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L.A. Pereira de Oliveira, P.S.M.S. Carreiro and M.S.G.Pericão
Department of Civil Enginnering, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal
ABSTRACT: This paper presents the results of experimental tests accomplished for the development of a mix design method of the reinforced steel fibers self-compacting concrete (SFSCC) used to filling the hollows of the structural masonry. The mortar ratio was proposed as a parameter to control for self compactability properties of concrete infill. The volumes of fibers added to the concrete were of 0 %, 0,5%, 1,0% and 1,5%.The fresh and hardened properties of SFSCC were determined. The results obtained confirms the mortar ratio adequability as a control parameter to be used in the mix design studies. The optimal mortar ratio increase with the fiber volume content in the concrete. Each 0,5% fiber volume increment, contribute to double the equivalent flexural strengths of the SFSCC. The mixtures properties allows considering viable the use of the SFSCC in the reinforcement of masonry walls. the site is reduced, or it may because the use of other more effective placing methods is made possible. Therefore, it is logical to assume that a combination of the two technologies would lead to an even higher increase of productivity. It is not obvious, without any forehand knowledge, just how well the combined techniques should work. Is the addition of fibers to a SCC detrimental to its workability properties? In what way do various amounts of fibers affect the rheology of SFRSCC? Is possible design the SFRSCC by a simple method? The present study tries to resolve such questions. 1.1 The rheology of SFRSCC Workability is the common term describing various properties of the fresh concrete during a pour on site. These properties reflect the rheology of the mix, i.e. the flowability and viscosity, and also its promeness to cause blocking and segregation. There are several simple methods (Figs.1-3) designed for in situ or laboratory use to find the Bingham parameters for concrete (Skarendahl & Petersson, 2000). The most common and also simplest to perform is the slump flow test. A standard Abram’s cone is filled with concrete and then lifted. The spread diameter, Dfinal, the time of flow to reach a diameter of 500 mm, T500, and the general visual appearance of the concrete is recorded. To some extent, the spread is associated with the shear yield stress and the flow time with the viscosity. The typical values that characterize the self-compaction it is from 650 to 750 mm for
1 INTRODUCTION The structural masonry is a composite structure that has considerable applications in countries with high seismic risks. In these areas structures are subjected to bending and on plane shear according to their position with respect to the direction of the shock wave (Oliveira & Dotreppe 1993). If they are not reinforced they are usually unable to sustain these accidental dynamical loads. For this type of load effect, it is necessary to provide the wall with a vertical reinforcement. The traditional system is made up of a vertical bar placed in the centre of the block holes. These are then filled with a concrete infill or grout in order to ensure that the whole behaves as composite element. The filling of restrict block hole areas demands a concrete with high flowability or a self – compacting concrete. The distinguishing property of SCC from such concrete is the higher viscosity and thus its higher stability against segregation or bleeding. This is achieved by a new mix design philosophy, which uses recently developed admixtures in combination with higher paste content and carefully selected aggregate type and grading curves. The high paste content is enabled, without such negative effects as increased thermal cracking, by substituting parts of the cement with various fillers. In the same way as SCC improves productivity on site, so does the use of fiber reinforced concrete FRC in many of its applications. This may be due to the fact that the number of re-bars to be mounted on
5.5 70 69.40 D: 1: 0. which consists of filling out a funnel with about 12 litters of concrete and soon after to measure the time.50 0.40 C : 1: 0. inside de box’s horizontal part. H2/H1 rate need to be of the order of 0. where: 1 = cement unitary proportion. The difficulty of this idea is establishing a dimensional identity of fictitious grains for the fibers of different relationships between the length and the diameter of the fiber. this way. However. Table 1. are measured.5 73 103. To evaluate the self-compaction of SFRSCC. the best known propositions are . The evaluation of the optimum mixture fine grading is done by observation of the mortar ratio in the fresh concrete (Oliveira 2001). the heights H1 and H2 are measured. a = sand proportion in mass. 1998).72 0 2. The compositions of the concrete mixtures and the characteristics of the materials are presented in the table 1. The presence of steel fibers in the SCC can be seen as an increase of the considered portion of coarse aggregate and this way it is necessary a larger content of fine materials for larger volumes of fibers. a fine grading to the mixture.6 w/cm = 0. T40.15: 1.00: 1.5: 2.15: 1.3: 2. f = powder or fine material proportion in mass. w/cm = water/powders materials. SP= Polycarboxylate superplasticizer content Figure 3. in seconds. These methods have as a common point the limitation of the coarse aggregates content and the maximum dimension of the aggregates. a hatch is removed and the concrete flows out between some re-bars. including the fibers. a simple form of appreciating the involvement of the larger grains. The method is designed to capture the blocking behaviour. The methodology proposed in this work is quite simple and it is based in the limits of the mentioned proposals. in mass.0 w/cm = 0.15: 2.35 1. Okamura and JSCE methods (Nawa et al.06: 1. T.8. imposing. Characteristics of the fibers and the mixtures compositions Proportions by weight Fibers SP Mortar (lf/df)*V (c: cv: a: b)* volume ratio f content (%) As (%) (%) (%) A : 1: 0. Slump-flow test The L-box test is another method that is both simple and practical to use.0 63 0 w/cm = 0. The mortar ratio is represented by the mortar of the concrete including the cement.2 The SFRSCC mix design Several mix design methods for SCC were proposed in the last years.40 c = cement type II 32. It consists of an L-shaped box in which the vertical part is first filled with concrete. and checking an appropriate granular piling up to the desired fluidity can be done at the moment of mix the concrete. that the concrete takes to drain of the funnel.40 B : 1: 0. Figure 1. This relationship (mortar ratio) that will be applied in the experimental program is described by the equation 1: As (%) = 1+ f + a × 100 1+ f + m (1) Figure 2: L – box test The viscosity of the concrete can be evaluated by the Funnel V method. After the flowing of the concrete.the final diameter and 2 to 10 seconds for the necessary time to reach the 500 mm diameter. lf/df.0 2.44 1.5 2. Then.5 2. The heights of the concrete on each side of the L-box and flow time to reach a horizontal distance of 40cm. a = sand.5 w/cm = 0. cv = fly ash. the fine additions and the fine aggregates.78: 1. V funnel test 1. b = coarse aggregate (19mm). some experimental results were analysed. m = total aggregates (fine + coarse).5 68 34.
Cement type II/B-L 32. A superplasticizer (Viscocrete 3000) based on a modified carboxylate was applied to achieve a better slump retention ability. 2 l = 2 0.5 and fly ash were the only powder materials used for the mixtures. which is based on the same fundamental as the design of normal reinforced concrete (Rilem 2000a).3 are the areas under the loaddeflection curve up to a deflection δ2 and δ3. Two different sands and two different coarse aggregate were used to compose the aggregates mixture. by this way. 1994).2 and feq. Assuming a linear stress distribution on the failure section of the test beam. what impose the adjustments on the mortar ratio of the reference mixture due the increasing of the fibers volume.2 and DfBZ. the contribution part of the fibers on flexural behaviour of the masonry wall.3 can be determined by means of the following expressions: f eq . The RILEM Task Group 162 published a recommendation about σ – ε design method for steel fiber reinforced concrete. l = span of the specimen (mm). which can be applied to the masonry wall. After obtain the self-compacting properties for the steel fibers reinforced concrete infill.3 Steel fibers reinforcement contribution on the ductility of concrete masonry The presence of steel fibers in a concrete element will produce tensile stresses across a cracked section in tensile zone. M. which is an important parameter characterizing the post-cracking behaviour of steel fiber reinforced concrete. tensile strength feq. is accounted as a contributor of the increasing strength capacity on the reinforced masonry wall. Figure 4. First. SFR simplified model of real stress block In this study the equivalent flexural tensile strength.50 bh 2 (2) f eq . the equivalent flexural .97. Element with ordinary reinforcement (Rilem 2000a) The bending moment of masonry wall filled with the SFRSCC. Figure 6.64 and 2. 2 f 3 DBZ . The distribution of these stresses across the section depends upon the type of fiber. In this reference. (Fig. 4). Load-deflection diagram (Amorim 2002) 2 MATERIALS AND METHOD 2. The equivalent flexural tensile strength is determined in terms of area under the loaddeflection curve obtained by testing a simply supported beam under three-point loading. DfBZ. the equivalent flexural tensile strength is determined to preview. The sands fineness modulus were 1.1 Materials One reference mixture for the C20/25 concrete class was developed to obtain the self compacting characteristics.3 (3) where. 6).5) proposed as design assumptions to the SFRS (Vandewalle. Each type of sand was quantified as 50% of total sand weight. The coarse aggregates mixture was Figure 5.1. can be evaluated using the simplified model of real stress blocks (Fig.3 l = 2 2. percentage of fiber and magnitude of strain. it is proposed a model of real stress block for structural elements with ordinary reinforcement (Fig. b = width of the specimen (mm) and h = height of the specimen (mm). it was assumed that the fibers would low the workability of the mixture.50 bh 2 f 3 DBZ .
5 0.0 1.5 mm maximum aggregate size and 30% of 19 mm maximum aggregate size.00 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Fiber ratio l/d*Vf (%) Figure 8. The compressive strength was determined on the 150 mm cubes at 28 days.1 SFRSCC fresh behaviour It was observed that the steel fibers modify the slump flow of the reference mixture.0 0. the flow-time T40 increase (Fig. The funnel V indicates the stability.50 3. To characterize the fresh state of the SFRSCC was applied a combination of qualitative observations and quantitative measurements. simulating the dimensions of the hollow concrete block with a steel bar put in the middle of the hollow section. mainly by the content of coarse particles and by the maximum size of aggregate (Grünewald & Walraven. Test results of the fresh SFRSCC Slump flow* L box* Mixtures D final T500 (mm) (sec) A 765 1’00’’ B 735 1’38’’ C 730 1’85’’ D 760 1’02’’ * see description at part 1. Influence of fibers on the flow time T40 L-box . 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.00 3. The L box was used to determine the passing ability of the SFRSCC and the capacity to fill the narrows holes of the masonry units. This behaviour denotes the effect of the fresh concrete weight increasing. 9). segregation resistance and restricted deformability of the mixture. Influence of fibers on the flow time at funnel V The passing behaviour is affected by the segregation resistance of the mixture. The production of SFRSCC is simplified and possible with an adequate mortar ratio.0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Fiber ratio l/d*Vf (%) The figure 7 shows the mortar ratio need for different fiber ratio. which increase when is added more fibers volume in the concrete. The hardened properties were determined by the compressive and flexural strengths.5 1.composed of 70% of the crushed granite 9.00 1. The values of the H2/H1 presented at the table 2 indicates that the mixtures did not cause blocking. 2001). The necessary mortar ratio is directly proportional to the fiber ratio. 2.00 0. A cylindrical steel fiber type with hooked ends and glued in bundles (Dramix RC 65/30-BP) was used in the experiments.5 2. Table2. Mortar ratio (As %) 74 72 70 68 66 64 62 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Fiber ratio (l/d * Vf) in % Figure 7. The figure 8 shows the effect of fibers volume and mortar ratio on the flow –time through the funnel V.90 T40 (sec) 1’00’’ 2’00’’ 2’13’’ Funnel V* T (sec) 2’73’’ 3’22’’ 4’02’’ 3’36’’ The passing ability verified by the L box test was done with a bar spacing. The more fibers were added it was also necessary increase the mortar ratio in relation of the reference mixture. The funnel V allows measuring the deformation speed of flowing concrete.50 2.2 Test methods An experimental campaign was carried out to evaluate the self-compacting properties of the masonry concrete infill. All mixtures remained self-compacting even with the addition of the 120 kg of steel fibers per cubic meter of concrete.00 4. Table 1 shows the mortar ratio values for the slump flow values presented at table 2. on the beams of a 100 x 100 mm cross section and a span length of the 450 mm. but when more fibers were added.50 4. The slump flow indicates the free deformability of the mixture. Flow time T40 (sec) 2. Figure 9. Influence of fibers on the mortar ratio Flow time at V funnel (sec) 5.1 H2/H1 0.88 1. The SFRSCC flexural strength was determined in according with the RILEM TC 162-TDF recommendations (Rilem 2000b).00 2.
17-19 December 2001. 33 (1-2) 3-5. From these theoretical assumptions it is possible to expect a fiber volume contribution on the masonry wall bending moments.Congress.L Vandewalle. Proc. T et al. 1993. In Branco F. Lisbon.3. Oliveira. 2 .0 2. Cachan: RILEM Publications S. the increasing of fibers volume needs more fine materials or mortar augmentation in the concrete. A. 1994.C.48 5.12 6. August 1998. Finally. J. 14 12 10 Load (kN) 8 6 4 2 0 0.1998. Zwevegem: NV Bekaert S.3 (%) (N/mm2) (N/mm2) B 0. Oliveira. 2000b. Parameter-study on the influence of steel fibers and coarse aggregate content on the fresh properties of self-compacting concrete. pp 463-470 Rilem TC 162-TDF Committee. Masonry Intrnational.3 Theoretical contribution of the SFRSCC on the masonry walls bending moment. 26 and 27 MPa for mixtures A.0 4. Vol. Materials and Structures. pp 51 -54. Portugal Grünewald. 2000a.5% volume fibers addition is very significant and can be appreciate as an equivalent reinforcement bar area. REFERENCES Amorim.5 12. a simple parameter was proposed to design SCC reinforced with steel fibers. A. Recommendations for bending test. Skarendahl. Using the equivalent flexural tensile strengths f eq .0 F1.84 D 1.2 SFRSCC hardened behaviour The compressive strength of 150-mm cubes after 28 days was 28.0 6. 2001. 2001. M. Second. State-of-the-art report on materials and design of self-compacting concrete.51 C 1. Theoretical and experimental research on masonry walls with a new reinforcing system. State-of-the-Art report of Rilem Technical Committee 174 –SCC. Self – compacting concrete.A. 28. et al (eds). Materials and Structures. Workshop on Self-compacting Concrete. Betão de custo competitivo reforçado com fibras de aço para pavimentos industriais. Intern. It was verified that it can be a satisfactory control parameter of the selfcompactibility.98 2. Nº2.97 Vf = volume of fibers (%) 4 CONCLUSION The major findings of the study are: First.0 6. the increase of fibers volume is responsible of important augmentation in the flexural capacity of the SFRSCC. 2002. S. 2 f eq . Rilem TC 162-TDF Committee. and applying the design assumptions to the SFRS (Vandewalle.0 Deflection at mid-span (mm) F0. L. the theoretical bending moment was determined for twelve masonry walls.A The equivalent flexural tensile strengths results were the average of three beam samples test for each mixture.5 F1. Cement and Concrete Research 31(2001) 1793-1798. & Walraven. A & Petersson O (ed) 2000. J. 1994) and based on the simplified model of real stress blocks (Fig. Kochi University of Technology. Japan. Nation. University of Minho. The SFRSCC equivalent flexural tensile strengths Mixture Vf f eq . The equivalent flexural strengths determined according to RILEM TC 162-TDF recommendations (Rilem 2000b) are presented at the table 3.C and D. However. it was preview that the contribution carried by the each 0. Next. Test and design methods for steel fibre reinforced concrete. L.R. J. pp 160-190. 4).A. it was found that is possible to obtain the desired self-compacting properties of the masonry reinforced concrete infill till 1.5 Figure 10.Tunnelling the World. These contributions will be verified by the flexural test performed on the reinforced masonry walls. Load – deflection curves of different fibers volume 3.5% fiber volume augmentation. M. 7. respectively. A formulação do betão autocompactável reforçado com fibras de aço. Table 3. Test and design methods for steel fibre reinforced concrete.5% fibers volume. Figure 10 shows the typical load-deflection curves obtained and confirm the performance of the SFRSCC mixtures. P. Master’s thesis. The compressive strength results denote any influence of the steel fibers volume for mixtures with the same cement content. . The results at table 3 indicate that the increasing of equivalents flexural strengths is around 100 % per each 0. Nawa. Proc. Recommendations for σ – ε design method. 33 (3) 75-81. P. & Dotreppe. Qualitative observations indicated that a homogenous fibers distribution was given in the mixtures. Construção 2001: Por uma construção sustentável.B.5 2.C.
.ACKNOWLEGEMENTS The authors wish to acknowledge the financial support of the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia through the concerned action POCTI 36025/99.
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