MODERN TRENDS IN FACTS & HVDC

RAJARAMBAPU INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY RAJARAMNAGAR DIST.SANGLI-415414

A paper on

MODERN TRENDS IN FACTS AND HVDC
Submitted by • Miss.Komal P. Banne. T.E.(Electrical) • Miss.Ashwini G. Hingmire T.E.(Electrical) Submitted to

RAJARAMBAPU INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY RAJARAMNAGAR

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MODERN TRENDS IN FACTS & HVDC

INDEX

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Abstract Introduction FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems) Shunt compensation SVC(Static Var Compensators) STATCOM(Static Synchronous Compensator) Series compensation TCSC(Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator) SSSC(Static Synchronous Series Capacitor) UPFC(Unified Power Flow Controller): HVDC(High Voltage Direct Current Transmission ) Rectyfing/inverting system Compotents of rectyfing/inverting systems Key Benefits Disadvantages Applications Conclusions References


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Keywords: FACTS. Monopolar. Introductions to various configuration of HVDC transmission like monopolar. The desire to find solution in power transmission problems & limitation led to focuss technological developments under the flexible AC transmission system(FACTS). Hingmire. The basic performance attributes of several FACTS controllers are presented. HVDC. Specifically. Islampur. Shunt compensation device. bipolar. Series compensation device. the TCSC. 3 .Komal P.E. Rajaramnagar . There is introduction to HVDC transmission system with its benefits & limitation. Banne. SSSC. like FACTS & HVDC technology. Abstract: Incorporation of power electronics in the power system gives out two important applications in the transmission system. SSSC. Back to Bac. Miss. This paper focuses on the issues and benefits of applying FACTS & HVDC to AC power systems. Introductions to the basic circuits of several FACTS controllers are provided with a focus on their system performance characteristics. and UPFC (or CSC) is presented. This increases efficiency and reliability of the transmission system with improvement in power system stability. UPFC. tripole. the use of flexible ac transmission system (FACTS) devices to improve the power transfer capability in a high voltage transmission line is of greater interest these days. TCSC. With the development of modern power systems. Bipolar. The encient practices are replaced by more recent developments in electric power industry. STATCOM.tripole & back to back coupling system & its application to AC network.( Electrical) RIT Institute of technology.MODERN TRENDS IN FACTS & HVDC MODERN TRENDS IN FACTS AND HVDC Submitted by Miss. it becomes very important to control power flow along transmission corridor. An overview of how series connected and combined Series/shunt connected FACTS configurations are studied in an ac system is presented. T.Ashwini G. SVC. Introduction: Objective functions of power sector are to generate at minimum cost & to transmit at minimum losses So.

These situations have resulted in an increased possibility of transient. which are now brought into concerns in many utilities both in planning and operation states. the higher cost of DC conversion equipment compared to an AC system may be warranted where other benefits of direct current links are useful. The current market environment also promotes the maximum utilization of existing facilities and favors power exchange from neighboring countries. New installations of power system equipment and facilities are primarily determined based economic and environmental considerations. bipolar link. FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems) : At present.shunt compensation. new transmission lines are expensive and take considerable amount of time to build and put in operation. Basic types compensation techniques included are series compensation. HVDC systems are less expensive and suffer lower electrical losses. shunt compensation & series. For long-distance distribution.MODERN TRENDS IN FACTS & HVDC Improved utilization of the existing power system is provided through the application of advanced control technologies FACTS & HVDC. such as thyristors. In addition. This technology provide advanced solutions as cost-effective alterative to new transmission line construction. provide proven technical solutions to address these new operating challenges being presented today. electric utilities must rely on power export/import arrangements through existing transmission system. reliable & accepted all over the world. Given these conditions. FACTS devices has the ability to improve the utilization of the existing transmission system. Practical manipulation of DC voltages only became possible with the development of high power electronic devices such as mercury arc valves and later semiconductor devices. HVDC technology is now mature.Different configurations used in HVDC technology discussed here are monopolar link. Unifiled Power Flow Controller(UPFC) are also more advanced controllers included in FACTS technology. in order to meet ever increasing power demands. the earlier generation of power electronics systems that utilize line-commutated thyristor technology for Static Var Compensators (SVC) and Thyristor Controlled Series Compensators (TCSC). the 4 . high power capable MOSFETs(power metal–oxide– semiconductor field-effect transistors) and gate turn-off thyristors (GTOs). Moreover. oscillatory and voltage instability. For shorter distances. Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC).It has been proved that AC is better from generation & utilization point of view while DC is preferable for transmission over long distances. power systems are highly complex and are typically composed of thousand of buses and hundreds of generators. back-to-back etc. insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs).

developed by Electric Power Research (EPRI) and Westinghouse Electric Corporation (Westinghouse). Generally. FACTS devices are 5 . Main objectives of such devices can be restated as follows: .To improve the power system stability (Voltage. The recent development and use of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) in power transmission system have led to many applications not only to improve the stability of the existing power network but also to provide operating flexibility to the power system. such as congestion of transmission line corridors. The two main reasons for incorporating FACTS devices in electric power systems are: . capacity and flexibility of power transmission systems.the power industry term FACTS covers a number of technologies that enhance the security.all compared to the alternative of building new transmission lines or power generation facilities.To increase the power transfer capability of the transmission networks . It is meant to enhance controllability and increase power transfer capability of the network. more power can reach consumers with a minimum impact on the environment. It is generally a power electronics based system. and at lower investment costs . The new devices. There are many FACTS controllers currently available in utilities. A Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) is a system composed of static equipment used for the AC transmission of electrical energy . FACTS devices are defined by the IEEE as “alternating current transmission system Incorporating power electronic-based and other static controllers to enhance controllability and increase power transfer capability”.MODERN TRENDS IN FACTS & HVDC trend of the re-regulated power system operation has caused some other problems. FACTS controllers.provide better power flow control. help utilities meet both the growing demand for electric power and the emerging challenges of open transmission access. FACTS solutions enable power grid owners to increase existing transmission network capacity while maintaining or improving the operating margins necessary for grid stability. offer the potential for enhanced system control both during the steady state operation and especially following system disturbance. dynamic stability) Applying Flexibility to the Electric Power System. . As a result.To provide direct control of power flow over designated transmission routes. after substantially shorter project implementation times.raising dynamic stability limits . coupled with better computer and communications technology. transient.

The net result is improvement in power factor. power factor lags because of lagging load current. Due to very low or no load –very low current flows through the transmission line. To compensate.Series devices: TCSC & SSSC 3.Shunt devices: SVC and STATCOM 2. a shunt capacitor is connected which draws current leading the source voltage.Shunt-series devices: UPFC Dynamiv shunt compensation: fig1: Shunt compensation Shunt compensation is of two types: Shunt capacitive compensation: This method is used to improve the power factor. shunt inductors are connected across the transmission line. To compensate. Shunt capacitance in the transmission line causes voltage amplification (Ferranti Effect).MODERN TRENDS IN FACTS & HVDC divided into three categories: 1. The receiving end voltage may become double the sending end voltage (generally in case of very long transmission lines). Whenever an inductive load is connected to the transmission line. 6 . Shunt inductive compensation: This method is used either when charging the transmission line or when there is very low load at the receiving end.

The SVC. This will improve the transient as well as steady state voltage control in the system. SVC(Static Var Compensators): Shunt-connected static var compensators (SVCs) are used extensively to control the AC voltage in transmission networks. Both use power semiconductors to control the exchange of Mvar over a shunt connection with the grid. SVC is similar to a synchronous compensator in that it is used to supply or absorb reactive power but 7 . on the other hand. primarily because of well-proven robustness to supply dynamic reactive power with fast response time and with low maintenance. The switching of shunt reactors and capacitors is normally crude. They can counteract event the most rapid voltage transients that will appear in the grid and consequently reduce the risk of serious voltage depressions and/or voltage collapse. was made possible only by mechanically switched shunt reactors and capacitors. the adjustment of voltage in transmission system. fig 2 : SVC fig 3: operation of SVC Prior to development of SVC. which is desirable in power system control and operation. provides rapid and fine adjustment of voltage. such as the thyristor controlled reactor (TCR) and the thyristor switched capacitor (TSC) have gained a significant market. other than generator and synchronous compensator. Power electronic equipment. SVC is a shunt connected static Var generator/load whose output is adjusted to exchange capacitive or inductive current so as to maintain or control specific power system variables. The purpose of the SVCs is to provide the AC transmission system with very fast and accurate reactive power compensation. causing abrupt voltage changes along with voltage and current transient. From the system point of view.MODERN TRENDS IN FACTS & HVDC FACTS in transmission systems involves dynamic devices of SVC and STATCOM type.

with SVC providing rated capacitive current at specified voltage.Total susceptance of SVC can be controlled by firing thyristors in an appropriate angle range. Most common SVCs are: o Thyristor-controlled reactor (TCR): reactor is connected in series with a bidirectional thyristor valve. The Terminal or V-I Characteristics of SVC is illustrated in Figure 4.or full. Equivalent reactance is varied in stepwise manner. all thyristor switched capacitor are switched on. Thyristor-switched reactor (TSR): Same as TCR but thyristor is either in zero. SVC can immediately provide reactive power support when the system has voltage problem due to a trip of an important generator or transmission line. Thyristor is either in zero. SVC behaves like a fixed capacitor or fixed inductor. the thyristor-controlled reactor is fully switched on. At point Bmax. at limits. However. as shown in Figure. It operates similar to an automatic voltage regulator system to set and maintain a target voltage level. and all thyristor switched capacitor off to give inductive current at a defined voltage. Equivalent reactance is varied continuously. it can be used as an aid to improve stability. At point Bmin. In some applications.or fullconduction. inherently improve transient stability. typically 900~1800. 8 o o .MODERN TRENDS IN FACTS & HVDC without rotating part. fig 4 :V-I characteristics of SVC During the normal operation. Static VAR compensator (SVC).conduction. by maintaining the voltage. Typically. Equivalent reactance is varied in stepwise manner. SVC can control the total susceptance according to the terminal voltage. minimum or maximum susceptance. the power system control variable controlled by SVC is the terminal bus SVC is composed of a controllable shunt reactor and shunt capacitor(s). The thyristor valve is phase-controlled. Thyristor-switched capacitor (TSC): capacitor is connected in series with a bidirectional thyristor valve. SVC can perform the duty of providing rapidly controlled Var’s more appropriately during the first angle swing and thus. Consequently. it represents the controller with variable impedance that is changed with the firing angle of TCR.

The reference signals Qref and Pref can control the amplitude V and phase angle β of output voltage. the STATCOM is made up of a coupling transformer. As shown in Figure 4. If amplitude of the output voltage is decreased below that 9 . It generates a balanced set of sinusoidal voltages at the fundamental frequency with rapidly controllable amplitude and phase angle. the steady-state power exchange between the device and the ac system is mainly reactive. previously referred to as a Static Synchronous Condenser (STATCON) is based on a solid state synchronous voltage source that is analogous to an ideal synchronous machine without rotating mass. Figure 6:Generalized synchronous voltage source STATCOM fig 5 : A functional model of the If amplitude of output voltage is increased above that of AC system voltage. STATCOM is the voltage-source converter. which converts a DC input voltage into AC output voltage at fundamental frequency in order to compensate the active and reactive power needed by the system. the inverter generates reactive power for the AC system. the latter is an advantage over Static var Compensators (SVCs). The static synchronous compensator (STATCOM). In this arrangement.MODERN TRENDS IN FACTS & HVDC o Mechanically-switched capacitor (MSC): capacitor is switched by circuit-breaker. a voltage-sourced inverter and a dc capacitor. so that its response is basically instantaneous and it does not significantly alter the existing system impedance. respectively Varying the amplitude of output voltage can control the reactive power exchange between the inverter and the AC system. It is switched only a few times a day. STATCOM(Static Synchronous Compensator): The steady-state characteristics of the STATCOM are similar to those of a rotating synchronous compensator but with no inertia. It aims at compensating steady state reactive power. In its simplest form.

the output voltage of the inverter slightly lags the ac system voltage. If output voltage is equal to the AC system voltage. the reactive power exchange is zero. 10 . therefore. for steady state reactive support. the capacitor supplies active power to the system. on the other hand. fig 7: V-I characteristic of STATCOM The controller can provide both capacitive and inductive compensation and is able to control output current over the rated maximum capacitive or inductive range independent of the AC system voltage. keep the capacitor voltage constant. when the inverter voltage lags the bus voltage. A capacitor is used to maintain dc voltage to the inverter. In general. Thus. reducing its voltage. Conversely. by controlling the inverter output voltage lead or lag with respect to the ac system voltage. The inverter itself keeps the capacitor charged levels. the capacitor voltage can be decreased or increased. This is in contrast to the SVC which can supply only a diminishing output current with decreasing system voltage as determined by the designed maximum equivalent capacitive admittance. thus. When the inverter voltage leads the bus voltage. In steady-state. It can provide full capacitive output current at any practical system voltage. if the inverter output voltage is made to lag the AC system voltage. The real power exchanges between the inverter and the AC system can be controlled by altering the phase angles between the inverter output and the AC system voltages. to control the reactive power output of the device. so that the inverter absorbs a small amount of real power from the ac system to replenish its internal losses and.MODERN TRENDS IN FACTS & HVDC of the AC system. the capacitor is charged by consuming active power from the system. a STATCOM is capable of supporting higher loads than what would be possible with a SVC of comparable MVar rating. more effective than the SVC in providing transmission voltage support and the expected stability improvements. The inverter supplies real power to the AC system if the inverter output voltage is made to lead the corresponding AC system voltage. respectively. the inverter absorbs real power from the AC system. a reduction of more than 50 % in the physical size of installation can be expected from STATCOM compared to SVC. the inverter absorbs the reactive power. This type of controller is. Also.

fig8:nolosstransmission Line fig 9 : Series compensation Examples of FACTS for series compensation (schematic) • • • • • Static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) Thyristor-controlled series capacitor (TCSC) Thyristor-controlled series reactor (TCSR) Thyristor-switched series capacitor (TSSC) Thyristor-switched series reactor (TSSR) 11 . the FACTS is connected in series with the power system. It works as a controllable voltage source. Series Compensation is self regulating in the sense that its reactive power output follows the variations in transmission line current. Series inductance occurs in long transmission lines. In series compensation. This is primarily used to provide inter-area damping of prospective low frequency electromechanical oscillations. most notably in bulk transmission corridors. as thyristors are used to dynamically modulate the ohms provided by the inserted capacitor. but it also makes the whole Series Compensation scheme immune to Subsynchronous Resonance (SSR). The result is a signifcant increase in the transmission system transient and voltage stability.MODERN TRENDS IN FACTS & HVDC Series compensation: Series Compensation is a well established technology that primarily is used to reduce transfer reactances. To compensate. and when a large current flow causes a large voltage drop. series capacitors are connected. Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors adds another controllability dimension. a fact that makes the series compensation concept extremely straightforward and cost effective.

12 . respectively. The SSSC is similar to the STATCOM as illustrated in Figure 12. which is then injected in a transmission line through a transformer connected in series with the system. as it is based on a DC capacitor fed VSI that generates a three-phase voltage at fundamental frequency. Between these constraints is an additional limiting characteristics related to harmonics. Figure10 : Basic structure of TCSC SSSC(Static Synchronous Series Capacitor): Figure 11 :Stability model of TCS The solid-state synchronous voltage source employing an appropriate DC to AC inverter with gate turn-off (GTO) thyristor can be used for series compensation of transmission lines.MODERN TRENDS IN FACTS & HVDC TCSC(Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator): TCSC controllers use thyristor-controlled reactor (TCR) in parallel with capacitor segments of series capacitor bank. One of the equipment that can achieve this task is SSSC. which can cause additional heating in the surge reactor and thyristors. The combination of TCR and capacitor allow the capacitive reactance to be smoothly controlled over a wide range and switched upon command to a condition where the bi-directional thyristor pairs conduct continuously and insert an inductive reactance into the line. The basic structure and stability model of the device are shown in Figure 10 and 11. For operation in the capacitive region. the maximum voltage constrains operation. whereas inductive operation is limited by the maximum firing delay (α).

the solid-state voltage source produces an appropriate voltage at the fundamental AC system frequency. The main advantage of this controller over a TCSC is that it does not significantly affect the impedance of the transmission system and. they cannot internally exchange reactive power through DC link. some explanations are expressed related to its main concept and fundamentals. The rapid and almost instantaneous responses make it suitable for many applications requiring effective steady-state power flow control and/or transient and dynamic stability improvement. To understand the device more. UPFC(Unified Power Flow Controller): It is well known that UPFC is a powerful and versatile concept for power flow control that has capability of changing power flow. Active power can freely flow in either direction between the AC terminals of the two inverters through the DC link. allow UPFC to independently control active and reactive power flows on the line as well as the bus voltage. If the magnitude of the injected voltage is made proportional to that of the line current. The UPFC consists of two identical voltage-source inverters: one in shunt and the other one in series with the line. namely shunt inverter and series inverter. The output of the solid-state synchronous voltage source is locked with a lagging relationship to the line current and injected in series with the line. Although. a series compensation equivalent to that provided by a series capacitor at the fundamental frequency is obtained. there is no danger of having resonance problem. lowing through the line by controlling the reactive power exchange between the SSSC and the AC system. the general scheme is illustrated in Figure 10 Two inverters.MODERN TRENDS IN FACTS & HVDC Figure 12 :Basic structure of SSSC The main control objective of the SSSC is to directly control the current. therefore. The VA rating of the injected voltage source is determined by the product of the maximum injected voltage and the maximum line current at which power flow is still provided. 13 . From the Figure 12. which operate via a common DC link with a DC storage capacitor. each inverter can generate or absorb reactive power at its own AC output terminal. and indirectly the power. in series with the line to partially cancel the voltage drop.

High voltage level has to be adjust to receivers. However alternative current transmission has also drawback which can be compensate in DC links. which demand presence of high-voltage Power does not rely only from voltage. transmission and distribution of electrical energy. the shunt inverter has two functions: − To control bus voltage by reactive power injection to the power system − To supply active power to the series inverter via the DC link for series flow control. HVDC(High Voltage Direct Current Transmission ): The fundamental process that occurs in an HVDC system is the conversion of electrical current from AC to DC (rectifier) at the transmitting end. give us also lower power loss. In AC are using transformers which decreasing or increasing voltage to required level. higher voltage let decrease a current level. It’s the main reason why DC technology is chosen instead AC: 14 . In AC voltage conversion is simple. The power losses in a conductor are proportional to the square of current and resistance of conductor. When operated in conjunction with the series inverter. so for given power level. and demand little maintenance. In DC does not exist such possibility.MODERN TRENDS IN FACTS & HVDC Figure 13 :UPFC configuration The shunt inverter provides local bus voltage control when operated by itself as a STATCOM. However. since metal conducting wires have a certain resistance. Power loss can be also reduced by decreasing resistance e. and transfer as heat. Further three-phase generator is superior to DC generator in many aspects. The most popular way to transmission energy are AC transmission lines.g. P=UI For a given power a low voltage require a higher current and a higher voltage requires a lower current. some power is wasted. Higher level of voltage. Despite many advantages of AC transmission. and from DC to AC (inverter) at the receiving end. in some conditions better is DC transmission. but it’s demand higher economical High voltage transmission is used to reduce lost of power. . but it cannot be used for lightning system and supplying motors. by increasing diameter of conductor. P=RI2 Power is also proportional to voltage. but is equal of voltage times current. Those reasons causes that AC technology is today common in production.

Two types of semiconductors are normally used in the voltage source converters: the GTO (Gate Turn-Off Thyristor) or the IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor).Forced Commutated Converters. By means of connecting the thyristors in series it is possible to build up a thyristor valve. The component that enables this conversion process is the thyristor.inductive and capacitive elements of lines put limits to the transmission capacity and transmission distance is not possible transmission between two points of different current frequency Therefore electrical engineers research and applied DC technology which doesn’t have such limitation.:An improvement in the thyristor-based commutation.Capacitor Commutated Converters (CCC). Both of 15 . which is able to operate at very high voltages (several hundred of kV). feed of passive networks (without generation).The thyristor valve is operated at net frequency (50 hz or 60 hz) and by means of a control angle it is possible to change the DC voltage level of the bridge.MODERN TRENDS IN FACTS & HVDC . independent control of active and reactive power. which is a controllable semiconductor that can carry very high currents (4000 A) and is able to block very high voltages (up to 10 kV). :This type of converters introduces a spectrum of advantages. Rectyfing/inverting system: fig14: rectyfing/inverting system There are three ways of achieving conversion 1. e. The commutation capacitors improve the commutation failure performance of the converters when connected to weak networks.g. The valves of these converters are built up with semiconductors with the ability not only to turn-on but also to turn-off. the CCC concept is characterised by the use of commutation capacitors inserted in series between the converter transformers and the thyristor valves. They are known as VSC (Voltage Source Converters). 2.Natural Commutated Converters Natural commutated converters are most used in the HVDC systems as of today. power quality. This ability is the way by which the transmitted power is controlled rapidly and efficiently. 3.

One of the sets of supplies is then configured to have a star (wye) secondary. At the AC end a set of transformers. Current flows in the earth between electrodes two stations when not metallic conductor is 16 . to provide a local earth. Thyristor is a solid. The insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) is simpler and cheaper way of control. Rectifying and inverting systems usually use the same devices. An enhancement of this configuration uses 12 valves (often known as a twelve-pulse system). often three physically separate single-phase transformers. The AC is split into two separate three phase supplies before transformation. establishing a thirty degree phase difference between the two sets of three phases. and to ensure the correct eventual DC voltage. In elements which take share in conversion. The output of these transformers is then connected to a bridge rectifier formed by a number of valves. considerable harmonics remain on the DC rails. isolate the station from the AC supply. similar to the diode. with a phase change only every sixty degrees. one terminal of rectifier is connected with the ground. but has particular property in control of AC cycle.state semiconductor. The basic configuration uses six valves. Configurations: Monopolar: fig 14 :Monopolar In the most popular configuration .monoplar. and harmonics are considerably reduced. there is a phase change every 30 degrees. are applied filters which limit harmonic in DC cycle. Second terminal with potential another than ground. the other a delta secondary. With twelve valves connecting each of the two sets of three phases to the two DC rails. is connected with transmission line. Compotents of rectyfing/inverting systems: HVDC using mercury arc rectifiers but the most modern way are thyristors. However. connecting each of the three phases to each of the two DC rails.[1].MODERN TRENDS IN FACTS & HVDC them have been in frequent use in industrial applications since early eighties.

Presence of return wire can eliminate such effects. Convertors act for conversion from AC to DC or from DC to AC. 17 . In the future will spread bipolar systems.submerged return electrodes may participate in chemistry reaction .unbalanced current may disturbed magnetic field and influent on navigations ships equipment. Those line has to be connected between two ends of monopolar transmission line. In bipolar transmission a pair of conductors is used. Modern monopolar systems for pure overhead lines carry typically 1500 MW. configuration may gives such problems: . If underground or underwater cables are used the typical value is 600 MW Bipolar: Modern HVDC links are as a rule. each at a high potential with respect to ground.g. If not exist return conductor.corrosion because long underground objects (e.In this configurations. It’s a single wire earth return type of configuration. Since these conductors must be insulated for the full voltage. . technical and environmental factors. Second conductor is applied in depending on economical. The mid point at each end is grounded. in opposite polarity. Figure 15 : Bipolar HVDC Systems There are a number of advantages to bipolar transmission which can make it the attractive option. pipelines). transmission line cost is higher than a monopole with a return conductor. bipolar.MODERN TRENDS IN FACTS & HVDC installed. is used two wires with the same potential as ground. and opposite polarity The convertors valves at each terminal are connected in series.

5) A bipolar system may also be installed with a metallic earth return conductor. 6) Bipolar systems may carry as much as 3000 MW at voltages of +/-533 kV. The two ac networks are coupled by a back to back convertor. In such cases. therefore. The rectifier & inverter are connected to form a dc loop. the cost of the second conductor is reduced compared to a monopolar line of the same rating. the second conductor may be carried on an independent set of transmission towers. so that some power may continue to be transmitted even if one line is damaged. 3) Since for a given total power rating each conductor of a bipolar line carries only half the current of monopolar lines. Back to back coupling stations are generally designed for bipolar operation only & the return earth is. negligible earth-current flows. Submarine cable installations initially commissioned as a monopole may be upgraded with additional cables and operated as a bipolar.MODERN TRENDS IN FACTS & HVDC 1) Under normal load. with earth return electrodes installed at each end of the line. as in the case of monopolar transmission with a metallic earth-return. 4) In very adverse terrain. operating in monopolar mode. not provided. approximately half the rated power can continue to flow using the earth as a return path. the main dc loop is earthed at a single point between the rectifier & the invertors to provide a reference earth on dc side. There is no dc transmission line. Back to back: The configuration of a back to back HVDC coupling system is illustrated in figure. This reduces earth return loss and environmental effects. A dc smoothing reactor is connected in the dc loop. 18 . 2) When a fault develops in a line.

Can be used to assist one (or even both) of the ac networks (e. Eliminates the need to build new plants and reduces environmental impact. accurate. In this structure two inverter or rectifier stations are connected by powerline. Tripole system let pick up about 80% transferred power than AC lines. power system damping). 19 • • • • • • . In tripole system can be carry higher current. This system is applied in long lines. Tripole: current modulating control. unsynchronized grids and underwater connections. fully-controllable Power Flow. . It’s new idea of transmission DC (since 2004). stabilizing AC grid power transmission and stabilization between unsynchronized AC distribution system connection generating plants remote from power grid connection between countries with different current frequency/voltage synchronize AC produced by renewable energy sources Long underwater lines have a high capacitance. Parallel monopole relive current in periods from other pole. Bipole wires are loaded for few minutes. In AC lines occurs also dielectric losses. under sea connections. return losses and environmental effect are reduced. The Operator or automatic controller determines how much power flows via the link. Fast. This structure based on two circuit which work as bipole and third wire which operate as parallel monopole.MODERN TRENDS IN FACTS & HVDC System with transmission line is the most common configuration. In AC transmission is required process of charging and discharging. HVDC has minimize this effect. Improves optimization of daily and seasonal costs.g. what is causes of power losses. Key Benefits: • • • • • • • • • Independent control of the AC voltage and frequency in the two interconnected AC networks. No increase in the system’s short circuit level.

FACTS & HVDC has established itself as a proven and mature technology. Conclusions: With the history of more than three decades and widespread application in recent years. where the utilities are facing the problem of transmission expansion because of the strict environmental constraints.g. • In DC system controlling of multiterminal configuration is quite hard. in Japan. FACTS also help to better utilize the existing transmission resources. they have offer will be one of the most important tool for the system operator in the changing utility environment. for interconnection between two or more ac system. because required good communication between terminals. On other hand. South American (enormous hydroelectric power plant) – between Brazil and Paraguay In Europe the most lines are between UK. In short distances losses in static inverter may be even bigger than in AC transmission. In view of the various power system limits. From such reasons was built grids e. switching and control. HVDC provide superior control & can be modified for frequency control of ac network & damping control for improved stability of ac networks 20 . Application of FACTS for stability improvement will be of great concern because of the series of blackouts that has occurred in recent years. Problem of synchronized AC because of different frequency system occur e. in Siberia. Static converters are expensive. Also circuit-breakers are difficult than AC.g. Canada. Scandinavia and continental Europe.g. FACTS & HVDC provides the most reliable and efficient solution.MODERN TRENDS IN FACTS & HVDC Disadvantages : • disadvantages HVDC we can include conversion. Applications: HVDC system can connected unsynchronized grids. HVDC is key option for long bulk power transmission. wind farm) and between two long distant points. North America. DC line is also meeting in places where is require undersea transmission (e. for asynchronous tie substation & also for submarine as underground cable transmission. In the future static converters will be replaced by thirystors. therefore such lines very often are natural boundaries between countries. The operational flexibility and controllability that. Australia or Scandinavia. The modern HVDC replaces many EHV AC transmissions having lot of advantages. This all indicates that there is a great potential for its application in the years to come.

Paserba.ac.How FACTS Controllers Benefit AC Transmission Systems John J.Power System Analysis by Ashafaqu Husain.MODERN TRENDS IN FACTS & HVDC References: 1. Fellow.Comparison of shunt capacitor. IEEE 21 . SVC and STATCOM in static voltage stability margin enhancement mithulan@ait. 2.th 3.