Boeing 767 Flight Controls

General The B767 has 3 independent hydraulic systems which move the primary flight controls. There is no µmanual reversion¶ on the B767, as there is on the B727. The primary controls are the rudder, elevators, inboard ailerons, and outboard ailerons, as shown in blue on the attached diagram. Spoilers on the upper surface of the wing also assist the ailerons. The spoilers also act as µspeedbrakes¶ in the air, and as ³liftdumpers´ when on the ground. Ailerons High speed aircraft use both inboard and outboard ailerons at low speed to effect changes around the longtitudinal axis (roll). As speed increases an aileron lockout device gradually restricts the movement of the outboard ailerons, leaving the inboard types to effect roll at high airspeed. Speed signal inputs for this come from the Central Air Data Computer (CADC). Each aileron is powered by two hydraulic systems for redundancy purposes should one hydraulic system fail. The ailerons can be trimmed using trimming switches in the cockpit. This re-sets the aileron neutral point. Elevator The two elevator panels are each powered by all three hydraulic systems (left, centre and right), again for redundancy purposes. They are mounted at the rear of the stabiliser, and provide pitch control about the aircrafts lateral axis. Two elevator µQ feel¶ systems provide artificial feel forces to the pilot control yokes. This is because hydraulic powered controls mask high demands that may be applied by pilots inadvertently. Rudder The single panel rudder is moved by actuators powered by all three hydraulic systems. A device called a µratio changer¶ de-sensitizes rudder deflection for a given rudder pedal force as speed increases. This ratio changer gets the speed inputs from the Central Air Data Computer (CADC). Swept wing aircraft such as the B767 are prone to a yawing/rolling combination when they encounter turbulence. This is called µDutch Roll¶. To counter this tendency the B767 rudder incorporates two separately powered hydraulic µSeries Yaw Dampers¶. These also assist in turn co-ordination, such that no rudder inputs are required by the pilot to provide a balanced (skid ball in the centre) turn. Unlike the µParallel Yaw Dampers´ fitted to some aircraft, the rudder pedals of the series system do NOT move in association with yaw damper inputs. The amount of deflection of the rudder panel by the yaw damper is reduced at high speed to avoid potential overstressing of the airframe. The speed input from the CADC is blended with information from the yaw rate provided by the µRing Laser Gyro¶ (RLG) that is part of the Inertial Reference Navigation Unit (IRU). This ensures that just the correct amount of rudder is deflected to damp out any potential dutch roll before it builds up.

Speed signal inputs for this come from the Central Air Data Computer (CADC). Refer to figure 2. such that at high speeds (around cruise speed) a warning may indicate that one or both of the aileron lockouts have failed to lockout the movement of the outboard ailerons. Each aileron is moved by two separate hydraulic actuators. and reduce crosswind landing capability. The inboard ailerons droop in conjunction with the trailing edge flaps.Ailerons General Roll control on the B767 is accomplished by ailerons and wing spoiler panels. Both operate in unison at low speed. and prevents overcontrolling at high speeds. A failure indication at low speeds (around approach speeds) may indicate that one or both of the lockouts have failed to unlock the outboard ailerons. Aileron position is shown on the lower EICAS screen. and is referenced by the pilots when checking control movements prior to takeoff . Movements of both are activated by rotating either of the pilot control columns. the B767 features both inboard and outboard ailerons. A warning system advises pilots of lockout device failure. This assures the required roll authority at low speeds. This will effect the low speed roll control characteristics of the aircraft. Ailerons Like most other high speed aircraft. but as speed increases an aileron lockout device gradually restricts the movement of the outboard ailerons. leaving the inboard types to effect roll at high airspeed. Each aileron is powered by two hydraulic systems for redundancy purposes should one hydraulic system fail.

Left and right elevator position is shown on the lower EICAS status display. This re-sets the aileron neutral point. and full and free movement of the elevators is confirmed through this display. The pilots position the elevator . prior to takeoff. Centre. until a new position is commanded. Elevator and rudder Elevators Moving either of the control columns sends signals to the three hydraulic actuator which move the elevators. which use hydraulic power from the left and centre hydraulic systems to re-position the stabiliser through a motor and brake mechanism. The current aileron trim position is displayed to the pilots on an ³aileron trim position indicator´ on each control column. The motors move the stabiliser to any newly commanded position. Stabiliser position is shown on indicators either side of the control stand. These are powered by the left and centre hydraulic systems. A column override facility ensures positive flight control authority should one control column jam. The ailerons can be trimmed using trimming switches in the cockpit. All three hydraulic systems (Left. Each of these hydraulic systems are completely separate and self-contained. The green trim position band indicates the normal range of trim settings for takeoff. just like in light aircraft. and Right) power the elevators. following the loss of both left and right hydraulic systems (refer fig 4).(ie: ³controls full. and free´). Mechanical springs provide feel. and the associated brakes hold the stabiliser in that position. Two hydraulically powered elevator feel systems provide artificial feel forces to the pilot¶s control columns. Stabiliser The stabiliser is positioned by dual trim control modules.

There are three modes of stabiliser trim control: y y y Electric. . Non-normal Operation If one autopilot only is engaged.trim from centre of gravity position information contained on the load and balance sheets. operation of the yoke mounted trim switches causes the autopilot to disengage. 500 ft agl). (also called ³MACHTUCK´ ) when operating around transonic flight speeds. In this mode the trim rate is half that of the electric. Movement of these levers override all other trim inputs. Automatic. as provided by the Load Controller. Manual/alternate trim through stabiliser trim levers to the left of the thrust levers. Speed inputs come from the Central Air Data Computer (CADC). the yoke mounted electric trim switches are de-energised and thereby operation of these is inhibited. If multiple autopilots are engaged (ie: when on approach below 1. such that at increased airspeed reduces the trimming rate. through switches on the control yoke. Mach trimmer The stabiliser is also responsible for increments of nose up trim application to prevent ³TUCKUNDER´. The actual rate of trim varies with airspeed. which is controlled automatically by the autopilots. Manual/Alternate trimming does NOT cause the autopilot(s) to disengage. or manual/alternate trim rate.

and only the electric trim switches will be operative (ie: the manual. A stabiliser trim warning light illuminates. and permit the right hydraulic system to power the stabiliser trim through a ³Pitch Enhancement System´ (PES). a ³STAB TRIM´ EICAS advisory message appears. Two yaw dampers operate through the rudder control system to prevent dutch roll developing. and automatic trim will NOT be operative). or moving the control column in the opposing direction to stabiliser movement. and continued use of the electric trim switches will produce a trim rate at one half normal rate. obtain co-ordinated (no slip) turns. and generally improve directional stability. The pilot can stop un-commanded stabiliser movement by using the trim cutoff switch. or if the trim is moving in the opposite direction to that commanded by the autopilot.Any un-scheduled trim condition is detected when the stabiliser moves without having received a new trim signal. Trim rate is only one quarter that of the normal system. no stabiliser trim is available. Loss of both left and centre hydraulic systems will automatically trigger a shutoff valve. If the malfunction is unique to the electric trim control. If both stabiliser brakes remain engaged. Should a stabiliser trim brake fail to release while the pilot is operating the electric trim switches. Rudder trim Pushing either set of rudder pedals sends signals to the three separate rudder hydraulic actuators. . full trim rate is available by using the manual trim levers. and an EICAS message appears whenever this condition is detected.

The crew check the entire yaw damper system by moving the yaw damper test switch momentarily to the ³LEFT´ or ³RIGHT´. If rudder deflections are not being correctly modified by the ratio changer. Control inputs from the rudders and trim control are modified to take account of the forward speed of the aircraft by a ³RATIO CHANGER´. and the amber yaw damper lights are extinguished. Loss of one yaw damper reduces rudder yaw authority by one half. and is monitored prior takeoff to check that full and free movement is occurring. a fault has been detected. When the yaw damper switches are ³ON´. above the pilot¶s heads. and no fault exists. as the crew cannot see the tailplane from the cockpit. the left hydraulic system to the rudder is depressurised to restrict rudder deflection. At least 1 of the 3 Inertial Refence Systems (IRS) must be aligned for the 10 second test to occur. and an EICAS advisory message appears. The yaw damper control switches are on the overhead panel. Sufficient rudder authority is preserved in this case for low speed operation. and rudder deflections progressively reduced as the speed increases. When a rudder ratio changer fault develops. an electrical self test occurs. a ³Rudder Ratio Light´ illuminates. Yaw Dampers Two independent yaw dampers operate continuously in flight. If either of the two ³YAW DAMPER INOP´ lights remain illuminated after the tests. Each system has a yaw damper controller which in turn generates signals sent to the rudder actuators. Rudder trim is obtained by turning the rudder trim knob just like in a light aircraft (refer fig 5). When electrical power is initially established. . and thereby provide rudder structural protection at high airspeeds. An electric motor redefines the rudder neutral point. An airspeed input signal is sent to the ratio changer from the CADC. the systems are powered. though more restrictive crosswind and autoland limits apply.Position of the rudder is indicated on the lower EICAS screen.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful