Virtual Router Using DSDV 1.

Introduction
Recently, there has been tremendous growth in the sales of laptop and portable computers. As people begin to have mobile computers handy for whatever purposes sharing information between the computers will become a natural requirement. Currently such sharing is made difficult by the need for users to perform administrative tasks and set up static bidirectional links between their computers. However, if the wireless communications systems in the mobile computers support a broadcast mechanism, much more flexible and useful ways of sharing information can be imagined. Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. Each node operates not only as an end system, but also as a router to forward packets. The nodes are free to move about and organize themselves into a network. These nodes change position frequently. To accommodate the changing topology special routing algorithms are needed. For relatively small networks flat routing protocols may be sufficient. However, in larger networks either hierarchical or geographic routing protocols are needed. There is no single protocol that fits all networks perfectly. The protocols have to be chosen according to network characteristics, such as density, size and the mobility of the nodes. MANET does not require any fixed infrastructure, such as a base station; therefore, it is an attractive option for connecting devices quickly and spontaneously. A comparison of performance of DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distance Vector) routing protocol has been made between various parameters like: packets sent, packets received, throughput, and average end-to-end delay by varying the number of nodes. For instance, any number of people could conceivably enter a conference room and agree to support communications links between themselves, without necessarily engaging the services of any preexisting equipment in the room (i.e., without requiring any preexisting communications infrastructure). Thus, one of our primary motivations is to allow the construction of temporary networks with no wires and no administrative intervention required. Such a interconnection between the mobile computers will be called an ad-hoc network, in conformance with current usage within the IEEE 802.11 subcommittee. Ad-hoc networks differ significantly from existing networks. Routing protocols for existing networks have not been designed specifically to provide the kind of dynamic, self-starting behavior needed for ad-hoc networks. Most protocols exhibit their least desirable behavior when presented with a highly dynamic interconnection topology.
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Virtual Router Using DSDV
So, we decided to follow our ad-hoc network model as far as we could and ended up with a substantially new approach to the classic distance vector routing. 1.1 Overview of Routing Methods: In our environment, the problem of routing is essentially the distributed version of the shortest path problem. Each node in the network maintains for each destination a preferred neighbor. Each data packet contains a destination node identifier in its header. When a node receives a data packet, it forwards the packet to the preferred neighbor for its destination. The forwarding process continues until the packet reaches its destination. The manner in which routing tables are constructed maintained and updated differs from one routing method to another. Popular routing methods however, attempt to achieve the common objective of routing packets along the optimal path. The next-hop routing methods can be categorized into two primary classes’ link-state and distance-vector. 1.1.1 Link-State: The link-state approach is closer to the centralized version of the shortest path computation method. Each node maintains a view of the network topology with a cost for each link. To keep these views consistent each node periodically broadcasts the link costs of its outgoing links to all other nodes using a protocol such as flooding. As a node receives this information, it updates its view of the network topology and applies a shortest-path algorithm to choose its next hop for each destination, Some of the link costs in a node’s view can be incorrect because of long propagation delays, partitioned network, etc., These loops, however, are shortlived, because they disappear in the time it takes a message to traverse the diameter of the network . 1.1.2 Distance-Vector: In distance-vector algorithms, every node i maintains, for each destination x, a set of distances {dxij} where j ranges over the neighbors of i. Node i treats neighbor k as a next-hop for a packet destined for x if {dxik} equals minj {dxij}.The succession of next hops chosen in this manner lead to x along the shortest path. In order to keep the distance estimates up-to-date, each node monitors the cost of its outgoing links and periodically broadcasts, to each one its neighbors, its current estimate of the shortest distance to every other node in the network.

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Virtual Router Using DSDV
1.1.3 Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) Protocol: Our proposed routing method allows a collection of mobile computers, which may not be close to any base station and can exchange data along changing and arbitrary paths of interconnection, to afford all computers among their number a (possibly multi-hop) path along which data can be exchanged. Packets are transmitted between the stations of the network by using routing tables which are stored at each station of the network. Each routing table, at each of the stations, lists all available destinations, and the number of hops to each. Each route table entry is tagged with a sequence number which is originated by the destination station. To maintain the consistency of routing tables in a dynamically varying topology, each station periodically transmits updates, and transmits updates immediately when significant new information is available, since we do not assume that the mobile hosts are maintaining any sort of time synchronization, we also make no assumption about the phase relationship of the update periods between the mobile hosts. The DSDV protocol requires each mobile station to advertise, to each of its current neighbors, its own routing table (for instance, by broadcasting its entries). In addition each mobile computer agrees to relay data packets to other computers upon request. This agreement places a premium on the ability to determine the shortest number of hops for a route to a destination we would like to avoid unnecessarily disturbing mobile hosts if they are in sleep mode. In this way a mobile computer may exchange data with any other mobile computer in the group even if the target of the data is not within range for direct communication. If the notification of which other mobile computers are accessible from any particular computer in the collection is done at layer 2, then DSDV will work with whatever higher layer (e.g., Network Layer) protocol might be in use. The data broadcast by each mobile computer will contain its new sequence number and the following information for each new route: 1. The destination’ s address; 2. The number of hops required to reach the destination; and 3. The sequence number of the information received regarding that destination, as originally stamped by the destination; This project is practically applied using the specifications that are defined through Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Routing Algorithm.
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Virtual Router Using DSDV
2 Organization Profile

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hence reducing the traffic density. utilizing the memory in an efficient The Java Language What Is Java? Java is two things: a programming language and a platform.1 Introduction to Windows Windows 9 xs is the popularly used Operating System that manner 3. It is an platform independent programming language that extends it’s features wide over the network. Chris Wrath. -related classes are contained in javax. such as javax.swing.tree. Patrick Naughton. . The Java Programming Language Java is a high-level programming language that is all of the following: • • • • • • • Simple Object-oriented Distributed Interpreted Robust Secure Architecture-neutral Page 5 Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies . Ed Frank. & flexible components than are possible handles many tasks like managing resource allocation.components explained in the Swing have more capabilities than those of AWT. as they are not implemented by platform-specific code.Java2 version introduces an new component called “Swing” – is a set of classes that provides more powerful with AWT. and Mike Sheridan at Sun Micro system.It’s a light weight package.swing and its sub packages.Virtual Router Using DSDV 3 Literature Survey: 3.2 Introduction to Java Java was conceived by James Gosling.

Solaris. With an interpreter. The byte codes can then be run on any implementation of the Java VM. the same Java program can run on Windows NT.Virtual Router Using DSDV • • • • Portable High-performance Multithreaded Dynamic Java is also unusual in that each Java program is both compiled and interpreted. interpretation occurs each time the program is executed. For example. With a compiler. you translate a Java program into an intermediate language called Java byte codes--the platform-independent codes interpreted by the Java interpreter. Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 6 . Compilation happens just once. is an implementation of the Java VM. run anywhere" possible. and Macintosh. Java byte codes help make "write once. whether it's a Java development tool or a Web browser that can run Java applets. This figure illustrates how this works. Every Java interpreter. The Java VM can also be implemented in hardware. Java byte codes can be considered as the machine code instructions for the Java Virtual Machine (Java VM). each Java byte code instruction is parsed and run on the computer. The Java program can be compiled into byte codes on any platform that has a Java compiler.

Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 7 . such as an application or applet. the Java API and Virtual Machine insulates the Java program from hardware dependencies. As the figure shows. that's running on the Java platform. hardware-based platforms.Virtual Router Using DSDV The Java Platform A platform is the hardware or software environment in which a program runs. The following figure depicts a Java program. The Java platform has two components: • • The Java Virtual Machine (Java VM) The Java Application Programming Interface (Java API) The Java API is a large collection of ready-made software components that provide many useful capabilities. The Java API is grouped into libraries (packages) of related components. such as graphical user interface (GUI) widgets. The Java platform differs from most other platforms in that it's a software-only platform that runs on top of other. Most other platforms are described as a combination of hardware and operating system.

An applet is a Java program that adheres to certain conventions that allow it to run within a Java-enabled browser. data structures. and IP addresses. system properties. TCP and UDP sockets. and so on. and Netscape's Live Connect. What Can Java Do? Probably the most well-known Java programs are Java applets. we can write many types of programs. well-tuned interpreters. Software components: Known as JavaBeans. Applets: The set of conventions used by Java applets. smart compilers. Java is not just for writing cute. public/private key management. including electronic signatures. access control. Java is a general-purpose. and just-in-time byte code compilers can bring Java's performance close to that of native code without threatening portability. Internationalization: Help for writing programs that can be localized for users worldwide. date and time. How does the Java API support all of these kinds of programs? With packages of software components that provide a wide range of functionality. The core API is the API included in every full implementation of the Java platform. • • Object serialization: Allows lightweight persistence and communication via Remote Method Invocation (RMI). input and output. numbers. The core API gives you the following features: • The Essentials: Objects. Using the generous Java API. However. and certificates. entertaining applets for the World Wide Web ("Web"). Java can be a bit slower than native code. Networking: URLs. However. strings. high-level programming language and a powerful software platform. where a Java application is a standalone program that runs directly on the Java platform. The most common types of programs are probably applets and applications. OpenDoc. can plug into existing component architectures such as Microsoft's OLE/COM/Active-X architecture. threads.Virtual Router Using DSDV As a platform-independent environment. Programs can automatically adapt to specific locales and be displayed in the appropriate language. Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 8 . • • • • Security: Both low-level and high-level.

it's easy to learn.Virtual Router Using DSDV • Java Database Connectivity (JDBC): Provides uniform access to a wide range of relational databases. and so on) suggest that a program written in Java can be four times smaller than the same program in C++. easily extendible API let you reuse other people's tested code and introduce fewer bugs. How Will Java Change My Life? Java is likely to make your programs better and requires less effort than other languages. • • Write better code: The Java language encourages good coding practices. servers. Write less code: Comparisons of program metrics (class counts. collaboration. they run consistently on any Java platform. and more. We believe that Java will help you do the following: • Get started quickly: Although Java is a powerful object-oriented language. and its garbage collection helps you avoid memory leaks. Why? You write fewer lines of code with Java and Java is a simpler programming language than C++. but also standard extensions." without recompiling the entire program. animation. Applets take advantage of the Java feature of allowing new classes to be loaded "on the fly. especially for programmers already familiar with C or C++. • Develop programs faster: Your development time may be as much as twice as fast versus writing the same program in C++. and its wide-ranging. method counts. • Write once. Java's object orientation. telephony. run anywhere: Because 100% Pure Java programs are compiled into machine-independent byte codes. • Avoid platform dependencies with 100% Pure Java: You can keep your program portable by following the purity tips mentioned throughout this book and avoiding the use of libraries written in other languages. The standard extensions define APIs for 3D. Java not only has a core API. speech. Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 9 . Distribute software more easily: You can upgrade applets easily from a central server. its JavaBeans component architecture.

Virtual Router Using DSDV We explore the java.2 Mobile Ad hoc Networks Communication Architecture: Protocol Stack MANET protocol stack -which is similar to the TCP/IP suite -is shown. Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 10 . The main difference between these two protocols stacks lies in the network layer. the European ETSI standard for a high-speed wireless LAN. Hence.net package. the standard IEEE 802. A MANET is an autonomous collection of mobile users communicating over a relatively bandwidth-constrained wireless link with limited battery power with highly dynamic environments. To maintain communication between the nodes in the network.11 is used in these layers.3 Basics of Networks 3. mobile ad-hoc networking has been identified as a challenging evolution in wireless technology .11 helped cause commercial wireless technology to emerge. The management and control functions are also distributed among the nodes. Since the mid-90s. each node works as a transmitter. and finally an industry approach toward wireless personal area networks. Bluetooth. In the physical and data link layer. which provides support for networking.e. Its creators have called Java “programming for the Internet. 3.1 MANET: In situations where networks are constructed and destructed in ad-hoc manner. the connectivity among the nodes may vary with time because of node departures. and the possibility of having mobile nodes. mobile nodes run protocols that have been designed for wireless channels. is dynamic and may change rapidly and unpredictably over time. The network topology.11. IEEE 802. In the simulation tool used in this project. wireless LANs at an even smaller range. when the definition of standards such as IEEE802. Mobile nodes (which are both hosts and routers) use an ad hoc routing protocol to route packets. i. The idea of mobile ad-hoc or packet radio networks has been under development since 1970s. mobile adhoc networking is an excellent choice.3.” These networking classes encapsulate the “socket” paradigm pioneered in the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) from the University of California at Berkeley. due to the mobility in the network. 3.3. new node arrivals. Some options are the IEEE standard for wireless LANs. host and a router.

and denial-of-service attacks should be carefully considered. etc. thus. ad hoc networking is gaining importance with the increasing number of widespread applications. 3. the network topology--which is typically multi-hop may change randomly and rapidly at unpredictable times.--is often much less than a radio's maximum transmission rate. semi-static topology of the fixed Internet. For these nodes. variable capacity links Wireless links will continue to have significantly lower capacity than their hardwired counterparts. and interference conditions. In addition. Ad hoc networking can be applied anywhere where Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies there is little or no Page 11 . fading.Virtual Router Using DSDV 3. noise. Limited physical security Mobile wireless networks are generally more prone to physical security threats than are fixed-cable nets. The increased possibility of eavesdropping.3. and may consist of both bidirectional and unidirectional links. Bandwidth-constrained. spoofing. the most important system design criteria for optimization may be energy conservation.3 Characteristics Of MANET MANETs have several salient characteristics: Dynamic topologies: Nodes are free to move arbitrarily. These characteristics create a set of underlying assumptions and performance concerns for protocol design which extend beyond those guiding the design of routing within the higher-speed.4 Applications Of MANET With the increase of portable devices as well as progress in wireless communication. the realized throughput of wireless communications-after accounting for the effects of multiple access. Energy-constrained operation Some or all of the nodes in a MANET may rely on batteries or other exhaustible means for their energy.3.

e. Emergency rescue operations must take place where non-existing or damaged communications infrastructure and rapid deployment of a communication network is needed.g. etc. Also soldiers could carry telecomm devices that could talk to a wireless base station or directly to other telecom devices if they are within the radio range. static networks that are constrained by power sources. highly dynamic networks. Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 12 . toxins. Besides the legacy applications that move from traditional infrastructure environment into the ad hoc context. This technology is a network composed of a very large number of small sensors. Examples include temperature. mobile. helping to optimize traffic flow. flood. The network will provide the drivers with information about road conditions. and to each other.Virtual Router Using DSDV communication infrastructure or the existing infrastructure is expensive or inconvenient to use. Cars should be enabled to talk to the road. to traffic lights. a great deal of new services can and will be generated for the new environment. Commercial sector Ad hoc can be used in emergency/rescue operations for disaster relief efforts. trucks etc. Military battlefield The modern digital battlefield demands robust and reliable communication in many forms. congestions. pressure. Most communication devices are installed in mobile vehicles. These can be used to detect any number of properties of an area. tanks. Applications are the measurement of ground humidity for agriculture. Information is relayed from one rescue team member to another over a small handheld. forecast of earthquakes. and each must rely on others in order to forward data to a central computer. However these forms of communication are considered to be primitive. ranging from large-scale. pollutions. and accident-ahead warnings. The set of applications for MANETs is diverse. Automotive Applications Automotive networks are widely discussed currently. The capabilities of each sensor are very limited. forming ad-hoc networks of various sizes. Ad hoc networking allows the devices to maintain connections to the network as well as easily adding and removing devices to and from the network. Sensor Networks Another application of MANETs is sensor networks. in fire. to small. or earthquake.

They can remain an autonomous network. Dijkstra's algorithm solves the same problem with a lower running time. computes single-source shortest paths in a weighted digraph (where some of the edge weights may be negative). 3. If a graph contains a cycle of total negative weight then arbitrarily low weights are achievable and so there's no solution. Perkins. to each route table entry at each node. According to Robert Sedgewick.Virtual Router Using DSDV Personal Area Network Personal Area Networks (PANs) are formed between various mobile (and immobile) devices mainly in an ad-hoc manner. for creating a home network. Bellman–Ford is usually used only when there are negative edge weights. but PANs will become more meaningful when connected to a larger network. at home. The repetitions allow minimum distances to accurately propagate throughout the graph.4. "Negative weights are not merely a mathematical curiosity. node transmits the packets to other nodes in the network. This protocol adds a new attribute. but requires edge weights to be non-negative. If the graph does contain a cycle of negative weights.4 Literature Review 3. [they] arise in a natural way when we reduce other problems to shortest-paths problems". Routing table is maintained at each node and with this table.4.1 ROUTING PROTOCOL The Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) routing protocol is a proactive routing protocol. and does this |V| − 1 times. 16 since. where |V| is the number of vertices in the graph.g. Bellman-Ford can only detect this. e.2 BELLMAN-FORD ALGORITHM The Bellman–Ford algorithm. Thus. developed in 1994 by C.3 ALGORITHM Bellman–Ford is in its basic structure very similar to Dijkstra's algorithm. interconnecting various devices. This protocol was motivated for the use of data exchange along changing and arbitrary paths of interconnection which may not be close to any base station. 3.4. The algorithm was developed by Richard Bellman and Lester Ford. Bellman-Ford cannot find the shortest path that does not repeat any vertex in such a graph. but instead of greedily selecting the minimum-weight node not yet processed to relax. a label correcting algorithm. it simply relaxes all the edges. sequence number. for example. 3. Bellman-Ford detects this case. It is a modification of conventional Bellman-Ford routing algorithm. in Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 13 .

Modifications eliminate the problem of loops but need some internodal coordination mechanisms which imply few topological changes. and the number of hops required to reach each destination in the routing table.Avoid the looping problem. -. Unlike the greedy approach. Therefore. 3. the design goals of DSDV are: -. So.3. the approach that is followed to attain these goals is: -. This condition continuously loops packets around the network.Model each host as a router. this straightforward approach extends to the general case.5 ROUTING TABLE Each node in the network maintains routing table for the transmission of the packets and also for the connectivity to different stations in the network. These stations list for all the available destinations. despite the fundamental fact that the destination network is down. While the routers are counting to infinity. each station transmits and updates its routing table periodically. which depends on certain structural assumptions derived from positive weights. The packets may be transmitted containing the layer 2 or layer 3 address. Another problem that cannot be handled by this algorithm is counting to infinity.3. Bellman–Ford runs in O (|V|·| E|) time.Tag each routing table entry with a sequence number. -. the invalid information allows a routing loop to exist.Virtual Router Using DSDV the absence of negative cycles.4 DESIGN GOALS OF DSDV The Bellman Ford Routing Algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to implement. The data broadcast by each node will contain its new sequence number and the following information for each new route: Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 14 . This algorithm can cause routing loops that can occur if the internetwork's slow convergence on a new configuration causes inconsistent routing entries. The packets being broadcasted between stations indicate which stations are accessible and how many hops are required to reach that particular station.Keep the simplicity of Bellman Ford algorithm. this algorithm is not designed to handle rapid topological changes. where |V| and |E| are the number of vertices and edges respectively. 3. the shortest path can only visit each node at most once. The routing entry is tagged with a sequence number which is originated by the destination station. In order to maintain the consistency. Now.

3. Full dump: Full dump broadcasting will carry all the routing information and requires multiple NPDU’s (network protocol data units). advertise to each of its neighbors.Virtual Router Using DSDV -.The new sequence number.3.6 TRANSMITTING ROUTE INFORMATION Routing information is advertised by broadcasting or multicasting the packets which are transmitted periodically as when the nodes move within the network. Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 15 . The DSDV protocol requires that each mobile station in the network must constantly.The next hop for each destination -. selection of routes is done as follows: 1) Any route with a more recent sequence number is used. originally stamped by the destination -. Since. then this route is chosen. Incremental dump: The incremental dump will carry only information that has changed since last full dump. network address of the mobile host transmitting them.The number of hops required to reach the destination and 18 -.The destination address -.3. The routing tables will contain the sequence number created by the transmitter and hence the most new destination sequence number is preferred as the basis for making forwarding decisions. the entries in the table my change very quickly. 3) Newly recorded routes are scheduled for immediate advertisement. 2.Install Time -. the advertisement should be made frequently to ensure that every node can locate its neighbors in the network. 2) If the new route has equal sequence number but better metric.Stable Data The transmitted routing tables will also contain the hardware address. 3.7 SELECTION OF ROUTES If new routing information is received. This new sequence number is also updated to all the hosts in the network which may decide on how to maintain the routing entry for that originating mobile host. Incremental dump requires only one NPDU to fit in all the information. The broadcasting of the information in the DSDV protocol is of two types namely: 1. its own routing table.

4 or More Java Swing – front end Windows 98 or more.2 Hardware Requirements: • • • 10GB HDD 128 MB RAM Pentium P4 Processor Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 16 .Virtual Router Using DSDV 4 Software and Hardware Requirement 4. 4.1 Software Requirements: • • • Java1.

Non-functional & General requirements of the Virtual Router. if the wireless communications systems in the mobile computers support a broadcast mechanism.Virtual Router Using DSDV 5 Software Requirements Specification 5.1. Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 17 . without necessarily engaging the services of any preexisting equipment in the room 5.1 Purpose The purpose of this Software requirement specification is to define the requirement as people begin to have mobile computers handy for whatever purposes sharing information between the computers will become a natural requirement. However. any number of people could conceivably enter a conference room and agree to support communications links between themselves. It is ment for use by the developers and will be the basics for validating the final delivered system. an indication of performance requirements and design constraints.1. 5.1 Introduction The software requirement specification is produced at the culmination of the analysis task. Currently such sharing is made difficult by the need for users to perform administrative tasks and set up static bi-directional links between their computers. a representation of system behavior. The function and performance allocated to software as part of system engineering are refined by establishing a complete information description as functional representation. For instance.2 Scope Software requirement specification is the only written document that describes the requirements of the system. much more flexible and useful ways of sharing information can be imagined. appropriate validation criteria. The scope of this document is to list the Functional.

2. 5. there should be provision for remarks 5.3 Developers Responsibilities Overview: The developer is responsible for.Virtual Router Using DSDV 5. Tool must be extensible based on the enhancement of background tools It’s Maintenance is same as just other tools Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 18 .1 Reliability Developed Tool should be reliable on windows platform. Maintaining the system for specific period after installation. • • • • Developing the system.2 Software System Attributes 5. Hence its reliability mainly depends from where the data captured. For conducting any user training that might be needed for using the system. Recovery of Report is recommended on save.4 Maintainability • • • It shouldn’t corrupt or make any changes to the background tools.2.2. Installing the software on the client’s hardware.2 Availability Only submitted report should be expected to Generate Report. It means based on the authorization they can able to play-around the Tool.3 Security Security would be ensured through the role-based specification. If the report is to be skipped.2.1. This Tool will work properly in the background of other tools. 5. 5.

5.5 Portability While shifting the software and hardware.Virtual Router Using DSDV 5. Executables. Bug free Software Product. Installation Guide and user manual' Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 19 . the down time (excluding the actual movement and rebuilding) should not take more than one hour. the software should be easy to install and work on any PC with windows platform.2. Hence. Test Reports.6 Performance • • • Number of At-most Users supported: 50 Loading time is based on the volume of data captured from other tools: At most 30 Seconds Maximum session waiting is as the standard of Internet Explorer: 30 Minutes 5.3 Acceptance Criteria The software shall be accepted provided the following conditions are met Documentation/Deliverables include: • • • • • Project Plan Requirement Document.2.

2 Proposed System The proposed system is planned to have the following features. 6. In the new system there should not be any administrative task get involved. direction communication between moving objects like mobiles is not possible with out intervention of some administrative task. In this approach we can reduce the overhead on one single point (administration server). Advantages of Proposed System . The information generated at the client side while under the standard of transfer should be secure enough and protected by any intrusions and interceptions that may occur while the information is transferred.Virtual Router Using DSDV 6 System Definitions 6. or market environment and defining an application or system to solve that problem. Moreover if the request is coming in greater number beyond the capacity of the administration the network is going to come to stake.1 Existing System System definition is the process of obtaining a clear understanding of the problem space such as your business opportunities. Instead each node should accept to behave as router. In the existing system. user needs. The overall system should concentrate on the best algorithm that can be implemented for al the resource standards that can be implemented as per the standards of the technical quality. The advantages of this System are: Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 20 . In these types of communications a lot overhead involves on the administration part to regulate the traffic in terms of number of requests coming from different mobiles.

If the organizations are going to have this system with them they can go ahead with the task of establishing the private moving objects network. and can go ahead with the communications of their intended interest as discussed above. Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 21 . Time effective transfer of message In this fast growing world where every individual requires access to the information on the network and more over most of them equipped with latest technology the necessity will be arising often to form a private network and go ahead with the communication. This will be the case essentially in activities like a group of people forming with moving laptops to form a network in order to undergo some conference system.Virtual Router Using DSDV • • No requirement of centralized administrative task.

1 Design Philosophy The Virtual Router is designed to provide the better understanding of the working model of the DSDV Protocol.1 Elements of Design The design of the system includes the proper display of the motion of the nodes in good graphical means. Once the node is selected routing table for that will be displayed in easily viewable graphical display. 7. In the interface design we involve with the design of the user interface with GUI standards and a proper navigation system where the user need to enter into the flow of transactions starting with the entry in to the system by entering the node of nodes values. After the display is ready with the display of simulated motion of the nodes the user of the application is provided with the option of finding the routes between selected nodes of his desire. The design of system. basically involve the interface architecture. He can exercise this option by selecting the node name from the drop down list provided on the interface. In this way by check the routing tables all occurring in the path and can have verification of the path.Virtual Router Using DSDV 7 System Design 7. Then the user can have the view of the intended graphical display through GUI Interface. After the feasible path between selected nodes is displayed the user can check the validity of the route by checking the computations generated on each node in terms of routing table. Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 22 .1. The basic idea in implementing this system is to establish the fact that DSDV Protocol can be used in ad-hoc networks to decide the path to be chosen in order to facilitate the propagation of the message between the intended nodes.

2 Data Flow Diagrams [DFD]: Context Level DFD Identifying The Nodes falling in Vicinity Moving Objects Registration Specify The Nodes Generate the Unique ID’s Nods Generate the Routing Table Showing the paths between the source and distribution of movies objects Top Level Data Flow DSDV System Modeling each Host as a Routes The each routing table with Seq No Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 23 .Virtual Router Using DSDV 7.

Virtual Router Using DSDV Transmitting Routing Information Generate the routing information Broadcast the info to distributed system Update Significant topology change as available Full Dump Two Possib ilities Assign the sequence Number by destination Incrementa l Dump Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 24 .

Virtual Router Using DSDV Route Selection Mobile Hare (MH) broadcasts the update information Check the available Collection s Each MH receives the routing information Compose sequence number from the routing table Update the routing table with latest info Broadcast the updated output Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 25 .

3 Use case Diagram Node Mov ement Find Route User View Routing T able Start/Stop node s Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 26 .Virtual Router Using DSDV 7.

Transmitting Route Information: • • The routing information along the dynamic nodes is transmitted through broad casting. Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 27 . The source and destination nodes are in vicinity 2.. The total routing table is dynamic in its maintenance as the nodes in the environment are not static i. whenever a host is dynamically mating a shift of its position the routing table is updated immediately with the nearest immediate node To recognize the nearest node that is in request for communication the destination node should be in scope of vicinity of the source node The different scansion that can be generated as per the applicable of the source and destination nodes existence is 1.Virtual Router Using DSDV 8 Implementation The Major Design Goal is: • • Keep the simplicity of distributed dynamic routing Avoid the looping problem when the nodes in distributed environment are dynamic.e. The Basic Approach: • • Model each identified host as a routing Tap each touting table entry with a sequence number to identify the first communication in the total forest. The source and destination nodes are not in vicinity Source and destination nodes in vicinity case The source node that broadcasts a request to the detonation node eagerly waits for the acknowledgement from the destination node in the form of response. The response that was received by minimum hops the response that was received without any hops indicate that the source and destination are in vicinity and the data exchange is completed as per the requirement.

the system.Virtual Router Using DSDV Source and destination nodes not in vicinity case The source node that broadcasts a request to the destination node eagerly wits for the acknowledgement from the destination node in the form of response. The path that provides the least number of hoops is immediately recognized and the virtual acuity is established though that path and the process of communication are completed. Here the best shortest path is calculated through the number of hops that were encountered for the overall process of communication to beget completed. the system waits for some specified time limit for the acknowledgement to be received from the destination. that are very practically required for this rouging communication to get completed now the system has a huge database of all the possible combination of the hops that are necessary to execute the communication. Example of DSDV Operation Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 28 . tries to communicate through broadcasting the request to tell the other nodes is its vicinity and is touch. But here the concept is bound to dynamic moment ion of the nodes become of the case. these nodes broach\cost the request to other nodes and this chain of broadcast continue until all nodes in the overall network are communicating with one another and generating the required number of hops. if the acknowledgement is not received within a specified time limit. But the concept here is which path is the most efficient path out of all the combinations that are produced. under this kind of situation. the destination node in the forest may not fall in the vicinity of the source node.

The sequence number specified the association of nodes in a proper order and avoids the problem of dead lock that can arise. even with a time gap of microseconds. The other critical component that can chattel the whole lot of the problem is when many nodes are raising the request for the same destination node at the same time. To handle these kinds of critical issues the total system has been designed in such a way that whenever a hop is calculated. Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 29 . pushing the overall system into a fatal failure.Virtual Router Using DSDV The routing Table for the above position of nodes Destination MH4 MH1 MH2 MH3 MH5 MH6 MH7 MH8 Next Hop MH4 MH2 MH2 MH2 MH6 MH6 MH6 MH6 Metric 0 2 1 2 2 1 2 3 Seq. No S406_MH4 S128_MH1 S564_MH2 S710_MH3 S392_MH5 S076_MH6 S128_MH7 S050_MH8 The Problem of Concentration As the entire system is dynamic in nature and the geographical composition of many nodes can change at any time without prior intimation the routing table vector becomes very dynamic in nature and the routing values can change in very high frequency beyond one compassion. each hop is calculated with a sequence number. pushing the whole process gets into a status of dead lock. If these being of concurrency issues are not handled the whole process gets into a status of dead lock. or the destination node that is under the request by other nodes is acting as a sender at the sometime.

Raising the request for communication and identifying the shortest distance. The overall project is divided into the following modules. we have a list of all the recognized hops with proper registration of hopping weightier and the shortest distance is selected. 6. The software requirement specification can produce at the culmination of the analysis task. Recognition of the registered overall dynamic objects. a detailed functional description. The function and performance allocated to software as part of system engineering are refined by established a complete information description. Test cases are analyzed accordingly Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 30 .Virtual Router Using DSDV The weight age of the total application to pickup the best hopping node is decided by the number of hops that can singe depending upon the communication path that get generated. 2. 4. an indication of performance and design constrain. 9 Testing The test procedure used in the testing process is Black box testing. Corn checks the immediate node within the vicinity specific to every node in the forest. In the third module as soon as the request for communication is raised. 3. and other information pertinent to requirements. The first module is maintained by proper registration of all the registered nodes by supplying their details and unique identification 5. appropriate validation criteria. 1. a representation of system behavior. In the second module to recognize the proper path the moving objects are expected to be recognized which are following in the proper vicinity as per the specified standards. the nodes in vicinity are recognized the broadcasting sequence starts as soon as the broadcasting mechanism completes. Here each node acts as a self-learning routing keeping the data of information of all the immediate nodes or routers within the vicinity.

Find Route Button. The flow is initialized with User entering the value for number of nodes to be registered. The details are verified and validated in the database.1 Black Box Testing This test involves the manual evaluation of the flow from one module to the other and check accordingly for the process flow. 2 Textboxes (Source & Destination Nodes) Find Route Button Routing Table selection Start/Stop Button Case Generation Report: Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 31 . Routing Table selection This button enables the selection of routing table on each node for view. This process of testing is with the following criteria • • • Simulated Motion of the nodes depiction on screen Finding Route Viewing the Routing Tables. which displays the screen depicting the simulated motion of the nodes. When the system finds a match the control is transferred to the next section. In addition to this the screen is equipped with some other controls as mentioned below: • • • • Textboxes These textboxes are used to accept the source and destination node values so that system can evaluate the path. This button when clicked evaluates the path and displays it.Virtual Router Using DSDV 9.

Case / Nodes Expected Result Successful/unsuccessful Registration of Nodes Unit / Functional Registration Test Report: Test Type Functional test Case Nodes Registration -do-do-doFind Route Routing Table Stop Successfully displayed route Successfully table loaded Graph Motion was successfully stopped. Observed Result Successful Registration All the above validations on buttons have been verified and they are successfully executed. The flow is tested at different possible conditions by means of this testing. -doStart/Stop Enables starting and stopping of the motion of nodes. -doRouting Table Gives the option of selecting the node for viewing the routing table computed on that node. 10 User Manual Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 32 .Virtual Router Using DSDV Test Type Operational Test -doFind Route Receives the source and destination values and evaluates the path.

Virtual Router Using DSDV Registration of Nodes Accepting Number of Nodes Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 33 .

Virtual Router Using DSDV Simulated Motion of nodes Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 34 .

Virtual Router Using DSDV Accepting Source & Destination Nodes to find the route Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 35 .

Virtual Router Using DSDV Path Between selected Nodes Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 36 .

Table on H2 Table on H3 Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 37 .Virtual Router Using DSDV Routing Tables generated on each node when the shown path was above.

Virtual Router Using DSDV Table on H4 Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 38 .

it is found to be bug free as per the testing standards that is implemented. Any specification-untraced errors will be concentrated in the coming versions. which are planned for development in near future.Virtual Router Using DSDV 11 Conclusions The entire project has been developed and implemented as per the requirements. As the system developed was successful in depicting the operation of DSDV Protocol it can be automatically integrated with some minor changes in real time application where it communicates with hardware components (mobiles). Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 39 . The system developed was successful in depicting the aim.

Davan Institute Of Advance Management Studies Page 40 . 2004. Java Network Programming. 1998. Cryptography Demystified by John E Hershey. 2. 5. 3. 6. Tata McGraw Hill.Virtual Router Using DSDV 12 Bibliography 1. DPB Publications. 5 Edition. Tech Media Publications. The Complete Reference Java 2 by Patrick Naughton HerbertSchildt. Complete Java 2 by Robert Heller’s Ernest. Wiley Dreamtech. Java Certification by Jaworsick. 2002. 4.1998. Mastering Java Security by Rich Helton Johnnie Helton. 2004. Tata McGraw – Hill. Oreilly Publications. 2002.

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