (m3 ) Calculation of sources related to char-bound nitrogen depends on the fuel NOx scheme selection.HCN + Schar.13.HCN = Svol.HCN = where Svol YN.0 c ANSYS. 2009 13-21 .HCN Mw. the BET area is typically 25.000 to 2 million square meters per kilogram.

The reaction pathway is described as follows: Char N 1: O 2 NH 3 2: NO N2 NO 3: Char N2 Volatile N 13-22 Release 12. The reaction pathway is described as follows: Char N 1: O 2 NH 3 2: NO N2 In this scheme.char V Sc YN.NH3 = Schar.NO where Sc YN.1-58) = char burnout rate (kg/s) = mass fraction of nitrogen in char = cell volume (m3 ) Coal Fuel NOx Scheme D The second NH3 mechanism assumes that all char N converts to NO directly [207]. Thus.1-57) (13.N V = 0 (13.char Mw.0 c ANSYS. all char-bound nitrogen converts to NH3 . Inc.NH3 Mw.Pollutant Formation Coal Fuel NOx Scheme C The ﬁrst NH3 mechanism assumes that all char N converts to NH3 which is then converted partially to NO [327]. 3: Char NO Volatile N N2 Schar. 2009 . January 29.

Spvc.NO are described previously.NH3 ). Therefore. and char contribution (Schar.13.vol Mw. only the NH3 production source.NO + SNO−1 + SNO−2 + SNO−3 (13. The overall production source of NH3 is a combination of volatile contribution (Svol. however.char Mw. the char nitrogen is released to the gas phase as NO directly. it is diﬃcult to say which one outperforms the other.1-60) The second NH3 mechanism tends to produce more NOx emission than the ﬁrst.NO = Mw.1-59) (13.NH3 Mw.1-61) (13.NH3 = Svol. Inc. 2009 13-23 .N V NH3 Scheme Selection (13.NH3 = 0 Sc YN. then Schar. SNO−1 .NO Schar. In general. SNH3 −2 . The source terms for the transport equations are SNH3 = Spvc.NH3 + Schar.1-63) = source of volatiles originating from the coal particles into the gas phase (kg/s) = mass fraction of nitrogen in the volatiles = cell volume (m3 ) Calculation of sources related to char-bound nitrogen depends on the fuel NOx scheme selection. Schar.NH3 ): Spvc.1-62) Source contributions SNH3 −1 .N V (13. SNO−2 .vol V Svol YN. mainly as a desorption product from oxidized char nitrogen atoms.NH3 = where Svol YN.0 c ANSYS.NH3 NH3 from Volatiles The source of NH3 from the volatiles is related to the rate of volatile release: Svol.NH3 + SNH3 −1 + SNH3 −2 SNO = Schar. January 29.NH3 .1 NOx Formation According to Lockwood [207]. Release 12. SNO−3 . If this approach is followed. needs to be considered.

g. on the other hand. As a consequence. 2009 . Because these devices are operated at increasingly low temperatures to prevent NOx formation via the thermal NOx mechanism. this intermediate mechanism can contribute as much as 90% of the NOx formed during combustion. [381] have shown that for bituminous coal. especially when the fuel is a solid. diluted combustion. The relevance of NOx formation from N2 O has been observed indirectly. In total. though it is mainly applicable to solid fuels such as coal and biomass. the relative importance of the N2 Ointermediate mechanism is increasing. The N2 O-intermediate mechanism may also be of importance in systems operated in ﬂameless mode (e. elevated peaks of temperature are avoided..Pollutant Formation Fuel Nitrogen Partitioning for HCN and NH3 Intermediates In certain cases. Liu and Gibbs [206] work with woodybiomass (pine wood chips). Inc.0 c ANSYS. 13-24 Release 12. using an HCN/NH3 partition ratio of 9:1 gave better NOx predictions when compared to measurements than specifying only a single intermediate species. In ANSYS FLUENT. and FLOX systems). 13. which are elevated pressures and oxygen-rich conditions. fuel nitrogen partitioning can be used whenever HCN or NH3 are intermediates for NOx production. both HCN and NH3 can be generated as intermediates at high enough temperatures [247]. ﬂameless combustion. Under favorable conditions.1. In particular. Research suggests that the N2 O-intermediate mechanism may contribute about 90% of the NOx formed in ﬂameless mode. and theoretically speculated for a number of combustion systems and by a number of researchers [12. January 29.6 NOx Formation from Intermediate N2 O Melte and Pratt [222] proposed the ﬁrst intermediate mechanism for NOx formation from molecular nitrogen (N2 ) via nitrous oxide (N2 O). ﬂameless oxidation. This makes it particularly important in equipment such as gas turbines and compression-ignition engines. 338. Nitrogen enters combustion systems mainly as a component of the combustion and dilution air. 61. 344]. fuel and oxygen are highly diluted in inert gases so that the combustion reactions and resulting heat release are carried out in the diﬀuse zone. whereas higher-ranking (bituminous) coal has been shown to produce only HCN [246]. The reaction pathways and source terms for HCN and NH3 were discussed in previous sections. has suggested an HCN/NH3 ratio of 1:9 due to the younger age of the fuel. It has been observed that about 30% of the NOx formed in these systems can be attributed to the N2 O-intermediate mechanism. low-ranking (lignite) coal has been shown to produce 10 times more NH3 compared to the level of HCN. In a ﬂameless mode. which prevents thermal NOx . Studies by Winter et al. 112. and that the remainder can be attributed to the prompt NOx mechanism. the above work suggests the importance of being able to specify that portions of the fuel nitrogen will be converted to both HCN and NH3 intermediates at the same time.

1 kr.1-67. it is often assumed that the radical O atoms originate solely from the dissociation of molecular oxygen.1-66 are known.1 NOx Formation N2 O-Intermediate NOx Mechanism The simplest form of the mechanism [222] takes into account two reversible elementary reactions: N2 + O + M N2 O + O N2 O + M 2NO (13.1-68) The system of Equations 13.1-65) Here. and kr. While not always justiﬁed.2 [NO]2 kr. Inc.2 = 4. 2009 13-25 . kf. It is often assumed that N2 O is at quasi-steady-state (i.1 [N2 ][O][M] + kr.45 × 10−29 T 9. kr.2 [N2 O][O] − kr.1 and kr. The units for kf. The appearance of NO in Equation 13.1 has units of m6 /gmol2 -s. which makes the mechanism favored at oxygen-rich conditions.1 .358 e−28234/T = 2.1-66) According to the kinetic rate laws. which implies [N2 O] = kf.2 [NO]2 dt gmol/m3 -s (13.1-67–13.1-67) To solve Equation 13.e. Release 12.2 = 4. the kinetic rate constants for Equations 13. Because the ﬁrst reaction involves third bodies.1-64) (13.1-65 entails that coupling of the N2 O mechanism with the thermal NOx mechanism (and other NOx mechanisms).2 are m3 /gmol-s. Both reactions involve the oxygen radical O.00 × 108 e−28234/T = 1.90 × 107 e−11651/T kr. and kr. M is a general third body. O2 .2 [O] (13.1-65..1 [M] + kf. 1 O2 2 O (13. the rate of NOx formation via the N2 O-intermediate mechanism is d[NO] = 2 kf.1 kf.1-65.1 and kf.1-68 can be solved for the rate of NOx formation when the concentration of N2 . kf. the mechanism is favored at elevated pressures.259 e−11651/T In the above expressions.2 are the corresponding reverse rate constants. d[N2 O]/dt = 0). and the equilibrium constant of Equation 13.1-64 and 13. January 29.2 are the forward rate constants of Equations 13.2 . while kf.13. you will need to have ﬁrst calculated [O] and [N2 O]. and M.0 c ANSYS.44 × 1032 T −8.1-64 and 13.

Pollutant Formation 13. In general: CHi + NO → HCN + products Three reburn reactions are modeled by ANSYS FLUENT for 1600 ≤ T ≤ 2100: (13. residence time distribution. Two of these models are described below. global models describing the kinetics of NOx destruction in the reburn zone of a staged combustion system became available. 2009 .1. In the mid 1990s.1-73) 13-26 Release 12. velocity ﬁeld. Instantaneous Approach The instantaneous NOx reburning mechanism is a pathway whereby NO reacts with hydrocarbons and is subsequently reduced. temperature and chemical concentration ﬁeld. and mixing pattern.7 NOx Reduction by Reburning The design of complex combustion systems for utility boilers.4 × 106 e−550/T . Inc. These parameters include local stoichiometry. k2 = 1.0 c ANSYS.and fuelstaging technologies.1-72) CH2 + NO → HCN + OH CH3 + NO → HCN + H2 O k3 k2 i If the temperature is outside of this range. based on air. NO reburn will not be computed.1-71) (13. A successful application of the in-furnace reduction techniques requires control of these parameters in an optimum manner so as to avoid impairing the boiler performance. January 29. The rate constants for these reactions are taken from Bowman [32] and have units of m3 /gmol-s: k1 = 1 × 108 . k3 = 2 × 105 The NO depletion rate due to reburn is expressed as d[NO] = −k1 [CH][NO] − k2 [CH2 ][NO] − k3 [CH3 ][NO] dt (13. involves many parameters and their mutual interdependence.1-69) 1 CH + NO → HCN + O k (13.1-70) (13.

CH2 . January 29. This value was obtained by researchers. Partial Equilibrium Approach The partial equilibrium approach is based on the model proposed by Kandamby et al. A multiplicative constant of 4.1: De Soete’s Global NOx Mechanism with Additional Reduction Path NO CH i (5) Products This model can be used in conjunction with the eddy-dissipation combustion model and does not require the speciﬁcation of CH radical concentrations.1. you must be sure to include the species CH. Release 12. Inc. since they are computed based on the CH-radical partial equilibrium. How this equivalent fuel is determined is open for debate and an approximate guide would be to consider the C/H ratio of the fuel itself.0 c ANSYS.0 × 10−4 has been developed for the partial equilibrium of CH radicals to reduce the rates of HCN and NO in the reburn model. When you use this method.13.1.1).NO d[NO] dt (13. CH3 . CH i (4) O2 (3) Fuel N (1) HCN NO (2) N2 Figure 13. The model adds a reduction path to De Soete’s global model [69] that describes the NOx formation/destruction mechanism in a pulverized coal ﬂame. CH2 . [156] and [7].NO = −Mw. 2009 13-27 . and CH3 in your problem deﬁnition. or CH. and CH3 from the species mass fraction results of the combustion calculation. The additional reduction path accounts for the NOx destruction in the fuel-rich reburn zone by CH radicals (see Figure 13. CH2 .1-74) i To calculate the NO depletion rate due to reburning. The reburn fuel itself can be an equivalent of CH4 .1 NOx Formation and the source term for the reburning mechanism in the NO transport equation can be calculated as Sreburn. ANSYS FLUENT will obtain the concentrations of CH. by way of predicting NOx values for a number of test cases for which experimental data exists. who developed the model.

2009 .1-80) (13.1-75) (13. the global NO reduction rates are then expressed as R4 = (ka χ1 + kb χ2 )[CH4 ][NO] 1 R5 = kc χ3 χ2 [CH4 ][NO] 1 where χ1 = [H] .1. Inc. which are available in signiﬁcant amounts in the reburn zone.0 c ANSYS.1-79) Therefore. the HCN oxidation is suppressed and the amount of NO formed in the primary combustion zone is decreased by the reduction reaction from HCN to N2 . the NO concentration may also decrease due to reactions with CH radicals.1-78) (13. [H2 ] χ2 = [OH] [H2 O] (13. January 29. leading respectively to the formation of HCN and of minor intermediate nitrogen radicals.Pollutant Formation NOx Reduction Mechanism In the fuel-rich reburn zone.1-77) These reactions may be globally described by the addition of pathways (4) and (5) in Figure 13.1-76) (13. Assuming that methane is the reburning gas.1-81) 13-28 Release 12. the additional source terms of the HCN and NO transport equations due to reburn reactions are given by d[HCN] = 4 × 10−4 R4 dt d[NO] = −4 × 10−4 (R4 + R5 ) dt (13. However.1. The following are considered to be the most important reactions of NO reduction by CH radicals: NO + CH2 −→ HCN + OH NO + CH −→ HCN + O NO + C −→ CN + O (13.

respectively. k2 .8 Values for the rate constants ka .1-82) (13.1-85) kf. and k3 are the rate constants for Equations 13.4 kr.4 kr.6 kr.4 kf. All rate constants have units of m3 /gmol-s. and kc for diﬀerent equivalent fuel types are given in Arrhenius form (AT b e−E/RT ) in Table 13.5 kf.0 c ANSYS.5 kb = k2 CH3 + H2 CH2 + H2 O CH + H2 C + H2 (13. the rate constants may be computed as ka = k 1 kf. 2009 13-29 . it is assumed that χ1 = 1. The forward and reverse rate constants for Equations 13.7 .1-83) (13.1-86) to be partially equilibrated.5 .1-77.1 [189]. Release 12. January 29. Inc. kb .6 . kr.4 –kr. the OH-radical concentration is estimated by considering the reaction OH + H2 H2 O + H (13. kb .5 kr.4 kf.1-84) (13.5 kf.13. the following reaction set can be reasonably considered to be in partial equilibrium: CH4 + H CH3 + OH CH2 + H CH + H Thus.4 kr.6 kc = k3 kf. kr.5 kr. leading to the relationship χ2 = kr. For hydrocarbon diﬀusion ﬂames.7 and kr.7 where k1 . Finally. and all values of E have units of J/gmol. In addition.1-75–13. and kc and the factors χ1 and χ2 .1-82–13.4 kf. because the H-radical concentration in the post-ﬂame region of a hydrocarbon diﬀusion ﬂame has been observed to be of the same order as [H2 ].1 NOx Formation Certain assumptions are required to evaluate the rate constants ka .7 kr.6 kf.4 –kf.1.1-85 are kf.8 kf.

23 × 1013 0. Inc.58 × 106 E 77077 77077 77077 77077 For Equation 13.21 × 1011 0.31 × 1013 0.8 NOx Reduction by SNCR The selective noncatalytic reduction of NOx (SNCR). kf.23 × 107 0. which is a single initiation step followed by two parallel reaction pathways: one leading to NO reduction.14 × 1011 0.52 × 105 T 1.33 -3. However. This limits the SNCR process to a narrow temperature interval.64 -2.64 -2.63 × 108 E 15090 15090 15090 15090 A 3. January 29.2. where it can react with NO in the ﬂue gas to form N2 . However.02 × 105 T 1.0 0.1.0 A 3.1. kr. The selectivity for the reductive reactions decreases with increasing temperature [228] while the rate of the initiation reaction simultaneously increases. is a method to reduce the emission of NOx from combustion by injecting a selective reductant such as ammonia (NH3 ) or urea (CO(NH2 )2 ) into the furnace. ﬁrst described by Lyon [212].54 27977 0.1-86.64 A 5.0 c ANSYS. or window.1: Rate Constants for Diﬀerent Reburn Fuels Equivalent Fuel Type CH4 CH3 CH2 CH ka b E -1. the reductant can be oxidized as well to form NOx .33 kc b -2. A simple empirical model has been proposed by Fenimore [92]. and the other to NO formation.13 × 109 0.1. 13-30 Release 12.8 = 1. which is based on experimental measurements.37 × 109 0.54 27977 -1. the model was found to be unsuitable for practical applications.8 = 4.30 × 109 0.Pollutant Formation Table 13. Ostberg and Dam-Johansen [260] proposed a two-step scheme describing the SNCR process as shown in Figure 13.60 e−13802/RT . Ammonia Injection Several investigators have modeled the process using a large number of elementary reactions.0 kb b -3.33 -3.60 e−80815/RT 13.64 -2. where the lower temperature limit for the interval is determined by the residence time.06 × 1011 0. 2009 .54 27977 -1.33 -3.

the following reaction rates for NO and NH3 .1-87 and 13. (13.1 NOx Formation OH OH NH 3 NH 2 NO NO N2 Figure 13.1-89) (13. have been estimated from work done by Brouwer et al. were proposed: RNO = −kr [NO][NH3 ] + kox [NH3 ][O2 ] RNH3 = −kr [NO][NH3 ] − kox [NH3 ][O2 ] The rate constants kr and kox have units of m3 /gmol-s. The reaction order of NO was found to be 1 for Equation 13. 2009 13-31 .65 e−Eox /RT where Er = 349937. January 29. at 4% volume O2 . respectively.1-90) Release 12. [40].24 × 102 T 5. kox = 3.06 J/gmol and Eox = 524487. Inc.1-87 and the order of NH3 was found to be 1 for both reactions.2: Simpliﬁed Reaction Mechanism for the SNCR Process 1 3 NO + NH3 + O2 −→ N2 + H2 O 4 2 5 3 NH3 + O2 −→ NO + H2 O 4 2 (13.1.13.30 e−Er /RT . and are deﬁned as kr = 4.005 J/gmol.1-88. As such.1-87) (13.50 × 10−1 T 7.1-88) The reaction orders of NO and NH3 at 4% volume O2 and the empirical rate constants kr and kox for Equations 13.0 c ANSYS.

The temperature range or “window” at which SNCR may occur is 1073 K < T < 1373 K. β. please contact your support engineer for information on how to deactivate it. have major limitations as a NOx reducing agent.Pollutant Formation This model has been shown to give reasonable predictions of the SNCR process in pulverized coal and ﬂuidized bed combustion applications. some experimental observations [297] show that SNCR using urea is eﬀective in a narrow temperature window that is shifted toward higher temperatures when compared to Thermal DeNOx processes at the same value of the ratio of nitrogen in the reducing agent and in NO in the feed. The SNCR process using urea is a combination of Thermal DeNOx (SNCR with ammonia) and RAPRENOx (SNCR using cyanuric acid that. sublimes and decomposes into isocyanic acid) since urea most probably decomposes into ammonia and isocyanic acid [228]. while the eﬀect of increasing O2 concentration depends on the temperature considered. Urea Injection Urea as a reagent for the SNCR process is similar to that of injecting ammonia and has been used in the power station combustors to reduce NO emissions successfully. such as CO and HNCO. However. 13-32 Release 12. even if the SNCR model is not activated and there is no reagent injection. For this reason. The narrow temperature “window” of eﬀectiveness and mixing limitations are diﬃcult factors to handle in a large combustor. Also. and the eﬀect of combustible additives. The use of urea instead of ammonia as the reducing agent is attractive because of the ease of storage and handling of the reagent. Inc. the NH3 to NO molar ratio. The eﬀect of increasing the β value is to increase the eﬃciency of abatement. i The SNCR process naturally occurs when NH3 is present in the ﬂame as a fuel N intermediate. ammonia and urea. This model overestimates the NO reduction for temperatures above the optimum temperature by an amount similar to that of the detailed kinetic model of Miller and Bowman [228]. under heating. 2009 . January 29.0 c ANSYS. The model also captures the inﬂuence of the most signiﬁcant parameters for SNCR. the residence time in the relevant temperature interval. both reagents. which are the temperature of the ﬂue gas at the injection position. the natural SNCR process may still occur in the ﬂame. To model your case without using the natural SNCR process. Urea seems to involve a signiﬁcant emission of carboncontaining pollutants. One problem of SNCR processes using urea is that slow decay of HNCO as well as the reaction channels leading to N2O and CO can signiﬁcantly increase the emission of pollutants other than NO.

in addition to the usual transport equations. Table 13.400E+08 1.5 271075.0 c ANSYS.00 -2.1.000E+07 1.13E+04 b 0 0 E 65048.00 0.900E+17 b 5. 2009 13-33 .4815 0 41858. The work of Rota et al.1-91) · (ρvYHNCO ) = · (ρDYHNCO ) + SHNCO (13. [40] assumes that the breakdown of urea is instantaneous and 1 mole of urea is assumed to produce 1.06 524487.24E+02 3. Brouwer et al.3.1-92) Release 12. and NCO When the SNCR model with urea injection is employed. Transport Equations for Urea.005 284637. [40] and is a seven-step reduced kinetic mechanism. HNCO.109 87819.3.1. [297] proposed a ﬁnite rate two-step mechanism for the breakdown of urea into ammonia and HNCO.00 0.1.1 moles of N H3 and 0. HNCO and NCO species.1. ∂ (ρYCO(NH2 )2 ) + ∂t ∂ (ρYHNCO ) + ∂t · (ρvYCO(NH2 )2 ) = · (ρDYCO(NH2 )2 ) + SCO(NH2 )2 (13.646 Table 13.000E+06 6.1.2 and the two-step urea breakdown mechanism is given in Table 13.8 -1632.133 where the units of A.500E-01 2. ANSYS FLUENT solves the following three additional mass transport equations for urea.27E+04 6.65 0.5 E 349937.3: Two-Step Urea Breakdown Process Reaction CO(N H 2 )2 → N H3 + HN CO CO(N H 2 )2 + H 2 O → 2N H3 + CO2 A 1.1 NOx Formation The model described here is proposed by Brouwer et al. The seven-step reduced mechanism is given in Table 13.000E+07 2. are m-gmol-sec and E units are J/gmol.9 moles of HNCO. Inc. in Tables 13. January 29.2 and 13.13.2: Seven-Step Reduced Mechanism for SNCR with Urea Reaction N H3 + N O → N2 + H 2 O + H N H3 + O2 → N O + H 2 O + H HN CO + M → H + N CO + M N CO + N O → N 2 O + CO N CO + OH → N O + CO + H N 2 O + OH → N2 + O2 + H N 2 O + M → N2 + O + M A 4.1.85 0.30 7.

Urea Production due to Reagent Injection The rate of urea production is equivalent to the rate of reagent release into the gas phase through droplet evaporation: Spl. SHNCO and SNCO are determined according to the rate equations given in Tables 13.CO(NH2 )2 = Sreagent V (13. HNCO and NCO in the gas phase. January 29. Inc.1-98) SN2 O = SN2 O−reac (13. N H3 and N 2 O are also determined as follows.1-99) Source terms Si−reac for ith species are determined from the rate equations given in Tables 13.1.1-95) SNCO = SNCO−reac (13.NH3 + SNH3 −reac (13.Pollutant Formation ∂ (ρYNCO ) + ∂t · (ρvYNCO ) = · (ρDYNCO ) + SNCO (13. additional source terms for N O.1.1-96) Apart from the source terms for the above three species.1-97) SNH3 = Spl.HNCO + SHNCO−reac (13. which should be added to the previously calculated sources due to fuel NOx : SNO = SNO−reac (13.2 and 13. Source terms SCO(NH2 )2 . These additional source terms are determined next.1-93) where YCO(NH2 )2 . 13-34 Release 12. The source terms in the transport equations can be written as follows: SCO(NH2 )2 = Spl.1.1.3 and the additional source terms due to reagent injection.2 and 13. 2009 .CO(NH2 )2 + SCO(NH2 )2 −reac SHNCO = Spl.1-100) where Sreagent is the rate of reagent release from the liquid droplets to the gas phase (kg/s) and V is the cell volume (m3 ).0 c ANSYS. YHNCO and YNCO are mass fractions of urea.3.1-94) (13.

However. the injection source term. both values of Spl.HNCO = M CFHN CO Sreagent V (13.1-102) where Sreagent . the default option for urea decomposition is through rate limiting reactions given in Table 13. M CFHN CO is the mole fraction of HNCO in the N H3 /HN CO mixture created from urea decomposition and V is the cell volume (m3 ).55 and M CFHN CO = 0. then the rate of N H3 production is proportional to the rate of reagent release into the gas phase through droplet evaporation: Spl. Inc.1 NOx Formation N H3 Production due to Reagent Injection If the urea decomposition model is set to the user-speciﬁed option. i The mole conversion fractions (MCF) for species N H3 and HNCO are determined through the user species values such that if one mole of urea decomposes into 1.0 c ANSYS.1-101) where Sreagent is the rate of reagent release from the liquid droplets to the gas phase (kg/s).1 moles of N H3 and 0. Release 12. M CFN H3 is the mole fraction of N H3 in the N H3 /HN CO mixture created from urea decomposition and V is the cell volume (m3 ).HN CO are zero.9 moles of HNCO.1. is the rate of reagent release from the liquid droplets to the gas phase (kg/s).3 and the source terms are calculated accordingly. In this case.45.NH3 = M CFN H3 Sreagent V (13.N H3 and Spl. then Spl. When the user-speciﬁed option is used for urea decomposition.13. then the rate of HNCO production is proportional to the rate of reagent release into the gas phase through droplet evaporation: Spl. then M CFN H3 = 0. 2009 13-35 . HNCO Production due to Reagent Injection If the urea decomposition model is set to the user-speciﬁed option.CO(NH2 )2 = 0. January 29.

a time-averaged NO formation rate must be computed at each point in the domain using the averaged ﬂow-ﬁeld information. and species concentration are highly nonlinear. The preceding combustion simulation can use either the generalized ﬁnite-rate chemistry model by Magnussen and Hjertager or the nonpremixed combustion model. then a one. or the combination of both is used to predict the NOx emission. and species concentrations or mean mixture fraction and variance.1. however.0 c ANSYS. the ﬂow is highly turbulent.9 NOx Formation in Turbulent Flows The kinetic mechanisms of NOx formation and destruction described in the preceding sections have all been obtained from laboratory experiments using either a laminar premixed ﬂame or shock-tube studies where molecular diﬀusion conditions are well deﬁned. The relationships among NOx formation rate. temperature. The turbulent mixing process results in temporal ﬂuctuations in temperature and species concentration that will inﬂuence the characteristics of the ﬂame. refer to Chapters 7 and 8. Temperature and composition ﬂuctuations must be taken into account by considering the probability density functions which describe the time variation. Methods of modeling the mean turbulent reaction rate can be based on either moment methods [380] or probability density function (PDF) techniques [148]. If the non-premixed or partially premixed combustion model is used to model combustion. velocity. 2009 . 13-36 Release 12.or two-variable PDF in terms of mixture fraction(s) is also available. Inc. January 29. if time-averaged composition and temperature are employed in any model to predict the mean NOx formation rate. The Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction Model In turbulent combustion calculations. Hence. In any practical combustion system. The PDF Approach The PDF method has proven very useful in the theoretical description of turbulent ﬂow [149]. i The PDF method described here applies to the NOx transport equations only. In the ANSYS FLUENT NOx model. For details on these models. species mass fraction. To calculate NO concentration.or joint-variable PDF in terms of a normalized temperature. The mean values of the independent variables needed for the PDF construction are obtained from the solution of the transport equations. a single.Pollutant Formation 13. ANSYS FLUENT solves the density-weighted timeaveraged Navier-Stokes equations for temperature. ANSYS FLUENT uses the PDF approach. signiﬁcant errors will result.

..1-104) where S NO is the mean turbulent rate of production of NO.1-104 or 13. Hence we have S NO = or. P is the probability density function (PDF).1-15. In general. January 29. V2 )P (V1 . V2 ..1-105) SNO (V1 )P1 (V1 )dV1 (13.1-105 are determined from the values stored in the look-up tables. .13. V2 . V2 ) are the PDFs of the variables V1 and. the limits of the integrations in Equation 13. V2 ) = P1 (V1 )P2 (V2 ) (13. Inc. SNO is the instantaneous rate of production given by.1-105 must be integrated at every node and at every iteration.)dV1 dV2 . w= ··· w(V1 . V2 ) can be expressed as P (V1 . .. it is further assumed that the variables V1 and V2 are statistically independent so that P (V1 .0 c ANSYS.1-104 or 13.1-103) where V1 . the limits of integration are determined from the minimum and maximum values of temperature in the combustion solution. . Equation 13.1 NOx Formation The General Expression for the Mean Reaction Rate The mean turbulent reaction rate w can be described in terms of the instantaneous rate w and a single or joint PDF of various variables. The same treatment applies for the HCN or NH3 source terms. for example.)P (V1 . V2 .g. are temperature and/or the various species concentrations present. . and P1 (V1 ) and P (V1 . For a PDF in terms of mixture fraction. . 2009 13-37 . The Mean Reaction Rate Used in ANSYS FLUENT The PDF is used for weighting against the instantaneous rates of production of NO (e. Statistical Independence In the case of the two-variable PDF. Equation 13.1-15) and subsequent integration over suitable ranges to obtain the mean turbulent reaction rate. for two variables S NO = SNO (V1 .. Equation 13. . if relevant. (13. V2 . . V2 )dV1 dV2 (13. For a PDF in terms of temperature.1-106) Release 12.

231]. α and β depend on m. m2 ) (13.1-111) 13-38 Release 12.1-107) dV V α−1 (1 − V ) β−1 where Γ( ) is the Gamma function. The Gaussian PDF Option ANSYS FLUENT can also assume P to exhibit a clipped Gaussian form with delta functions at the tails. m is the quantity in question.1-110) where erf ( ) is the error function.5. and m and σ 2 are the mean and variance values of m. σ 2 : m(1 − m) −1 σ2 m(1 − m) −1 σ2 α=m (13. The error function may be expressed in terms of the incomplete gamma function (gammp( )): for m < 0 : erf (m) = −gammp(0. respectively.5.1-108) β = (1 − m) (13. ﬁeld variables such as temperature must be normalized. See Section 21. Thus.0 c ANSYS. the mean value of the quantity in question. The equation for the beta function is Γ(α + β) α−1 V (1 − V )β−1 = Γ(α)Γ(β) 0 P (V ) = V α−1 (1 − V )β−1 1 (13. The cumulative density function for a Gaussian PDF (GCDF ) may be expressed in terms of the error function as follows: GCDF = √ 1 1 + erf (m − m) / 2σ 2 2 (13. Inc.Pollutant Formation The Beta PDF Option ANSYS FLUENT can assume P to be a two-moment beta function that is appropriate for combustion calculations [123.1-109) The beta function requires that the independent variable V assume values between 0 and 1.1: Setting Turbulence Parameters in the separate User’s Guide for information on using the beta PDF when using single-mixture fraction models and two-mixture fraction models. January 29. and its variance. m2 ) for m ≥ 0 : erf (m) = gammp(0. 2009 .1.

and is as follows: µt k Cg µt k Cg ∂m ( m)2 = ρ Cd ρ Cd ∂x 2 σ2 = + ∂m ∂y 2 + ∂m ∂z 2 (13.85.2. see Section 21.2. the calculation of σ 2 is instead based on an approximate form of the variance transport equation (also referred to as the algebraic form). For a PDF in terms of mixture fraction.3: Reaction Mechanisms for Sulfur Oxidation • Section 13.4: SO2 and H 2 S Production in a Gaseous Fuel • Section 13.1: Using the SOx Model in the separate User’s Guide. For information about using the SOx models in ANSYS FLUENT. so no additional calculation for σ 2 is required.2. respectively.1-113) The term in the brackets is the dissipation rate of the independent variable. When this is the case or when solving for species. The approximate form assumes equal production and dissipation of variance. the mixture fraction variance has already been solved as part of the basic combustion calculation. This solution may be computationally intensive. σ 2 . and therefore may not always be applicable for a postprocessing treatment of NOx prediction.2.2.1: Overview • Section 13. Cg and Cd take the values 0.2 SOx Formation The Calculation Method for σ 2 The variance.2.2 SOx Formation The following sections include information on the theory used in the SOx model. 13.7: SOx Formation in Turbulent Flows Release 12.13. and 2.86. 2. Inc.5: SO2 and H 2 S Production in a Liquid Fuel • Section 13.2. • Section 13. January 29.0. can be computed by solving the following transport equation during the combustion calculation or pollutant postprocessing stage: ∂ ρσ 2 + ∂t · (ρvσ 2 ) = µt σ 2 + Cg µt ( m)2 − Cd ρ σ 2 σt k (13.6: SO2 and H 2 S Production from Coal • Section 13.0 c ANSYS.2. 2009 13-39 . Note that the previous equation may only be solved for temperature.1-112) where the constants σt .2: Governing Equations for SOx Transport • Section 13.

accounting for over 50% of total SO2 emissions [55]. fuel sulfur is oxidized to SO2 and SO3 . such as wet or dry scrubbing. 2. while SO3 becomes negligible [235]. However. while part of the sulfur is retained in the char to be oxidized at a later stage. the post-processing option can be used. Sulfur pollutants can be captured during the combustion process. The Formation of SOx The SOx model incorporates the following stages: 1. pyretic and sulfates [1]. attaching an amount of water and thus forming sulfuric acid. Sulfur retention in sorbents Sulfur pollutants can be absorbed by sorbent particles. A portion of the gaseous SOx will condense on the particles. with mass fractions ranging from 0. For higher sulfur concentrations in the fuel.3: Thermal NOx Formation) are reduced in the presence of SO2 . injected either in situ. here some of the sulfur is decomposed into the gas phase during devolatilization as H 2 S. During the combustion process. While SOx emissions are the main cause of acid rain. and is responsible for corrosion of combustion equipment. January 29. or may react further to form sulfates. which solves transport equations for H 2 S. Sulfur emissions are regulated from stationary sources and from automotive fuels. SO. there is a growing interest in the interaction of sulfur species with the nitrogen oxide chemistry [235]. SO2 .Pollutant Formation 13. and SO3 . 3. the eﬀect of sulfur compounds on the fuel NOx formation is yet to be clariﬁed. All SOx emissions are produced because of the oxidation of fuel-bound sulfur. [251] the gas phase sulfur species are assumed to be in equilibrium. the SOx concentration ﬁeld should be resolved together with the main combustion calculation using any of the ANSYS FLUENT reaction models. one can conveniently assume that sulfur is released as H2 S [235]. 13-40 Release 12. However. In PCGC-3 as well as in the works of Norman et al. or with after treatment methods.1 Overview Sulfur exists in coal as organic sulfur. SO2 and CS2 . SH. At lower oxygen concentrations H 2 S. Furthermore. as NO levels are aﬀected by the presence of sulfur species. Coal ﬁred boilers are by far the biggest single SOx emissions source. Sulfur release from the fuel For liquid fuels. The evidence to date indicates that thermal NO levels (Section 13. COS. Sulfur reaction in the gas phase In oxygen rich ﬂames the predominant sulfur species are SO. The percentage of sulfur retained in char is rank dependent [1].0 c ANSYS. S2 and SH are also present in signiﬁcant proportions. For cases where the sulfur fraction in fuel is low. SO3 also contributes to particulate emissions. or in the post ﬂame region. Inc.5% to 3%. and exists in liquid fuels mostly in organic form [235]. SO2 and SO3 . the process is more complicated in the case of coal.1. 2009 .2.

and SH in the gas phase.13. SOx formation mechanisms involve multiple reactions among multiple species. then only the SO2 species transport equation is needed: ∂ (ρYSO2 ) + ∂t · (ρvYSO2 ) = · (ρD YSO2 ) + SSO2 (13.2-5) where YSO2 . If all fuel sulfur is assumed to convert directly to SO2 and the other product and intermediate species are assumed negligible.3: Reaction Mechanisms for Sulfur Oxidation. and SO3 species are incorporated and an appropriate reaction set has been developed as described in the ensuing sections. a Lagrangian reference frame concept. For the char S it can be assumed that SO2 is produced directly at the same rate as that of char burnout. ANSYS FLUENT solves transport equations for the H 2 S. SSO . Release 12. The source terms SSO2 . SH.2.2 Governing Equations for SOx Transport ANSYS FLUENT solves the mass transport equations for the SO2 species. YSO . SO3 . The eﬀect of residence time in SOx mechanisms. SO and SH in the SOx mechanism. SO3 .2-3) · (ρvYSO ) = · (ρDYSO ) + SSO (13. This approach is completely general. SSO3 . YSO3 . taking into account convection. SO. diﬀusion. The rate of release can be determined similarly to that of fuel-bound N. Inc.0 c ANSYS. and tracking sulfurcontaining intermediate species is important. YH2 S . being derived from the fundamental principle of mass conservation. H 2 S.2 SOx Formation For low sulfur fuels. is included through the convection terms in the governing equations written in the Eulerian reference frame. 13.2-4) · (ρvYSH ) = · (ρDYSH ) + SSH (13. Transport equations for H 2 S. we can assume that sulfur is mainly released as H 2 S. SO. SO.2-1) As discussed in Section 13. SH2 S .2-2) · (ρvYSO3 ) = · (ρDYSO3 ) + SSO3 (13. SO2 . 2009 13-41 . production and consumption of SO2 and related species. and SSH are to be determined depending on the form of fuel sulfur release (SO2 and/or H 2 S) and inclusion of SO3 . January 29. and YSH are mass fractions of SO2 . and SH species in addition to the SO2 species: ∂ (ρYH2 S ) + ∂t ∂ (ρYSO3 ) + ∂t ∂ (ρYSO ) + ∂t ∂ (ρYSH ) + ∂t · (ρvYH2 S ) = · (ρDYH2 S ) + SH2 S (13.2.

O and O2 ). The reduced mechanism given in Table 13.3: Method 2: Partial Equilibrium Approach) or Equilibrium (Section 13. Table 13.2. In addition. SO. oxygen kf 1 = 3. A units for the thirteenth reaction is m6 /gmol2 -s. However.. N2 was used as the dilutant. SO and SH are not well correlated by the reduced mechanism when compared against the predictions using the original detailed mechanism. The mechanism has been reduced to 8 steps and 10 species (with S and S2 removed).2. The user is then given the option to vary the proportionality constant. H 2 O. H2 .2. with the rate constants taken from Hunter’s work [135]. there is no literature to guide the user on how to select a correct partition fraction.g.63 x 102 exp(+4185.1.Pollutant Formation 13. OH. SO2 .3 Reaction Mechanisms for Sulfur Oxidation A detailed reaction mechanism for sulfur oxidation has been proposed by Kramlich [172].1. viz.1 lists the reduced mechanism with the modiﬁed rate constants. depending on the form of fuel sulfur release (e. H 2 S. The user is also given the extended option of partitioning the intermediate fuel sulfur species to H 2 S and SO2 . SH. and validated in Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) and Plug Flow Reactor (PFR) simulations. and A units for the ﬁfteenth reaction is m6 /gmol2 -s. However. S2 . 2009 .2. the lack of simple relation to calculate the H radical concentration in a ﬂame has prompted the present choice. A is in m3 /gmol-s.3: Method 1: Equilibrium Approach).0 c ANSYS.1. Although this assumption is open to debate. H. respectively. which can be evaluated from one of the existing methods in ANSYS FLUENT. nitrogen. the following two reactions were included in ANSYS FLUENT to complete the SOx mechanism. H 2 S or SO2 ) the species H 2 S may or may not be present for the calculation. the concentration of H radical is assumed to be proportional to the O radical concentration. For reduction calculations O and OH concentrations have been calculated through partial equilibrium assumptions based on O2 and H 2 O concentrations. Above 1500 K.2-6) 13-42 Release 12. E is J/gmol (assumed 1 cal = 4.18585 J). January 29.1 closely follows the SO2 concentration levels but slightly overpredicts the H 2 S concentrations at temperatures below 1500 K. A major concern in these mechanisms is the presence of H radical and the method in which to calculate its concentration in the ﬂow ﬁeld. Since each reaction of the eight-step reduced mechanism is reversible. Also. for each adjacent pair of reactions given in Table 13. Inc. both mechanisms are in close agreement for SO2 and H 2 S concentration predictions. Present implementation allows the user to either include or remove SO3 from the calculations. SO2 + O + M ⇐⇒ SO3 + M M = argon. The mechanism consists of 20 reversible reactions and includes 12 species (S. At present.85/RT) m6 /gmol2 /sec (13. Partial Equilibrium (Section 13. the second reaction is in fact the reverse reaction of the ﬁrst.

621810E+08 7.2 SOx Formation Table 13.0E+00 0.885528E+08 4.663412E+06 1.0E+00 0.096478E+03 8.13.187023E+05 2.253660E+04 3.703222E+04 7.104557E+07 1.0E+00 0.694600E+05 1.905464E+14 b 0.985385E+09 4.691299E+09 3.000000E+00 3.035996E+04 2.819463E+05 0. January 29.000000E+00 5.380385E+02 3.0E+00 0.0E+00 E 7. 2009 13-43 .0E+00 0.218543E+05 2.709647E+09 k 1.484300E+03 6.0E+00 0.0E+00 0. Inc.2.1: Eight-Step Reduced Mechanism (Rate Constant k AT b exp(−E/RT )) = Reaction H 2 S + H → SH + H2 SH + H2 → H 2 S + H OH + H 2 S → H 2 O + SH H 2 O + SH → OH + H 2 S SO + OH → H + SO2 H + SO2 → SO + OH SH + O → SO + H SO + H → SH + O O + H 2 S → SH + OH SH + OH → O + H 2 S SO + O2 → SO2 + O SO2 + O → SO + O2 H + SH + M → H 2 S + M H 2 S + M → H + SH + M SO + O + M → SO2 + M SO2 + M → SO + O + M A 1.548135E+08 2.613643E+04 0.0 c ANSYS.365162E+03 9.0E+00 -1.687316E+03 1.8E+00 0.0E+00 0.207365E+05 Release 12.0E+00 0.375623E+06 1.0E+00 0.466832E+05 1.0E+00 0.669613E+14 8.565926E+03 1.742150E+03 1.0E+00 0.0E+00 0.819702E+07 9.380493E+04 6.

i = where Spl. Inc.2-9) source of i (kg/m3 -s). it is assumed that sulfur is distributed between the volatiles and the char.2.2.i Rcf YS.75/RT) m3 /gmol/sec SO3 + O ⇐⇒ SO2 + O2 kf 2 = 1.0 c ANSYS. January 29.Pollutant Formation where R = 8.2-8) source of i (kg/m3 -s). so the gaseous fuel option for SOx formation is available only when the generalized ﬁnite-rate model is used.2-7) The reverse rate of Equation 13. is calculated from the Magnussen combustion model. where i = SO2 or H 2 S rate of fuel release from the liquid droplets to the gas (kg/s) mass fraction of sulfur in the fuel cell volume (m3 ) 13. 13.313 J/gmol-K kr1 = 7. 2009 .fuel Mw.2-7 was determined through the equilibrium constant for that equation.i Mw. where i = SO2 or H 2 S mean limiting reaction rate of fuel (kg/m3 -s) mass fraction of sulfur in the fuel The mean limiting reaction rate of fuel.fuel = = = Rcf YS.41 x 1014 exp(-346123.5 SO2 and H 2 S Production in a Liquid Fuel The rate of SO2 or H 2 S production is equivalent to the rate of fuel release into the gas phase through droplet evaporation: Spl. the fraction of S in the volatiles and the char should be speciﬁed separately.4 SO2 and H 2 S Production in a Gaseous Fuel The rate of SO2 or H 2 S production is equivalent to the rate of combustion of the fuel: Spl.575/RT) m3 /gmol/sec (13. 13-44 Release 12. 13. Since there is no reason to assume that S is equally distributed between the volatiles and the char.2 x 106 exp(-39765. Rcf .fuel Mw.i = where Spl.S V (13.6 SO2 and H 2 S Production from Coal For coal.fuel V = = = = Sfuel YS.i Mw.i Sfuel YS.2.S (13.

S V (13.vol V = source of volatiles originating from the coal particles into the gas phase (kg/s).2-10) where Sc Schar.0 c ANSYS.char Mw. In any practical combustion system. if time-averaged composition and temperature are employed in any model to predict the mean SOx formation rate.i = Sc YS.vol Mw. The relationships among SOx formation rate.7 SOx Formation in Turbulent Flows The kinetic mechanisms of SOx formation and destruction are obtained from laboratory experiments in a similar fashion to the NOx model.i = Svol YS.2.i YS. 2009 13-45 . Release 12. signiﬁcant errors will result. where i = SO2 or H 2 S = mass fraction of sulfur in the volatiles = cell volume (m3 ) 13. January 29.2 SOx Formation SO2 and H 2 S from Char The source of SO2 and H 2 S from the char is related to the rate of char combustion: Schar. where i = SO2 or H 2 S mass fraction of sulfur in char cell volume (m3 ) SO2 and H 2 S from Volatiles The source of SO2 and H 2 S from the volatiles is related to the rate of volatile release: Svol.S V (13. temperature.i Mw.i Mw.i YS. however. Hence.2-11) where Svol. the ﬂow is highly turbulent.13. The turbulent mixing process results in temporal ﬂuctuations in temperature and species concentration that will inﬂuence the characteristics of the ﬂame. Inc. and species concentration are highly nonlinear.char V = = = = char burnout rate (kg/s) source of i (kg/m3 -s) in char. Temperature and composition ﬂuctuations must be taken into account by considering the probability density functions which describe the time variation.

with the variance σ 2 computed by solving a transport equation during the combustion calculation stage. January 29. or the combination of both is used to predict the SOx emission.or joint-variable PDF in terms of a normalized temperature. and species concentrations or mean mixture fraction and variance. velocity.9: The General Expression for the Mean Reaction Rate for the NOx model also applies to the SOx model. The PDF is used for weighting against the instantaneous rates of production of SO2 and subsequent integration over suitable ranges to obtain the mean turbulent reaction rate as described in Equations 13. 2009 . Inc.1-112 or Equation 13. The PDF Approach The PDF method has proven very useful in the theoretical description of turbulent ﬂow [149]. Equations 13.1-104 and 13.1-111 apply to the SOx model as well.0 c ANSYS. using Equation 13. In the ANSYS FLUENT SOx model. The mean values of the independent variables needed for the PDF construction are obtained from the solution of the transport equations.or two-variable PDF in terms of mixture fraction(s) is also available.1-105 for NOx . species mass fraction. To calculate SO2 concentration. then a one. a single. a time-averaged SO2 formation rate must be computed at each point in the domain using the averaged ﬂow-ﬁeld information. If the non-premixed combustion model is used to model combustion. 13-46 Release 12. The PDF Options As is the case with the NOx model.1. as appropriate for combustion calculations [123. 231]. ANSYS FLUENT solves the density-weighted timeaveraged Navier-Stokes equations for temperature. The Mean Reaction Rate The mean turbulent reaction rate described in Section 13.1-107 – 13.Pollutant Formation The Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction Model In turbulent combustion calculations.1-113. P can be calculated as either a two-moment beta function or as a clipped Gaussian function.

discrete ordinates.1: Using the Soot Models in the separate User’s Guide. 349].1: Overview and Limitations • Section 13.g. which is an extension of the Moss-Brookes model and is applicable for higher hydrocarbon fuels (e.0 c ANSYS.2: Soot Model Theory 13. if appropriately modiﬁed) by solving transport equations for normalized radical nuclei concentration and the soot mass fraction • the Moss-Brookes-Hall model [120]. In addition. 2009 13-47 . in which ANSYS FLUENT predicts the rate of soot formation based on a simple empirical rate • the two-step Tesner model [216.3. in which ANSYS FLUENT predicts soot formation for methane ﬂames (and higher hydrocarbon species.3. you can include the eﬀect of soot on radiation absorption when you use the P-1.3. That is. Predicting Soot Formation ANSYS FLUENT predicts soot concentrations in a combustion system using one of four available models: • the one-step Khan and Greeves model [162].3 Soot Formation Information about the theory behind soot formation is presented in the following sections.3 Soot Formation 13.13. the predicted soot concentration can be coupled with radiation. in which ANSYS FLUENT predicts the formation of nuclei particles. Release 12. Inc. with soot formation on the nuclei • the Moss-Brookes model [39]. kerosene) The Khan and Greeves model is the default model used by ANSYS FLUENT when you include soot formation. For information about using soot formation models in ANSYS FLUENT.3. • Section 13.1 Overview and Limitations ANSYS FLUENT provides four models for the prediction of soot formation in combustion systems. or discrete transfer radiation model with a variable absorption coeﬃcient.. see Section 21. January 29.

2009 .form . Restrictions on Soot Modeling The following restrictions apply to soot formation models: • You must use the pressure-based solver. is the balance of soot formation. The detailed chemistry and physics of soot formation are quite complex and are only approximated in these models.0 c ANSYS. • The Khan and Greeves model and the Tesner model can model soot formation only for turbulent ﬂows (whereas the Moss-Brookes model and the Moss-Brookes-Hall model can be used with both laminar and turbulent ﬂows). The Hall extension provides further options for modeling higher hydrocarbon fuels.comb : 13-48 Release 12.3-1) Rsoot . Rsoot. ANSYS FLUENT solves a single transport equation for the soot mass fraction: ∂ (ρYsoot ) + ∂t where Ysoot σsoot Rsoot = soot mass fraction = turbulent Prandtl number for soot transport = net rate of soot generation (kg/m3 -s) · (ρvYsoot ) = · µt Ysoot + Rsoot σsoot (13. and soot combustion. Note that the Moss-Brookes-Hall model is only available when the required species are present in the gas phase species list.Pollutant Formation In the Khan and Greeves model and the Tesner model. The soot models are not available with either of the density-based solvers. 13. combustion of the soot (and particle nuclei) is assumed to be governed by the Magnussen combustion rate [216]. Inc. the net rate of soot generation. You should view the results of the Khan and Greeves model and the Tesner model as qualitative indicators of your system performance unless you can undertake experimental validation of the results.2 Soot Model Theory The One-Step Soot Formation Model In the one-step Khan and Greeves model [162]. Note that this limits the use of these soot formation models to turbulent ﬂows. Rsoot.3. January 29. approximate models of the soot formation process in combustion systems. The Moss-Brookes model has less impiricism and should theoretically provide superior accuracy than the Khan and Greeves and Tesner models. • The soot model cannot be used in conjunction with the premixed combustion model. Both models are empirically-based.

3-2) (13. Release 12.form − Rsoot.comb The rate of soot formation is given by a simple empirical rate expression: Rsoot. Yfuel νsoot .13.3-6) (13.3-5) (13.3-3) The rate of soot combustion is the minimum of two rate expressions [216]: Rsoot. January 29. R2 ] The two rates are computed as R1 = AρYsoot and R2 = Aρ where A Yox .comb = min[R1 . νfuel = constant in the Magnussen model = mass fractions of oxidizer and fuel = mass stoichiometries for soot and fuel combustion Yox νsoot Ysoot νsoot Ysoot νsoot + Yfuel νfuel (13. Inc.3-4) k k The default constants for the one-step model are valid for a wide range of hydrocarbon fuels.form = Cs pfuel φr e−E/RT where Cs pfuel φ r E/R = = = = = soot formation constant (kg/N-m-s) fuel partial pressure (Pa) equivalence ratio equivalence ratio exponent activation temperature (K) (13.3 Soot Formation Rsoot = Rsoot. 2009 13-49 .0 c ANSYS.

0 c ANSYS.3-8) In the two-step model. the rates of nuclei and soot generation are the net rates. depends on the concentration of radical nuclei. however. as a balance of soot formation and soot combustion: Rsoot = Rsoot. the rate of soot formation. using Equations 13. ANSYS FLUENT thus solves transport equations for two scalar quantities: the soot mass fraction (Equation 13. The default constants for the two-step model are for combustion of acetylene (C2 H2 ).3-6.form = mp (α − βNsoot )cnuc where mp Nsoot cnuc α β = = = = = mean mass of soot particle (kg/particle) concentration of soot particles (particles/m3 ) radical nuclei concentration = ρbnuc (particles/m3 ) empirical constant (s−1 ) empirical constant (m3 /particle-s) (13. Rsoot. these values should be modiﬁed for other fuels. Rsoot .3-7) In these transport equations.3-4–13. is computed in the same way as for the one-step model.3-1) and the normalized radical nuclei concentration: ∂ (ρb∗ ) + ∂t nuc where b∗ nuc σnuc R∗ nuc = normalized radical nuclei concentration (particles ×10−15 /kg) = turbulent Prandtl number for nuclei transport = normalized net rate of nuclei generation (particles ×10−15 /m3 -s) · (ρvb∗ ) = nuc · µt b∗ + R∗ nuc σnuc nuc (13.Pollutant Formation The Two-Step Soot Formation Model The two-step Tesner model [349] predicts the generation of radical nuclei and then computes the formation of soot on these nuclei. Rsoot.3-9) The rate of soot combustion. involving a balance between formation and combustion. [2]. 13-50 Release 12. cnuc : Rsoot. According to Ahmad et al.comb (13. January 29. since the sooting characteristics of acetylene are known to be diﬀerent from those of saturated hydrocarbon fuels. in the same way as the one-step model.form . 2009 . Inc.comb .form − Rsoot. Soot Generation Rate The two-step model computes the net rate of soot generation.

comb = Rsoot. in Equation 13.form − Rnuc.comb = rate of nuclei formation (particles ×10−15 /m3 -s) = rate of nuclei combustion (particles ×10−15 /m3 -s) The rate of nuclei formation. Rsoot. (f − g)c∗ .3-12) Note that the branching term.comb .3-11) η0 = a∗ cfuel e−E/RT 0 where c∗ nuc a∗ 0 a0 cfuel f −g g0 = = = = = = normalized nuclei concentration (= ρb∗ ) nuc a0 /1015 pre-exponential rate constant (particles/kg-s) fuel concentration (kg/m3 ) linear branching − termination coeﬃcient (s−1 ) linear termination on soot particles (m3 /particle-s) (13. January 29. is greater than the limiting formation rate (105 particles/m3 -s.comb b∗ nuc Ysoot (13.3-11 is included only when nuc the kinetic rate.comb (13.form . Release 12.form R∗ nuc. is given by Equation 13. Inc.0 c ANSYS.3-4. 2009 13-51 .3 Soot Formation Nuclei Generation Rate The net rate of nuclei generation in the two-step model is given by the balance of the nuclei formation rate and the nuclei combustion rate: ∗ R∗ = R∗ nuc nuc.3-13) where the soot combustion rate.3-10) where R∗ nuc.form = η0 + (f − g)cnuc − g0 cnuc Nsoot (13. by default). The rate of nuclei combustion is assumed to be proportional to the rate of soot combustion: R∗ nuc. described by ∗ ∗ R∗ nuc. η0 . R∗ nuc.13. depends on a spontaneous formation and branching process.

Here. 13-52 Release 12. The nucleation rate for soot particles is taken to be proportional to the local acetylene concentration for methane.3-14) · (ρvb∗ ) = nuc · (13.0 c ANSYS.Pollutant Formation The Moss-Brookes Model The Moss-Brookes model solves transport equations for normalized radical nuclei concentration b∗ and soot mass fraction Ysoot : nuc ∂ (ρYsoot ) + ∂t ∂ (ρb∗ ) + ∂t nuc where Ysoot M b∗ nuc N Nnorm = = = = = · (ρvYsoot ) = · µt dM Ysoot + σsoot dt µt 1 dN b∗ nuc + σnuc Nnorm dt (13. is given by dN Xprec P l Tα = Cα NA exp − − Cβ dt RT T Nucleation 24RT ρsoot NA 1/2 d1/2 N 2 p (13. Inc. subject to nucleation from the gas phase and coagulation in the free molecular regime. The mass density of soot.022045x1026 kmol−1 ) is the Avogadro number and Xprec is the mole fraction of soot precursor (for methane. 2009 .3-16) Coagulation where Cα . whereas for kerosene it is a combination of acetylene and benzene). ρsoot . the precursor is assumed to be acetylene. The activation temperature Tα for the nucleation reaction is that proposed by Lindstedt [199]. NA (= 6. Cβ and l are model constants. January 29. is assumed to be 1800 kg/m3 and dp is the mean diameter of a soot particle.3-15) soot mass fraction soot mass concentration (kg/m3 ) normalized radical nuclei concentration (particles ×10−15 /kg) = soot particle number density (particles/m3 ) 1015 particles N ρNnorm The instantaneous production rate of soot particles.

s−1 (oxidation model constant) 0. The closure for the mean soot source terms in the above equations was also described in detail by Brookes and Moss [39].m. 2009 13-53 .0 (model constant for coagulation rate) 11700 kg. The constants Cα and Cβ are determined through numerical modeling of a laminar ﬂame for which experimental data exists.K−1/2 . and n are explained in detail by Brookes and Moss [39]. The constant MP (= 144 kg/kgmol) is the mass of an incipient soot particle.0 c ANSYS.kmol−1 . For paraﬃnic fuels. January 29. Here. m. soot particles have been found to grow primarily by the addition of gaseous species at their surfaces.3-17. particularly acetylene that has been found in abundance in the sooting regions of laminar methane diﬀusion ﬂames.3-17) Oxidation where Cγ . Cω .04 (collisional eﬃciency parameter) 0.13. Xsgs is the mole fraction of the participating surface growth species. and n are additional model constants. here taken to consist of 12 carbon atoms.015 (oxidation rate scaling parameter) Note that the implementation of the Moss-Brookes model in ANSYS FLUENT uses the values listed above. The set of constants proposed by Brookes and Moss for methane ﬂames are given below: Cα Tα Cβ Cγ Tγ Cω ηcoll Coxid = = = = = = = = 54 s−1 (model constant for soot inception rate) 21000 K (activation temperature of soot inception) 1. a nonzero initial mass is needed to begin the process of surface growth. m. The process of determination of the exponents l.m. Coxid . Even though the model is not found to be sensitive to this assumption. Inc.8125 kg. Assuming a collision eﬃciency (ηcoll ) of 0. except for Coxid which is set to unity by default. the oxidation rate may be written as (Equation 13. The model assumes that the hydroxyl radical is the dominant oxidizing agent in methane/air diﬀusion ﬂames and that the surface-speciﬁc oxidation rate of soot by the OH radical may be formulated according to the model proposed by Fenimore and Jones [93].s−1 (surface growth rate scaling factor) 12100 K (activation temperature of surface growth rate) 105. Release 12.04. The uncorrelated closure is the preferred option for a tractable solution of the above transport equations.3 Soot Formation The source term for soot mass concentration is modeled by the expression 2/3 n dM dt = MP Cα Xprec P l Xsgs P Tα + Cγ exp − RT T RT Nucleation XOH P RT √ T (πN )1/3 6M ρsoot m Tγ 6M exp − (πN )1/3 T ρsoot Surface Growth 2/3 − Coxid Cω ηcoll (13.kmol−1 .

1). This extension includes an additional transport equation for the tar evolved during coal devolatilization.1: Presumed Path for Coal-Derived Soot 13-54 Release 12. February 9. whereas for kerosene ﬂames the precursor was assumed to be a combination of both acetylene and benzene) and by setting the value of oxidation scaling parameter Coxid to unity. The Moss-Brookes model assumes that the physical properties of tar is similar to those of volatiles. In reality. and so the coal-derived soot extension allows you to treat the tar contribution similar to that of volatiles. based on the work of Brown [41]. [239] have shown the above model applied to kerosene ﬂames by modifying only the soot precursor species (in the original model the precursor was acetylene. this may not be the case. Devolatilization Coal Char + Light Gases + Tar Agglomeration Formation Tar Gasification Primary Soot Soot Agglomerates Light Gases Figure 13. A good comparison against the experimental measurements for the lower pressure (7 bar) conditions was observed. The following set of paths was assumed for the coal-derived soot formation [214] (see Figure 13.Pollutant Formation Moss et al. Inc. 2009 . The Coal-Derived Soot Extension (Beta Feature) The present implementation provides an extension to the Moss-Brookes soot model that accounts for coal-derived soot.0 c ANSYS.3. [349] formulation. The predictions of soot formation within methane ﬂames have shown the Brooks and Moss [39] model to be superior compared with the standard Tesner et al. such that the combined eﬀect of volatile and tar on the gas phase ﬂame simulation may be replaced by a single volatile stream (consisting of volatile and tar). however.3.

C πρsoot 1 6 6kB T ρsoot 1 2 ρYsoot Mw.0 c ANSYS. 2009 13-55 . NA is Avogadro’s Number.soot is the molecular weight of the soot particle. Soot formation in coal ﬂames is thought to occur as tars or the higher molecular weight hydrocarbons given oﬀ during devolatilization combine and condense to form soot particles. This is a diﬀerent mechanism to that of soot formation from gaseous fuels.3 Soot Formation Nucleation is assumed to be the ﬁrst step in formation of soot in most light gas ﬂames. and acetylene is understood to be the major species involved.C 1 6 (ρNnorm b∗ ) 6 nuc 11 (13.3-18) Star = Formationtar − Formationsoot − Gasiﬁcationtar − Oxidationtar (13.3-21) (13.3-24) Agglomerationnuclei = 2Ca 6Mw. The remaining terms in the previous overall source expressions are deﬁned as follows: Formationtar = SPtar Oxidationtar = ρ2 Ytar YO2 AOtar exp {−EOtar /RT } Gasiﬁcationtar = ρ Ytar AGtar exp {−EGtar /RT } Formationsoot = ρ Ytar AFsoot exp {−EFsoot /RT } (13. and Mw.13. The related source term for each path is given as follows: Ssoot = Formationsoot − Oxidationsoot (13.soot (13. In heavier gas ﬂames.3-23) (13.3-20) where Nnorm is equal to 1015 particles.3-19) Snuclei = 1 Nnorm NA Formationsoot − Agglomerationnuclei Mw. January 29. Inc.3-25) Release 12.3-22) (13. benzene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may contribute to soot formation as well.

300 286. [374] based on model extensions proposed by Hall et al. the number of particles ×10−15 /kg).3-17 in the Moss-Brookes soot model theory (Fenimore-Jones or Lee oxidation model).3-22–13.02e+08 (1/s) E (kJ/kgmol) 52.5.900 198. since tar is a fraction of volatiles and volatile transport is fully coupled with the ﬂow ﬁeld. Soot density (ρsoot ) is assumed to be 1950 kg/m3 and the collision constant Ca is set to 3.3806503e-23 J/K) is the Boltzmann constant.77e+05 (m3 /kg-s) 9. A value of 700 for the turbulent Schmidt number is suggested for soot mass fraction and nuclei transport. [184]. and therefore the SPtar term is related to the volatile source term via the tar mass fraction in volatiles..Pollutant Formation The soot oxidation term (Oxidationsoot ) is similar to that shown in Equation 13. [120] and an oxidation model proposed by Lee et al. 2009 . b∗ is the normalized radical nuc nuclei concentration (i.3-24 are listed in Table 13.3.3–0. The term SPtar is the tar release rate from coal (kg/m3 -s) and comes from the coal particle source computations of the discrete phase model.C (= 12 kg/kgmol) is the molecular weight of carbon and kB (= 1. the extended version is a model reported by Wen et al.e. as opposed to the Moss-Brookes assumption of a soot inception due to acetylene or benzene (for higher hydrocarbons).0 c ANSYS. The values used for the pre-exponential constant A and the activation energy E in Equations 13.1.0.900 The Moss-Brookes-Hall Model Since the Moss-Brookes model was mainly developed and validated for methane ﬂames. Since the coal-derived soot particles are large.1: Rate Constants for Coal-Derived Soot Term Oxidationtar Gasiﬁcationtar Formationsoot A 6. Table 13.3. 13-56 Release 12. January 29. An incipient soot particle is assumed to consist of 9e+04 carbon atoms. It is assumed that the mass fraction of tar in coal volatiles is in the range 0. Inc. the turbulent Schmidt number used in the transport equations for soot mass fraction and the normalized number density must be modiﬁed to account for the particle size. The work of Hall [120] is based on a soot inception rate due to two-ringed and three-ringed aromatics. Mw. a further extension for higher hydrocarbon fuels called the Moss-Brookes-Hall model was also included in the present ANSYS FLUENT implementation.77e+10 (1/s) 5. thus making Mw. Here.soot = 108e+04 kg/kgmol. One of the main assumptions of this implementation is that tar may be decoupled from the ﬂow ﬁeld computations.

2 XO2 P RT exp − Tω. [39] Both the coagulation term and the surface growth term were formulated similar to those used by Brookes and Moss [39] with a slight modiﬁcation to the constant Cγ so that the value is 9000.2 NA 2 YC2 H2 YC6 H6 YC6 H5 WH2 Tα. Therefore the full soot oxidation term. in addition to the soot oxidation due to the hydroxyl radical. Tα.6 kg.3-29) Release 12. 2009 13-57 . and the phenyl radical (C6 H5 ) based on the following mechanisms: 2 C 2 H2 + C 6 H 5 C 2 H2 + C 6 H6 + C 6 H 5 C10 H7 + H2 C14 H10 + H + H2 (13. as opposed to 12 carbon atoms used by Brookes and Moss [39]).m.s−1 (based on the model developed by Lindstedt [200]). is of the form dM dt = −Coxid Cω. For the soot oxidation term.kmol−1 . In their model. By assuming that the kinetics of surface reactions is the limiting mechanism and that the particles are small enough to neglect the diﬀusion eﬀect on the soot oxidation.1 ηcoll oxidation XOH P RT √ T (πN )1/3 6M ρsoot 2/3 −Coxid Cω.3-26) (13.1 = 4378 K. and Tα.1 exp − WC6 H5 YH2 T (13. including that due to hydroxyl radical. benzene (C6 H6 ).2 √ 6M T (πN )1/3 T ρsoot 2/3 (13. which is also slightly diﬀerent from the value used by Brookes and Moss. Inc. oxidation due to O2 (based on measurements and model based on Lee et al. the mass of an incipient soot particle was assumed to be 1200 kg/kgmol (corresponding to 100 carbon atoms.2 = 6390 K as determined by Hall et al.1 inception NA 2 YC2 H2 ρ MP WC2 H2 2 YC6 H5 WH2 Tα.3-28) +8Cα.0 c ANSYS. they derived the speciﬁc rate of soot oxidation by molecular oxygen.13. [120].3-27) Based on their laminar methane ﬂame data.2 = 178x109. Cα.50 s−1 .88 s−1 . the inception rate of soot particles was given to be eight times the formation rate of species C10 H7 and C14 H10 . [184]) was added.3 Soot Formation Hall et al. as shown by dN dt = 8Cα. January 29. [120] proposed a soot inception rate based on the formation rates of two-ringed and three-ringed aromatics (C10 H7 and C14 H10 ). The mass density of soot was assumed to be 2000 kg/m3 . from acetylene (C2 H2 ).1 = 127x108.2 ρ exp − MP WC2 H2 WC6 H6 WC6 H5 YH2 T where Cα.

The Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction Model In turbulent combustion calculations. ANSYS FLUENT solves the density-weighted timeaveraged Navier-Stokes equations for temperature. In any practical combustion system. species mass fraction. temperature.K−1/2 . the collision eﬃciency is assumed to be 0. In the ANSYS FLUENT Moss-Brookes model and the Hall extension.04 used by Brookes and Moss) and the oxidation rate scaling parameter is assumed to be unity. then a one. the ﬂow is highly turbulent.m. Temperature and composition ﬂuctuations must be taken into account by considering the probability density functions which describe the time variation. velocity. or the combination of both is used to predict the soot formation. The PDF Approach The PDF method has proven very useful in the theoretical description of turbulent ﬂow [149].51 kg.2 = 105. if time-averaged composition and temperature are employed in any model to predict the mean soot formation rate. The model constants used are as follows: where Cω.13 (compared to 0. To calculate soot concentration for the MossBrookes model and the Hall extension.kmol−1 .m. and species concentration are highly nonlinear. The turbulent mixing process results in temporal ﬂuctuations in temperature and species concentration that will inﬂuence the characteristics of the ﬂame.s−1 = 19778 K Soot Formation in Turbulent Flows The kinetic mechanisms of soot formation and destruction for the Moss-Brookes model and the Hall extension are obtained from laboratory experiments in a similar fashion to the NOx model. Hence. January 29. 13-58 Release 12.0 c ANSYS. Inc.1 Cω. however.81 kg. and species concentrations or mean mixture fraction and variance.or two-variable PDF in terms of mixture fraction(s) is also available. 2009 .kmol−1 .s−1 (same as that used by Brookes and Moss) = 8903.K−1/2 . The relationships among soot formation rate.Pollutant Formation Here. The mean values of the independent variables needed for the PDF construction are obtained from the solution of the transport equations. If the non-premixed combustion model is used to model combustion. a time-averaged soot formation rate must be computed at each point in the domain using the averaged ﬂow-ﬁeld information.2 Tω. signiﬁcant errors will result. a singleor joint-variable PDF in terms of a normalized temperature.

0 c ANSYS.13.1-113. Equations 13. using Equation 13.1-105 for NOx .3 Soot Formation The Mean Reaction Rate The mean turbulent reaction rate described in Section 13.9: The General Expression for the Mean Reaction Rate for the NOx model also applies to the Moss-Brookes model and the Hall extension.1. P can be calculated as either a two-moment beta function or as a clipped Gaussian function. The Effect of Soot on the Radiation Absorption Coefﬁcient A description of the modeling of soot-radiation interaction is provided in Section 5.1-112 or Equation 13. with the variance σ 2 computed by solving a transport equation during the combustion calculation stage.1-111 apply to the Moss-Brookes model and Hall extension as well. The PDF Options As is the case with the NOx model. January 29.3. as appropriate for combustion calculations [123.1-104 and 13. 231].8: The Eﬀect of Soot on the Absorption Coeﬃcient. The PDF is used for weighting against the instantaneous rates of production of soot and subsequent integration over suitable ranges to obtain the mean turbulent reaction rate as described in Equations 13.1-107 – 13. 2009 13-59 . Inc. Release 12.

0 c ANSYS. January 29. Inc. 2009 .Pollutant Formation 13-60 Release 12.

This chapter provides an overview and theoretical background of ANSYS FLUENT’s approaches to computing aerodynamically generated sound.1 Overview Considering the breadth of the discipline and the challenges encountered in aerodynamically generated noise.0 c ANSYS. see Chapter 22: Predicting Aerodynamically Generated Noise in the separate User’s Guide. typically by several orders of magnitude. an integral method based on acoustic analogy and a method that utilizes broadband noise source models.g. January 29. and cost widely vary. it is not surprising that a number of computational approaches have been proposed over the years whose sophistication. Another challenge comes from the diﬃculty of predicting the very ﬂow phenomena (e.2: Acoustics Model Theory 14. Aerodynamically Generated Noise The discipline of acoustics is intimately related to ﬂuid dynamics. especially when one is interested in predicting sound propagation to the far ﬁeld. applicability.3: Broadband Noise Source Models Release 12. • Section 14. Inc. The phenomena associated with sounds can therefore be understood and analyzed in the general framework of ﬂuid dynamics.1.1..Chapter 14. For more information about using the acoustics model. This section is divided into the following sections: • Section 14.2: Integral Method Based on Acoustic Analogy • Section 14. a direct method.1: Direct Method • Section 14.) The main challenge in numerically predicting sound waves stems from the well-recognized fact that sounds have much lower energy than ﬂuid ﬂows. This poses a great challenge to the computation of sounds in terms of diﬃculty of numerically resolving sound waves. 2009 14-1 . Many sounds that are technologically important in industrial applications are generated by and propagated in ﬂuid ﬂows. ANSYS FLUENT oﬀers three approaches to computing aerodynamically generated noise. (The governing equations for acoustics are indeed the same as the ones governing ﬂuid ﬂows. turbulence) in the near ﬁeld that are responsible for generating sounds.1.1: Overview • Section 14.

14-2 Release 12.1. The acoustic analogy essentially decouples the propagation of sound from its generation.. one has to employ governing equations that are capable of modeling viscous and turbulence eﬀects. However.1 Direct Method In this method.2 Integral Method Based on Acoustic Analogy For predictions of mid.1. ANSYS FLUENT oﬀers a method based on the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) formulation [95]. or LES are used to predict the sound with the aid of analytically derived integral solutions to wave equations.g.. and acoustically nonreﬂecting boundary conditions. very ﬁne computational meshes all the way to receivers. can incompressible ﬂow formulations be used. the near-ﬁeld ﬂow obtained from appropriate governing equations such as unsteady RANS equations.. The direct method is thus computationally diﬃcult and expensive inasmuch as it requires highly accurate numerics. hundreds of chord-lengths in the case of an airfoil). In this approach. Only in situations where the ﬂow is low and subsonic. Prediction of sound waves always requires time-accurate solutions to the governing equations.g. the methods based on Lighthill’s acoustic analogy [195] oﬀer viable alternatives to the direct method.e. this incompressible treatment will not permit you to simulate resonance and feedback phenomena. and the receivers in the near ﬁeld consist primarily of local hydrodynamic pressure ﬂuctuations (i. The direct method becomes feasible when receivers are in the near ﬁeld (e. In many such situations involving near-ﬁeld sound. DES. Furthermore. sounds (or pseudo-sounds for that matter) are predominantly due to local hydrodynamic pressure which can be predicted with a reasonable cost and accuracy.e. The FW-H formulation adopts the most general form of Lighthill’s acoustic analogy. Since sound propagation is directly resolved in this method. pseudo sound). or acoustic signals.g. such as unsteady Navier-Stokes equations (i. January 29.. allowing one to separate the ﬂow solution process from the acoustics analysis. compressible form of ﬁltered equations for LES). 14. both generation and propagation of sound waves are directly computed by solving the appropriate ﬂuid dynamics equations. and is capable of predicting sound generated by equivalent acoustic sources such as monopoles. at prescribed receiver locations are directly computed by evaluating a few surface integrals. and quadrupoles. one normally needs to solve the compressible form of the governing equations (e.to far-ﬁeld noise. and ﬁltered equations used in DES and LES.. dipoles. cabin noise). 2009 . in most practical applications of the direct method. ANSYS FLUENT adopts a timedomain integral formulation wherein time histories of sound pressure. RANS equations. The computational cost becomes prohibitive when sound is to be predicted in the far ﬁeld (e. compressible RANS equations. DNS).0 c ANSYS. Inc.Aerodynamically Generated Noise 14.

or both. such as pressure. noise does not have any distinct tones. to shed some light on the source of broadband noise. velocity components. Inc. Release 12. Sound pressure signals thus obtained can be processed using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and associated postprocessing capabilities to compute and plot such acoustic quantities as the overall sound pressure level (SPL) and power spectra. turbulence model employed. Thus. One important limitation of ANSYS FLUENT’s FW-H model is that it is applicable only to predicting the propagation of sound toward free space.14. Both broadband and tonal noise can be predicted depending on the nature of the ﬂow (noise source) being considered.1 Overview Time-accurate solutions of the ﬂow-ﬁeld variables. large eddy simulation (LES). and density on source (emission) surfaces. such as the ﬂows around ground vehicles and aircrafts.1. which enables you to account for the contributions from the quadrupoles enclosed by the source surfaces. or to carry out an “on the ﬂy” acoustic calculation simultaneously as the transient ﬂow calculation proceeds. 2009 14-3 . The FW-H acoustics model in ANSYS FLUENT allows you to select multiple source surfaces and receivers.g. or detached eddy simulation (DES) as appropriate for the ﬂow at hand and the features that you want to capture (e. it cannot be used for predicting the noise propagation inside ducts or wall-enclosed space. Time-accurate solutions can be obtained from unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations. while the model can be legitimately used to predict far-ﬁeld noise due to external aerodynamic ﬂows. in conjunction with semi-empirical correlations and Lighthill’s acoustic analogy. It also permits you either to save the source data for a future use. but also on interior (permeable) surfaces. are required to evaluate the surface integrals.3 Broadband Noise Source Models In many practical applications involving turbulent ﬂows. The source surfaces can be placed not only on impermeable walls. vortex shedding).. 14. January 29. and the sound energy is continuously distributed over a broad range of frequencies. statistical turbulence quantities readily computable from RANS equations can be utilized. and the time scale of the ﬂow resolved in the ﬂow calculation.0 c ANSYS. In those situations involving broadband noise.

This section is divided into the following sections: • Section 14. January 29. 14. turbulent kinetic energy (k) and the dissipation rate (ε).0 c ANSYS. Therefore. 2009 . the use of broadband noise source models requires the least computational resources. the broadband noise source models do not require transient solutions to any governing ﬂuid dynamics equations. Note. however.Aerodynamically Generated Noise ANSYS FLUENT oﬀers several such source models that enable you to quantify the local contribution (per unit surface area or volume) to the total acoustic power generated by the ﬂow.2.1: The Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings Model • Section 14. Unlike the direct method and the FW-H integral method. Inc. They include the following: • Proudman’s formula • jet noise source model • boundary layer noise source model • source terms in the linearized Euler equations • source terms in Lilley’s equation Considering that one would ultimately want to come up with some measures to mitigate the noise generated by the ﬂow in question.2: Broadband Noise Source Models 14-4 Release 12. that these source models do not predict the sound at receivers. All source models require what typical RANS models would provide.2 Acoustics Model Theory This section describes the theoretical background for the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings model and the broadband noise source models. such as the mean velocity ﬁeld. the source models can be employed to extract useful diagnostics on the noise source to determine which portion of the ﬂow is primarily responsible for the noise generation.2.

which facilitates the use of generalized function theory and the free-space Green function to obtain the solution. Inc. January 29.1 The Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings Model The Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) equation is essentially an inhomogeneous wave equation that can be derived by manipulating the continuity equation and the Navier-Stokes equations.2 Acoustics Model Theory 14. 2009 14-5 . deﬁned as Tij = ρui uj + Pij − a2 (ρ − ρ0 ) δij 0 Pij is the compressive stress tensor.2. and Tij is the Lighthill stress tensor. ni is the unit normal vector pointing toward the exterior region (f > 0). Release 12.2-1) where ui un vi vn δ(f ) H(f ) = = = = = = ﬂuid velocity component in the xi direction ﬂuid velocity component normal to the surface f = 0 surface velocity components in the xi direction surface velocity component normal to the surface Dirac delta function Heaviside function p is the sound pressure at the far ﬁeld (p = p − p0 ). f = 0 denotes a mathematical surface introduced to “embed” the exterior ﬂow problem (f > 0) in an unbounded space. The FW-H [38. The surface (f = 0) corresponds to the source (emission) surface. this is given by Pij = pδij − µ ∂ui ∂uj 2 ∂uk + − δij ∂xj ∂xi 3 ∂xk (14.2-3) (14. 95] equation can be written as: 1 ∂2p − a2 ∂t2 0 2 p ∂2 {Tij H(f )} ∂xi ∂xj ∂ − {[Pij nj + ρui (un − vn )] δ(f )} ∂xi ∂ + {[ρ0 vn + ρ (un − vn )] δ(f )} ∂t = (14.2-2) The free-stream quantities are denoted by the subscript 0.14. For a Stokesian ﬂuid.0 c ANSYS. a0 is the far-ﬁeld sound speed. and can be made coincident with a body (impermeable) surface or a permeable surface oﬀ the body surface.

The square brackets in Equations 14. t) = dS a0 f =0 r (1 − Mr )2 L r − LM + dS 2 (1 − M )2 f =0 r r ˙ Lr rMr + a0 (Mr − M 2 ) 1 dS + a0 f =0 r2 (1 − Mr )3 f =0 ˙ ρ0 Un rMr + a0 (Mr − M 2 ) (14. whereas the volume integrals represent quadrupole (volume) sources in the region outside the source surface.2-6) where ρ (ui − vi ) ρ0 = Pij nj + ρui (un − vn ) ˆ Ui = vi + Li (14. we have p (x.2-5) (14. January 29. the two terms on the right in Equation 14. deﬁned as follows. t. pT (x. τ =t− r a0 (14. given the observer time.2-7) (14. t) = pT (x.2-8) When the integration surface coincides with an impenetrable wall. The surface integrals represent the contributions from monopole and dipole acoustic sources and partially from quadrupole sources. The contribution of the volume integrals becomes small when the ﬂow is low subsonic and the source surface encloses the source region. t) = + ˙ ρ0 Un + Un ˙ r (1 − Mr )2 dS f =0 dS r2 (1 − Mr )3 ˙ 1 Lr 4πpL (x. t) and pL (x.2-4. τ .2-1 is obtained using the free-space Green function (δ(g)/4πr). the volume integrals are dropped. Inc. In ANSYS FLUENT. t) + pL (x. and the distance to the observer.2-5 and 14. t) where (14.Aerodynamically Generated Noise The solution to Equation 14. in light of their physical meanings.0 c ANSYS. t).2-6 denote that the kernels of the integrals are computed at the corresponding retarded times. respectively. r.2-9) 14-6 Release 12. 2009 . Thus. The complete solution consists of surface integrals and volume integrals.2-4) 4πpT (x. are often referred to as thickness and loading terms.

α in Equation 14. For instance. • When a permeable source surface (either interior or nonconformal sliding interface) is placed at a certain distance oﬀ the body surface. 14. Inc. the mesh resolution needs to be ﬁne enough to resolve the transient ﬂow structures inside the volume enclosed by the permeable surface. The dot over a variable denotes source-time diﬀerentiation of that variable.14.2-6 include the contributions from the quadrupole sources within the region enclosed by the source surface. • It is not required that the surface f = 0 coincide with body surfaces or walls.2-12) Release 12. In terms of k and ε. January 29. Please note the following remarks regarding the applicability of this integral solution: • The FW-H formulation in ANSYS FLUENT can handle rotating surfaces as well as stationary surfaces. 2009 14-7 . where r and n denote the unit vectors in r the radiation and wall-normal directions.2-10) where u and are the turbulence velocity and length scales.2 Broadband Noise Source Models Proudman’s Formula Proudman [280]. Equation 14. the integral solutions given by Equations 14. respectively. Lilley [196] rederived the formula by accounting for the retarded time diﬀerence which was neglected in Proudman’s original derivation.2-10 can be rewritten as PA = αε ρ0 εMt5 where Mt = √ 2k a0 (14. Lr = L · ˆ = Li ri and Un = U · n = Ui ni . Both derivations yield acoustic power due to the unit volume of isotropic turbulence (in W/m3 ) as u3 u5 a5 0 PA = αρ0 (14. The formulation permits source surfaces to be permeable.2-5 and 14.2-10 is a model constant. respectively. and therefore can be placed in the interior of the ﬂow. derived a formula for acoustic power generated by isotropic turbulence without mean ﬂow.2 Acoustics Model Theory The various subscripted quantities appearing in Equations 14. and a0 is the speed of sound. When using a permeable source surface.2-5 and 14.0 c ANSYS.2-11) (14. using Lighthill’s acoustic analogy.2-6 are the inner products of a vector and a unit vector implied by the subscript.2. More recently.

2009 . and I(r. isotropy of turbulence.2-17) (14. θ.5 ∆2 + M − 1.1 in ANSYS FLUENT based on the calibration of Sarkar and Hussaini [301] using direct numerical simulation of isotropic turbulence. y)r2 sin θdθ dψ I(r. y) is the directional acoustic intensity per unit volume of a jet deﬁned by 4 4 12 ρ0 ωf L1 L2 u2 Dself 24 ρ0 ωf L1 L4 u2 2 t1 2 t1 I(r. α . θ.2-15) C in Equation 14.2-15 is the modiﬁed convection factor deﬁned by C = 1 − Mc cos θ and Dself = 1 + 2( + M − N ) cos2 θ sin2 θ 9 (14. y) sin θ dθ (14. θ.2-18) (14.2-16) Dshear 1 M2 1. is set to 0. which is computed from LP = 10 log PA Pref (14. ANSYS FLUENT can also report the acoustic power in dB. however.2-14) 0 = 2πr where r and θ are the radial and angular coordinates of the receiver location. the total acoustic power emitted by the unit volume of a turbulent jet is computed from 2π π 0 2 0 π PA (y) = I(r. such as high Reynolds number.0 c ANSYS. The Proudman’s formula gives an approximate measure of the local contribution to total acoustic power per unit volume in a given turbulence ﬁeld.Aerodynamically Generated Noise The rescaled constant. Proper caution. Inc.2-13) where Pref is the reference acoustic power (Pref = 10−12 W/m3 by default). and zero mean motion. should be taken when interpreting the results in view of the assumptions made in the derivation. In Goldstein’s model.5N (3 − 3N + 2 − ) sin4 θ 3 7 ∆ 2 1 1 = cos2 θ cos2 θ + − 2N sin2 θ 2 ∆2 14-8 Release 12. small Mach number. January 29. θ. The Jet Noise Source Model This source model for axisymmetric jets is based on the works of Goldstein [113] who modiﬁed the model originally proposed by Ribner [293] to better account for anisotropy of turbulence in axisymmetric turbulent jets. y) = + 5 2 5 2 5 5 π a0 r C π a0 r 2 ∂U ∂r 2 Dshear C5 (14.

t) = 1 4πa0 (xi − yi ) ni ∂p (y.14. τ ) dS(y) r2 ∂t (14. For all other two-equation turbulence models.2-24) ωf = 2π k where u2 and u2 are computed diﬀerently depending on the turbulence model chosen for t1 t2 the computation.2-28) S Release 12.2-23) (14.2-22) 3/2 (14. they are computed from the corresponding normal stresses. one can start with the Curle’s integral p (x.2-25) (14.2-27) The Boundary Layer Noise Source Model Far-ﬁeld sound generated by turbulent boundary layer ﬂow over a solid body at low Mach numbers is often of practical interest. To that end. The Curle’s integral [64] based on acoustic analogy can be used to approximate the local contribution from the body surface to the total acoustic power. When the RSM is selected. they are obtained from u2 = t1 u2 t2 8 k 9 4 = k 9 (14. (14.2-21) L1 = L2 = u2 t1 u2 t2 (14.0 c ANSYS. 2009 14-9 .2-19) 2 (14.2-20) (14.2-26) ANSYS FLUENT reports the acoustic power both in the dimensional units (W/m3 ) and in dB computed from LP = 10 log where Pref is the reference acoustic power (Pref PA Pref = 10−12 W/m3 by default).2 Acoustics Model Theory The remaining parameters are deﬁned as L2 L1 3 1 M = ∆− 2 ∆ 2 ut2 N = 1− u2 t1 ∆ = 3/2 (14. January 29. Inc.

2-30) I(y) dS(y) where I(y) ≡ Ac (y) ∂p 12ρ0 πa3 ∂t 0 2 (14.2-31) which can be interpreted as the local contribution per unit surface area of the body surface to the total acoustic power. Source Terms in the Linearized Euler Equations The linearized Euler equations (LEE) can be derived from the Navier-Stokes equations starting from decompositions of the ﬂow variables into mean. dissipation rate. the sound intensity in the far ﬁeld can then be approximated by 1 ≈ 16π 2 a2 0 cos2 θ ∂p (y.2-29) S where Ac is the correlation area. and the prime superscript refers to the turbulent components. 2009 . 14-10 Release 12. Using this.2-31 both in physical (W/m2 ) and dB units. ANSYS FLUENT reports the acoustic surface power deﬁned by Equation 14. and acoustic components. January 29. and S the integration surface. turbulent. The mean-square time derivative of the surface pressure and the correlation area are further approximated in terms of turbulent quantities like turbulent kinetic energy.0 c ANSYS. and cos θ is the angle between |x − y| and the wall-normal direction n. The total acoustic power emitted from the entire body surface can be computed from PA = = 1 ρ 0 a0 S 2π 0 0 π p 2 r2 sin θ dθdψ (14. τ ) Ac (y) dS(y) r2 ∂t 2 p2 (14. r ≡ |x − y|. Inc. and by assuming that the acoustic components are much smaller than the mean and turbulent components.2-32) where the subscript “a” refers to the corresponding acoustic components.Aerodynamically Generated Noise where τ denotes the emission time (τ = t − r/a0 ). The resulting linearized Euler equations for the acoustic velocity components can be written as ∂uai ∂uai ∂Ui 1 ∂pa ρa ∂P + Uj + uaj + − 2 = ∂t ∂xj ∂xj ρ ∂xi ρ ∂xi −Uj ∂ui ∂Ui ∂u 1 ∂p ∂u ∂ − uj − i+ uu − uj i − ∂xj ∂xj ∂xj ρ ∂xi ∂t ∂xj j i Lsh Lse (14. and wall shear.

t) is the turbulent velocity component. January 29. the ﬁrst three terms involving turbulence are the main contributors. Note that the source terms in the LEE are vector quantities. In this method. it can be written in the following form: D D2 Π ∂ − Dt Dt2 ∂xj where Π = (1/γ) ln ppo . Source Terms in Lilley’s Equation Lilley’s equation is a third-order wave equation that can be derived by combining the conservation of mass and momentum of compressible ﬂuids. as it involves turbulent velocity components only. having two or three components depending on the dimension of the problem at hand. since they involve the mean shear. σn are the amplitude. t) = 2 n=1 un cos kn · x + ψn σn ˜ (14.2-35 into the source term of Equation 14. When the viscous terms are omitted.2-35) a2 ∂Π ∂xj ∂uk ∂ ∂Π a2 ∂xj ∂xk ∂xj = −2 ∂uk ∂uj ∂ui ∂xi ∂xk ∂xj +2 (14. t) where u (x. t) = Ui (x) + ui (x.2-34) (14. phase. Lilley’s equation can be linearized about the underlying steady ﬂow as ui (x.2-33) where un . The ﬁrst two terms denoted by Lsh are often referred to as “shearnoise” source terms. 2009 14-11 . we have S ≡ −2 ∂uk ∂uj ∂ui ∂xi ∂xk ∂xj ∂Uk ∂Uj ∂Ui ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂Ui ∂Uk ∂Uj ∂ui = −2 −2 k j i −6 −6 k j ∂xi ∂xk ∂xj ∂xi ∂xk ∂xj ∂xi ∂xk ∂xj ∂xi ∂xk ∂xj Self-Noise Terms Shear-Noise Terms (14.2-36) Release 12.2-32 can be considered as eﬀective source terms responsible for sound generation. ψn .2-34. Among them.2 Acoustics Model Theory The right side of Equation 14. Substituting Equation 14. Inc.0 c ANSYS.14. the turbulent velocity ﬁeld and its derivatives are computed from a sum of N Fourier modes. and directional (unit) vector of the nth Fourier ˜ mode associated with the wave-number vector kn . N u (x. The turbulent velocity ﬁeld needed to compute the LEE source terms is obtained using the method of stochastic noise generation and radiation (SNGR) [23]. The third term denoted by Lse is often called the “self-noise” source term.

Aerodynamically Generated Noise The resulting source terms in Equation 14. January 29.0 c ANSYS. 14-12 Release 12.2-36 are evaluated using the mean velocity ﬁeld and the turbulent (ﬂuctuating) velocity components synthesized by the SNGR method. and reported separately in ANSYS FLUENT. Inc. 2009 . As with the LEE source terms. the source terms in Equation 14.2-36 are grouped depending on whether the mean velocity gradients are involved (shear noise or self noise).

Inc.1: Approaches to Multiphase Modeling).7: Wall-Film Model Theory • Section 15.0 c ANSYS.4: Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange • Section 15.1 Introduction Advances in computational ﬂuid mechanics have provided the basis for further insight into the dynamics of multiphase ﬂows.5: Vapor Liquid Equilibrium Theory • Section 15.3: Laws for Drag Coeﬃcients • Section 15.Chapter 15. Currently there are two approaches for the numerical calculation of multiphase ﬂows: the Euler-Lagrange approach (discussed below) and the Euler-Euler approach (discussed in Section 16. Discrete Phase This chapter describes the theory behind the Lagrangian discrete phase capabilities available in ANSYS FLUENT.2.10: Secondary Breakup Model Theory • Section 15. 2009 15-1 . Information in this chapter is organized into the following sections: • Section 15. January 29.2: Particle Motion Theory • Section 15. For information about how to use discrete phase models. Release 12.8: Particle Erosion and Accretion Theory • Section 15.12: One-Way and Two-Way Coupling 15.1: Introduction • Section 15. see Chapter 23: Modeling Discrete Phase in the separate User’s Guide.9: Atomizer Model Theory • Section 15.6: Wall-Jet Model Theory • Section 15.11: Droplet Collision and Coalescence Model Theory • Section 15.

and energy with the ﬂuid phase. and can be written (for the x direction in Cartesian coordinates) as dup gx (ρp − ρ) = FD (u − up ) + + Fx dt ρp (15. or droplets through the calculated ﬂow ﬁeld. mass. 2009 . The dispersed phase can exchange momentum.2. 15. ﬂuidized beds. This force balance equates the particle inertia with the forces acting on the particle. ˙ ˙ The particle or droplet trajectories are computed individually at speciﬁed intervals during the ﬂuid phase calculation.1. which is written in a Lagrangian reference frame. coal and liquid fuel combustion. and some particle-laden ﬂows. while the dispersed phase is solved by tracking a large number of particles. January 29.2-1) where Fx is an additional acceleration (force/unit particle mass) term.1 Equations of Motion for Particles Particle Force Balance ANSYS FLUENT predicts the trajectory of a discrete phase particle (or droplet or bubble) by integrating the force balance on the particle.3: Integration of Particle Equation of Motion 15.2.2. or any application where the volume fraction of the second phase cannot be neglected.0 c ANSYS.2 Particle Motion Theory This section is composed of the following: • Section 15. This makes the model appropriate for the modeling of spray dryers.2. Limitations of the discrete phase model are listed in Section 23. even though high mass loading (mparticles ≥ mﬂuid ) is acceptable. The ﬂuid phase is treated as a continuum by solving the Navier-Stokes equations. but inappropriate for the modeling of liquid-liquid mixtures. Inc.Discrete Phase The Euler-Lagrange Approach The Lagrangian discrete phase model in ANSYS FLUENT (described in this chapter) follows the Euler-Lagrange approach.2: Turbulent Dispersion of Particles • Section 15.2: Limitations in the separate User’s Guide. FD (u − up ) is the drag force per unit particle mass and 15-2 Release 12.1: Equations of Motion for Particles • Section 15. A fundamental assumption made in this model is that the dispersed second phase occupies a low volume fraction. bubbles.

2009 15-3 .0 c ANSYS. the forces on the particles in the Cartesian x and y directions can be written as 1− ρ ρ Ω2 x + 2Ω uy. ρ is the ﬂuid density. in Equation 15. ρp is the density of the particle.2-6) Release 12. For rotation deﬁned about the z axis.2 Particle Motion Theory FD = 18µ CD Re ρp d2 24 p (15. January 29. Re is the relative Reynolds number. These forces arise when you are modeling ﬂows in rotating frames of reference (see Section 2. This force can be written as Fx = 1ρ d (u − up ) 2 ρp dt (15.2-4) and is important when ρ > ρp . If you want to include the gravitational force. you must remember to deﬁne the magnitude and direction of the gravity vector in the Operating Conditions dialog box. An additional force arises due to the pressure gradient in the ﬂuid: ∂u ρ up i (15.2: Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame). µ is the molecular viscosity of the ﬂuid. Inc. which is deﬁned as Re ≡ ρdp |up − u| µ (15.2-5) Fx = ρp ∂xi Forces in Rotating Reference Frames The additional force term. the force required to accelerate the ﬂuid surrounding the particle.2-1 incorporates additional forces (Fx ) in the particle force balance that can be important under special circumstances. u is the ﬂuid phase velocity. Other Forces Equation 15.2-1 includes a force of gravity on the particle. up is the particle velocity.2-2) Here. for example. The ﬁrst of these is the “virtual mass” force. and dp is the particle diameter.p − uy ρp ρp (15.2-3) Inclusion of the Gravity Term While Equation 15.15. Fx . it is important to note that in ANSYS FLUENT the default gravitational acceleration is zero.2-1 also includes forces on particles that arise due to rotation of the reference frame.

January 29.0 c ANSYS.14 particle mass local ﬂuid temperature ﬂuid viscosity This expression assumes that the particle is a sphere and that the ﬂuid is an ideal gas.p is the thermophoretic coeﬃcient.2-8) where DT. You can deﬁne the coeﬃcient to be constant.2-7) where ux. in Equation 15.2-9) Knudsen number = 2 λ/dp mean free path of the ﬂuid k/kp ﬂuid thermal conductivity based on translational energy only = (15/4) µR particle thermal conductivity 1.p − ux ρp ρp (15. Fx . and 1− ρ ρ Ω2 y − 2Ω ux. ANSYS FLUENT can optionally include a thermophoretic eﬀect on particles in the additional acceleration (force/unit mass) term.Discrete Phase where uy. Inc. or you can use the form suggested by Talbot [345]: Fx = − where: Kn λ K k kp CS Ct Cm mp T µ = = = = = = = = = = = 6πdp µ2 Cs (K + Ct Kn) 1 ∂T ρ(1 + 3Cm Kn)(1 + 2K + 2Ct Kn) mp T ∂x (15.p and ux are the particle and ﬂuid velocities in the Cartesian x direction. or a user-deﬁned function. This phenomenon is known as thermophoresis.p 1 ∂T mp T ∂x (15. Thermophoretic Force Small particles suspended in a gas that has a temperature gradient experience a force in the direction opposite to that of the gradient. 2009 .p and uy are the particle and ﬂuid velocities in the Cartesian y direction. 15-4 Release 12. polynomial.18 1.2-1: Fx = −DT.17 2.

15. The lift force used is from Li and Ahmadi [191] and is a generalization of the expression provided by Saﬀman [298]: 2Kν 1/2 ρdij (v − vp ) ρp dp (dlk dkl )1/4 F = (15. January 29. Brownian force is intended only for laminar simulations.ij given by [191] Sn. the eﬀects of Brownian motion can be optionally included in the additional force term. ν is the kinematic viscosity.ij = S0 δij where δij is the Kronecker delta function. the particle Reynolds number based on the particle-ﬂuid velocity diﬀerence must be smaller than the square root of the particle Reynolds number based on the shear ﬁeld. or lift due to shear. 2009 15-5 . Amplitudes of the Brownian force components are of the form πSo ∆t Fbi = ζi (15. Inc. and kB is the Boltzmann constant. and S0 = 216νkB T π 2 ρd5 p ρp 2 ρ (15. This option is recommended only for submicron particles.2-12) where ζi are zero-mean.2 Particle Motion Theory Brownian Force For sub-micron particles.2-13) where K = 2. The components of the Brownian force are modeled as a Gaussian white noise process with spectral intensity Sn. can also be included in the additional force term as an option. unit-variance-independent Gaussian random numbers. Release 12. The amplitudes of the Brownian force components are evaluated at each time step.2-10) (15.2-11) Cc T is the absolute temperature of the ﬂuid. This form of the lift force is intended for small particle Reynolds numbers.0 c ANSYS.594 and dij is the deformation tensor. Also. Saffman’s Lift Force The Saﬀman’s lift force. The energy equation must be enabled in order for the Brownian force to take eﬀect.

12. Stochastic Tracking When the ﬂow is turbulent. the random eﬀects of turbulence on the particle dispersion can be included. Optionally. u.2 Turbulent Dispersion of Particles The dispersion of particles due to turbulence in the ﬂuid phase can be predicted using the stochastic tracking model or the particle cloud model (see Section 15.2.2. January 29. the DRW will show a tendency for such particles to concentrate in low-turbulence regions of the ﬂow. Inc. in the trajectory equations (Equation 15. i Turbulent dispersion of particles cannot be included if the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model is used. The concentration of particles within the cloud is represented by a Gaussian probability density function (PDF) about the mean trajectory. (15. In the discrete random walk (DRW) model. 2009 . you can include the instantaneous value of the ﬂuctuating gas ﬂow velocity. By computing the trajectory in this manner for a suﬃcient number of representative particles (termed the “number of tries”). where small particles should become uniformly distributed. The stochastic tracking (random walk) model includes the eﬀect of instantaneous turbulent velocity ﬂuctuations on the particle trajectories through the use of stochastic methods (see Section 15. the ﬂuctuating velocity components are discrete piecewise constant functions of time.1: Coupling Between the Discrete and Continuous Phases). using the instantaneous ﬂuid velocity.2: Stochastic Tracking). u=u+u to predict the dispersion of the particles due to turbulence. Their random value is kept constant over an interval of time given by the characteristic lifetime of the eddies. ANSYS FLUENT will predict the trajectories of particles using the mean ﬂuid phase velocity.0 c ANSYS. For stochastic tracking a model is available to account for the generation or dissipation of turbulence in the continuous phase (see Section 15.2: Particle Cloud Tracking). along the particle path during the integration. In the stochastic tracking approach.2-14) 15-6 Release 12. ANSYS FLUENT predicts the turbulent dispersion of particles by integrating the trajectory equations for individual particles. Instead. The DRW model may give nonphysical results in strongly nonhomogeneous diﬀusiondominated ﬂows. ANSYS FLUENT uses a stochastic method (random walk model) to determine the instantaneous gas velocity. u + u (t).2-1).Discrete Phase 15. The particle cloud model tracks the statistical evolution of a cloud of particles about a mean trajectory (see Section 15.2: Turbulent Dispersion of Particles).2.2.

2-16) where CL is to be determined as it is not well known. The Discrete Random Walk Model In the discrete random walk (DRW) model.30 k (15. and TL ≈ 0.2-18) k (15. which describes the time spent in turbulent motion along the particle path. January 29.15. the integral time becomes the ﬂuid Lagrangian integral time. By matching the diﬀusivity of tracer particles.2-16.2-15) The integral time is proportional to the particle dispersion rate. TL . the interaction of a particle with a succession of discrete stylized ﬂuid phase turbulent eddies is simulated. u . T . τe Release 12. 2009 15-7 . Inc. as larger values indicate more turbulent motion in the ﬂow. one can obtain TL ≈ 0.2 Particle Motion Theory The Integral Time Prediction of particle dispersion makes use of the concept of the integral time scale. to the scalar diﬀusion rate predicted by the turbulence model. v . This time scale can be approximated as TL = CL k (15. The LES model uses the equivalent LES time scales. or “eddy lifetime” model. It can be shown that the particle diﬀusivity is given by ui uj T . and w • a time scale. For small “tracer” particles that move with the ﬂuid (zero drift velocity). Each eddy is characterized by • a Gaussian distributed random velocity ﬂuctuation. ds: ∞ T = 0 up (t)up (t + s) ds up 2 (15.0 c ANSYS. substitute ω = /k into Equation 15.2-17) when the Reynolds stress model (RSM) is used [67].15 for the k. νt /σ. ui uj TL .model and its variants. For the k-ω models.

2-19) where ζ is a normally distributed random number. 2009 . these values of the RMS ﬂuctuating components can be deﬁned (assuming isotropy) as u2 = v2= w2= 2k/3 (15. the k-ω model. Since the kinetic energy of turbulence is known at each point in the ﬂow. the velocity ﬂuctuations are equivalent in all directions. so that u =ζ u2 (15. For the LES model.2-21) (15.2-25) where r is a uniform random number between 0 and 1 and TL is given by Equation 15. Inc.11. The characteristic lifetime of the eddy is deﬁned either as a constant: τe = 2TL (15.2-16 in general (Equation 15.Discrete Phase The values of u .2-22) (15.2-26) 15-8 Release 12.2-17. or as a random variation about TL : τe = −TL ln(r) (15. v . When the RSM is used.2-24) where TL is given by Equation 15.model. and their variants. nonisotropy of the stresses is included in the derivation of the velocity ﬂuctuations: u v w = ζ u2 = ζ v2 = ζ w2 (15. The particle eddy crossing time is deﬁned as tcross = −τ ln 1 − Le τ |u − up | (15. and the remainder of the right-hand side is the local RMS value of the velocity ﬂuctuations. See Section 4.2-20) for the k. January 29.2-17 by default).4: Inlet Boundary Conditions for the LES Model for details.0 c ANSYS. The option of random calculation of τe yields a more realistic description of the correlation function. and w that prevail during the lifetime of the turbulent eddy are sampled by assuming that they obey a Gaussian probability distribution.2-23) when viewed in a reference frame in which the second moment of the turbulence is diagonal [389].

The turbulent dispersion of particles about a mean trajectory is calculated using statistical methods.0 c ANSYS. These are completely described by their mean. and are of the form Release 12.3. and |u − up | is the magnitude of the relative velocity.15. CL (see Equations 15.2. 204]. Particle Cloud Tracking Particle dispersion due to turbulent ﬂuctuations can also be modeled with the particle cloud model [21. The mean trajectory is obtained by solving the ensemble-averaged equations of motion for all particles represented by the cloud (see Section 15. January 29. The cloud enters the domain either as a point source or with an initial diameter. The cloud expands due to turbulent dispersion as it is transported through the domain until it exits. Le is the eddy length scale.2-27) The PDFs for particle position are assumed to be multivariate Gaussian. i Turbulent dispersion of particles cannot be included if the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model is used. As mentioned before.16: Stochastic Tracking in the separate User’s Guide. σi 2 . as described in Section 23. You can choose to use either a constant value or a random value by selecting the appropriate option in the Set Injection Properties dialog box for each injection. Inc.2-19. µi . The particle is assumed to interact with the ﬂuid phase eddy over the smaller of the eddy lifetime and the eddy crossing time. The concentration of particles about the mean trajectory is represented by a Gaussian probability density function (PDF) whose variance is based on the degree of particle dispersion due to turbulent ﬂuctuations. the distribution of particles in the cloud is deﬁned by a probability density function (PDF) based on the position in the cloud relative to the cloud center.2 Particle Motion Theory where τ is the particle relaxation time. The value of the PDF represents the probability of ﬁnding particles represented by that cloud with residence time t at location xi in the ﬂow ﬁeld. t) ˙ (15. 22. a new value of the instantaneous velocity is obtained by applying a new value of ζ in Equation 15. m. The average particle number density can be obtained by weighting the total ﬂow rate of particles represented by that cloud.2: Particle Cloud Tracking). as ˙ n(xi ) = mP (xi . 2009 15-9 . and variance.2-16 and 15. 144. When this time is reached.2-24) and the choice of the method used for the prediction of the eddy lifetime. Using the DRW Model The only inputs required for the DRW model are the value for the integral time-scale constant.

2-33) Rp.i are the mean square velocity ﬂuctuations.0 c ANSYS. t1 ) = up.ii (τ )dτ dt2 (15. The variance.i (t2 ) Rp.2-32) By using the substitution τ = |t2 − t1 |. i = j) have been neglected. t3 ) whenever |t2 − t1 | = |t4 − t3 |. or the center of the cloud. t1 ) = Rp.j (t2 ) 1/2 (15.ij (t2 .ij (t2 . The mean location is obtained by integrating a particle velocity as deﬁned by an equation of motion for the cloud of particles: t µi (t) ≡ xi (t) = 0 Vi (t1 ) dt1 + xi (0) (15.i (t2 )up. 15-10 Release 12.Discrete Phase P (xi .ij (t2 . we can write 2 σi (t) = 2 t 0 2 up.2-34) Note that cross correlations in the deﬁnition of the variance (Rp.ii (t2 .2-31) 2 where up.ij (t4 .i (t2 )up. t1 )dt1 dt2 (15. at a given time represents the most likely location of the particles in the cloud. and Rp. and the fact that Rp.2-28) (2π)3/2 i=1 where 3 s= i=1 x i − µi σi 2 (15. 2 The radius of the particle cloud is based on the variance of the PDF.2-29) The mean of the PDF.2-30) The equations of motion are constructed using an ensemble average. 2009 .ij . January 29. σi (t). of the PDF can be expressed in terms of two particle turbulence statistical quantities: t 0 t2 0 2 σi (t) = 2 2 up.j (t1 ) 2 2 up. Inc.i (t2 ) t2 0 (15. t1 ) is the particle velocity correlation function: Rp. t) = 1 3 e−s/2 σi (15.

5mT γ θ θ T (15.2-40) (15.2-36) (15. Inc.2-39) (15.2-37) Rp.2-44) (15.01St) ∞ 0 T = Tf E = γ = St = StT = θ = m = TmE = mT = (15.2-43) (15.2-38) and mT TmE m 3/4 3/2 Cµ k ( 2 k)1/2 3 τa g u τa TmE τa T St2 (1 + m2 γ 2 ) − 1 T T u ¯ u u ¯ Tf E u G(m) m 1− (1 + St)0.2 Particle Motion Theory The form of the particle velocity correlation function used determines the particle dispersion in the cloud model. 2009 15-11 .2-46) (15.33 = e − e θ θ where B = 1 + m2 γ 2 and τa is the aerodynamic response time of the particle: T τa = ρp d2 p 18µ (15.0 c ANSYS.11 = Rp. When the gravity vector is aligned with the z-coordinate direction.15. January 29.2-47) 2 2 G(m) = √ π e−y dy 1+ m2 π √ ( π erf(y)y − 1 + e−y2 ) 5/2 (15.2-45) (15.2-48) Release 12. and used by Jain [144].2-42) (15. ANSYS FLUENT uses a correlation function ﬁrst proposed by Wang [365].4(1+0.2-35) (15.2-41) (15. Rij takes the form: u 2 −(τ /τa ) St2 B 2 + 1 e StT B − 0.5mT γ T θ θ 2 2 u −(τ B/T ) mT StT γB τ + e −1 + + 0.22 = Rp.11 u 2 StT B −(τ /τa ) u 2 −(τ B/T ) Rp.

t)dV (15. Integration of Particle Equation of Motion The trajectory equations.2-50 are a set of coupled ordinary diﬀerential equations. with the trajectory itself predicted by dx = up dt (15.Discrete Phase Using this correlation function. the ﬂuid properties are ensemble-averaged for the mean trajectory. and any auxiliary equations describing heat or mass transfer to/from the particle. 2009 .2-51) where the term a includes accelerations due to all other forces except drag force.0 c ANSYS. Using the Cloud Model The only inputs required for the cloud model are the values of the minimum and maximum cloud diameters. as described in Section 23. January 29. are solved by stepwise integration over discrete time steps.3. The cloud model is enabled in the Set Injection Properties dialog box for each injection.16: Cloud Tracking in the separate User’s Guide.2-50) Note that Equation 15. i 15. At any given time. the cloud radius is set to three standard deviations in the coordinate directions. Integration of time in Equation 15. and Equation 15. The cloud radius is limited to three standard deviations since at least 99.2% of the area under a Gaussian PDF is accounted for at this distance. This is done with a weighting factor deﬁned as P (xi . t) ≡ Vcell Vcloud If coupled calculations are performed. or in parallel. the variance is integrated over the life of the cloud.2-49) P (xi .2-1 and Equation 15. Once the cells within the cloud are established.2-1 can be cast into the following general form dup 1 = (u − up ) + a dt τp (15. 15-12 Release 12. sources are distributed to the cells in the cloud based on the same weighting factors.2. t)dV W (xi . when using the message passing option for the particles. and the mean path is integrated in time.3 The cloud model is not available for unsteady particle tracking.2-1 yields the velocity of the particle at each point along the trajectory. Inc.

2009 15-13 .2-56) (15.2-53) In these equations un and un represent particle velocities and ﬂuid velocities at the old p location. Inc.0 c ANSYS.2-54) When applying a trapezoidal discretization to Equation 15.2-55) u∗ = p u∗ un+1 (15. p xn+1 = xn + ∆t(un + aτp ) + τp 1 − e p p − ∆t τ p un − un − aτp p (15. a and τp by analytical integration.2-52) The new location xn+1 can be computed from a similar relationship.2-51 we get un + ∆t(a + p 1+ ∆t τp un ) τp un+1 = p (15. a.2 Particle Motion Theory This set can be solved for constant u.2-59) Release 12. The set of Equation 15. We get un+1 − un 1 p p = (u∗ − u∗ ) + an p ∆t τp The averages u∗ and u∗ are computed from p 1 n (u + un+1 ) p 2 p 1 n = (u + un+1 ) 2 = un + ∆tun · un p (15.2-51 the variables up and un on the right hand side are taken as averages.2-57) (15. Equations 15.2-52 and 15. For the particle velocity at the new location un+1 we get p un+1 = un + e p − ∆t τ p un − un − aτp e p − ∆t τ p −1 (15.15. When applying the Euler implicit discretization to Equation 15. while accelerations. due to other forces are held constant. January 29.2-1 and Equation 15.2-50 can also be solved using numerical discretization schemes.2-58) The particle velocity at the new location n + 1 is computed by un (1 − p 1 ∆t ) 2 τp un+1 = p + ∆t τp un + 1 ∆tun · p 2 1+ 1 ∆t 2 τp un + ∆ta (15.2-53 are applied when using the analytic discretization scheme.

y = f (t.2-50. .2-7. when no Accuracy Control is enabled. the trajectory integration will be done accurately in time.2-51 and 15. y n ) k2 = ∆tf (t + a2 ∆t. .Discrete Phase For the implicit and the trapezoidal schemes the new particle location is always computed by a trapezoidal discretization of Equation 15. thus accounting for system rotation. Using the mechanisms available for accuracy control. which is switched oﬀ. a6 . c6 are taken from Cash and Karp [48] This scheme provides an embedded error control. 1 xn+1 = xn + ∆t un + un+1 p p p p 2 (15. y) We get y n+1 = y n + c1 k1 + c2 k2 + c3 k3 + c4 k4 + c5 k5 + c6 k6 with (15. It can become inaccurate for large steps and in situations where the particles are not in hydrodynamic equilibrium with the continuous ﬂow. y n + b51 k1 + b52 k2 + b53 k3 + b54 k4 ) k6 = ∆tf (t + a6 ∆t. . y n + b61 k1 + b62 k2 + b63 k3 + b64 k4 + b65 k5 ) The coeﬃcients a2 . y n + b21 k1 ) k3 = ∆tf (t + a3 ∆t. Inc. in combination with Automated Tracking Scheme Selection.2-62) (15. 2009 . The runge-kutta scheme is recommended of nondrag force changes along a particle integration step. . y n + b41 k1 + b42 k2 + b43 k3 ) k5 = ∆tf (t + a5 ∆t. b21 . .0 c ANSYS. b65 . and c1 .2-50 can also be computed using a Runge-Kutta scheme which was published by Cash and Karp [48].2-60) Equations 15.2-6 and Equation 15. The ordinary diﬀerential equations can be considered as vectors. For rotating reference frames. The numerical schemes implicit and trapezoidal. 15-14 Release 12. The analytic scheme is very eﬃcient. y). where the left hand side is the derivative y and the right hand side is an arbitrary function f (t.2-61) k1 = ∆tf (t. the integration is carried out in the rotating frame with the extra terms described in Equation 15. y n + b31 k1 + b32 k2 ) k4 = ∆tf (t + a4 ∆t. . January 29. consider most of the changes in the forces acting on the particles and are chosen as default schemes.

3-4) Release 12. 2009 15-15 . a2 .5565φ exp(4.3 Laws for Drag Coefﬁcients Several laws for drag coeﬃcients.3. with up = u. and a3 are constants that apply over several ranges of Re given by Morsi and Alexander [238].2-58 and 15. the particle velocity is equal to the velocity of the continuous phase.2-50 is required where the particle velocity up = u. CD . January 29. Instructions for selecting the drag law are provided in Section 23.3-3) The shape factor.7322φ2 + 15. CD . 15.4581φ + 2. The new particle location along the trajectory is always computed by Equations 15.8855φ3 ) 24 b3 Resph 1 + b1 Resph b2 + Resph b4 + Resph (15. is deﬁned as φ= s S (15.0 c ANSYS.4: Drag Laws in the separate User’s Guide. 15.1 Spherical Drag Law The drag coeﬃcient.2584φ − 20. for smooth particles can be taken from CD = a1 + a2 a3 + 2 Re Re (15. Therefore it is recommended to use them in combination with Automated Tracking Scheme Selection.2-60.4681 + 12.8944φ + 18. Inc.0964 + 0.2.4486φ2 ) 0.15.3-1) where a1 .3-2) (15.905 − 13.2599φ3 ) exp(1.2 Non-spherical Drag Law For non-spherical particles Haider and Levenspiel [119] developed the correlation CD = where b1 b2 b3 b4 = = = = exp(2. are available for the Euler-Lagrange Model. 15. For the massless particle type.3288 − 6.3 Laws for Drag Coefﬁcients The integration step size of the higher-order schemes. φ.4222φ2 − 10.3. is limited to a stable range. hence the solution of only the trajectory Equation 15. trapezoidal and runge-kutta.

January 29.3-6) where λ is the molecular mean free path.3. The dynamic drag model is applicable in almost any circumstance.424 1+ 1 Re2/3 6 Re > 1000 (15.0 c ANSYS.sphere = 15-16 Release 12. Stokes-Cunningham Drag Law For sub-micron particles. In this case.257 + 0. a form of Stokes’ drag law is available [261]. which you can compute from Cc = 1 + 2λ (1.4 at a particle Reynolds number greater than 20. This drag law is similar to the spherical law (Equation 15. With this assumption.3-5) The factor Cc is the Cunningham correction to Stokes’ drag law.3.4e−(1. The Reynolds number Resph is computed with the diameter of a sphere having the same volume.5 Dynamic Drag Model Theory Accurate determination of droplet drag coeﬃcients is crucial for accurate spray modeling. collisions reset the distortion and distortion velocities of the colliding droplets. i 15. Inc. the drag of a spherical object is determined by the following [205]: 24 Re 0.3. ANSYS FLUENT provides a method that determines the droplet drag coeﬃcient dynamically. 15. FD is deﬁned as FD = 18µ dp 2 ρp Cc (15.3 The shape factor cannot exceed a value of 1. When the collision model is turned on. and S is the actual surface area of the particle. It is compatible with both the TAB and wave models for droplet breakup.1dp /2λ) ) dp (15. Many droplet drag models assume the droplet remains spherical throughout the domain.4 High-Mach-Number Drag Law A high-Mach-number drag law is also available. accounting for variations in the droplet shape. 2009 .Discrete Phase where s is the surface area of a sphere having the same volume as the particle.3-1) with corrections [57] to account for a particle Mach number greater than 0.3-7) Re ≤ 1000 Cd. 15.

along with a recommendation of when to use each model. is signiﬁcantly higher than that of a sphere. can be found in Section 16. while at maximum distortion (y = 1) the drag coeﬃcient corresponding to a disk will be obtained.5.3-9 is obtained from the TAB model for spray breakup. its shape is distorted signiﬁcantly when the Weber number is large.3 Laws for Drag Coefﬁcients However.1: Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) Model. however. as determined by the solution of d2 y CF ρg u2 Ck σ Cd µl dy = − y− 2 2 3 dt Cb ρl r ρl r ρl r2 dt (15. the Gidaspow.3-8) In the limit of no distortion (y = 0). the new drag models are only available when the DPM volume fraction is computed.sphere (1 + 2.3-7) and a value of 1.632y) where y is the droplet distortion.15. Note that Equation 15. i.0 c ANSYS.2: Specifying the Drag Function in the separate User’s Guide). Since the droplet drag coeﬃcient is highly dependent upon the droplet shape. All three correlations incorporate group eﬀects and therefore are dependent on the particle phase volume fraction. Inc.10.3-9) (15. 2009 15-17 . but the dynamic drag model can be used with either of the breakup models. as an initially spherical droplet moves through a gas. Release 12.54 corresponding to a disk [205]. A detailed theoretical background to the correlations. the droplet shape will approach that of a disk.5. Thus.e.3. a drag model that assumes the droplet is spherical is unsatisfactory.6 Dense Discrete Phase Model Drag Laws The drag laws that are suitable for dense gas-solid ﬂow are the Wen and Yu. In the extreme case. January 29. the drag coeﬃcient of a sphere will be obtained. and the Syamlal-O’Brien drag model. The drag coeﬃcient is given by Cd = Cd. The drag of a disk. 15. described in Section 15.4: Fluid-Solid Exchange Coeﬃcient (see also Section 24. in conjunction with the Dense Discrete Phase Model. The dynamic drag model accounts for the eﬀects of droplet distortion. linearly varying the drag between that of a sphere (Equation 15.

You can also extend combusting particles to include an evaporating/boiling material by selecting Wet Combustion in the Set Injection Properties dialog box. heterogeneous surface reaction multicomponent droplets/particles Laws Activated – 1.0 c ANSYS. All particle types have predeﬁned sequences of physical laws as shown in the table below: Particle Type Massless Inert Droplet Combusting Multicomponent Description – inert/heating or cooling heating/evaporation/boiling heating. 3. which describe the heat and mass transfer conditions listed in this table. termed “laws”.4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange Using ANSYS FLUENT’s discrete phase modeling capability. 6 1. 6 7 In addition to the above laws. 6 1. Several heat and mass transfer relationships. evolution of volatiles/swelling. In the Set Injection Properties dialog box you will specify the Particle Type. and ANSYS FLUENT will use a given set of heat and mass transfer laws for the chosen type.Discrete Phase 15. 5. you can deﬁne your own laws using a user-deﬁned function. 2. 4. ANSYS FLUENT’s physical laws (Laws 1 through 6). reacting particles or droplets can be modeled and their impact on the continuous phase can be examined. More information about user-deﬁned functions can be found in the separate UDF Manual. 2009 . The laws that you activate depend upon the particle type that you select. January 29. are available in ANSYS FLUENT and the physical models employed in these laws are described in this section. 15-18 Release 12. are explained in detail in the sections that follow. Inc.

4-4) Release 12.4.0 (15. of a particle has been consumed.0 .4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange 15. 4. and mp is its current mass. Tvap . 2009 15-19 .1 Inert Heating or Cooling (Law 1/Law 6) The inert heating or cooling laws (Laws 1 and 6) are applied when the particle temperature is less than the vaporization temperature that you deﬁne.0 c ANSYS. Inc. i.e.4-3 assumes that there is negligible internal resistance to heat transfer. January 29. to the convective heat transfer and the absorption/emission of radiation at the particle surface: mp cp where mp cp Ap T∞ h p dTp = hAp (T∞ − Tp ) + dt 4 p Ap σ(θR 4 − Tp ) (15. and after the volatile fraction. 3. returning to Law 6 when the volatile portion of the particle/droplet has been consumed. ANSYS FLUENT uses a simple heat balance to relate the particle temperature. mp. At this point a noninert particle/droplet may proceed to obey one of the mass-transfer laws (2. and/or 5).4-3) σ θR = = = = = = = = mass of the particle (kg) heat capacity of the particle (J/kg-K) surface area of the particle (m2 ) local temperature of the continuous phase (K) convective heat transfer coeﬃcient (W/m2 -K) particle emissivity (dimensionless) Stefan-Boltzmann constant (5. is an arbitrary modeling constant used to deﬁne the onset of the vaporization/boiling/volatilization laws.) When using Law 1 or Law 6. Tvap .0 is the initial mass of the particle. G is the incident radiation in W/m2 : G= Ω=4π IdΩ (15. fv.. the particle is at uniform temperature throughout. (Note that the vaporization temperature.15. ( 4σ )1/4 Equation 15.4-2) (15. Tp (t).67 x 10−8 W/m2 -K4 ) G radiation temperature. These conditions may be written as Law 1: Tp < Tvap Law 6: mp ≤ (1 − fv. Law 1 is applied until the temperature of the particle/droplet reaches the vaporization temperature.0 )mp.4-1) where Tp is the particle temperature.

linearized form that assumes that the particle temperature changes slowly from one time value to the next: mp cp dTp = Ap − h + dt 3 p σTp Tp + hT∞ + 4 p σθR (15.0 + 0. January 29. 285]: Nu = where dp k∞ Red Pr = particle diameter (m) = thermal conductivity of the continuous phase (W/m-K) = Reynolds number based on the particle diameter and the relative velocity (Equation 15. Radiation heat transfer to the particle is included only if you have enabled the P-1 or discrete ordinates radiation model and you have activated radiation heat transfer to particles using the Particle Radiation Interaction option in the Discrete Phase Model dialog box. The heat transfer coeﬃcient. ANSYS FLUENT integrates Equation 15.6Red Pr1/3 k∞ (15. is evaluated using the correlation of Ranz and Marshall [284.4-7) βp = (15.2-3) = Prandtl number of the continuous phase (cp µ/k∞ ) hdp 1/2 = 2.8: Including Coupled Heat-Mass Solution Eﬀects on the Particles in the separate User’s Guide for details.0 c ANSYS.4-9) 15-20 Release 12.4-6) (15.4-5 to obtain the particle temperature at the next time value.2.4-5 in conjunction with the equivalent mass transfer equation using a stiﬀ coupled solver. h. Inc. 2009 . yielding Tp (t + ∆t) = αp + [Tp (t) − αp ]e−βp ∆t where ∆t is the integration time step and αp = and 3 Ap (h + p σTp (t)) m p cp 4 hT∞ + p σθR 3 h + p σTp (t) (15.4-3 is integrated in time using an approximate.Discrete Phase where I is the radiation intensity and Ω is the solid angle. Equation 15. See Section 23.4-8) ANSYS FLUENT can also solve Equation 15.4-5) As the particle trajectory is computed.

15. 2009 15-21 .∞ = molar ﬂux of vapor (kgmol/m2 -s) = mass transfer coeﬃcient (m/s) = vapor concentration at the droplet surface (kgmol/m3 ) = vapor concentration in the bulk gas (kgmol/m3 ) (15. the rate of vaporization is governed by gradient diﬀusion. Mass Transfer During Law 2 During Law 2.s Ci. In such cases.e. Note that once vaporization is initiated (by the droplet reaching this threshold temperature). Vaporization will be halted only if the droplet temperature falls below the dew point.0 c ANSYS. When the boiling point is reached..4. the heat lost or gained by the particle as it traverses each computational cell appears as a source or sink of heat in subsequent calculations of the continuous phase energy equation. as described in a section that follows.0). If conditions exist in which Ni is negative (i. the droplet vaporization is predicted by a boiling rate.∞ ) where Ni kc Ci. January 29.0 )mp. Release 12. particles/droplets do not exchange mass with the continuous phase and do not participate in any chemical reaction. Tbp . the droplet temperature falls below the dew point and condensation conditions exist).4-11) The onset of the vaporization law is determined by the setting of Tvap . it will continue to vaporize even if the droplet temperature falls below Tvap .0 (15. ANSYS FLUENT treats the droplet as inert (Ni = 0. or until the droplet’s volatile fraction is completely consumed: Tvap ≤ Tp < Tbp (15.4-10) mp > (1 − fv. with the ﬂux of droplet vapor into the gas phase related to the diﬀerence in vapor concentration at the droplet surface and the bulk gas: Ni = kc (Ci.s − Ci.4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange Finally. Law 3. the droplet will remain in Law 2 but no evaporation will be predicted.2 Droplet Vaporization (Law 2) Law 2 is applied to predict the vaporization from a discrete phase droplet. Tvap . During Laws 1 and 6. Law 2 is initiated when the temperature of the droplet reaches the vaporization temperature. a modeling parameter that has no physical signiﬁcance.4-12) Note that ANSYS FLUENT’s vaporization law assumes that Ni is positive (evaporation). Inc. 15. and continues until the droplet reaches the boiling point.

2. Inc.6Red Sc1/3 Di.4-16 in conjunction with the equivalent heat transfer equation using a stiﬀ coupled solver. 285]: ShAB = where Di. The concentration of vapor in the bulk gas is known from solution of the transport equation for species i for nonpremixed or partially premixed combustion calculations: Ci.∞ = Xi p RT∞ (15.m (15.4-15) = diﬀusion coeﬃcient of vapor in the bulk (m2 /s) = the Schmidt number. 15-22 Release 12.m = particle (droplet) diameter (m) The vapor ﬂux given by Equation 15. psat . Tp : Ci.Discrete Phase The concentration of vapor at the droplet surface is evaluated by assuming that the partial pressure of vapor at the interface is equal to the saturated vapor pressure. January 29. (see Section 23.i ∆t where Mw.8: Including Coupled Heat-Mass Solution Eﬀects on the Particles in the separate User’s Guide for details.0 c ANSYS.i mp Ap = molecular weight of species i (kg/kgmol) = mass of the droplet (kg) = surface area of the droplet (m2 ) (15.5: Setting Material Properties for the Discrete Phase in the separate User’s Guide) or in the mixture fraction equation for nonpremixed combustion calculations. The mass transfer coeﬃcient in Equation 15. See Section 23. at the particle droplet temperature. ρDµ i. p is the local absolute pressure.4-16) ANSYS FLUENT can also solve Equation 15.4-12 becomes a source of species i in the gas phase species transport equation.4-12 is calculated from the Sherwood number correlation [284.4-14) psat (Tp ) RTp (15. The mass of the droplet is reduced according to mp (t + ∆t) = mp (t) − Ni Ap Mw.s = where R is the universal gas constant. and T∞ is the local bulk temperature in the gas.4-13) where Xi is the local bulk mole fraction of species i. 2009 .0 + 0.m Sc dp kc dp 1/2 = 2.

You should provide accurate vapor pressure values for temperatures over the entire range of possible droplet temperatures in your problem. [266]). January 29.4-17) hfg p σ θR = = = = = = = = = droplet heat capacity (J/kg-K) droplet temperature (K) convective heat transfer coeﬃcient (W/m2 -K) temperature of continuous phase (K) rate of evaporation (kg/s) latent heat (J/kg) particle emissivity (dimensionless) Stefan-Boltzmann constant (5. during the setup of the discrete phase material properties. Vapor pressure data can be obtained from a physics or engineering handbook (e. Release 12. You must also input the diﬀusion coeﬃcient.m .0 c ANSYS.4-13).. Heat Transfer to the Droplet Finally. as psat is used to obtain the driving force for the evaporation process (Equations 15.4-12 and 15. The heat transferred to or from the gas phase becomes a source/sink of energy during subsequent calculations of the continuous phase energy equation. the droplet temperature is updated according to a heat balance that relates the sensible heat change in the droplet to the convective and latent heat transfer between the droplet and the continuous phase: mp cp where cp Tp h T∞ dmp dt dTp dmp = hAp (T∞ − Tp ) + hfg + Ap p σ(θR 4 − Tp 4 ) dt dt (15. Note that the vapor pressure deﬁnition is critical.g.67 x 10−8 W/m2 -K4 ) I radiation temperature. Di.4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange Deﬁning the Vapor Pressure and Diffusion Coefﬁcient You must deﬁne the vapor pressure as a polynomial or piecewise linear function of temperature (psat (T )) during the problem deﬁnition. ( 4σ )1/4 . where I is the radiation intensity Radiation heat transfer to the particle is included only if you have enabled the P-1 or discrete ordinates radiation model and you have activated radiation heat transfer to particles using the Particle Radiation Interaction option in the Discrete Phase Model dialog box. Inc. Note that the diﬀusion coeﬃcient inputs that you supply for the continuous phase are not used in the discrete phase model. 2009 15-23 .15.

4-9 for the Nusselt number correlation and replacing the Prandtl number term with an empirical constant.0 )mp.23 Red ) ln 1 + dt ρp cp.∞ (T∞ − Tp ) = (1 + 0.4-22) Using Equation 15.∞ dp hfg where cp.4-22 becomes √ d(dp ) 2 2k∞ [1 + 0.4. (1 − fv. Tbp .23 Red ] (T∞ − Tp ) + − = dp dt ρp hfg 4 p σ(θR 4 − Tp ) (15.0 (15. Note that the model requires T∞ > Tbp in order for boiling to occur and that the droplet remains at ﬁxed temperature (Tbp ) throughout the boiling law.4-17 and assuming that the droplet temperature is constant. derived by starting from Equation 15.4-23) 15-24 Release 12.Discrete Phase 15.4-19) (15.0 c ANSYS. Equation 15.4-20 was derived assuming steady ﬂow at constant pressure. January 29. 2009 .∞ ρp k∞ = heat capacity of the gas (J/kg-K) = droplet density (kg/m3 ) = thermal conductivity of the gas (W/m-K) (15. and while the mass of the droplet exceeds the nonvolatile fraction. When radiation heat transfer is active.4-21) (15.0 ): Tp ≥ Tbp and mp > (1 − fv. ANSYS FLUENT uses a slight modiﬁcation of Equation 15. This yields − or − d(dp ) 2 k∞ Nu = (T∞ − Tp ) + dt ρp hfg dp 4 p σ(θR 4 − Tp ) dmp hfg = hAp (T∞ − Tp ) + Ap p σ(θR 4 − Tp 4 ) dt (15. Inc.4-20. a boiling rate equation is applied [173]: d(dp ) 4k∞ cp.3 Droplet Boiling (Law 3) Law 3 is applied to predict the convective boiling of a discrete phase droplet when the temperature of the droplet has reached the boiling temperature.4-18) When the droplet temperature reaches the boiling point.4-20) Equation 15.

the boiling point. as deﬁned by your input for the destination species (see Section 23. 2009 15-25 .0 (15. in turn. fw. Inc.4-23 when radiation is active in your model and Equation 15.4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange In the absence of radiation.4-24) where fw.5: Setting Material Properties for the Discrete Phase in the separate User’s Guide). When wet combustion is active. Once the boiling law is entered it is applied for the duration of the particle trajectory.4-20 when radiation is not active. exceeds the mass of the nonvolatiles in the particle: Tp ≥ Tvap and Tp ≥ Tbp and mp > (1 − fv. The droplet is assumed to stay at constant temperature while the boiling rate is applied.4-25) (15. The energy required for vaporization appears as a (negative) source term in the energy equation for the gas phase. January 29. Radiation heat transfer to the particle is included only if you have enabled the P-1 or discrete ordinates radiation model and you have activated radiation heat transfer to particles using the Particle Radiation Interaction option in the Discrete Phase Model dialog box. this result matches that of Equation 15. Tbp . The evaporated liquid enters the gas phase as species i.0 c ANSYS.4-20 in the limit that the argument of the logarithm is close to unity.0 = 0). should be set equal to each other when Law 4 is to be used. ANSYS FLUENT uses Equation 15. 15.0 )(1 − fw. Tbp and Tvap refer to the boiling and evaporation temperatures for the combusting material only.0 is the mass fraction of the evaporating/boiling material if Wet Combustion is selected (otherwise. Tvap . and remains in eﬀect while the mass of the particle. below.0 )mp. and the vaporization temperature. Release 12.4-24. As implied by Equation 15.4. Tvap . mp .15. ANSYS FLUENT provides a choice of four devolatilization models: • the constant rate model (the default model) • the single kinetic rate model • the two competing rates model (the Kobayashi model) • the chemical percolation devolatilization (CPD) model Each of these models is described.4 Devolatilization (Law 4) The devolatilization law is applied to a combusting particle when the temperature of the particle reaches the vaporization temperature.

the volatiles may react according to the inputs governing the gas phase chemistry.2: Description of the Properties in the separate User’s Guide. January 29.0 ] dt (15. Once in the gas phase.0 dt (15.4-27) particle mass (kg) mass fraction of volatiles initially present in the particle mass fraction of evaporating/boiling material (if wet combustion is modeled) = initial particle mass (kg) = kinetic rate (s−1 ) 15-26 Release 12.4-26) will be used.0 (1 − fw. as described in Section 23. deﬁned by you (see Section 23.Discrete Phase Choosing the Devolatilization Model You will choose the devolatilization model when you are setting physical properties for the combusting-particle material in the Create/Edit Materials dialog box.0 mp.0 )mp.4-26) particle mass (kg) fraction of volatiles initially present in the particle initial particle mass (kg) rate constant (s−1 ) The rate constant A0 is deﬁned as part of your modeling inputs. 2009 . with a default value of 12 s−1 derived from the work of Pillai [271] on coal combustion. The Constant Rate Devolatilization Model The constant rate devolatilization law dictates that volatiles are released at a constant rate [20]: − where mp fv. the constant rate model (Equation 15.5: Setting Material Properties for the Discrete Phase in the separate User’s Guide).0 k = = = dmp = k[mp − (1 − fv.5. Values in the literature show this temperature to be about 600 K [20].0 fw. The volatile fraction of the particle enters the gas phase as the devolatilizing species i.0 A0 = = = = 1 dmp = A0 fv.0 )mp. be set appropriately. The Single Kinetic Rate Model The single kinetic rate devolatilization model assumes that the rate of devolatilization is ﬁrst-order dependent on the amount of volatiles remaining in the particle [10]: − where mp fv.0 c ANSYS. Proper use of the constant devolatilization rate requires that the vaporization temperature. By default.0 mp. Inc.0 )(1 − fw. which controls the onset of devolatilization.

0 )mp.4-29 in conjunction with the equivalent heat transfer equation using a stiﬀ coupled solver. k. See Section 23.4-28) mp (t + ∆t) = (1 − fv.15.4-27 has the approximate analytical solution: (15.0 + [mp (t) − (1 − fv.0 )(1 − fw.0 )mp. ANSYS FLUENT can also solve Equation 15.0 )mp. The Two Competing Rates (Kobayashi) Model ANSYS FLUENT also provides the kinetic devolatilization rate expressions of the form proposed by Kobayashi [169]: R1 = A1 e−(E1 /RTp ) R2 = A2 e−(E2 /RTp ) (15. The kinetic rate.0 − ma where mv (t) mp.4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange Note that fv. Inc.0 c ANSYS. The two kinetic rates are weighted to yield an expression for the devolatilization as mv (t) = (1 − fw.0 ]e−k∆t (15. Equation 15.4-29) which is obtained by assuming that the particle temperature varies only slightly between discrete time integration steps.0 )(1 − fw. A1 and E [10].4-32) volatile yield up to time t initial particle mass at injection yield factors ash content in the particle Release 12.0 α1 .2. α2 ma = = = = t 0 t (α1 R1 + α2 R2 ) exp − 0 (R1 + R2 ) dt dt (15.8: Including Coupled Heat-Mass Solution Eﬀects on the Particles in the separate User’s Guide for details. January 29. the fraction of volatiles in the particle. 2009 15-27 .4-31) where R1 and R2 are competing rates that may control the devolatilization over diﬀerent temperature ranges. should be deﬁned using a value slightly in excess of that determined by proximate analysis. is deﬁned by input of an Arrhenius type pre-exponential factor and an activation energy: k = A1 e−(E/RT ) ANSYS FLUENT uses default rate constants.4-30) (15.0 .

The CPD Model In contrast to the coal devolatilization models presented above.4-32 is integrated in time analytically. 2009 . The high molecular weight compounds plus the residual lattice are referred to as metaplast.2. 116]. and the yields of the two competing reactions. which is the yield of volatiles at very high temperature. α2 .4. char. General Description During coal pyrolysis. since this rate represents devolatilization at low temperature. and E2 . A2 .0 for the second (fast) reaction. reattachment with the coal lattice (which is referred to as crosslinking) can occur. By default.8: Including Coupled Heat-Mass Solution Eﬀects on the Particles in the separate User’s Guide for details. The portion of the lattice structure that remains after devolatilization is comprised of char and mineral-compound-based ash. E1 . The softening behavior of a coal particle is determined by the quantity and nature of the metaplast generated during devolatilization. Modeling the cleavage of the bridges and the generation of light gas.3 for the ﬁrst (slow) reaction and 1. ANSYS FLUENT can also solve Equation 15. ANSYS FLUENT uses default values for the yield factors of 0. During this time. The other set of fragments consists of tar gas precursors that have a relatively high molecular weight (and correspondingly low vapor pressure) and tend to remain in the coal for a long period of time during typical devolatilization conditions. the chemical percolation devolatilization (CPD) model characterizes the devolatilization behavior of rapidly heated coal based on the physical and chemical transformations of the coal structure [100. 101. The second yield parameter. assuming the particle temperature to be constant over the discrete time integration step. resulting in two general classes of fragments.1. α1 and α2 . should be set close to unity. January 29. and tar precursors is then considered to be analogous to the chemical reaction scheme shown in Figure 15. Equation 15. See Section 23. 15-28 Release 12. It is recommended in the literature [169] that α1 be set to the fraction of volatiles determined by proximate analysis. The CPD model characterizes the chemical and physical processes by considering the coal structure as a simpliﬁed lattice or network of chemical bridges that link the aromatic clusters. which are based on empirical rate relationships. One set of fragments has a low molecular weight (and correspondingly high vapor pressure) and escapes from the coal particle as a light gas.Discrete Phase The Kobayashi model requires input of the kinetic rate parameters.0 c ANSYS. Inc. the labile bonds between the aromatic clusters in the coal structure lattice are cleaved. A1 .4-32 in conjunction with the equivalent heat transfer equation using a stiﬀ coupled solver.

4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange Figure 15.15.0 c ANSYS.4. January 29. 2009 15-29 . Inc.1: Coal Bridge Release 12.

£∗ . g1 . the bridges react to form side chains.4-37) 2ρkb = kg δ = 2 dc dt 15-30 Release 12. Inc. where p = £ + c. As bridges between neighboring aromatic clusters are cleaved. In the other path.4-35) (15. The metaplast vaporizes to form coal tar. 2009 . a certain fraction of the coal becomes detached from the coal lattice. For the reactive bridges. g2 . these bridges become the set of reactive bridges.4-36) (15. Reaction Rates Given this set of variables that characterizes the coal lattice structure during devolatilization. the metaplast can also reattach to the coal lattice matrix (crosslinking). the bridges react and become a char bridge. c.4-34) (15. January 29. These detached aromatic clusters are the heavy-molecular-weight tar precursors that form the metaplast. two competing paths are available.0 c ANSYS. starting with the assumption that the reactive bridges are destroyed at the same rate at which they ∗ are created ( ∂£ = 0): ∂t d£ dt dc dt dδ dt dg1 dt dg2 dt = −kb £ = kb = £ ρ+1 £ − kg δ ρ+1 (15.4-33) (15. with the release of an associated light gas product. While waiting for vaporization. δ. The total population of bridges in the coal lattice matrix can be represented by the variable p. In one path. The side chains may detach from the aromatic clusters to form light gas. the following set of reaction rate expressions can be deﬁned for each. Upon heating.Discrete Phase The variable £ represents the original population of labile bridges in the coal lattice.

respectively.4-38) where A.4-42) (15. Release 12. ρ = kδ /kc . R is the universal gas constant.4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange where the rate constants for bridge breaking and gas release steps.15.4-43) (15. and T is the temperature. Inc. and the distributed variation in the activation energy. p0 is the initial fraction of bridges in the coal lattice.9 in this model based on experimental data. Mass Conservation The following mass conservation relationships are imposed: g = g1 + g2 g1 = 2f − σ g2 = 2(c − c0 ) (15. and £0 is the initial fraction of labile bridges in the coal lattice.4-44) (15. The initial conditions for this system are given by the following: c(0) £(0) δ(0) g(0) = = = = c0 £0 = p 0 − c 0 2f0 = 2(1 − c0 − £0 ) g1 (0) = g2 (0) = 0 (15. is set to 0.4-41) where f is the fraction of broken bridges (f = 1 − p). the pre-exponential factor.0 c ANSYS. 2009 15-31 .4-39) (15.4-40) (15. The ratio of rate constants. E. are expressed in Arrhenius form with a distributed activation energy: k = Ae−(E±Eσ )/RT (15. the activation energy. kb and kg .4-45) where c0 is the initial fraction of char bridges. January 29. and Eσ are.

δ ma = Mw.4-49) (15. where mb = 2Mw.4-47) (15.4-53) (15.δ (15. This is accomplished by using the following relationships. Inc. and are given by the following equations: Φ = 1+r £ (σ − 1)δ + p 4(1 − p) δ £ Ω = − 2(1 − p) p p p σ+1 σ−1 (15.4-50) (15. and K(p) are the statistical relationships related to the cleaving of bridges based on the percolation lattice statistics. tar precursor fragments (ffrag ). it is necessary to relate these quantities to changes in coal mass and the related release of volatile products. the fractional change in the coal mass as a function of time is divided into three parts: light gas (fgas ).0 c ANSYS. F (p). Ω. mb /ma . To accomplish this.4-51) F (p) = K(p) = σ+1 1− p 2 p p σ+1 σ−1 (15. which are obtained using percolation lattice statistics: r(g1 + g2 )(σ + 1) 4 + 2r(1 − c0 )(σ + 1) 2 ffrag (t) = [ΦF (p) + rΩK(p)] 2 + r(1 − c0 )(σ + 1) fchar (t) = 1 − fgas (t) − ffrag (t) fgas (t) = (15.4-46) (15.4-48) The variables Φ.1 − (σ + 1)Mw. and char (fchar ).4-54) 15-32 Release 12. January 29. 2009 .4-52) r is the ratio of bridge mass to site mass.Discrete Phase Fractional Change in the Coal Mass Given the set of reaction equations for the coal structure parameters.

2009 15-33 . which is determined from solid-state nuclear magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements related to coal structure parameters. Ecross . a vapor pressure correlation based on a simple form of Raoult’s Law is used.15. Eσb . mfrag is the amount of mass in the tar precursor fragments (metaplast). Ag .4-55) In accounting for mass in the metaplast (tar precursor fragments). January 29.4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange where Mw.1 are the side chain and cluster molecular weights respectively. Eg . the number of constants that must be deﬁned to use the model is a primary concern. Inc. it can be shown that the following parameters are coal independent [100]: • Ab . As an estimate of the vapor/liquid that is present at any time. σ + 1 is the lattice coordination number. For the relationships deﬁned previously.4-56) where mcross is the amount of mass reattaching to the matrix. and Eσg for the rate constants kb and kg • Across . where it is assumed that the ﬁnite fragments undergo vapor/liquid phase equilibration on a time scale that is rapid with respect to the bridge reactions. the part that vaporizes is treated in a manner similar to ﬂash vaporization. Eb . CPD Inputs Given the set of equations and corresponding rate constants introduced for the CPD model. and p is the root of the following equation in p (the total number of bridges in the coal lattice matrix): p (1 − p )σ−1 = p(1 − p)σ−1 (15. For the part of the metaplast that reattaches to the coal lattice.0 c ANSYS. The vapor pressure treatment is largely responsible for predicting pressure-dependent devolatilization yields. and ρ These constants are included in the submodel formulation and are not input or modiﬁed during problem setup.δ and Mw. Release 12. and Across and Ecross are rate expression constants. a cross-linking rate expression given by the following equation is used: dmcross = mfrag Across e−(Ecross /RT ) dt (15.

ACERC refers to three types of coal examined at the Advanced Combustion Engineering Research Center. Values for the coal-dependent parameters for a variety of coals are listed in Table 15. Mw. as described in Section 23. ACERC) 1488 (subbituminous.25 Mw.4.7 p0 . representing the char bridges that either exist in the parent coal or are formed very early in the devolatilization process. ACERC) 1468 (anthracite.δ The ﬁrst four of these are coal structure quantities that are obtained from NMR experimental data.1 • side chain molecular weight.8 5.6 5.0 4.14 0 0 0 0 0 .10 .4.2: Description of the Properties in the separate User’s Guide.20 .3 4.1: Chemical Structure Parameters for Coal Type Zap (AR) Wyodak (AR) Utah (AR) Ill6 (AR) Pitt8 (AR) Stockton (AR) Freeport (AR) Pocahontas (AR) Blue (Sandia) Rose (AFR) 1443 (lignite.15 . 363].1.9 5.1 5. AFR refers to coal examined at Advanced Fuel Research.63 .15 . c0 • lattice coordination number. Sandia refers to the coal examined at Sandia National Laboratories [99].54 .62 .69 .Discrete Phase There are an additional ﬁve parameters that are coal-speciﬁc and must be speciﬁed during the problem setup: • initial fraction of bridges in the coal lattice. σ + 1 • cluster molecular weight.8 4.8 4. The last quantity.59 .4 5. p0 • initial fraction of char bridges. ACERC) σ+1 3. is estimated based on the coal rank.1 277 410 359 316 294 275 302 299 410 459 297 310 656 AR refers to eight types of coal from the Argonne premium sample bank [329.57 . Inc.0 c ANSYS.67 . 15-34 Release 12.89 13 C NMR for 13 Coals Mw. These quantities are entered in the Create/Edit Materials dialog box.49 .7 4. Table 15.63 .δ 40 42 36 27 24 20 17 14 47 48 36 37 12 c0 .5.20 . January 29.55 .0 5.5 4. 2009 .74 .42 . Mw.20 .

0 )mp.15. Inc. by assuming that the temperature and mass of the particle do not change signiﬁcantly between time steps: Tp (t + ∆t) = αp + [Tp (t) − αp ]e−βp ∆t where hAp T∞ + dmp hfg + Ap p σθR 4 dt hAp + p Ap σTp 3 (15.4-60) Release 12. Equation 15.0 )mp. which is deﬁned by you and applied in the following relationship: dp (1 − fw. and when the swelling coeﬃcient is equal to 0. This quantity approaches a value of 1.0 c ANSYS.4-58) Radiation heat transfer to the particle is included only if you have enabled the P-1 or discrete ordinates radiation model and you have activated radiation heat transfer to particles using the Particle Radiation Interaction option in the Discrete Phase Model dialog box. the ﬁnal particle diameter doubles when all of the volatile component has vaporized.4-57) w.0p is the ratio of the mass that has been devolatilized to the total fv.0 dp = particle diameter at the start of devolatilization = current particle diameter (15.0 −m The term (1−f(1−fw.5 the ﬁnal particle diameter is half of its initial diameter. By default. the particle diameter stays constant. When the swelling coeﬃcient is equal to 1. Heat Transfer to the Particle During Devolatilization Heat transfer to the particle during the devolatilization process includes contributions from convection.0 fv.0 )mp. Csw . When the swelling coeﬃcient is equal to 2. 2009 15-35 .0 volatile mass of the particle. radiation (if active).4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange Particle Swelling During Devolatilization The particle diameter changes during devolatilization according to the swelling coeﬃcient.0 )mp.4-59) αp = and (15.0 (1 − fw.0.0.0 where dp. January 29. and the heat consumed during devolatilization: mp cp dTp dmp = hAp (T∞ − Tp ) + hfg + Ap p σ(θR 4 − Tp 4 ) dt dt (15.0 − mp = 1 + (Csw − 1) dp.4-58 is solved analytically.0 as the devolatilization law is applied.

15.0 (15.4-64) where Sb is deﬁned in terms of mass of oxidant per mass of char.4-62) When the combustible fraction. the surface combustion law consumes the reactive content of the particle as governed by the stoichiometric requirement. the combusting particle may contain residual “ash” that reverts to the inert heating law. of the surface “burnout” reaction: char(s) + Sb ox(g) −→ products(g) (15.Discrete Phase βp = Ap (h + p σTp 3 ) m p cp (15. has been consumed in Law 5. of the particle.0 )mp. a surface reaction begins which consumes the combustible fraction. ANSYS FLUENT provides a choice of four heterogeneous surface reaction rate models for combusting particles: • the diﬀusion-limited rate model (the default model) • the kinetics/diﬀusion-limited rate model • the intrinsic model • the multiple surface reactions model 15-36 Release 12. fcomb .4-61) ANSYS FLUENT can also solve Equation 15. Sb .0 )mp. January 29.2. See Section 23.0 )(1 − fw.4-58 in conjunction with the equivalent mass transfer equation using a stiﬀ coupled solver.0 and until the combustible fraction is consumed: mp > (1 − fv. 2009 .4-63) (15. and the oxidant and product species are deﬁned in the Set Injection Properties dialog box. Law 5 is thus active (for a combusting particle) after the volatiles are evolved: mp < (1 − fv.4.0 − fcomb )(1 − fw. With the exception of the multiple surface reactions model.8: Including Coupled Heat-Mass Solution Eﬀects on the Particles in the separate User’s Guide for details.0 c ANSYS. Law 6 (described previously). Inc.5 Surface Combustion (Law 5) After the volatile component of the particle is completely evolved. fcomb .

0 c ANSYS. The Diffusion-Limited Surface Reaction Rate Model The diﬀusion-limited surface reaction rate model which is the default model in ANSYS FLUENT.4-68) (15.4-67) (15. Since the mass of the particles is decreasing. the eﬀective density decreases. By default. in which a diﬀusion rate coeﬃcient [(Tp + T∞ )/2]0.15.2: Description of the Properties in the separate User’s Guide. and the char particles become more porous. The Kinetic/Diffusion Surface Reaction Rate Model The kinetic/diﬀusion-limited rate model assumes that the surface reaction rate is determined either by kinetics or by a diﬀusion rate. the diﬀusion-limited rate model will be used.4-64 (15.m Yox ρ Sb = = = = diﬀusion coeﬃcient for oxidant in the bulk (m2 /s) local mass fraction of oxidant in the gas gas density (kg/m3 ) stoichiometry of Equation 15.4-65) Equation 15.4-65 is derived from the model of Baum and Street [20] with the kinetic contribution to the surface reaction rate ignored. assumes that the surface reaction proceeds at a rate determined by the diﬀusion of the gaseous oxidant to the surface of the particle: dmp Yox T∞ ρ = −4πdp Di. You will choose the surface combustion model when you are setting physical properties for the combusting-particle material.75 D0 = C1 dp and a kinetic rate R = C2 e−(E/RTp ) are weighted to yield a char combustion rate of dmp D0 R = −Ap pox dt D0 + R (15.5. as described in Section 23. ANSYS FLUENT uses the model of Baum and Street [20] and Field [96].4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange Each of these models is described in detail below.m dt Sb (Tp + T∞ ) where Di.4-66) Release 12. 2009 15-37 . The diﬀusion-limited rate model assumes that the diameter of the particles does not change. Inc. January 29.

and the kinetic rate. Like the kinetic/diﬀusion model. January 29. The intrinsic model uses Equation 15. Yox . assuming the order of reaction is equal to unity. Equation 15. incorporates the eﬀects of chemical reaction on the internal surface of the char particle (intrinsic reaction) and pore diﬀusion. Inc.0 c ANSYS.4-69). the rate constants used in Equations 15. is explicitly expressed in terms of the intrinsic chemical and pore diﬀusion rates: R=η dp ρ p Ag k i 6 (15. pox is the partial pressure of oxidant p species in the gas surrounding the combusting particle. When this model is enabled. as dmp ρRT∞ Yox D0 R = −Ap dt Mw.Discrete Phase where Ap is the surface area of the droplet (πd2 ).4-68 is recast in terms of the oxidant mass fraction.4-66 to compute the diﬀusion rate coeﬃcient. 2009 .5: Setting Material Properties for the Discrete Phase in the separate User’s Guide. In ANSYS FLUENT.4-71) (15. R.ox D0 + R (15. R. The Intrinsic Model The intrinsic model in ANSYS FLUENT is based on Smith’s model [324]. as described in Section 23.4-66 and 15. or the ratio of the actual combustion rate to the rate attainable if no pore diﬀusion resistance existed [182]: η= where φ is the Thiele modulus: dp Sb ρp Ag ki pox φ= 2 De ρox 1/2 3 (φ coth φ − 1) φ2 (15.4-70) η is the eﬀectiveness factor. the intrinsic model assumes that the surface reaction rate includes the eﬀects of both bulk diﬀusion and chemical reaction (see Equation 15.4-72) 15-38 Release 12. but the chemical rate.4-67 are entered in the Create/Edit Materials dialog box.4-69) The particle size is assumed to remain constant in this model while the density is allowed to decrease. D0 .

the apparent and true densities of the pyrolysis char.4-72) is the intrinsic reactivity. Release 12.4-70 and 15. the default values provided by ANSYS FLUENT (which are taken from a least squares ﬁt of data of a wide range of porous carbons. Assuming that the pore size distribution is unimodal and the bulk and Knudsen diﬀusion proceed in parallel. an estimated mean value for bituminous chars is 300 m2 /g [50]. DKn is the Knudsen diﬀusion coeﬃcient: DKn = 97.ox (15.4-70 and 15.0rp Tp Mw. which is of Arrhenius form: ki = Ai e−(Ei /RTp ) (15.4-74) ρp and ρt are. The mean value of the internal surface area during char combustion is higher than that of the pyrolysis char [182]. January 29. τ (in Equation 15.0 c ANSYS. Ag (in Equations 15.4-75) where Tp is the particle temperature and rp is the mean pore radius of the char particle.4-73) where D0 is the bulk molecular diﬀusion coeﬃcient and θ is the porosity of the char particle: θ =1− ρp ρt (15. which is assumed in this model to remain constant during char combustion.4-73) is the tortuosity of the pores. De is given by De = θ 1 1 + 2 D τ D0 Kn −1 (15. Inc. The default value for τ in ANSYS √ FLUENT is 2. Internal surface area data for various pyrolysis chars can be found in [323].15. respectively.4-72) is the speciﬁc internal surface area of the char particle. 2009 15-39 .4-76) where the pre-exponential factor Ai and the activation energy Ei can be measured for each char. which can be measured by mercury porosimetry. which corresponds to an average intersecting angle between the pores and the external surface of 45◦ [182]. For example.4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange ρox is the density of oxidant in the bulk gas (kg/m3 ) and De is the eﬀective diﬀusion coeﬃcient in the particle pores. including chars [323]) can be used. ki (in Equations 15. Note that macropores (rp > 150 ˚) dominate in low-rank chars while micropores (rp < 10 ˚) dominate in high-rank A A chars [182]. In the absence of such measurements.

4-72. 15. and in turn.4-66. respectively. corresponding to a decrease of both size and density.0 (15. as described in Section 23.e.0 c ANSYS.Discrete Phase To allow a more adequate description of the char particle size (and hence density) variation during combustion. at the start of char combustion). the rate constants used in Equations 15.4-76. the reactive “char” content of the particle is consumed. with combusting particles following other char combustion laws.4-77) where mp is the char particle mass and the subscript zero refers to initial conditions (i. See Section 7.. The particle surface species constitutes the reactive char mass of the particle. Multiple injections can be accommodated. not only to char oxidation reactions. The model is based on oxidation studies of char particles. and 15. In zone 2. 15. The Multiple Surface Reactions Model Modeling multiple particle surface reactions follows a pattern similar to the wall surface reaction models. For the mixture material deﬁned in the Species Model dialog box. 15. 15-40 Release 12.4-75.4-70. Any number of particle surface species and any number of particle surface reactions can be deﬁned for any given combusting particle. has been found to work well for a variety of chars [322]. but it is also applicable to gas-solid reactions in general. 15.4-77 are entered in the Create/Edit Materials dialog box. Note that 0 ≤ α ≤ 1/3 where the limiting values 0 and 1/3 correspond. Inc. and combusting particles reacting according to the multiple surface reactions model can coexist in the calculation. an intermediate value of α = 0. where the surface species is now a “particle surface species”.5: Setting Material Properties for the Discrete Phase in the separate User’s Guide.0 ) by [322] dp = (1 − U )α dp.3: Particle Surface Reactions for information about particle surface reactions. 15.25. when a surface species is produced. you can specify the burning mode α. to a constant size with decreasing density (zone 1) and a decreasing size with constant density (zone 3) during burnout. it is added to the particle “char” mass.4-73. relating the char particle diameter to the fractional degree of burnout U (where U = 1 − mp /mp. hence. When this model is enabled. the particle surface species can be depleted or produced by the stoichiometry of the particle surface reaction (deﬁned in the Reactions dialog box). if a particle surface species is depleted. 2009 . January 29.

or partially premixed combustion models.. • The model is available only with the species transport model for volumetric reactions.0 if the char burnout product is CO and 0. Heat and Mass Transfer During Char Combustion The surface reaction consumes the oxidant species in the gas phase. 2009 15-41 . it is recommended that fh be set to 1.4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange Limitations Note the following limitations of the multiple surface reactions model: • The model is not available together with the unsteady tracking option. i.15.4-78) where Hreac is the heat released by the surface reaction. by assuming that the temperature and mass of the particle do not change signiﬁcantly between time steps. By default. Similarly. premixed. The surface reaction also consumes or produces energy. Release 12.4-78 is solved analytically. the surface reaction is a source of species in the gas phase: the product of the heterogeneous surface reaction appears in the gas phase as a user-selected chemical species. For coal combustion. Equation 15. Note that only a portion (1 − fh ) of the energy produced by the surface reaction appears as a heat source in the gasphase energy equation: the particle absorbs a fraction fh of this heat directly.3 if the char burnout product is CO2 [33]. ANSYS FLUENT can also solve Equation 15. Radiation heat transfer to the particle is included only if you have enabled the P-1 or discrete ordinates radiation model and you have activated radiation heat transfer to particles using the Particle Radiation Interaction option in the Discrete Phase Model dialog box.8: Including Coupled Heat-Mass Solution Eﬀects on the Particles in the separate User’s Guide for details. See Section 23. it supplies a (negative) source term during the computation of the transport equation for this species.2.e. and not with the nonpremixed. in an amount determined by the heat of reaction deﬁned by you.0 c ANSYS. January 29. The particle heat balance during surface reaction is m p cp dTp dmp = hAp (T∞ − Tp ) − fh Hreac + Ap p σ(θR 4 − Tp 4 ) dt dt (15. Inc.4-78 in conjunction with the equivalent mass transfer equation using a stiﬀ coupled solver.

4-15).4-80) For particles containing more than one component it is diﬃcult to assign the whole particle to one process like boiling or heating.4-79) The density of the particle ρp can be either constant.4-83) 15-42 Release 12. 2009 . convective heating (Equation 15.g ) dt (15.6 Multicomponent Particle Deﬁnition (Law 7) Multicomponent particles are described in ANSYS FLUENT as a mixture of species within droplets/particles. where Mw.i (Ci.4-81) dmi dt = Ap Mw.i is the molecular weight of species i.0 c ANSYS. January 29. Inc. The source terms for temperature and component mass are the sum of the sources from the partial processes: dTp dt 4 4 = Ap p σ(θR − Tp ) + hAp (T∞ − Tp ) + i mp cp dmi (hi.p − hi.i of component i is calculated from the Sherwood correlation (Equation 15.4-12).i kc. The concentration of vapor at the particle surface Ci. The particle mass m is the sum of the masses of the components m= i mi (15.Discrete Phase 15.4-82) The equation for the particle temperature T consists of terms for radiation.s = pi X Lp = i RT RT (15. The mass transfer coeﬃcient kc.4-3) and vaporization. Radiation heat transfer to the particle is included only if you have enabled P-1 or Discrete-Ordinates (DO) radiation and you have activated radiation heat transfer to the particles using the Particle Radiation Interaction option in the Discrete Phase Model dialog box. The mass of the particle components mi is only inﬂuenced by the vaporization (Equation 15. or volume-averaged: mi mρi −1 ρp = i (15. Therefore it can be only modeled by a law integrating all processes of relevance in one equation.s over the surface and its mole fraction in the condensed phase XiL is described by Raoult’s law: Ci.∞ ) (15.4.s depends on the saturation pressure of the component. Raoult’s Law The correlation between the vapor concentration of a species Ci.s − Ci.

equating the fugacity of the liquid and vapor mixture components [275]: fi V = xi V φi V p = xi L φi L p = fi L (15. bring into contact two phases which are not at equilibrium. see Section 2. The rate at which a species is transferred from one phase to the other depends on the departure of the system from equilibrium. 2009 15-43 . The partial pressure of species i can be obtained from the general expression for two phase equilibrium. you can deﬁne your own user-deﬁned function for delivering the vapor concentration at the particle surface .5-1) where Tp is the droplet temperature. psat in Equation 15. the partial pressure of species i.S over the surface depends on whether the compressability of the vapor phase Z V is taken into account: Ci.4-12. For the general case where N components are evaporating from a droplet (distillation).s is the equilibrium concentration of the droplet species in the gas phase.s = psat /RTp (15.4-13 as: Ci. when a droplet material is chosen as the component of a mixture.0 c ANSYS. however.4-12. to calculate the concentration of i at the droplet surface. the evaporation rate of each species is again given by Equation 15.5 Vapor Liquid Equilibrium Theory Peng-Robinson Real Gas Model For the calculation of the vapor concentration of a species Ci. and psat is the saturation pressure of the droplet species at Tp .5-2) Release 12.15: DEFINE DPM VP EQUILIB in the separate UDF Manual. absorption and extraction.4-84) The data for the vapor pressure are no longer available. and is computed in Equation 15. January 29.S = xi V p Z V RT (15. Inc.5-1 must be replaced by pi . where Ci. 15. In ANSYS FLUENT the rate of vaporization of a single component droplet is computed from Equation 15.5. such as distillation. Besides using Raoult’s Law and the Peng-Robinson equation of state. because it is not necessary for the calculation. such as the computation of evaporation rates in spray combustion applications.5 Vapor Liquid Equilibrium Theory A number of industrially important processes.15. For more information. Apart from these cases. The quantitative treatment of these rate processes requires knowledge of the equilibrium states of the system. vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) relationships in multicomponent systems are needed for the solution of many other classes of engineering problems.

and accounts for the nonideality in the liquid phase. When Raoult’s law is applicable. For higher pressures.i L is the fugacity coeﬃcient for pure i at the saturation pressure. respectively. This is not likely to be valid. there is a UDF hook available for userdeﬁned vapor-liquid equilibrium models. Most models describing the fugacity coeﬃcients use a cubic equation of state with the general form: 15-44 Release 12. However. T is the particle surface temperature. January 29.Discrete Phase where xi is the mole fraction. then Equation 15.i ) RT (15. γ ≈ 1. and p is the absolute pressure. Vi L is the molar volume of the liquid.i exp i Vi L (p − psat.4-12.i [325]: fi L = xi L φi L p = γi xL φsat. R is the universal gas constant. with the equilibrium concentration of species i in the gas phase Ci. φi is the fugacity coeﬃcient for the species i in the mixture. so the particle temperature is used instead. xi V p = xi L psat. as the assumptions made for its derivation are usually unrealistic. keep in mind that it is of limited use. Under low pressure conditions where the gas phase may be assumed to be ideal.s = xi psat.i is the saturation pressure of species i at Tp .i /RTp (15.5-2 reduces to Raoult’s law.5-4) Raoult’s law is the default vapor-liquid equilibrium expression used in the ANSYS FLUENT multicomponent droplet model. The fugacity of the liquid phase can be calculated from the pure component’s saturation pressure psat.s computed as: Ci. Inc. While Raoult’s law represents the simplest form of the VLE equation. unless the system is made up of species of similar molecular sizes and chemical nature. The most critical assumption is that the liquid phase is an ideal solution. Furthermore. especially near or above the critical point of the components. 2009 . The fugacity coeﬃcients account for the nonideality in the gas and liquid mixture. φsat. and psat. Except at high pressures.i L psat. or n-heptane and n-hexane. such as in the case of benzene and toluene. The superscripts V and L are the vapor and the liquid phase variables.5-3) Here. xi is the mole fraction of species i in the droplet. the Poynting factor is usually negligible.0 c ANSYS. φi V ≈ 1 and φsat. the vaporization rate of each species from a multicomponent droplet can be computed from Equation 15.i (15. real gas eﬀects must be considered. γi is the activity coeﬃcient for species i in the mixture.i ≈ 1 . The exponential term is the Poynting correction factor and accounts for the compressibility eﬀects within the liquid. if the liquid is also assumed to be ideal. We assume perfect thermal conductivity inside the particle.5-5) where Tp is the droplet temperature.

i Tc.15. where δ = 2b.i Pc. pc. The pure component parameters can be obtained using the relationship with the Peng-Robinson constants: ai = 2 R2 Tc.0 c ANSYS. = −b2 .5-7) This equation deﬁnes the compressibility Z= pV RT aV /RT = − 2 RT V − b V + 2bV − b2 (15.i is the critical temperature.i T 1 + (0.5-8) The implementation of the Peng-Robinson equation of state in ANSYS FLUENT uses this expression for both phases.Nj=i lnφi = (15.5 Vapor Liquid Equilibrium Theory p= RT a(V − η) − V − b (V − b)(V 2 + δV − ) (15. the particle liquid and the vapor phase. The parameters a and b are determined by the composition using a simple mixing law: N N a = i=1 j=1 N √ x i x j ai aj (15. Inc. The fugacities of the components depend on the compressibility of the liquid and vapor phase: ∂(Aγ /RT ) ∂Ni − lnZ T.5-11) Release 12.5-10) where Tc. and η = b: p= RT a − 2 V − b V + 2bV − b2 (15.574ωi − 0.i 1/2 2 bi = 0.5-9) b = i=1 x i bi where N is the number of components in the mixture. For in-cylinder applications.077796 RTc.5-6) where V is the molar volume.V.176ωi 2 ) 1 − 4.i is the critical pressure and ωi is the accentric factor of the component i. January 29. the Peng-Robinson equation of state is often used [265].i (15.480 + 1.57235 pc. 2009 15-45 .

the vapor mole fraction xi V . the pressure p.1: “Wall Jet” Boundary Condition for the Discrete Phase The wall-jet type boundary condition assumes an analogy with an inviscid jet impacting a solid wall. which is a function of the compressibility: Aγ = RT ∞ [1 − Z] V dV + lnZ V (15.0 c ANSYS. and the compressibilities of the vapor (Z V ) and the liquid (Z L ) phase at the surface of the particle are determined from the liquid particle mole fraction of the components xi L and the particle temperature Tp . 2009 .6-1) where Hπ is the sheet height at Ψ = π and β is a constant determined from conservation of mass and momentum.5-13) 15. January 29. H(Ψ) = Hπ eβ(1− π ) Ψ (15. Inc. φ.6 Wall-Jet Model Theory The direction and velocity of the droplet particles are given by the resulting momentum ﬂux.5-12) In summary. and Weber number.6.1. The probability that a drop leaves the impingement point at an angle between Ψ and Ψ + δΨ is given by integrating the expression for H(Ψ) 15-46 Release 12. The surface vapor concentrations are calculated using the following equation: Ci. See Figure 15.6-1 shows the analytical solution for an axisymmetric impingement assuming an empirical function for the sheet height (H) as a function of the angle that the drop leaves the impingement (Ψ).S = xi V p Z V RT (15. z y φ H(Ψ) Ψ x x side view top view Figure 15. Equation 15. which is a function of the impingement angle.Discrete Phase where Aγ is the residual Helmholtz energy.6.

as well as at the intake valve itself. Several cycles worth of fuel remain in the intake tract due to ﬁlm formation on the walls. The modeling of the wall-ﬁlm inside a DI engine. This carbon deposit absorbs the liquid ﬁlm as it impinges upon it.6-3) 15. The process repeats itself between 200 and 8000 times per minute. The evaporated mixture is entrained into the cylinder of the engine.15. The mixture that is compressed and burned.6-2) where P is a random number between 0 and 1. usually at the intake port near the intake valve. 2009 15-47 . Additionally.2: Interaction During Impact with a Boundary • Section 15. is compounded by the presence of carbon deposits on the surfaces of the engine.7 Wall-Film Model Theory π Ψ = − ln[1 − P (1 − e−β )] β (15. ﬁnally exits through the exhaust port. called the wall-ﬁlm model. In a direct injection engine.7. depending on the engine.3: Splashing • Section 15.5: Conservation Equations for Wall-Film Particles 15. Inc. A fuel spray impinges on a surface. January 29.0 c ANSYS.4: Separation Criteria • Section 15. This in turn makes the ﬁlm important in hydrocarbon emissions for PFI engines.7 Wall-Film Model Theory This section is composed of the following: • Section 15.7. where it splashes and subsequently evaporates.7. ﬁlm can form inside combustion chambers of direct injection (DI) types of engines.7.1 Introduction ANSYS FLUENT has a speciﬁc boundary condition for simulation of internal combustion engines. where it is mixed with the fresh charge and any residual gas in the cylinder. Spray-wall interaction is an important part of the mixture formation process in port fuel injected (PFI) engines.1: Introduction • Section 15. where the spray can impinge upon the piston if the injection event is early or late in the cycle.7. especially in diesel engines.7. fuel is injected directly into the combustion chamber. The expression for β is given in Naber and Reitz [244] as eβ + 1 π (eβ − 1)(1 + ( β )2 ) sin(φ) = (15. It is believed that Release 12.

• The ﬁlm temperature never exceeds the boiling temperature for the liquid. The main assumptions and restrictions for the wall-ﬁlm model are as follows: • The wall-ﬁlm model is not available with the Workpile Algorithm shared memory option in parallel processing. Figure 15. the carbon deposits adsorb the fuel later in the cycle. Momentum. less than 500 microns in thickness.7. calculation of ﬁlm variables. Major Physical Phenomena DPM particles are used to model the wall-ﬁlm. January 29. subsequent tracking on surfaces. • Film particles are assumed to be in direct contact with the wall surface and the heat transfer from the wall to the ﬁlm takes place by conduction. The model can be broken down into four major subtopics: interaction during the initial impact with a wall boundary. This limitation is due to the assumption of a linear velocity proﬁle in the ﬁlm.1 schematically shows the basic mechanisms considered for the wall-ﬁlm model. and coupling to the gas phase. • The layer is thin. 2009 . • The temperature in the ﬁlm particles change relatively slowly so that an analytical integration scheme can be utilized. however this phenomena is very complex and is not well understood.7.¡¢ ¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡ ¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡ ¢¡¢¡ ¢¡¡ ¢¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡¢¡¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡ ¡¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢¢ ¢¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¢ ¢¡¡¡¡¡¡¢ ¢¡¡¢ ¢¡¡¢ ¢¡¢ ¢ ¡¢¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¡¡ ¤ ¢¡¢ ¢ ¤¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¢ ¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¢ ¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¢ ¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¢ ¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¤¡¤¡¢ ¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¡¤¡¢ ¤¡¤¡¢ ¢ ¤¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡¡¡ ¤ ¤ ¤ £¤¤£¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ £¤¤£¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ £¤¤£¤ ¤ £¤¤£¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¡¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¢ ¢ ¡ ¡¢ ¢ ¡¡¢ ¢ ¡¢ ¢ ¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¡¡ £¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡£¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¤¡¤¡¤¡¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¡¤¡¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ £¤¡ ¡ ¡¡ £¤¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ £¤¡¡ ¡¡ ¢ ¡£¤ ¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡£¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ££¤¤£ £¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡£¡ £ £ £ £ ¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¡¤¡¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤ ¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡££¤¡£¡£¡£¡££¤¡£¡£¡£¡££¤¡£¡£¡£¡£¡££¤ ¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡£¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡££¤¤¡¡¡¡££¤¤¡¡¡¡££¤¤¡¡¡¡¡££¤¤ ££¤¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ££¤¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ££¤¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ££¤¤ ¤ ££¤¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ Impinging Fuel Drops Splashing Evaporation Conduction Convective heat transfer Shear Forces Film separation and sheet breakup 15-48 Discrete Phase • The simulation is transient. Figure 15.0 c ANSYS.1: Mechanisms of Splashing. The wall-ﬁlm model in ANSYS FLUENT allows a single component liquid drop to impinge upon a boundary surface and form a thin ﬁlm. Heat and Mass Transfer for the Wall-Film Release 12. Inc.

7. Here. January 29. δbl is a boundary layer thickness. Release 12.15. the wall-jet model may be more appropriate as the assumption in the wall-jet impingement model is that there is a vapor layer underneath the drops which keeps them from making direct contact with the boundary surface. stick. where the regimes are calculated for a drop-wall interaction based on local information. By deﬁning the energy as in Equation 15. The impact energy is deﬁned by E2 = ρVr2 D σ 1 min (h0 /D. while above the boiling temperature. the presence of the ﬁlm on the wall suppresses the splash. the impinging droplet can either stick. Tb Below the boiling temperature of the liquid. spread or splash. This may be a more accurate assumption for in-cylinder diesel computations at typical operating conditions. and σ is the surface tension of the liquid. E T Splash Spread Rebound Stick E Tw Figure 15. rebound. and splash are based on the impact energy and wall temperature. but does not give unphysical results when the ﬁlm height approaches zero. 1) + δbl /D (15.7-2) where the Reynolds number is deﬁned as Re = ρVr D/µ.2 Interaction During Impact with a Boundary The wall interaction is based on the work of Stanton [336] and O’Rourke [258].7. the particle can either rebound or splash. Vr2 = (Vp − Vw )2 ).7 Wall-Film Model Theory If you wish to model a spray impacting a very hot wall. deﬁned by D δbl = √ Re (15.7-1) where ρ is the liquid density. The following chart is helpful in showing the cutoﬀs. 15.e.7-1. Vr is the relative velocity of the particle in the frame of the wall (i. D is the diameter of the droplet.2: Simpliﬁed Decision Chart for Wall Interaction Criterion. The criteria by which the regimes are partitioned are based on the impact energy and the boiling temperature of the liquid. The four regimes.0 c ANSYS. spread. 2009 15-49 . Inc.

7.7. where the probability of the drop having a particular direction along the surface is given by an analogy of an inviscid liquid jet with an empirically deﬁned radial dependence for the momentum ﬂux. deﬁned as Ecr = 57. a diﬀerent diameter is obtained by sampling a cumulative probability distribution function (CPDF). and the particle velocity is set equal to the wall velocity. The properties (diameter. You can explicitly set the number of particles created by each impact in the DPM tab of the Wall boundary condition dialog box. which is obtained from a Weibull distribution function and ﬁtted to the data from Mundo.7. The number of splashed parcels may be set to an integer value between zero and ten. For the rebound regime. The equation is pdf d D d d = 2 2 exp − D D 2 (15.Discrete Phase The sticking regime is applied when the dimensionless energy E is less than 16. the initial direction and velocity of the particle are set using the wall-jet model. Inc. If the wall temperature is above the boiling temperature of the liquid. In the spreading regime. only the number of parcels representing those drops. Therefore. 2009 . magnitude. and direction) of the splashed parcels are randomly sampled from the experimentally obtained distribution functions described in the following sections. the particle splashes and several new particles are created. for each splashed parcel.3: Splashing. Splashing occurs when the impingement energy is above a critical energy threshold. The number of splashed droplet parcels is set in the Wall boundary condition dialog box with a default number of 4.7-4) and it represents the probability of ﬁnding drops of diameter di in a sample of splashed drops. the particle rebounds with the following coeﬃcient of restitution: e = 0. Setting the number of splashed parcels to zero turns oﬀ the splashing calculation.56Θ2 − 0.7-3) 15. The splashing algorithm follows that described by Stanton [336] and is detailed in Section 15. et al.3 Splashing If the particle impinging on the surface has a suﬃciently high energy. (15.76ΘI + 1.49Θ3 I I where ΘI is the impingement angle as measured from the wall surface. you can select numbers between zero and ten.993 − 1. To ensure that the distribution functions produce physical results with an increasing 15-50 Release 12. January 29. impingement events below a critical impact energy (Ecr ) results in the particles rebounding from the wall. but with the peak of the distribution function being D = dmax / 2. however. This distribution is similar to the Nakamura-Tanasawa distribution function used √ by O’Rourke [258].0 c ANSYS. [241]. Bear in mind that each splashed parcel can be considered a discrete sample of the distribution curves and that selecting the number of splashed drops in the Wall boundary condition dialog box does not limit the number of splashed drops.

The splashed mass fraction ys is given by ys = 2 2 1.7-8) where the pdfi is for the ith sample. The peak of the splashed diameter distribution is dmax /d0 = MAX 2 Ecrit 6. An expression for the diameter (which is a function of D. Inc. The values of pdfi are then normalized so that their sum is one. the following expression for dmax from O’Rourke [258] is used. Once the diameter of the splashed drop has been determined. the probability of ﬁnding that drop in a given sample is determined by evaluating Equation 15. . and the impingement energy) is obtained by inverting Equation 15.0 c ANSYS. but an expression for Ntot can be obtained from the conservation of mass if the total splashed mass is known. 0.06 for very high energy impacts in any of the experiments analyzed by O’Rourke [258].7-6) The cumulative probability distribution function (CPDF) is needed so that a diameter can be sampled from the experimental data. The CPDF is obtained from integrating Equation 15. The amount of mass splashed from the surface is a quadratic function of the splashing energy. Ecrit < E 2 < 7500 0. The expression for the diameter of the ith splashed parcel is therefore given by.7-5 and the peak of the minimum splashed diameter distribution is never less than 0.7-4 at the given diameter.7-7) which is bounded by zero and one.7-5 is deﬁned using the relative velocity and drop diameter: We = ρVr2 D σ (15.70 . 2009 15-51 . obtained from the experimental data from Mundo [241]. the impingement Weber number W e.06 E2 W e (15. January 29.7-5) where the expression for energy is given by Equation 15.7-7 and sampling the CPDF between zero and one.8x10−4 (E 2 − Ecrit ) . The Weber number in Equation 15. Both the number per parcel (Ni ) and the total number of splashed drops (Ntot ) is unknown.15. Low Weber number impacts are described by the second term in Equation 15.7-4 to obtain cpdf d D = 1 − exp − d D 2 (15. di = D − ln (1 − ci ) where ci is the ith random sample. The number of drops per parcel can be expressed as a function of the total number of splashed drops: Ni = Ntot pdfi (15.7-1.4 .7 Wall-Film Model Theory Weber number. E 2 > 7500 Release 12.

Discrete Phase The authors (O’Rourke et al.0 c ANSYS. or the impingement angle. or ρπ Ntot 6 Nparcels pdfn d3 = ys m0 n n=1 (15. A Weibull function.7-14) 2.017ΘI (15. The energy balance is given by 1 2 Nparcel Nparcel mi Vi2 + πσ i=1 i=1 1 Ni d2 = md Vd2 mi Vi2 + πσ md d2 − Ecrit i i 2 15-52 Release 12. Inc.158e0. The tangential component of the velocity is obtained from the expression for the reﬂection angle Θs : Θs = 65. January 29.10 + 0.7-12) where ΘI is the angle at which the parcel impacts the surface. additional correlations are sampled for the normal component of the velocity. ΘI ≤ 50◦ 1. an energy balance is performed for the new parcels so that the sum of the kinetic and surface energies of the new drops does not exceed that of the old drops.7-8 with the values of pdfi given by Equation 15. To calculate the velocity with which the splashed drops leave the surface.7-10) Finally.7-4. ΘI > 50◦ (15.7-13) combined with Vti = Vni tan(Θs ) (15. is used as the PDF for the normal component. 2009 . ﬁt to the data from Mundo [241].7-9) where m0 is the total mass of the impinging parcel.1. [258]) noted that nearly all of the impacts for typical diesel sprays are well above the upper bound and so the splashing event nearly always ejects 70% of the mass of the impinging drop. The expression for the total number of splashed drops is ys m0 Ntot = ρπ Nparcels (pdfn d3 ) n=1 n 6 The number of splashed drops per parcel is then determined by Equation 15.226Θl (15.4 + 0.7-11) bv = Θv Vni /Vnd Θv bv −1 Vni /Vnd exp − Θv bv (15. To obtain an expression for the total number of drops. The probability density is given by Vni pdf Vnd where bv = and Θv = 0. we note that overall conservation of mass requires that the sum of the total mass of the splashed parcel(s) must equal the splashed mass fraction.02ΘI .

The normal and tangential velocity components of the splashed parcels are therefore given by √ √ Vni = KVni and Vti = KVti ANSYS FLUENT will limit the velocity of the splashed parcels so that they do not exceed the impact velocity of the original parcel. An order of magnitude analysis of a ﬁlm rounding a sharp corner shows that the stresses at the edge of a ﬁlm are proportional to the angle which the ﬁlm negotiates. Inc. 15. you can specify the maximum angle that the ﬁlm can negotiate using a special text command. To ensure conservation of energy. In ANSYS FLUENT. It is important to note that splashing events are inherently transient. These forces are complex and highly dependent on local surface conditions. Splashing can also cause large increases in source terms in the cells in which it occurs. which can cause diﬃculty in convergence between time steps. Thus. For more information. Release 12.7 Wall-Film Model Theory where Ecrit is the threshold energy for splashing to occur. so the splashing submodel is only available with unsteady tracking in ANSYS FLUENT. (15.4 Separation Criteria The ﬁlm can separate from the wall when the stress at an edge of the ﬁlm exceeds the adhesion forces holding the ﬁlm to the wall.0 c ANSYS. contact your ANSYS FLUENT support engineer.7. January 29.15. 2009 15-53 . The components of the splashed parcel are multiplied by the square root of K in Equation 15. the following correction factor is computed: K= 1 m V2 2 d d (mi Vi2 ) + πσ (md d2 ) − Ecrit − πσ i 1 2 Nparcel i=1 Nparcel i=1 (Ni d2 ) i (mi Vi2 ) .7-15 so that energy will be conserved.7-15) This correction factor is needed due to the relatively small number of sampled points for the velocity of the splashed drops (see Stanton [337] for more detail). it may be necessary to use a smaller time step during the simulation when splashing is enabled.

7-18) and the impingement pressure is given by ˙ P imp. Inc.α + ρh(g − aw ) (15.7-16) where α denotes the current face on which the particle resides. r. tw is the unit vector in the direction of the relative motion of the ﬁlm and the wall. On the right-hand side of Equation 15. τg denotes the magnitude of the shear stress of the gas ﬂow on the surface of the ﬁlm.7-16 are P imp.7-17) Here.α is the force necessary to keep the ﬁlm on the surface. pf .0 c ANSYS.α which denotes the impingement pressure on the ﬁlm ˙ ˙ surface. M imp. r.α − Mimp. v. t)drdvdTd ˆ (15. January 29. The particle-based approach for thin ﬁlms was ﬁrst formulated by O’Rourke [257] and most of the following derivation is based closely on that work. Td .7-16. ˆ (15.α up · n ˆ ˆ ˙ where the impingement mass Mimp. The term h( s pf )α is the surface gradient of the pressure on the face.α = ρl Vp v · nf (xs . The remaining expressions on the right-hand ˙ side of Equation 15. as determined by up · nα = 0. Momentum The equation for the momentum of a parcel on the ﬁlm is ρh dup + h( dt s pf )α ˙ ˙ ˙ = τg tg + τw tw + P imp. tg is the unit vector in the direction of the relative motion of the gas and the ﬁlm surface. Similarly to the expression for tg . 2009 . and pf is the pressure on the surface of the ﬁlm. mass.α = ρl Vp vv · nf (xs . This pressure. Note that the body force term can be very signiﬁcant. v. Td .7.α is the impingement momentum source. s is the gradient operator restricted to the surface.α up + F n.5 Conservation Equations for Wall-Film Particles Conservation equations for momentum. and τw is the magnitude of the stress that the wall exerts on the ﬁlm. and F n. despite the small values of ﬁlm thickness due to the very high acceleration rates seen in simulations with moving boundaries.α is given by ˙ Mimp. pf . h denotes the current ﬁlm height at the particle location.7-17 is explicitly enforced at each time step in ANSYS FLUENT for all particles representing the wall-ﬁlm. t)drdvdTd ˆ (15. and energy for individual parcels in the wall-ﬁlm are described below. is the sum of the ﬂuid pressure and the impingement pressure from the drops on the face. ρh(g − aw ) is the body force term. µl is the liquid viscosity. given by ˙ ˙ pf = Pcell − P imp.Discrete Phase 15.7-19) 15-54 Release 12.α · n + Mimp. The requirement represented by Equation 15.

7-18 is given by ˙ Mimp.7-16 is given by 2 τg = Cf (ug − 2up )2 = Cf Vrelg where Cf is the skin friction coeﬃcient and ug is the gas velocity evaluated at the ﬁlm height above the wall. Since ANSYS FLUENT solves a particle position equation of the form dup = α − βup . The expression for the stress that the wall exerts on the ˆ ﬁlm. (15. An approximation of the impingement mass in Equation 15. as given by Vrelw − (Vrelw · n)ˆ ˆ n ˆ tw = .0 c ANSYS.7-20) and the corresponding expression of the impingement pressure in Equation 15. 2009 15-55 . The assumption made in evaluating the skin friction coeﬃcient is that the wall shear stress from the gas is constant over the thickness of the ﬁlm and the boundary layer above the ﬁlm (in the normal direction from the face).α = ρVp (un+1 − un ) Aα ∆t.α = Ns ρVp n=0 Aα ∆t.15.7 Wall-Film Model Theory where Vp is the volume of the drop. Here.7-19 is given by Ni ˙ P imp. Inc. The stress is tangent to the wall in the direction of the diﬀerence between the wall-ﬁlm velocity and the gas velocity.7-21) p p n=0 The summation in Equation 15. in Equation 15. in Equation 15. dt Release 12. are independent and can point in completely diﬀerent directions. so the unit vector in the direction of the velocity diﬀerence along the surface is Vrelg − (Vrelg · n)ˆ ˆ n ˆ tg = |Vrelg − (Vrelg · n)ˆ | ˆ n where n is the normal face . The summation in Equation 15. τg . τw acts in the direction of the velocity diﬀerence between the wall and the ﬁlm. tg and tw .7-16 is given by τw = − µl µl |2up − uw | = − |Vrelw | h h where µl is the liquid viscosity and uw is the velocity of the wall. The expression for the stress that the gas exerts on the surface of the wall-ﬁlm. (15. January 29.7-20 is over all the drops which actually stick to the face α during the time step (Ns ). |Vrelw − (Vrelw · n)ˆ | ˆ n ˆ ˆ Note that the tangential unit vectors.7-21 is over all the particles which impinge upon the face during the same interval (Ni ). τw .

dup Cf |Vrelg | ˆ ( = tg − dt ρh Mass Transfer from the Film The ﬁlm vaporization law is applied when the ﬁlm particle is above the vaporization temperature Tvap . The vapor concentration at the surface is evaluated using the saturated vapor pressure at the ﬁlm surface temperature and the bulk gas concentration is obtained from the ﬂow ﬁeld solution. The gradient of vapor concentration between the ﬁlm surface and the gas phase is ˙ Ni = Bf (Ci. The particle properties are evaluated at the surface temperature when used in correlation 15.7-24) where the Reynolds number is based on a representative length derived from the face area. Inc. The temperature for the ﬁlm surface is equal to the gas temperature.332Rex Sc1/3 Rex < 2500.s − Ci. 0. The ﬁlm particle acceleration is then given by ˙ 2Cf |Vrelg | 2µl µl |uw | ˆ Pimp Mimp s pf )α + tw + + g − + 2+ up .i is the molecular weight of the gas phase species to which the vapor from the liquid is added. The diameter of the ﬁlm particle is decreased to account for the mass 15-56 Release 12.6 < Sc < 50 0. The mass transfer coeﬃcient is obtained using a Nusselt correlation for the heat transfer coeﬃcient and replacing the Prandtl number with the Schmidt number. The mass of the particle is decreased by mp (t + ∆t) = mp (t) − Ni Ap Mw.∞ ) (15. and Ci. respectively. The equation is N ux = Bf x = kf 1/2 0.7-22) The terms for Mimp and Pimp are used from the previous time step and the diﬀerential equations for the particle motion are solved with the existing integration routines.0 c ANSYS. The vaporization rate is sensitive to the saturated vapor pressure. January 29.0296Re4/5 Sc1/3 Rex > 2500.∞ are the vapor concentrations on the ﬁlm surface and in the bulk gas.Discrete Phase Equation 15. For multicomponent vaporization. The vaporization rate of the ﬁlm is governed by gradient diﬀusion from the surface exposed to the gas phase.7-25) where Mw. similar to droplet vaporization. Bf is the mass transfer coeﬃcient (in m/s).7-23) ˙ where Ni is the molar ﬂux of vapor (with units of kgmol/m2 -s). 0.i ∆t (15.7-24 for each component.7-24. the Schmidt number based on the diﬀusivity of each species is used to calculate the correlation in equation 15. 2009 . but is limited by the boiling temperature of the liquid. ρ ρh2 ρh ρh ρh ρh (15. The units of vapor concentration are kgmol/m3 .7-16 must be rearranged. A wall particle has the temperature limited by the boiling temperature Tbp and does not have a speciﬁc boiling law associated with the physics of ﬁlm boiling.6 < Sc < 60 x (15.s and Ci.

January 29. the diameter is set to the height of the ﬁlm and the number in the parcel is adjusted so that the overall mass of the parcel is conserved. The assumed temperature proﬁle in the liquid is bilinear. taken to be a mass weighted percentage of the face area. as seen in Figure 15. with the surface temperature Ts being the maximum temperature of the gas at the ﬁlm height. given by Qcond = κAp (Tw − Tp ) h where κ is the thermal conductivity of the liquid and h is the ﬁlm height at the location of the particle. When the parcel detaches from the boundary.7-24 and Ap is the area represented by a ﬁlm particle.7.3: Assumption of a Bilinear Temperature Proﬁle in the Film Release 12. the boiling point of the liquid and the wall temperature will be the maximum of the wall face temperature Tw . 2009 15-57 . as well as contributions from the gradients of the mean temperature on the edges of the ﬁlm.15. Energy Transfer from the Film To obtain an equation for the temperature in the ﬁlm. and will be the same boiling temperature as the liquid. This keeps the number of drops in the parcel constant and acts only as a place holder. Af . Inc. Qconv is given by Qconv = hf Ap (Tg − Tp ) where hf is the ﬁlm heat transfer coeﬃcient given by Equation 15.7-26) dt where Qcond is the conduction from the wall. Furthermore. Ts Tp 2h Tw Figure 15.0 c ANSYS. Contributions from the impingement terms are neglected in this formulation. The convection from the top surface.7 Wall-Film Model Theory loss in the individual parcel. An energy balance on a ﬁlm particle yields d {mp Cp Tp } = Qcond + Qconv (15.7.3. energy ﬂux from the gas side as well as energy ﬂux from the wall side must be considered.

7-28) (15. Inc.7-27) As the particle trajectory is computed.7-29 so that ˙ hf Tg + κ Tw + mp hf g /Ap h αp = (15. yielding Tp (t + ∆t) = αp + [Tp (t) − αp ]e−βp ∆t where ∆t is the integration time step and αp and βp are given by αp = and βp = hf Tg + κ Tw h hf + κ h Ap (hf + κ ) h mp Cp (15. the equation for the change in temperature of a non vaporizing particle can be written as mp Cp κ dTp κ = Ap − hf + Tp + hTg + Tw dt h h (15.7-27 to obtain the particle temperature at the next time value.7-30) When the particle changes its mass during vaporization. 15-58 Release 12. January 29. which is given by mp Cp dTp κ κ = Ap − hf + Tp + hTg + Tw + mp hf g ˙ dt h h (15. the local temperature of the wall face is used as the thermal boundary condition for the wall-ﬁlm particles. When the thermal boundary conditions on the wall are set to a constant heat ﬂux. Since ﬁlm boiling is modeled by limiting the liquid phase temperature to the boiling point of the material. enthalpy from vaporization of the liquid from the wall is subtracted from the cell to which the vapor mass goes.7-27 to account for the enthalpy of vaporization. 2009 . This alters the expression for αp in Equation 15.7-29) (15. an additional term is added to Equation 15. the heat ﬂux from the wall to the liquid ﬁlm is subtracted from the heat ﬂux from the wall to the gas phase. i The wall-ﬁlm model has been speciﬁcally implemented for in-cylinder ﬂows and should be used with caution for other applications. energy in excess of that absorbed by the liquid will be put into the gas phase.Discrete Phase Assuming that the temperature changes slowly for each particle in the ﬁlm.7-31) where hf g is the latent heat of vaporization (with units of J/kg) and the expression mp ˙ is the rate of evaporation in kg/s. Additionally.0 c ANSYS. ANSYS FLUENT integrates Equation 15.7-32) κ hf + h When the wall-ﬁlm model is active.

73 f (α) (15.8-2 ER = 1559B −0.73 1559B −0. and Fs is a particle shape coeﬃcient. The functions C and f have to be speciﬁed in consistent units to build a dimensionless group with the relative particle velocity and its exponent. 85] and angle functions can be easily implemented into ANSYS FLUENT.e. α is the impact angle of the particle path with the wall face. and Aface is the area of the cell face at the wall. the default values are not updated to reﬂect the material being used.8 × 10−9 .. For example. The erosion rate is deﬁned as Nparticles Rerosion = p=1 mp C(dp )f (α)v b(v) ˙ Aface (15. f . f = 1. A variety of erosion models [97. 249. B is the Brinell hardness.8-1 with the following substitutions: v 1. The equations describing some of the erosion models can be modiﬁed to appear in the form of the general equation describing the erosion rate. f (α) is a function of impact angle. Equation 15. Values of these functions for sand eroding both carbon steel and aluminum are given by Edwards et al. for example) you can either deﬁne a custom ﬁeld function to divide the erosion rate by the density of the wall material or include this division in the units for C and/or f . 221. the Tulsa Angle Dependent Model [85] described by Equation 15.8-1) where C(dp ) is a function of particle diameter. and b are deﬁned as boundary conditions at a wall. [86]. Note that the units given by ANSYS FLUENT when displaying the erosion rate are no longer valid in the latter case. and b = 0. and can therefore be changed accordingly to the deﬁned units in ANSYS FLUENT. You will need to specify appropriate values at all walls. Inc. i. Release 12.0 c ANSYS. 2009 15-59 .15. To compute an erosion rate in terms of length/time (mm/year.8-1. Since C. mass ﬂux.59 Fs v 1. 299] containing model constants [126. v is the relative particle velocity. 85.59 Fs = v b(v) = C(dp ) where ER is the erosion rate. rather than properties of a material. 126.8-2) can be rewritten in the form of Equation 15. January 29. b(v) is a function of relative particle velocity.8 Particle Erosion and Accretion Theory 15. The erosion rate as calculated above is displayed in units of removed material/(areatime). Default values are C = 1.8 Particle Erosion and Accretion Theory Particle erosion and accretion rates can be monitored at wall boundaries.

For more complex models. both spatially through a dispersion angle and in their time of release. The droplets will be more evenly spread among the computational cells near the atomizer. Source terms in the energy and species conservation equations are also more evenly distributed among neighboring cells.0 c ANSYS. improving solution convergence. a userdeﬁned function should be used instead. and velocity of the particles. For information on how to apply user-deﬁned functions for DPM erosion models. and the stochastic trajectory selection picks an initial direction within this angle. Stochastic trajectory selection is the random dispersion of initial droplet directions. which improves the coupling to the gas phase by spreading drag more smoothly over the cells near the injection. you will need to provide the initial diameter. all of the droplets are released along ﬁxed trajectories at the beginning of the time step. there are models available to predict the droplet size and velocity distributions.1: Injection Types in the separate User’s Guide. For sprays.Discrete Phase User-deﬁned functions can be used to describe erosion models of any form. 2009 . the droplets must be randomly distributed. to calculate initial droplet size.2. All of the atomization models use physical atomizer parameters. Inc. 15-60 Release 12. ANSYS FLUENT also provides more complex injection types for sprays describing primary breakup phenomena. Hence. All of the atomizer models provide an initial dispersion angle. This approach improves the accuracy of the results for spray-dominated ﬂows. Further information on staggering can be found in section Section 23. January 29. Note that the particle erosion and accretion rates can be displayed only when coupled calculations are enabled.5. the default Erosion Model in the Wall boundary condition dialog box cannot be used.3. For most types of injections. and position. position.8-3) 15. however. see Section 2. such as those models with varying function angles.9 Atomizer Model Theory In addition to the simple injection types described in Section 23.8: Staggering of Particles in Space and Time in the separate User’s Guide. such as oriﬁce diameter and mass ﬂow rate. For realistic atomizer simulations. f (α).4: DEFINE DPM EROSION in the separate UDF Manual. or contact your support engineer for further assistance. The accretion rate is deﬁned as Nparticles Raccretion = p=1 mp ˙ Aface (15. For other types of injections in ANSYS FLUENT (nonatomizer). The atomizer models use stochastic trajectory selection and staggering to attain a random distribution. velocity.

5: The Eﬀervescent Atomizer Model 15.9.9 Atomizer Model Theory Five atomizer models are available in ANSYS FLUENT to predict the spray characteristics from knowledge of global parameters such as nozzle type and liquid ﬂow rate. as described in Section 23.15.9. The internal regime determines the velocity at the oriﬁce exit. Information is organized into the following subsections: • Section 15. In the plain-oriﬁce atomizer model in ANSYS FLUENT.0 c ANSYS. Details about the atomizer models are provided below.9.3. However there is nothing simple about the physics of the internal nozzle ﬂow and the external atomization.1: The Plain-Oriﬁce Atomizer Model • Section 15. January 29. You can choose them as injection types and deﬁne the associated parameters in the Set Injection Properties dialog box.9.1: Injection Types in the separate User’s Guide.9. 15.1 The Plain-Oriﬁce Atomizer Model The plain-oriﬁce is the most common type of atomizer and the most simply made. This apparently simple process is dauntingly complex.2. forms a liquid jet and then breaks up to form droplets.9.1.4: The Flat-Fan Atomizer Model • Section 15. 2009 15-61 .9.9. Release 12.2: The Pressure-Swirl Atomizer Model • Section 15.9. Diagrams of each case are shown in Figures 15.3. producing dramatically diﬀerent sprays. cavitating and ﬂipped [330]. Inc. and 15. The transition between regimes is abrupt. the liquid is accelerated through a nozzle. The plain oriﬁce may operate in three diﬀerent regimes: single-phase.3: The Air-Blast/Air-Assist Atomizer Model • Section 15. as well as the initial droplet size and the angle of droplet dispersion.

2009 .9.9.3: Flipped Nozzle Flow (Downstream Gas Surrounds the Liquid Jet Inside the Nozzle) 15-62 Release 12.0 c ANSYS. Inc. January 29.1: Single-Phase Nozzle Flow (Liquid Completely Fills the Oriﬁce) vapor liquid jet vapor oriﬁce walls downstream gas Figure 15.9.Discrete Phase r p d 1 p liquid jet oriﬁce walls L 2 downstream gas Figure 15.2: Cavitating Nozzle Flow (Vapor Pockets Form Just After the Inlet Corners) liquid jet oriﬁce walls downstream gas Figure 15.

15. as well as nondimensional groups like the Reynolds number based on hydraulic “head” (Reh ) and the cavitation parameter (K). Inc. These parameters and the decision-making process are summarized below.9 Atomizer Model Theory Internal Nozzle State To accurately predict the spray characteristics. The coeﬃcient of contraction is deﬁned as the area of the stream of contracting liquid over the total cross-sectional area of the nozzle.9. the plain-oriﬁce model in ANSYS FLUENT must identify the correct state of the internal nozzle ﬂow because the nozzle state has a tremendous eﬀect on the external spray. Unfortunately.0 c ANSYS. These parameters may be combined to form nondimensional characteristic lengths such as r/d and L/d. January 29. 2009 15-63 . One must rely on empirical models obtained from experimental data. A list of the parameters that control internal nozzle ﬂow is given in Table 15.9-3) 1 2 Cct 11. Table 15. ANSYS FLUENT uses several dimensionless parameters to determine the internal ﬂow regime for the plain-oriﬁce atomizer model. there is no established theory for determining the nozzle state.2 and 15.9.9.9.9-1) K= (15. Nurick [252] found it helpful to use a coeﬃcient of contraction (Cc ) to represent the reduction in the cross-sectional area of the liquid jet.4r d Release 12. ANSYS FLUENT uses Nurick’s ﬁt for the coeﬃcient of contraction: Cc = 1 − (15.1: List of Governing Parameters for Internal Nozzle Flow nozzle diameter nozzle length radius of curvature of the inlet corner upstream pressure downstream pressure viscosity liquid density vapor pressure d L r p1 p2 µ ρl pv Reh = dρl µ 2(p1 − p2 ) ρl p1 − pv p1 − p2 (15.1.3. as can be seen in Figures 15.9-2) The liquid ﬂow often contracts in the nozzle.

in other words the correct mass ﬂow rate for the sector being modeled.9 1 − r d 2 − 1000 Reh (15. Cct is a theoretical constant equal to 0. m is the mass ﬂow rate speciﬁed in the user interface. deﬁned by ˙ meﬀ = ˙ 2π m ˙ ∆φ (15.3. January 29.7: Point Properties for Plain-Oriﬁce Atomizer Injections in the separate User’s Guide).611. 2009 . a critical value of K where ﬂip occurs is given by Kcrit = 1 + 1 1+ L 4d 1+ 2000 Reh e70r/d (15. to include the eﬀects of inlet rounding and viscosity. which comes from potential ﬂow analysis of ﬂipped nozzles.Discrete Phase Here. However. Note also that for ∆φ of 2π. 15-64 Release 12.0.9-6) as input by you (see Section 23.9-4) where meﬀ is the eﬀective mass ﬂow rate of the nozzle. Inc. The cavitation number (K in Equation 15.9-2) is an essential parameter for predicting the inception of cavitation. and ∆φ is the diﬀerence ˙ between the azimuthal stop angle and the azimuthal start angle ∆φ = φstop − φstart (15. sharp-edged nozzles.9 for short. the eﬀective mass ﬂow rate is identical to the mass ﬂow rate in the interface. The coeﬃcient of discharge is the ratio of the mass ﬂow rate through the nozzle to the theoretical maximum mass ﬂow rate: Cd = meﬀ ˙ A 2ρl (p1 − p2 ) (15. Coefﬁcient of Discharge Another important parameter for describing the performance of nozzles is the coeﬃcient of discharge (Cd ). then ﬂip is deemed impossible and Kcrit is set to 1.9-5) Here.9-8) If r/d is greater than 0. an empirical relationship is used: Kincep = 1.9-7) Similarly. The inception of cavitation is known to occur at a value of Kincep ≈ 1.0 c ANSYS.05. Note that the mass ﬂow rate that you input should be for the appropriate start and stop angles.

4: Decision Tree for the State of the Cavitating Nozzle All of the nozzle ﬂow equations are solved iteratively.25L/d) Reh (15. a unique closure is chosen for the above equations. Inc.4.0 c ANSYS.9. is compared to the values of Kincep and Kcrit to identify the nozzle state. the coeﬃcient of discharge is given by Cd = 1 1 Cdu + 20 (1+2. and is deﬁned as Cdu = 0. the exit velocity is calculated. The decision tree is shown in Figure 15.15. Release 12.9-12) (15. Depending on the state of the nozzle.9-9) where Cdu is the ultimate discharge coeﬃcient.827 − 0.0085 L d (15.9. and appropriate correlations for spray angle and initial droplet size distribution are determined. For a single-phase nozzle (K > Kincep .9-11) K ≤ Kincep K > K incep K < Kcrit K ≥ K crit K < Kcrit K ≥ Kcrit ﬂipped cavitating ﬂipped single phase Figure 15. The nozzle state may change as the upstream or downstream pressures change. January 29. along with the appropriate relationship for coeﬃcient of discharge as given by the nozzle state. Cd = Cct = 0.9-10) For a cavitating nozzle (Kcrit ≤ K ≤ Kincep ) [252] the coeﬃcient of discharge is determined from √ Cd = Cc K For a ﬂipped nozzle (K < Kcrit ) [252]. K.9 Atomizer Model Theory The cavitation number. 2009 15-65 . Once the nozzle state is determined. K ≥ Kcrit ) [193].611 (15.

they derived an expression for a higher velocity over a reduced area: u= 2Cc p1 − p2 + (1 − 2Cc )pv Cc 2ρl (p1 − pv ) (15.9-15) Spray Angle The correlation for the spray angle (θ) comes from the work of Ranz [283]: tan−1 4π CA √ ρg 3 ρl 6 θ = 2 single phase.9-16) ﬂipped 0. January 29. the estimate of exit velocity (u) comes from the conservation of mass and the assumption of a uniform exit velocity: u= meﬀ ˙ ρl A (15.6d (15. Instead. is thought to be a constant for a given nozzle geometry. For ﬂipped nozzles. Inc.01 The spray angle for both single-phase and cavitating nozzles depends on the ratio of the gas and liquid densities and also the parameter CA .9-14) This analytical relation is used for cavitating nozzles in ANSYS FLUENT. the narrower the spray.9-13) For the cavitating nozzle.9-17) 15-66 Release 12. Reitz [288] suggests the following correlation for CA : CA = 3 + L 3. which you must specify.0 c ANSYS. 2009 . Schmidt and Corradini [306] have shown that the uniform exit velocity is not accurate. For the case of ﬂipped nozzles. The larger the value. The parameter CA .Discrete Phase Exit Velocity For a single-phase nozzle. the exit velocity is found from the conservation of mass and the value of the reduced ﬂow area: u= meﬀ ˙ ρl Cct A (15. cavitating (15. the spray angle has a constant value.

σ (15. σ is the droplet surface tension. where 4meﬀ ˙ . For more information about mean particle diameters.0λWe−0. ANSYS FLUENT’s spray models use a two-parameter Rosin-Rammler distribution.13: Using the Rosin-Rammler Diameter Distribution Method in the separate User’s Guide. see Section 15. 2009 15-67 .74 .15. For an explanation of eﬀective area of cavitating nozzles. The length scale for a cavitating nozzle is λ = deﬀ /8. the droplet diameter distribution is closely related to the nozzle state. For a more detailed discussion of droplet surface tension and the Weber number. you may wish to choose smaller values of CA for cavitating nozzles than for single-phase nozzles.9-18. [383] is used to calculate d32 and relate the initial drop size to the estimated turbulence quantities of the liquid jet: d32 = 133.9 Atomizer Model Theory The spray angle is sensitive to the internal ﬂow regime of the nozzle. see Section 23.9-20) Release 12. For an atomizer.7. the correlation of Wu et al. and thus represents the eﬀective diameter of the exiting liquid jet. λ is the radial integral length scale at the jet exit based upon fullydeveloped turbulent pipe ﬂow. For more information about the Rosin-Rammler size distribution. see Section 23.0 c ANSYS. and We is the Weber number. deﬀ . The most probable droplet size. The spray angle for ﬂipped nozzles is a small. d0 is obtained in ANSYS FLUENT from the Sauter mean diameter. d32 [186]. πρl u deﬀ = (15. (15. For cavitating nozzles. arbitrary value that represents the lack of any turbulence or initial disturbance from the nozzle. For single-phase nozzle ﬂows.9-18) where λ = d/8.8: Summary Reporting of Current Particles in the separate User’s Guide. deﬁned as We ≡ ρl u 2 λ .0.0 to 6. ANSYS FLUENT uses a slight modiﬁcation of Equation 15. January 29. Hence. The initial jet diameter used in Wu’s correlation.9-19) Here.3. characterized by the most probable droplet size and a spread parameter. Droplet Diameter Distribution One of the basic characteristics of an injection is the distribution of drop size. d. is calculated from the eﬀective area of the cavitating oriﬁce exit. please see Schmidt and Corradini [306].10: Secondary Breakup Model Theory. Typical values range from 4. Inc.

2: Values of Spread Parameter for Diﬀerent Nozzle States State single phase cavitating ﬂipped Spread Parameter 3.0 c ANSYS. d32 .9. the initial droplet diameter is set to the diameter of the liquid jet: d0 = d Cct where d0 is deﬁned as the most probable diameter.2 lists the values of s for the three nozzle states. these are converted to the most probable diameter.Discrete Phase For the case of the ﬂipped nozzle.5 1.2726d32 1 − (15. The larger the value of the spread parameter. Table 15. January 29.9-21) Since the correlations of Wu et al. The simpliﬁed version for s=3. The second parameter required to specify the droplet size distribution is the spread parameter. velocity. Table 15. Lefebvre [186] gives the most general relationship between the Sauter mean diameter and most probable diameter for a RosinRammler distribution. the droplet size.5 ∞ (15.9-22) At this point. the narrower the droplet size distribution. d0 . s. The values for the spread parameter are chosen from past modeling experience and from a review of experimental observations. provide the Sauter mean diameter.5 is as follows: 1 s 1/s d0 = 1. Inc. 15-68 Release 12.9. 2009 . and spray angle have been determined and the initialization of the injections is complete.

Release 12. The transition from internal injector ﬂow to fully-developed spray can be divided into three steps: ﬁlm formation. 2009 15-69 .9. The mathematical analysis below assumes that Kelvin-Helmholtz waves grow on the sheet and eventually break the liquid into ligaments.5: Theoretical Progression from the Internal Atomizer Flow to the External Spray The interaction between the air and the sheet is not well understood.0 c ANSYS. oil furnaces.2 The Pressure-Swirl Atomizer Model Another important type of atomizer is the pressure-swirl atomizer. and secondary breakup. collision. and direct-injection spark-ignited automobile engines. half angle dispersion angle Figure 15. sheet breakup. the spray evolution is determined by drag. Once the liquid droplets are formed. and atomization. The pressure-swirl atomizer is very widely used for liquid-fuel combustion in gas turbines. This type of atomizer accelerates the liquid through nozzles known as swirl ports into a central swirl chamber. January 29. It is generally accepted that an aerodynamic instability causes the sheet to break up. It then emerges from the oriﬁce as a thinning sheet. A sketch of how this process is thought to occur is shown in Figure 15. which is unstable.5. coalescence.9. It is then assumed that the ligaments break up into droplets due to varicose instability.9. Inc.9 Atomizer Model Theory 15. sometimes referred to by the gas-turbine community as a simplex atomizer. The swirling liquid pushes against the walls of the swirl chamber and develops a hollow air core.15. breaking up into ligaments and droplets.

2009 . The LISA model is divided into two stages: 1. Inc. [308]. The total velocity is assumed to be related to the injector pressure by 2∆p ρl U = kv (15.78 should be a practical upper bound for kv . The thickness of this ﬁlm. sheet breakup and atomization Both parts of the model are described below. Physical limits on kv require that it be less than unity from conservation of energy. Lefebvre [186] has noted that kv is a function of the injector design and injection pressure. For single-phase nozzles with sharp inlet corners and L/d ratios of 4. t. This quantity depends on internal details of the injector and is diﬃcult to calculate from ﬁrst principles.9-25) d2 ρl 0 15-70 Release 12. a typical Cd value is 0. Reducing kv by 10% to 0.Discrete Phase The pressure-swirl atomizer model used in ANSYS FLUENT is called the Linearized Instability Sheet Atomization (LISA) model of Schmidt et al.7. which ˙ is deﬁned by Equation 15.9-23) where dinj is the injector exit diameter. Hence. To guarantee that the size of the air core is non-negative.9-5 . the axial component of velocity at the injector exit. kv is the expression for the discharge coeﬃcient (Cd ). If the swirl ports are treated as nozzles and if it is assumed that the dominant portion of the pressure drop occurs at those ports. and meﬀ is the eﬀective mass ﬂow rate.9-23 is u. 0. the approach of Han et al. ﬁlm formation 2.78 or less [193]. the following expression is used for kv : kv = max 0. is related to the mass ﬂow rate by meﬀ = πρut(dinj − t) ˙ (15.61.9-24) where kv is the velocity coeﬃcient. yet be large enough to permit suﬃcient mass ﬂow. Instead. January 29. The other unknown in Equation 15. 4meﬀ ˙ cos θ ρl 2∆p (15. [122] is used.0 c ANSYS. the value of Cd may be as low as 0. Film Formation The centrifugal motion of the liquid within the injector creates an air core surrounded by a liquid ﬁlm. If the nozzles are cavitating.7 approximates the eﬀect of other momentum losses on the discharge coeﬃcient.

0 c ANSYS. exist that satisfy the governing equations subject to the boundary conditions at the upper and lower interfaces. The most unstable disturbance has the largest value of ωr . Squire [335]. has waves at the upper and lower interfaces in phase. Li and Tankin [192]. The tangential component of velocity (w = U sin θ) is assumed to be equal to the radial velocity component of the liquid sheet downstream of the nozzle exit. [310]) that the Release 12.g. incompressible gas medium. al. respectively.9-26) where θ is the spray angle. and Hagerty and Shea [118] have shown that two solutions. [310] and are only brieﬂy presented here. Once U is determined. η0 is the initial wave amplitude. u is found from u = U cos θ (15. incompressible liquid sheet of thickness 2h moves with velocity U through a quiescent. The ﬁrst solution. k = 2π/λ is the wave number. A coordinate system is used that moves with the sheet. called the sinuous mode. The model assumes that a two-dimensional. Sheet Breakup and Atomization The pressure-swirl atomizer model includes the eﬀects of the surrounding gas. For a more robust implementation. Thus. At this point. liquid viscosity. and the viscosity of the liquid is µl . It has been shown by numerous authors (e. 2009 15-71 .9-27) is imposed on the initially steady motion.15. and is assumed to be responsible for sheet breakup. viscous. denoted here by Ω. Details of the theoretical development of the model are given in Senecal et al. The axial component of velocity is assumed to remain constant. Inc.9-24 can be used to ﬁnd U . Equation 15. This avoids having the injector parameters depend too heavily on the usually under-resolved gas-phase velocity ﬁeld very near the injection location. or modes. which is assumed to be known. Senecal et. the gas-phase velocity is neglected in calculating the relative liquid-gas velocity and is instead set by you. The second solution is called the varicose mode which has the waves at the upper and lower interfaces π radians out of phase.9-27. The spectrum of disturbances results in ﬂuctuating velocities and pressures for both the liquid and the gas.. In Equation 15. The liquid and gas have densities of ρl and ρg . inviscid. the thickness and axial component of the liquid ﬁlm are known at the injector exit. and surface tension on the breakup of the liquid sheet. and a spectrum of inﬁnitesimal wavy disturbances of the form η = η0 eikx+ωt (15. it is desired to obtain a dispersion relation ω = ω(k) from which the most unstable disturbance can be calculated as a function of wave number. and ω = ωr + iωi is the complex growth rate. January 29.9 Atomizer Model Theory Assuming that ∆p is known.

For Weg < 27/16.9-28.9-28 reduces to 1 −2νl k 2 tanh(kh) + tanh(kh) + Q σk 3 ρl ωr = 4νl2 k 4 tanh2 (kh) − Q2 U 2 k 2 − [tanh(kh) + Q] −QU 2 k 2 + (15. January 29. the fastest-growing waves are short. In addition.9-28) = k 2 + ω/νl . Above a critical Weber number of Weg = 27/16 (based on the liquid velocity. and sheet half-thickness). If the surface disturbance has reached a value of ηb at breakup. the wavelengths are long compared to the sheet thickness. can be evaluated: ηb = η0 eΩτ ⇒ 1 ηb ln Ω η0 (15.9-30) where Ω. [310]. For long waves. 2009 . The speed of modern high pressure fuel injection systems is high enough to ensure that the ﬁlm Weber number is well above this critical limit. Inc.9-29 as a function of k. a breakup time. An order-of-magnitude analysis using typical values shows that the terms of second order in viscosity can be neglected in comparison to the other terms in Equation 15. it can be shown that the sinuous and varicose modes become indistinguishable for high-velocity ﬂows. The sheet breaks up and ligaments will be formed at a length given by 15-72 Release 12. ligaments are assumed to form from the sheet breakup process once the unstable waves reach a critical amplitude. the dispersion relation for the sinuous mode is given by ω 2 [tanh(kh) + Q] + [4νl k 2 tanh(kh) + 2iQkU ] + 4νl k 4 tanh(kh) − 4νl2 k 3 tanh( h) − QU 2 k 2 + where Q = ρg /ρl and 2 σk 3 =0 ρl (15. is found by numerically maximizing Equation 15. the maximum growth rate.9-29) For waves that are long compared with the sheet thickness. the atomization model in ANSYS FLUENT is based upon the growth of sinuous waves on the liquid sheet.Discrete Phase sinuous mode dominates the growth of varicose waves for low velocities and low gas-toliquid density ratios. The maximum is found using a binary search that checks the sign of the derivative. As derived in Senecal et al. As a result. a mechanism of sheet disintegration proposed by Dombrowski and Johns [74] is adopted. Equation 15. Using this assumption. gas density. τ .0 c ANSYS.

5 by default. The ﬁlm thickness is calculated from the breakup length and the radial distance from the center line to the mid-line of the sheet at the atomizer exit.9-32) where Ks is the wave number corresponding to the maximum growth rate. In either the long-wave or the short-wave case. d0 = 1. If it is assumed that the ligaments are formed from tears in the sheet twice per wavelength.9-31) ηb where the quantity ln( η0 ) is an empirical sheet constant that you must specify.9-35) Here.9-34) where CL . Ω. r0 : hend = r0 h0 r0 + Lb sin θ 2 (15.2: Jet Stability Analysis for more details about Oh). 2009 15-73 . the breakup from ligaments to droplets is assumed to behave according to Weber’s [369] analysis for capillary instability. which is a function of the breakup length. it is assumed that this droplet diameter is the most probable droplet size of a Rosin-Rammler distribution with a spread parameter of 3.0 c ANSYS.15.10. Inc. Dombrowski and Hooper [73] showed that a value of 12 for the sheet constant agreed favorably with experimental sheet breakup lengths over a range of Weber numbers from 2 to 200. January 29. the ligament diameter is assumed to be linearly proportional to the wavelength that breaks up the sheet. For short waves.9-33) This mechanism is not used for waves that are short compared to the sheet thickness. The choice of spread parameter and dispersion angle is based on past modeling Release 12. The ligament diameter depends on the sheet thickness.9-35. The default value of 12 was obtained theoretically by Weber [369] for liquid jets. or the ligament constant. the resulting diameter is given by 8h Ks dL = (15. The diameter of the ligaments formed at the point of breakup can be obtained from a mass balance.9 Atomizer Model Theory Lb = U τ = ηb U ln Ω η0 (15. Once d0 has been determined from Equation 15. is equal to 0. dL = 2πCL Ks (15. Oh is the Ohnesorge number which is a combination of the Reynolds number and the Weber number (see Section 15.5 and a default dispersion angle of 6◦ (which can be modiﬁed in the GUI).88dL (1 + 3Oh)1/6 (15.

This input is necessary because of the variety of sheet formation mechanisms used in air-blast atomizers. The addition of the external air stream past the sheet produces smaller droplets than without the air. These streams are ordinary continuous-phase ﬂows and require no special treatment. an additional air stream is often directed through the atomizer. It is important to note that the spray cone angle must be speciﬁed by you when using this model.9-34. Speciﬁcation of the inner and outer diameters of the ﬁlm at the atomizer exit are also required. The liquid is formed into a sheet by a nozzle. The air may also help disperse the droplets. This technique is called air-assisted atomization or air-blast atomization. preventing collisions between them. Hence the air-blast atomizer model does not contain the sheet formation equations that were included in the pressure-swirl atomizer model (Equations 15.9. towards the centerline. January 29. Though this quantity could be calculated. Since the air-blast atomizer model does not include internal gas ﬂows. Inc. and air is then directed against the sheet to promote atomization. This feature is convenient for simulations in large domains. 15. you must create the air streams surrounding the injector as boundary conditions within the ANSYS FLUENT simulation. Hence the ligament diameter is assumed to be linearly proportional to the wavelength of the fastest-growing wave on the sheet. ANSYS FLUENT’s air-blast atomization model is a variation of the pressure-swirl model. it is thought that the assisting air may accelerate the sheet instability. where the atomizer is very small by comparison.Discrete Phase experience [307]. specifying a value relieves you from the necessity of ﬁnely resolving the atomizer internal ﬂow. 2009 . You will also specify the maximum relative velocity that is produced by the sheet and air. One important diﬀerence between them is that the sheet thickness is set directly in the air-blast atomizer model. The value of the angle is negative if the initial ﬁlm trajectory is inward. depending on the quantity of air and its velocity. and is calculated from Equation 15. An additional diﬀerence is that the air-blast atomizer model assumes that the sheet breakup is always due to short waves.9-26). The angle in the case of the air-blast atomizer is the initial trajectory of the ﬁlm as it leaves the end of the oriﬁce. Air-assisted atomization is used in many of the same applications as pressure-swirl atomization.3 The Air-Blast/Air-Assist Atomizer Model In order to accelerate the breakup of liquid sheets from an atomizer. Though the exact mechanism for this enhanced performance is not completely understood. in addition to the dispersion angle whose default value is 6◦ (which can be modiﬁed in the GUI). 15-74 Release 12.0 c ANSYS.9-23–15. where especially ﬁne atomization is required. Other inputs are similar to the pressure-swirl model – you must provide the mass ﬂow rate and spray angle. This assumption is a consequence of the greater sheet thickness commonly found in air-blast atomizers.

9. because of jet impingement. The ﬂat-fan model could serve doubly for this application.4 The Flat-Fan Atomizer Model The ﬂat-fan atomizer is very similar to the pressure-swirl atomizer.15. The model assumes that the fan originates from a virtual origin. Inc. January 29. You need to provide the location of this origin. is very similar to the atomization of a ﬂat sheet. An image of the three-dimensional ﬂat fan is shown in Figure 15. The ﬂat-fan atomizer is available only for 3D models.9. thin oriﬁce as a ﬂat liquid sheet that breaks up into droplets. ANSYS FLUENT will ﬁnd the vector that points from the origin to the center point in order to determine the direction of the injection. 2009 15-75 . which is the intersection of the lines that mark the sides of the fan as well as the location of the center point of the arc from which the fan originates.0 c ANSYS. dispersion angle half angle dispersion angle Figure 15. The primary atomization process is thought to be similar to the pressure-swirl atomizer.9 Atomizer Model Theory 15. but it makes a ﬂat sheet and does not use swirl.6.6: Flat Fan Viewed from Above and from the Side Release 12. Some researchers believe that ﬂat-fan atomization.9. the width of the oriﬁce (in the normal direction) and the mass ﬂow rate of the liquid to use the ﬂat-fan atomizer model. The liquid emerges from a wide. You also need to provide the half-angle of the fan arc.

As the volatile liquid exits the nozzle. 15.9-12. the ﬂat-fan atomizer model is like the sheet breakup portion of the pressure-swirl atomizer.9-36 is taken to be the most probable diameter. with a Rosin-Rammler spread parameter of 3. This phase change quickly breaks up the stream into small droplets with a wide dispersion angle.611 as speciﬁed in Equations 15. The model also applies to cases where a very hot liquid is discharged. u= meﬀ ˙ ρl Cct A (15. 2009 . The photographs of Reitz and Bracco [288] provide some insights.9-3 and 15. Hence the ligament diameter for short waves is given by 16h Ks dL = (15.Discrete Phase The breakup of the ﬂat fan is calculated very much like the breakup of the sheet in the pressure-swirl atomizer.9. These photographs show a dense liquid core to the spray.9-37) The maximum droplet diameter is set to the eﬀective diameter of the exiting jet: dmax = d Cct (15. The only diﬀerence is that for short waves. Since the physics of eﬀervescence is not well understood.9-36) In this case.0 c ANSYS. assuming the exiting jet has a cross-sectional area that is Cct times the nozzle area.5 The Effervescent Atomizer Model Eﬀervescent atomization is the injection of liquid infused with a super-heated (with respect to downstream conditions) liquid or propellant.5 and a default dispersion angle of 6◦ . The sheet breaks up into ligaments which then form individual droplets. dL in Equation 15. This angle can be set in the Set Injection Properties dialog box. equal to 0. The initial velocity of the droplets is computed from conservation of mass. In all other respects. the ﬂat fan sheet is assumed to form ligaments at half-wavelength intervals. surrounded by a wide shroud of smaller droplets. Inc.9-38) 15-76 Release 12. the model must rely on rough empirical ﬁts. January 29. where Cct is a ﬁxed constant. it rapidly changes phase.

between the droplet’s stochastic trajectory and the injection direction: d0 = dmax e−(θ/Θs ) 2 (15.3. (See Section 23. Inc. January 29. x. Θs . you will need to specify the nozzle diameter.0.9-40) (15. θ. Ceﬀ : x = Θs mvapor ˙ (mvapor + mliquid ) ˙ ˙ x = Ceﬀ (15. For Weber numbers greater than 100.13: Using the Rosin-Rammler Diameter Distribution Method in the separate User’s Guide for details on the Rosin-Rammler distribution. Release 12. The TAB model is recommended for low-Weber-number injections and is well suited for low-speed sprays into a standard atmosphere. 15.15.) The most probable droplet size depends on the angle. You must create an inlet at the point of injection when you specify boundary conditions for the continuous phase.10 Secondary Breakup Model Theory ANSYS FLUENT oﬀers two droplet breakup models: the Taylor analogy breakup (TAB) model and the wave model. The droplet temperature is initialized to 0. mass ﬂow rate. The wave model is popular for use in high-speed fuel-injection applications. When the eﬀervescent atomizer model is selected.0 c ANSYS. is computed from the quality. To complete the model. spray half-angle and dispersion constant in addition to specifying the position and direction of the injector. the wave model is more applicable. and the speciﬁed value for the dispersion constant.9-39) The dispersion angle multiplier. such that the temperature of the droplet is close to boiling. Details for each model are provided below. the ﬂashing vapor must also be included in the calculation.9-41) This technique creates a spray with large droplets in the central core and a shroud of smaller surrounding droplets. This vapor is part of the continuous phase and not part of the discrete phase model. 2009 15-77 . mixture quality.10 Secondary Breakup Model Theory The droplet size is then sampled from a Rosin-Rammler distribution with a spread parameter of 4. saturation temperature of the volatile substance.99 times the saturation temperature.

when the droplet oscillations grow to a critical value the “parent” droplet will break up into a number of smaller “child” droplets.10. which is not described well by the spring-mass analogy. forced oscillator is [256] F − kx − d dx d2 x =m 2 dt dt (15. Table 15. As a droplet is distorted from a spherical shape. 2009 .10. See Section 15.10-1) where x is the displacement of the droplet equator from its spherical (undisturbed) position.0 c ANSYS. can be solved to determine the droplet oscillation and distortion at any given time.1 Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) Model Introduction The Taylor analogy breakup (TAB) model is a classic method for calculating droplet breakup.3. the drag coeﬃcient changes. which is applicable to many engineering sprays. Use and Limitations The TAB model is best for low-Weber-number sprays. The coeﬃcients of this equation are taken from Taylor’s analogy: F ρg u 2 = CF m ρl r (15. Inc. which governs the oscillating and distorting droplet. This method is based upon Taylor’s analogy [347] between an oscillating and distorting droplet and a spring mass system.1: Comparison of a Spring-Mass System to a Distorting Droplet Spring-Mass System restoring force of spring external force damping force Distorting and Oscillating Droplet surface tension forces droplet drag force droplet viscosity forces The resulting TAB model equation set. January 29.1 illustrates the analogous components.Discrete Phase 15.10-2) 15-78 Release 12. As described in detail below. Droplet Distortion The equation governing a damped. Extremely high-Weber-number sprays result in shattering of droplets.10. A drag model that incorporates the distorting droplet eﬀects is available in ANSYS FLUENT.5: Dynamic Drag Model Theory for details. Table 15.

10-8) (15.0 c ANSYS. the equation governing y can easily be determined from Equation 15. σ is the droplet surface tension.10-10) (15.e.10-4: d2 y CF ρg u2 Ck σ Cd µl dy = − y− 2 2 3 dt Cb ρl r ρl r ρl r2 dt (15.10-1 is nondimensionalized by setting y = x/(Cb r) and substituting the relationships in Equations 15.10-3) (15.10-5) Where Cb is a constant equal to 0. This breakup requirement is given as x > Cb r (15.10-7) We = Wec = y0 = dy0 = dt 1 = td ρg u 2 r σ CF We Ck Cb y(0) dy (0) dt Cd µl 2 ρl r 2 (15. Ck . r is the undisturbed droplet radius.10 Secondary Breakup Model Theory k σ = Ck 3 m ρl r d µl = Cd 2 m ρl r (15.10-11) (15. January 29.10-9) (15.5.10-4) where ρl and ρg are the discrete phase and continuous phase densities. i. and µl is the droplet viscosity. and Cd will be deﬁned later. Inc.10-6 if the relative velocity is assumed to be constant: y(t) = Wec + e−(t/td ) (y0 − Wec ) cos(ωt) + where 1 ω dy0 y0 − Wec + sin(ωt) dt td (15. This implicitly assumes that the droplet is undergoing only one (fundamental) oscillation mode. For under-damped droplets.10-2–15. The droplet is assumed to break up if the distortion grows to a critical ratio of the droplet radius. 2009 15-79 . The dimensionless constants CF .10-6) where breakup now occurs for y > 1. Equation 15. oscillations at the north and south pole with this amplitude will meet at the droplet center.10-12) Release 12. u is the relative velocity of the droplet.15. if breakup is assumed to occur when the distortion is equal to half the droplet radius..

u is the relative velocity between the droplet and the gas phase and We is the droplet Weber number.10-14 and 15.10-15).10-14) where K is the ratio of the total energy in distortion and oscillation to the energy in the fundamental mode. The default value of y0 is 0.10-7 is solved for all droplets. The constants have been chosen to match experiments and theory [174]: Ck = 8 Cd = 5 1 CF = 3 If Equation 15. [205]. based upon the work of Liu et al. a dimensionless parameter deﬁned as the ratio of aerodynamic forces to surface tension forces. The droplet oscillation frequency is represented by ω. January 29. The size and velocity of the new child droplets must be determined.10-15) where r32 is the Sauter mean radius of the droplet size distribution. The child droplets are assumed to be nondistorted 3 and nonoscillating.0 c ANSYS. Equations 15. 15-80 Release 12. Inc. 2009 . r32 can be found by equating the energy of the parent and child droplets (i. of the order ( 10 ).10-13) In Equation 15.10-7. those with y > 1 are assumed to break up. the energy of the child droplets can be shown to be Echild = 4πr2 σ r π dy + ρl r 5 r32 6 dt 2 (15. and ω 2 = 8σ/ρl r3 : r32 = r 1+ 8Ky 2 20 + ρl r 3 (dy/dt)2 σ 6K−5 120 (15. The energy of the parent droplet is [256] π dy = 4πr2 σ + K ρl r5 5 dt 2 Eparent + ω2y2 (15..Discrete Phase 1 σ − 2 3 ρl r td ω 2 = Ck (15. setting y = 1. Size of Child Droplets The size of the child droplets is determined by equating the energy of the parent droplet to the combined energy of the child droplets. Thus.10-16) Once the size of the child droplets is determined.e. the number of child droplets can easily be determined by mass conservation.

10-20) dy dt n+1 = Wec − y n+1 + td 1 ω dy dt n ωe −(∆t/td ) + y n − Wec cos(ω∆t) − (y n − Wec ) sin(ω∆t) td (15. The only additional calculations required then.10-19) This is the limiting case. are to update y using a discretized form of Equation 15.15.10-18. January 29.10-7 and its derivative. Therefore. breakup does not occur.10-18) According to Equation 15. the TAB model ﬁrst determines the amplitude for an undamped oscillation (td ≈ ∞) for each droplet at time step n using the following: (dy/dt)n + ω 2 A= (y n − Wec )2 (15.0 c ANSYS. breakup is possible only if the following condition is satisﬁed: Wec + A > 1 (15. which are both based on work done by O’Rourke and Amsden [256]: y n+1 = Wec + e−(∆t/td ) (y n − Wec ) cos(ωt) + 1 ω dy dt n + y n − Wec sin(ωt) td (15. 2009 15-81 . the child droplets will have a velocity normal to the parent droplet velocity given by vnormal = Cv Cb r where Cv is a constant of order (1). as damping will only reduce the chance of breakup.10-21) Release 12.10-17) Droplet Breakup To model droplet breakup.10 Secondary Breakup Model Theory Velocity of Child Droplets The TAB model allows for a velocity component normal to the parent droplet velocity to be imposed upon the child droplets. the equator of the parent droplet is traveling at a velocity of dx/dt = Cb r(dy/dt). When breakup occurs. Inc. dy dt (15. If a droplet fails the above criterion.

e. The value of tbu is set to the time required for oscillations to grow suﬃciently large that the magnitude of the droplet distortion. The breakup calculation then continues with the next droplet. The diameter of each of the child parcels is sampled from a Rosin Rammler distribution based on the Sauter mean radius (Equation 15. Inc. 2009 .5. Conversely.10-20 and 15. The breakup time is therefore the smallest root greater than tn of an undamped version of Equation 15.0 c ANSYS.Discrete Phase All of the constants in these expressions are assumed to be constant throughout the time step. i. then breakup will not occur during the current time step. y.10-23) (15.10-22) If tbu > tn+1 . N . is determined by mass conservation: N n+1 = N n rn rn+1 3 (15. and y and (dy/dt) are updated by Equations 15. if tn < tbu < tn+1 . is equal to unity. then breakup will occur and the child droplet radii are determined by Equation 15. The child droplets are represented by a number of child parcels which are created from the original parcel. January 29.10-7: Wec + A cos[ω(t − tn ) + φ] = 1 where cos φ = and sin φ = − (dy/dt)n Aω (15. If the criterion of Equation 15.10-16. tbu .10-21.10-25) It is assumed that the child droplets are neither distorted nor oscillating. The breakup time is determined under the assumption that the droplet oscillation is undamped for its ﬁrst period. then breakup is possible.10-19 is met.10-24) y n − Wec A (15. must be determined to see if breakup occurs within the time step ∆t..10-16) and a spread parameter of 3. The breakup time. y = (dy/dt) = 0. 15-82 Release 12. The number of child droplets. These child parcels are distributed equally along the equator of the parent droplet in a plane normal to the parent relative velocity vector.

is imposed upon the child droplets. i A large number of child parcels ensures a smooth distribution of particle diameters and source terms which is needed when simulating. Because this breakup model can increase the number of computational parcels. An arbitrary inﬁnitesimal axisymmetric surface displacement of the form η = η0 eikz+ωt (15. which considers the breakup of the droplets to be induced by the relative velocity between the gas and liquid phases. liquid jet of radius a issuing from a circular oriﬁce at a velocity v into a stagnant. The liquid has a density. 2009 15-83 . evaporating sprays. Release 12. viscous. January 29.2 Wave Breakup Model Introduction An alternative to the TAB model that is appropriate for high-Weber-number ﬂows is the wave breakup model of Reitz [287].10 Secondary Breakup Model Theory A velocity component normal to the relative velocity vector. The analysis considers the stability of a cylindrical.10. and a cylindrical polar coordinate system is used which moves with the jet. ω. Use and Limitations The wave model is appropriate for high-speed injections. with magnitude computed by Equation 15. Jet Stability Analysis The jet stability analysis described in detail by Reitz and Bracco [289] is presented brieﬂy here. incompressible. to its wave number. for example.10-17. inviscid gas of density ρ2 .15. Inc. µ1 . where the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is believed to dominate droplet breakup (We > 100). The model assumes that the time of breakup and the resulting droplet size are related to the fastest-growing Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. you may wish to inject a modest number of droplets initially. derived from the jet stability analysis described below. ρ1 .10-26) is imposed on the initially steady motion and it is thus desired to ﬁnd the dispersion relation ω = ω(k) which relates the real part of the growth rate. The wavelength and growth rate of this instability are used to predict details of the newlyformed droplets. It is decomposed at the equator into components pointing radially outward. 15. k = 2π/λ. and viscosity.0 c ANSYS.

The liquid pressure is obtained from the inviscid part of the liquid equations. In addition. C1 and C2 are integration constants. and continuity of normal stress.10-29) where K0 and K1 are modiﬁed Bessel functions of the second kind and u is the relative velocity between the liquid and the gas. the linearized equations for the hydrodynamics of the liquid are solved assuming wave solutions of the form φ1 = C1 I0 (kr)eikz+ωt ψ1 = C2 I1 (Lr)eikz+ωt (15. 15-84 Release 12. v1 is the radial perturbation liquid velocity. and ν1 is the liquid kinematic viscosity [287].10-28) where φ1 and ψ1 are the velocity potential and stream function.0 c ANSYS. I0 and I1 are modiﬁed Bessel functions of the ﬁrst kind. Inc.10-31) σ ∂2η η + a2 2 a2 ∂z + p2 = 0 (15.10-32) which are mathematical statements of the liquid kinematic free surface condition. 2009 . The linearized boundary conditions are v1 = ∂u1 ∂r and − p1 + 2µ1 − ∂η ∂t ∂v1 = − ∂z (15.Discrete Phase In order to determine the dispersion relation. respectively. continuity of shear stress. January 29.10-27) (15. the inviscid gas equations can be solved to obtain the ﬂuctuating gas pressure at r = a: − p21 = −ρ2 (U − iωk)2 kη K0 (ka) K1 (ka) (15. respectively. Also note that Equation 15. L2 = k 2 + ω/ν1 .10-31 was obtained under the assumption that v2 = 0. and σ is the surface tension. Note that u1 is the axial perturbation liquid velocity.10-30) (15.

Inc. Ω. r≤a dt τ (15.10-32. Furthermore. Droplet Breakup In the wave model.10-35) √ √ where Oh = We1 /Re1 is the Ohnesorge number and Ta = Oh We2 is the Taylor number.10-36) where B0 is a model constant set equal to 0. and Re1 = U a/ν1 is the Reynolds number. r = B0 Λ (15. 2009 15-85 .5 )(1 + 0.6 ) (15. when the pressure and velocity solutions are substituted into Equation 15.15.38We1.67 a (1 + 0. the rate of change of droplet radius in the parent parcel is given by da (a − r) =− . and are given by Reitz [287]: Λ (1 + 0. Equations 15. Thus.10-37) Release 12.4Ta0.10-34) (15.10-33 were generated for the maximum growth rate. and the corresponding wavelength.6 ρ1 a3 (0.10-33) I0 (ka) K1 (ka) As shown by Reitz [287]. the desired dispersion relation is obtained: ω 2 + 2ν1 k 2 ω I1 (ka) 2kL I1 (ka) I1 (La) − 2 = I0 (ka) k + L2 I0 (ka) I1 (La) L 2 − a2 L 2 + a2 σk L2 − a2 (1 − k 2 a2 ) ρ 1 a2 L 2 + a2 I1 (ka) ρ2 ω + U −i I0 (ka) ρ1 k 2 I1 (ka) K0 (ka) (15.02 1.61 based on the work of Reitz [287]. respectively.10-33 predicts that a maximum growth rate (or most unstable wave) exists for a given set of ﬂow conditions.0 c ANSYS.7 ) = 9. Curve ﬁts of numerical solutions to Equation 15.10-31 can be used to eliminate the integration constants C1 and C2 in Equations 15. breakup of droplet parcels is calculated by assuming that the radius of the newly-formed droplets is proportional to the wavelength of the fastest-growing unstable surface wave on the parent droplet. We1 = ρ1 U 2 a/σ and We2 = ρ2 U 2 a/σ are the liquid and gas Weber numbers.87We2 )0. January 29. Furthermore.10-30 and 15.4Ta0.34 + 0.45Oh0. Equation 15. Λ. In other words.10-28.10 Secondary Breakup Model Theory As described by Reitz [287].5 ) 2 Ω = σ (1 + Oh)(1 + 1.10-27 and 15.

B1 . etc.10-38 until the shed mass is equal to 5% of the initial parcel mass. The new parcel is given a component of velocity randomly selected in the plane orthogonal to the direction vector of the parent parcel. position. the computational cost of a collision calculation from ﬁrst principles is prohibitive.e.11. Values of B1 can range between 1 and 60..73 as recommended by Liu et al.Discrete Phase where the breakup time. Since a spray can consist of several million droplets. a new parcel is created with a radius given by Equation 15. τ . Therefore. each droplet has N − 1 possible collision partners. You must also specify the model constants which determine how the gas phase interacts with the liquid droplets. The velocity magnitude of the new parcel is the same as the parent parcel. For example. January 29. each of which represents 1000 droplets.) with the exception of radius and velocity. 2009 . is set to a value of 1. Parcels are statistical representations of a number of individual droplets. [205]. and the momentum of the parent parcel is adjusted so that momentum is conserved. B0 is the constant for the drop size and is generally taken to be 0. the 15-86 Release 12. For example.) An important consideration is that the collision algorithm must calculate 1 N 2 possible 2 collision events at every time step. temperature. a larger number means that it takes longer for the particle to loose a given amount. mass is accumulated from the parent drop at a rate given by Equation 15. This motivates the concept of parcels.10-36. ANSYS FLUENT provides an option for estimating the number of droplet collisions and their outcomes in a computationally eﬃcient manner.11 Droplet Collision and Coalescence Model Theory Introduction 15. the breakup time constant B1 is the constant multiplying the time scale which determines how quickly the parcel will loose mass. material.0 c ANSYS. depending on the injector characterization.726B1 a ΛΩ (15. At this time. the number of possible collision pairs is approximately 1 N 2 . The new parcel is given the same properties as the parent parcel (i. The diﬃculty in any collision calculation is that for N droplets.61. In the wave model. The breakup time constant. Thus.10-38) and Λ and Ω are obtained from Equations 15. A larger number for B1 in the context of interaction with the gas phase would mean that the interaction with the subgrid is less intense. Inc.10-34 and 15.10-35. the cost of the collision calculation is reduced by a factor of 106 . is given by τ= 3.1 When your simulation includes tracking of droplets. (The factor of 1 appears because droplet A colliding with droplet 2 2 B is identical to droplet B colliding with droplet A. This symmetry reduces the number of possible collision events by half. Because the cost of the collision calculation still scales with the square of N . if ANSYS FLUENT tracks a set of parcels. respectively. 15.

The state of the two colliding parcels is modiﬁed based on the outcome of the collision. only one DPM iteration per time step will be calculated. a ﬁner mesh and more computational droplets can be used to reduce these eﬀects. In such cases. In two dimensions.11. the model is most applicable for low-Weber-number collisions where collisions result in bouncing and coalescence. 2009 15-87 . These two assumptions are valid only when the continuous-phase cell size is small compared to the size of the spray. If the collision model is used in a transient simulation. In three dimensions. Once it is decided that two parcels of droplets collide. W ec = 2 ρUrel D σ (15. Release 12. the algorithm further determines the type of collision. 15. the method of O’Rourke is second-order accurate at estimating the chance of collisions. These tend to be visible when the source of injection is at a mesh vertex.2 Use and Limitations The collision model assumes that the frequency of collisions is much less than the particle time step. however. then the results may be timestep-dependent.15. Only coalescence and bouncing outcomes are considered. Rather than using geometry to see if parcel paths intersect. January 29. Sometimes the collision model can cause mesh-dependent artifacts to appear in the spray. The coalescence of droplets tends to cause the spray to pull away from cell boundaries.11-1) where Urel is the relative velocity between two parcels and D is the arithmetic mean diameter of the two parcels. Inc. This is a result of the assumption that droplets can collide only within the same cell. multiple DPM iterations per time step cannot be speciﬁed in the Number of Continuous Phase Iterations per DPM Iteration ﬁeld in the Discrete Phase Model dialog box. If the particle time step is too large. Above a Weber number of about 100. Additionally. The probability of each outcome is calculated from the collisional Weber number (W ec ) and a ﬁt to experimental observations. You should adjust the particle length scale accordingly. The concept of parcels together with the algorithm of O’Rourke makes the calculation of collision possible for practical spray problems.11 Droplet Collision and Coalescence Model Theory reduction of cost is signiﬁcant. Here. For these conditions. O’Rourke’s method is a stochastic estimate of collisions. the eﬀort to calculate the possible intersection of so many parcel trajectories would still be prohibitively expensive. the outcome of collision could be shattering. The algorithm of O’Rourke [255] eﬃciently reduces the computational cost of the spray calculation. best results are achieved when the spray is modeled using a polar mesh with the spray at the center. O’Rourke also makes the assumption that two parcels may collide only if they are located in the same continuous-phase cell.0 c ANSYS.

O’Rourke’s algorithm assumes that two droplets may collide only if they are in the same continuous-phase cell. The smaller droplet is identiﬁed in the following derivation with the number 2. January 29. respectively. the probability of the collector colliding with the smaller droplet is P1 = π(r1 + r2 )2 vrel ∆t V (15. If there is a uniform probability of the droplet being anywhere within the cell.3 Theory As noted above. It is known that the smaller droplet is somewhere within the continuous-phase cell of volume V . then the chance of the droplet being within the collision volume is the ratio of the two volumes. but not in the same cell. 2009 . Rather than calculating whether or not the position of the smaller droplet center is within the collision volume.11-2) Equation 15. The collector undergoes a mean expected number of collisions given by n= ¯ n2 π(r1 + r2 )2 vrel ∆t V (15. If the smaller droplet is on a collision course with the collector.11-2 can be generalized for parcels. a collision will take place. Probability of Collision The probability of collision of two droplets is derived from the point of view of the larger droplet. if the smaller droplet center passes within a ﬂat circle centered around the collector of area π(r1 + r2 )2 perpendicular to the trajectory of the smaller droplet. from colliding. namely π(r1 + r2 )2 vrel ∆t. The overall accuracy of the scheme is second-order in space. where there are n1 and n2 droplets in the collector and smaller droplet parcels. Thus.11-3) 15-88 Release 12.11. the algorithm calculates the probability of the smaller droplet being within the collision volume. More precisely.Discrete Phase 15. called the collector droplet and identiﬁed below with the number 1. This disk can be used to deﬁne the collision volume. although the eﬀect of this error is lessened by allowing some droplets that are farther apart to collide. the centers will pass within a distance of r1 + r2 . Only the relative distance between the collector and the smaller droplet is important in this derivation. Inc. This assumption can prevent droplets that are quite close to each other. The algorithm of O’Rourke uses the concept of a collision volume to calculate the probability of collision. which is the area of the aforementioned disk multiplied by the distance traveled by the smaller droplet in one time step. The calculation is in the frame of reference of the larger droplet so that the velocity of the collector droplet is zero.0 c ANSYS.

Inc.0.11-5) r1 (15.11-4) where n is the number of collisions between a collector and other droplets. the collision oﬀset parameter. the outcome tends to be coalescence if the droplets collide headon. where Y is a random number between 0 and 1.4 + 2. deﬁned as (15. January 29. and if b < bcrit .7 In the case of a grazing collision.11-6) r2 √ The value of the actual collision parameter.15. It is assumed that some fraction of the kinetic energy of the droplets is lost to viscous dissipation and angular momentum generation. Using assumed forms for the energy loss. Collision Outcomes Once it is determined that two parcels collide. The critical oﬀset is a function of the collisional Weber number and the relative radii of the collector and the smaller droplet.4f We bcrit = (r1 + r2 ) min 1. the outcome of the collision must be determined. The probability distribution of the number of collisions follows a Poisson distribution. The critical oﬀset is calculated by O’Rourke using the expression 2. This fraction is related to b. where f is a function of r1 /r2 . O’Rourke derived the following expression for the new velocity: m1 v1 + m2 v2 + m2 (v1 − v2 ) m1 + m2 b − bcrit r1 + r2 − bcrit r1 r2 r1 r2 3 r1 r2 2 v1 = (15. In general. The properties of the coalesced droplets are found from the basic conservation laws. Equation 15. f = − 2. the result of the collision is coalescence. is (r1 + r2 ) Y . which is given by n P (n) = e−¯ nn ¯ n! (15.11-4 gives the number of smaller droplets that coalesce with the collector.11-7) Release 12. according to O’Rourke. the probability of coalescence can be related to the oﬀset of the collector droplet center and the trajectory of the smaller droplet. the new velocities are calculated based on conservation of momentum and kinetic energy. In the reference frame being used here.0 c ANSYS. The calculated value of b is compared to bcrit . 2009 15-89 .11 Droplet Collision and Coalescence Model Theory The actual number of collisions that the collector experiences is not generally the mean expected number of collisions. b. and bouncing if the collision is more oblique.

or you can include the eﬀect of the discrete phase on the continuum (a coupled approach or “two-way coupling”).12. Thus. ANSYS FLUENT keeps track of the heat.1: Heat. the continuous phase ﬂow pattern is impacted by the discrete phase (and vice versa).1 Coupling Between the Discrete and Continuous Phases As the trajectory of a particle is computed.12 One-Way and Two-Way Coupling You can use ANSYS FLUENT to predict the discrete phase patterns based on a ﬁxed continuous phase ﬂow ﬁeld (an uncoupled approach or “one-way coupling”). mass. 15. This interphase exchange of heat. and momentum gained or lost by the particle stream that follows that trajectory and these quantities can be incorporated in the subsequent continuous phase calculations. you can also incorporate the eﬀect of the discrete phase trajectories on the continuum. In the coupled approach. where the discrete phase trajectories have no impact on the continuum. Note that no interchange terms are computed for particles deﬁned as massless. 2009 . and momentum from the particle to the continuous phase is depicted qualitatively in Figure 15. No other droplet properties are altered in grazing collisions. Inc. and Momentum Transfer Between the Discrete and Continuous Phases 15-90 Release 12. This two-way coupling is accomplished by alternately solving the discrete and continuous phase equations until the solutions in both phases have stopped changing.1. January 29.12. and you can alternate calculations of the continuous phase and discrete phase equations until a converged coupled solution is achieved. while the continuous phase always impacts the discrete phase. mass.12. Mass.0 c ANSYS. 15.Discrete Phase This relation is used for each of the components of velocity. typical particle trajectory mass-exchange heat-exchange momentum-exchange typical continuous phase control volume Figure 15.

12 One-Way and Two-Way Coupling 15.12-1) viscosity of the ﬂuid density of the particle diameter of the particle relative Reynolds number velocity of the particle velocity of the ﬂuid drag coeﬃcient mass ﬂow rate of the particles time step other interaction forces This momentum exchange appears as a momentum source in the continuous phase momentum balance in any subsequent calculations of the continuous phase ﬂow ﬁeld and can be reported by ANSYS FLUENT as described in Section 23.. This momentum change is computed as 18µCD Re (up − u) + Fother mp ∆t ˙ ρp d2 24 p F = where µ ρp dp Re up u CD mp ˙ ∆t Fother = = = = = = = = = = (15. January 29.3 Heat Exchange The heat transfer from the continuous phase to the discrete phase is computed in ANSYS FLUENT by examining the change in thermal energy of a particle as it passes through each control volume in the ANSYS FLUENT model.0 Tp out Tref cp p dT + mp in Tp in Tref cp p dT (15.12. 2009 15-91 .7: Postprocessing for the Discrete Phase in the separate User’s Guide. 15.0 ˙ (mp in − mp out )[−Hlatref + Hpyrol ] − mp out mp. for all particle laws except Law 5) the heat exchange is computed as Q= mp.2 Momentum Exchange The momentum transfer from the continuous phase to the discrete phase is computed in ANSYS FLUENT by examining the change in momentum of a particle as it passes through each control volume in the ANSYS FLUENT model.12.15.e.12-2) Release 12.0 c ANSYS. Inc. In the absence of a chemical reaction (i.

0 mp in mp out cp p Hpyrol Tp in Tp out Tref Hlatref = = = = = = = = = = initial mass ﬂow rate of the particle injection (kg/s) initial mass of the particle (kg) mass of the particle on cell entry (kg) mass of the particle on cell exit (kg) heat capacity of the particle (J/kg-K) heat of pyrolysis as volatiles are evolved (J/kg) temperature of the particle on cell entry (K) temperature of the particle on cell exit (K) reference temperature for enthalpy (K) latent heat at reference conditions (J/kg) The latent heat at the reference conditions Hlatref for droplet particles is computed as the diﬀerence of the liquid and gas standard formation enthalpies.init cp g dT + Tref cp p dT (15. 2009 .12-3) For the volatile part of the combusting particles. some constraints are applied to ensure that the enthalpy source terms do not depend on the particle history.init = particle initial temperature (K) Tp.0 ˙ mp.Discrete Phase where mp. The mass change is computed simply as M= ∆mp mp.12-5) 15-92 Release 12.init Tref Tp. and can be related to the latent heat at the boiling point as follows: Hlatref = Hlat − where cp g Tbp Hlat = heat capacity of gas product species (J/kg-K) = boiling point temperature (K) = latent heat at the boiling point temperature (J/kg) Tbp Tref Tbp cp g dT + Tref cp p dT (15. Inc.0 c ANSYS. Hence Hlatref is derived by applying a correction to Hlat .0 (15. which accounts for diﬀerent heat capacities in the particle and gaseous phase: Hlatref = Hlat − where Tp. one consisting of the ﬂuid and the other consisting of the volatiles. January 29. The formulation should be consistent with the mixing of two gas streams.4 Mass Exchange The mass transfer from the discrete phase to the continuous phase is computed in ANSYS FLUENT by examining the change in mass of a particle as it passes through each control volume in the ANSYS FLUENT model.12-4) 15.0 ˙ mp.12.

12-6) Qnew = Qold + α(Qcalculated − Qold ) (15. while the particle source terms. January 29. every ﬂow iteration.12. The mass sources are included in any subsequent calculations of the continuous phase ﬂow ﬁeld and are reported by ANSYS FLUENT as described in Section 23. are calculated every Discrete Phase Model iteration.7: Postprocessing for the Discrete Phase in the separate User’s Guide. Release 12. Qnew and Mnew . The latter option is recommended for transient ﬂows. S∞ is the ﬁnal source term for which a value is reached after a certain number of updates and S0 is the initial source term at the start of the computation. 15. Figure 15.12. Keep in mind that the DPM source terms are updated every continuous ﬂow iteration.2. Figure 15.2 can be applied to this option as well. 2009 15-93 . where the particles are updated once per ﬂow time step. Fcalculated . heat. The value of S0 is typically zero at the beginning of the calculation. Inc. This value may be reduced to improve the stability of coupled calculations. Fnew .12-8) where α is the under-relaxation factor for particles/droplets. The second option is to update the new source terms. The default value for α is 0.12 One-Way and Two-Way Coupling This mass exchange appears as a source of mass in the continuous phase continuity equation and as a source of a chemical species deﬁned by you. when applied to the ﬂow equations.0 c ANSYS.5 Under-Relaxation of the Interphase Exchange Terms Note that the interphase exchange of momentum.15.12-7) Mnew = Mold + α(Mcalculated − Mold ) (15. at the same time. Qcalculated and Mcalculated . Note that the value of α does not inﬂuence the predictions obtained in the ﬁnal converged solution. Qcalculated and Mcalculated . changes with the number of updates for varying under-relaxation factors. Two options exist when updating the new particle source terms Fnew .12. Fcalculated .12. and mass is under-relaxed during the calculation.5. The ﬁrst option is to compute the new source terms and the particle source terms.2 shows how the source term. so that Fnew = Fold + α(Fcalculated − Fold ) (15. Qnew and Mnew . S. In Figure 15.

January 29. Inc.12.0 c ANSYS.2: Eﬀect of Number of Source Term Updates on Source Term Applied to Flow Equations 15-94 Release 12. 2009 .Discrete Phase Figure 15.

15. are computed for each stochastic trajectory with the particle mass ﬂow rate.12.12-1 to 15.12. the interphase exchange terms are computed via Equations 15.12-1 to 15. divided by the number of stochastic tracks computed. mp0 . January 29. computed via Equations 15.6 Interphase Exchange During Stochastic Tracking When stochastic tracking is performed. This implies ˙ that an equal mass ﬂow of particles follows each stochastic trajectory.12 One-Way and Two-Way Coupling 15.7 Interphase Exchange During Cloud Tracking When the particle cloud model is used. the interphase exchange terms. Inc.2-49. The exchange terms are then distributed to all the cells in the cloud based on the weighting factor deﬁned in Equation 15. 2009 15-95 .15.12-8. Release 12.12-8 based on ensemble-averaged ﬂow properties in the particle cloud.0 c ANSYS.

Discrete Phase 15-96 Release 12. January 29.0 c ANSYS. Inc. 2009 .

1: Introduction provides a brief introduction to multiphase modeling.6: Wet Steam Model Theory • Section 16.7: Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows • Section 16. Chapter 15: Discrete Phase discusses the Lagrangian dispersed phase model.0 c ANSYS. Inc.4: Mixture Model Theory • Section 16. Section 16.8: Modeling Species Transport in Multiphase Flows Release 12. 2009 16-1 .3: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory • Section 16.Chapter 16. For information about using the general multiphase models in ANSYS FLUENT.1: Introduction • Section 16. Information about the various theories behind the multiphase models is presented in the following sections: • Section 16. and Chapter 17: Solidiﬁcation and Melting describes ANSYS FLUENT’s model for solidiﬁcation and melting.2: Choosing a General Multiphase Model • Section 16. Multiphase Flows This chapter discusses the general multiphase models that are available in ANSYS FLUENT. January 29. see Chapter 24: Modeling Multiphase Flows in the separate User’s Guide.5: Eulerian Model Theory • Section 16.

gas-solid ﬂows.1 Introduction A large number of ﬂows encountered in nature and technology are a mixture of phases. • Droplet ﬂow: This is the ﬂow of discrete ﬂuid droplets in a continuous gas. Physical phases of matter are gas. Inc.1.0 c ANSYS.1 for illustrations of these regimes. • Slug ﬂow: This is the ﬂow of large bubbles in a continuous ﬂuid. a phase can be deﬁned as an identiﬁable class of material that has a particular inertial response to and interaction with the ﬂow and the potential ﬁeld in which it is immersed.1 Multiphase Flow Regimes Multiphase ﬂow regimes can be grouped into four categories: gas-liquid or liquid-liquid ﬂows. • Stratiﬁed/free-surface ﬂow: This is the ﬂow of immiscible ﬂuids separated by a clearly-deﬁned interface. In multiphase ﬂow. Information is organized into the following subsections: • Section 16. liquid. January 29. Gas-Liquid or Liquid-Liquid Flows The following regimes are gas-liquid or liquid-liquid ﬂows: • Bubbly ﬂow: This is the ﬂow of discrete gaseous or ﬂuid bubbles in a continuous ﬂuid. and solid. liquid-solid ﬂows. 16-2 Release 12.2: Examples of Multiphase Systems 16. See Figure 16.1. but the concept of phase in a multiphase ﬂow system is applied in a broader sense. diﬀerent-sized solid particles of the same material can be treated as diﬀerent phases because each collection of particles with the same size will have a similar dynamical response to the ﬂow ﬁeld.1.1.1: Multiphase Flow Regimes • Section 16. For example. and three-phase ﬂows. 2009 .Multiphase Flows 16.

1. See Figure 16.1 for illustrations of these regimes. bubbles appear and rise through the bed. and homogeneous ﬂow. the Stokes number (see Equation 16. Reynolds numbers. In slurry ﬂows.1. • Hydrotransport: This describes densely-distributed solid particles in a continuous liquid • Sedimentation: This describes a tall column initially containing a uniform dispersed mixture of particles. January 29.2-4) is normally less than 1. • Fluidized bed: This consists of a vertical cylinder containing particles. the particles will slow down and form a sludge layer.16. At the top. Depending on the gas ﬂow rate. Release 12. Liquid-Solid Flows The following regimes are liquid-solid ﬂows: • Slurry ﬂow: This ﬂow is the transport of particles in liquids.1 for illustrations of these regimes. • Pneumatic transport: This is a ﬂow pattern that depends on factors such as solid loading. 2009 16-3 . into which a gas is introduced through a distributor. and particle properties. See Figure 16. the characteristic of the ﬂow is liquid-solid ﬂuidization.1 Introduction Gas-Solid Flows The following regimes are gas-solid ﬂows: • Particle-laden ﬂow: This is ﬂow of discrete particles in a continuous gas. When the Stokes number is larger than 1. slug ﬂow. Three-Phase Flows Three-phase ﬂows are combinations of the other ﬂow regimes listed in the previous sections. and in the middle a constant settling zone will exist. Typical patterns are dune ﬂow.0 c ANSYS. intensifying the mixing within the bed. Inc. The gas rising through the bed suspends the particles. The fundamental behavior of liquid-solid ﬂows varies with the properties of the solid particles relative to those of the liquid. At the bottom. a clear interface will appear.

0 c ANSYS. droplet.1: Multiphase Flow Regimes 16-4 Release 12.1. 2009 . Inc. or slurry ﬂow sedimentation ﬂuidized bed Figure 16. hydrotransport. January 29.Multiphase Flows slug ﬂow bubbly. or particle-laden ﬂow stratiﬁed/free-surface ﬂow pneumatic transport.

16.0 c ANSYS. January 29. evaporation.1. and the appropriate model for diﬀerent amounts of coupling. cavitation.2: Model Comparisons • Section 16. or particles. 16.2. • Droplet ﬂow examples include absorbers.2. aeration. dryers.3: Time Schemes in Multiphase Flow • Section 16. Inc. Information is organized into the following subsections: • Section 16. grains. dust collectors. droplets.1: Approaches to Multiphase Modeling • Section 16.1: Multiphase Flow Regimes are listed below: • Bubbly ﬂow examples include absorbers.2 Choosing a General Multiphase Model 16. • Particle-laden ﬂow examples include cyclone separators. cryogenic pumping.2 Choosing a General Multiphase Model The ﬁrst step in solving any multiphase problem is to determine which of the regimes provides some broad guidelines for determining appropriate models for each regime. and metal powders. and scrubbers. • Stratiﬁed/free-surface ﬂow examples include sloshing in oﬀshore separator devices and boiling and condensation in nuclear reactors.4: Stability and Convergence Release 12. and how to determine the degree of interphase coupling for ﬂows involving bubbles. • Pneumatic transport examples include transport of cement. • Slug ﬂow examples include large bubble motion in pipes or tanks. ﬂotation. 2009 16-5 . • Fluidized bed examples include ﬂuidized bed reactors and circulating ﬂuidized beds. • Slurry ﬂow examples include slurry transport and mineral processing • Hydrotransport examples include mineral processing and biomedical and physiochemical ﬂuid systems • Sedimentation examples include mineral processing. combustors. air lift pumps. gas cooling. and scrubbers.1. air classiﬁers. atomizers. and dust-laden environmental ﬂows. evaporators.2 Examples of Multiphase Systems Speciﬁc examples of each regime described in Section 16.2.2.

the phases are treated as interpenetrating continua. the prediction of jet breakup (surface tension). The VOF Model The VOF model (described in Section 16. three diﬀerent Euler-Euler multiphase models are available: the volume of ﬂuid (VOF) model.1 Approaches to Multiphase Modeling Advances in computational ﬂuid mechanics have provided the basis for further insight into the dynamics of multiphase ﬂows. and the steady or transient tracking of any liquid-gas interface. 16-6 Release 12.2. Inc. free-surface ﬂows. In ANSYS FLUENT. Since the volume of a phase cannot be occupied by the other phases. 2009 . The Mixture Model The mixture model (described in Section 16. The mixture model can also be used without relative velocities for the dispersed phases to model homogeneous multiphase ﬂow. the motion of liquid after a dam break.4: Mixture Model Theory) is designed for two or more phases (ﬂuid or particulate). and the volume fraction of each of the ﬂuids in each computational cell is tracked throughout the domain. or. The mixture model solves for the mixture momentum equation and prescribes relative velocities to describe the dispersed phases. the diﬀerent phases are treated mathematically as interpenetrating continua. bubbly ﬂows. which have similar structure for all phases. January 29. sedimentation. The Euler-Euler Approach In the Euler-Euler approach.Multiphase Flows 16. ﬁlling. in the case of granular ﬂows. a single set of momentum equations is shared by the ﬂuids. the mixture model. Applications of the mixture model include particle-laden ﬂows with low loading.0 c ANSYS. by application of kinetic theory. the motion of large bubbles in a liquid. and the Eulerian model.3: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory) is a surface-tracking technique applied to a ﬁxed Eulerian mesh. Conservation equations for each phase are derived to obtain a set of equations. Applications of the VOF model include stratiﬁed ﬂows. These equations are closed by providing constitutive relations that are obtained from empirical information. In the VOF model. As in the Eulerian model.1: Introduction) and the Euler-Euler approach (discussed in the following section). Currently there are two approaches for the numerical calculation of multiphase ﬂows: the Euler-Lagrange approach (discussed in Section 15. the concept of phasic volume fraction is introduced. sloshing. These volume fractions are assumed to be continuous functions of space and time and their sum is equal to one. It is designed for two or more immiscible ﬂuids where the position of the interface between the ﬂuids is of interest. and cyclone separators.

use the VOF model. Momentum exchange between the phases is also dependent upon the type of mixture being modeled. and choose the model that is most appropriate for that aspect of the ﬂow. in Sections 16. since the model you use will be valid for only part of the ﬂow you are modeling.0 c ANSYS. complex multiphase ﬂows that involve multiple ﬂow regimes. and ﬂuidized beds.2 Choosing a General Multiphase Model The Eulerian Model The Eulerian model (described in Section 16. • For pneumatic transport. For granular ﬂows.2. and particle-laden ﬂows in which the phases mix and/or dispersed-phase volume fractions exceed 10%.3: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory for more information about the VOF model. • For general. respectively. use either the mixture model (described in Section 16.5: Eulerian Model Theory for more information about the Eulerian model. use the mixture model for homogeneous ﬂow (described in Section 16. See Section 16. Note that the accuracy of results will not be as good as for ﬂows that involve just one ﬂow regime. Release 12. See Section 16. use the Eulerian model. you can select the appropriate model based on the following guidelines: • For bubbly.5: Eulerian Model Theory).5). It solves a set of n momentum and continuity equations for each phase. risers.2 Model Comparisons In general. droplet. 2009 16-7 .4: Mixture Model Theory) or the Eulerian model for granular ﬂow (described in Section 16. • For ﬂuidized beds. See Section 16. use the Eulerian model for granular ﬂow. January 29. The manner in which this coupling is handled depends upon the type of phases involved. the properties are obtained from application of kinetic theory. 16.5: Eulerian Model Theory for more information about the Eulerian model. use the mixture or Eulerian model (described.5: Eulerian Model Theory) is the most complex of the multiphase models in ANSYS FLUENT. • For sedimentation.5: Eulerian Model Theory).16. particle suspension.4 and 16. use the VOF model. See Section 16. once you have determined the ﬂow regime that best represents your multiphase system. Applications of the Eulerian multiphase model include bubble columns. ANSYS FLUENT’s user-deﬁned functions allow you to customize the calculation of the momentum exchange. • For slug ﬂows. • For stratiﬁed/free-surface ﬂows.4: Mixture Model Theory) or the Eulerian model (described in Section 16. Coupling is achieved through the pressure and interphase exchange coeﬃcients. Inc. • For slurry ﬂows and hydrotransport. select the aspect of the ﬂow that is of most interest.3: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory for more information about the VOF model. granular (ﬂuid-solid) ﬂows are handled diﬀerently than nongranular (ﬂuid-ﬂuid) ﬂows.

If accuracy is more important than computational eﬀort. the mixture model may be a better option. For most cases with spherical particles.) To choose between the mixture model and the Eulerian model. since it solves a smaller number of equations than the Eulerian model. If the dispersed phases are concentrated just in portions of the domain. however. Even though you can apply the same drag laws to the mixture model. that the complexity of the Eulerian model can make it less computationally stable than the mixture model.e. the Eulerian model can usually provide more accurate results than the mixture model. and the mixture and Eulerian models are appropriate for ﬂows in which the phases mix or separate and/or dispersed-phase volume fractions exceed 10%. less computationally expensive). if the particles vary in size and the largest particles do not separate from the primary ﬂow ﬁeld). then the Schiller-Naumann law is more than adequate.Multiphase Flows As discussed in this section. the mixture model may be a better choice. 16-8 Release 12. you should consider the following guidelines: • If there is a wide distribution of the dispersed phases (i.. the mixture model may be preferable (i. Inc. then a user-deﬁned function can be used. ANSYS FLUENT’s multiphase models are compatible with ANSYS FLUENT’s dynamic mesh modeling feature.e. 2009 . see Appendix A: ANSYS FLUENT Model Compatibility in the separate User’s Guide. • If interphase drag laws that are applicable to your system are available (either within ANSYS FLUENT or through a user-deﬁned function). see Section 3: Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes. Keep in mind. the Eulerian model is a better choice. the VOF model is appropriate for stratiﬁed or free-surface ﬂows. if the interphase drag laws are unknown or their applicability to your system is questionable. For cases with nonspherical particles.. as you can for a nongranular Eulerian simulation. which requires less computational eﬀort. • If you want to solve a simpler problem. you should use the Eulerian model instead. For more information about how other ANSYS FLUENT models are compatible with ANSYS FLUENT’s multiphase models. January 29. (Flows in which the dispersed-phase volume fractions are less than or equal to 10% can be modeled using the discrete phase model described in Chapter 15: Discrete Phase.0 c ANSYS. For more information on the dynamic mesh feature.

For example. An estimate of this distance has been given by Crowe et al. and the Stokes number. January 29. Release 12. As a general guide. as indicated in Section 16. for a gas-particle ﬂow with a particulate L loading of 1. Using these parameters it is possible to estimate the average distance between the individual particles of the particulate phase. Information about these parameters is important for determining how the γ dispersed phase should be treated. Inc. the interparticle space dd is about 8.2. about 1 for liquid-solid ﬂows. (Note that the word “particle” is used in this discussion to refer to a particle. and less than 0. or bubble.e.001 for gas-liquid ﬂows.2 Choosing a General Multiphase Model Detailed Guidelines For stratiﬁed and slug ﬂows. droplet. St. [62]: L π1+κ = dd 6 κ 1/3 (16. The particulate loading is deﬁned as the mass density ratio of the dispersed phase (d) to that of the carrier phase (c): β= The material density ratio γ= ρd ρc (16. Choosing a model for the other types of ﬂows is less straightforward.16.2-3) where κ = β .2: Model Comparisons. β. the particle can therefore be treated as isolated (i. 2009 16-9 .0 c ANSYS. very low particulate loading). is straightforward..) The Effect of Particulate Loading Particulate loading has a major impact on phase interactions. there are some parameters that help to identify the appropriate multiphase model for these other ﬂows: the particulate loading.2-1) is greater than 1000 for gas-solid ﬂows. the choice of the VOF model.2-2) αd ρd αc ρc (16.

and Eulerian models can all handle this type of problem correctly. 16-10 Release 12.Multiphase Flows Depending on the particulate loading. the ﬂuid carrier inﬂuences the particulate phase via drag and turbulence. but the particles in turn inﬂuence the carrier ﬂuid via reduction in mean momentum and turbulence). but you need to take into account other factors in order to decide which model is more appropriate. 2009 . the particles will move independently of the ﬂow and either the discrete phase model (Chapter 15: Discrete Phase) or the Eulerian model is applicable.e. The Signiﬁcance of the Stokes Number For systems with intermediate particulate loading. The discrete phase (Chapter 15: Discrete Phase).0 c ANSYS. Only the Eulerian model will handle this type of problem correctly.0. Inc. but the particles have no inﬂuence on the ﬂuid carrier). mixture. V For St 1. For St > 1. The discrete phase(Chapter 15: Discrete Phase) . there is two-way coupling plus particle pressure and viscous stresses due to particles (four-way coupling). the coupling between the phases is one-way (i. again any of the three models is applicable.. and Eulerian models are all applicable in this case. the discrete phase or mixture model is recommended. See below for information about using the Stokes number as a guide. mixture. the coupling is two-way (i. the ﬂuid carrier inﬂuences the particles via drag and turbulence.0. in most cases). the particle will follow the ﬂow closely and any of the three models (discrete phase(Chapter 15: Discrete Phase) . you can choose the least expensive or the most appropriate considering other factors. you can therefore choose the least expensive (the mixture model.2-4) d where τd = 18µd and ts is based on the characteristic length (Ls ) and the characteristic c s velocity (Vs ) of the system under investigation: ts = Ls . or Eulerian) is applicable..0. estimating the value of the Stokes number can help you select the most appropriate model. For St ≈ 1.e. the degree of interaction between the phases can be divided into the following three categories: • For very low loading. January 29. or the most appropriate considering other factors. mixture. • For intermediate loading. Since the Eulerian model is the most expensive. The Stokes number can be deﬁned as the relation between the particle response time and the system response time: St = ρ d2 τd ts (16. • For high loading.

τ is the diﬀusion term. the Stokes number is 0.16. the process can vary spatially as well as temporally.2. V is the mixture or phase velocity (depending on the equations).2-5) Where φ is either a mixture (for the mixture model) or a phase variable. both higher-order spatial and time discretization schemes are necessary. 2009 16-11 .0 c ANSYS. In addition to the ﬁrst-order time scheme in ANSYS FLUENT. In multiphase ﬂow. a general transport equation (similar to that of Equation 18. Release 12. you can choose between the mixture and Eulerian models.3-15) may be written as ∂(αρφ) + ∂t · (αρV φ) = · τ + Sφ (16. In this case. the Stokes number is 0.0 for particles with a diameter of 300 microns. the second-order time scheme is available in the Mixture and Eulerian multiphase models.2 m and a characteristic velocity of 2 m/s. and the granular ﬂow model. α is the phase volume fraction (unity for the mixture equation).) Other Considerations Keep in mind that the use of the discrete phase model (Chapter 15: Discrete Phase) is limited to low volume fractions. phase volume fraction equations. (The volume fractions are too high for the discrete phase model (Chapter 15: Discrete Phase). and with the VOF Implicit Scheme. but 4. ρ is the mixture phase density. as noted below. energy equations. In order to accurately model multiphase ﬂow. and Sφ is the source term. i The second-order time scheme cannot be used with the VOF Explicit Schemes. January 29. in a system with a characteristic length of 0. 16. turbulence models.2 Choosing a General Multiphase Model Examples For a coal classiﬁer with a characteristic length of 1 m and a characteristic velocity of 10 m/s. species transport equations. Clearly the mixture model will not be applicable to the latter case.04 for particles with a diameter of 30 microns. Inc. the pressure correction equation.3 Time Schemes in Multiphase Flow In many multiphase applications.005 for particles with a diameter of 300 microns. For the case of mineral processing. including mixture phase momentum equations. The second-order time scheme has been adapted to all the transport equations. Also. the discrete phase model is the only multiphase model that allows you to specify the particle distribution or include combustion modeling in your simulation.

a bounded second-order time scheme has been implemented for compressible liquid ﬂows only. described in detail in Section 24. this second-order time-accurate scheme achieves its accuracy by using an Euler backward approximation in time (see Equation 18. If the CPU time is a concern for transient problems. it is recommended that you start with a small time step. by default.1: Coupled Solution for Multiphase Flows in the separate User’s Guide.2. This problem can be eliminated if a bounded second-order scheme is introduced. For a steady solution. of the three-time level method.2-7) Sφ = S U n+1 + 2(αp ρp φp V ol)n −0. the second-order time scheme is. Therefore.3-17). 2009 . When solving a time-dependent problem.2-6 can be written in simpler form: Ap φp = where Ap = Anb n+1 + S p n+1 + 1. in this version of ANSYS FLUENT. When body forces are signiﬁcant. The general transport equation. Inc. the negative coeﬃcient at the time level tn−1 . oscillating solutions are most likely seen in compressible liquid ﬂows.2-6) An bφn b + Sφ (16. 16. It is unconditionally stable. may produce oscillatory solutions if the time steps are large.5(αp ρp V ol)n+1 ∆t (16. it is recommended that you use the Multiphase Coupled solver. For single phase and multiphase compressible liquid ﬂows.2-5 is discretized as 3(αp ρp φp V ol)n+1 − 4(αp ρp φp V ol)n + (αp ρp φp )n−1 = 2∆t [Anb (φnb − φp )]n+1 + S U n+1 − S p n+1 φp n+1 Equation 16. which usually arise from poor initial ﬁelds. 16-12 Release 12. January 29. However. which can be increased after performing a few time steps to get a better approximation of the pressure ﬁeld. The iterative nature of this solver requires a good starting patched ﬁeld. however. a proper initial ﬁeld is required to avoid instabilities. Equation 16.0 c ANSYS.Multiphase Flows As a fully implicit scheme.7.4 Stability and Convergence The process of solving a multiphase system is inherently diﬃcult and you may encounter some stability or convergence problems. or if the solution requires higher order numerical schemes. the bounded scheme.5(αp ρp φp V ol)n−1 ∆t This scheme is easily implemented based on ANSYS FLUENT’s existing ﬁrst-order Euler scheme. then the best option is to use PC SIMPLE.

on the contrary.8: Surface Tension and Wall Adhesion • Section 16.3.3. pressure correction and volume fraction correction are solved simultaneously. This feature is similar to the single ﬂuid VOF solution.2: Volume Fraction Equation • Section 16.10: Open Channel Wave Boundary Conditions Release 12.3.3.3. January 29. you may need to reduce the Courant number.3. 16. This can later be increased if the iteration process runs smoothly.3. ANSYS FLUENT has an option to solve stratiﬁed immiscible ﬂuids within the Eulerian multiphase formulation. In addition. All other under-relaxation factors are implicit.3. The default Courant number is 200 but it can be reduced to as low as 4.9: Open Channel Flow • Section 16. Furthermore.6: Additional Scalar Equations • Section 16.1: Overview and Limitations of the VOF Model • Section 16.3.3. but in the context of multiple velocities. there are explicit under-relaxation factors for velocities and pressure.5 or above is adequate).4: Momentum Equation • Section 16.5: Energy Equation • Section 16. 2009 16-13 . Lower under-relaxation factors for the volume of fraction equation may delay the solution dramatically with the Coupled solver (any value 0.16.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory If diﬃculties are encountered due to higher order schemes.3: Material Properties • Section 16. which currently is not as robust as the others. PC SIMPLE would normally need a low under-relaxation for the volume fraction equation. or due to the complexities of the problem.7: Time Dependence • Section 16. Inc.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory Information is organized into the following subsections: • Section 16. In addition. ANSYS FLUENT oﬀers a Full Multiphase Coupled solver where all velocities.0 c ANSYS.

• Streamwise periodic ﬂow (either speciﬁed mass ﬂow rate or speciﬁed pressure drop) cannot be modeled when the VOF model is used. Limitations The following restrictions apply to the VOF model in ANSYS FLUENT: • You must use the pressure-based solver. the motion of large bubbles in a liquid.) 16-14 Release 12. when running in parallel.3. Typical applications include the prediction of jet breakup.1 Overview and Limitations of the VOF Model Overview The VOF model can model two or more immiscible ﬂuids by solving a single set of momentum equations and tracking the volume fraction of each of the ﬂuids throughout the domain.8: Parallel Processing for the Discrete Phase Model in the separate User’s Guide). • Only one of the phases can be deﬁned as a compressible ideal gas. the motion of liquid after a dam break. • The second-order implicit time-stepping formulation cannot be used with the VOF explicit scheme.Multiphase Flows 16.0 c ANSYS. January 29. There is no limitation on using compressible liquids using user-deﬁned functions. • All control volumes must be ﬁlled with either a single ﬂuid phase or a combination of phases. the DPM model cannot be used with the VOF model if the shared memory option is enabled (Section 23. Inc. enables the compatibility of all multiphase ﬂow models with the DPM model. (Note that using the message passing option. The VOF model is not available with the density-based solver. and the steady or transient tracking of any liquid-gas interface. • When tracking particles in parallel. 2009 . The VOF model does not allow for void regions where no ﬂuid of any type is present.

the ﬂow of water in a channel with a region of air on top and a separate air inlet can be solved with the steady-state formulation. By default. In other words. For example. since the shape of the free surface inside a rotating cup depends on the initial level of the ﬂuid. it is possible to perform a steady-state calculation. 16. depending upon the volume fraction values. For the q th phase. the volume fractions of all phases sum to unity.16. • 0 < αq < 1: The cell contains the interface between the q th ﬂuid and one or more other ﬂuids. Based on the local value of αq . On the other hand. such a problem must be solved using the time-dependent formulation. a variable is introduced: the volume fraction of the phase in the computational cell. The VOF formulation relies on the fact that two or more ﬂuids (or phases) are not interpenetrating.3-1.0 c ANSYS. or representative of a mixture of the phases. January 29. Release 12. if the q th ﬂuid’s volume fraction in the cell is denoted as αq . In each control volume. the source term on the right-hand side of Equation 16. The ﬁelds for all variables and properties are shared by the phases and represent volume-averaged values. • αq = 1: The cell is full (of the q th ﬂuid). For each additional phase that you add to your model. this equation has the following form: 1 ∂ (αq ρq ) + ρq ∂t n · (αq ρq vq ) = Sαq + p=1 (mpq − mqp ) ˙ ˙ (16.3-1) where mqp is the mass transfer from phase q to phase p and mpq is the mass transfer from ˙ ˙ phase p to phase q.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory Steady-State and Transient VOF Calculations The VOF formulation in ANSYS FLUENT is generally used to compute a time-dependent solution. A steady-state VOF calculation is sensible only when your solution is independent of the initial conditions and there are distinct inﬂow boundaries for the individual phases. as long as the volume fraction of each of the phases is known at each location. the appropriate properties and variables will be assigned to each control volume within the domain. Inc. but for problems in which you are concerned only with a steady-state solution.2 Volume Fraction Equation The tracking of the interface(s) between the phases is accomplished by the solution of a continuity equation for the volume fraction of one (or more) of the phases.3. 2009 16-15 . Thus the variables and properties in any given cell are either purely representative of one of the phases. then the following three conditions are possible: • αq = 0: The cell is empty (of the q th ﬂuid).

and the Modiﬁed HRIC schemes. including those near the interface.3-4) p=1 16-16 Release 12. a standard scalar transport equation is solved iteratively for each of the secondary-phase volume fractions at each time step. The volume fraction equation will not be solved for the primary phase.3-2) The volume fraction equation may be solved either through implicit or explicit time discretization.f ) = f n (mpq − mqp ) + Sαq V ˙ ˙ (16. the primary-phase volume fraction will be computed based on the following constraint: n αq = 1 q=1 (16.0 c ANSYS. QUICK. ANSYS FLUENT’s standard ﬁnite-diﬀerence interpolation schemes.Multiphase Flows Sαq . The Implicit Scheme When the implicit scheme is used for time discretization. Inc. as for the explicit scheme).2: Choosing a Volume Fraction Formulation in the separate User’s Guide for details. The implicit scheme can be used for both time-dependent and steady-state calculations. are used to obtain the face ﬂuxes for all cells. is zero. n+1 n αq ρn+1 − αq ρn q q V + ∆t n n (ρq Uf αq.3-3) Since this equation requires the volume fraction values at the current time step (rather than at the previous step. January 29. See Section 16. n+1 n αq ρn+1 − αq ρn q q V + ∆t n+1 n+1 (ρn+1 Uf αq.7: Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows for more information on the modeling of mass transfer in ANSYS FLUENT’s general multiphase models. See Section 24. but you can specify a constant or user-deﬁned mass source for each phase. Second Order Upwind and First Order Upwind. ANSYS FLUENT’s standard ﬁnite-diﬀerence interpolation schemes are applied to the volume fraction values that were computed at the previous time step.2. 2009 .f ) = Sαq + q f n p=1 (mpq − mqp ) V ˙ ˙ (16. The Explicit Scheme In the explicit approach.

1: Second-Order Upwind Scheme).3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory where n + 1 = index for new (current) time step n = index for previous time step αq.3.2: Interpolation near the Interface).3. Inc. QUICK. second-order (Section 18. based on normal velocity This formulation does not require iterative solution of the transport equation during each time step. as is needed for the implicit scheme.0 c ANSYS.3. Release 12. or CICSAM scheme V = volume of cell Uf = volume ﬂux through the face. the face ﬂuxes can be interpolated either using interface reconstruction or using a ﬁnite volume discretization scheme (Section 16. Second Order Upwind. modiﬁed HRIC (Section 18. The reconstruction based schemes available in ANSYS FLUENT are Geo-Reconstruct and Donor-Acceptor.3. CICSAM. rather than applying a special treatment. a time-dependent solution must be computed. using the standard upwind (Section 18. In the geometric reconstruction and donor-acceptor schemes. modiﬁed HRIC. computed from the ﬁrstor second-order upwind.1: First-Order Upwind Scheme). i When the explicit scheme is used. or CICSAM scheme). January 29. QUICK (Section 18..16.1: Modiﬁed HRIC Scheme). The explicit scheme and the implicit scheme treat these cells with the same interpolation as the cells that are completely ﬁlled with one phase or the other (i. When the explicit scheme is used for time discretization. ANSYS FLUENT applies a special interpolation treatment to the cells that lie near the interface between two phases. 2009 16-17 .3. Interpolation near the Interface ANSYS FLUENT’s control-volume formulation requires that convection and diﬀusion ﬂuxes through the control volume faces be computed and balanced with source terms within the control volume itself.3. Figure 16.1: QUICK Scheme. Modiﬁed HRIC.f = face value of the q th volume fraction.1 shows an actual interface shape along with the interfaces assumed during computation by these two methods. The discretization schemes available with explicit scheme for VOF are First Order Upwind.e. and QUICK.

1: Interface Calculations 16-18 Release 12.Multiphase Flows actual interface shape interface shape represented by the geometric reconstruction (piecewise-linear) scheme interface shape represented by the donor-acceptor scheme Figure 16.0 c ANSYS. January 29.3. Inc. 2009 .

. 2009 16-19 .0 c ANSYS. If there are. It assumes that the interface between two ﬂuids has a linear slope within each cell. the geometric reconstruction scheme is used. Inc. the standard interpolation schemes that are used in ANSYS FLUENT are used to obtain the face ﬂuxes whenever a cell is completely ﬁlled with one phase or another.e. (See Figure 16. you must ensure that there are no two-sided (zero-thickness) walls within the domain. The second step is calculating the advecting amount of ﬂuid through each face using the computed linear interface representation and information about the normal and tangential velocity distribution on the face. as described in Section 6. the standard interpolation schemes that are used in ANSYS FLUENT are used to obtain the face ﬂuxes whenever a cell is completely ﬁlled with one phase or another.) The ﬁrst step in this reconstruction scheme is calculating the position of the linear interface relative to the center of each partially-ﬁlled cell. if the mesh node locations are identical at the boundaries where two subdomains meet). and is used to prevent numerical diﬀusion at the interface. The geometric reconstruction scheme represents the interface between ﬂuids using a piecewise-linear approach. i When the geometric reconstruction scheme is used. you will need to slit them. and uses this linear shape for calculation of the advection of ﬂuid through the cell faces. The geometric reconstruction scheme is generalized for unstructured meshes from the work of Youngs [388]. Also.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory The Geometric Reconstruction Scheme In the geometric reconstruction approach. The third step is calculating the volume fraction in each cell using the balance of ﬂuxes calculated during the previous step. When the cell is near the interface between two phases. Release 12. January 29. based on information about the volume fraction and its derivatives in the cell. The amount of ﬂuid from one phase that can be convected across a cell boundary is limited by the minimum of two values: the ﬁlled volume in the donor cell or the free volume in the acceptor cell. if you are using a conformal mesh (i. In ANSYS FLUENT this scheme is the most accurate and is applicable for general unstructured meshes. When the cell is near the interface between two phases. The Donor-Acceptor Scheme In the donor-acceptor approach. a time-dependent solution must be computed. This scheme identiﬁes one cell as a donor of an amount of ﬂuid from one phase and another (neighbor) cell as the acceptor of that same amount of ﬂuid.1.16.6: Slitting Face Zones in the separate User’s Guide. a “donor-acceptor” scheme is used to determine the amount of ﬂuid advected through the face [131].3.8.

for example.e. The CICSAM scheme is particularly suitable for ﬂows with high ratios of viscosities between the phases. In a two-phase system. pure downwinding.3-5) In general. you must ensure that there are no two-sided (zero-thickness) walls within the domain..3-6) All other properties (e.6: Slitting Face Zones in the separate User’s Guide. Depending on the interface’s orientation as well as its motion.. viscosity) are computed in this manner.3 Material Properties The properties appearing in the transport equations are determined by the presence of the component phases in each control volume. In addition. January 29.g.8. if the mesh node locations are identical at the boundaries where two subdomains meet). is a high resolution diﬀerencing scheme. based on Ubbink’s work [351]. for an n-phase system. CICSAM is implemented in ANSYS FLUENT as an explicit scheme and oﬀers the advantage of producing an interface that is almost as sharp as the geometric reconstruction scheme. the density in each cell is given by ρ = α2 ρ2 + (1 − α2 )ρ1 (16. 16-20 Release 12. a time-dependent solution must be computed. if you are using a conformal mesh (i. If there are. Inc. or some combination of the two. if the phases are represented by the subscripts 1 and 2. and if the volume fraction of the second of these is being tracked. the volume-fraction-averaged density takes on the following form: ρ= αq ρq (16. i When the donor-acceptor scheme is used. the donor-acceptor scheme can be used only with quadrilateral or hexahedral meshes. Also. 2009 . The Compressive Interface Capturing Scheme for Arbitrary Meshes (CICSAM) The compressive interface capturing scheme for arbitrary meshes (CICSAM).Multiphase Flows The orientation of the interface is also used in determining the face ﬂuxes. The interface orientation is either horizontal or vertical.3. depending on the direction of the volume fraction gradient of the q th phase within the cell. and that of the neighbor cell that shares the face in question. you will need to slit them. as described in Section 6. 16.0 c ANSYS. ﬂux values are obtained by pure upwinding.

January 29.2: The Compressive Interface Capturing Scheme for Arbitrary Meshes (CICSAM)) is suitable for ﬂows with high ratios of viscosities between the phases.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory 16. 16. thus solving the problem of poor convergence.0 c ANSYS. The compressive interface capturing scheme for arbitrary meshes (CICSAM) (Section 16. this may lead to convergence diﬃculties. The momentum equation. 2009 16-21 .5 Energy Equation The energy equation. is shown below. and temperature.3. Inc. is dependent on the volume fractions of all phases through the properties ρ and µ. Sh . The properties ρ and keﬀ (eﬀective thermal conductivity) are shared by the phases.3. Release 12. The source term.3. as well as any other volumetric heat sources.3-7) One limitation of the shared-ﬁelds approximation is that in cases where large velocity diﬀerences exist between the phases.3-8) The VOF model treats energy. ∂ (ρv) + ∂t · (ρvv) = − p + · µ v+ vT + ρg + F (16. E. the accuracy of the velocities computed near the interface can be adversely aﬀected.16. Note that if the viscosity ratio is more than 1x103 . contains contributions from radiation. ∂ (ρE) + ∂t · (v(ρE + p)) = · (keﬀ T ) + Sh (16. as mass-averaged variables: n αq ρq Eq E= q=1 n (16.3-9) αq ρq q=1 where Eq for each phase is based on the speciﬁc heat of that phase and the shared temperature.4 Momentum Equation A single momentum equation is solved throughout the domain. T . also shared among the phases. and the resulting velocity ﬁeld is shared among the phases. shown below.

or through a UDF. and the turbulence variables (e. You can choose to update the volume fraction once for each time step. if a model includes liquid metal in combination with air. the conductivities of the materials can diﬀer by as much as four orders of magnitude.3. as a function of temperature.0 c ANSYS. 16.6 Additional Scalar Equations Depending upon your problem deﬁnition. The solver will include the additional tangential stress terms (causing what is termed as Marangoni convection) that arise due to the variation in surface tension coeﬃcient.Multiphase Flows As with the velocity ﬁeld. The model can be augmented by the additional speciﬁcation of the contact angles between the phases and the walls. Such problems also arise in cases where the properties vary by several orders of magnitude. 16-22 Release 12. In the case of turbulence quantities. These options are discussed in more detail in Section 24. additional scalar equations may be involved in your solution. For example. or once for each iteration within each time step.3.g.7 Time Dependence For time-dependent VOF calculations.8 Surface Tension and Wall Adhesion The VOF model can also include the eﬀects of surface tension along the interface between each pair of phases.5: Setting Time-Dependent Parameters for the VOF Model in the separate User’s Guide. You can specify a surface tension coeﬃcient as a constant. ANSYS FLUENT automatically reﬁnes the time step for the integration of the volume fraction equation.3. Such large discrepancies in properties lead to equation sets with anisotropic coeﬃcients. but you can inﬂuence this time step calculation by modifying the Courant number. Inc. Equation 16. the accuracy of the temperature near the interface is limited in cases where large temperature diﬀerences exist between the phases. k and or the Reynolds stresses) are shared by the phases throughout the ﬁeld. 2009 . Variable surface tension coeﬃcient eﬀects are usually important only in zero/near-zero gravity conditions. a single set of transport equations is solved. 16.3-1 is solved using an explicit timemarching scheme. which in turn can lead to convergence and precision limitations.. 16.3. January 29.

2009 16-23 . January 29.3-12) Release 12. the net force on a molecule due to its neighbors is zero.16. for example. Within the bubble. that is required to maintain equilibrium in such instances. κ. and where only the forces normal to the interface are considered.3-13) ·n ˆ (16. and the combined eﬀect of the radial components of force across the entire spherical surface is to make the surface contract. where the surface curvature is computed from local gradients in the surface normal at the interface. acting only at the surface. the surface tension acts to minimize free energy by decreasing the area of the interface.3-11) The curvature. consider the special case where the surface tension is constant along the surface. To understand the origin of the source term. It can be shown that the pressure drop across the surface depends upon the surface tension coeﬃcient. In regions where two ﬂuids are separated. The surface tension model in ANSYS FLUENT is the continuum surface force (CSF) model proposed by Brackbill et al. n= αq (16. With this model. the addition of surface tension to the VOF calculation results in a source term in the momentum equation. At the surface. The surface tension is a force. Inc. In ANSYS FLUENT. a formulation of the CSF model is used. R1 and R2 : p2 − p1 = σ 1 1 + R1 R2 (16.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory Surface Tension Surface tension arises as a result of attractive forces between molecules in a ﬂuid. however. Consider an air bubble in water. and the surface curvature as measured by two radii in orthogonal directions. It acts to balance the radially inward intermolecular attractive force with the radially outward pressure gradient force across the surface. the net force is radially inward. [34]. n [34]: ˆ κ= where n= ˆ n |n| (16. the volume fraction of the q th phase. is deﬁned in terms of the divergence of the unit normal. thereby increasing the pressure on the concave side of the surface.0 c ANSYS. but one of them is not in the form of spherical bubbles.3-10) where p1 and p2 are the pressures in the two ﬂuids on either side of the interface. Let n be the surface normal. deﬁned as the gradient of αq . σ.

Inc.3-17) 1 where U is the free-stream velocity. then κi = −κj and αi = − αj .3-14) This expression allows for a smooth superposition of forces near cells where more than two phases are present. and the capillary number. If only two phases are present in a cell.Multiphase Flows The surface tension can be written in terms of the pressure jump across the surface. It has the following form: Fvol = pairs ij. the quantity of interest is the capillary number: Ca = and for Re µU σ (16.3-16) 1.3-15) where ρ is the volume-averaged density computed using Equation 16.3-15 shows that the surface tension source term for a cell is proportional to the average density in the cell. The force at the surface can be expressed as a volume force using the divergence theorem. Note that the calculation of surface tension eﬀects on triangular and tetrahedral meshes is not as accurate as on quadrilateral and hexahedral meshes. 2009 . It is this volume force that is the source term which is added to the momentum equation. Equation 16. Re. Ca. The region where surface tension eﬀects are most important should therefore be meshed with quadrilaterals or hexahedra. January 29. the quantity of interest is the Weber number: We = ρLU 2 σ (16. refer to Section 24. For Re 1. and the Weber number. and Equation 16. To include the eﬀects of surface tension in your model. When Surface Tension Effects Are Important The importance of surface tension eﬀects is determined based on the value of two dimensionless quantities: the Reynolds number.0 c ANSYS.4: Including Surface Tension and Wall Adhesion Eﬀects in the separate User’s Guide. Re. We.3-6. i<j σij αi ρi κj αj + αj ρj κi αi 1 (ρi + ρj ) 2 (16. Surface tension eﬀects can be neglected if Ca or We 1.3-14 simpliﬁes to Fvol = σij 1 ρκi αi (ρi + ρj ) 2 (16. 16-24 Release 12.3. or the Reynolds number.

The wave speed as seen by the ﬁxed observer is deﬁned as Vw = V ± √ gy (16.3-19) where V is the velocity magnitude. If θw is the contact angle at the wall. the wave propagation and free surface behavior becomes important.g.3. 16. dams. The model is taken from work done by Brackbill et al. These ﬂows involve the existence of a free surface between the ﬂowing ﬂuid and ﬂuid above it (generally the atmosphere). in this case.9 Open Channel Flow ANSYS FLUENT can model the eﬀects of open channel ﬂow (e. respectively. January 29.3. The denominator in Equation 16.16. and this curvature is used to adjust the body force term in the surface tension calculation. Flow is generally governed by the forces of gravity and inertia. refer to Section 24. the distance from the bottom of the channel to the free surface. g is gravity. Inc. the contact angle that the ﬂuid is assumed to make with the wall is used to adjust the surface normal in cells near the wall.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory Wall Adhesion An option to specify a wall adhesion angle in conjunction with the surface tension model is also available in the VOF model.0 c ANSYS.3-20) Release 12. [34]. V Fr = √ gy (16.3-19 is the propagation speed of the wave..3-18) ˆ where nw and tw are the unit vectors normal and tangential to the wall.4: Including Surface Tension and Wall Adhesion Eﬀects in the separate User’s Guide. and surface-piercing structures in unbounded stream) using the VOF formulation and the open channel boundary condition. and y is a length scale. To include wall adhesion in your model. This feature is mostly applicable to marine applications and the analysis of ﬂows through drainage systems. Open channel ﬂows are characterized by the dimensionless Froude Number. rivers. In such cases. which is deﬁned as the ratio of inertia force and hydrostatic force. This so-called dynamic boundary condition results in the adjustment of the curvature of the surface near the wall. then the surface normal at the live cell next to the wall is ˆ n = nw cos θw + tw sin θw ˆ ˆ (16. Rather than impose this boundary condition at the wall itself. ˆ The combination of this contact angle with the normally calculated surface normal one cell away from the wall determine the local curvature of the surface. 2009 16-25 .

the ﬂow is known to be subcritical where disturbances can travel upstream as well as downstream.e. From this. the dynamic pressure q is q= and the static pressure ps is → → g − → ps = (ρ − ρ0 )|− |(ˆ · ( b − − )) g a (16. ρ is the density of the mixture in the cell. 2009 . √ • When F r > 1.Multiphase Flows Based on the Froude number. Here.e. • When F r = 1 (thus Vw = 0).3-23) ρ − ρ0 2 V 2 (16. downstream conditions might aﬀect the ﬂow upstream.3-21) → − → where b and − are the position vectors of the face centroid and any point on the free a surface. In this case. respectively. open channel ﬂows can be classiﬁed in the following three categories: √ • When F r < 1. − is the gravity vector. the ﬂow is known to be supercritical where disturbances cannot travel upstream. V < gy (thus Vw < 0 or Vw > 0). V is the velocity magnitude.. In this case. Upstream Boundary Conditions There are two options available for the upstream boundary condition for open channel ﬂows: • pressure inlet • mass ﬂow rate Pressure Inlet The total pressure p0 at the inlet can be given as 1 → → g − → p0 = (ρ − ρ0 )V 2 + (ρ − ρ0 )|− |(ˆ · ( b − − )) g a 2 (16. free surface is assumed to be horizontal and normal to the → → direction of gravity. and ρ0 is the reference density. i. the character of the ﬂow changes. V > gy (thus Vw > 0). In this case. |− | is the gravity magnitude.. downstream conditions do not aﬀect the ﬂow upstream. the ﬂow is known to be critical. i.0 c ANSYS. g is the unit g g ˆ vector of gravity. where upstream propagating waves remain stationary. Inc. January 29.3-22) 16-26 Release 12.

otherwise the pressure is taken from the neighboring cell. For subcritical outlet ﬂows (Fr < 1). therefore this option has been disabled.3-25) (16.3-24) Downstream Boundary Conditions Pressure Outlet Determining the static pressure is dependent on the Pressure Speciﬁcation Method. Using the Free Surface Level. the volume fraction value on the boundary can be calculated using the ﬁxed height of the free surface from the bottom. Release 12. 2009 16-27 . otherwise you must specify the static pressure as the Gauge Pressure. the static pressure is dictated by Equation 16.3-23 and Equation 16.3-25. For supercritical inlet ﬂows (Fr > 1). ANSYS FLUENT internally calculates the volume fraction based on the input parameters speciﬁed in the boundary conditions dialog box.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory which can be further expanded to → → g − ps = (ρ − ρ0 )|− |((ˆ · b ) + ylocal ) g where the distance from the free surface to the reference position. Inc. For subcritical inlet ﬂows (Fr < 1).16. January 29. then the pressure is taken from the pressure proﬁle speciﬁed over the boundary. For supercritical ﬂows (Fr >1). ANSYS FLUENT reconstructs the volume fraction values on the boundary by using the values from the neighboring cells. (16. This can be accomplished using the following procedure: • Calculate the node values of volume fraction at the boundary using the cell values.3-26) (16. ylocal .0 c ANSYS. the pressure is always taken from the neighboring cell. if there are only two phases. • Calculate the volume fraction at the each face of boundary using the interpolated node values. is → ˆ ylocal = −(− · g ) a Mass Flow Rate The mass ﬂow rate for each phase associated with the open channel ﬂow is deﬁned by mphase = ρphase (Areaphase )(V elocity) ˙ Volume Fraction Speciﬁcation In open channel ﬂows.

If the conditions are unknown at the outﬂow boundaries. It is not compatible with pressure inlets and pressure outlets. and kx and ky are the wave numbers in the x and y directions. such that kx = k cos θ and ky = k sin θ. Inc.3-27) where z is the wave height.Multiphase Flows Outﬂow Boundary Outﬂow boundary conditions can be used at the outlet of open channel ﬂows to model ﬂow exits where the details of the ﬂow velocity and pressure are not known prior to solving the ﬂow problem. If you choose the inlet as mass-ﬂow-inlet. The wave proﬁle for an incident wave can be described as follows: ζ = A cos(kx x + ky y − ωe t + ) (16. In other words. A is the wave amplitude. Backﬂow Volume Fraction Speciﬁcation ANSYS FLUENT internally calculates the volume fraction values on the outlet boundary by using the neighboring cell values. 16-28 Release 12. For example. Note that this only holds true for open channel ﬂow. therefore. It is important.0 c ANSYS. then you can only use pressure-outlet at the outlet. • An outﬂow boundary condition can only be used with mass ﬂow inlets. this option is disabled. such surfaces should be placed accordingly. 16. This is an upstream boundary condition and is applied to the velocity inlet of the VOF model.10 Open Channel Wave Boundary Conditions The open channel wave boundary condition allows you to simulate the propagation of waves. 2009 . respectively. if you choose the inlet as pressure-inlet. then ANSYS FLUENT will extrapolate the required information from the interior. is the phase diﬀerence. t is the time. which is useful in the marine industry. • Note that the outﬂow boundary condition assumes that ﬂow is fully developed in the direction perpendicular to the outﬂow boundary surface. however. which will result in an unreliable solution.3. which is achieved by setting the ﬂow rate weighting to 1. to understand the limitations of this boundary type: • You can only use single outﬂow boundaries at the outlet. Therefore. outﬂow splitting is not permitted in open channel ﬂows with outﬂow boundaries. then you can use either outﬂow or pressure-outlet boundary conditions at the outlet. January 29. • There should be an initial ﬂow ﬁeld in the simulation to avoid convergence issues due to ﬂow reversal at the outﬂow.

is deﬁned as ω= gk tanh(kh) (16. January 29. the wave frequency.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory The wave number k is deﬁned as k= 2π λ (16. and w are the velocity components.3-31) w= gkA sinh[k(z + h)] sin(kx x + ky y − ωe t + ) ω cosh(kh) (16. Note that direction speciﬁcations for the velocity components are such that u is based on the ﬂow direction speciﬁed in the wave velocity speciﬁcation method.3-28) where λ is the wave length and the eﬀective wave frequency ωe is ωe = ω + kU (16.3.2: Modeling Open Channel Wave Boundary Conditions in the separate User’s Guide. v.0 c ANSYS.3-32) Short gravity waves are deﬁned as u v gkA kz e ω cos θ sin θ cos(kx x + ky y − ωe t + ) = (16. and v is in the cross direction of the ﬂow and gravity direction. refer to Section 24.3-34) where u. For more information on how to use and set up this model.3-29) U is the uniform incident wave velocity and ω. 2009 16-29 . The velocity components for the incident wave boundary condition can be described in terms of shallow waves and short gravity waves. Release 12. w is based on the gravity direction.16.3-33) w= gkA kz e sin(kx x + ky y − ωe t + ) ω (16. Inc.3-30) where h is the liquid height and g is the gravity magnitude. Shallow waves are deﬁned as u v = gkA cosh[k(z + h)] ω cosh(kh) cos θ sin θ cos(kx x + ky y − ωe t + ) (16.

4. This is applicable for liquid-solid ﬂows.8: Granular Temperature • Section 16. and bubbly ﬂows where the gas volume fraction remains low. the mixture models are used to calculate non-Newtonian viscosity. Typical applications include sedimentation.3: Momentum Equation • Section 16. The mixture model is a good substitute for the full Eulerian multiphase model in several cases.1 Overview and Limitations of the Mixture Model Overview The mixture model is a simpliﬁed multiphase model that can be used in diﬀerent ways. continuity. the volume fraction equations for the secondary phases. 16-30 Release 12. A simpler model like the mixture model can perform as well as a full multiphase model while solving a smaller number of variables than the full multiphase model. 2009 .4.4. particle-laden ﬂows with low loading.2: Continuity Equation • Section 16.4.1: Overview and Limitations of the Mixture Model • Section 16.9: Interfacial Area Concentration • Section 16.5: Relative (Slip) Velocity and the Drift Velocity • Section 16. cyclone separators.4 Mixture Model Theory Information is organized into the following subsections: • Section 16.4: Energy Equation • Section 16.4. January 29.4.7: Granular Properties • Section 16.4. It can be used to model multiphase ﬂows where the phases move at diﬀerent velocities.0 c ANSYS. and energy equations for the mixture. The mixture model can model n phases (ﬂuid or particulate) by solving the momentum. and algebraic expressions for the relative velocities.10: Solids Pressure 16. A full multiphase model may not be feasible when there is a wide distribution of the particulate phase or when the interphase laws are unknown or their reliability can be questioned. The mixture model allows you to select granular phases and calculates all properties of the granular phases. but assume local equilibrium over short spatial length scales.6: Volume Fraction Equation for the Secondary Phases • Section 16. Inc.4. It can be used to model homogeneous multiphase ﬂows with very strong coupling and phases moving at the same velocity and lastly.4.Multiphase Flows 16.4.4.

the energy equation for the mixture.1: Limitations in the separate User’s Guide). The volume fractions αq and αp for a control volume can therefore be equal to any value between 0 and 1. • Do not model solidiﬁcation and melting in conjunction with the mixture model. and the volume fraction equation for the secondary phases. like the VOF model. enables the compatibility of all multiphase ﬂow models with the DPM model. using the concept of slip velocities. Release 12. January 29. do not use the DPM model with the mixture model if the shared memory option is enabled (Section 23. • Only one of the phases can be deﬁned as a compressible ideal gas.3.8: Parallel Processing for the Discrete Phase Model in the separate User’s Guide).4 Mixture Model Theory Limitations The following limitations apply to the mixture model in ANSYS FLUENT: • You must use the pressure-based solver.16. There is no limitation on using compressible liquids using user-deﬁned functions. • When tracking particles in parallel. and the mixture model is then reduced to a homogeneous multiphase model. 2009 16-31 . (Note that the phases can also be assumed to move at the same velocity. It diﬀers from the VOF model in two respects: • The mixture model allows the phases to be interpenetrating.0 c ANSYS. (Note that using the message passing option. • The Singhal et al. when running in parallel. • The mixture model does not allow for inviscid ﬂows. cavitation model (available with the mixture model) is not compatible with the LES turbulence model. depending on the space occupied by phase q and phase p. as well as algebraic expressions for the relative velocities (if the phases are moving at diﬀerent velocities). Inc. • The shell conduction model for walls is not allowed with the mixture model.) The mixture model solves the continuity equation for the mixture. uses a single-ﬂuid approach. • The mixture model allows the phases to move at diﬀerent velocities. do not model streamwise periodic ﬂow with speciﬁed mass ﬂow rate.) The mixture model. • When the mixture model is used. The mixture model is not available with the density-based solver. • Do not use the relative formulation in combination with the MRF and mixture model (see Section 10. the momentum equation for the mixture.

4-2) ρm = k=1 αk ρk (16.4-3) αk is the volume fraction of phase k.3 Momentum Equation The momentum equation for the mixture can be obtained by summing the individual momentum equations for all phases. It can be expressed as ∂ (ρm vm ) + ∂t · (ρm vm vm ) = − p + n · µm vm + T vm + (16.k where n is the number of phases.2 Continuity Equation The continuity equation for the mixture is ∂ (ρm ) + ∂t where vm is the mass-averaged velocity: vm = and ρm is the mixture density: n n k=1 · (ρm vm ) = 0 (16.4-4) ρm g + F + · k=1 αk ρk vdr.k = vk − vm (16. and µm is the viscosity of the mixture: n µm = k=1 αk µk (16. 2009 .4-6) 16-32 Release 12. F is a body force.4. Inc.4.4-1) αk ρk vk ρm (16.0 c ANSYS.k is the drift velocity for secondary phase k: vdr. 16.4-5) vdr.k vdr.Multiphase Flows 16. January 29.

where kt is the turbulent thermal conductivity.4 Energy Equation The energy equation for the mixture takes the following form: ∂ n (αk ρk Ek ) + ∂t k=1 n · k=1 (αk vk (ρk Ek + p)) = · (keﬀ T ) + SE (16. In Equation 16.4-8) for a compressible phase.4-11) ANSYS FLUENT’s mixture model makes use of an algebraic slip formulation. January 29.4 Mixture Model Theory 16.0 c ANSYS.4. [217]. SE includes any other volumetric heat sources.4-7 represents energy transfer due to conduction. 16.16. Ek = hk − p v2 + k ρk 2 (16. 2009 16-33 .4-7) where keﬀ is the eﬀective conductivity ( αk (kk + kt )). and Ek = hk for an incompressible phase.4-7. the form of the relative velocity is given by: Release 12. Inc.5 Relative (Slip) Velocity and the Drift Velocity The relative velocity (also referred to as the slip velocity) is deﬁned as the velocity of a secondary phase (p) relative to the velocity of the primary phase (q): vpq = vp − vq The mass fraction for any phase (k) is deﬁned as ck = αk ρk ρm (16. The ﬁrst term on the right-hand side of Equation 16. a local equilibrium between the phases should be reached over a short spatial length scale. deﬁned according to the turbulence model being used). where hk is the sensible enthalpy for phase k. The basic assumption of the algebraic slip mixture model is that to prescribe an algebraic relation for the relative velocity.p = vpq − k=1 ck vqk (16.4-9) The drift velocity and the relative velocity (vqp ) are connected by the following expression: n vdr.4.4-10) (16. Following Manninen et al.

4-15) The simplest algebraic slip formulation is the so-called drift ﬂux model.75 and ηt is the turbulent diﬀusivity. 2009 .0 c ANSYS.4-14) and the acceleration a is of the form a = g − (vm · )vm − ∂vm ∂t (16.4-18) 16-34 Release 12. In turbulent ﬂows the relative velocity should contain a diﬀusion term due to the dispersion appearing in the momentum equation for the dispersed phase.15 Re0. such that k2 γγ 2 (1 + Cβ ζγ )−1/2 1 + γγ ζγ = |vpq | 2/3k ηt = Cµ (16.Multiphase Flows vpq = where τp is the particle relaxation time τp (ρp − ρm ) a fdrag ρp (16.687 Re ≤ 1000 0.4-17) (16. The default drag function fdrag is taken from Schiller and Naumann [305]: 1 + 0. ANSYS FLUENT adds this dispersion to the relative velocity: (ρp − ρm )d2 ηt p a− = 18µq fdrag σt αp αq − αp αq vpq (16. Inc.4-13) d is the diameter of the particles (or droplets or bubbles) of secondary phase p.0183 Re Re > 1000 fdrag = (16. a is the secondary-phase particle’s acceleration. in which the acceleration of the particle is given by gravity and/or a centrifugal force and the particulate relaxation time is modiﬁed to take into account the presence of other particles.4-12) τp = ρp d2 p 18µq (16. This diﬀusivity is calculated from the continuous-dispersed ﬂuctuating velocity correlation. January 29.4-16) where σt is a Prandtl/Schmidt number set to 0.

6 Volume Fraction Equation for the Secondary Phases From the continuity equation for secondary phase p. and Section 24.4. the mixture model can be customized (using user-deﬁned functions) to use a formulation other than the algebraic slip method for the slip velocity. if the slip velocity is not solved. The following choices are available: • Schiller-Naumann (the default formulation) • Morsi-Alexander • symmetric • constant • user-deﬁned See Section 16.5. In addition. Note that.1: Deﬁning the Phases for the Mixture Model in the separate User’s Guide for instructions on how to enable them.16. you can directly prescribe formulations for the drag function. When you are solving a mixture multiphase calculation with slip velocity. Inc.4 Mixture Model Theory where Cβ = 1. the mixture model is reduced to a homogeneous multiphase model.p ) + q=1 (mqp − mpq ) ˙ ˙ (16. See the separate UDF Manual for details. 2009 16-35 .0 c ANSYS. 16. the volume fraction equation for secondary phase p can be obtained: ∂ (αp ρp ) + ∂t n · (αp ρp vm ) = − · (αp ρp vdr. January 29.4.4-19) Release 12.8 − 1.35 cos2 θ and cos θ = vpq · vp |vpq ||vp | γγ is the time ratio between the time scale of the energetic turbulent eddies aﬀected by the crossing-trajectories eﬀect and the particle relaxation time.4: Interphase Exchange Coeﬃcients for more information on these drag functions and their formulations.

Inc. 2009 . [343]: √ αs ds ρs Θs π 2 = 1 + (1 + ess ) (3ess − 1) αs g0.0 c ANSYS.kin + µs.ss 5 2 µs.fr (16. The default expression is from Syamlal et al. The collisional and kinetic parts.kin αs (16. we may use the granular viscosity to get a value for the viscosity of the suspension.ss αs (1 + ess ) 96αs (1 + ess ) g0.7 Granular Properties Since the concentration of particles is an important factor in the calculation of the eﬀective viscosity for the mixture.kin (16.4-22) The following optional expression from Gidaspow et al.col = αs ρs ds g0.ss 6 (3 − ess ) 5 µs.Multiphase Flows 16. are added to give the solids shear viscosity: µs = µs.col + µs.4-21) Kinetic Viscosity ANSYS FLUENT provides two expressions for the kinetic viscosity. January 29.4-23) 16-36 Release 12. and the optional frictional part. 343] 4 Θs µs. The volume weighted averaged for the viscosity would now contain shear viscosity arising from particle momentum exchange due to translation and collision.4.ss (1 + ess ) 5 π 1/2 αs (16.4-20) Collisional Viscosity The collisional part of the shear viscosity is modeled as [110. [110] is also available: √ 10ρs ds Θs π 4 = 1 + g0.

This is only applicable for dense ﬂuidized beds where the convection and the diﬀusion term can be neglected under the premise that production and dissipation of granular energy are in equilibrium.0 c ANSYS.ss 2 √ss ρs αs Θ3/2 s ds π (16. • constant granular temperature This is useful in very dense situations where the random ﬂuctuations are small.4-24) [343].4. January 29.4-26) ANSYS FLUENT allows you to solve for the granular temperature with the following options: • algebraic formulation (the default) This is obtained by neglecting convection and diﬀusion in the transport equation (Equation 16.4-24) The collisional dissipation of energy.4 Mixture Model Theory 16. 2009 16-37 . This term is represented by the expression derived by Lun et al. Here we use an algebraic equation from the granular temperature transport equation. 0 = (−ps I + τ s ) : where (−ps I + τ s ) : vs γΘs φls = the generation of energy by the solid stress tensor = the collisional dissipation of energy = the energy exchange between the lth ﬂuid or solid phase and the sth solid phase vs − γΘs + φls (16. Inc.16. • UDF for granular temperature Release 12.4-25) The transfer of the kinetic energy of random ﬂuctuations in particle velocity from the sth solids phase to the lth ﬂuid or solid phase is represented by φls [110]: φls = −3Kls Θs (16. represents the rate of energy dissipation within the sth solids phase due to collisions between particles. γΘs . [208] γΘm = 12(1 − e2 )g0.8 Granular Temperature The viscosities need the speciﬁcation of the granular temperature for the sth solids phase.

one discrete (particles) and one continuous.4-27) where χp is the interfacial area concentration (m2 /m3 ). ST I is the breakage source term due to turbulent impact. The Population Balance model (see the separate Population Balance Module Manual) ideally captures this phenomenon. momentum and energy transfers through the interface between the phases. The ﬁrst two terms on the right hand side of Equation 16. Inc. the mechanisms of interactions can be summarized in ﬁve categories: • Coalescence due to random collision driven by turbulence. and αg is the gas volume fraction. the Hibiki-Ishii model [129] and the Ishii-Kim model [281. According to their study. This is an important parameter for predicting mass. 139]. In two-ﬂuid ﬂow systems. The transport equation for the interfacial area concentration can be written as ∂(ρg χp ) + ∂t · (ρg ug χp ) = 1 Dρg 2 mg ˙ χp + χp + ρg (SRC + SW E + ST I ) 3 Dt 3 αg (16.4-27 are of gas bubble expansion due to compressibility and mass transfer (phase change). coalescence. The interfacial area concentration model uses a single transport equation per secondary phase and is speciﬁc to bubbly ﬂows in liquid at this stage. 2009 .9 Interfacial Area Concentration Interfacial area concentration is deﬁned as the interfacial area between two phases per unit mixture volume. Two sets of models. which are based on the works of Ishii et al. breakage and/or nucleation mechanisms.4. the size and its distribution of the discrete phase or particles can change rapidly due to growth (mass transfer between phases). mg is the mass transfer rate into ˙ 3 the gas phase per unit mixture volume (kg/m /s). January 29. exist for those source and sink terms for the interfacial area concentration. • Breakage of large cap bubbles due to ﬂow instability on the bubble surface. respectively. 16-38 Release 12. expansion due to pressure changes. [129. 281]. In ANSYS FLUENT. but is computationally expensive since several transport equations need to be solved using moment methods. • Coalescence due to wake entrainment.0 c ANSYS. or more if the discrete method is used. SRC and SW E are the coalescence sink terms due to random collision and wake entrainment. • Shearing-oﬀ of small bubbles from large cap bubbles. • Breakage due to the impact of turbulent eddies.Multiphase Flows 16. only the ﬁrst three eﬀects will be considered.

4-31) ) αg 2 ΓB αg (1 − αg ) 1/3 σ ) 11/3 exp(−KB 5/3 χp db (αgmax − αg ) ρf db ΓB (1 − αg ) 1/3 χp 5/3 KB σ χp = 11/3 2/3 exp[− 5/3 ( )5/3 ] 2/3 α ψ αg (αgmax − αg ) ψ ρf g where fB . The averaged size of the particle/bubble db is assumed to be calculated as db = ψ and db 5/6 ρf 1/2 σ 1/2 1/3 αg χp (16.4-32) The experimental adjustable coeﬃcients are given as follows: ΓC = 0.4 Mixture Model Theory Hibiki-Ishii Model SRC = − 1 αg 2 ( ) fc nb λc 3φ χp αg 2 Γc αg 2 1/3 db 5/6 ρf 1/2 ) 11/3 exp(−Kc χp db (αgmax − αg ) σ 1/2 1/3 (16. Inc. 1 The shape factor ψ is given as 6 and φ as 36π for spherical particles/bubbles. the eﬃciency of coalescence from the collision. respectively.4-31 λB = exp(−KB σ ρf db 5/3 2/3 ) (16.264. 2009 16-39 . ΓB = 0.4-30) ST I = =( 1 αg 2 ( ) fB ne λB 3φ χp 2/3 (16. λc and nb are the frequency of particle/bubble collision.4-29) λc = exp(−Kc ) (16.4-28) ) = −( = − 1/3 Γc ρf 1/2 1/3 αg 5/6 αg 1/3 χp 5/3 exp[−Kc ψ 5/6 ( ) ] ψ 11/3 (αgmax − αg ) σ 1/2 χp where fc . λB and ne are the frequency of collision between particles/bubbles and turbulent eddies of the primary phase.16. January 29. Release 12.129. KC = 0. and the number of particles per unit mixture volume. and the number of turbulent eddies per unit mixture volume.0 c ANSYS. the eﬃciency of breakage from the impact. In Equation 16. KB = 1. respectively.37 . There is no model for SW E in the Hibiki-Ishii formulation.188.

Multiphase Flows Ishii-Kim Model SRC = − nb 2 ut db 2 1 αg 2 ( ) CRC [ ] (16. ur = ( db g∆ρ 1/2 ) 3CD ρf (16. In this model.4-36) CD = 24 (1 + 0.75 ) ρf ur db and ReD ≡ (1 − αg ) ReD µf We = ρf ut 2 db σ (16.0 c ANSYS. is less than the critical Weber number. is given by 1/3 db 1/3 . 2009 .4-34) ST I = (16.e. January 29.0 = 0.1ReD 0. Inc. g is the gravitational acceleration and σ is the interfacial tension. The coeﬃcients used are given as follows [139]: CRC CW E CT I C W ecr αgm ax = 0.4-33) 3φ χp αgmax 1/3 (αgmax 1/3 − αg 1/3 ) αgmax 1/3 αg 1/3 [1 − exp(−C )] αgmax 1/3 − αg 1/3 1 1 αgmax 1/3 αg 1/3 = − CRC ut χp 2 [ ][1 − exp(−C )] 3π αgmax 1/3 (αgmax 1/3 − αg 1/3 ) αgmax 1/3 − αg 1/3 1 αg 2 2 2 1 ( ) nb db ur CD 1/3 = − CW E ur χp 2 CD 1/3 3φ χp 3π 1 αg 2 n b ut W ecr 1/2 W ecr ( ) CT I ( )(1 − ) exp(− ) 3φ χp db We We 1 χp 2 W ecr 1/2 W ecr = CT I ut (1 − ) exp(− ) 18 αg We We SW E = − (16. the breakage rate equals zero. when the Weber number.085 = 3.4-38) where µf is the molecular viscosity of the ﬂuid phase. The bubble terminal velocity. W e. W ecr .4-37) (16.4-35) where the mean bubble ﬂuctuating velocity.75 16-40 Release 12. ut . i. is a function of the bubble diameter and local time-averaged void fraction.0 = 6. ST I = 0.002 = 0. ur .004 = 0.

5.4: Interphase Exchange Coeﬃcients • Section 16.5.5.8: Granular Temperature • Section 16.5.5 Eulerian Model Theory i Currently.5.16. 2009 16-41 .total = q=1 pq (16. you can always use UDFs to include your own interfacial area concentration models. which can apply to other ﬂow regimes. bubbly column applications. 16.11: Turbulence Models • Section 16.5 Eulerian Model Theory Details about the Eulerian multiphase model are presented in the following subsections: • Section 16.5.7: Solids Shear Stresses • Section 16. Inc.14: Immiscible Fluid Model Release 12.13: Dense Discrete Phase Model • Section 16.10: Description of Heat Transfer • Section 16.5.5.6: Maximum Packing Limit in Binary Mixtures • Section 16. See the separate UDF Manual for details.3: Conservation Equations • Section 16.5-67 16.5.5.0 c ANSYS.12: Solution Method in ANSYS FLUENT • Section 16. i.e.4.9: Interfacial Area Concentration • Section 16. this model is only suitable for two-phase ﬂow regimes.10 Solids Pressure The total solid pressure is calculated and included in the mixture momentum equations: N Ps.5.5: Solids Pressure • Section 16.1: Overview and Limitations of the Eulerian Model • Section 16.5.2: Volume Fraction Equation • Section 16. January 29.5. one phase being gas and another liquid.4-39) where pq is presented in the section for granular ﬂows by equation Equation 16.5. However.

With the Eulerian multiphase model. as described in the separate UDF Manual. ANSYS FLUENT’s Eulerian multiphase model does not distinguish between ﬂuid-ﬂuid and ﬂuid-solid (granular) multiphase ﬂows.0 c ANSYS.5: Eulerian Model in the separate User’s Guide for multiphase modeling strategies. You can select appropriate models and user-deﬁned functions for all properties. A granular ﬂow is simply one that involves at least one phase that has been designated as a granular phase. however. you may ﬁnd that your solution is limited by convergence behavior. provided that suﬃcient memory is available. • Momentum and continuity equations are solved for each phase. Inc. yet interacting phases. and may apply to all phases or to the mixture.Multiphase Flows 16. An Eulerian treatment is used for each phase. a constant. For complex multiphase ﬂows. which are appropriate for various types of multiphase regimes. – Solid-phase shear and bulk viscosities are obtained by applying kinetic theory to granular ﬂows.) • All of the k. gases. • Several interphase drag coeﬃcient functions are available. The ANSYS FLUENT solution is based on the following: • A single pressure is shared by all phases. or a partial diﬀerential equation. January 29. • The following parameters are available for granular phases: – Granular temperature (solids ﬂuctuating energy) can be calculated for each solid phase. 16-42 Release 12.5. or solids in nearly any combination.7. a user-deﬁned function. (You can also modify the interphase drag coeﬃcient through user-deﬁned functions. in contrast to the EulerianLagrangian treatment that is used for the discrete phase model. Frictional viscosity for modeling granular ﬂow is also available. You can select either an algebraic formulation. the number of secondary phases is limited only by memory requirements and convergence behavior. The phases can be liquids.turbulence models are available. 2009 . See Section 24. Any number of secondary phases can be modeled.1 Overview and Limitations of the Eulerian Model Overview The Eulerian multiphase model in ANSYS FLUENT allows for the modeling of multiple separate.

2 Volume Fraction Equation The description of multiphase ﬂow as interpenetrating continua incorporates the concept of phasic volume fractions. enables the compatibility of all multiphase ﬂow models with the DPM model. • Particle tracking (using the Lagrangian dispersed phase model) interacts only with the primary phase. continuity and (optionally) energy is solved.5. • Streamwise periodic ﬂow with speciﬁed mass ﬂow rate cannot be modeled when the Eulerian model is used (the user is allowed to specify a pressure drop). except for the following limitations: • The Reynolds Stress turbulence model is not available on a per phase basis. Volume fractions represent the space occupied by each phase. In the process of introducing additional sets of conservation equations. to a multiphase model. 2009 16-43 . the original set must also be modiﬁed. • Inviscid ﬂow is not allowed. αn for the multiple phases. (Note that using the message passing option. The modiﬁcations involve. the introduction of the volume fractions α1 . . .16. and mass between the phases. • Melting and solidiﬁcation are not allowed.) To change from a single-phase model. where a single set of conservation equations for momentum. α2 . . • When tracking particles in parallel. among other things.0 c ANSYS.8: Parallel Processing for the Discrete Phase Model in the separate User’s Guide). 16. Inc. The derivation of the conservation equations can be done by ensemble averaging the local instantaneous balance for each of the phases [5] or by using the mixture theory approach [31]. as well as mechanisms for the exchange of momentum. Release 12. when running in parallel. and the laws of conservation of mass and momentum are satisﬁed by each phase individually.5 Eulerian Model Theory Limitations All other features available in ANSYS FLUENT can be used in conjunction with the Eulerian multiphase model. heat. denoted here by αq . January 29. the DPM model cannot be used with the Eulerian multiphase model if the shared memory option is enabled (Section 23. additional sets of conservation equations must be introduced.

The volume fraction equation may be solved either through implicit or explicit time discretization. and mqp characterizes the mass transfer from phase q to phase p.7: Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows for more information on the modeling of mass transfer in ANSYS FLUENT’s general multiphase models. but you can specify a constant or user-deﬁned mass source for each phase.5.3 Conservation Equations The general conservation equations from which the equations solved by ANSYS FLUENT are derived are presented in this section. A similar term appears in the momentum and enthalpy equations. 16-44 Release 12. and you ˙ are able to specify these mechanisms separately. (16. the source term Sq on the right-hand side of Equation 16.2: The Explicit Scheme.5-3) 16. See Section 16. For detailed information about both VOF schemes. Inc. By default.Multiphase Flows The volume of phase q. refer to Section 16.5-4 is zero. Equations in General Form Conservation of Mass The continuity equation for phase q is ∂ (αq ρq ) + ∂t n · (αq ρq vq ) = p=1 (mpq − mqp ) + Sq ˙ ˙ (16.5-4) where vq is the velocity of phase q and mpq characterizes the mass transfer from the pth ˙ th to q phase. January 29.3.0 c ANSYS. Vq . 2009 .5-2) The eﬀective density of phase q is ρq = αq ρq ˆ where ρq is the physical density of phase q. is deﬁned by Vq = where n V αq dV (16. followed by the solved equations themselves.3.2: The Implicit Scheme and Section 16.5-1) αq = 1 q=1 (16.

Rpq is an interaction force between phases.5 Eulerian Model Theory Conservation of Momentum The momentum balance for phase q yields ∂ (αq ρq vq ) + ∂t n p=1 · (αq ρq vq vq ) = −αq p + · τ q + αq ρq g+ (16.. phase q mass is being transferred to ˙ phase p). Likewise. Inc.q + Fvm.5-5 must be closed with appropriate expressions for the interphase force Rpq .5-6) Here µq and λq are the shear and bulk viscosity of phase q.q ) ˙ ˙ where τ q is the q th phase stress-strain tensor τ q = αq µq ( vq + 2 T vq ) + αq (λq − µq ) 3 · vq I (16. if mqp > 0 then vqp = vq . but the ANSYS FLUENT model assumes that the particle diameter is much smaller than the interparticle spacing.q is a lift force. ˙ ˙ Equation 16. January 29. and other eﬀects. Thus. cohesion. vpq is the interphase velocity. if mqp < 0 then vqp = vp . the inclusion of lift forces is not appropriate for closely packed particles or for very small particles. deﬁned as follows. and p is the pressure shared by all phases. vpq = vp .4: Interphase Exchange Coeﬃcients).e.0 c ANSYS. if mpq < 0 (i. and is subject to the conditions that Rpq = −Rqp and Rqq = 0. Lift Forces For multiphase ﬂows. 2009 16-45 .q is a virtual mass force. These lift forces act on a particle mainly due to velocity gradients in the primary-phase ﬂow ﬁeld. pressure.. The lift force will be more signiﬁcant for larger particles. Release 12. vpq = vq . ANSYS FLUENT uses a simple interaction term of the following form: n n Rpq = p=1 p=1 Kpq (vp − vq ) (16. This force depends on the friction. phase p mass is being ˙ transferred to phase q).5-7) where Kpq (= Kqp ) is the interphase momentum exchange coeﬃcient (described in Section 16. ANSYS FLUENT can include the eﬀect of lift forces on the secondary phase particles (or droplets or bubbles).5-5) (Rpq + mpq vpq − mqp vqp ) + (Fq + Flift.e. Flift.16. Fq is an external body force.5. If mpq > 0 (i. Fvm.

5αp ρq The term dq dt (16. if desired. 2009 . The lift force and lift coeﬃcient can be speciﬁed for each pair of phases.5ρq αp (vq − vp ) × ( × vq ) (16.. so there is no reason to include this extra term. the lift force is insigniﬁcant compared to the drag force.p ). Fvm is not included. for a transient bubble column). it may be appropriate to include this term. By default.0 c ANSYS. In most cases.p ). Virtual Mass Force For multiphase ﬂows. you need not include it everywhere in the computational domain since it is computationally expensive to converge. if the phases separate quickly).5-8) The lift force Flift will be added to the right-hand side of the momentum equation for both phases (Flift. Flift is not included.g. i It is important that if you include the lift force in your calculation. 16-46 Release 12.g. By default. January 29. in the wall boundary layer for turbulent bubbly ﬂows in channels..5-9) denotes the phase material time derivative of the form dq (φ) ∂(φ) = + (vq · dt ∂t )φ (16. Inc.Multiphase Flows The lift force acting on a secondary phase p in a primary phase q is computed from [80] Flift = −0. ANSYS FLUENT includes the “virtual mass eﬀect” that occurs when a secondary phase p accelerates relative to the primary phase q.q = −Flift. the lift force is signiﬁcant when the slip velocity is large in the vicinity of high strain rates for the primary phase. The inertia of the primary-phase mass encountered by the accelerating particles (or droplets or bubbles) exerts a “virtual mass force” on the particles [80]: dq vq dp vp − dt dt Fvm = 0.q = −Fvm. The virtual mass eﬀect is signiﬁcant when the secondary phase density is much smaller than the primary phase density (e. If the lift force is signiﬁcant (e.5-10) The virtual mass force Fvm will be added to the right-hand side of the momentum equation for both phases (Fvm. For example.

g. This treatment is common to ﬂuid-ﬂuid and granular ﬂows.g. Sq is a source term that includes sources of enthalpy (e. Qpq is the intensity of heat exchange between the pth and q th phases. Inc. the enthalpy of the vapor at the temperature of the droplets. Equations Solved by ANSYS FLUENT The equations for ﬂuid-ﬂuid and granular multiphase ﬂows. as solved by ANSYS FLUENT. allows for the calculation of the primary-phase volume fraction. a separate enthalpy equation can be written for each phase: ∂ (αq ρq hq ) + ∂t · (αq ρq uq hq ) = αq ∂pq +τq : ∂t n uq − · q q + Sq + p=1 (Qpq + mpq hpq − mqp hqp ) ˙ ˙ (16. due to chemical reaction or radiation).5-2). in the case of evaporation). qq is the heat ﬂux. 2009 16-47 . Release 12.16.. January 29.5-11) where hq is the speciﬁc enthalpy of the q th phase.. The solution of this equation for each secondary phase. along with the condition that the volume fractions sum to one (given by Equation 16.0 c ANSYS. The heat exchange between phases must comply with the local balance conditions Qpq = −Qqp and Qqq = 0. and hpq is the interphase enthalpy (e.5 Eulerian Model Theory Conservation of Energy To describe the conservation of energy in Eulerian multiphase applications. Continuity Equation The volume fraction of each phase is calculated from a continuity equation: 1 ∂ (αq ρq ) + ρrq ∂t n · (αq ρq vq ) = p=1 (mpq − mqp ) ˙ ˙ (16. are presented here for the general case of an n-phase ﬂow. or the volume averaged density of the q th phase in the solution domain.5-12) where ρrq is the phase reference density.

2009 .5-5.0 c ANSYS. viscosity.5-14) where ps is the sth solids pressure. N is the total number of phases. The conservation of momentum for the ﬂuid phases is similar to Equation 16. Flift. 110. taking into account the inelasticity of the granular phase. Fq . The kinetic energy associated with the particle velocity ﬂuctuations is represented by a “pseudothermal” or granular temperature which is proportional to the mean square of the random motion of particles. Flift. and that for the sth solid phase is ∂ (αs ρs vs ) + ∂t · (αs ρs vs vs ) = −αs p − N ps + · τ s + αs ρs g + (Kls (vl − vs ) + mls vls − msl vsl ) + ˙ ˙ l=1 (Fs + Flift. and pressure of the solid phase.q .Multiphase Flows Fluid-Fluid Momentum Equations The conservation of momentum for a ﬂuid phase q is ∂ (αq ρq vq ) + ∂t · (αq ρq vq vq ) = −αq p + n · τ q + αq ρq g + (Kpq (vp − vq ) + mpq vpq − mqp vqp ) + ˙ ˙ p=1 (Fq + Flift. 49. 71. As is the case for a gas. 208. Inc.5-13. 254. 183. and Fvm.s ) (16.s + Fvm.5-5. Fluid-Solid Momentum Equations Following the work of [3. ANSYS FLUENT uses a multiﬂuid granular model to describe the ﬂow behavior of a ﬂuid-solid mixture. and Fvm. and Fq .q + Fvm.q .5-13) Here g is the acceleration due to gravity and τ q . the intensity of the particle velocity ﬂuctuations determines the stresses. January 29. 343].q are as deﬁned for Equation 16. Kls = Ksl is the momentum exchange coeﬃcient between ﬂuid or solid phase l and solid phase s. The solid-phase stresses are derived by making an analogy between the random particle motion arising from particle-particle collisions and the thermal motion of molecules in a gas.q ) (16. 16-48 Release 12.q are as deﬁned for Equation 16.

Fluid-Fluid Exchange Coefﬁcient For ﬂuid-ﬂuid ﬂows. is deﬁned diﬀerently for the diﬀerent exchange-coeﬃcient models (as described below) and τp .5-14 that momentum exchange between the phases is based on the value of the ﬂuid-ﬂuid exchange coeﬃcient Kpq and.5-15) where f . is deﬁned as ρp d2 p τp = 18µq where dp is the diameter of the bubbles or droplets of phase p. since the sparser ﬂuid is more likely to form droplets or bubbles. To enforce this. For all these situations. Nearly all deﬁnitions of f include a drag coeﬃcient (CD ) that is based on the relative Reynolds number (Re). in ﬂows where there are unequal amounts of two ﬂuids. Kpq should tend to zero whenever the primary phase is not present within the domain. the “particulate relaxation time”. the ﬂuid-solid and solid-solid exchange coeﬃcients Kls . January 29. each secondary phase is assumed to form droplets or bubbles.0 c ANSYS.16. This has an impact on how each of the ﬂuids is assigned to a particular phase. the predominant ﬂuid should be modeled as the primary ﬂuid.5. It is this drag function that diﬀers among the exchange-coeﬃcient models. 2009 16-49 . 16. the drag function. The exchange coeﬃcient for these types of bubbly. for granular ﬂows.5-11.5-13 and 16.5-15. the drag function f is always multiplied by the volume fraction of the primary phase q. liquid-liquid or gas-liquid mixtures can be written in the following general form: Kpq = αq αp ρp f τp (16. as is reﬂected in Equation 16.5-16) Release 12.4 Interphase Exchange Coefﬁcients It can be seen in Equations 16. (16. Inc. For example.5 Eulerian Model Theory Conservation of Energy The equation solved by ANSYS FLUENT for the conservation of energy is Equation 16.

and it is acceptable for general use for all ﬂuid-ﬂuid pairs of phases.15 Re0.5-21) 16-50 Release 12.5-18) CD Re 24 (16.Multiphase Flows • For the model of Schiller and Naumann [305] f= where CD = 24(1 + 0.5-22) CD Re 24 (16.44 Re > 1000 (16.0 c ANSYS.687 )/Re Re ≤ 1000 0.5-20) where µrp = αp µp + αr µr is the mixture viscosity of the phases p and r. The relative Reynolds number for the primary phase q and secondary phase p is obtained from Re = ρq |vp − vq |dp µq (16.5-17) and Re is the relative Reynolds number. The Schiller and Naumann model is the default method. • For the Morsi and Alexander model [238] f= where CD = a1 + a2 a3 + 2 Re Re (16. 2009 .5-19) The relative Reynolds number for secondary phases p and r is obtained from Re = ρrp |vr − vp |drp µrp (16. Inc. January 29.

5-20. 98.67 0. in the top half of the container.5-24) and Re is deﬁned by Equation 16.546.1 < Re < 1 1 < Re < 10 10 < Re < 100 100 < Re < 1000 1000 < Re < 5000 5000 < Re < 10000 Re ≥ 10000 (16.0903 1.687 )/Re Re ≤ 1000 0.8889 0.5-23) The Morsi and Alexander model is the most complete. This model can also be used for the interaction between secondary phases.3644.690. −3.5-26) (αp ρp + αq ρq )( dp +dq )2 2 = 18(αp µp + αq µq ) (16. Note that if there is only one dispersed phase. −116.50. dp = dq and (dp +dq ) = dp . a2 .6167. 29.1 0.16. 46.5. −2778 0.5-19 or 16.5 Eulerian Model Theory and Re is deﬁned by Equation 16. but calculations with this model may be less stable than with the other models. −47500 0. The a’s are deﬁned as follows: a1 .222.357. the air is the dispersed phase in the bottom half of the container. Thus for a single dispersed phase.46. 2009 16-51 .5191. The symmetric model is recommended for ﬂows in which the secondary (dispersed) phase in one region of the domain becomes the primary (continuous) phase in another. adjusting the function definition frequently over a large range of Reynolds numbers. Inc. a3 = 0.5-25) αp (αp ρp + αq ρq )f τpq (16.0 c ANSYS. then dp = dq in Equation 16. the air is the continuous phase.73.5-27) CD Re 24 (16. • For the symmetric model Kpq = where τpq and f= where CD = 24(1 + 0. For example. 0. −490. January 29. 0 3.44 Re > 1000 (16. Release 12.62.33.15 Re0. −1662. 148.1667. 22.5-20.5-19 or 16. 2 if air is injected into the bottom of a container ﬁlled halfway with water. 578700 0. 24.5-25. 5416700 0 < Re < 0.

5-28) where f is deﬁned diﬀerently for the diﬀerent exchange-coeﬃcient models (as described below). s is for the sth solid phase. January 29. the “particulate relaxation time”. if no exchange coeﬃcient is speciﬁed).Multiphase Flows You can specify diﬀerent exchange coeﬃcients for each pair of phases. 16-52 Release 12. and ds is the diameter of the sth solid phase particles. • For the Syamlal-O’Brien model [342] f= CD Res αl 2 24vr.s 2 (16.5-31) This model is based on measurements of the terminal velocities of particles in ﬂuidized or settling beds. 2009 .0 c ANSYS.s (16. It is this drag function that diﬀers among the exchange-coeﬃcient models.5-32) where the subscript l is for the lth ﬂuid phase. is deﬁned as τs = ρs d2 s 18µl (16. the ﬂow ﬁelds for the ﬂuids will be computed independently. If the exchange coeﬃcient is equal to zero (i.63 + 4.5-29) where ds is the diameter of particles of phase s. It is also possible to use user-deﬁned functions to deﬁne exchange coeﬃcients for each pair of phases. with the only “interaction” being their complementary volume fractions within each computational cell. All deﬁnitions of f include a drag function (CD ) that is based on the relative Reynolds number (Res ). Fluid-Solid Exchange Coefﬁcient The ﬂuid-solid exchange coeﬃcient Ksl can be written in the following general form: Ksl = αs ρs f τs (16.5-30) where the drag function has a form derived by Dalla Valle [66] CD = 0. and τs .. with correlations that are a function of the volume fraction and relative Reynolds number [294]: Res = ρl ds |vs − vl | µl (16.8 Res /vr.e. Inc.

5 A − 0. Inc. 2009 16-53 . January 29.85.s (16.5-83).687 αl Res (16. • For the model of Wen and Yu [373].65 B = αl (16.15(αl Res )0.5-37) for αl > 0.06 Res + with (0.14 A = αl (16.16.65 Ksl = CD αl 4 ds where CD = 24 1 + 0. the ﬂuid-solid exchange coeﬃcient is of the following form: 3 αs αl ρl |vs − vl | −2. Release 12. [343] (Equation 16.5-34) 4.s is the terminal velocity correlation for the solid phase [105]: vr.5-32.28 B = 0. This model is appropriate when the solids shear stresses are deﬁned according to Syamlal et al.5-38) and Res is deﬁned by Equation 16.s = 0.5-33) where vr. and 2.8αl (16.5 Eulerian Model Theory The ﬂuid-solid exchange coeﬃcient has the form Ksl = 3αs αl ρl Res CD |vs − vl | 2 d 4vr. This model is appropriate for dilute systems.s s vr.06 Res )2 + 0.5-36) for αl ≤ 0.5-35) and 1.85.0 c ANSYS.12 Res (2B − A) + A2 (16.5-39) (16.

ls π8 αs ρs αl ρl (dl + ds )2 g0.5: Solids Pressure and the radial distribution coeﬃcient is described in Section 16.0 c ANSYS. 2009 . 16-54 Release 12. When αl > 0.75 2 αl ds ds (16.5-41) (16. Inc.ls dl g0.8.687 αl Res (16. Solid-Solid Exchange Coefﬁcient The solid-solid exchange coeﬃcient Kls has the following form [341]: 3 (1 + els ) π 2 Kls = where els Cfr.15(αl Res )0. January 29.ls + Cfr.8. the ﬂuid-solid exchange coeﬃcient Ksl is of the following form: 3 αs αl ρl |vs − vl | −2.Multiphase Flows • The Gidaspow model [110] is a combination of the Wen and Yu model [373] and the Ergun equation [88].ls = 0) = the diameter of the particles of solid l = the radial distribution coeﬃcient = = Note that the coeﬃcient of restitution is described in Section 16.5-43) the coeﬃcient of restitution the coeﬃcient of friction between the lth and sth solid-phase particles (Cfr.ls 2π (ρl d3 + ρs d3 ) s l 2 |vl − vs | (16. Ksl = 150 αs (1 − αl )µl ρl αs |vs − vl | + 1.5-40) This model is recommended for dense ﬂuidized beds.65 Ksl = CD αl 4 ds where CD = When αl ≤ 0.5.5-42) 24 1 + 0.5.5: Radial Distribution Function.

The drag coeﬃcient is deﬁned diﬀerently for bubbly and droplet ﬂows. Release 12. The drag laws can apply to non-spherical particles with the constraint of a pool ﬂow regime.5-47) Where µe is the eﬀective viscosity of the primary phase accounting for the eﬀects of family of particles in the continuum. i. January 29. 2009 16-55 .e.5-46) ρp dp 2 18µe (16.5-45) The relative Reynolds number for the primary phase q and the secondary phase p is obtained based on the relative velocity of the two phases.5-44) Where q represents the primary phase and p the particulate phase. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability wavelength is σ g∆ρpq 0.0 c ANSYS. g the gravity. the hydraulic diameter of the ﬂow domain which is far larger than the averaged size of the particles. Re = ρq |vq − vp |dp µe (16.5 λRT = (16.5 Eulerian Model Theory Universal Drag Laws for Bubble-Liquid and Droplet-Gas Flows The universal drag laws [170] are suitable for the calculation of the drag coeﬃcients in bubble-liquid or droplet-gas ﬂow regimes. The particulate relaxation time τp is deﬁned as τp = The drag function f is deﬁned as f= CD Re 24 (16. Inc. and ∆ρpq the absolute value of the density diﬀerence between phases p and q. The exchange coeﬃcient for bubbly and droplet ﬂows can be written in the general form Kpq = αq αp ρp f τp (16.5-48) Where σ is the surface tension.16.

the following condition is satisﬁed: CDdis > CDcap The drag coeﬃcient can be written as CD = CDcap The eﬀective viscosity for the bubble-liquid mixture is µe = µq 1 − αp (16.5-50) 8 CDcap = (1 − αp )2 3 • In the viscous regime.5-58) (16.Multiphase Flows Bubble-Liquid Flow CDvis = 24 (1 + 0.5-56) 16-56 Release 12.5-49) CDdis dp 1 + 17.5-57) (16.75 ) Re 2 (16.1Re0. capped bubbles. the following condition is satisﬁed: CDdis < CDvis The drag coeﬃcient.5-55) • In the regime of strongly deformed. f ∗ = (1 − αp )1. Inc.5-51) (16. is computed as CD = CDvis • In the distorted bubble regime.5-52) (16. 2009 . CD .67f ∗ 6/7 = 2/3( ) λRT 18.5-54) (16.5 (16.67f ∗ .5-53) (16. the following condition is satisﬁed: CDvis < CDdis < CDcap The drag coeﬃcient is calculated as CD = CDdis (16.0 c ANSYS. January 29.

ss Θs (16. and Θs is the granular temperature. 2009 16-57 . Inc.67f ∗ 6/7 ) CD = 2/3( λRT 18. the drag coeﬃcient is dp 1 + 17. but the value can be adjusted to suit the particle type.5. The solids pressure is composed of a kinetic term and a second term due to particle collisions: 2 ps = αs ρs Θs + 2ρs (1 + ess )αs g0.16.9 for ess . g0. the drag coeﬃcient for the stokes regime is CD = 24 Re (16. January 29. a solids pressure is calculated independently and used for the pressure gradient term.67f ∗ 2 . where the solids volume fraction is less than its maximum allowed value).5 The drag model is currently suitable for bubble-liquid and/or droplet-gas ﬂow when the characteristic length of the ﬂow domain is much larger than the averaged size of the particles.0 c ANSYS. The function g0. in the granular-phase momentum equation.5 (16.ss is the radial distribution function.75 ) Re (16.5-59) • When 1 ≤ Re ≤ 1000.5-62) i 16.. Solids Pressure For granular ﬂows in the compressible regime (i. and appears in the expression for the solids pressure and viscosities. Because a Maxwellian velocity distribution is used for the particles.5 Eulerian Model Theory Droplet-Gas Flow • When Re < 1.5-61) The eﬀective viscosity for a bubble-liquid mixture is µe = µq (1 − αp )2.5-60) • For the Newton’s regime (Re ≥ 1000). ANSYS FLUENT uses a default value of 0.ss (described below in more detail) is a distribution function that governs the transition from the “compressible” Release 12.5-63) where ess is the coeﬃcient of restitution for particle collisions. the drag coeﬃcient for the viscous regime is CD = 24 (1 + 0. The granular temperature Θs is proportional to the kinetic energy of the ﬂuctuating particle motion. a granular temperature is introduced into the model.1Re0. f ∗ = (1 − αp )3 (16. and will be described later in this section.e. ps .

5-64) and [213] 1 ps = αs ρs Θs [(1 + 4αs g0.5-65) 2 When more than one solids phase are calculated. 16-58 Release 12.0 c ANSYS.max .ss Θs (16. np . Θp .5-66) where dpq = dp +dq is the average diameter. Inc. For now. The above expression reverts to the one solids phase expression when N = 1 and q = p but also has the property of feeling the presence of other phases. January 29. Θq ) qp 3 p=1 N pq = αq ρq Θq + (16. 2009 . a general solids pressure formulation in the presence of other phases could be of the form π g0.5-67) Since all models need to be cast in the general form.Multiphase Flows condition with α < αs. we have to simplify this expression so that it depends only on the granular temperature of phase q N pq = αq ρq Θq + p=1 2 d3 pq (1 + epq )g0. however there is a need to provide a better formulation so that some properties may feel the presence of other phases. but you can modify it during the problem setup.63 is the default for αs. Equations derived empirically may not satisfy this property and need to be changed accordingly without deviating signiﬁcantly from the original form. A derivation of the expressions from the Boltzman equations for a granular mixture are beyond the scope of this manual.qp is the collisional part of the pressure between phases q and p.pq d3 nq np (1 + eqp )f (mp . A known problem is that N solid phases with identical properties should be consistent when the same phases are described by a single solids phase. where no further decrease in the spacing can occur.pq αq αp ρq Θq d3 q (16. A value of 0. mq .qp )ρq Θq d3 p=1 q N pq = αq ρq Θq + ( (16. to the “incompressible” condition with α = αs. Other formulations that are also available in ANSYS FLUENT are [343] 2 ps = 2ρs (1 + ess )αs g0.ss ) + [(1 + ess )(1 − ess + 2µf ric )]] (16. mp and mq 2 are the masses of the particles in phases p and q.max . where the spacing between the solid particles can continue to decrease. and f is a function of the masses of the particles and their granular temperatures. it follows that d3 pq pc. nq are the number of particles. the above expression does not take into account the eﬀect of other phases.max .5-68) where pc. From [109].

and therefore g0 → 1. ANSYS FLUENT has a number of options: • For one solids phase. use [254]: g0 = 1 − αs αs.max ) 2 k=1 dk 1 (16. s → 0 and g0 → ∞. In the literature there is no unique formulation for the radial distribution function. From Equation 16.ll = 1 − where αs αs.max 1 3 −1 1 N αk + dl 2 k=1 dk (16. is a correction factor that modiﬁes the probability of collisions between grains when the solid granular phase becomes dense. 2009 16-59 .5-69) where s is the distance between grains.0 c ANSYS.5-70) This is an empirical function and does not extend easily to n phases.5-71) N αs = k=1 αk (16. In order to correct this problem. pq = p1 +p2 . This function may also be interpreted as the nondimensional distance between spheres: g0 = s + dp s (16. The radial distribution function is closely connected to the factor χ of Chapman and Cowling’s [49] theory of nonuniform gases.5 Eulerian Model Theory Radial Distribution Function The radial distribution function.5-73) Release 12. In the limit when the solid phase compacts. and increases and tends to inﬁnity when the molecules are so close together that motion is not possible. ANSYS FLUENT uses the following consistent formulation: g0.5-69 it can be observed that for a dilute solid phase s → ∞.max 1 3 −1 (16. • The following expression is also available [137]: g0. Inc.5-72) and k are solid phases only. For two identical phases with the property that αq = α1 + α2 . January 29.ll = 3 N αk + dl αs (1 − αs.16. the above function is not consistent for the calculation of the partial pressures p1 and p2 . χ is equal to 1 for a rare gas. g0 .

mm dm + dl (16.max ) (16.max + (1 − α1.52αs 1− αs αs.5. Equation 16. Inc. For a binary mixture with diameters d1 > d2 . is the following: g0.5-75) When the number of solid phases is greater than 1.5-77) as this is a condition for application of the maximum packing limit for binary mixtures.5-71.max + [1 − d2 ](1 − α1.max (α1.max − α2.678 1 N αk + dl 2 k=1 dk (16.0 c ANSYS.kl k 3( N αk ) 1 k=1 d dk dl = + (1 − αs ) (1 − αs )2 (dj + dk ) (16.max (16.5-73 and Equation 16.max )α2.Multiphase Flows • Also available [213]. 2009 .5-76) It is interesting to note that Equation 16.5αs + 4.5-79) 16-60 Release 12.max 3 0.ll + dl g0.5-74) • The following equation [343] is available: g0.5-75 reverts to the [46] derivation. The maximum packing limit for the mixture is given by αs.max + (1 − α1. while Equation 16.6 Maximum Packing Limit in Binary Mixtures The packing limit is not a ﬁxed quantity and may change according to the number of particles present within a given volume and the diameter of the particles. Small particles accumulate in between larger particles increasing the packing limit. slightly modiﬁed for n solids phases.59αs + 4.5-73 and Equation 16.5-78) (16.5-74 compare well with [3] experimental data. Equation 16. January 29.max ) α1.max ) d1 X1 ∗(α1. For a binary mixture ANSYS FLUENT uses the correlations proposed by [90].5-74 are extended to g0.max )α2.lm = dm g0. the mixture composition is deﬁned as X1 = α1α1 2 +α where X1 <= α1.ll = 2 3 1 + 2.max = (α1. 16.max +α2.max )α2.

max )α2. the maximum packing limit for the binary mixture is d2 ](α1. 343] 4 Θs µs. [110] is also available: √ 4 10ρs ds Θs π 1 + g0.7 Solids Shear Str