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The Nagarathars (also known as Nagarattar Tamil: ) are a Chettiar community that originated in Kaveripoompattinam under the Chola kingdom of India. They are a prominent mercantile (Vaishya, Tamil: ) caste in Tamil Nadu, South India. They are a very rich community known for their philanthropy; building temples and schools, and maintaining them throughout Asia.
Regions with significant populations
Tamil Nadu, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Malaysia, Burma, USA
Shaivism, Shaiva Siddhanta
Related ethnic groups
Tamil people, Dravidian people, Vaishya, Tamil:
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The first book on prints to come out about Nagarathar history is in 1894 called "Thanavaisya Nattukottai Nagarathar". With the help of scriptures from Poongondrai Velangudi at Thulavoor Mutt, the book was requested and examined by VR.L.Chinniah Chettiar of Devakottai. The permission granted by imminent persons such as M.AL.AR. Ramanathan Chettiar and AL.AR.RM.Arunachalam Chettiar the edition were printed by Sadavadanam Subramania Iyer of Tanjore at the Desabimani Press at Tanjore. The second edition came in 1904. In 1911, Pandithamani Kathiresan Chettiar wrote a book called "Nattukottai Nagarathar Seerthirutham" (changes) and in 1919 Chockalinga Ayya of Karaikudi wrote a book called "Nattukottai Nagarathar Marabu Vilakkam" (description of their ways). Both wrote separate books on Nagarathar history. In 1953, the compilation by A.Ramanathan Chettiar of Vayinagaram and the edition of that by Pandithamani was called "Nattukottai Varalaru" (history). In 1970 A.Shesadiri of Varagur wrote "Nattukottai Nagarathar Varalaru", which came out in the form of a book. After this many researchers on Nagarathars have written many research essays on the past history. Certain notable essays are those written by Kamban Adipodi Sa. Ganesan, Dr.V.SP.Manickanar, Dr.SP.Annamalai and Dr.T.Chockalingam. Based on the above we can classify the old history of the Nagarathars as below: .
Early History (till 2898 BC.
Initially the Vaishyas lived in Sandhyapuri of the Sambu Islands in Naganadu. This borders the present state of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. They were of Chandrakula Gothiram. Later they embraced Saivism. There is
actually a question over when the Nagarathars joined Saivism and when they would renounce Saivism? "When the sun and the moon were born on this earth the Nagarathars became Saivaites and when they are no more they would renounce Saivism." v According to Pandit Kathiresan Chettiar. At that time they were saivaites, praying to Maragatha Vinayagar, doing trade in precious stones and having the equal respect like the king. Naganadu is near Andhra. Later, an earthquake, according to DR. V.SP.Manickanar destroyed this Naganadu.
Leather Age (2897 BC to 790 BC)
During the Kaliyuga year 204 (2897 BC) the Vaishyas could not bear the harassment of the Naga king and they came down to Thondaimandalam, namely Kanchipuram. At Kanchipuram the king welcomed them with a warm heart and royalty. He gave them land to build temples and mutts, They continued their devotion towards Maragatha Vinayagar and continued their trade with gems till the Kaliyuga year 2311 (790 BC) and lived happily.
Old years (789 BC to 706 AD)
During the Kaliyuga year 2312 (789 BC), Prathaparasa the king who ruled Kanchipuram imposed unjustified severe fines and punishments. Hence, the Vaishyas from there went to Cholanadu. They settled along the banks of River Cauvery at Kaveripoompattinam. Manuneedhicholan, the king of that time requested the Vaishyas to live in three streets, East, West and South streets. He gave the Vaishyas three honorable rights. One was the coronation of the king, the second was to have an independent lion flag of their own and the third was to have golden kalasams in the bungalows they lived in. When they got these rights the Nagarathars were called " Rathina Maguda Thanavaisyar". They continued their prayers towards Maragatha Vinayagar. In the Kaliyuga year 3775 (674 BC) Poovanthicholan who was ruling at that time harassed and imprisoned all the womenfolk. Hence, the 8000 Vaishyas leaving behind all their assets, 1502 boys and the Maragatha Vinayagar under the custody of their guru Atmananda Sastri to do pooja and look after, they all committed suicide. The guru Atmananda Sastri taught them the five-letter panchatara mantra for upadesam, till to this date they remember it with the help of the Patharakkudi Madam. In the Kaliyuga year 3784 (683 BC) the old aged Poovanthicholan requested the Vaishyas youngsters to do the coronation ceremony for his son Rajaboosanacholan. The youngsters said that they were incapable of doing the coronation since they were all bachelors and there were no eligible girls in the community to get married to. The king consulted with Esana sivachariar and pronounced that Vaishyas can marry Vellala caste girls. The Vaishyas youngsters said that they would marry the girls from the Vellala caste, but they would not marry their girls by birth to the Vellala caste. The king requested the Vellala community to accept this. The Vellala community accepted on the condition that their community guru would perform the dhikshai for their girls and the girls born to them. The East Street, which was divided into seven branches, had 502 Vaishyas youngsters married to Solliya Vellala girls. For these girls their guru was Alagiya Gurukkal from Srivanjiyam.
Middle Age (707 AD to 1565 AD)
During the Kaliyuga year of 3808 (707AD) Soundarapandian the Pandya king went to Chola kingdom and met Rajabooshanacholan. He stated that during Keerthibooshanapandian's period the sea came inside till Thirubhuvanam and washed away the whole area. After that, 18 successions of Pandya kings have ruled but there were no good families living there. He said that he his inviting some good families to set up a living. He requested for some good families and some Vaihya traders. The Chola king called for the Rathanamaguda Vaishyas and requested a few to go. At that time they stated that wherever they go the three streets would go together and live, and not live separately. On hearing this, the Chola king asked everyone to go to the Pandya kingdom. The Pandya king assured the Vaishyas, that he would give them a place to live, land to build temples and mutts, and took them along with him. Soundarapandian gave land demarcated, West of the sea, East of Pranmalai, North of River Vaigai and South of River Vellar (present Chettinadu), to live, build temples and mutts. The Pandya king gave Ariyur town and Pranmalai temple, Sundarapatinam and its temple and Ellayatrankudi and its temple. The three streets Vaishya youngsters could not live together for long because of difference of opinion created since they married Vellala girls of different - different groups. Hence therefore, those who lived in the West street in six branches at Kaveripoompatinam were given Ariyur and Pranmalai temple, South street in four branches
were given Sundarapattinam and its temple, East street by seven branches were given Ellayatrankudi and its temple. The Maragatha Vinayagar was under the custody of Ariyur. They agreed upon the rituals and prayers to be common. After this the six branched were called Ariyurar, four branched as Sundarathar and the seven branched as Ellayatrankudi Nagarathar also Nattukottai Nagarathar. As the days went by there was difference opinion amongst the Ellayatrankudiyars' and they separated branch wise and met Soundarapandian and requested for different temples. Pandian agreed, the temples given were Mathur, Vairavanpatti (712 AD) Iraniyur, Pillaiyarpatti, Nemankovil, Ellupakkudi (714 AD) and Soorakkudi, Velangudi (718 AD). Henceforth the creation of the nine temples took place. When the population increased there were many branches with in the temples. This is the only community in the world to be divided on the basis of Sivan temples. During the Kaliyuga year 4262 (1161 AD) Nemankovil's Arunachalam son of Ellanalamudaiyan Muthuveerappa Chetty of Manickam Street, Velangudi at Poongkondrai's five year old daughter, Muthumeenal was taken to the capital by Karunyapandian in the chariot when he as hunting over there. The Nagarathars on knowing this grouped together and decided that the girl should get justice according to the caste practise and the met the Pandya king and asked him to release the girl. The Pandya king said that if had known it was their girl he would not have brought the girl over to the capital. He said that, he had heard that if he handed over the girl, the girl would be killed. He also said that if at all he heard that the girl was killed, they would have to pay eight heads and eight hundred sovereigns of gold and he handed the girl. The Nagarathars took leave of the king and killed the girl on the way according to the caste regulations. Then they prepared themselves for the punishment ordered by the king. For the seven branches seven heads were ready and there was a question mark over the one remaining head. At that time among the seven branches, Ellayatrankudi, Eraniyur and Pillaiyarpatti were as one branch though they had different temples, it was decided that this branch give an extra head. Henceforth Okkurudayar a branch of Ellayatrankudi came forward to give the extra head. The condition put was that they get the first honour in the temples and mutts including the Viputhi. The Nagarathars accepted. Later they went to the king and stated that they have brought the eight heads and eight hundred sovereigns of gold. The king was so depressed and said, the sin of killing one girl itself is enough, you don't have to give anything and you can go. The Nagarathar's returned back. During the Kaliyuga year 4389 (1288 AD) there was trouble and Ariyurpattinam was demolished. The sixty four Vaishya families that stayed there escaped to the Malayala kingdom (Kerela) and started living near the River Korattar. They built a temple for Maragatha Vinayagar and continued the prayers. During Kaliyuga year 4644 (1543 AD) there was trouble at Nattarasankottai due to robbers and they raped some Nagarathar women. Nagarathars met their Gurus' and requested them to give permission according to their custom to kill them. The gurus did not accept. On the insistence of the Nagarathars the gurus accepted and went to Kasi to have a holy dip in the Ganges. Nirambia Alagiya Gurukkal alone returned to Thulavur after three years. The Kala mutt guru did not even return after twelve years. Hence some of the Nagarathars went to Ramanathasamy of Thirupunavayil to get upadesam. After twenty-one years during the kaliyuga year 4665 (1564 AD), the guru of Kala mutt came and joined. The Nagarathars met him and explained the happenings. The guru said that those who got dhikshai from Ramanathasamy belonged to Vamisa, henceforth they and their generation have got to get dhikshai from Vamisa generations and gave a mutt at Patharakudi, which is also known as Ellanjeripattinam at Kanakapuram. From then on Nagarathar men had Kala mutt and Patharakudi mutt; the women had Thulavur mutt, which were the three Gurukalams.
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Pray to Lord Ganesha, Lord Siva and Lord Muruga. No one should do anything during the stars of Karthigai and Thiruvathirai according to the Sastras. But the Nagarathars being ardent devotees of Lord Muruga and Lord Shiva they performed the Karthigai Padumai for their sons and Nataraja's Thiruvathirai for their daughters. The above went against all sastras. No other Saivaite community do these functions, hence these solely belongs to the Nagarathars.
The Nagarathars consider the viputhi as a sacred and holy item whereas others consider it just the opposite, since it is got from burning and as ash. The womenfolk of the Nagarathar community put viputhi and the manjal kungumam on their forehead, while the others put manjal kungumam only. The viputhi is considered so sacred that during marriages the oldest lady of the house, even though she is a widower, holds a lamp on the left hand and puts viputhi on the groom and bride. When the Nagarathars travel anywhere they make it a point that they carry viputhi in a special bag called the "viputhi pai". During death also the Nagarathars place viputhi considering it to be a sacred item. No other Saivaite gives so much importance to viputhi unlike the Nagarathars. The Nagarathar community also have people ordained as Nayanmars among the 63 Nayanmars. Karaikal Ammaiyar a lady was ordained as a Nayanmar and was the first person to sing "Thirupathigams". Her Thirupathigams were called "Mootha Thirupathigam". Before Saint Appar Swamigal and Saint Thirugnanasambandhar Swamigal could sing thirupathigams the womenfolk of the Nagarathar community sang thirupathigams. Another person to be ordained as a Nayanmar is Eyarkai Nayanar. Temples (Kovil) - The Nattukottai Chettiars are divided among themselves on the basis of temples called "Nagara Kovils" (Temples of Lord Shiva, since they are Saivaites). They are divided on the basis of nine temples that have many sub divisions. Marriages can take place among the various divisions. One cannot enter into an alliance with in the same division, but in some temples if the sub division is different then the marriage can take place. The temples are the places for the registering of marriages for the Nagarathars. On the day of the marriage or earlier, the bride's and the groom's side have to go their respective temples to register their marriage. The bride would renounce her temple and would be enrolled with the groom. They become a proclaimed member of the community and they are called as a "Pulli". The marriage becomes legally valid. On becoming a member, they start paying their annual subscription to the temple. From the temple on registering, the couples are blessed with the offerings from the respective temples.
NAGARATHAR VAZHUM URGAL
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Nagarathars belong to one of the 9 temples (briefed in the sections below). People within the same temple are considered as siblings. Apparently the bride and groom should belong to different temples if they are to be married. However there are some exceptions to Mathur temple where there are subdivisions within this temple. So marriage among brides and grooms of certain subdivisions are permitted. Generally people from Irani kovil and Pillayar patti will not marry, because they treat each other as brother's & Sisters. Every Nagarathar marriage has to be approved and registered in the respective groom's temple. Once approved, a garland would be delivered on the behalf of the temple authorities on the wedding day and only from there on the marriage would be conducted. This can be assumed synonym to an approval certificate. Nagarathar marriage is conducted in single day. Even today, though almost all the nagarathar stay away from their nagara village, they prefer to have their son/daughter's marriage in their native village. The marriage in Chettinad in good old days, was more elaborate and complex. The marriage ceremony was long drawn procedure punctuated with various rituals, customs including gift giving for the wellbeing of the newly married and thus marriage was six days affair. Procession of bridegroom (µmappillai¶ ) accompanied by musicians together with another contingent of relatives of the bride especially the ladies with their colourful costumes mostly in µKandangi¶ handloom cotton µsarees¶, used to be fun filled affair. µNadu Veettu Kolam¶ drawing with the use of wet rice flour drawn by µaachis¶.
There are few formalities before marriage in the nagarathar community. Pen paarthal Usually the prospective mother-in-Law, father-in-law and few other close realives go to a common place, to see the bride to be. For recent, the "would be" groom joins his parents though this is not very common. The groom's family is offered a silver bucket with banana and coconut along with beetle leaves and beetle nuts. If the groom and his family like the bride they can take the silver bucket as a token that they like the bride. This is called "Vaali vaanguthal". Pesi mudithu kolludhal once the bride is approved by all, they would exchange betel leaves and nuts (vethalai pakku matri kolluthal).This is a confirmation gesture that the bride and the groom are finalized. The bride's parents and grooms parent (now called sambanthi) decide upon a common day discussing with the astrolgers for the marriage Muhurtha kaal unrudhal Once the marriage date is finalized relatives arrive 4±5 days before marriage. This is the very first formality related to marriage. A bamboo cane is fitted with mango leaves on the top .Puja is done by iyer and close
relatives of the bride and the groom keep manjal and kungumam at 5 places in the cane .Once it is over the cane is tied upstraight. This serves as a notification to others in the surrounding that a marriage is going to be conducted at this house Veetu padaippu/podhu padaippu Every family pray to their ancestors in their ancesstral house, which is known as veetu padaippu and all the "pangalis" together perform "podhu padaippu" (joint prayer). In podhu padaippu which is usually conducted at the common house called padaippu veedu, paniayaram (made of rice flour and karuppatti - jaggery) is done by all achi's and each family gets one after the padaippu. The day before marriage pangali's and thaya pillaigal (close relatives) would come to both brides and grooms place to make the nadu veetu kolam and manai kolam
Mappillai azhaipu On the day of marriage in the morning before muhurtham, the groom's family arrive at the bride's village but do not enter the bride's home. The mappillai veetar ( groom's side) arrive and wait at som pillayar temple or e community centres where the pen veetar (bride's side) headed by bride's father go to welcome them with band. This is called mappillai azhaippu. Pen edukki kattuthal When the groom reaches bride's house she is brought to the door and shown to him. In the olden days this was the first official meeting (rather seeing) of bride and groom. For "pen Parkuthal" only the near relatives of the groom see the bride. ThirupotuthalNagarathars belong to one of the 9 temples (briefed in the sections below). People within the same temple are considered as siblings. Apparently the bride and groom should belong to different temples if they are to be married. However there are some exceptions to Mathur temple where there are subdivisions within this temple. So marriage among brides and grooms of certain subdivisions are permitted. Generally people from Irani kovil and Pillayar patti will not marry, because they treat each other as brother's & Sisters. Every Nagarathar marriage has to be approved and registered in the respective groom's temple. Once approved, a garland would be delivered on the behalf of the temple authorities on the wedding day and only from there on the marriage would be conducted. This can be assumed synonym to an approval certificate. Nagarathar marriage is conducted in single day. Even today, though almost all the nagarathar stay away from their nagara village, they prefer to have their son/daughter's marriage in their native village. The marriage in Chettinad in good old days, was more elaborate and complex. The marriage ceremony was long drawn procedure punctuated with various rituals, customs including gift giving for the wellbeing of the newly married and thus marriage was six days affair. Procession of bridegroom (µmappillai¶ ) accompanied by musicians together with another contingent of relatives of the bride especially the ladies with their colourful costumes mostly in µKandangi¶ handloom cotton µsarees¶, used to be fun filled affair. µNadu Veettu Kolam¶ drawing with the use of wet rice flour drawn by µaachis¶.
The brides maternal uncle and grooms maternal uncle (Mamakarargal) wear mamakara pattu ( a fluorescent pink silk towel) wrapped around .The groom sits in the manai. The brides maternal uncle brings her in the manai The groom ties ¶ kaluthiru±the sacred thread or gold chain or Chettiyar thaali was worn during the day of marriage and a substitute gold thaali was given for regular use. The Kaluthiru is a double piece gold chains generally contains a set of total 34 items of hand crafted gold ornaments including two pendants considered to be the most sacred. The pendants carrying the image of goddess µLakshmi¶ at the front side and the icons of µMeenakshi Sundareswarar¶ µRishaba¶ bull in the second row. What is very important to note is that these two motifs viz.
Lakshmi and Shiva - Parvathi are oft repeated theme in Chettinad, which are highly revered by the Nattukottai Nagarathar as the former symbolizing protection and prosperity while Shiva Parvathi pair on bull, represents happy family life. The Kaluthiru in Tamil language has two different meanings ± µKalutheru¶ means the chain on neck while µKaluth - Thiru¶, denotes the Lakshmi as Thiru in Tamil indicates Mahalakshmi. Vaevu irakkuthal This is a custom which is followed to indicate that wealth in the form of food grains and vegetables are sent from the bride's home by her maternal uncle and their family helped by the groom's maternal uncle (items are carried on the head in baskets). Then it is received at the groom's home. The basket usually contains brinjal and rice Mamiyar sadangu In this ritual the mother-in-law carries a silver plate with small bowls of betel leaf, cotton, vibhuthi (holy ash) and turmeric. She applies each of the items to herself and then to her daughter-in-law. Poo manam choridhal The elders of both the sides dip their hands in the bowl with flower petals and take out a few petals and keep it at the seated couple's folded legs, then on shoulder and throw the petals behind the couple. This is done only by male relatives and not by the woman folk and this symbolizes of, blessing the couples Manjal neeru aduthal Couple's feet is washed by cousins with manjal neer (turmuric water) Both the samandhis dip their tip of their attire in a turmeric water. Before they us ed to take bath but in modern days a formality for the ritual they dip in the turmeric water Saman parapudhal The items given as seer (dowry/gift) by the bride's family is exhibited to all the relatives who attend the marriage. This is considered a scale for the wealth and prosperity of the bride's family. It contains mappillai saman (for groom), maamiyaar saman (for mother in law) also. The grooms side also add their gifts (silk saree, dresses cosmetics etc.) to the prospective daughter-in-law . Kumbuttu kattikolluthal This is a ritual where in the bride gets the blessings of the elders with a "kulam valum pillai"(krishna idol) in her hand. Each time the elders give it to her they bless her when she falls at her feet. This ritual symbolizes that the following generation to be fertile. Mana pen solli kolluthal An emotional moment where the bride bids farewell to her family and near and dear ones. It is quite common to see the bride and her family members in tears. The bride gets the blessings of all the elders of the family where she was born. Kattu soaru unnuthal During olden days when the groom and their family take the daughter in law to their home, they had to travel for at least a day. Food is packed for them to be consumed on their way. Usually, the groom and their family eat these packed (kattu) food (soaru - rice) and take rest beside some tank/pond which they find on their way. This tradition is still followed in Nagarathar marriages. Pen azhaippu This is the event where the bride is formally welcomed at the grooms home and embrace her as a member of their family. The bride and the groom are usually brought to a temple in their native village before being invited to the grooms residence.
The couple would be asked to put their hands into three thavalais (ever silver pots) and take out the contents inside A small game to see who would take over different roles when they run the family. Nathanar sadangu (done by the bride's sister - in - law (s) which is the same as mamiyar sadangu would be done at the time of pen azhaippu
Nattukkottai chettiyar have a tradition of naming the first born boy with paternal grandfather's name, the first born girl with paternal grandmother and if another boy or girl the name it by maternal grandparents. Most of the chettiyar's follow this religiously, though there has been few mordernization of the typical chettiyar name. The chettiyar names stand as unique identification in the crowd.
COMMON CHETTIYAR NAMES
Adaikappan/Adaikkalavan/Adaik Azhagappan/Azhagammai ammai Arunachalam Chellappan/Chellammai Dharmambal Alamelu (Alarmelu) Chidambaram Ganesan (sh)
Annamalai/Unnamalai Chockalingam (Th)Deivanai Gyanambal Kannappan/Kannathal/Kann an Kumarappan Mangai Murugappan Nagappan/Nagammai Periyakaruppan/Periyanayag i O(U)dayappan Ramaswamy Senthil/Santhal Shanmugam
Karuppiah/Karupayee/Karuppan Kanagasabai/Kanagavalli chetty Kaveri Lakshmanan/Lakshmi Meyappan/Meyammai Kothai Logu Meenakshi/Meenal
Muthiah/Muthuveerappan/Mutha Nachammai/Nachiappan thal Narayanan Poongothai Ramanathan/Ramayee Sabaratthinam Sethukkarasi Sigappi Solai/Solachi Sundaram/Soundaram(Soundhi) Soodi koduthal Palaniappan O(U)lagappan/Olagammai Raman/Lakshmanan(for twins) Saravanan Sevugan
Sivagami(sogu)/Sivagamas Somasundaram(somu) undari Swaminathan Sathappan/Sathammai Thennamai/Thenappan Subramaniam(n) Sadayappan Thiagarajan
Thirunavukkarasu Vairavan Velliappan Yegappan/Yegammai
Thanirmalai Vasanthal Venkatachalam -
Umaiyal Valliappan/Valliammai/Valli kannu Visalatchi(sala) -
As apparent from the title of this section, the popular Chettinad cuisine is a special attribute of the Nagarathar Community. Among the food lovers, the community is identified because of their special delicacies. Some of their common snacks are:
y y y y y y y y y y
Aadi Koozh / Kummaayam [sour porridge] Vellai Paniyaram Kuzhi paniyaram Masala Paniyaram Inippuch Seeyam Paal Kuzhakkattai (Rice puddings in sweet Milk) Seepu seedai Thenkuzhal Manokolam Kavuni arisi (Sweet brown rice)
Vegetarian main courses:
y y y y y y y
Vegetable Mandi Vazhakkai Karuvattu poriyal (Unripe Banana deep fried) Vazhapoo Vadai (Banana flower vadai) Karunai kizhangu masiyal Vengaya koas Brinjal koasmalli Poricha kuzhambu
Some popular non-vegetarian dishes include:
y Chettinad Chicken curry y Mutton Kola Urundai y Uppukandam
Chettinad cuisine is the cuisine of the Chettinad region of Tamil Nadu state in South India. Chettinad is one of the driest regions of south India. The Chettiar community, who are a majority in this region are a very successful trading community. Chettinad cuisine is one of the spiciest and the most aromatic in India. Chettinad cuisine is famous for its use of a variety of spices used in preparing mainly non-vegetarian food. The dishes are hot and pungent with fresh ground masalas, and topped with a boiled egg that is usually considered essential part of a meal. They also use a variety of sun dried meats and salte vegetables, reflecting the dry d environment of the region. The meat is restricted to fish, prawn, lobster, crab, chicken and lamb. Chettiars do not eat beef and pork. Most of the dishes are eaten with rice and rice based accompaniments such as dosais, app ams, idiyappams, adais and idlis. The Chettinad people through their mercantile contacts with Burma, learnt to prepare a type of rice pudding made with sticky red rice. Chettinad cuisine offers a variety of vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. Some of the popular vegetarian dishes include idiyappam, paniyaram, vellai paniyaram, karuppatti paniyaram, paal paniyaram, kuzhi paniyaram, kozhakattai, masala paniyaram, adikoozh, kandharappam, seeyam, masala seeyam, kavuni arisi & athirasam.  Spices used In Chettinad food, the most important spices are marathi mokku (dried flower pods), anasipoo (star aniseed) and kalpasi (a lichen known as the "black stone flower", also known as dagad phool). In addition, tamarind, whole red chillies and saunf (fennel seed) are also used along with cinnamon, cloves, bay leaf, peppercorn, cumin seeds and fenugreek. Chettinad Cooking Videos Pal Paniyaram Chicken Chettinadu Adirasam Nei Paniyaram Kozhakattai Part 1 Kozhakattai Part 2 Kozhakattai Part 3 Chettinad Chicken
Chettinad Vegetable Curry
Chettinad Brinjal Kootu
Chettinad Chicken Curry
HISTORY OF NAGARATHAR ARULMIGU KARPAGA VINAYAGAR TEMPLE OF PILLARYAR PATTI
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1. Pillaiyarpatti is located in Sivagangai District of Tamil Nadu. It is situated between Karaikudi and Thiruputhur and nearby Karaikudi i.e. three Kilometers away from Kundrakkudi. 2. PILLAIYARPATTI is one of the nine Nagarakovil divisions of Nattukkottai Nagarathar Community. 3. Pillaiyarpatti Karpaga Vinayagar is carved out in a cave of Pillaiyarpatti Hillocks. Lord Vinayagar is carved out from the rock of the cave. Lord Thiruveesar (SIVAN) is also carved in the rock of this cave. History states that Pandiya Kings had designed these structures in the caves. 4. The age of the cave temple is 2500 years or move. There are 14 stone inscription in the cave (from 500 BC to 1284 AD). These stone inscription that state ancient names of PILLAIYARPATI as EKKATTOOR, THIRUVEENKAIKKUDI, MARUTHANGUDI and RAJANARAYANAPURAM. 5. From 1284 AD, rights of this temple were given to Nattukkottai Nagarathars STONE inscription at Thiruveesar Temple cave state that the second stage of dev. 6. Just like Karapaga Tree Lord Karpaga Vinayagar grants all Blessings. In view of this Lord Vinayagar is named as KARPAGA VINAYAGAR. The name ³Thesi Vinayaga Pillaiyar´ is also there in the stone inscription. 7. Worship if Lord Vinayagar is found in different parts of the world throug ages, in this, Karpaga h Vinayagar worship finds first place down through the ages and it is also regarded as First Lord Vinayagar.
8. In the world there are 2 Vinayagars who are having 2 hands. One is at Pillaiyarpatti and the other is at AFKANISTHAN ± Lord Vinayagar at AFKANISTHAN is in standing position with so many ornaments of late age. 9. Pillaiyarpatti Karpaga Vinayagar is having only 2 hands which is a special feature. 10. The Sculptor who designed the figure of Lord Vinayagar also had registered his signature in the stone sculpture. His signature as ³EKKATTOOR KONE PERUMPARANAN´ (Perunthatchan) is in Tamil letters which was in use between 400 BC and 500 BC. From this we can take for granted that is was carved just before 500 BC. 11. From the history of divine architecture and from stone sculptures and from the available documentary evidence Pillaiyarpatti KARPAGA VINAYAGAR figure alone is the first Pillaiyar in the world. 12. Karpaga Vinayagar is not having Mothakam (Sweet) at his right hand. Hi is in meditation (havi g n Lingam at his right hand) for the welfare of the entire Universe. Since he is Yoga Vinayagar (Vinayagar with Meditaion and all fortunes) he grants all good things after success. 13. There are other deities in this temple such as goddess Karthiyaini (who arranges marriages) Nagalingam (who gifts offsprings to human beings) Pasupatheeswarar (who showers all wealth). 14. Vinayagar Chathurthi is the very important festival in his temple. It is 10 days festival. Kappukkattuthal and hoisting temple flag begin before 9 days. At the 9th day car festival and much celebrated decoration of sandal covering (Santhanakkappu) to Pillaiyar takes place. 15. Devotees who observe Chathurthi day (festival) and fulfills it. They observe fast on Chathurthi day in front of Vinayagar Sannidhi and take part in ³KumbaJebam´ and receive holy pot of Chanted holywater and take bath taking for granted that they bathe Lord Vinayagar seated in their hearts. Observing of Vinayagar Chathurthi Fast for one full year brings all blessings and wealth to devotees and it is also a proved fact.
Nagara Viduthigal in South India Chennai Rangoon Nagara Viduthi 88,Coral Merchant Street, Mannady Chennai-600001, Tamil Nadu, India Tel: 044-25268155 Chennai Devakottaiyar Nagara Viduthi 114,Coral merchant street Mannady, Chennai-600001, Tamil Nadu,India Chennai Thiruvattriyur Nagara Viduthi 28,South Mada Street Thiruvetriyur, Chennai-600019, Tamil Nadu,India
Chennai Karaikudiyar Nagara Viduthi 108,Coral Merchant Street, Mannady, Chennai-600001, Tamil Nadu,India Chidambaram Chidambaram Nagara Viduthi East Street, Chidambaram 608001, Tamil Nadu,India Chidambaram Chidambaram Nagara Viduthi East Street, Chidambaram 608001, Tamil Nadu,India Coimbatore Coimbatore Nagara Viduthi 29-30,Gowli Brown Salai, R.S.Puram, Coimbatore - 641002, Tamil Nadu,India Tel: 04222442891 Erode Erode Nagara Viduthi 27,Mandram Street, Erode - 638001, Tamil Nadu,India, Tel: 262382 Swamimalai Swamimalai Nagara Viduthi East Street, Swamimalai - 612302, Tamil Nadu,India Karaikudi Kasi Nattukottai Nagara Chattiram Managing Society 5,North Vadampooki Street, Karaikudi - 630001, Tamil Nadu,India Tel: 04565 -2423458 Karaikudi Karaikudi Nagara Viduthi West Mezla Vadampokki Street, Near Sivan Temple, Karaikudi - 623001, Tamil Nadu,India Madurai Madurainagara Viduthi 25,North Chitirai Street, Madurai - 625001, Tamil Nadu, India. Tel: 0452-2622368 Mayiladuthurai Mayiladurai Nagara Viduthi 27,Maayuranathar North Mada Vizhagam Mayiladurai - 609001, Tamil Nadu, India. Pondicherry Nagara Viduthi Pondicerry Road Mayelam - 604304, Tamil Nadu, India. Nagapattinam Nagapatinam Nagara Viduthi Vezlippalayam, Nagapatinam - 611001, Tamil Nadu, India.
Kaviripoompatinam Poompugar Nagara Viduthi Kaaviri Poompatinam Poompugar - 609105, Tamil Nadu, India. Palani Palani Nagara Viduthi Irakala Madam Adivaaram, Palani - 624601, Tamil Nadu, India. Pudukottai Puddukottai Nagara Viduthi 569-2570 Sannathi Street, Near Ariyanachiyamman Kovil, Pudukottai - 622001, Tamil Nadu, India. Rameshwaram Rameswaram Nagara Viduthi South Charriot Street, Rameswaram - 630526, Tamil Nadu, India. Thiruparangundram Thirupparangundram Nagara Viduthi Theppakkulam Melath Street, Thirupparangundram, Madurai - 625005, Tamil Nadu, India. Trichy Trichy Nagara Viduthi 2,Othhamal Street, Trichy - 620002, Tamil Nadu, India. Tel: 0431-2702318 Thanjavur Thanjavur Nagara Viduthi 387, P.Pampatti Street, East Vasal, Thanjavur - 613001, Tamil Nadu, India. Thiruchendur Thiruchendur Nagara Viduthi 125, Sannathi Street, Thiruchendur - 628215, Tamil Nadu, India. Thiruvarur Nagara Viduthi 1-2,Nagara Mada Lane Thiru Manjana Street Thiruvaru-610002, Tamil Nadu, India. Tutucorin Nagara Viduthi Chetti street Sea Shore Tutucorin - 628001, Tamil Nadu, India. Tirunelveli Nagara Veduthi 6,Perarigar Anna Mela Street Tirunelveli - 627006, Tamil Nadu, India. Thiruvannamalai Thiruvannamalai Nagarathar Oyari Madam, Thiruvoodal Street, South Street, Thiruvannamalai - 606601, Tamil Nadu, India.
Thiruvalankaddu Nattukottai Nagarathar Chattiram Chinna Theru Thiruvalankaddu - 609810, Tamil Nadu, India. Thiruthani Thirutani Nagara Viduthi 15,Naatukottai Chettiar Chatiram Street, Adivaaram, Thirutani - 631209, Tamil Nadu, India. Villupuram Nagarathar Community Centre Ganapathy Nagar(North) Near Katpaadi Railway Gate, Villupuram - 605602, Tamil Nadu, India. Vaitheesawarn Kovil Vaitheeswaran Temple Nagara Viduthi South Charriot Street, Vaitheeswaran Temple - 609317, Tamil Nadu, India.
North Nagara Viduthigal in North India Kasi/Varnasi Sri Kasi Nattukottai Nagara Sataram Godhowlia Varanasi 221001, Uttar Pradesh, India. Tel:321012 Ayodhya Nattukottai Nagara Sataram Natkot Sriram Mandir(temple) Boboo Bazaar, Ayodhya-224123, Faizadad Dist. Uttar Pradesh,India. Allahabad Nattukottai Nagara Sataram 149,Modi street, Daraganji-Post, Allahabhad-211006, Uttar Pradesh,India. Nasik Nattukottai Nagara Sataram Karthik Swamy Mandir Sanichowk Panchavati Nasik - 422003, Maharastra,India Mumbai Nagara Viduthi Block No:10/2, Mulund Colony, Mulund West, Mumbai - 400082, Maharastra State,India. Kolkata Nagaratar House 34,Ezra street, Kolkatta - 700001, West Bengal,India. Kolkata Nagara Madam Chetty Brothers Tarakeswar West Bengal, India
Overseas Nagara Viduthigal in Abroad Malaysia
PenangPenang Nagara Viduthi 24,China Street, 10200 Penang. TEL:604 - 2615713 Kula Lumpur Wisma Thanavaisya Nagara Viduthigal in Abroad Malaysia PenangPenang Nagara Viduthi 24,China Street, 10200 Penang. TEL:604 - 2615713 Kula Lumpur Wisma Thanavaisya Malaysia Thanavaisya Association, 23 Jalan Pinggir, 51200 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia. north, south, overseas....
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Nattukottai Nagara Satram, Karthick Swamy Mandir, Shanichowk, Panchavati, Maharashtra, India. Nagarathar House, 34, Ezra Street, Calcutta - 700 001. Nattukottai Nagara Satram, 149, Mori, Daraganji - Post, Allahabhad - 211 006. U.P. India. .Nagarathar House, 171, Chand Chowra, Gaya - 823 001. Bihar State, India. Nagar Madam, Trarkewsar, (Near Calcutta) West Bengal, India. .Mumbai Nagarathar Social, Cultural Associate,
17/190, Shanthi Nikethan, Building, Garodia Nagar, Chikopur (E), Mumbai - 400 077. Nagarathar Sangam, 4/18, N.E.A. Karaolbagh, New Delhi - 100 005. .London Nagarathar Sangam, 222, Wherwood, AVenue, London - S.W. 16. Nagarathar Sangam, 39/1493, Kuriyathai Road, Tiruvandrum - 695 009. Kerala. Sri Kasi Nattukottai Nagara Satram, Godhowlia, Varanasi - 221 001. U.P. India. Phone: 321012
Koviloor Madalayam 52, Kuppiah Chetty Street, West Mambalam, Chennai - 600033 Phone: 044-23716507 Seervalarseer Thavathiru Nachiyappa Adigal, Koviloor Madalayam Near Karaikudi Koviloor - 630307 Phone: 04565-236846 Sree Ravindra Swamigal Nagarathar Upathesa Gurupeedam Patharakudi - 630307 Phone: 04565-236185 Sree Nirambiya Alagiya Desigaraya Ngganaprakasa Desiga Swamigal Nagarathar Pengal Gurupeedam Thulavur Madam Kundrakudi-630206 Sivagangai District Phone: 04577-264446
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Kottan Basket Ancestors of µNagarathars¶ used Palmyra leaves for writing (µOlai Chuwadi¶), drawing, crafting artistic items and making utility produces. The Kottans had a wide and varied uses in their daily life, most importantly during marriages. The µAachis¶ of Chettinad (ladies form Nagarathar household) used to make a varieties of baskets out of tender Palmyra leaves and leaf stems, which are called as µKottans¶ and µKoodais¶ . The fine variety is usually identified as Kottans. Of all the Palmyra products, the µKottan¶ baskets however, combined both artistic and utility together. The colour scheme of the products was of two broad categories viz. 1) original ivory colour and 2) coloured (by using natural and chemical colours). The ornamentation of Kottan is done by a v ariety of methods and techniques. Single and multi patterns obtained by skillfully manipulating the strips while weaving, are also decorated with birds and animal motifs. Additional colour foils inserted inside the strips add value and appeal. Further decoration is accomplished by external embellishments using beads (µpaasi mani¶) threads and embroidery. Colourful Kottans can also be used for dry flower arrangements, cut flower display with stem covered so as not to wet the base of Kottan.
Kidaram-Water storage Vessel The Kidaram is the biggest of all vessels used in Nagarathars¶ homes. The size of it in a sense, matches the scale of the architecture of the elephantine Chettinad Houses. Besides the slopping tiled roof and its open courtyard, the µKidaram¶ ±storage vessel, hold an important place as a part of rain water harvesting devices in drought prone Chettinad area. Such enormous Kidaram in one of the corners or all the four corners of the µmutram¶, courtyard, facilitate storage of drinking water. From old marriage albums of Chettiyar¶s¶ families, one can identify use of these huge kidarams mounted on bullock cart, to fetch water from the µOorani¶- temple tank, for cooking meals for the guests. The height of these Kidarams ranges between 4 to7 and weigh roughly 17 to 50 kilograms according to the size. The metal kidarams are made up of either brass are copper. Of the two metals copper is costlier and keeps water potable for more than six months. The huge vessel comes with a roof shaped lid and two loop l ike handles at the middle. The rain water falling from the roof is stored in Kidaram is first filtered using a pure white µveshti¶ (dhoti) or white saree -a long garment worn by elderly widow.
Chettinad is a region of the Sivaganga district of southern Tamil Nadu state, India. Karaikudi is known as the capital of Chettinad, which includes Karaikudi and 74 other villages. Chettinad is the homeland of the Nattukottai Chettiars (Nagarathar), a prosperous banking and business community, many of whose members migrated to South and Southeast Asia, particularly Ceylon and Burma, in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The people of Chettinad speak Tamil. Today there is a diaspora of Chettinad people, who live in the USA, Singapore, Malaysia, among other places.
Chettinad is well known for its: * Culinary delicacies:
Chettinad is known for its culinary delicacies. Chettinad food, now is one of the many reasons why people get to know Chettinad. Chettinad food is essentially spicy, with a standard full meal consisting of cooked dhal, eggplant (brinjal) curry, drumstick sambar, ghee for flavouring rice, and sweet meats like payasam and paal paniyaram. "Kara kozhambu" is a highly regarded south Indian sambar.
Chettinad is rich in cultural heritage, art and architecture, and is well known for its houses, embellished with marble and Burma teak, wide courtyards, spacious rooms, and for its 18th century mansions. Local legend has it that their walls used to be polished with a paste made out of eggwhites to give a smooth texture.
Originally built by early Tamil dynasties like the Cholas, the temples of Chettinad stand testimony to the spiritual beliefs of its denizens. Scattered over the whole place, each temple has its own tank called oorani where water lilies are grown, and used for holy rituals. Even today much of Chettinad's daily tidings are centered around the festivities around the temple. Among the many famous temples, a few are Vairavan Kovil temple, Karpaga Vinayakar temple, Kundrakudi Murugan temple, Kottaiyur Sivan temple, Kandanur Sivan Temple.
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