English for Special Purposes
DEFINITION ESP has had a relatively long time to mature and so we would expect the ESP community to have a clear idea about what ESP means. ESP can be described as: • • • English for any purpose that could be specified English used in academic studies or English for vocational or professional purposes

Origins of ESP
From the early 1960's English for Specific Purposes (ESP) has grown to become one of the most prominent areas of EFL Its development is reflected in the • • increasing number of universities offering an MA in ESP the number of ESP courses offered to overseas students in English speaking countries

There is now a well-established international journal dedicated to ESP discussion "English for Specific Purposes: An international journal"

Reasons to the emergence of all ESP: • • • the economic demands of the New World, a revolution in linguistics, and focus on the learner’s needs (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987). Hutchinson & Waters, 1987: the end of the Second World War brought with it an = " ... age of enormous and unprecedented expansion in scientific, technical and economic activity on an international scale · for various reasons, most notably the

economic power of the United States in the post-war world, the role [of international language] fell to English" (p. 6). the Oil Crisis of the early 1970s resulted in Western money and knowledge flowing into the oil-rich countries. The language of this knowledge became English.

General effects:
A pressure on the language teaching profession to deliver the required goods. Whereas English had previously decided its own destiny, it now became subject to the wishes, needs and demands of people other than language teachers (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987, p.7). revolutionary pioneers in linguistics began to focus on the ways in which language is used in real communication. Hutchinson and Waters (1987) point out that spoken and written English vary according to the professional and social environment. In other words, given the particular context in which English is used, the variant of English will change. This idea was taken one step farther. If language in different situations varies, then tailoring language instruction to meet the needs of learners in specific contexts is also possible. Hence, in the late 1960s and the early 1970s there were many attempts to describe English for Science and Technology (EST). more attention was given to the ways in which learners acquire language and the differences in the ways language is acquired. Learners employ

o different learning strategies, o different skills, o different learning schemata, and o different needs and interests

Therefore, focus on the learners' needs became equally paramount as the methods employed to disseminate linguistic knowledge. The natural extension that followed was the designing of specific courses to better meet the individual needs. To this day, the catchword in ESL circles is learner-centered or learning-centered.

English for Specific Purposes (ESP) = a sphere of including
• • • • • technical English, scientific English, English for medical professionals, English for waiters, and English for Aviation o English as ESP is taught to pilots, and cadets who are going to use it in radio communications

ESP can be also considered as an avatar of language for specific purposes. Avatar: a computer user's representation of himself/herself or alter ego whether in the form of a three-dimensional model used in computer games or a two-dimensional (picture) used on and other communities. Avatar: (Sanskrit: incarnation)

Definition of ESP
Absolute characteristics
1. ESP is defined to meet specific needs of the learners 2. ESP makes use of underlying methodology and activities of the discipline it serves. 3. ESP is centered on the language appropriate to professional activities in terms of

but only by looking at how those sentences are used in the larger context of discourse. Eg: legal discourse.) study skills.• • • • • • grammar. lexis. Some of the more subtle aspects of grammar cannot be understood by looking just at sentences. discursus. "running to and from") means either "written or spoken communication or debate" or "a formal discussion of debate.. discourse genre o discourse (L. as in conversation. A discourse may be a whole text (for example. writing in a scientific register. (a variety of language used in a specific social setting: speaking in an informal register. medical discourse. especially when it is studied in order to understand how people use language o is the use of living language. religious discourse. register. a personal letter or an entire conversation). o This term describes a coherent piece of spoken and/or written language in a specific context.. o the totality of codified linguistic usages attached to a given type of social practice. . o written or spoken language. or it ." The term is often used in semantics and discourse analysis.

.. o [noun] Discourse is a contiguous stretch of language comprising more than one sentence (text) or utterance (speech) . within a dialogue . several exchanges.may be part of a text that conveys related meanings (for example.

. and analysis of this discourse. but is not necessarily:   restricted as to the language skills to be learned (e. ESP may use. the development of the ESP skills is not closely connected to any preordained methodology ESP may be related to or designed for specific disciplines. reading only). in its themes and topics) to particular disciplines. lexis. discourse.e.    II.The distinctions between the absolute and variable characteristics of ESP Some specialists define ESP by identifying its absolute and variable characteristics: I. a different methodology from that of general English. in contrast with General English ESP makes use of the underlying methodology and activities of the discipline it serves. occupations and activities. Variable characteristics: ESP may be.   . related in content (i. centred on the language appropriate to those activities in syntax. Absolute characteristics: ESP consists of English language   designed to meet specified needs of the learner. etc.g. in specific teaching situations. semantics.

.. In the 'Tree of ELT' (Hutchinson & Waters. and c) English for Social Studies (ESS) Abilities Required for Successful Communication in Occupational Settings Cummins (1979) theorized a dichotomy between: 1. the language of international air-traffic control could be regarded as 'special' in the sense that the repertoire required by the controller is strictly limited and can be accurately determined situationally The second type of ESP identified by Carter (1983) is English for Academic and Occupational Purposes. Types of ESP (David Carter 1983): • • • English as a restricted language English for Academic and Occupational Purposes English with specific topics Mackay and Mountford (1978) clearly illustrate the difference between . pp. ESP is broken down into three branches: a) English for Science and Technology (EST). cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP) . but it can be also used with beginners (1998. b) English for Business and Economics (EBE).language: . ESP is likely to be designed for adult learners in a professional work situation. 1987).  Most ESP courses assume some basic knowledge of the language system.restricted language and . basic interpersonal communication skills (BICS) and 2. 4-5).

.The former refers to the language skills used in the everyday informal language used with friends. family and co-workers.

Where from? Definitions: • Professional field concerned with maintaining public image for businesses.The latter refers to a language proficiency required to make sense of and use academic language. CALP use occurs in contexts that offer fewer contextual clues Abilities required in order to communicate successfully in occupational setting: • • the use of particular jargon characteristic of that specific occupational context use a more generalized set of academic skills. such as celebrities. Situations in which individuals use BICS are characterized by contexts that provide relatively easy access to meaning. which will serve both the organization and the public interest” . predicting their consequences. regardless of occupational context (chatting over coffee with a colleague or responding to an informal email message) Public relations (PR) definition and history. such as: o conducting research and o responding to memoranda which are largely related to understanding a new professional and social culture • use the language of everyday informal talk to communicate effectively. and implementing planned programs of action. and politicians The first World Assembly of Public Relations Associations (Mexico City – 1978): • "the art and social science of analyzing trends. counseling organizational leaders. non-profit organizations or high-profile people. However.

Second Edition (2009) Almost any organization that has a stake in how it is portrayed in the public arena employs some level of public relations Disciplines of corporate communications       Analyst relations Media relations Investor relations Internal communications Labour relations Publicities Other types of public relations: • • • • • Financial public relations . rather than using advertising Crisis public relations .providing information to trade bodies Government relations .  working with the media. Public relations provides an organization or individual exposure to their audiences using topics of public interest and news items that provide a third-party endorsement and do not direct payment o Once common activities include  speaking at conferences.responding to negative accusations or information Industry relations . mobile phones.  crisis communications and social media engagement.gaining publicity for a particular product or service. and video-game consoles with Internet access (Phillips and Young in Online Public Relations.  employee communication The European view: • • a relational form of interactivity there concerned with publics with public consequences of organizational behavior.engaging government departments to influence policymaking . interactive communication using the internet encompassing social media and other channels for communication and many platforms for communication such as personal computers.• the practice of managing communication between an organization and its publics.providing information mainly to business reporters Consumer/lifestyle public relations . (PCs).

blogs Internet radio Methods used to find out what is appealing to target audiences:  surveys. entertainment companies Methods. but many public relations campaigns include provisions for publicity. service. tools and tactics Public relations and publicity are not synonymous. cause or organization. athletic teams.the first recognized public-relations firm (Doris Fleischman in 1919  in 1928.widely recognized as the father of public relations (USA)  the founder of the profession and practice: Dr Kevin Moloney (UK) used the first printed news outlets.History Edward Bernays. Public relations professionals are using technology as their main tool is to get their messages to target audiences through    social networks. person. Publicity is the spreading of information to gain public awareness for a product. and can be seen as a result of effective public relations planning. "public relations" was the term used first as a way of shielding the profession from the ill repute increasingly associated with the word "propaganda"  PUBLIC RELATIONS INDUSTRY The need for public relations personnel is growing at a fast pace. educational institutions. corporations. nonprofit organizations. specific industries. nephew of Sigmund Freud . . events management and social gatherings in the late 18th century  1912 . The types of clients for whom public relations people work include:       the government.

 research on focus groups Tactics are the ways to attract target audiences by using the information gathered about that audience and directing a message to them using tools such as  social mediums or other technology Another emerging theme is the application of psychological theories of “impression management” Tools          Press release and media kits which are sent out to generate positive press on behalf of the organization. o nationwide or o worldwide o segment of a population o trending audience Lobby groups established to influence government policy. brochures. twitter and Facebook) social media outlets (allow the organization to engage in two-way communication. and receive immediate feedback)  The public targeting process   Identifying the target audience and tailoring message to appeal to that audience The audience can be o general. fact sheets websites photographs newsletters and annual reports interactive social media outlets engaging in two-way communication and receiving immediate feedback from stakeholders and publics (blogs. corporate policy. or .

public opinion Ex: governments may lobby public relations firms in order to sway public opinion. the same techniques to. state-run media in many countries also engage in spin by selectively allowing news stories that are favorable to the government while censoring anything that could be considered critical. or the client. and ambiguity in public statement. deceptive and/or highly manipulative tactics. and job announcements sometimes even ask . Ex: Politicians are often accused of spin by commentators and political opponents when they produce a counterargument or position The techniques of spin: o cherry picking = selectively presenting facts and quotes that support ideal positions o non-denial denial = (in a way presumes unproven truths) o euphemisms = drawing attention away from items considered distasteful. Governments of newly succeeded republics of Croatia and Bosnia invested heavily with American public relations firms. A well illustrated example of this is the way civil war in Yugoslavia was portrayed. PUBLIC RELATION SPIN TECHNIQUES • • • • • Publicity events Talk show circuit: a public relations spokesperson. spin often. "does the circuit" by being interviewed on television and radio talk shows with audiences that the client wishes to reach Books and other writings Blogs Rolodex (After a public relations practitioner has been working in the field for a while. a prized asset. he or she accumulates a list of contacts in the media and elsewhere in the public affairs sphere. While traditional public relations may also rely on creative presentation of the facts. careful choice of timing in the release of certain news so it can take advantage of prominent events in the news o issue versus non-issue (spin particular political viewpoints) Spin doctors = skilled practitioners of spin. They may also use propaganda to indoctrinate or actively influence citizens' opinions. implies disingenuous. though not always. so that they would give them a positive war image in the USA Spin (public relations) Pejorative term = a heavily biased portrayal in specific favour of an event or situation.

seminars.. 4. "concocts and spins the news) Ex: Instances with the use of front groups as a public relations technique have been documented in many industries: 1. Coal mining corporations have created "environmental groups" that contend that increased carbon dioxide emissions and global warming will contribute to plant growth and will be beneficial. rather than through the mass media) with. and other events. 2. especially those in the media relations area of public relations Direct communication (carrying messages directly to constituents.• • • • • • • for candidates with an existing Rolodex. PUBLIC RELATION COMMUNICATION . in the guise of a normal "grassroots" user or comment (an illegal practice) Online social media and Internet mediated public relations practices Practices of Conveying the message means by which a message is communicated can be as important as the message itself o o o o o o o o direct mail robocalling adevertising and public speaking press realease newspapers microblogging press conference front groups organizations (purport to serve a public cause while actually serving the interests of a client whose sponsorship may be obscured or concealed. e. tobacco-companies have created and funded citizens' groups to advocate for tort reform and to attack personal injury lawyers. trial lawyers have created "consumer advocacy" front groups to oppose tort reform 3. trade groups for bars have created and funded citizens' groups to attack anti-alcohol groups. personal appearances The slang term for a public relations practitioner or publicist is a "flack" (sometimes spelled "flak") A desk visit is where the public relations person literally takes their product to the desk of the journalist in order to show them emerging promotions Astroturfing = the act of public relations agencies placing blogs and online forum messages for their clients. receptions.g. traditionally in print and now predominantly as web sites Speeches to constituent groups and professional organizations. newsletters – in print and e-letters Collateral literature. 3.

DEFINITION COMMUNICATION: Form of communication that is primarily directed toward gaining public understanding and acceptance. or the general population). Public relations uses publicity that does not necessitate payment in a wide variety of media and is often placed as news or items of public interest. Public relations communications offer a legitimacy that advertising does not have. stockholders. Publicity releases. individual. The point of public relations is to make the public think favorably about the company and its offerings. or overall image to its o customers.e. Financial public relations = a specialized branch of the profession concerned with • • • corporate annual reports. The practice of PR is used to build rapport with the various publics a company. and house organs are examples of instruments used in public relations. It tends to deal with issues rather than specifically with products or services. o suppliers. competitors. services. or o other interested members of the community. o employees. . since advertising is publicity that is paid for. employees. stockholders. or organization may have (i. employee-training seminars. stockholder communications.. customers. and the disclosure rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission METHODS Public relations describes the various methods a company uses to disseminate messages about its: • • • products. voters.

and present a favorable image o consumers often base their purchase decisions on a company's reputation. of all the factors that influence public attitudes toward the organization public relations project • • proactively or reactively (to manage some sort of image crisis).TOOLS Commonly used tools of public relations include: • • • • news releases. and community service programs GOALS: Although advertising is closely related to public relations—as it too is concerned with promoting and gaining public acceptance for the company's products—the goal of advertising is generating sales. maintain. based on analysis and understanding.  new legislation.  how to use a particular product/service  overcome misconceptions and prejudices regarding particular industries/products/practices create. speaking engagements. Public relations can be an effective part of a company's overall marketing strategy. In the case of a for-profit company. so public relations can have a definite impact on sales and revenue. stockholder and investor relations o media relations. while the goal of public relations is generating • good will. and community relations o educate audiences about things relevant to the organization  business in general. public relations and marketing should be coordinated to achieve the same objectives • Steps in a Public Relations Campaign Effective public relations requires knowledge. . press conferences. The effect of good public relations is to lessen the gap between how an organization sees itself and how others outside the organization perceive it o employee relations. enhance its prestige. and protect the organization's reputation.

1. The organization gains an understanding of its • • various constituencies and the key factors that are influencing their perceptions of the organization 2. for • • promoting a new or existing product or service new product introductions by creating awareness. involve analysis and research to identify all the relevant factors of the situation. the organization establishes an overall policy with respect to the campaign in order to evaluate proposed strategies and tactics as well as the overall success of the campaign by defining • • • goals. desired outcomes. the organization outlines its strategies and tactics: the knowledge of the target audiences and its own established policies by • specific programs to achieve the desired objectives 4. actual communication with the targeted public implies employment of • specific public relations techniques (press conferences. special events. o differentiating the product from other similar products. etc) 5. the organization receives feedback from its public • • reaction on the public relations campaign unexpected developments? 6. o changing consumer behavior o introduce new products through staging a variety of special events and handling sensitive situations . organization assesses the program and makes any necessary adjustments Areas of Public Relations 1. the constraints under which the campaign will operate 3. PRODUCT PUBLIC RELATIONS = close relationship with marketing dpt.

helped increase awareness through licensed tie-in products • • • C creation or renewing visibility of a product/service the California Raisins Advisory Board organized a national tour featuring live performances by the California Dancing Raisins to maintain interest in raisins during a summer-long advertising hiatus.A Prince Matchabelli division of Chesebrough-Pond's USA introduced a new men's cologne that was differentiated by other twenty-one men's fragrances by creating a National Hero Awards Program honoring authentic male heroes and enlisted the participation of Big Brothers/Big Sisters of America to lend credibility to the program B Coleco introduced its Cabbage Patch Kids dolls. The tour generated national and local publicity through: • • • • media events. and media interviews with performer Ray Charles trade show exhibits. window displays in Cartier jewelry stores D. advance publicity. press parties. stimulation of secondary demand of existing products Campbell Soup Co. their public relations dpt. trade promotions. increased overall demand for soup by publishing a • • recipe booklet identifying new uses for the product .

EMPLOYEE RELATIONS Employees = audience in a company The ongoing public relations programs aim to • • maintain the employee good will uphold the company's image and reputation among its employees The essence of a good employee relations program is: • • keeping employees informed and providing them with channels of communication to upper levels of management o publish annual reports for its employees to keep them informed about the company's operations o surveys to determine what information employees considered useful o a range of communication devices to improve employee-management communications  monthly tabloids. magazine.  local newsletters. and supplying the media with printed materials o "backgrounders" (in-depth news releases) o booklets and brochures An effective public relations campaign can help to properly position a product and overcome negative perceptions on the part of the general public.Public relations can interest the media in familiar products and services in a number of ways: • • • seminars for journalists. .  call-in telephone service.  bulletin boards. staging a special media day. explaining benefits programs to them.  video magazine.  "brown bag" lunches where live presentations about the company  suggestion systems Other public relations programs focusing on employees include • • training them as company public relations representatives.

negative perceptions about a company. formal presentations. the community of financial analysts and potential investors The effectiveness of an investment plan will increase • • the value of a company's stock and make it easier to raise additional capital In some cases special meetings with financial analysts are necessary to overcome • • • adverse publicity. investor indifference Such meetings may take the form of • • • • • full-day briefings. and mergers. relocations. volunteer. or luncheon meetings a tour of the company's facilities mailings and ongoing communications can help the company achieve visibility among potential investors and financial analysts moving the location of their annual meeting from city to city . staging special events such as picnics or open houses for them.• • offering them educational. Other programs can improve performance and increase employee pride and motivation Public relations can also play a role in: • • • • recruiting new employees. handling reorganizations. and citizenship opportunities. and resolving labor disputes FINANCIAL RELATIONS Financial relations involves communicating with • • the company's stockholders.

TOOLS: • • • • Annual reports can be complemented by quarterly reports and dividend check inserts regional or quarterly meetings in addition to the usual annual meeting newsletter or company magazine Personal letters to new stockholders and a quick response to inquiries COMMUNITY RELATIONS A comprehensive. children's programs. Support may be financial or take the form of employee participation. and construction projects On a more limited scale. . ongoing community relations program can help virtually any organization achieve visibility as a good community citizen and gain the good will of the community in which it operates Ongoing programs will include: • • • • • supporting urban renewal. performing arts programs. community organizations. social and educational programs. small businesses may achieve community visibility by: • sponsoring local sports teams or other events.

Organizations have the opportunity to improve good will and demonstrate a commitment to their communities when they • • • • • open new offices. combined with appropriate actions. Some elements of such a campaign might include: • • • offering special programs to laid-off workers. informing employees directly about proposed closings. can alleviate the tensions that plant closings can cause. controlling rumors through candid and direct communications to the community and employees . expand facilities. and open new factories converting a vacant building into a permanent meeting place built its new headquarters in an abandoned building A well-planned public relations campaign.

and mounting special exhibits support programs to improve the quality of life in their community: o crime prevention. and restoration . o clean-up and beautification. staging open houses and conducting plant tours. o employment. celebrating anniversaries. o environmental programs.Special programs can improve community relations through: • • • • • • • employee volunteers to work on community projects. sponsoring educational and literacy programs. o recycling.

and offices in 45 countries to assure them the bank was still operating helping potential victims rebuilding an organization's image planning in advance to deal with potential crises in an honest and forthright manner a major accident or natural disaster bankruptcy. the Bank of America utilized its public relations department to quickly establish communications with customers. for example. and management wrongdoing . product failures.CRISIS COMMUNICATIONS Public relations practitioners become heavily involved in crisis communications: • • • • • by • • • Ex: After the San Francisco earthquake of 1989. the media. the financial community.

: The liquor industry in California helped defeat a proposed tax increase by • • • • • taking charge of the debate winning endorsements. cultivating grassroot support trained volunteers to communicate key messages to the public through: o printed materials o radio o television commercials . testifying before a congressional committee Trade associations and other professional organizations can block unfavorable legislation and support favorable legislation Ex. recruiting spokespersons. holding seminars for government leaders.GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL RELATIONS a wide range of activities: • • • • staging debates. influencing proposed legislation.

and safety instruction . o healthcare providers o other businesses and industries Ex. recreational activities.: • • • environmental programs (including water and energy conservation) antipollution programs health and medical programs sponsored by a wide range of o nonprofit organizations. contests. leadership and self-improvement. Policies to encourage • • • • • • AIDS-in-the-workplace smoke out political education.PUBLIC RELATIONS IN THE PUBLIC INTEREST Organizations attempt to generate good will and position themselves as responsible citizens through a variety of programs conducted in the public interest: Ex.

producing materials for classroom use. producing manuals and other printed materials. and releasing the results of surveys educational programs to inform consumers about economic matters and business in general . building good will and helping avoid misunderstandings in the • • • • • sponsoring television and radio programs.CONSUMER EDUCATION • • • programs to educate consumers.

especially when the target audience is small and clearly defined) Public Relations for Small Businesses relationships with: • • • • customers. employees.OTHER PUBLIC RELATIONS PROGRAMS corporate identity programs: • • name changes and new trademarks to Special events may be held to call attention to an organization and focus the public's good will: • • • • anniversary celebrations. events related to trade shows. investors. . or fairs and festivals TOOLS: • • Speakers bureaus and celebrity spokespersons The face-to-face communication (more effective than printed materials. special exhibits. suppliers. or other interested members of the community Entrepreneurs of small businesses may choose to hire a public relations specialist or contract with an outside agency An ideal public relations specialist candidate would be: • • creative and enterprising.

the public relations professional must know what is going on in the business. which means that he or she requires access to management When choosing between several potential agencies. thorough knowledge of the business. public opinion polling. graphic arts. disseminating good publicity. be sincere and considerate in dealing with people. a small business owner should consider • • • • agencies that have experience in the industry.• • • • • possess good communication skills and solid news judgment. straight hourly rates for limited services . financial stability. public speaking. generating opportunities to increase public awareness and acceptance. and evaluating the results of campaigns In order to perform these duties effectively. and compatible overall philosophy Contracting with an outside firm can be costly: • • a monthly retainer. and make a good impression as a representative for the company Some of the skills required in public relations work include • • • • • writing and editing. clients in similar industries. and advertising The responsibilities of a public relations executive include: • • • • • interpreting public opinion. advising management.

use a range of ways to express himself. 1993. grammar and non verbal features. Development of Speaking Skills Objectives: This unit will deal with aspects of speaking to make the students able speak competently and creatively to explore. May 19. PR News Casebook:1000 Public Relations Case Studies. ed." Dallas Business Journal. Gale Research. Alf. Philip. ed." Sales and Marketing Management. 2000. Chad. AMACOM. They will also learn how to understand. David. Lesly. Kaydo. The development of speaking skills means that the speaker needs to • • • • to adapt his talk to the listeners. "How to Hire a PR Firm. Lesly's Handbook of Public Relations and Communications. develop and sustain ideas through talk. etc BIBLIOGRAPHY • • • • • Bianco. "Small Businesses Need Positive PR.Specific public relations activities for small businesses: • • • sponsoring a local sports team. volunteering at a neighborhood clean-up. recall and respond to speakers’ implicit and explicit meanings. Nucifora. April 2000. use talk to clarify his ideas and sustain his talk to develop thinking and reasoning Effective speaking means: . and explain or comment on speakers’ use of language. speaking at a chamber of commerce meeting. Young. Davis. 1991. 1996 4. Building Your Company's Good Name. AMACOM. including vocabulary.

using language to organise and sequence ideas 2. . to unknown people. aids and rhetorical specific devices It is essential that speakers be provided with planned opportunities for speaking in a range of contexts. Address to the entire group. an assembly and for different purposes. "When it's possible. using connectives.• • • putting thoughts into words and sharing them in groups. such as professionals. Although they are overlooked. Focus on the values of your partners stay focused on what your partner says: the positive remarks at business meetings genuinely contribute to successful business outcomes. Speaking and listening skills in a meeting The art of effective business-meeting communication is very much a learnable skill.1. The positive score between positive comments and those designed more to sting than support will stay solution focused. describing. justifying views and persuading Speakers need to know how to make extended contributions (expanding ideas. the following critical speaking-listening tips make a business meeting effective and win-win emphasizing the upside. such as: recounting events and telling stories. 1. giving a talk or presentation using gestures. with different levels of formality such as with peers. The skills involved in getting your point across are not different than those of a keynote speaker giving a speech to a meeting group. making connections between reasoning and predicting. taking opportunities to speak at some length to explain ideas in different situations. affirm others' ideas by using active and constructive feedback. non professionals. For example: 'I really like Bill's idea on how we can use a different approach when responding to customer complaints. including: • • • • to different audiences. offering up twice as many positive comments as you do negative.'" 2. explaining.

"When responding to a question.When speaking in a group. follow their lead. even worse. amplify and substantiate your remarks. Call on people and make them feel you are interested in what they think. It is a must not to make it a filibuster. Don't limit supportive interaction to just what you say. That makes productive and efficient give and take gathering. making eye contact. Make the talking issue one-on-one If your message warrants a lot more discussion tell the audience that you will give further details some other time or after the meeting. address the entire group. 6. The point is not just to be a participant. most participants are keeping their remarks short. raising your eyebrows and making other . 7. to affirm and contribute to the overall tenor of the meeting. Be thorough. Make your point across but also open it up for discussion. Don't derail meetings or drag them on endlessly by going into detail that can be addressed at another time. 4. do the same. Make your communication consistent with the comfortable atmosphere where everyone feels at ease. not just the person who asked the question and make everyone included. Keep the conversational balance Any participant in a business meeting wants to make his or her point of view clear. If need be. rather. Keep away the clichés and rhetoric. alienate someone who may be waiting their turn to talk. A central tenet of powerful business-meeting communication is being as clear as possible. 5. The way you express your ideas and message is equally telling in your ability to share your thoughts with others. 3. If their tone is low and reserved. keep an eye on your watch when you've got the floor so a comment meant to be short doesn't turn into a diatribe. but don't take so much time to get your message across that you lose others' attention or. Active comment and feedback based on what you have to contribute will broaden. If. Avoid wrapping your message into tired catch phrases or too many rhetorical questions or negative remarks that do not contribute to the discussion advancement. try to do the same. crossing your legs and other. move your eyes around and talk to anyone who's listening to what you have to say. for instance. but also a facilitator. If others are being succinct. You can also mirror behaviors of other participants such as leaning forward. Show it by nodding your head. Be aware of your body language. Facilitate and encourage feedback. 8. The point is not to mindlessly mimic but.

responsive listening comprehension skills. facial expression. audible. and eyecontact. Speaking should be clear. emphasizing key-words by gesture. The effectiveness of speaking skills is supported by the development of active. The use of precise words would convey meaning and message and hold the attention of the audience and respond to others’ contributions by adding or elaborating on them or by expressing an alternative point of view. volume. tone. empathically Be open to new ideas Think about what others say Don’t interrupt your partner’s speech . sometimes quietly. The following set of speaking and listening rules are also to be considered for a formal or informal talk: RULES FOR TALKING Respect each other’s opinion One voice at a time Say what you think Say why you think it Build on what talk partners say Support and include each other Ask when you don’t understand Strive to reach agreement RULES FOR LISTENING Don’t interrupt Listen carefully.gestures that demonstrate that your interest and involvement in the discussion aren't mere lip service.

1. Arrive early and walk around the room including the speaking area.2. They want you to succeed . Make yourself feel closer. memory loss and even difficulty in breathing are what perfectly normal anxious speaker’s experience. Anxiety can be easily dealt with the acknowledgement that fear is perfectly normal but it can be reduced by properly and thoroughly preparation and rehearsal before speaking. Stand at the lectern. your voice loud. 5. hold your breath for 4 to 5 seconds. Your nervousness will dissipate if you concentrate on your message . Imagine yourself walking to the lectern and speaking confidently. relaxing procedures before presentation/speech/meeting. Mind the following prior preparation tips that will help a speaker be successful: 1. Overcoming Speaking Anxiety Mark Twain said: "There are two types of speakers: those that are nervous and those that are liars". informative and entertaining. 7. Walk from where you will be seated to the place where you will be speaking. as the audience appreciates and applauds. If you don't say anything about it. To relax your facial muscles. The physical conditions. then slowly exhale. Had you remained silent. Walk around where the audience will be seated. nobody will notice.If you mention your nervousness or apologize for any problems you think you have with your speech. Visualize yourself as a successful speech deliverer. clear and assured. not on yourself. 6. 4. An oral presentation/speech /meeting is to become successful when this is prepared meticulously. It is easier to speak to a group of friends than to a group of strangers.not fail. will be the issues to focus on and acknowledged thoroughly prior to a successful accomplishment of the event to come. check the microphone. Make yourself familiar with the material content/or meeting subject and feel comfortable with it. Don't apologize for being nervous . greet some of the audience as they arrive and chat with them. then the fear of speaking serves as it's own best antidote. Sit comfortable with your back straight. your listeners may not have noticed at all. If possible. Breathe in slowly. open your mouth and eyes wide. Most of the time your nervousness does not show at all. the awareness of the material to be presented. Focus your attention away from your anxieties and concentrate on your message and your audience. . 3.not the medium. If the fear of public speaking makes you prepare more. Sweaty palms.1. then close them tightly. Practice your speech or presentation and revise it until you can present it with ease. accelerated heart rate. 2. Become familiar with the place in which the event will take place. All audiences want speakers to be interesting. you'll only be calling attention to it. the type of audience. stimulating. Ease tension by doing relaxation exercises. The following overcoming speaking anxiety tips are called the 8 P's and refer to prior proper preparation of the event.

which is the key to effective speaking.-Choose only one version to learn accurately for future use.-Mistakes occur when speakers remember half of one construction and half of another. and transforming it into vitality and enthusiasm. Speaking fluently and accurately Fluency in English is accuracy with good pronunciation . Confidence is built by experience. . .-use them in real situations by incorporating them into conversations with as many people as possible (at least six times each word or construction. The more you manage to use them in conversation.2. ending up with a hotch-potch which is at best "incorrect but understandable" and at worst "nonsense". .-Mind the English richness in constructions and vocabulary which convey similar meanings. In order to imprint words on your memory and also to feel comfortable about pronouncing them at a moment's notice.Your speech nervousness can be turned into an asset by harnessing it. 1. it is necessary to practice vocabulary the number of times you feel necessary to make your speaking ability fluent and accurate. Anxiety to speak in public decreases with experience.-Choose about ten new words per day to practice until you are word-perfect . . the more readily you will be able to say them fluently in the future. but more if possible).1. Decide which constructions and vocabulary items are handy for you to learn.not speed. 8. he who fails to prepare is preparing for failure! 2. . Remember.

o It facilitates the understanding of the word meanings and the meaning of the meaning too. you should read it again and again until you know the sentence byheart. attitude E. it explains how the word can be used in conjunction with other words and how the different words connect to form a sentence. Sentence: What was your reaction when you heard the news? Whenever you are looking up some new word and you come across a sample sentence. o It helps you to familiarize your self with the language and also exposes you to new English words that you should find out the meanings of. It is not enough to have a dictionary kept on the shelf. to make yourself able to use the word or the phrase in sentences of your own correctly. For example: reaction: Response to an earlier activity.. many . but to make use of it! The must dictionary that you buy should contain example sentences along with every word. Now-a-days.To improve your fluency accuracy with the English language you should use an “English – English” dictionary only. o Use the English-English dictionary every time you come across a new word. The sample sentence “programs the brain” to use the word properly and clears all doubts or misunderstandings. Forming correct sentences becomes easy if you learn the sample sentences after reading them again and again.g.

Avoid the pitfalls of misunderstanding Adapt your language to the real situation choose the best English for universal speaking purposes and recognize other versions of English It is recommended to avoid. (Merriam-Webster Online) 2. but exact time unknown) . (Recent. it is possible to express what you want in more than one way. Avoid grammatical errors and mispronunciation Non native English speakers experience difficulties with the use of the present perfect. with audio files for the words. phrasal verbs. They too allow you to search for any word conveniently. eg: I have been to London. There are also many online dictionaries available.dictionaries come with a CD providing a convenient software version. (Time unknown) I went to London some time ago. as much as possible: idioms. because its use does not correspond with a similar-looking tense in their own language. English is such a rich and versatile language. but time unknown) I left my job a short while ago (Recent. slang when speaking in normal situations:3. If it helps avoid the present perfect altogether by using SIMPLE PAST + SPECIFIC TIME. easily accessible by computer. (Exact time unknown) I have left my job.

various levels of formality (peers. such as ideas using connectives. using language to organize and sequence ideas Public speakers are able to shine when they are completely prepared: they understand the different speeches they're called upon to deliver in public and they know how to organize various targeted speeches.2. and sustain their talk by developing thinking and reasoning. such as o recounting events and telling stories. assemblies for different purposes. use a range of ways to express themselves. o explaining. speeches that persuade. public speakers need to learn: how to adapt their talk to the listeners. Speech writing In developing their speaking skills. o justifying views and o persuading others Speakers should extend their contributions. Speaking opportunities should be planned in a range of contexts: different audiences. or . o describing. All speeches fall into one of three categories: speeches that inform. use talk to make their ideas clear. making connections between reasoning and predicting.

shows. Therefore. use appropriate language Think before you speak Show respect for each other Negotiate – try to reach an agreement Use Standard English Say what you think Vary your expression to interest your audience • • • • • • • Golden rules for listening Be quiet while other people are talking Look interested in what is being said Repeat what has been said so that everyone in the group understands Look at people when they are talking Think about what people say Ask questions when you don’t understand Be open to new ideas . the effect is result. The following chart shows this order of events: Golden rules for speaking • • • • • • • • • Take turns to talk Speak quietly Choose your words carefully. cause-and-effect speeches establish a relationship between events Cause and effect usually (but not always) happen in time order: The cause comes first.- speeches that entertain corresponding to the four types of discourse that instructs. explains. or tells The cause-and-effect relationship: The cause is why something happens. what happens due to the cause. creating an effect.

Help Brainstorm. Listen. Ask About Feelings. wait until they’ve gotten their feelings out. You can reference something that happened to you if you bring the focus back to them quickly. Or they might feel better after just being able to talk and feeling heard. Ask your friend what’s wrong. Keep The Focus On Them. Rather than delving into a related story of your own. and this will help them feel genuinely cared for and understood. and you may find yourself surrounded by others who are able to do the same.” 3. Reframe What You Hear. or offering support in a facing a crisis. resolving a conflict. and just let them get it out. “It looks like things are getting pretty hostile. Listen. and then help them brainstorm solutions. and really listen to the answer. They will appreciate the focused attention. Asking about their feelings provides a good emotional release and might be more helpful than just focusing on the facts of their situation 4. Whether you're strengthening a relationship. Let them vent their fears. maintaining eye contact and showing that you’re interested in what they have to say. 2. Resist the urge to give advice. Here are some important steps to developing good listening skills: 1. You sound like you’re feeling hurt. 5. frustrations and other important feelings. and focus on the emotions they might be feeling. If you help them come up with ideas and look at the pros and cons of each. Summarize and repeat back your understanding of what they’re saying so they know you’re hearing them. which cuts off further exploration of feelings and other communication. keep the focus on them until they feel better. Rather than giving advice in the beginning. good listening skills can be a lifeline to peace. Ask them to expand on what they’re feeling. . you might find yourself saying. For example. if your friend is talking about family problems. they’re likely to come up with a solution they feel good about. Listen.• • Support and include everyone in the group Explain your ideas and opinions clearly and fully • • Listen twice as much as you talk One voice at a time LISTENING SKILLS Good listening skills are vital to healthy relationships. Learn how to be a truly supportive listener.

2. It’s common to want to immediately give advice and ‘fix’ your friend’s problem. Let Things Even Out Over Time. also. But being a good listener can make you a stronger. and once the feelings are cleared out. 4. when you need a friend. But usually offering a supportive ear and sitting with your friend in an uncomfortable place is the most helpful thing you can do. PUBLIC RELATIONS PLANNING A public relations person who has a clear idea of the mission and goals of an organization and who understands how public relations fits into that mission can construct a strategic public relations plan by sequentially answering the ten following questions. Sometimes people feign listening. more caring person and bring a more supportive angle to your relationships. Trust The Process. you can re-evaluate the dynamics of the relationship. and hearing your friend talk about upset feelings might even make you feel helpless. Audience and goal identification The first questions that need to be addressed--e. don’t. and it doesn’t feel good. People can usually sense this. your friend probably just wants to feel heard and understood. It might feel a little scary to listen to feelings before diving into solutions. 3. Don’t Give Advice. With all this focus on your friend’s problems. Unless they ask directly for advice.Tips: 1. the solutions can start coming. If you’re consistently doing all the giving. Unless it's specifically requested. • With whom does the organization need to have relationships? .g. advice can feel condescending. and then can find his or her own solutions. While you’re trying to help. but they’re really just waiting for their friend to stop talking so they can say whatever they’ve been mentally rehearsing while they’ve been pretending to listen. Stay Present. Relax in the knowledge that. what would work for you might not work for your friend. your friend will likely be a better listener for you. This part of the overall planning process is often best recorded and reported using a grid format. it might be difficult not to focus equal time on your own. Also. they tend to miss what’s being said because they’re not focused.

Why is the audience important to the organization? No matter how obvious it seems. 1. • how big it is. • how politically influential it is. o Keep in mind that these are ultimately top management's decisions. each audience should be evaluated in terms of its relevance and importance to the organization. if they include unique characteristics. 2. The public relations people should speak out and try to influence who is included and who is excluded from this list. Long audience identification. appears that are particularly effective with this audience. Probably the most effective way of dealing with these first four questions is for the public relations staff to develop a preliminary list of target audiences and relationships and then meet with key managers to review and discuss them. Data about the audience's abstract or general importance--e. Who are the organization's key target audiences? Depending upon the nature of the audiences. and communities or as long and complex as psycho demographic profiles of prospective buyers of a particular product. For most organizations the list will include a mix of short and long identifications. these listings may be as short and simple as the names of key people.g.. not the public relations practitioners’.• What does it want these people to think about the organization?o can be answered after a little introspection and discussion with top management. organizations. but they rarely make the final decision. or .

or to hinder the organization in reaching its goals? Padding an audience list with people or organizations who have little or no direct bearing on the organization is a waste of time. the next step: • explore the existing relationship the organization has with each of those audiences and . Reporting research findings Once the target audiences and desired relationships have been nailed down. What does it. depending upon the organization and the audience. or voting for specific political candidates. be very misleading. or any number of other things. It may be having them purchase products or services. The critical information needed is how and why this audience affects the organization. the more helpful it will be for future planning and relationship building. no matter how prestigious these audiences may be. in fact. or could it do. It serves little purpose. What view does the organization want this audience to have of it? / What kind of relationship does the organization want to have with this audience? Both of these questions boil down to essentially the same thing: a reflection of what the organization hopes to accomplish by interacting with this audience.• how rich its members areo -is not enough and can. The more clearly and concretely this view is expressed. to help. It might even interfere with or delay meaningful planning. or supporting new legislation. 3.

What issues and appeals are important to this audience? and 6. 4. more than any other part of the strategic planning process. You need to check with people who actually know--actual members of the target audiences. is the only way to get vital and meaningful information about the audiences you need to reach. Which media does this audience use and trust the most? They are not absolutely essential for properly assessing the organization's current relationships or for determining what can be done to improve them. This question. but the information they provide can be . Virtually all the rest of the planning process. non-ambiguous answers. What is this audience's current view of our organization? Or. what is the organization's current relationship with this audience? The exact phrasing should correspond to question 3 so the answers can be juxtaposed. showing where the relationship is now compared to where the organization wants it to be. This calls for more than internal discussion. including the setting of specific objectives and the measurement of success. requires accurate. It's critical to successful planning that such research be done. is based on the information gathered at this step. Carefully conducted research. whether it's done by the public relations staff or by hired research consultants. Simply letting the public relations staff and/or organizational managers speculate will never yield reliable information. This is not something to be guessed at. and that its findings then be incorporated into the plan as it's being developed. 5.• decide whether it needs any adjustment.

Answering these two questions helps ensure that only the most effective and efficient media for reaching the target audiences are used and that the messages the organization sends via these channels will include the best possible themes and concepts for garnering a response from the audience. Responses about preferred media or channels of communication should not be limited to the major mass media.extremely helpful later. but should also take narrower and more selective communication techniques – • • • • • interpersonal conversations public speeches telephone calls direct mail the Internet. during tactical planning and while carrying out a public relations campaign. o etc .

8.Assessment and plan development This third stage of the planning process integrates the first two stages with a series of questions that build upon and further explore the responses to the earlier questions. A frequent outcome of this planning step is a prioritized list of relationships which need immediate attention. something that has become increasingly common in recent years as organizations seek more and more ways to establish additional linkages to their constituents is that the perceived strength of an audience's feeling about a particular topic will "inspire" the organization to take a similar public stance on that . the responses to this question end up being identical to the responses to question 5. What message themes will have the greatest impact on this audience? In some instances. This comparison lets the organization know which of its relationships are moving along on track and which are most in need of adjustment. However. especially when an organization is closely tied to an issue that has a strong emotional context for its audiences. How does this audience's current view of the organization differ from the desired one?/How does the organization's current relationship with this audience compare with what the organization wants it to be? compare what the organization's managers said about the desired relationship (question 3) with the audience's responses (question 4). 7.

10. and affordable. it may be most effective to list several different means of communicating with each audience. Who will serve as the organization's primary contact for working with this audience? Even though public relation is concerned with all of an organization's relationships. high-profile audiences . Other audiences may be so engrossed with technical issues that they need to deal with by subject matter specialists and technical experts. They may expect and warrant the personal attention of the CEO or the chairman of the board. 9. the public relations practitioners themselves are not always the most appropriate "point persons" for working with every audience. specifying which means and medium is most appropriate for various types of situations. In many instances.issue even though it has no direct bearing on the organization and would otherwise have gone unnoticed by its management. The means of reaching the audience which are identified here need to be appropriate. At other times. Still others may not care who they deal with. available. What are the best ways of reaching this audience? As with question 8. the audience's stated preferences may not be suitable or affordable for the organization to use.may not be satisfied dealing with public relations staff members. just so someone from the organization pays attention to them. PUBLIC SPEAKING TIPS . • • • Some prestigious. there are some instances in which responses to this item are nearly identical to the media preferences identified for the audience in question 6.

continue to ask the question. But today when sound bytes on television news are the norm and serious problems are solved in an hour on a television drama. a speaker's message is most powerful when he [or she] can deliver a lot of good material in a short amount of time. More work done in less time produces more power. Today great speakers are noted for their brevity.Centuries ago great speakers often spoke two hours and more. In the same way. In preparing a story."How can I say this in less time and in fewer words?" . Television has helped create an impatient society. audiences are most interested in speakers that get their points across in a short period of time. where audiences expect us to make our point simply and quickly. First. keep your stories under two minutes in length. ." Here are guidelines to make brevity a key foundation in your next speech.

follow the proverb. include only information that answers the questions.  "Who?"  "What?"  "When?"  "Where?" and  "Why?" If it doesn't answer one of these questions. The listener should always feel you are going somewhere in developing your story." . when possible. "Less is better than more. leave it out. Second. There is an adage in using humor: "The longer the story the funnier it had better be." To make sure your stories stay under two minutes." Connecting this principle to stories in general. we might say. "The longer the story. Each part of the story should move toward the conclusion in the mind of the listener.Script out your story and then seek to condense it. Make sure also that you have a sense of direction in the story. the more impact it had better have.


Never use three words when you can say it in two.

- Leave out clichés, filler words, and hackneyed words, such as "You know," "OK," and "All right." - Leave out phrases such as "Let me be honest," or blunt, or frank. Avoid "In other words - " or "To say it another way - " - Speak in short sentences, short phrases, and short words. Word choice should be instantly clear to an audience. Make it a goal to make every word have impact in your speech. Third, know the length of your speech by practicing it. Never be surprised by the length of your speech. Never say to an audience, "I'm running out of time, so I must hurry along." You should know because of your preparation and practice of the speech. To go one step further, if you know the time limit on your speech is 20 minutes, stop a minute short; don't go overtime. Audiences will appreciate your respect of their time and will think more highly of you as a speaker because

of that. You should never be surprised by how long it takes you to deliver a speech Fourth, learn to divide parts of your speech into time segments - Let's use a 20-minute speech as an example. The introduction should be no longer than 2½ minutes. You can get the attention and preview your message easily in that length of time. Avoid opening with generalizations about the weather or the audience. Let the audience know up front that every word you speak counts. - Spend the bulk of your time in the body of the speech. This is where you make your points and give support or evidence for each point. - The final two minutes should be your summary and move to action statement. Some speakers have a hard time concluding. When you say you are going to conclude, do so. As one wise person stated, "Don't dawdle at the finish line of the speech." One way to keep your speech brief is to have few points in the body of your speech-no more

than three. With a maximum of three points, you will have the self-discipline to condense rather than amplify. In organizing your material, accept the fact you will always have more material than you can cover and that you will only include material that relates to one of the two or three points you plan to make. Trying to cover four to six points will almost invariably make you go overtime in your speech. A key to success in speaking is not just having something worthwhile to say, but also saying it briefly. We need to follow the speaking axiom: "Have a powerful, captivating opening and a strong, memorable close, and put the two of them as close together as possible."
PUBLIC SPEAKING TIPS-2 Centuries ago great speakers often spoke two hours and more. But today when sound bytes on television news are the norm and serious problems are solved in an hour on a television drama, audiences are most interested in speakers that get their points across in a short period of time. Television has helped create an impatient society, where audiences expect us to make our point simply and quickly. Today great speakers are noted for their brevity.

or frank." or "To say it another way . and hackneyed words. In preparing a story. In the same way. Make sure also that you have a sense of direction in the story." "OK. Third." and "All right. Word choice should be instantly clear to an audience. filler words. "The longer the story. a speaker's message is most powerful when he [or she] can deliver a lot of good material in a short amount of time. First. when possible. Second. The listener should always feel you are going somewhere in developing your story. such as "You know. the more impact it had better have." Never use three words when you can say it in two. Avoid "In other words ." Leave out phrases such as "Let me be honest." Here are guidelines to make brevity a key foundation in your next speech. and short words. ." To make sure your stories stay under two minutes. we might say. follow the proverb.More work done in less time produces more power. short phrases. "Less is better than more. "How can I say this in less time and in fewer words?" Script out your story and then seek to condense it. include only information that answers the questions." or blunt. There is an adage in using humor: "The longer the story the funnier it had better be.      "Who?" "What?" "When?" "Where?" and "Why?" If it doesn't answer one of these questions. keep your stories under two minutes in length. Make it a goal to make every word have impact in your speech. Leave out clichés. leave it out." Connecting this principle to stories in general." Speak in short sentences. know the length of your speech by practicing it. continue to ask the question. Each part of the story should move toward the conclusion in the mind of the listener.

When you say you are going to conclude. The introduction should be no longer than 2½ minutes. We need to follow the speaking axiom: "Have a powerful. accept the fact you will always have more material than you can cover and that you will only include material that relates to one of the two or three points you plan to make. but also saying it briefly. "Don't dawdle at the finish line of the speech. don't go overtime. This is where you make your points and give support or evidence for each point. so I must hurry along. you will have the self-discipline to condense rather than amplify. A key to success in speaking is not just having something worthwhile to say. in front of a mirror. friends or colleagues. Let the audience know up front that every word you speak counts." You should know because of your preparation and practice of the speech. stop a minute short. Some speakers have a hard time concluding. "I'm running out of time.Never be surprised by the length of your speech. Ensure your speech will be captivating to your audience as well as worth their time and attention. Avoid opening with generalizations about the weather or the audience. . Put what you have to say in a logical sequence." Know the needs of your audience and match your contents to their needs. Use a tape-recorder and listen to yourself. You can get the attention and preview your message easily in that length of time. learn to divide parts of your speech into time segments Let's use a 20-minute speech as an example. Practice and rehearse your speech at home or where you can be at ease and comfortable. In organizing your material. and put the two of them as close together as possible." - One way to keep your speech brief is to have few points in the body of your speech-no more than three. memorable close. Spend the bulk of your time in the body of the speech. if you know the time limit on your speech is 20 minutes. Know your material thoroughly. your family. With a maximum of three points. do so. You should never be surprised by how long it takes you to deliver a speech Fourth. Never say to an audience. captivating opening and a strong. As one wise person stated. The final two minutes should be your summary and move to action statement. Trying to cover four to six points will almost invariably make you go overtime in your speech. To go one step further. Audiences will appreciate your respect of their time and will think more highly of you as a speaker because of that.

If you made an error. Appear relaxed. but not arrogant. summary. Do not torture your audience by putting a lengthy document in tiny print on an overhead and reading it out to them. Master the use of presentation software such as PowerPoint well before your presentation. Remain calm. Always be prepared for the unexpected. confident. Emphasize your strong points during your presentation. a logical progression from INTRODUCTION (Thesis statement) to BODY (strong supporting arguments. Know what your strong and weak points are. enunciate clearly. and continue. Sound confident. . Use your eye contact to make everyone in your audience feel involved. even if you feel nervous. Do not mumble. Use the 3-second method. Speak loudly and clearly. Body language is important. Persuade your audience effectively. and every now and then glance at the whole audience while speaking. If what you have prepared is obviously not getting across to your audience. When you are presenting in front of an audience. Maintain sincere eye contact with your audience. respond to their reactions. If a microphone is available. Do not read from notes for any extended length of time although it is quite acceptable to glance at your notes infrequently. look straight into the eyes of a person in the audience for 3 seconds at a time. e. Speak to the person farthest away from you to ensure your voice is loud enough to project to the back of the room. Establish rapport with your audience. Standing. Use audio-visual aids or props for enhancement if appropriate and necessary. proud. you are performing as an actor is on stage. listen to their questions. Present the desired image to your audience. How you are being perceived is very important. walking or moving about with appropriate hand gesture or facial expression is preferred to sitting down or standing still with head down and reading from a prepared speech. If you are short of time. change your strategy mid-stream if you are well prepared to do so. Speak slowly.g. If you have extra time. and show appropriate emotion and feeling relating to your topic. adjust and adapt your voice accordingly. Have direct eye contact with a number of people in the audience. sound clips.e. Speak with conviction as if you really believe in what you are saying. Remember that communication is the key to a successful presentation.Videotape your presentation and analyze it. Dress appropriately for the occasion. i. Be solemn if your topic is serious. know what can be safely left out. The material you present orally should have the same ingredients as that which are required for a written research paper. Vary the tone of your voice and dramatize if necessary. correct it. No need to make excuses or apologize profusely. enthusiastic. and logical conclusion). know what could be effectively added. or gaudy colors which are inappropriate for your topic. Do not over-dazzle your audience with excessive use of animation. Look pleasant. adjust and adapt. accurate and up-to-date information) to CONCLUSION (re-state thesis. Speak to your audience.

are suitable for your presentation. location of projection screen. Keep audience interested throughout your entire presentation. Remember that an interesting speech makes time fly. Check out the location ahead of time to ensure seating arrangements for audience. Leave your listeners with a positive impression and a sense of completion.Pause. If you are taking the online version of technical writing. . Just as you don't use unnecessary words in your written paper. sound system. blackboard. Use a timer or the microwave oven clock to time your presentation when preparing it at home. That's why the real name of courses like these ought to be "Introduction to Technical Communications. You might wonder what an oral report is doing in a writing class. Don't race through your presentation and leave your audience. feeling out of breath. but they also look for some experience in oral presentation as well. the oral reports can be sent in as "scripts. Allow yourself and your audience a little time to reflect and think. Thank your audience and sit down. To end your presentation. Employers look for coursework and experience in preparing written documents. as well as yourself. Do not belabor your closing remarks." The following was written for a standard face-to-face classroom setting. audio versions can be transmitted live. lighting. Terminate your presentation with an interesting remark or an appropriate punch line. Tell audience ahead of time that you will be giving out an outline of your presentation so that they will not waste time taking unnecessary notes during your presentation. however. When using audio-visual aids to enhance your presentation. Know when to STOP talking. summarize your main points in the same way as you normally do in the CONCLUSION of a written paper. etc. that there is a difference between spoken words appropriate for the ear and formally written words intended for reading. ORAL PRESENTATION A common assignment in technical writing courses is to prepare and deliver an oral presentation. If possible. Have handouts ready and give them out at the appropriate time. Add humor whenever appropriate and possible. whiteboard. have an emergency backup system readily available. Have the written portion of your assignment or report ready for your instructor if required. Remember." or with the right equipment. but a boring speech is always too long to endure even if the presentation time is the same. be sure all necessary equipment is set up and in good working order prior to the presentation. you don't bore your audience with repetitious or unnecessary words in your oral presentation.

to persuade (to vote for or against a certain technically oriented bond issue). you'd have a meeting with chief officers to formally deliver the guide. You'd spend some time orienting them to the guide.Either way. Is it to instruct (for example. For example. For example. as a member of a committee involved in a project to relocate the plant. imagine that you had contracted with a software company to write its user guide. or simply to inform (to report on citizen participation in the new recycling program). If you have a topic that you'd prefer not to present orally to the group. your job might be to give an oral report on the condition of the building and grounds at one of the sites proposed for purchase. to explain how to run a text editing program on a computer). showing them how it is organized and written. Here are some brainstorming possibilities in case you want to present something else: • Frames Nonframes Plain Frames Nonframes Plain Purpose: Another way to find a topic is to think about the purpose of your talk. you shouldn't have to do any research to prepare for this assignment—just plan the details of your talk and get at least one visual ready. students evaluate each other's oral-report scripts by filling out an online form and sending it to the instructor. you might be required to go before the city council and report on the success of the new city-sponsored recycling project. Your goal is to get them acquainted with the guide and to prompt them for any concerns or questions. Informative purpose: An oral report can be primarily informative. o .) As you can see. discuss other possibilities with your instructor. Check out these examples of oral report scripts: Oral report 1: Patient Seminar on Physical Therapy Oral report 2: Presentation on Automobile Airbags for Sales Representatives Topic and Situation for the Oral Presentation For the oral report. and discussing some of its highlights. Or. Once you had completed it. (Your class will gladly pretend to be whoever you tell them to be during your talk. imagine that you are formally handing over your final written report to the people with whom you set up the hypothetical contract or agreement.

You might want to convince members of local civic organizations to support a city-wide recycling program. organized. Use the following as a requirements list. For your oral report. o Persuasive purpose: An oral report can be primarily persuasive. as a way of focusing your preparations: • Plan to explain to the class what the situation of your oral report is. for example. • Contents and Requirements for the Oral Presentation The focus for your oral presentation is clear. Make sure that there is a clean break between this brief explanation and the beginning of your actual oral report. o • Topics: You can start by thinking of a technical subject. . their reasons for listening to you. understandable presentation. solar panels. wellorganized. or Ms. microprocessors. When you give your oral presentation. You don't need to be Mr. but find a reason why an audience would want to hear your oral report. who you are. Slick-Operator—just present the essentials of what you have to say in a calm. well-planned.Instructional purpose: An oral report can be primarily instructional. drip irrigation. and who they should imagine they are. or laser surgery. well-planned manner. softball and baseball parks. think of a subject you'd be interested in talking about. or community gardens. You might appear before city council to persuade its members to reserve certain city-owned lands for park areas. Your task might be to train new employees to use certain equipment or to perform certain routine tasks. we'll all be listening for the same things. well-timed discussion. and their interests and background. Place or situation: You can find topics for oral reports or make more detailed plans for them by thinking about the place or the situation in which your oral report might naturally be given: at a neighborhood association? at the parent teachers' association meeting? at a church meeting? at the gardening club? at a city council meeting? at a meeting of the board of directors or high-level executives of a company? Thinking about an oral report this way makes you focus on the audience.

technical stuff—slow down and explain it carefully so that we understand it. • • • • • • • . and find some way to interest the audience. (See the examples of verbal headings. Your instructor will work out some signals to indicate when the 7-minute mark is approaching. give an overview of its contents. Don't just throw them up there and ignore them.) Use at least one visual—preferably a transparency for the overhead projector." and "okay. don't slouch on the podium or against the wall. Overviews and verbal headings greatly contribute to this sense of organization. Use "verbal headings"—by now. which part of the talk you are in. that you don't speak too rapidly (nerves often cause that). consider slowing your tempo a bit—a common tendency is to get nervous and talk too fast.• Make sure your oral report lasts no longer than 7 minutes. Pay special attention to the introduction to your talk." "you know. and what's coming next. you've gotten used to using headings in your written work. be aware of how much you say things like "uh. Don't race through complex. For example. and that your gestures and posture are okay." Plan to explain any technical aspect of your topic very clearly and understandably. Make sure that your speaking style and gestures are okay.) Plan your report in advance and practice it so that it is organized. There is a corollary in oral reports. (See the example text of an introduction to an oral report. Make sure you discuss key elements of your visuals. Indicate the purpose of your oral report. Ensure that you are loud enough so that everybody can hear. Make sure that listeners know what you are talking about and why. you give your audience a very clear signal you are moving from one topic or part of your talk to the next. or has past. Also. explain them to the audience. Flip charts and objects for display are okay. With these. As for speaking style. But please avoid scribbling stuff on the chalkboard or relying strictly on handouts. and avoid fidgeting with your hands. has arrived. Point out things about them.

Preparing for the Oral Presentation . As mentioned above. or some combination of these three.• End with a real conclusion. • Diagram of the oral presentation. People sometimes forget to plan how to end an oral report and end by just trailing off into a mumble. Some ideas on how to do this are presented in the next section. you'll want to prompt the audience for questions and concerns. Remember that in conclusions. be sure your oral report is carefully timed to 7 minutes. provide some last thought (end with some final interesting point but general enough not to require elaboration). you can summarize (go back over high points of what you've discussed). And certainly. conclude (state some logical conclusion based on what you have presented).

informative. practice with it. There is little or no eye contact or interaction with the audience. Set up an outline of your talk.Pick the method of preparing for the talk that best suits your comfort level with public speaking and with your topic. Here are the obvious possibilities for preparation and delivery: • Write a script. . understandable. Set up cue cards. You don't have to be a slick entertainer—just be clear. the extemporaneous or impromptu methods are also out there for the brave and the adventurous. practice with them. practice it. one that is clear. Of course the head-down style of reading your report directly from a script has its problems. understandable. It doesn't often work that way—drawing a mental blank is the more common experience. However. bring it for reference. please bear in mind that up to 25 people will be listening to you—you owe them a good presentation. organized. However. The delivery tends toward a dull monotone that either puts listeners off or is hard to understand. It doesn't matter which method you use to prepare for the talk. organized. The nerves will wear off someday. well-planned. do some sort of preparation or rehearsal—some people assume that they can just jump up there and ad lib for 7 minutes and be relaxed. Try to remember that your classmates and instructor are a very forgiving. and informative. the more oral presenting you do. informal. supportive group. For some reason. Write a script and read from it. • • • Of course. people tend to get nervous in this situation. use them during your talk. keep it around for quick-reference during your talk.

or find some other way to get the timing just right. Delivering an Oral Presentation When you give an oral report. Anything under 6 minutes is also a problem. speed—Sometimes. Volume—Obviously. oral presentators who are a bit nervous talk too fast. focus on common problem areas such as these: • Timing—Make sure you keep within the 7-minute time limit. Pacing. All that adrenaline causes them to speed through their talk. you must be sure to speak loud enough so that all of your audience can hear you. That • • . Do some rehearsal. write a script. You might find some way to practice speaking a little louder in the days before the oral presentation.Introductory remarks in an oral presentation.

• Examples of verbal headings in an oral presentation. it helps listeners to understand you better if you speak a bit more slowly and deliberately than you do in normal conversation. The silence that replaces them is not a bad thing—it gives listeners time to process what you are saying. don't turn yourself into a mannikin.makes it hard for the audience to follow. practice speaking without these verbal crutches. In general. be clear. take it easy. avoid slouching at the podium and leaning against the wall. Plan to keep your hands clasped together or holding onto the podium and only occasionally making some gesture. Planning and Preparing Visuals for Oral Presentations . At the same time. This too can be distracting—and a bit comical. As for posture. In the days before your oral presentation. Instead of saying "uh" or "you know" every three seconds. Slow down. just don't say anything at all. • Gestures and posture—Watch out for nervous hands flying all over the place." "you know. Verbal crutches—Watch out for too much "uh." "okay" and other kinds of nervous verbal habits.

If you have a choice. handouts are the only choice. Objects—If you need to demonstrate certain procedures. Posterboard-size charts—Another possibility is to get some posterboard and draw and letter what you want your audience to see. Still. Here are some ideas for the "medium" to use for your visuals: • Transparencies for overhead projector—For most college classrooms and. Do your best to ensure that they are legible to the entire audience. in fact. consider transparencies—it's hard to make charts look neat and professional. Rehearse what you are going to do with these objects. You may have access to equipment like this at your work. and your instructor can make transparencies for you. As for the content of your visuals consider these ideas: • Drawing or diagram of key objects—If you describe or refer to any objects during your talk. you may need to bring in actual physical objects. • • • Please avoid just scribbling your visual on the chalkboard. then photocopy it. for certain visual needs. This option is even less effective than the first two because you can't point to what you want your listeners to see and because handouts take listeners' attention away from you. Whatever you can scribble on the chalkboard can be neatly prepared and made into a transparency or posterboard-size chart. sometimes they can take up a lot more time than you expect. for example. try to get visuals of them so that you can point to different components or features. and then get a transparency of it. Take some time to make your visuals look sharp and professional-use a straightedge.Prepare at least one visual for this report. Design your visual on a sheet of blank paper. business conference rooms. neat lettering or typing. good dark markers. given a few days lead-time. most copy shops can make transparencies for you. Handouts—You can run off copies of what you want your listeners to see and hand them out before or during your talk. the overhead projector is the best way to show things to the whole group. .

or if your presentation is complex.) • • • During your actual oral report. charts. report. Key terms and definitions—A good idea for visuals (especially when you can't think of any others) is to set up a two-column list of key terms you use during your oral presentation with their definitions in the second column. or both—If you are at a loss for visuals to use in your oral presentation. key terms. and main points are all good.• Tables. refer to them. . (Outlines. legitimate ways of incorporating visuals into oral presentations when you can't think of any others. or graph. It's a big problem just to throw a visual up on the screen and never even refer to it. have an outline of it that you can show at various points during your talk. graphs—If you discuss statistical data. guide your listeners through the key points in your visuals. present it in some form or table. make sure to discuss your visuals. Key concepts or points—Similarly. you can list your key points and show them in visuals. chart. Many members of your audience may have trouble "hearing" such data as opposed to seeing it. Outline of your talk.

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