a) Explain how cost and delay of a logic gate varies with different IC technologies. b) What are the deficiencies of MOS technology? How they can it be over come? 2.a) Explain the principle of CMOS inverter with V-I wave forms. b) What is latch-up condition in CMOS circuits? How it can be eliminated. 3.a) What are -based design rules? Give them for each layer. b) Draw the stick diagram of 2-impact Ex-or gate. 4. Explain about-nmos logic, domino logic and DCVS logic and compare them. 5.a) What are the various simulators used for combinational logic design? Explain their need. b) What are different testing methods for testing combinational gate? Explain with an example. 6.a) Distinguish between clock skew and signal skew with an example. b) Explain about 2-phase clouding disciplines 7.a) Explain how clock routing design optimizes the clock skew in floor planning. b) What is the need for package of a chip? Explain about input and output pad circuits. 8. Write short notes on any Two: a) Hardware/ Software co-design. b) Chip design methodologies c) Power optimization in CMOS circuits. MARCH-2009 PAPER±(REGULAR) 1.a) What are the various marks used in CMOS p-well process? What is the significance of each. b) Compare bipolar and CMOS technologies. 2.a) What is threshold voltage? What are various factors that influences threshold voltage. b) Explain the principle of BICMOS inverter. 3.a) What are various symbols used in sticks notation? Draw the stick diagram of CMOS inverter. b) What are scalable design rules? Explain. 4. What are various switch logic circuits? Compare their merits and demerits. 5. Explain how fan-out and path delay influences delay in combinational networks. 6. Explain about 1 clocking rules for flip-flops and 2 clocking disciplies for latches. 7. What are various floor planning methods? Explain them clearly. 8. Write short notes on any Two: a) Testing of sequential circuits b) Hardware/software co-design. c) Combinational gates an network testing. SEPTEMBER-2008 PAPER±(SUPPLEMENTARY) 1.a) What are the various processes of CMOS fabrication? Illustrate the main steps in a typical n-well process. b) Tabulate the comparism between CMOS and Bipolar Technologies. 2.a) Determine the Pull-up to Pull-down ratio for an nMOS inverter driven through one or more pass transistors. b) Draw a simple BiCMOS inverter circuit diagram and explain its operation. 3.a) Explain about scalable Design rules related to NMOS and CMOS Technologies. b) With suitable diagrams explain some switch logic arrangements.

assuming you don¶t know the initial state.synthesis issued are addressed.a) Give the device structure for CMOS inverter and explain the same. FEBRUARY-2007 PAPER 1. Write notes on any Two of the following: a) Wires and Vias b) Design validation and Testing. tpr = 1 ns. What is the minimum allowable clock period under these conditions? b) What is ATPG? DFT? Generate a set of Sequential tests for the ³01´ ± string recognizer which test for all stuck ± at ± 0/1 faults.a) Give advantages of CMOS over bipolar technologies b) Explain in detail the electrical model of a MOS transistor c) Discuss the BICMOS process 2. 5.a) With neat sketches describe the various Layout Design methods.a) With relevant diagrams explain about various Floorplanning methods used in Layout design. 8. Design a Booth Multiplier a) Design the logic for one bit of a adder substractor (leaf cell) b) Design a stick diagram for the adder substractor 6. 6.a) What are the effects of scaling of Vt? b) Cascaded inverters can drive large capacitive loads ± explain how c) What are the design rules? Why is metal ± metal spacing larger they poly-poly spacing? 3. b) Draw Latch-up circuit model and explain its operation. What is the maximum allowable skew for the parameters T =10 ns. tsl = 1 ns. . 5.a) Give routing techniques to equalize channel utilization b) What are the problems presented by power distribution? How are they solved? c) Discuss the clock distribution strategies for VLSI system. b) Explain the technology independent and technology dependant strategies of logic optimization used in logic synthesis c) Explain briefly how the hardware/software Co-simulation and co. 7.4. tp = 5 ns. b) Explain the design Methodology for IBM ASICs. tpl = 5 ns. tsr = 1 ns. c) The Integrated circuit (IC) Era. b) Write notes on Architecture Testing related Architecture VLSI Design.a) Give a generic IC design flow chart and explain. d) How many output pads can be supported by 10 wide power line in pad ring? 7.a) What is clock skew? Explain how clock skew affects the digital system. b) Explain the clocking Analysis related to sequential systems.a) Explain the delay in combinational logic network and how combinational delay can be reduced.a) Briefly explain an important issues in system-on-chip design. b) Compute the zero delay signal probabilities for all signals in the network shown 4.

8.a) How would you translate a register transfer structure into a legal 2-phase latched sequential machine? b) Write short notes on any two of the following: i) Differentiate the devices PAL. PLA and FPGA ii) Cross-talk iii) Placement and routing in floor plannin .

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