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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search In mathematics, the Laplace transform is a widely used integral transform. Denoted , it is a linear operator of a function f(t) with a real argument t (t ≥ 0) that transforms it to a function F(s) with a complex argument s. This transformation is essentially bijective for the majority of practical uses; the respective pairs of f(t) and F(s) are matched in tables. The Laplace transform has the useful property that many relationships and operations over the originals f(t) correspond to simpler relationships and operations over the images F(s).[1] The Laplace transform has many important applications throughout the sciences. It is named for Pierre-Simon Laplace who introduced the transform in his work on probability theory. The Laplace transform is related to the Fourier transform, but whereas the Fourier transform resolves a function or signal into its modes of vibration, the Laplace transform resolves a function into its moments. Like the Fourier transform, the Laplace transform is used for solving differential and integral equations. In physics and engineering, it is used for analysis of linear time-invariant systems such as electrical circuits, harmonic oscillators, optical devices, and mechanical systems. In this analysis, the Laplace transform is often interpreted as a transformation from the time-domain, in which inputs and outputs are functions of time, to the frequency-domain, where the same inputs and outputs are functions of complex angular frequency, in radians per unit time. Given a simple mathematical or functional description of an input or output to a system, the Laplace transform provides an alternative functional description that often simplifies the process of analyzing the behavior of the system, or in synthesizing a new system based on a set of specifications.

Contents

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**1 History 2 Formal definition
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2.1 Probability theory 2.2 Bilateral Laplace transform 2.3 Inverse Laplace transform

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**3 Region of convergence 4 Properties and theorems
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**4.1 Proof of the Laplace transform of a function's derivative 4.2 Evaluating improper integrals 4.3 Relationship to other transforms
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4.3.1 Laplace–Stieltjes transform

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4.3.2 Fourier transform 4.3.3 Mellin transform 4.3.4 Z-transform 4.3.5 Borel transform 4.3.6 Fundamental relationships

5 Table of selected Laplace transforms 6 s-Domain equivalent circuits and impedances 7 Examples: How to apply the properties and theorems

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7.1 Example 1: Solving a differential equation 7.2 Example 2: Deriving the complex impedance for a capacitor 7.3 Example 3: Method of partial fraction expansion 7.4 Example 4: Mixing sines, cosines, and exponentials 7.5 Example 5: Phase delay

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**8 See also 9 Notes 10 References
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10.1 Modern 10.2 Historical

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11 External links

[edit] History

The Laplace transform is named in honor of mathematician and astronomer Pierre-Simon Laplace, who used the transform in his work on probability theory. From 1744, Leonhard Euler investigated integrals of the form

as solutions of differential equations but did not pursue the matter very far.[2] Joseph Louis Lagrange was an admirer of Euler and, in his work on integrating probability density functions, investigated expressions of the form

**which some modern historians have interpreted within modern Laplace transform theory.[3][4]
**

[clarification needed]

These types of integrals seem first to have attracted Laplace's attention in 1782 where he was following in the spirit of Euler in using the integrals themselves as solutions of equations.[5] However, in 1785, Laplace took the critical step forward when, rather than just looking for a

beginning to appreciate its potential power. defined for all real numbers t ≥ 0. In that case. is the function F(s). Still more generally. In 1809.[6] Laplace also recognised that Joseph Fourier's method of Fourier series for solving the diffusion equation could only apply to a limited region of space as the solutions were periodic. the Dirac delta function. to avoid potential confusion.solution in the form of an integral. Laplace applied his transform to find solutions that diffused indefinitely in space. He used an integral of the form: akin to a Mellin transform. the Laplace transform of a measure is often treated as though the measure came from a distribution function ƒ. to transform the whole of a difference equation. He then went on to apply the Laplace transform in the same way and started to derive some of its properties.∞). The meaning of the integral depends on types of functions of interest. A necessary condition for existence of the integral is that ƒ must be locally integrable on [0. One can define the Laplace transform of a finite Borel measure μ by the Lebesgue integral[8] An important special case is where μ is a probability measure or. in order to look for solutions of the transformed equation. the integral can be understood in a weak sense. For locally integrable functions that decay at infinity or are of exponential type. even more specifically. However. he started to apply the transforms in the sense that was later to become popular. In operational calculus. one often writes where the lower limit of 0− is short notation to mean . for many applications it is necessary to regard it as a conditionally convergent improper integral at ∞. the integral can be understood as a (proper) Lebesgue integral. and this is dealt with below. defined by: The parameter s is a complex number: with real numbers σ and ω.[7] [edit] Formal definition The Laplace transform of a function f(t).

The inverse Laplace transform is given by the following complex integral. including first passage times of stochastic processes such as Markov chains. Although with the Lebesgue integral.This limit emphasizes that any point mass located at 0 is entirely captured by the Laplace transform. and renewal theory. then the Laplace transform of ƒ is given by the expectation By abuse of language. If that is done the common unilateral transform simply becomes a special case of the bilateral transform where the definition of the function being transformed is multiplied by the Heaviside step function. [edit] Region of convergence . which is known by various names (the Bromwich integral. see Inverse Laplace transform. it is not necessary to take such a limit. Replacing s by −t gives the moment generating function of X. An alternative formula for the inverse Laplace transform is given by Post's inversion formula. the Laplace transform is defined by means of an expectation value. the Fourier-Mellin integral. and Mellin's inverse formula): where γ is a real number so that the contour path of integration is in the region of convergence of F(s). The Laplace transform can be alternatively defined as the bilateral Laplace transform or two-sided Laplace transform by extending the limits of integration to be the entire real axis. The Laplace transform has applications throughout probability theory. [edit] Probability theory In pure and applied probability. it does appear more naturally in connection with the Laplace–Stieltjes transform. The bilateral Laplace transform is defined as follows: [edit] Inverse Laplace transform For more details on this topic. this is referred to as the Laplace transform of the random variable X itself. [edit] Bilateral Laplace transform Main article: Two-sided Laplace transform When one says "the Laplace transform" without qualification. the unilateral or one-sided transform is normally intended. If X is a random variable with probability density function ƒ.

) The constant a is known as the abscissa of absolute convergence.If ƒ is a locally integrable function (or more generally a Borel measure locally of bounded variation).[10] The subset of values of s for which the Laplace transform converges absolutely is called the region of absolute convergence or the domain of absolute convergence. A variety of theorems. and possibly including the lines Re{s} = a or Re{s} = b. −∞ ≤ a ≤ ∞. Similarly. the set of values for which F(s) converges (conditionally or absolutely) is known as the region of conditional convergence. The Laplace transform is analytic in the region of absolute convergence. In the twosided case. The Laplace transform converges absolutely if the integral exists (as proper Lebesgue integral). or simply the region of convergence (ROC). [edit] Properties and theorems The Laplace transform has a number of properties that make it useful for analyzing linear dynamical systems. then the Laplace transform F(s) of ƒ converges provided that the limit exists. The Laplace transform is usually understood as conditionally convergent. meaning that it converges in the former instead of the latter sense. and depends on the growth behavior of ƒ(t). As a result. the two-sided transform converges absolutely in a strip of the form a < Re{s} < b. possibly including some points of the boundary line Re{s} = a. it is analytic. The set of values for which F(s) converges absolutely is either of the form Re{s} > a or else Re{s} ≥ a. where a is an extended real constant. If the Laplace transform converges (conditionally) at s = s0. exist concerning the relationship between the decay properties of ƒ and the properties of the Laplace transform within the region of convergence. it is sometimes called the strip of absolute convergence. in the form of Paley–Wiener theorems. the Laplace transform of ƒ can be expressed by integrating by parts as the integral That is. In particular. a function corresponding to a linear time-invariant (LTI) system is stable if every bounded input produces a bounded output. (This follows from the dominated convergence theorem. then it automatically converges for all s with Re{s} > Re{s0}. The most significant advantage is that differentiation and integration become .[9] Analogously. in the region of convergence F(s) can effectively be expressed as the absolutely convergent Laplace transform of some other function. Therefore the region of convergence is a half-plane of the form Re{s} > a. In the region of convergence Re{s} > Re{s0}. This is equivalent to the absolute convergence of the Laplace transform of the impulse response function in the region Re{s} ≥ 0. In engineering applications. LTI systems are stable provided the poles of the Laplace transform of the impulse response function have negative real part.

by s (similarly to logarithms changing multiplication of numbers to addition of their logarithms). respectively. More general form. Follows by applying the Differentiation property to . nth derivative of F(s). is the first derivative of . which are much easier to solve. the Laplace variable s is also known as operator variable in the L domain: either derivative operator or (for s−1) integration operator. with nth derivative of exponential type. ƒ is assumed to be a differentiable function. use of the inverse Laplace transform reverts back to the time domain. Given the functions f(t) and g(t).multiplication and division. ƒ is assumed to be ntimes differentiable. and its derivative is assumed to be of exponential type. and their respective Laplace transforms F(s) and G(s): the following table is a list of properties of unilateral Laplace transform:[11] Properties of the unilateral Laplace transform Time domain 's' domain Linearity Frequency differentia tion Frequency differentia tion Comment Can be proved using basic rules of integration. Once solved. Follow by Differentia tion Second Differentia tion General Differentia tion . The transform turns integral equations and differential equations to polynomial equations. This can then be obtained by integration by parts ƒ is assumed twice differentiable and the second derivative to be of exponential type. Because of this property.

This is the result of the time shifting property and the geometric series.g. where a is positive. Frequency integratio n Integratio n u(t) is the Heaviside step function. f(t) is a periodic function of period T so that .mathematical induction.[12] ƒ(t) and g(t) are extended by zero for t < 0 in the definition of the convolution. If a function's poles are in the right-hand plane (e. if all poles of sF(s) are in the left half-plane. The final value theorem is useful because it gives the long-term behaviour without having to perform partial fraction decompositions or other difficult algebra. Periodic Function • Initial value theorem: • Final value theorem: . Note (u * f)(t) is the convolution of u(t) and f(t). et or sin(t)) the behaviour of this formula is undefined. Scaling Frequency shifting Time shifting Multiplica tion Convoluti on u(t) is the Heaviside step function the integration is done along the vertical line Re(σ) = c that lies entirely within the region of convergence of F. .

[edit] Proof of the Laplace transform of a function's derivative It is often convenient to use the differentiation property of the Laplace transform to find the transform of a function's derivative. then (see the table above) or Let we get the identity . This can be derived from the basic expression for a Laplace transform as follows: yielding and in the bilateral case. can then be established with an inductive argument. [edit] Evaluating improper integrals Let . The general result where fn is the n-th derivative of f.

If g is the antiderivative of ƒ: then the Laplace–Stieltjes transform of g and the Laplace transform of ƒ coincide. So in practice. Another example is Dirichlet integral.For example.[13] [edit] Fourier transform The continuous Fourier transform is equivalent to evaluating the bilateral Laplace transform with complex argument s = iω or s = 2πfi : This expression excludes the scaling factor . whereas the Laplace–Stieltjes transform is thought of as operating on its cumulative distribution function. [edit] Relationship to other transforms [edit] Laplace–Stieltjes transform The (unilateral) Laplace–Stieltjes transform of a function g : R → R is defined by the Lebesgue– Stieltjes integral The function g is assumed to be of bounded variation. This relationship between the Laplace and Fourier transforms is often used to determine the frequency spectrum of a signal or dynamical system. In general. . the Laplace–Stieltjes transform is the Laplace transform of the Stieltjes measure associated to g. which is often included in definitions of the Fourier transform. the only distinction between the two transforms is that the Laplace transform is thought of as operating on the density function of the measure.

[edit] Mellin transform The Mellin transform and its inverse are related to the two-sided Laplace transform by a simple change of variables. this holds for the above example provided that the limit is understood as a weak limit of measures (see vague topology). a relation of the form holds under much weaker conditions. However. σ = 0.g. [edit] Z-transform The unilateral or one-sided Z-transform is simply the Laplace transform of an ideally sampled signal with the substitution of where is the sampling period (in units of time e.The above relation is valid as stated if and only if the region of convergence (ROC) of F(s) contains the imaginary axis.. substituting s = iω in F(s) does not yield the Fourier transform of f(t) = cos(ω0t). General conditions relating the limit of the Laplace transform of a function on the boundary to the Fourier transform take the form of Paley-Wiener theorems. seconds) and sampling rate (in samples per second or hertz) Let is the be a sampling impulse train (also called a Dirac comb) and be the continuous-time representation of the sampled . If in the Mellin transform we set θ = e-t we get a two-sided Laplace transform. Therefore. For instance. For example. the function f(t) = cos(ω0t)u(t) has a Laplace transform F(s) = s/(s2 + ω02) whose ROC is Re(s) > 0.

are the discrete samples of The Laplace transform of the sampled signal is . This is precisely the definition of the unilateral Z-transform of the discrete function with the substitution of . meaning that . [edit] Borel transform The integral form of the Borel transform is a special case of the Laplace transform for ƒ an entire function of exponential type. we find the relationship between the unilateral Z-transform and the Laplace transform of the sampled signal: The similarity between the Z and Laplace transforms is expanded upon in the theory of time scale calculus. Comparing the last two equations.

see the Explanatory Notes at the end of the table. Because the Laplace transform is a linear operator: • The Laplace transform of a sum is the sum of Laplace transforms of each term. However. The unilateral Laplace transform takes as input a function whose time domain is the nonnegative reals.for some constants A and B. which is why all of the time domain functions in the table below are multiples of the Heaviside step function. For definitions and explanations. Mellin-. a different point of view and different characteristic problems are associated with each of these four major integral transforms. The generalized Borel transform allows a different weighting function to be used. In general. the region of convergence for causal systems is not the same as that of anticausal systems. • The Laplace transform of a multiple of a function is that multiple times the Laplace transformation of that function. rather than the exponential function. Time domain ID 1 1a Function ideal delay unit impulse delayed nth power with frequency shift nth power ( for integer n) 1 Laplace s-domain Region of convergence 2 2a . u(t). and since the two-sided transform can be written as the sum of two one-sided transforms. Nachbin's theorem gives necessary and sufficient conditions for the Borel transform to be well defined. The entries of the table that involve a time delay τ are required to be causal (meaning that τ > 0). the theory of the Laplace-. to transform functions not of exponential type. and Z-transforms are at bottom the same subject. [edit] Fundamental relationships Since an ordinary Laplace transform can be written as a special case of a two-sided transform. [edit] Table of selected Laplace transforms The following table provides Laplace transforms for many common functions of a single variable. Fourier-. A causal system is a system where the impulse response h(t) is zero for all time t prior to t = 0.

1 ( for complex q) 2a.2 2b 2c unit step delayed unit step ramp nth power with frequency shift exponential decay exponential approach sine cosine hyperbolic sine hyperbolic cosine 2d 2d.1 3 4 5 6 7 8 Exponentially -decaying sine wave Exponentially 9 -decaying cosine wave 10 nth root .qth power 2a.

is the complex angular frequency. . is the Euler–Mascheroni constant.11 natural logarithm Bessel function of the first kind. represents the Dirac delta function. [edit] s-Domain equivalent circuits and impedances . of order n Bessel function of the second kind. represents the Gamma function. . and are real numbers. • • • • • • n is an integer. of order n Modified Bessel function of the first kind. of order 0 Modified Bessel function of the second kind. typically represents time. although it can represent any independent dimension. of order 0 12 13 14 15 16 Error function Explanatory notes: • represents the Heaviside step function. • . and Re{s} is its real part. . a real number.

The equivalents for current and voltage sources are simply derived from the transformations in the table above. the latter being easier to solve because of its algebraic form. Here is a summary of equivalents: Note that the resistor is exactly the same in the time domain and the s-Domain. the sources inserted in the s-Domain account for that. The English . For more information. very similar to phasor impedances. see control theory. The Laplace transform reduces a linear differential equation to an algebraic equation. The sources are put in if there are initial conditions on the circuit elements. For example. Circuit elements can be transformed into impedances. if a capacitor has an initial voltage across it.The Laplace transform is often used in circuit analysis. the output of a linear time invariant system can be calculated by convolving its unit impulse response with the input signal. [edit] Examples: How to apply the properties and theorems The Laplace transform is used frequently in engineering and physics. or if the inductor has an initial current through it. The Laplace transform can also be used to solve differential equations and is used extensively in electrical engineering. Performing this calculation in Laplace space turns the convolution into a multiplication. which can then be solved by the formal rules of algebra. and simple conversions to the s-Domain of circuit elements can be made. The original differential equation can then be solved by applying the inverse Laplace transform.

This leads to the first order linear differential equation where λ is the decay constant. we take the inverse Laplace transform to find the general solution which is indeed the correct form for radioactive decay. this is expressed by the differential equation . The Laplace transform can be used to solve this equation. the following fundamental relationship governs radioactive decay: the number of radioactive atoms N in a sample of a radioactive isotope decays at a rate proportional to N. we find Finally. and the resulting operational calculus is credited as the Heaviside calculus.electrical engineer Oliver Heaviside first proposed a similar scheme. although without using the Laplace transform. [edit] Example 1: Solving a differential equation In nuclear physics. Rearranging the equation to one side. we take the Laplace transform of both sides of the equation: where and Solving. Symbolically. the current flow in a capacitor is proportional to the capacitance and rate of change in the electrical potential (in SI units). [edit] Example 2: Deriving the complex impedance for a capacitor In the theory of electrical circuits. we have Next.

Taking the Laplace transform of this equation. also as a function of time. [edit] Example 3: Method of partial fraction expansion Consider a linear time-invariant system with transfer function The impulse response is simply the inverse Laplace transform of this transfer function: . we obtain where and Solving for V(s) we have The definition of the complex impedance Z (in ohms) is the ratio of the complex voltage V divided by the complex current I while holding the initial state Vo at zero: Using this definition and the previous equation.where C is the capacitance (in farads) of the capacitor. we find: which is the correct expression for the complex impedance of a capacitor. and v = v(t) is the voltage (in volts) across the terminals of the capacitor. i = i(t) is the electric current (in amperes) through the capacitor as a function of time.

using the linearity property and the known transform for exponential decay (see Item #3 in the Table of Laplace Transforms. we begin by expanding H(s) using the method of partial fraction expansion: The unknown constants P and R are the residues located at the corresponding poles of the transfer function. cosines. [edit] Example 4: Mixing sines. and exponentials Time function Laplace transform .To evaluate this inverse transform. the inverse Laplace transform depends only upon the poles and their residues. above). we can take the inverse Laplace transform of H(s) to obtain: which is the impulse response of the system. Each residue represents the relative contribution of that singularity to the transfer function's overall shape. the contribution from R vanishes and all that is left is Similarly. we multiply both sides of the equation by s + α to get Then by letting s = −α. the residue R is given by Note that and so the substitution of R and P into the expanded expression for H(s) gives Finally. To find the residue P. By the residue theorem.

using the Laplace transforms for sine and cosine (see the table. we have [edit] Example 5: Phase delay Time function Laplace transform Starting with the Laplace transform. above). we have Finally. .Starting with the Laplace transform we find the inverse transform by first adding and subtracting the same constant α to the numerator: By the shift-in-frequency property.

we find the inverse by first rearranging terms in the fraction: We are now able to take the inverse Laplace transform of our terms: This is just the sine of the sum of the arguments.1 2. §8. ^ Euler 1744. ^ Korn & Korn 1967. (1753) and (1769) . We can apply similar logic to find that [edit] See also • • • • • • • • • • • Pierre-Simon Laplace Laplace transform applied to differential equations Moment-generating function Z-transform (discrete equivalent of the Laplace transform) Fourier transform Sumudu transform or Laplace–Carson transform Analog signal processing Continuous-repayment mortgage Hardy–Littlewood tauberian theorem Bernstein's theorem Symbolic integration [edit] Notes 1. yielding: x(t) = sin(ωt + φ).

ISSN 0002-9890. ISBN 0-262-19229-2 . Mat. ^ Feller 1971. Vector-Valued Laplace Transforms and Cauchy Problems.. (1967). William (1971). Sem. pp. 261–262 7. Chapter VI. ISBN 0-387-95314-0 . 385 13. (1998). Wolfgang. Integral transforms and their applications (Third ed. Princeton Mathematical Series. V. Vol. R. McGraw-Hill Companies. and Systems. The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (3rd ed. §2 11. ^ Grattan-Guinness 1997. Math. Table 14. 262–266 8.). Second edition.1 9. "What is the Laplace transform?". v. p. doi:10. 8) 52 (8): 419–425. Chapter II. p. II. N. pp. Korn.3. Handbook of Integral Equations. David Vernon (1945). Manzhirov. Widder. D. Laurent (1952). Massachusetts: MIT Press. Widder. Hieber. Cambridge. MR0270403 . Charles J. ISBN 3764365498 . p. Matthias. Frank (2002). The American Mathematical Monthly (The American Mathematical Monthly. http://www. ISBN 0071160434 .). (2000). MR0005923 ..org/stable/2305640 .K. Princeton University Press. Neubrander. T. ISBN 0-8493-2876-4 .A. ^ Bracewell 2000.. Sém. ^ Lagrange 1773 4. The Laplace Transform. (1986). ^ Feller 1971. §1 10. p. Schwartz. David Vernon (1941). p. Circuits.] 1952: 196–206. • • • • • • • • • [edit] Historical . MR0013447. ISBN 0-0703-5370-0 . 6. Comm. Korn. Boston: McGraw-Hill.M. Davies. Bracewell.).. Boca Raton: CRC Press. ^ Grattan-Guinness 1997. ^ Grattan-Guinness 1997. §XIII.jstor. 226–227) 12.2307/2305640. Siebert. Polyanin. Batty. Brian (2002). Mathematical Handbook for Scientists and Engineers (2nd ed. "Transformation de Laplace des distributions". ^ (Korn & Korn 1967. Signals. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Lund [Medd. New York: Springer. A. ^ Grattan-Guinness 1997. 52. No. An introduction to probability theory and its applications. Vol. Feller. Birkhäuser Basel. Lunds Univ. Univ. ^ Widder 1941. 261 6.1. William McC. A. 432 [edit] References [edit] Modern • Arendt. ^ Widder 1941. MR0052555 . G. 260 5.

B. I (1997). (1773). "Laplace Transform" from MathWorld. ISBN 0-691-01185-0 .. "The development of the Laplace transform". "The development of the Laplace transform".fr Tables of Integral Transforms at EqWorld: The World of Mathematical Equations. Weisstein. (1753). L. Laplace Transform Table and Examples at Vibrationdata. 1st series 22: 150–161 .1007/BF01395660 Deakin. in Gillispie. M. pp. (November 2009) • • • • • • • • • • Online Computation of the transform or inverse transform. B. Euler.wikipedia. Œuvres de Lagrange.• • • • • • Deakin. Archive for the History of the Exact Sciences 25: 343–390. Opera omnia.org/wiki/Laplace_transform" Categories: Integral transforms | Differential equations | Fourier analysis | Transforms Hidden categories: All pages needing cleanup | Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2010 | Wikipedia external links cleanup from November 2009 | Wikipedia spam cleanup from November 2009 Personal tools • • • Log in / create account Article Discussion Namespaces . Retrieved from "http://en. A. Grattan-Guinness. Laplace Transform Module by John H. doi:10. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Eric W. Euler. 2. (1982). 171–234 . Mathews Good explanations of the initial and final value theorems Laplace Transforms at MathPages Laplace and Heaviside at Interactive maths. 1st series 22: 181–213 . A. "Institutiones calculi integralis. Mémoire sur l'utilité de la méthode. Opera omnia. Please improve this article by removing excessive and inappropriate external links. Archive for the History of the Exact Sciences 26: 351–381 Euler. wims. (1981). Chapters 3–5. Lagrange. "Methodus aequationes differentiales". M. 1st series 12 . C. • [edit] External links This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. C. L. J. Volume 2".unice. Opera omnia. "Laplace's integral solutions to partial differential equations". Examples of solving boundary value problems (PDEs) with Laplace Transforms Computational Knowledge Engine allows to easily calculate Laplace Transforms and its inverse Transform. L. (1744). "De constructione aequationum".. L. (1769). Pierre Simon Laplace 1749–1827: A Life in Exact Science.

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