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thinking that underpins it. Contributions are welcomed from within a variety of academic disciplines - particularly health education, sociology, philosophy and psychology - and from a variety of ideological standpoints. Submitted work should connect significantly with issues concerned with sex education and have presumptions made by the author(s) described and defended. Sex Education does not assume that sex education takes place only in educational institutions and the family. Contributions are therefore welcomed which, for example, analyse the impacts of media and other vehicles of culture on sexual behaviour and attitudes. Medical and epidemiological papers (e.g. of trends in the incidences of sexually transmitted infections) will not be accepted unless their educational implications are discussed adequately. There is a burgeoning need, in recent times, to impart sex education to our teenagers. During adolescence,not only do the hormones work overtime, but there are physical changes too that are taking place in the body structure; particularly so in the sex organs, making the teenager curious to explore these changes. Added to all this, there is often an impulsiveness to indulge in what is forbidden combined with the absence of adequate wisdom to control these impulses.The 'sexual arena' is in constant focus among the teens; in the absence of proper guidance, this can result in more harm than good. Let us try to analyze the reasons that point towards sex education for the teensAdequate guidance would always help prevent teenage pregnancies. It stresses on the role of abstinence and contraceptive methods, including the use of condoms. Besides teenage pregnancies being a health hazard, adolescents are mentally unprepared to handle pregnancy, childbirth and parenthood. With sex education, teenagers will be better equipped to understand the repercussions of teenage pregnancy on their health as well as that of the fetus. They will recognize the importance of pre- delivery care and the consequences of hiding a pregnancy. Sex education will help teenagers appreciate the negative impact of teenage pregnancy on their education, and consequently on their future, so that they would take necessary steps to avoid it. Sex education would go a long way in helping to control AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea, non-gonoccocal urethritis, pelvic inflammatory disease and syphilis, to name a few.
(This skin is sometimes removed in a procedure called circumcision.” When we look at all these facts together with the severe social stigma been attached to unwed teen pregnancies in India and else where. had been quite effective in making the young adults take better decisions about sex that had affected their health the least. The external structures of the male reproductive system are the penis. and the glans. Penis — The penis is the male organ for sexual intercourse. In the year 2002 the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) had asked the schools to incorporate the subject of sex education in schools across the country. and the problem is not only in India alone. The glans. magazines or websites. which teach the children about the benefits of both abstinence and contraception. which also is called the head of the penis. The Male Reproductive System The organs of the male reproductive system are specialized for the following functions: • • • To produce. The main debate for the subject had centers around the question about the benefits of teaching children about contraception. is covered with a loose layer of skin called foreskin. They need to understand very early that “it is better to be safe than sorry. Sex education as a subject is yet to be accepted as a normal part of the school curriculum. the scrotum and the testicles. It is better for them to get the right information from their peers rather than getting misinformation from other sources like friends. which had gone ahead with the inclusion of the topic. the tube that transports semen .) The opening of the urethra. the body. It has three parts: the root. And yet research had shown that comprehensive sex education programs. it is not difficult to understand why sex education programs for teenagers are so much required.Sex education to the teens is the responsibility of every parent and teacher. which is the cone-shaped end of the penis. Enlightening a teenager is the best preventive policy to tackle the growing health problems in this age group. What are the external reproductive structures? Most of the male reproductive system is located outside of the man’s body. maintain and transport sperm (the male reproductive cells) and protective fluid (semen) To discharge sperm within the female reproductive tract To produce and secrete male sex hormones The male reproductive anatomy includes internal and external structures. or shaft. which attaches to the wall of the abdomen. but in reality there are more schools that are hesitant about educating their students about sex than the schools.
which contains sperm. Most men have two testes. Semen. The skin of the penis is loose and elastic to accommodate changes in penis size during an erection. The penis also contains a number of sensitive nerve endings. is at the tip of the glans penis. Testicles (testes) — The testes are oval organs about the size of large olives that lie in the scrotum. The vas deferens transports mature sperm to the urethra in preparation for ejaculation. It also is the job of the epididymis to bring the sperm to maturity. These tubules are responsible for producing the sperm cells through a process called spermatogenesis.and urine. as well as many nerves and blood vessels. When the penis is erect. The ejaculatory ducts empty into the urethra. coiled tube that rests on the backside of each testicle. This tissue contains thousands of large spaces that fill with blood when the man is sexually aroused. It functions in the transport and storage of the sperm cells that are produced in the testes. Ejaculatory ducts — These are formed by the fusion of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles. sponge-like erectile tissue. In males. since the sperm that emerge from the testes are immature and incapable of fertilization. What are the internal reproductive organs? The internal organs of the male reproductive system. secured at either end by a structure called the spermatic cord. The scrotum has a protective function and acts as a climate control system for the testes. As the penis fills with blood. it becomes rigid and erect. The testes are responsible for making testosterone. also called accessory organs. the testes must be at a temperature slightly cooler than the body temperature. Urethra — The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of the body. muscular tube that travels from the epididymis into the pelvic cavity. is expelled (ejaculated) through the end of the penis when the man reaches sexual climax (orgasm). The body of the penis is cylindrical in shape and consists of three internal chambers. it has the additional function of expelling (ejaculating) . allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm. For normal sperm development. Scrotum — The scrotum is the loose pouch-like sac of skin that hangs behind the penis. Epididymis — The epididymis is a long. the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra. These chambers are made up of special. which allows for penetration during sexual intercourse. to just behind the bladder. Special muscles in the wall of the scrotum allow it to contract and relax. contractions force the sperm into the vas deferens. include the following: • • • Vas deferens — The vas deferens is a long. It contains the testicles (also called testes). and for generating sperm. the primary male sex hormone. During sexual arousal. Within the testes are coiled masses of tubes called seminiferous tubules. moving the testicles closer to the body for warmth and protection or farther away from the body to cool the temperature.
Bulbourethral glands — The bulbourethral glands. The fluid of the seminal vesicles makes up most of the volume of a man’s ejaculatory fluid. runs through the center of the prostate gland. Prostate gland — The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure that is located below the urinary bladder in front of the rectum. the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra.• • • semen when the man reaches orgasm. or ejaculate. allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm. This fluid serves to lubricate the urethra and to neutralize any acidity that may be present due to residual drops of urine in the urethra. These glands produce a clear. The seminal vesicles produce a sugarrich fluid (fructose) that provides sperm with a source of energy and helps with the sperms’ motility (ability to move). Prostate fluids also help to nourish the sperm. and transport sperm (the male reproductive cells) and protective fluid (semen) To discharge sperm within the female reproductive tract during sex To produce and secrete male sex hormones responsible for maintaining the male reproductive system . maintain. which carries the ejaculate to be expelled during orgasm. are peasized structures located on the sides of the urethra just below the prostate gland. Seminal vesicles — The seminal vesicles are sac-like pouches that attach to the vas deferens near the base of the bladder. slippery fluid that empties directly into the urethra. When the penis is erect during sex. or Cowper’s glands. The prostate gland contributes additional fluid to the ejaculate. The urethra. The Male Reproductive System The purpose of the organs of the male reproductive system is to perform the following functions: • • • To produce.
This tissue contains thousands of large spaces that fill with blood when the man is sexually aroused. Semen. the tube that transports semen and urine. Special muscles in the wall of the scrotum allow it to contract and relax. It contains the testicles (also called testes). These chambers are made up of special. is at the tip of the penis. which is the cone-shaped part at the end of the penis. The scrotum acts as a "climate control system" for the testes. most of the male reproductive system is located outside of the body. is covered with a loose layer of skin called foreskin. and for generating sperm. . and testicles. The penis also contains a number of sensitive nerve endings. This skin is sometimes removed in a procedure called circumcision. The body of the penis is cylindrical in shape and consists of three circular shaped chambers. When the penis is erect. allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm. it becomes rigid and erect. A boys body physically changes into a man's body and a girl's body changes into a women's body. Testicles (testes): These are oval organs about the size of large olives that lie in the scrotum. As the penis fills with blood. The glans. the primary male sex hormone. sponge-like tissue. which allows for penetration during sexual intercourse.Unlike the female reproductive system. or shaft. Most men have two testes. and the glans. The testes are responsible for making testosterone. also called the head of the penis. For normal sperm development. scrotum. • What is puberty? Puberty (pu-ber-tee) is the name for when your body begins to develop and change from a child's body into an adults body. Within the testes are coiled masses of tubes called seminiferous tubules. These external structures include the penis. is expelled (ejaculated) through the end of the penis when the man reaches sexual climax (orgasm). the body. • Scrotum: This is the loose pouch-like sac of skin that hangs behind and below the penis. These tubes are responsible for producing sperm cells. It has three parts: the root. moving the testicles closer to the body for warmth or farther away from the body to cool the temperature. as well as many nerves and blood vessels. the testes must be at a temperature slightly cooler than body temperature. The opening of the urethra. the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra. secured at either end by a structure called the spermatic cord. which contains sperm (reproductive cells). The skin of the penis is loose and elastic to accommodate changes in penis size during an erection. which attaches to the wall of the abdomen. • Penis: This is the male organ used in sexual intercourse.
The main external structures of the female reproductive system include: • • • • Labia majora: The labia majora enclose and protect the other external reproductive organs. beginning the intitial stages of pregnancy. Labia minora: Literally translated as "small lips. normally occurs in the fallopian tubes. The next step for the fertilized egg is to implant into the walls of the uterus. and are comparable to the scrotum in males. Clitoris: The two labia minora meet at the clitoris. They lie just inside the labia majora. the clitoris is very sensitive to stimulation and can become erect. sensitive protrusion that is comparable to the penis in males. Literally translated as "large lips. During menopause the female reproductive system gradually stops making the female hormones necessary for the reproductive cycle to work. The internal reproductive organs include: • • Vagina: The vagina is a canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of uterus) to the outside of the body. After puberty. The labia majora contain sweat and oil-secreting glands. the female reproductive system produces female sex hormones that maintain the reproductive cycle. The system is designed to transport the ova to the site of fertilization. When the body no longer produces these hormones a woman is considered to be menopausal. called the ova or oocytes. Uterus (womb): The uterus is a hollow. the system is designed to menstruate (the monthly shedding of the uterine lining)." the labia majora are relatively large and fleshy. Conception. he function of the external female reproductive structures (the genital) is twofold: To enable sperm to enter the body and to protect the internal genital organs from infectious organisms. which is similar to the foreskin at the end of the penis. In addition. It produces the female egg cells necessary for reproduction." the labia minora can be very small or up to 2 inches wide. and surround the openings to the vagina (the canal that joins the lower part of the uterus to the outside of the body) and urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body). Bartholin's glands: These glands are located next to the vaginal opening and produce a fluid (mucus) secretion. If fertilization and/or implantation does not take place. the fertilization of an egg by a sperm. called the prepuce. It also is known as the birth canal. the labia majora are covered with hair. What Parts Make Up the Female Anatomy? The female reproductive anatomy includes internal and external structures. a small. called the . and the main body of the uterus. The clitoris is covered by a fold of skin. The uterus is divided into two parts: the cervix. pear-shaped organ that is the home to a developing fetus.The female reproductive system is designed to carry out several functions. Like the penis. which is the lower part that opens into the vagina.
The corpus can easily expand to hold a developing baby.• • corpus. normally occurs in the fallopian tubes. Conception. oval-shaped glands that are located on either side of the uterus. Ovaries: The ovaries are small. where it implants to the uterine wall. The fertilized egg then moves to the uterus. the fertilization of an egg by a sperm. The ovaries produce eggs and hormones. . A channel through the cervix allows sperm to enter and menstrual blood to exit. Fallopian tubes: These are narrow tubes that are attached to the upper part of the uterus and serve as tunnels for the ova (egg cells) to travel from the ovaries to the uterus.
growth of body and pubic hair. some adolescents become very concerned about their appearance. body and pubic hair. with the speed of these changes. They and their parents may worry less if they remember that there's a lot of difference in the ages at which these changes occur. Growth and development uses a lot of energy. boys catch up. your children may hit puberty earlier than you did.CHANGES Physical • • • • • • The process of rapid physical changes in adolescence is called puberty. Their getting-up late may be irritating. especially if they are not growing or maturing as quickly as their friends. erections and wet dreams. Girls start these changes before boys and will. they'll be young men and women who may be bigger than their parents and capable of having children themselves. In spite of this. they often still need support from you. probably due to better nutrition. from around eleven years for girls and thirteen for boys. growth of under-arm. So. facial hair. It starts gradually. . The age at which puberty starts has been dropping in most countries. for the first three or four years. The hormone changes responsible actually begin some years earlier and may produce periods of moodiness and restlessness. appear to be maturing much faster. but it may well not be just laziness. For boys: voice breaks (becomes deeper). They may need a lot of reassurance. It is not surprising that. By the age of 17. After this. and this may be why teenagers often seem to need so much sleep. These changes include: For girls: menstrual periods. For both: Rapid physical growth.
They may also be the signs of a risk-taking lifestyle . It is illegal to have sex if either partner is under this age. Ireland. HIV infection and AIDS are becoming more common. The age of consent for both heterosexual and homosexual intercourse is 16 in England. and family planning clinics. most don't. clear guidance and accurate information about these different aspects of sex are essential . family doctors. Sexually transmitted diseases are common. Recent research suggests that girls who are close to their parents are less likely to become pregnant in their teenage years.from parents. some express their concern with excessive bragging about sexual ability and experiences. Some go on to be gay.Sexual Problems • • • • • • • • • The dramatic physical changes of adolescence can be very worrying to some teenagers. even if they give consent. Crushes on someone of the same sex are common in adolescence.adolescents who take risks in one way tend to take risks in other ways as well. especially to those who are shy and who don't like to ask questions. Scotland and Wales. . schools. More than half of young people in the UK will have had their first experience of sex before the age of 16 and so the risk of pregnancy is a significant part of adolescent life. At the other end of the scale. Those who start having sex early are at greater risk of early pregnancy and health problems. Most adolescents choose their partners quite carefully. Some young people (and their parents) will not be sure whether they are gay or straight. Sensitive support. Sleeping around and risky unprotected intercourse are often signs of underlying emotional problems. 17 in N.
5 to 11 and 16 to 18. peaking somewhere around 12 years. who does not have to inform their parents. as it is with the onset of menstruation in girls. and the occurrence of nocturnal emissions occurs with the peak of the height spurt. Boys may begin to notice enlargement of the testicles and scrotum as early as 9 years of age. Adult size and shape of the genitals is typically reached by age 16 to 17 years. .begins in boys at about age 12.• Teenagers can get confidential advice on contraception from their GP. A rapid growth in height occurs for boys between the ages of about 10.as well as armpit and leg hair -. A rapid growth in height occurs for girls between the ages of about 9. with the average about 14. Pubic hair growth -. and reaches adult distribution patterns at about 15 to 16 years.5 years.as well as armpit. Voice change in boys typically occur along with penile growth. Emergency contraception from pharmacies is only available to those aged 16 or over. Pubic hair growth -.typically begins at about age 9 or 10. followed closely by lengthening of the penis.5 years. Menarche (the beginning of menstrual periods) typically occurs about 2 years after initial pubescent changes are noted. The appearance of regular nocturnal emissions (wet dreams) marks the onset of puberty in boys and typically occurs between the ages of 13 and 17 years. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Adolescence is characterized by dramatic physical changes moving the individual from childhood into physical maturity. or as late as 15 years. and reaches adult distribution patterns at about 13 to 14 years.5 years. Puberty is not marked with a sudden incident in boys. It may occur as early as 10 years. chest. with the average in the United States being about 12. leg. Girls may begin to develop breast buds as early as 8 years old. with full breast development achieved anywhere from 12 to 18 years.5 and 14. and facial hair -. peaking around age 14. prepubescent changes are noted with the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics. Early.
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