This is a test release.

It is a partial release of basic gunnery portion of "Combat with firearms" manuscript by "GlassyDarkGrayStylus" The document is incomplete. 1. Basic Gunnery. The purpose of gunnery is to hit a target with a projectile. Gunnery process defined: A gunnery process is a process of using a gun to hit a target. It starts after a shooter makes a decision to shoot a target. The order of the process starts with moving a gun into aiming position, followed by aiming, firing, evaluating the effect of the gunnery. The shooter will usually go back to the stage of moving the gun back to aiming position and stop the process at aiming stage while doing the effect assessment, and resume the cycle from there if the shooter determines that firing another shot is necessary. If the shooter determines it is not necessary to fire another shot, the process will end. Although firing occurs after aiming stage, aiming and firing is a concurrent tasking. 1.1. Aiming To hit a target, the gun has to be directed toward a certain direction and set in a certain attitude at the moment of firing. Aiming is to set the firearm within a certain range of that direction and attitude. 1.1.1. Instrument aided aiming. -Terms defined: Intended Aim Point(IAP): The area on the target a shooter intends to make a projectile impact on. Probable impact area (PIA): Estimated area where fired projectile will impact in. Sight: Visual aiming device that provides a reference point for the shooter to determine how the firearm is oriented in relation to a target. Sight index point (SIP): Where the reference point of the sight indicates. Sight reference line(SRL): The imaginary line the SIP is on, extending from the sight. Sight reference point(SRP): The point in an aiming device where SRL crosses. Sight Aim Point(SAP): This is the point where SIP should index in order to put PIA on IAP. An instrument that gives shooters indications of direction and attitude of the gun by visual reference is called a sight. Use of sights to aim needs understanding of the following problems. SRL is a straight line, but a path of a projectile fired within earth gravity influence will be an arc. Also, the wind would influence projectiles’ flight path. Also, sights will be installed with the SRL having an offset distance to the bore because sights cannot be installed along the path of the bore. The sights are usually placed over the barrel with SRL being parallel to the projectile’s trajectory on a horizontal plane. This will simplify the SRL offset issue by putting the trajectory and the SRL on the same vertical plane and keep difference between the SIP and projectile trajectory on horizontal plane minimal with no side wind. Vertical path wise, the trajectory of the projectile cannot be parallel with SRL because it will always be an arc. To counter this problem. Following methods are employed. Most firearms are designed so that the offset distance of the sight from bore line is no more than necessary. Guns are usually designed in a matter that the barrel is positioned with the bore line intersecting the SRL, so that the projectile will intersect the SRL at some point. That is done in a manner that the SRL can be adjusted to make the arc line of the trajectory as close to SRL at the range that the firearm is expected to be used.

All this requires the shooter to know where the SIP indexes in relation to where the IAP is in a given distance. The gunner projects SIP on SAP, to bring PIA on IAP. The gunner needs to track SAP with SIP until the gun fires. SIP and IAP may or may not be stationary, and because of the gunner and the gun's limitation in stability, the tracking effort that involves continuous error correction and stabilization needs to be continuously executed until the gun is fired. This is aim tracking.

Setting the sight to set SRL in the desired relationship with the trajectory is usually done by making the SRL intersect with the bullet trajectory at a certain distance. That process is called “zeroing”, and the certain distance where the SRL is set to meet the trajectory is the range the gun is “zeroed” to. The trajectory will intersect with the SRL usually two times, first time when the bullet travels upward and second time when it travels downward. Where it intersects at the second time, which is more far, will be the distance the gun is zeroed to.

SAP estimation at ranges other than the zero range will be done by using the gunner's prior knowledge of difference of projectile's flight path from the SRL at a given distance to the target.

1.1.1.1. Zeroing - Procedure to acquire zero: 1.Acquire data of the projectile's flight path. 2.Acquire data of environmental factors that affects bullet's flight, if the magnitude of the affect is significant enough to be relevant. Those factors include: Air pressure, humidity, wind, temperature. Altitude, etc. 3.Determine zero range. 4. Determine SAP on the target, and where IAP is expected to be when the gun is zeroed. If the range to the target when zeroing is performed is different from zero range the gunner wants to set the sights to, determine proper relative location of SIP and IAP on the target at the range the zeroing is performed according to what the trajectory would be when the firearm is zeroed to the desired distance. Otherwise, SIP,IAP, and impact area of the bullets should be a match when zeroing is completed. 5. Fire with SIP on the SAP. 6. Examine Impact area location in relation to SIP and IAP. 7. Adjust sights to move impact area to IAP. A firearm does not always have to be zeroed to hit a target. What is required is knowledge of where the IAP is in relation to to SIP. It is possible for a shooter to train to hit an intended area with out a zeroed firearm.

- Determination of a zero range.

SRL and IAP can only be matched at certain range, However, it would not be possible for the operator to know what range a target would appear in an operation. Because of the arc trajectory of projectiles, the deviation of bullet trajectory from SRL at the peak of the arc will be the greatest within the range the gun is zeroed to. If the zero range is increased, it will also increase the amount of deviation at the peak. This can make SAP determination harder at target distance between the two SRL and bullet trajectory intersection. The trajectory of a projectile would be fairly straight at the start of the flight. Gravity effect will be constant throughout the flight. However, projectile’s velocity will decrease and projectile’s drop speed will increase with time. This will result in projectiles’ drop distance per flight distance continuously increase. So, as zero distance gets shorter, the trajectory will be relatively flatter within the zero range, and SAP determination relatively easier. With a short sight and bore axis offset and large enough acceptable impact area of the target, the SIP and IAP difference can even be ignored. The problem with short zero range is that when the target distance is greater than the zero range, determining the upward SAP adjustment can be more difficult compared to zeroing to a longer range and determining the downward SAP adjustment, especially because the shooter who set up the sight is more likely to know better about the trajectory inside the zero range. Also, upward SAP adjustment would mean the front sight would block the view of the target when iron sights are used. The usual method to deal with the problem of zero range being too short or too long is to set the zero range so that the gun will be zeroed to the distance where the operator considers is the maximum effective range of the gun. Another way is to set the zero in a manner that the bullet trajectory deviation will be lowest up to what the operator considers the max effective range of the gun. For most non-specialized guns suited for security operations discussed in this text, setting the zero range so that the gun will be zeroed to the distance where the operator considers is the maximum effective range of the gun will result in trajectory deviation close to lowest up to the zeroed range. The optimal zero range will also be affected by type of weapon, ammunition, and size of acceptable impact area of the target. Let’s take a look at some examples: As of 2010, U.S. military use 250~300m zero with M4 or M16 and 5.56mm cartridge combination while many law enforcement agencies in U.S. use 100m zero with similar configuration. It is beneficial for all of them to be able to engage the target from as far away as possible. However, both have limitation in what the most effective zero can be. Law enforcement’s target engagement rages are usually shorter. Law enforcement operators often need more detailed observation of the target in order for them to make a justified decision to shoot. This can make the shooting distance limited to where the operator can identify a person they contact and what the contact is doing. So, those agencies with 100m zero have determined that most shootings would be limited to 100m and they would prefer to have closer SRL and PIA relationship within that range. Also, if the need to shoot a target more distant than 100m, the upward SPOA adjustment range is not large enough to present significant problems up to 200m. Military personnel may be justified in shooting target who are identified by uniform or a weapon a person they contact is carrying without more detailed information about the target. Also, Casualty of War regulations may relieve them of liability for missing and hitting a 3 rd party person or property. This makes it preferable for them to shoot at the opponent from longer distance then law enforcement personnel. However, it is also necessary for them to ensure the shot they make has enough probability of hit for them to be effective. Most soldiers are trained with the expectation to be effective up to 300m with a standard issue rifle. Also, 5.56mm ammunition’s power would also limit the range it can maintain effective destructive power. Some sights do allow easier adjustment so that a user can make SRL and the bullet trajectory intersect at a known target distance. However, for the type of combat operation in this text, that would not be feasible because the target appearance range would be random, and the operator is unlikely to have enough time to observe the target and make a manual adjustment on a sight.

Some sights have multiple reference points, each corresponding to different target range, so that the shooter can select corresponding reference point according to target distance without requiring the user to make manual adjustment. It usually comes in a form of a scope that has a reticle with multiple reference point.

1.1.1.2 Basic Sights: Iron sights The following explains use of iron sight. Iron sight is the most common aiming device. Because readers have to know how a basic form of sights work, iron sights was selected as an example. And, its description will be given here. Other aiming devices will be discussed in another chapter. Use of iron sights: Iron sights consist of two components, front sight and rear sight that are apart certain distance, forming a sight reference line between the two. So, the front sight and rear sight will each have a SRP. Aiming is done by aligning the target, the front sight SRP, the rear sight SRP, and one aiming eye. So, the shooter gets a SRL by aligned front sight SRP and rear sight SRP, and index the SRL on SAP. SRP. So, for proper sight alignment, the shooter matches the front sight SRP and rear sight SRP in the shooter's vision. Iron sights are made in various shapes, but majority of them are one of the following two types: First type: Front and rear sight pair with the front sight in a square post form and a rear sight with a flat surface facing the rear that has an aperture at the center that the shooter sees the front sight and the target through. SRP of those sights are generally as follows: The top center point of the front sight post is the front sight SRP. For the rear sight, the center of the aperture is the SRP unless indicated otherwise.

Second type: Front and rear sight pair with the front sight in a square post form and a rear sight that has has a overall square shape with a front to back groove, usually square shaped, on the top of the flat top . The shooter sees the front sight through the hollow area of the groove. SRP of those sights are generally as follows: The top center point of the front sight post is the front sight SRP. For the rear sight, horizontal center point of hollow area of the groove that is on the same horizontal plane with the top edge of the rear sight is the SRL.

However, there are sights with multiple SRP the shooter can choose from according to the situation. Some rear sights of either type may have multiple SRP indicator marks indicating which SRP can be chosen as rear sight SRP according to distance. When rear sight SRP is lower, the front sight with no change in front sight SRP will get relatively higher when both SRP is aligned, resulting in distance the bullet trajectory intersects the SRL the second time longer. The distance of that intersection can be adjusted by which rear sight SRP is selected that way. Some sights will have more than one separate pair of front sight and rear sight SRP. These are usually the case for low light condition supplement sight in the form of inserts of paintings on the iron sights. There are certain light condition that does not allow the shooter to see the usually dark colored outlines of the iron sights clearly. There are 2 supplemental sight system commonly in use. One is the 3-dot system. There is one dot on the front sight on or near the center. There are two dots on the rear surface of the rear sight, two dots on a horizontal line with the middle point between the two dots centered on the horizontal center of the rear sight.

The center of the front sight dot is the front sight SRP, and the middle point between the center of two rear sight dots is the rear sight SRP. The 3 dot system use principle is same as regular iron sight use: front sight SRP aligned with rear sight SRP. The vertical offset of the front sight dot from front sight top is the same as vertical offset of the rear sight does from the rear sight top. That results on SRL of the iron sight and the SRL of the 3 dot sights completely parallel. So, the 3 dot system can be used when iron sight outline is not clearly visible with same degree of difference in impact area shift regardless of target distance.

Another system consists of of one dot on the front sight on or near the center and a bar or dot on the horizontal center of the rear sight. The front and rear sight horizontal alignment is done by placing the center of front sight dot on the vertical line with the center of the rear sight dot or square. Vertical alignment is done by placing the image of the front sight dot on top of the rear sight dot or square. This system is often called "Bar-dot" system. It is also known as "Von Stavenhagen."

Precision alignment with the Bar-dot system is a problem, because the aiming is not done by a simple method of aligning front sight SRP with rear sight SRP. The front sight SRP is one the target SAP, but the shooter has to then look down to see the front sight SRP's relationship to the rear sight bar or dot that is not inline with the front sight SRP. That means shooter tracking multiple points in different directions during aiming. Also, there is a problem getting consistent vertical sight alignment if there is any change in the distance between the shooter's eye and the sights because placing the front sight dot or insert image so that it will contact the top edge of the bar will not get the same inclination angle of the gun when the distance from the sights to the eye is changed. The supplemental sight system is not meant to be the primary aiming device. It is only there for when use of iron sight outline is not practical. Using the supplemental sight system in place of iron sight outline when the iron sight itself can be used presents problems with little to no benefit.

One problem is lack of precision. The paintings or inserts on the iron sight the supplemental sights consist of are smaller than the iron sights, and the distance between outlines of the supplemental sights are larger than that of the iron sight itself. Since the precision of front and rear sight alignment is tracked through looking that the relative location from each other, any deviance from alignment is harder to detect with the supplemental sights that are smaller, more so when it has outlines that are more distant from each other. Also, use of supplemental sights often requires the dot or insert on the front sight used as SRP to be projected over the IAP or SAP, obstructing the shooter from seeing it. That is more of a problem if the target image is small.

Supplemental sights also have problems with shooter's visual focus being more spread in order to collect aiming information.

Iron sights are simple in design, and does not take much space or weigh much compared to others, and requires no electric power. It is also the type most resistant to impact drifting the SIP off proper setting. Because of its compactness and simplicity, it is often retained on weapons that use other type of sight as a primary aiming device. However, there are some problems that are specific to iron sights that makes its use harder than others. Shooters need understanding of that problem to be effective with an iron sight. One problem is that it requires the shooter to put additional effort to align the front sight SRL and rear sight SRL.

Another problem is that the shooter need to align 3 different objects at 3 different distances in front of the aiming eye, while only being able to make the eye focused on one distance. Usually, the front sight SRL should be the point the shooter's eye is focused on. The front sight that is closer to the muzzle and the target gives better indication of where the muzzle is pointed in relation to the target. Also, when same degree of movement of front sight and rear sight presented on the image the shooter's eye sees, same angular movement from shooter's point of view, the front sight movement indicates larger actual movement. So, front sight deviation movement from proper sight alignment represents larger error. Because of that, precision aiming is better achieved with the aiming eye's focus on the front sight. There is also a problem of image distortion according to light condition. Depending on the amount of light and direction it is coming from, the front sight and rear sight SRP may not appear aligned when it is physically aligned. Also, seeing an object near the edge of another object in front of it may also cause distortion. For example, of the shooter sets the degree of eye lid opening so shooter can see the edge of the eye lid, image near the edge of the shooter's own eye lid can be distorted. Shooter's head attitude set in a certain manner may cause the pupil to be close to the edge of the eye opening, causing distortion of image near the edge. That can cause the front sight, or especially the blurred rear sight or target, to appear distorted. One more problem that will me mentioned here is the affect of front sight on target image. With the focus on the front sight, the target image area near the outline of the front sight that is projected over the target may appear

faded. The phenomenon affecting the vision more or less depending on light condition, color, brightness, contrast, etc. It happens in a degree that it will not be noticed when the target is sufficiently large or close in relation to the size of the front sight.

But, it becomes noticeable when the angular size of target image comes closer to the image size of the of the front sight. When adjusting the sight reference point imposed on the target image to aim, this phenomenon has to be factored in, especially with target image with small angular size.

If the angular size of the target image is smaller than the fading area, it will be hard or impossible to recognize the target for accurate aiming. This problem can induce error with correct SAP determination.

Determination of SAP There are number of factors affecting where an SAP is in relationship to IAP with a given target. At the start of the operation, the operator should have selected a firearm, ammo, and firearm’s sight zeroed to a certain distance. With all factors known and constant, the shooter would not have to continuously recalculate where the SAP is, once the correct SAP is known. However, some variable factors can only be known after operation has started and an operator usually would come in contact with a target in an unpredictable situation. Primary variables are as follows: Movement of the target: It takes time for a projectile to reach the target distance. An operator has to: -Determine the target’s travel path. -Determine the point on that path where the target and the projectile would reach at the same time after time it takes for the projectile to reach that point would be. The shooter has to set the SAP so that the PIA will be on that point. Distance to the target: Shooter has to determine the distance to the target and adjust the SAP according to the difference of the PIA and SIP at that distance.

Wind: Airflow would affect the projectile, pushing it in the direction of its flow during the projectile’s flight. Operator has to make SPOA adjustment according to how the wind changes the PIA in relation to SIP. Movement of firearm: Movement of firearm will affect the condition the projectile will be launched into. SAP would be determined after combining SAP adjustment for target movement, distance, wind, and firearm movement. That can be a difficult process. However, certain process can be simplified or ignored without significant affect on accuracy. For target movement SAP adjustment, if the target’s distance remains the same, usually meaning the target’s path is perpendicular to the operator’s line of sight to the target, it would make the bullet flight time a constant. Also, if the target’s distance is close enough and speed is slow enough, the speed of target moving in or out may be insignificant enough for the shooter to ignore its affect on bullet's flight time to the target's predicted location at impact point. This would make the process relatively easier. The shooter can assume the target remains at the same distance and only consider the target’s angular movement. Also, if the distance short enough and target speed is slow enough that there will be no significant distance of movement during the projectile’s flight time, then the shooter can ignore the target's movement during bullet's flight time. Other variable factors that affect the aim are temperature, air density, humidity, etc. However, these will not have any significant value out side of stand off shooting. The reason is that non-stand off shooting, the usual distance involved makes those factors insignificant, and time allowed for reaction to an emerging opponent is too short for the operator to consider all those factors and make a calculation.

1.2. Shooter to gun interface. Posture, position, and contact. For effective gunnery, interface with the gun needs to meet certain conditions. Guns need to be held in a certain manner to facilitate that. The gun in use needs to be positioned on body securely, and in a manner that facilitates following conditions: -Minimized discomfort. -Maximized ergonomic efficiency. -Able to maintain aim stability when shooting. -Able to resist displacement of rifle and aim destabilization from trigger pull force. -Able to resist displacement of gun from recoil force. -No interference with mechanical operation of the gun. Once a good hold is found, the hold has to be consistent. No part of the body should be obstructing the operation of the firearm. If not done properly, the operator may obstruct the ejection port, or unintentionally press on a lever, such as decocking lever, slide stop, or manual firing inhibit lever. -Position and contact- pistol: For common design pistol, because pistol only offers only one purpose designed grip area, how the trigger hand contacts the pistol grip forms the base of the security of the grip in hand. Pistols are mostly designed to be fired with the arm of the trigger hand extended to some degree. The muzzle will be pointed toward the approximate direction of the end of the arm. So, with little or no wrist tilt angle, the fingers of the trigger hand will cover the front of the grip, usually with the exception of the index finger the trigger is designed to be manipulated by, and part of the palm and base of thumb area will contact the rear side of the grip. A shooter's trigger hand grip on a pistol is formed by trigger hand's gripping fingers applying rearward pressure on the front of pistol's grip pressing the rear of pistols' grip into its contact area of the trigger hand. Rear of grip contact: Pistols generally have a horizontally outward curve on the front and rear side of the grip. The rear of pistol's grip generally have an inward curve on the vertical plane near the top, with the top edge of that curve extending to the rear that prevents the hand that contacts the rear of pistol's grip from moving up beyond it. The edge of the curve that extends to the rear is usually called “grip tang.” The top rear of pistol's grip rearward extension(“grip tang”)would have a surface facing toward the bottom of the grip, and that surface will also generally have it's center curved outward. The part of the hand that contacts the rear of pistol's grip is the area of the palm on or near where part of the palm that is the base of thumb transitions to the part of the palm that is not. However, most of the gripping power regarding pistol grip's rear area will come from the area described as follows: The thumb and the part of the palm that is base of the index finger facing each other, and the part of the palm that is the shortest path that connect the two, which consists of a certain portion of the part of the palm that is base of the thumb and the part of the palm that transitions from the base of the thumb to base of the index finger, can form a curve that a rear of pistol's grip can be secured into. The curve is a letter “U” shaped base seen from above. That U-shaped base is the major grip force area for the rear of the pistol's grip. And, that part is also the part that is used as stable base that resists torque or displacement of the pistol caused by rearward force on or from the pistol. This will be called “rear of pistol's grip major contact area” from now on.

The horizontal outward curve of the pistol grip's rear side will be pressed into the rear of pistol's grip major contact area with the horizontal center of the rear of pistol grip's approximately being centered on or around the part of the palm where part of the palm that is the base of thumb transitions to the part of the palm that is not. That will secure the rear of pistol's grip horizontally, with the rear of pistol's grip major contact area acting like a V-block that the rear of pistol's grip's outward horizontal curve is pressed and fixed into.

The top edge of rear of pistol's grip major contact area should contact the top rear of pistol's grip rearward extension, unable to be placed higher due to the rearward extension, and fitting inside the inward curve on the rear of pistol's grip near its top. That will press the curve of the extension surface facing toward the bottom of the grip downward on the relatively soft skin area of the hand behind the center of the rear of pistol's grip major contact area, with that part of the hand also acting like a V-block the rear extension of the grip is pressed and fixed into. Along with pistol grip's front side contact with the hand, that resists pistol's rotation on vertical plane in the shooter's hand, and also minimizes rear side grip movement in the shooter's hand.

Since the thumb is the only thing that can be facing the palm as far as rear of pistol's grip is concerned, the rear of pistol's grip major contact area is the only part of the trigger hand that the rear of pistol's grip can be secured into. Because the thumb is located near the top side of the grip, it leaves the bottom side of the grip relatively insecure.

Front of pistol's grip contact: With the rear of pistol's grip contact formed, 3 trigger hand finger from middle to little finger will cover the front side of the grip and apply rearward pressure on it. Since the 3 fingers are pressing the rear side of the grip on the U shaped major contact area which is close to the to side of the grip, the rearward force applied on the front side of the grip would be more effective if it is close to in line with the rear major contact area of the grip. For this reason, the top two of the 3 fingers which are closer to being in line with the major rear contact area of the grip providing most of the gripping power, with the middle finger providing more power, would be effective. More power on the little finger side would be counter productive because it is pressing the lower part of the pistol grip against the palm which is only on right or left side of the grip with nothing on the opposing side to secure it.

It is important that the rear of pistol's grip major contact area form a stable base that resists torque or displacement of the pistol caused by rearward force on or from the pistol. One of the reasons for it is because how the grip is formed, the front of pistol's grip being pressed rearward and pressing the rear of pistol's grip into its contact area with the hand. Also, the shooter's grip needs to keep the keep the pistol secure in hand against forces that may displace or cause torque on the pistol. As far as shooting the pistol is concerned, there are two significant forces that may cause displacement or torque on the pistol. Those are recoil and trigger manipulation. For the most part, those forces are applied in rearward direction. The rearward force on or from the pistol will be transferred to the part of the hand that contacts the rear of the pistol's grip. And, because the rear of pistol's grip major contact area is the only part that can effectively receive the rearward force from the pistol, that makes it necessary for it to form a stable base that resists torque or displacement of the pistol caused by rearward force on or from the pistol. Most pistols have a trigger resistance that ranges from 2~6 kg. That means the shooter has to exert force that is multiple times the pistol's own weight quickly on demand. And, the rear of pistol's grip major contact area has to be secure enough to hold the pistol from shifting when that amount of force is exerted. Recoil gives similar problem. But, the impulse is much stronger. Also, because the origin of the recoil force, which is along the bore line, is higher than where the recoil force transfers from pistol to the hand, which is the rear of pistol's grip major contact area, it will cause torque that rotates the pistol on a plane parallel to pistol's vertical axis and containing the bore line. And, displacement of the pistol in shooter's hand by that force is another thing shooter's grip should resist. The strength of the torque is affected by the distance between the recoil transfer point and the bore line. If the gripping hand contacts the rear of pistol's grip more toward the top of it, placing the rear of pistol's grip major contact area higher; the torque will get lower, because of the shortened distance between the bore line and the recoil transfer point. Also, the top rear of pistol's grip rearward extension in contact with the area of the hand rear of the rear of pistol's grip major contact area also resists the torque displacement. For maximum aim stability, any force that makes the pistol rotate to either side or up or down needs to be minimized. Because of this, shooter needs to make the application of gripping force by trigger hand parallel in relation to the pistol's line of aim, and not make the the curling in motion of the gripping fingers cause rotation or side movement of the pistol. The overall grip should feel comfortable and firm at the same time. The level of force applied by the trigger hand to grip the pistol should be sufficient to hold the pistol in hand with stability and security, and the gripping power may be increased corresponding to level of force applied on the trigger to maintain that stability. However, the level of gripping force should not be to a degree where it would cause tremble or fast exhaustion of muscles that would hinder the operator from holding the pistol with consistency for the duration of the operation. How tight a shooter has to grip the gun will depend on each situation, but mostly it will be a point where it's firm enough to control the gun but not too tight enough to cause excessive fatigue. Be cautious not to loosen firm grip while trying to delicately manipulate the trigger. It is also important that the index finger must be able to manipulate the trigger without significant discomfort or causing instability in the pistol that prevents hitting the target with sufficient accuracy and speed. The index finger must be able to contact the front of the trigger with the pad of the index finger between the end of the finger and the first joint from the end. If that cannot be achieved, the way the shooter grips the pistol has to be adjusted. The adjustment that achieves that may sometimes conflict with grip comfort or grip security or other factors. Generally, achieving the grip that allows proper trigger manipulation will take top priority because improper trigger control is often the most significant factor that causes missed shots. Note that the center of the rear of pistol's grip major contact area where the rear of pistol's grip centered on, the part of the palm that transitions from part that is base of thumb to part of the palm that is not, is somewhat distanced from the base

of thumb muscle and base of index finger area. Significant part of the thumb that faces the palm and secures the rear outward horizontal curve of the rear of pistol's grip between it and the palm is the thumb and base of thumb joint area that is relatively harder with no muscle to move over. The most part of the thumb or the palm area that is base of the index finger does not put much significant side pressure on the side of the grip. That is one reason a thumb pointing upward grip style that the thumb does not make any significant contact with the pistol can be used. There are number of grip styles with the trigger hand thumb positioned differently and pointing in different directions. If the shooter wants to consistently grip the pistol with the thumb pointed in a certain direction in relation to the pistol, it helps for the shooter to start the gripping process with the thumb at an angle in relation to the pistol that the shooter wants to keep when gripping is completed, and position the fingers on the front of the grip in a manner to secure that position. It also helps to avoid gripping the pistol in a manner that allows significant contact with muscle or group of it in the palm that is likely to make movement put pressure on the pistol's grip. The palm area that is base of the index finger can change in its firmness when the index finger is moved to pull the trigger. When in contact with the grip with some degree of pressure, it can adversely affect the grip when the index finger is moved disrupting aim stability when precision is needed, especially when pulling a heavy trigger. Relatively large muscle of the palm in the base of thumb area can also adversely affect the grip disrupting aim stability when the thumb is moved, when in contact with the grip with some degree of pressure. This is the reason why large palm swell type accessories on pistol grip can be counter productive. When supporting arm is used to support the trigger hand arm, supporting arm the hand is placed with its fingers covering over the fingers of the hand gripping pistol seen from the front. Palms of the two hands will be in an attitude facing each other. Support hand should not disrupt the grip of the gripping hand in any way. Primary function of the support hand is to provide extra stability to the group that consists of the pistol and the hand gripping it. This includes aim stability, and recoil management. It also serves the function of supporting a portion of the weight of the pistol the gripping hand is holding up. The recoil force will cause displacement of the trigger hand arm. Depending on the matter it is used, use of support arm will add lateral, and to some degree vertical, resistance to the trigger hand and arm displacement, and also aid in faster recovery to aiming position. Due to human arm and hand structure, the bore line of a pistol will often be to the to the side of the wrist tilt axis point, most likely offset to the side the palm is facing when the shooting posture utilized is in the form of arm and wrist being straight or close to it. This causes torque upon recoil of the pistol, causing the pistol and the hand holding it to rotate to the direction the palm is facing. The arm joint being designed rotate the forearm inward toward the torso and wrist having more motion range tilting toward the direction the palm is facing also makes the rotation tendency more likely. Having a support arm with its hand supporting the trigger hand on the side of the trigger hand palm is facing, opposing it's movement, resists the effect of the torque. -Two handed pistol control method: A shooter can use the non-trigger hand with the trigger hand to control a pistol. Primary function of the support hand is to provide extra stability to the group that consists of the pistol and the hand gripping it. This includes aim stability, and recoil management. It also serves the function of supporting a portion of the weight of the pistol the gripping hand is holding up. The recoil force will cause displacement of the trigger hand arm. Depending on the matter it is used, use of support arm will add lateral, and to some degree vertical, resistance to the trigger hand and arm displacement, and also aid in faster recovery to aiming position. The other hand is usually placed with its fingers covering over the fingers of the trigger hand fingers gripping around the front of the pistol grip seen from the front. Palms of the two hands will be in an attitude facing each other. There are different methods of using two hand for pistol control. One is supported trigger hand method and the other is shared grip method. With supported trigger hand method, the shooter makes a trigger hand grip on the pistol that is complete in itself, and that complete and independent trigger hand grip will be supported by the other hand to enhance stability and recoil control. There is no squeezing action of the support hand involved. The support hand only applies

rearward pressure on the trigger hand fingers it is covering. The degree of the pressure depends on how much contact power the shooter wants, and that can be used to add grip strength of the trigger hand. Support hand should not disrupt the grip of the trigger hand in any way. With shared grip method, both hands share the role of gripping the pistol in both hand's palm. The contact with the pistol's grip would by mostly made by the trigger hand, however, the shooter would make deliberate effort to make the support hand palm contact any area not covered by the trigger hand. Also the trigger hand thumb area will be lifted upward to allow the support hand palm wider access. As for security of the pistol being kept in grip, the shared grip method has the advantage. The independent trigger hand grip in supported trigger hand method cannot secure the lower part of the rear pistol grip as well as the two opposing palms of the shared grip method. The shared grip method also can better utilize added grip strength from the support hand without the possibility of muscle movement input affecting the trigger hand index finger while muscle movement on trigger hand can affect the index finger. However, the shared grip method is dependent upon the non-trigger hand getting a grip on the pistol and the trigger hand in a very specific manner. It is very awkward to achieve if the elbow position and its angle, the position and angle of the forearm from the elbow leading to the non-trigger hand is not balanced with elbow and forearm of the trigger hand. For that reason, it is mostly utilized with shooting posture with form that is symmetrical side to side. To achieve that, the pistol's position have to be in front of near center of the shooter's body. This presents some problems. It makes the shooting awkward with this method if the situation the shooter is in requires the pistol to be offset from the plane that contains shooter's center body line. It also presents problem with shooter being in area where near full arm extension is not feasible. It's very awkward to shoot with the kind of grip with both arms extended in symmetrical manner and pistol near plane of center body line when the pistol is brought closer to the shooter's face. It requiring the trigger hand thumb to be moved up may also be a problem if that finger positioning interferes with control levers or slide movement of a pistol a shooter is using. Some pistols to not allow a secure grip with that kind of thumb positioning. Coupled with the grip type requiring contact of both hands in very specific manner, feasibility of the shared grip method can be more affected by specific gun in use. The supported trigger hand grip has advantage in flexibility. No matter how the shooting posture is changed, which often happens by necessity during operations, the independent trigger hand grip is not affected by it. It's very adaptable to different shooting postures, and also not affected if the shooter needs to switch to one hand only pistol control or switch back to two hand pistol control from one hand only pistol control. Due to human arm and hand structure, the bore line of a pistol will often be to the to the side of the wrist tilt axis point, most likely offset to the side the palm is facing when the shooting posture utilized is in the form of arm and wrist being straight or close to it. This causes torque upon recoil of the pistol, causing the pistol and the hand holding it to rotate to the direction the palm is facing. The arm joint being designed rotate the forearm inward toward the torso and wrist having more motion range tilting toward the direction the palm is facing also makes the rotation tendency more likely. Having a support arm with its hand supporting the trigger hand on the side of the trigger hand palm is facing, opposing it's movement, resists the effect of the torque.

- Position and contact- Rifle: Rifle is designed to be stabilized with 4 primary point of contacts: trigger hand, support hand, shoulder, and cheek. The positioning needs to allow the rifle sights that are usually on the top of the rifle to be aligned between the target and the shooter's aiming eye while the the rear end of the stock is in contact with the shooter's shoulder area and shooter's aiming eye side cheek in contact with the top of the stock. That will generally determine the outline of how the rifle will be positioned on the shooter's body. The basic principles involved is similar to that of pistol use. Imagine using a pistol with one more area on the

pistol that can be held by shoulder and cheek for added stability. The trigger hand grip on the rifle's trigger hand grip will hold up the receiver area. The way to grip the trigger hand grip is not much different from griping a pistol. The stock attached to the rear of the receiver extending to the rear will contact the shooter's shoulder and cheek. The stock contact will resist the rifle's lateral or vertical rotation in relation to the shooter's body. It will also help support some of the rifle's weight. A rifle also has a separate gripping area for the supporting arm hand. This is due to the rifle's weight being too heavy to be supported by one or both hand gripping the trigger hand grip area that is usually located to the rear of rifle's center of mass. So, additional grip is placed forward of the trigger hand grip position. The support hand grip is usually located on the body of the rifle that surrounds the barrel, or located under or near the barrel. That location of the support hand on the rifle is good and necessary for weight support of the front part of the rifle and help rotating the direction of the rifle in coordinated manner with the rest of the shooter's upper body. However, it also has an adverse effect. Any unintended movement of the support arm will result in the front of the rifle moving in relation to it's rear side that is secured by stock contact. This is a different situation from that of a pistol where utilization of support arm has little to no adverse effect on stability. To minimize that adverse effect, the support arm being used to rotate the rifle's direction in relation to the body for aim control should be minimized, according to feasibility. Shooter needs to train to use the support arm only in coordination with the other part of the upper body. The shooter needs to make the upper body with the rifle positioned on it a consistent form platform that moves as close to as a singular unit. Direction control of the rifle will be done by stabilization or movement of that platform as a whole, as much as possible. The stock contact, which is most securely held, would form the base to position the rifle on the shooter's body. And, the rifle's rear side contact with the shooter's trigger hand, shoulder, and cheek would be the stable base the rifle aim direction control actuation occurs with the support arm and hand holding the front side of the rifle moving in coordination with it. However, there are exceptions. Those exceptions are mostly when the shooter's upper body motion is limited. For example, the support arm will be more active in role for vertical aim direction control actuation that can involve actively moving the rifle in relation to the shooter's upper body. That is because, unlike horizontal rotation that the shooter has no limitation, shooter's upper body has limitations rotating up or down. Other example involves situation such as when the shooter is in prone position. The support arm's primary role is to assist the rear side contact base in control and stability, and to support the front side weight of the rifle. The positioning of the rifle on the shooter's body will generally start with the shooter gripping the trigger hand grip and support hand grip making the stock contact the shoulder contact area. The trigger hand will apply rearward pressure on the rifle's trigger hand grip, pressing the end of the stock secured into the shoulder contact. With the upper body's front leaning motion, the shooter will make contact with the top of the stock with the aiming eye side cheek, putting downward pressure on the stock. This will also bring the gunner's trigger hand side eye to the position to use the rifle's sight. The rifle's rear side base is secured that way, and the support hand will support the weight of the rifle's front side with the rifle directed toward where the rifle's rear side base is orienting the rifle toward in coordination with the rear side base.

The cheek's contact with the rifle's stock also serves the purpose of stabilizing head in relation to the stock that will help eliminate or minimize appearance of rear sight drifting between the aiming eye and the front sight the eye is focused on. For the rear end of the stock to be secured, it will be efficient for it to be pressed into a surface with an inward curve. The area of the shoulder between the chest and arm below the collar bone has an inward curve, and top of the back of stock can be secured into that curve. The top side of the back of stock is secured because it is usually closest to the bore line of most rifle, where majority of the recoil force will be transferred through when in contact with shoulder, and rear end of stock being placed any higher would result in the stock contacting the collar bone area that can cause pain or injury. However, the stock contact point on the shoulder is decided by factors that affects whatever location on the shoulder best meets the purpose of rifle hold and availability of the area. For example, body armor covering the curved area of the shoulder may make that area not the most ideal location for stock contact. Backpack shoulder strap or other shoulder or chest area mounted equipment may also limit what area a rifle stock may properly come into contact.

Exactly where the stock contacts the shoulder curve area affects how much oblique angle shooter's torso is facing in relation to where the rifle is pointed toward will be. As the stock contact point on the shoulder gets far from the shooter's neck, the shooter may need to position the upper body in more oblique angle in relation to the rifle's front to back line to bring the aiming eye side cheek over the top of the stock. The direction shooter's torso is facing in relation to the rifle's muzzle direction is also affected by support hand grip placement. If the shooter is willing to place the support hand more toward the front of the rifle, the shooter may have to position the torso in a more oblique angle so that the support arm shoulder will be more closer to the front of the rifle. This depends on the relative size of shooter and the rifle, how much reach the shooter have, and the from of the shooter's preferred shooting posture. When direction the torso is facing is very oblique in relation to SRL, the front shoulder area may be too angled to meet the end of the rifle stock. In such case, the edge of the shoulder where it transitions to the arm may have to be used.

How close the area being held by support hand is to the rear or front of the rifle, within the length of the support hand grip area, also has following effects: When an arm is holding up an object on a person's shoulder level, it requires more muscle power for the person to hold the same load if the arm is extended more away from the shoulder. Also, more the arm is horizontally extended forward, with the hand on the shoulder level, more muscle power is required to hold the arm straight forward against gravity. If an object is stabilized with its weight is supported by multiple points, the point that is closer to the object's center of mass will support greater portion of the object's weight. It's easier to turn an object when the force is applied to the point of the object that is more far from it's fixed pivot

point or center of mass.

Because of those characteristics of physics, if the shooter's support hand grabs the support hand grip area closer to the shooter, the shooter will have the following effect: Less effort is required to hold the support arm up. Support arm will have more leverage to hold the load of the rifle. Support arm will be loaded with increased portion of rifle's weight. Support arm will need more power to move the direction of the front part of the rifle. If the shooter's support hand grabs the support hand grip area closer to the front of the rifle, the shooter will have the following effect: More effort is required to hold the support arm up. Support arm will have less leverage to hold the load of the rifle. Support arm will be loaded with decreased portion of rifle's weight. Support arm will need less power to move the direction of the front part of the rifle.

In most cases, the increased load on the support hand when the support hand grips the part of the rifle closer to the shooter's torso usually is less significant compared to leverage gain and less arm weight that has to be held up by muscle power compared to when the support hand grips the part of the rifle more far from the shooter's torso. For this reason, support hand grabbing the part of the rifle that is closer to the shooter's torso has better stability and sustainability. This is the reason many shooter tend to bring the support hand closer to the body and rotate the torso to get the support hand side shoulder even more closer to the support hand when they are very fatigued while holding up a rifle in horizontal position. This is also the reason why the shooting posture with support hand close to the shoulder is often seen utilized in Olympic style rifle shooting when the shooter is standing. However, support hand grabbing the part of the rifle that is close to the shooter's torso requires increased effort for direction change of the rifle. It takes more effort to keep the rifle in same position in relation to the upper body shooting platform when the whole platform is rotated either horizontal or vertical. The support hand grabbing the part of the rifle close to the front end of the rifle as possible has the opposite effect. Quick direction change control if the rifle is easier. This is the reason why the style of rifle positioning and contact is mostly seen in close range combat training scenarios with multiple target for the shooter to traverse the direction of aim to. But, the posture cause fast and increased fatigue, making it not so practical to maintain for a long time.

The individual operator needs to understand this characteristics, and decide what the optimum balance is for that particular operator. The operator can then decide make the support hand grab the part of the rifle that has distance from the torso, or from the front end of the rifle, that corresponds to that balance point. The placement of rifle's shoulder contact area also affects recoil management. The shooter's upper body will generally rotate with the center of the torso as the center of the rotation. Objects will have least resistance to rotational moment generated when force is applied at the part of the object that is most far from the center of mass. With the rifle's rear contact with the shoulder being the major recoil transfer point, closer the contact area gets to the center of the torso, it will create less torque that can disrupt shooting posture. However, the degree that contact point can be close to the center of the torso will be limited by other conditions the positioning of the rifle on the shooter's body has to meet. 1.3 Shooting platform and posture: Management of stability, recoil, and mobility. -Shooting Posture, position and contact. Purpose of Shooting posture is to set the body and the gun in a certain manner to facilitate effective shooting while meeting operational requirements. Those operational requirements include managing stability, recoil, and mobility. To what degree stability and mobility is required changes according to situation. and there are situations where the ability to manage some of those needs to be increased at the cost of sacrificing ability to control others. 1.3.1. Aim tracking To aim a gun in a certain direction with best stability and sustainably there will be a certain manner of posture and gun positioning in regards to the shooter's body and the gun. For security operations, the manner of posture and gun positioning also must meet certain requirements of the operation. That in a consistent form will be called a shooting platform. For directional adjustment of aim, the shooting platform changing direction as a whole would be optimal. However, since the shooter has to move the shooter's body in order to make direction change, the shooter needs to make a choice regarding what part of the body to move, and in what manner. It's harder to make very fine adjustments by moving the entire shooting platform(entire body) quickly. If the shooter has unlimited time to hit a target, then the shooter can adjust the entire body to make to make the entire shooting platform placed in the best matter for that particular target. However, for security operations, that is unlikely to be the case. The target exposure time and time window of opportunity to shoot is likely to be limited. Upon determination to shoot, the shooter will orient the SRL of the gun toward the target. As the SRL approaches the SAP zone, the shooter will transition from ready posture to forming a shooting platform. The forming of the shooting platform will be completed while the gun's SIP is being stabilized in the SAP zone. SIP will be tracking the SAP. -Shooting platform supported by shooter's leg, such as standing or kneeling posture. When directional change in aim is required for aim tracking, the whole upper body part of the shooting platform being maintained as much as possible while being rotating horizontally or tilting up or down would be better than turning the whole body, if the traverse of direction change does not exceed the upper body's stable and uninterrupted motion range, since the lower body that supports the upper body moving would mean the upper body's stability will be reduced. When that upper body motion range is exceeded, the whole platform may need to turn. If the direction change needed for adjustment is too small for delicate movement of upper body shooting platform movement to track quickly enough, the shooter may choose to move the gun and the arm in relation to the rest of the upper body shooting platform in a degree small enough to not have a significant disrupting effect on the shooting platform then adjust the body around the gun with the aiming device that is tracking the aim to form an adjusted shooting platform. This may be a continuous process. Shooter may also need to move the arm and the gun in relation to the rest of the upper body shooting platform if the upper body movement is restricted, and it is

not a situation where the whole body turning would be better. For initial SRL orientation to target while forming a shooting platform, the whole body should move to form the shooting platform while the shooting platform to be formed is continuously tracking the target, instead of forming a shooting platform that is oriented towards the target position when the shooting platform formation has started then trying to track the target with the shooting platform. If the angular speed of the target is large that turn of the whole body shooting platform being needed is anticipated, it is better to track aim with whole body shooting platform movement from the start than start the whole body movement as the upper body reaches motion limit. The later method results in destabilization when the upper body reaches near motion limit and possible further delay in tracking when lower body movement follows late. The shooter can always stop the whole body movement when there is a determination that the shot can be made with in upper body shooting platform's good motion range, and switch to upper body shooting platform motion only mode to gain further stability. -Shooting posture with body upper and lower body on ground or floor, such as prone posture. Shooter's upper body motion range is very restricted in this posture type. More utilization of arm and gun moving in relation to the rest of the shooting platform may be needed, although upper body shooting platform turning would be better if motion range and time to make the adjustment allows. For situation where quick aim direction change that exceeds arm and upper body motion range is needed, the shooter either needs to get out of that posture or utilize unconventional shooting posture that allows motion range to that new aim direction. 1.3.2 Management of recoil: Recoil is produced by force of the expanding propellant thrusting the projectile forward pushing the firearm to the opposite direction. Because of that, once a firearm and the ammunition it fires have been selected, there is no way to reduce the recoil, unless the condition of the firearm of the ammunition has changed. Management of recoil aims for two things: To minimize disruption of the shooting platform, and to facilitate quick recovery of shooting platform and its return to aiming tracking if the shooter needs to hit the target again. The recoil force from the gun will be transferred to the shooter's body, so there is no way around the fact that there will be some degree of disruption. What can be controlled is the way it occurs. Depending on the relationship of the gun's recoil force and the body parts that receive the recoil, the recoil will rotate or shift the position of those body parts. So, the way to minimize the disruption is to take a posture that is resistant to displacement , but also minimize the impulse of the recoil by avoiding excessive rigidity. When multiple rigid bone sections of body connected by bending joints, such as arm, receives force at one end, the bending joints being close to straight line as possible and aligned with the vector of the force as much as possible will result in the least displacement of the sections of body. However, it will also result in that part of the body being most rigid in receiving the force, and the force impulse transferred to that part of the body and the force and its impulse that part of the body will transfer to the rest of the body will be maximized. If a bending joint within that part of the body is out of alignment with the vector force, certain portion of the force will be used to bend the joint that is out of line, resulting in the section of the body the joint connects to be displaced. However, less force will be transferred through that part of the body from the gun to the rest of the body, and the impulse of the force will be reduced. More a joint is out of alignment, the degree of the displacement will increase, and the amount of force transferred and impulse will be reduced.

The total force generated from an ammunition cartridge being discharged will always be the same no matter what the shooter does, unless the ammunition is changed. What the shooter can control is the manner the shooting platform created by the shooter's body and the gun receives that force. More rigid the total structure of the platform, the same amount of force will act upon the shooting platform in a shorter amount of time. The acceleration of the shooting platform from the recoil force will be more abrupt. The rigid part of the shooting platform will retain its form better, but the more rigid shooting platform as a whole would be displaced which may be more time consuming to recover for the shooter to recover its position. Also, the force may accumulate on acting on any non rigid part or part of the platform that the force has a leverage on and not so resistant to the leverage. Less rigid the total structure of the platform, the same amount of force will act upon the shooting platform in a longer amount of time. The acceleration of the shooting platform from the recoil force will be less abrupt. More about of the force will be used in deforming the less rigid platform itself. That means displacement of the part of the shooting platform, resulting in deformation of the shooting platform to some degree, will be larger. But, the displacement of the shooting platform as a whole can be lessened.

Increased shock from rigidity, displacement of shooting platform as a whole, and deformation of the shooting platform itself are all negative for shooting. In order to reduce shock and displacement of the shooting platform as a whole, the shooter needs to take some measure to dampen the recoil. The measure must incorporate ways to facilitate fast recovery and keep fatigue minimum. One example of something that has similar desirable characteristics is a suspension and shock absorption system of a car. It should not to totally rigid, but needs to be firm enough to keep the car's body in relation to the wheel stabilized and not allow unnecessary oscillation. It's recovery to the stabilized position must not be too slow. For shooter forming a shooting platform, the damping is usually done by joints' being allow to bend, body relaxed to certain degree allowing for certain degree of displacement. The degree of rigidity and relaxation of muscle around those joint and other part of the body will be controlled along with the positioning of the joints, aiming to control and achieve balance of how much the shooting platform is resistant to deforming, how much shock is absorbed, how fast the recovery is, etc. Also, the gravity and the each joint's natural tendency to recover to certain position all be utilize to facilitate fast recovery. The recoil force will move the upper body backward to one degree or another. Shooters can lean their upper body forward to make gravity assist in resisting recoil and also use the gravity to facilitate recovery of the forward leaning position. However, the degree of leaning will need to be controlled. If the leaning angle is too large, it will require too much muscle power to hold the forward leaning upper body in that position against gravity, and cause excessive fatigue. However, this depends on the angle the gun is being fired. When torso is leaned into an angle that brings the torso's top to bottom center axis closer to being in line with the recoil force vector, it will also have more resistance to recoil displacement. When pistol or rifle is fired in a horizontal angle while the shooter is standing upright, the shooter leaning the torso forward toward the gun will have that effect. If the shooter is shooting the gun straight upwards, no forward lean would be desirable for the same reason. Usually most shooting involve the angle of the round being fired having some degree of horizontal vector. That means the shooter's body will be pushed with some degree of horizontal force. When shooting in a standing position, the shooter should have feet some degree apart for a wider base to resist the force. So the feet needs to be some distance apart in the direction the gun is pointed at, although it does not mean both feet should be on a straight line in the direction. With the direction the gun is pointing being front, feet needs to be certain distance apart front to back wise. Also it needs to be apart certain distance one to left and the other to the right for shooting platform's side to side stability. The wider the distance, more resistance and stability it will have, with exception to any force applied to the shooter's body that is perpendicular in direction, or close to it, to the line that connects the shooter's feet. This needs to be taken into account when the upper body shooting platform rotates, bringing the gun's bore direction closer to perpendicular angle in relation to the line connecting the feet, while tracking aim. Gun's recoil is transferred to the shoulder area of the upper body. Higher the position and narrower the base of the shooting platform in relation to its width, more leverage the recoil will have in displacing the shooting platform. So, elevation wise, standing position is the most affected. Forward lean of the torso and bending the knee helps lower the recoil transfer point, making standing posture more resistant to horizontal recoil force vector. Sitting or kneeling position lowers the recoil transfer point even further.

With a proper hold of a weapon in proper shooting posture, the basic frame for recoil management is formed. A shooter has to find out what posture feels most natural when the weapon is aimed at a target. If there is a muscle tension needed to twist the body or keep part of a body in certain posture with awkwardness, effort will be needed for the operator to maintain the posture, and it is more likely that recoil will disrupt the posture. If the posture does not have that awkwardness or muscle tension to keep that awkwardness, recoil moving the operator’s body out of that posture may create an awkward tension or twist, so the body’s tendency to return to eased muscle or tendon state will assist the recovery of the posture. So, a shooter should develop a shooting platform with any tension required to keep the posture with awkwardness minimized. The gunner should avoid abruptly forcing the weapon back in position. Because of the short distance involved, and probable reduced ability for fine control of muscle under stress, the gunner may move the weapon past the intended point, resulting in the gunner oscillating the weapon until it stabilizes in the intended stop point. The gunner should avoid moving the weapon in the opposite direction of anticipated recoil movement before the weapon fires, anticipating the recoil. It is better for the gunner not to anticipate direction and magnitude of the displacement and abruptly force the weapon in the opposite direction upon the weapon firing. The recovery motion needs to me smooth. -Recoil management of a pistol: If a shooter aligns the arm of the trigger hand parallel with the pistol's bore axis on a same vertical plane, with wrist joint, elbow joint and shoulder joint in perfect straight line, with arm muscle rigidly holding it in place, the arm itself would be most resistant to recoil force bending any part of the arm joint. However, most amount of force will be transferred through that arm to the shoulder and shock will be maximized. Also, the straight rigid arm itself as a whole would be displaced abruptly, likely to "bounce" upward. If the shooter slightly bends the elbow of the trigger hand arm, part of the energy from recoil force will be used to the bend the elbow joint that is out of alignment with the straight line paralleling the recoil force vector. The shooter can control the muscle tension around the arm to control the degree of resistance of the elbow joint to being bent by recoil force. The shooter will also control how much the elbow is bent in the original shooting

platform position. That way the shooter can control how much the arm can be displaced from the original position in shooting platform, degree of elbow's resistance to displacement, and the degree of shock absorbed. Also, extending the arm to get elbow bent from recoil recover to its original shooting platform position is relatively easier and quicker, compared to recovering whole straight and rigid arm or the entire upper body that was more abruptly displaced back to its original position. However, if the elbow is bent too much or the muscles around it are too relaxed, the degree of bending and displacement of the elbow position will get larger, requiring more time to recover. In case of a pistol, the point of the body that first absorbs the recoil is the hand pulling the trigger. The hand will be always lower than the bore axis when a gunner aims a target at horizontal level. Because of that, the recoil will be mostly absorbed by the area of the trigger pulling hand that contacts the part of the back of the pistol’s grip, and is closest to the bore axis. Because of this, the recoil force, generated on the bore axis, will create a torque. The torque will be perpendicular to the plane the bore axis and the contact point of the hand with the back part of the pistol’s grip close to the bore. If the pistol is not held properly, the torque will rotate the pistol with that contact point as a pivot point excessively. However, proper grip of the trigger pulling hand will suppress that rotation, so the hand with the pistol as a whole unit will be subject to torque with the wrist as the pivot point. The torque can make the hand and the pistol rotate, on that pivot point. When increased resistance to displacement is required, shooters may have to straighten their arm more or straighten it completely, or keeping arm muscle holding joint position more rigid, or combine both methods. Shooters may have to rely on rigid muscle method mostly when the operator has to use a pistol in a situation where posture with straightened arm is not viable. Self loading pistol needs the frame to not move too much from its place when the weapon is fired, so that the slide can move to the rear in relation to the frame. If the frame moves with the pistol too much, the cycle to remove the empty casing and loading another ammunition from the magazine to the chamber will not be reliably done. Because of the frame, hand, and arm’s inertia resisting movement, the frame has resistance to movement. However, the total sum of pistol frame, trigger hand, and arm inertia holding the frame in relation to slide movement may not be enough. Some degree of rigidity of the wrist and arm joint is desirable, and some pistols malfunction more easily when that rigidity is low. As the slide moves back, the recoil spring will be compressed, and the force will overcome the inertia of the frame and the hand, pushing them to the rear. The slide will continue to travel rearward until it impacts its most rearward location, where additional abrupt recoil force will be transmitted to the hand, and then starts to move forward. Because of the compressed recoil spring’s pressure, the recoil force will continue to exert rearward force until the slide has returned to its original position. Which is why shooter may feel reduced recoil when the slide of the pistol, or bolt of the rifle, locks back when the last ammunition from the magazine is fired. The arms are holding the pistol in proper aiming position should have enough degree of resistance to hold the pistol in place close enough to its original position without conscious effort to make the arm more rigid, if the pistol is a reliable one. Otherwise, arms have to be more rigid and straight to make the unreliable pistol work. Recoil control of rifle: In case of a rifle, the recoil force is mostly absorbed by the shoulder where the end of the stock contacts. The bore axis can be level with the contact point which may reduce torque forcing the muzzle upward. However, that manner of placement of the rifle, with the contact point on the stock on the bore axis line, may not be always possible. The operator may have to position the end of the stock higher, contacting the shoulder with the lower rear part of the stock, in order to bring the sight to proper level where the eye can see it without excessively leaning the head forward, and to have proper cheek contact with the top of the stock. The rifle is held with a slight pressure pulling it back on the shoulder contact point. Recoil management wise, reason for that is to eliminate space between the rifle and the shoulder contact point and reduce distance the rifle can travel rearward by compressing tissue and clothing. That will prevent the rifle from accelerating in eliminated space without little to no resistance. The rifle accelerating freely in that space will cause the rifle to accelerate faster than it would compared to combined weight of the rifle and shooter's body is accelerated with force being equal, then impact on the shoulder with a disruptive shock. The shock can also cause injury, depending on the type of gun and manner the impact occurred. As long as the rearward pressure the end of

rifle stock is putting on the shoulder contact point is enough to achieve the above, any effort to exert more pressure would likely be excessive. The tissue of the shoulder contact area and cloth that covers it does not need to be compressed to maximum degree. Usually, a pressure that makes the contact feel firm is enough. Excessive pressure will cause fatigue, and add to the recoil, reducing controllability. The positioning of the hands and arms should be done in a manner to create maximum comfort while conforming to proper hold of a rifle and ready posture needed. Since rifle transfers recoil force directly to shoulder, the recoil shock dampening will be controlled by upper body's rigidity, attitude, and where and how a rifle's contacts on the shoulder area. With standing shooting posture, higher the rifle's contact point is on the shoulder, the upper body has less resistance to horizontal recoil force vector. Also, more the rifle's shoulder contact point is distant from center line of torso, the upper body will have less resistance to the rifle's horizontal recoil force vector rotating the upper body on a horizontal plane. Also, direction the torso is facing being closer to rifle's SRL or bore line, more easier it is to resist displacement from horizontal recoil force vector with the leaning upper body forward method. 1.3.3. Stability control by shooting platform, posture. Increased in stability will be facilitated by some of the same principles applied in recoil management. A good shooting position with minimized tension and awkwardness, and body's natural tendency to return to neutral tension and less awkward state when the body is forced to deviate from it. Human do not have a capability to lock a muscle in exact same tension state, so any task involving using muscle to hold a certain body part in exact same position is a process of continuous feed back loop control of sending signal to muscle to hold the exact tension state and keep correcting errors. Since it is not error free, shooting platform needs to be formed with its utilization minimized as much as possible. Human do not have the capability to maintain any position perfectly still by muscle control alone. More muscle control and error correction process is involved as the body have less contact with object that is still and more the mass of the body is away from that contact point. Therefore, assuming the shooter is on a flat surface with the shooter being on that surface by gravity being the only thing holding the shooter in that position, standing position with feet being the only contact point is least stable, and sitting or kneeling position will be more stable than standing position, and lying on the ground with belly contacting the surface(prone position) would be most stable. However, this is strictly considering the shooter's body. Depending on what type of weapon the shooter has, the form of shooting platform, shooter's body, the shooting platform may be more unstable with prone or kneeling if those factors conflict with the shooter getting into prone or kneeling position. Also, even in sitting, kneeling, and standing position, a shooter may choose to lean on available objects to further stabilize the shooting platform. However, in that case, the shooter needs to be aware of the manner of the contact and how it restricts the movement of the shooting platform. - Stability control on the move: If shooter is executing a gunnery process while moving, the legs need to be moved in a matter to prevent destabilization of the upper body shooting platform. The normal up and down oscillating pattern of the upper body when a person normally walks needs to be minimized. The steps taken may need to be shorter.

Also, when a fully extended leg is moved front to back, the foot at the end would have an arc path. Because of that, walking with the leg that is supporting weight fully extended as it moves under torso would result in up

and down oscillating path of the upper body as a person walks. So, instead of walking on fully extended legs, a shooter would have to bend the knee as the leg supporting weight moves closer to directly under the shooter's torso so that the shooter's upper body shooting platform would not rise.

1.3 Firing and trigger control: Contact to the trigger is usually best made with the pad area between the tip and the first joint of the index finger. More the contact point being closer to joint, more the leverage. But, contact being on the joint itself may reduce precision because the skin pad has more sensitivity. Also, with the joint area itself used to pull the trigger, the shooter has one less joint to manipulate the contact point to be pulled straight backwards. The horizontal center of the trigger may contact relatively closer to the first joint than to the tip of the finger, with the front of the trigger area still within the contact area of the skin pad between the tip and the first joint, in order to pull the trigger with precision and less physical effort. The trigger has to be pulled straight backwards,

and must not disturb aim by disturbing the stability of the weapon. The index finger of the trigger hand should pull the trigger straight back with effort to minimize any side or up or down pressure on the gun. Shooters need to develop skill to use the trigger finger to pull the trigger while minimizing move of the other part of the hand that would affect the gun, although it cannot be totally eliminated. Also, the shooter needs to develop skill to maintain the index finger and front side of trigger contact in consistent manner as possible during the entire length of the pull. This is delicate. It also means the shooter has to develop a way to use the index finger in a manner that is inconsistent with the manner, in a simultaneous curling or straightening motion of all joints, that is used for most other applications. For the pad of the index finger contact on the front side of the trigger to be consistent, the first joint of the index finger should not curl inward and cause that section of the finger to rotate during trigger pull. Also, for that section of the finger to travel straight back, the 3 rd joint of the index finger, one that connects the index finger to the palm, has to rotate the 3rd section of the index finger outward(opposite direction the palm is facing), while 2nd joint rotates the 2nd section inward. For the 1st section to not rotate along with the 2nd section, the 1st joint has actuate in a manner that 1st and the 2nd section gets more and more straighter as the trigger is pulled to the rear.

Regarding pistol: This is more critical for use of a pistol, because the trigger hand contact is the primary contact between the shooter and the gun in use. The trigger pull should take a form of index finger's rearward pressure on the trigger pressing the pistol in to a “cradle" that consists of the rear of pistol's grip major contact area. During trigger pull, both the index finger pulling the trigger and the middle to little ginger pressing on the front grip contact area would vector the force applied straight toward the rear direction, securing the pistol in the rear of pistol's grip major contact area. With a force ranging from approximately 2~6kg applied on the pistol during trigger pull, that amount of force quickly being applied and released will affect the grip stability unless the trigger hand and the fingers gripping the front of pistol's grip holds the pistol's grip securely to the rear of pistol's grip major contact area in a coordinated effort.

Regarding rifle: The basic principle is similar to that of use of pistol. However, instead of trigger pull force applied rearward of the gun being all met by the part of the trigger hand that contact's the rear of rifle's trigger hand grip, the force can be met by the shoulder contact area with the rifle's stock. That can reduce the required effort for trigger hand grip control to maintain gun stability against the trigger pull force required for pistol that can be delicate.

Shooter should be aware that firing is not a consecutive process that happens after aiming stage is concluded. Firing occurs after aim is achieved, but firing task is executed while aiming tracking task continues. Trigger pull task should not be expected to be completed in a in a point of time. It should be expected to be executed in a certain span of time, as same as aiming task. The span of time can be shortened or extended as shooter determines is necessary according to its affect on aim stability and tracking capability. Because of this, operators need to understand the delay between time the operator makes a decision to shoot and the time a shot can be accurately delivered following that decision in a given circumstances. Because of human body stabilization limitation, it is not possible for the aim to be perfectly still for any span of time in most cases. For the operator to be able to shoot on demand, the operator needs to stabilize the gun in terms of keeping the SIP deviance from SAP within certain range instead of getting SIP exactly on SAP at all times. In most cases, the gunner should rely on continuous error correction in aim tracking and stabilization process capability to keep the error, SIP deviation from SAP, within a certain limit, rather than holding the firing process and wait for a moment for SIP to completely match the SAP. This is because the operational situation often require operators to fire within a limited time frame after a target has been detected, not giving an operator enough time to wait. Stopping and resuming trigger pulling motion also affects aim stability in a negative way. Also, a perfect SIP and SAP match at one point does not mean it will be maintained until the trigger pull is completed. This will result in operators relying on keeping SIP within certain range of SAP during firing, expecting to make the bullet impact in a certain range of area, and continue firing process even when certain degree of error is present. For that reason, impact of bullet on target is handled in terms of probable area, not a point. Accuracy goal is to keep the size of probable impact area smaller than the area on the target the operator needs to hit. Imperfection in precision of gun and ammunition also makes prediction of bullet impact in exact point not possible. Continuation of aim tracking stabilization and trigger control until affirmative recognition of firing: This is otherwise commonly known as "follow-through." "Follow through" is commonly taught as continuation of aiming and trigger control effort required for an accurate shot after the shot as been fired. In its literal sense, "follow-through" does not have any meaning. There is nothing a shooter can do to affect a bullet's accuracy after the bullet have left the barrel. It's practical meaning can only be found in its context. Shooter may develop a tendency to make movement in anticipation of recoil, or stop the aim tracking and stabilization and trigger control effort in anticipation of firing when firing has not yet occurred. The shooter needs to ensure that the effort continue until there is an affirmative recognition of firing, and not act upon anticipation of it. "Follow-through" is taught as a measure to ensure that happens. However, in the context of combat operations, once there is a confirmation that the gun as fired, the operator immediately needs to execute other tasks that are necessary such as shot effect assessment and preparation of subsequent shot, not continuing needless work.

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