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# 7.

1 IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM As first mentioned in section 6,1, there are two methods of working problems other than Newton¶s laws of motion. One is the work-energy method, which was discussed in sections 6.1 through 6.6. The other is the impulse-momentum technique, which is discussed in this chapter. Each of the two terms (impulse and momentum) is first defined and then a relationship is developed between them. The symbol for impulse is I. Whenever a force F acts on an object for a time ¨t, an impulse acts on that object. The impulse is

I=F t

Impulse is a vector, its direction is always the same as the direction of the force, and its magnitude is F ¨t. The N·s and the dyne·s are the units of impulse.

EXAMPLE 7.1 A baseball is struck by a bat. During this collision, the bat exerts a force of 200N due east on the ball for the 300.ms that the ball is in contact with the bat. Find the impulse that the bat exerts on the ball. Solution:

**I=F t = (200N) (0.300 s) I = 60.0 N·s
**

The direction will be due east, since the force is acting due east.

**I = 60.0 N·s, due east
**

EXAMPLE 7.2 A bird, while flying south,accidentally flies into a brick wall. The wall exerts a 3.00 x 10 dyne force due north on the bird for the 250.ms that it is in contact with the bird. Find the impulse that the wall exerts on the bird. Solution:

I=F t = (3.00 x 10 DYNE) (0.250 S)

The momentum of an object is devined as P = mv Where m is the object s mass and v is the instantaneous velocity of the object. one can immediately say that theball must exert an impulse of 60.50 x 10 dyne·s The direction of the impulse is due nort since the force is acting due north. I = 7. it was found that the bat in example 7. The time that each force (in an action-reaction pair) acts must also be the same. .1 exerted an impulse of 60. Therefore.50 x 10 dyne·s.I = 7.0 N·s due east on theball. its direction being the same as the direction of the object s instantaneous velocity.4. The symbol for the momentum of an object is P. the impulse exerted by one object on a second object is always equel in magnitude but oppositein direction to the impulse that the second object exerts on the first. The magnitude of the momentum of an object is equal to mv.0 N·s due west on the bat. An object is said to have a momentum at any given instant. Notice that the momentum of an object is a vector. For example. where m is the mass of the object and v is the speed of the object at the instant when the momentum is to be measured. Because of Newton s third law. due north In section 4. the second object automatically exerts a force on the first object which has the same magnitude but which acts in the opposite direction. Newton s third law of motion was stated as follows: Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object.