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Importance of Learning
Marketers must teach consumers: where to buy how to use how to maintain how to dispose of products
Behavioral Theories: Theories based on the basis that learning takes place as the result of observable responses to external stimuli. Also known as stimulus response theory. Cognitive Theories: A theory of learning based on mental information processing, often in response to problem solving.
Consumer Learning A process by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge and experience that they apply to future related behavior. .
Learning Processes Intentional: learning acquired as a result of a careful search for information Incidental: learning acquired by accident or without much effort .
Example some ads may induce learning (Brand names) even though the consumers attention is elsewhere (on a magzine article rather than the ads on facing page) Other ads are sought out and carefully read by consumers for making a purchase decision. .Consumer learning contd….
Elements of Learning Theories Motivation Cues Response Reinforcement .
.Motivation The degree of relevance or involvement determines consumer level of motivation to search for knowledge OR information about a product or a service.
advertising and the store displays all serve as cues.Cues Motives serve to stimulate learning. packaging.g. . Cues are the stimuli that gives direction to these motives e. styling. an ad is a cue for consumer motivation for a specific product or service. In the market place price.
Cues Marketers teach motivated consumer segments why and how their products will fulfill the consumers need. Motives serve to stimulate learning. .
g. . a marketer that provides consistent cues to a consumer may not always succeed in stimulating a purchase.Response How individuals react to a drive or cue How they behave constitute their response e.
It is likely that he or she will consider that product.Response contd… However if marketer succeeds in forming a favorable image of a particular product in consumer’s mind. .
Reinforcement A positive or negative outcome that influences the likelihood that a specific behavior will be repeated in the future in response to a particular cue or stimulus. .
Behavioral Learning Theories Classical Conditioning Instrumental Conditioning Modeling or Observational Learning .
Classical Conditioning A behavioral learning theory according to which a stimulus is paired with another stimulus that elicits a known response that serves to produce the same response when used alone. .
clock news with dinner. So that eventually the sounds of the 9 o’ clock news alone might cause your mouth to water even if dinner was not being prepared and even if you were not hungry. .Example If you usually listen to the 9 o’ clock news while waiting for dinner to be served you would tend to associate the 9 o.
with habits forced as the result of positive experiences (reinforcement) resulting from certain responses or behaviors.Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning A behavioral theory of learning based on a trialand-error process. .
Analogous Model of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus Dinner aroma Unconditioned Response Salivation Conditioned Stimulus 9 o’clock news AFTER REPEATED PAIRINGS Conditioned Stimulus 9 o’clock news Conditioned Response Salivation .
Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning Repetition Stimulus Generalization Stimulus Discrimination .
Figure 7.3 Cosmetic Variations in Ads .Repetition Repetition increases strength of associations and slows forgetting but over time may result in advertising wearout.
Three-Hit Theory Repetition is the basis for the idea that three exposures to an ad are necessary for the ad to be effective The number of actual repetitions to equal three exposures is in question. .
1) to make consumers aware of the product 2) to show cosumers the relevance of the product 3) to remind them of its benefits according to others marketing scholars 11 to 12 repetitions
The inability to perceive differences between slightly dissimilar stimuli.
It explain why some imitative “me-too” products succeed in the market place. Because Consumers confuse them with original product they have seen advertised
.Example That an individual can learn to take dinner not only to the sound of 9 o’ clock news but also to the some what similar sound of Azan.
Form and Category Extensions Family Branding Licensing Generalizing Usage Situations .Stimulus Generalization and Marketing Product Line.
Product Line Extension (adding related products to an already established brand) .
Product form extensions Such as crest toothpaste to to crest whitestrips. Listerine mouthwash to listerine paks Bath soaps to liquid soaps .
Product Form Extensions .
Product Category Extensions .
Family branding The practice of marketing a whole line of company products under the same brand name .
Family branding The practice of marketing a whole line of company products under the same brand name.g Nestle . A strategy that capitalizes on the consumers ability to generalized favorable brand associations from one product to others: e.
manufacturers. corporations and even cartoon characters are attached for a fee i. Examples: names of designers. A strategy that operates on the principle of stimulus generalizations.e rented.Licensing Allowing a well known brand name to be affixed to products of another manufacturer. . celebrities.
Shoe Manufacturer Licenses Its Name .
Positioning Differentiation .Stimulus Discrimination The ability to select a specific stimulus from among similar stimuli because of perceived differences.
A Model of Instrumental Conditioning Try Brand A Try Brand B Try Brand C Try Brand D Repeat Behavior Unrewarded Legs too tight Unrewarded Tight in seat Unrewarded Baggy in seat Reward Perfect fit Stimulus Situation (Need goodlooking jeans) .
.Instrumental Conditioning Consumers learn by means of trial and error process in which some purchase behaviors result in more favorable outcomes (rewards) than other purchase behaviors. A favorable experience is instrumental in teaching the individual to repeat a specific behavior.
Instrumental Conditioning and Marketing Customer Satisfaction (Reinforcement) Reinforcement Schedules Shaping Massed versus Distributed Learning .
Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement: Positive outcomes that strengthen the likelihood of a specific response Example: Ad showing beautiful hair as a reinforcement to buy shampoo Negative Reinforcement: Unpleasant or negative outcomes that serve to encourage a specific behavior Example: Ad showing wrinkled (smooth) skin as reinforcement to buy skin cream .
.Observational Learning A process by which individuals observe the behavior of others. and consequences of such behavior. Also known as modeling or vicarious (observational) learning.
Model or observational learning Consumers often observe how others behave in response to certain situations (stimuli) and the ensuing (subsequent) results (reinforcement) that occur & The imitate (model) the positively reinforced behavior when faced with similar situations. .
Consumers Learn by Modeling .
Learning Theory which enables individuals to gain some control over their environment.Holds that the kind of learning most characteristic of human Cognitive beings is problem solving. .
Appeal to Cognitive Processing .
Information Processing A cognitive theory of human learning patterned after computer information processing that focuses on how information is stored in human memory and how it is retrieved. .
lost Forgotten.Information Processing and Memory Stores Sensory Input Sensory Store Rehearsal Working Memory (Shortterm Store) Encoding Longterm Store Retrieval Forgotten. lost Forgotten. unavailable .
Retention Information is stored in long-term memory Episodically: by the order in which it is acquired Semantically: according to significant concepts .
Models of Cognitive Learning Promotional Tricomponen Model t Model Sequential Stages of Processing DecisionMaking Model Innovation Adoption Model Innovation Decision Process Attention Interest Desire Action Cognitive Affective Conative Awareness Knowledge Evaluation Purchase Postpurchase Evaluation Awareness Knowledge Interest Evaluation Trial Adoption Persuasion Decision Confirmation .
depending on the relevance of the purchase. .Involvement Theory A theory of consumer learning which postulates that consumers engage in a range of information processing activity from extensive to limited problem solving.
Click to edit Master text styles Second level ● Third level ● Fourth level ● Fifth level Figure 7.14 • Split Brain Theory Right/ Left Brain Hemispheres specialize in certain functions .
Encouraging Right and Left Brain Processing .
Issues in Involvement Theory Involvement Theory and Media Strategy Involvement Theory and Consumer Relevance Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion Measures of Involvement .
.A theory that proposes that highly involved consumers are best Central and reached through ads that focus on the specific attributes of the Peripheral product (the central route) while Routes to uninvolved consumers can be Persuasion attracted through peripheral advertising cues such as the model or the setting (the peripheral route).
A theory that suggests that a person’s level of Elaboration involvement during message Likelihood processing is a critical factor Model (ELM) in determining which route to persuasion is likely to be effective. .
Peripheral Route to Persuasion .
Unexpected Headline Metaphor Increases Impact .
The Elaboration Likelihood Model Involvement HIGH Central Route LOW Peripheral Route Message Arguments Influence Attitudes Peripheral Cues Influence Attitudes .
Measures of Consumer Learning Recognition and Recall Measures Aided and Unaided Recall Cognitive Responses to Advertising Copytesting Measures Attitudinal and Behavioral Measures of Brand Loyalty .
Starch Readership Scores Measure Learning .
Phases of Brand Loyalty Cognitive Affective Conative Action .
Brand Loyalty As A Function of Relative Attitude and Patronage Behavior Repeat Patronage High Relative Attitude High Low Loyalty Spurious Loyalty Low Latent Loyalty No Loyalty .
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