qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

zmnis uRleba

ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti qarTuli enis institutis Sromebi

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi
zmnis uRleba
werilebis krebuli

T b i li s i s
univ ersitetis gamomcemloba

saredaqcio kolegia: prof. l. baramiZe, prof. g. gogolaSvili, prof. d. TvalTvaZe, prof. v. imnaiSvili, prof. d. meliqiSvili, prof. r. qurdaZe, prof. z. WumburiZe (redaqtori)

Semdgenelni:

m. meliqiZe, r. WumburiZe

recenzentebi:

prof. r. zeqalaSvili prof. v. imnaiSvili prof. s. omiaZe

© Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba, 2010
ISBN 978-9941-13-179-0

redaqtorisagan
winamdebare krebulSi moTavsebuli samecniero Sromebis umetesi nawili sakmaod didi xnis winaT gamoqveynda mciretiraJian samecniero JurnalebSi da Tanamedrove mkiTxvelisaTvis Znelad xelmisawvdomia. amve dros maTi gacnoba humanitaruli fakultetebis, qarTuli filologiis specialobis studentebisaTvis, romelTac qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis kursi ekiTxebaT, savaldebuloa. amiT aris nakarnaxevi am werilebis gamocema calke krebulad. amgvari krebulebis gamocemis tradicia ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetSi karga xania arsebobs. am mxriv enaTmecnierebis dargSi sanimuSoa `saxelis brunebis istoriisaTvis qarTvelur enebSi~, gamocemuli 1956 wels prof. v. Tofurias redaqciiT. qarTuli enis istoriis kursi Tbilisis univeersitetSi gasuli saukunis 50-iani wlebidan ikiTxeba. amavdroulad studentebs utardebaT seminarebic. ase rom, am saswavlo kurss ukve naxevar saukuneze meti xnis Teoria da praqtika umagrebs zurgs. universitetSi misi SemoRebis moTave iyo profesori akaki SaniZe — Zveli qarTuli enis kaTedris damaarsebli da gardacvalebamde misi gamge. man Seadgina pirveli programa da TviTonve Seudga leqciebis kiTxvas am saganSi. mas ganzraxuli hqonda am sagnis saxelmZRvanelos dawerac, magram didi datvirTvis gamo saamisod ver moicala. Semdeg am kurss Tbilisis universitetSi akaki SaniZis sicocxleSive kiTxulobdnen misi mowafeebi: mzeqala SaniZe, zurab WumburiZe, leli baramiZe, korneli danelia, zurab sarjvelaZe da sxvebi. romelTac xelewifebodaT da ganzraxulic hqondaT erToblivi saxelmZRvanelos Seqmna am saganSi, magram sxvadasxva mizezis gamo ganzraxva ganuxorcielebeli darCa. suraTi zedmetad rom ar gavamuqoT, aqve unda aRvniSnoT, rom qarTuli saliteraturo enis swavlebis saqmes, iseve rogorc Zveli qarTuli enis swavlebis saqmes, Tavis droze didi samsaxuri gauwia prof. ivane imnaiSvilis `qarTuli enis istoriulma qrestomaTiam~ (tomi I), romelsac axlda vrceli enobrivi mimoxilva da tabulebi. igi ramdenjerme gamoica (1949 da 1953 wlebSi — erT wignad, 1970—1971 da 1981—1982 wlebSi — or wignad). aqve unda movixsenioT prof. ivane qavTaraZis monografiuli naSromebi: `zmnis ZiriTadi kategoriebis istoriisaTvis qarTulSi“ (1954w.) da `qarTuli enis istoriisaTvis~ (1964w.). qarTuli enis istoriis damxmare saxelmZRvanelos grifiT pirvelad gamoica prof. zurab sarjvelaZis wigni `qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebis“ saxelwodebiT (1975w.), meored — `qarTuli saliteraturo enis 5

istoriis Sesavalis~ saxelwodebiT (1984w.) calke wignebad aris gamocemuli agreTve prof. korneli danelias Sromebis krebulebi: `qarTuli samwerlo enis istoriidan~ (t. I — 1998 w., t. II — 2009 w.). axlaxans calke wignad gamoica agreTve prof. leli baramiZis `qarTuli enis istoriuli gramatikis sakiTxebi~ (2008w.). aq aRar CamovTvliT sxvadasxva mkvlevarTa monografiul naSromebs, romlebic qarTuli enis istoriis mniSvnelovan sakiTxebs eZRvneba da calke wignebad aris gamocemuli. maTi moZieba biblioTekebSi ase Tu ise SesaZlebelia, xelaxla gamocema ki jerjerobiT ganuxorcielebel ocnebad rCeba. mcire moculobis naSromebis calke krebulad gamocemac ar aris ioli saqme, radgan aseT naSromTa raodenoba didia, Tematika ki — vrceli. winamdebare krebuli Tematuri principiT aris Sedgenili da mxolod im naSromebs moicavs, romlebic qarTuli zmnis uRlebis sakiTxebs exeba. cxadia, am Temaze arsebul yvela naSroms erTi krebuli mainc ver daitevda. amis gamo Semdgenlebi iZulebulni iyvnen, zogi naSromi ramdenadme SeekvecaT, zogis dabeWdva ki samermisod gadaedoT. werilebi dalagebulia Tematurad im TanmimdevrobiT, rogorc amas iTvaliswinebs saswavlo programa, erTsa da imave Temaze daweril naSromebSi ki daculia maTi pirveli publikaciis qronologiuri Tanmimdevroba. sxvadasxva dros da sxvadasxva piris mier daweril naSromebSi, bunebrivia, aqa-iq SeiniSneba nairferovneba orTografiuli da gramatikuli normebis mxriv, rac xeluxleblad aris datovebuli. gasworda mxolod koreqturuli Secdomebi. vfiqrobT, am saxiT warmodgenili es krebulebi garkveul daxmarebas gauweven Cvens axalgazrdobas mSobliuri enis istoriis ukeT gacnobis saqmeSi.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

ivane javaxiSvili

axlad aRmoCenili uZvelesi qarTuli xelnawerebi da maTi mniSvneloba mecnierebisaTvis
(winaswari moxseneba1 nimuSebis darTviT) I. karga xania, rac gamocdilebam damarwmuna, rom qarTuli istoriuli da filologiuri mecnierebisaTvis mtkice safuZvelis Sesaqmnelad egreT wodebuli damxmare samecniero dargebis, qarTuli epigrafika-paleografiisa, diplomatikisa, qronologiisa da numizmatika-metrologiis Seswavla da Seqmna iyo aucilebeli. amitom ukanaskneli wlebis ganmavlobaSi, metadre ki mas Semdeg, rac Cveni universiteti daarsda, am qarTuli samecniero dargebis sistematurs Seswavlas vandomebdi dros. es Seswavla sauniversiteto kursebis saxiT Camoyalibda, romelsac am ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi vukiTxavdi Cven student-istorikosebs. epigrafika-paleografiisa, diplomatikisa da numizmatikis Sesaxebi gamokvleva ukve imdenadaa damTavrebuli, rom dasabeWdadac mzadaa. am damxmare samecniero dargebis Seswavlis dros bevri sayuradRebo sakiTxebi wamoiWra da zogierTi gadawyda kidec. zogi sakiTxis gaRrmavebulma dakvirvebam iseTi SesaZlebloba warmoSva, romlis Sesaxeb winaT qarTvels mecniers mxolod ocneba SeeZlo. dRevandeli Cemi moxseneba exeba swored erT iseTs aRmoCenas, romelic qarTuli paleografiis meToduri Seswavlis Sedegi gaxlavT. qarTuli paleografiis Seswavlis dros, rodesac, erTi mxriT, qarTuli damwerlobis istoriulma ganviTarebam, meore mxriT, sxva erTa damwerlobasTan SedarebiTma analizma mafiqrebina, rom qarTuli asomTavruli bani TavSekruli unda yofiliyo, me prof. al. didebuliZes vTxove bolnisis sionis warweris negativi gaeZlierebina, rom mqrTalad gamosuli adgilebi da asoebis moxazuloba dabeWdvis dros mkafiod gamosuliyo. Cems xelSi myof warweris danabeWdSi is adgili, sadac aso bani gvxvdeba, ise garkveviT ar Canda, rom am paleografiuli TvalsazrisiT didmniSvnelovani sakiTxis ueWveli gadawyveta SesaZlebeli yofiliyo. radgan mcxeTis jvris eklesiis VII s. warweris bans Tavi odnav aqvs gaxsnili, amitom sagulisxmo iyo, Tu rogori moxazuloba hqonda am asos bolnisis
1 moxsenebuli iyo saqarTvelos saistorio da saeTnografio sazogadoebis krebaze 1923w. 10 Tebervals da odnav Sevsebuli ibeWdeba.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

sionis warweraSi, romelic mcxeTis jvris warweraze ufro Zveli Zeglis STabeWdilebas axdenda. prof. al. didebuliZem Tavisi gansakuTrebuli RoneobiT am warweris negativi marTlac ise gaaZliera, rom danabeWdze is adgilic, sadac aso bani iyo, sruli simkafioiT gamoCnda1, da bani marTlac, rogorc misi moxazulobis istoriuli ganviTarebisa da sxva erTa uZveles paleografiul ZeglebTan SedarebiT mosalodneli iyo, TavSekruli aRmoCnda. am garemoebam bolnisis sionis sakurTxevlis sarkmlis zemoTi warweris pirvelxarisxovani mniSvneloba paleografiuli TvalsazrisiTa da misi qronologiuri siZvele sruli ueWvelobiT cxadyo. magram rom axlad gamorkveuli paleografiuli dakvirveba ucilobel debulebad Seqmniliyo, yvela cnobils TriRiansa Tu qronologiurad gansazRvrul warwerebsa da xelnawerebs gadaSinjva davuwye. gamoirkva, rom TavSekruli bani marTlac meSvide saukunidan moyolebuli aqeT ukve aRar gvxvdeba. maSasadame, cxadi xdeboda, rom bolnisis sionis warwera Tavisi zemoaRniSnuli paleografiuli TvisebiT yovel eWvs gareSe VII saukuneze uwinaresi unda yofiliyo. me mainc vSiSobdi, Secdoma ar momsvloda da iseT Zeglebs veZebdi kidev gadasaSinjavad, romelic X saukuneze uwinaresi unda yofiliyo. II. am eWvSi da ZiebaSi myofs erTi qarTul-ebrauli palimfsestis ori furceli momagonda, romlis fototipuri suraTi Cem studentobis dros mqonda nanaxi. am nawyvetebis damwerlobis diadi garegani saxe im droidan moyolebuli gulsa da mexsierebaSi mqonda CarCenili da axla, rodesac yovels uZveless, X saukuneze uwinaress, Zegls CemTvis mniSvneloba hqonda, gadavwyvite gameSinja da menaxa, Tu ra iyo iq dawerili da gansakuTrebiT, rogor iwereboda iq is aso bani, romlis moxazulobis esoden didi mniSvneloba qarTuli paleografiisaTvis cxadi gaxda. es is palimfsesti iyo, romlis fotografiuli suraTi 1897 w. zafxulSi maSin priv.-docentad myofs da aw prof. da akad. n. mars mouvida fostiT. am oqsfordis bodleianis biblioTekidan d˜r a. ne¡baueris mier gamogzavnili etratis cal-calke furclis — palimfsestis fotografiul suraTSi teqsti wvrili asoebiT ebraulad, xolo gardigardmo mimarTulebiT msxvili asomTavruli anbaniT qarTulad naweri aRmoCnda. ueWvelia, es ori furceli n. mars inglisuridan qarTuli teqstis wasakiTxavad hqonda gamogzavnili. magram am or nawyvets man, rogorc etyoba, yuradReba ar miaqcia, an iqneb imitom, rom priv.-docentis (aw akademikosi) p. k. kokovcovis pirveli azris msgavsad, ZiriTad nawerad ebrauli miiCnia, qarTuli ki mermindelad
1

prof. aleq. didebuliZes amisTvis did madlobas movaxseneb.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

da umniSvnelod cno, an iqneb palimfsestis wakiTxvis siZnelis gamo. ase iyo Tu ise, am ori naWeri etratis fotografiuli suraTi n. marma gadasca ebrauli teqstis wasakiTxavad p. kokovcovs. priv.-doc. kokovcovma jer am palimfsestis Tavdapirvel teqstad fototipiuri suraTebis mixedviT ebrauli cno («еврейского текста, как кажется, насколько можно судить по фототипиям, первоначального в рукописи»). miRebuli nawerebis Seswavlam cnobili rusi hebraisti daarwmuna, rom xelT ierusalemis Talmudis nawyvetebi hqonda, romeli Txzulebisac manamdis mxolod uvargisi xelnawerebi arsebobda. p. kokovcovma paleografiuli niSnebiT fragmentebis XI s. damlevis nawerad da amis gamo Talmudur xelnawerTa Soris uZveles Zeglad cno. amgvari daskvnis Semdgom is Seudga miRebuli palisfsestebis naweris wakiTxvas da 1899 w. teqsti gamokvleviTurT gamoaqveyna kidec1. magram Semdeg, rodesac Tavisi gamokvleva ukve dabeWdili hqonda, man, palimfsestis mdgomareobiT gamowveul teqnikur mosazrebaTa gamo, Tavdapirveli azri Seicvala da sagangebod darTul damatebaSi qarTuli samarTlianad ebraulze uZvelesad da pirvandelad aRiara2. es Txzuleba TviT p. kokovcovisagan, romelTanac me universitetSi asurulsa vswavlobdi, calke monabeWdad miviRe. Tumca Cems universitetSi swavlis dros qarTuli enis kaTedris warmomadgeneli profesori iyo, magram leqciebi TiTqmis srulebiT ar ikiTxeboda da 1899 w., rodesac me ukve ukanasknel kursze viyavi, asomTavruli damwerlobiani Zeglebis wakiTxvas miCveuli ar viyavi. axlac kargad magondeba, ramdenad Zneli iyo CemTvis maSin am palimfsestis garCeva. TiTo-orola asos garda, rogorc maxsovs, ramdenime winadadebis an sityvis erTad amokiTxva gadaulaxavi dabkoleba aRmoCnda. priv.-doc. kokovcovs Tavis danarTSi qarTuli teqstis drois Sesaxeb viTarca ara specialists, rasakvirvelia, mxolod imis Tqma SeeZlo, rom igi ebraulze adrindeli unda yofiliyo3, e. i. XI s-ze uwinaresi. magram saxeldobr ra droisa iyo igi, es gaugebari iyo CemTvisac. is garemoeba, rom priv.-doc. n. marma araviTari yuradReba ar miaqcia, mafiqrebinebda, rom es ori nawyveti qarTuli mwerlobisaTvis, albaT, umniSvnelo unda yofiliyo, da SemdegSic maTi wakiTxva aRar micdia. magram am palimfsestis asoTa diadi moxazuloba mainc gonebaSi mqonda CarCenili. axla, rodesac qarTuli damwerlobis yovels uZveles Zegls CemTvis mniSvneloba hqonda, misi gasinjva da wakiTxva gadavwyvite. Tumca prof. p. kokovcovis mier mocemuli calke gadmonabeWdi mTel Cem wignTsacavTan erTad 1917 wlis damlevs daiRupa, magram Cveni universitetis wignTsacavs sa1

Еще один рукописный фрагмент Иерусалимского Талмуда: Записки Восточн. Отд. Русск. Арх. Общ., Дополнение к статье «Еще один рукописный фрагмент Иерусалимского Талмуда», idid., gv. 413. iqve.

XI, gv. 195-205.
2 3

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

bednierod peterburgis saarqeologio sazogadoebis gamocemis mTeli seria aqvs da amis imedi mqonda, rom CemTvis saWiro fototipiebs vipovidi. marTlac warsuli 1922 wlis dekembris damlevs prof. p. kokovcovis werils mivageni. sakmarisi iyo Sin am ori fototipiuri furclis gaSinjvas Sevdgomodi, rom pirvelive dakvirvebidan am Zeglis uaRresi mniSvneloba cxadi gamxdariyo: asoebi `y~ da `¢~ TavSekruli iyo yvelgan. qarTuli paleografiis Seswavlis dros ki ukve gamorkveuli mqonda warwerebisa da xelnawerebis mixedviT, rom amgvari moxazulobis `y~ da `¢~ mxolod VII-VIII ss. ixmareboda. amis gamo cxadi Seiqmna CemTvis, rom oqsfordis etratis nawyvetebi VII-VIII saukunisa mainc unda yofiliyvnen. am CemTvis srulebiT moulodneli garemoebis gamorkvevis Semdgom Zvirfasi palisfsestis kiTxvas guldasmiT Sevudegi da axla ukve gansakuTrebiT bans veZebdi. pirvelsave furcelze, marjvniT svetis me-9 da 10 striqonebSi orjerve `b~ srulebiT garkveviT TavSekruli iyo, enac gasaocari siZvelis momaswavebeli gamodga. am aRmoCenisagan gamowveuli sixarulisa da mRvelvarebisagan muSaoba aRar SemeZlo. cxadi gaxda CemTvis, rom Tvalwin qarTuli damwerlobisa da enis uZvelesi Zegli medva. aqamomde IX saukuneze uwinaresi arc erTi qarTuli xelnaweri ar iyo cnobili da axla erTbaSad sami saukuniT ufro adrindeli Zeglis nawyvetebi gamoCnda! mRelvarebisagan cota xniT Sewyvetili muSaobis ganaxlebis dros vcdilobdi davrwmunebuliyav, rom Tvali ar matyuebda da Secdoma da moCveneba ar iyos is, rasac vkiTxulobdi. sruli sifrTxiliT warmoebulma palimfsestis guldasmiT waSlili qarTuli teqstis amokiTxvam da dawerilis enis sagulisxmo Tumc ganmacvifrebelma, magram Soreul warsulSi mosalodnelma Tvisebebma damarwmunes, rom pirveli dakvirveba mcdari ar iyo da am nawyvetebis rogorc damwerlobis paleografiuli, ise TviT nawarmoebis enis niSnebi maT siZveles cxadyofdnen surli ueWvelobiT. ramdenjerac ki ar gadavikiTxavdi am ori etratis naWris fototipias, es rwmena ufro da ufro miZlierdeboda. Cemi sixaruli gaorkecebuli iyo, rodesac gamovarkvie, rom am nawyvetSi Senaxuli gvqonda dabadebis teqsti, saxeldobr ieremias XVII, 26 — XVIII, 8. ukve ueWveli iyo, rom bodleianis wignTsacavSi qarTuli damwerlobisa da enis jerjerobiT mainc uZvelesad misaCnevi Zeglis ori nawyveti inaxeboda. kerZod peterburgSi winaTac mosula ambavi, rom inglisSi, iqneb imave oqsfordSive, qarTuli palimfsestebis nawyvetebi unda yofiliyo, radgan maT Sorisac SesaZlebelia zogierTi amave droisa da mniSvnelobis gamomdgariyo, amitom ukve gadawyvetili mqonda oqsfordis wignTsacavisaTvis mimeloca, rom is uZvelesi qarTuli xelnaweris ori nawyvetis mflobeli iyo, da Tanac meTxova amave xasiaTis qarTuli asomTavruliT naweri palimfsestebis fotografiuli suraTebi gamoegzavnaT. magram Semdeg gadavwyvite, rom jer aq, saqarTvelos dedaqalaqSi, daculi palimfsestebi gadameSinja da gamomerkvia, Tu aq raRa drois Zeglebi iyo Senaxuli.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

III. Cveni universitetis muzeumSi rom b. mose janaSvilma gadmomilaga palimfsestebi, pirveli ori xelnaweri nusxa xucuriT aRmoCnda da CemTvis amJamad sayuradRebo ar iyo. magram sakmarisi iyo mesame xelnaweri gadameSala, rom mSvenier asomTavrulad nawer gadarCenils teqstSi oqsfordis palimfsestiviT sayuradRebo Zeglis molodini aRmZvroda. misi swrafi gadafurcvlis dros imave ukve kargad gamorkveuls paleografiulsa da lingvisturs Tvisebebs veZebdi: TavSekrul bansa, yarsa da ¢ies da meore piris subieqtursa da mesame piris obieqturs TavsarTebs. xelnaweris gadaSinjvis dros yvela es niSnebi uZvelss, Semdeg gadarecxils, teqstSi aRmoCnda da amgvarad cxadi Seiqmna, rom es xelnaweric qarTuli damwerlobisa da mwerlobis uZveles Zeglad unda yofiliyo miCneuli. meoTxe da mexuTe xelnaweripalimfsestebic imgvarive Tvisebebisani aRmoCndnen da daaxloebiT imave droisa unda yofiliyvnen, rodesac oqsfordis palimfsesti unda iyos dawerili. am gziT cxadi Seiqmna, rom Cven am mxriv oqsfordze gacilebiT ufro bednieri da mdidrebi varT da ukve 2000 gverdamde uZvelesi qarTuli Zeglebis palimfsestebi gvaqvs. qarTuli palimfsestebis amgvari mniSvnelobis gamorkvevis Semdgom saqarTvelos saistorio-saeTnografio sazogadoebis muzeumis katalogSi palimfsestebad moxsenebuli xelnawerebis gaSinjvac aucilebeli gaxda. qarTvelTa Soris w.k.g. sazogadoebis wignTsacavis katalogi mokle cnobebs Seicavs da iq TviT yvela etratis xelnawerebis daTvaliereba iyo saWiro, risTvisac gansakuTrebuli muSaoba unda mowyobiliyo. saistorio da saeTnografio sazogadoebis 30-mde gadaSinjul xelnawer-palimfsestTa Soris Tumca bevri sayuradRebo aRmoCnda, zogi enis mxriT da zogi kidev paleografiulad, magram iseTi, ra droisa da Tvisebebisac veZebdi, ar Canda. ukve gadawyvetili mqonda, rom am sazogadoebis xelnawerTa Soris Zebna unayofo unda yofiliyo, rom muzeumis gamgis TanaSemwem ir. sonRulaSvilma Sematyobina sasixarulo ambavi CemTvis sayuradRebo xelnawer-palimfsestis aRmoCenis Sesaxeb. am xelnaweris gadaSinjvam misi cnobis sruli simarTle daadastura1. amgvarad, Cem xelSi ukve oTxi pirvelxarisxovani mniSvnelobis xelnaweri iyo. am uxvma da mSvenierma samkalma axlad aRmoCenili palimfsestebis ufro zedmiwevniTi daTariReba da yovelmxrivi Seswavla aucilebeli gaxada. Cem mier damzadebuli qarTuli paleografia rom gamoqveynebuli iyos∗, an imedi mqondes, rom misi axlo momavalSi gamocema moxerxdebodes, me SemeZlo sityva mokled momeWra. magram axlandel pirobebSi amgvari imedi vgoneb amao unda iyos da amis gamo iZulebuli var jer VI-VII ss. uTariRo Zeglebis
universitetisa da saistorio sazogadoebis muzeumebis saTaveSi mdgomT, pativcemulT m. janaSvilsa, s. gorgaZesa da ir. sonRulaSvils daxmarebisaTvis guliTads madlobas movaxseneb. ∗ [iv. javaxiSvilis winamdebare gamokvleva daibeWda 1923 wels, xolo misi `qarTuli paleografia~ — 1926 wels. red.]
1

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

daTariRebis meTodologias Sevexo, xolo Semdeg axlad aRmoCenili xelnawerebis qronologiurs gansazRvras Sevudge. im friad didi mniSvnelobis gamo, romelic uTariRo werilobiTi naSTebis qronologiuri gansazRvrisaTvis maTs paleografiuls Tvisebebsa aqvs, gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda miqceuli yofiliyo paleografiuli niSnebis TvalsazrisiT ZiriTadad misaCnevi ZeglebisaTvis. amgvar Zeglebad uZvelesTa Soris ueWvelia bolnisis sionis konqis sarkmlis Tavze asomTavruli amoborcvili damwerlobiT gamoyvanili warwera da mcxeTis jvris eklesiis qandkebaTa CaWrili warwerebi unda CaiTvalos1. magram arc erTi am ZiriTadad misaCnev warweraTagani daTariRebuli ar aris an, ukeT rom vTqvaT, amJamad mainc arc erTs TariRebi ar uCans. amis gamo Tu Cven gvsurs, rom paleografiuli niSnebis mixedviT daTariRebis meTodi SeZlebisamebr Seumcdari gamodges, swored bolnisisa da mcxeTis jvris warwerebi unda gvqondes sakmao zedmiwevnilobiT daTariRebuli. IV [. . . . . . . . . . ] V. [. . . . . . . . . . ] bolnisisa da mcxeTis jvris warwerebis daTariReba saSualebas gvaZlevs qarTuli paleografiisaTvis da enaTmecnierebisaTvis zogierTi mniSvnelovani sakiTxi gadavwyvitoT. ukve aRniSnuli gvqonda, rom mrgvlovani asomTavruliT naweri uTariRo Zeglebis dasaTariReblad gadamwyveti mniSvneloba sami asos moxazulobasa aqvs, saxeldobr, banisas, ¢iesas da yarisas. amaTgan bani, rogorc axla gamoirkva, uZveles xanaSi TavSekruli iwereboda, Semdeg ki mas Tavi gaexsna jer odnav, Semdeg TandaTanobiT srulebiTac. rac ufro mermindelia Zegli, bans sazogadod miT ufro metad aqvs gaxsnili Tavi. gamosarkvevi iyo, Tu saxeldobr rodis gaexsna am asos Tavi, rom am niSnis mixedviT uZvelesi uTariRo Zeglebis daTariReba SesaZlebeli gamxdariyo. bolnisis sionis daviT episkoposis warweraSi, rogorc davrwmundiT, bani jer kidev srulebiT TavSekrulia, e. i. V s. dasasrulsa da VI s. damdegs am asos Zveli moxazuloba winandeburad daculi aqvs. xolo qobul-stefanes mcxeTis jvris warweraSi b ukve odnav Tavgaxsnilia. es warwera, rogorc gamoirkva, VII s. Sua wlebs ekuTvnis. magram radgan Cven araviTari sabuTi ara gvaqvs vifiqroT, rom bans Tavi pirvelad swored am warweris amokveTis dros gaexsna da Tanac viciT, rom am1 am warwerebis Sesaxeb ix. prof. ak. SaniZis `naSTebi mesame piris obieqturi prefiqsis £marebisa £movnebis win qarTul zmnebSi~, `universit. moambis~ amave [II] -Si, gv. 276-279, sadac am warwerebis Sesaxebi mwerlobaa dasaxelebuli.

12

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

gvari procesi damwerlobaSi TandaTanobiT xdeba da misi dasawyisi ufro xelnawerebSia saZebneli, vidre epigrafikaSi, amitom ufro swori iqneboda dagveskvna, rom bans Tavi unda VI s. ukanasknel meoTxedsa da VII s. pirvel naxevars Soriss xanaSi gaxsnoda. radgan qobul-stefanes warweris bans Tavi Tumc odnav, magram ukve mkafiod Tavgaxsnili uCans, amitom procesis dasawyisi daaxloebiT VI s. damlevsa da VII s. damdegs aris ufro mosalodneli. qarTuli enaTmecnierebis, saxeldobr, qarTuli samwerlobo enis ganviTarebis istoriisaTvisac bolnis-mcxeTis jvris warwerebi Zeglebis dasaTariReblad sayuradRebo qronologiuri safuZvlis Seqmnis saSualebas gvawvdian. prof. ak. SaniZem pirvelma miaqcia yuradReba im garemoebas, rom bolnisis sionis orsave warweraSi, romelTaganac erTi daviT episkoposs, meore ki azaruxts ekuTvnis, da mcxeTis jvris demetre ¢patosis warweraSi mesame piris obieqtur TavsarTad haes magier xania naxmari1. daviT bolneli episkoposis warwera, rogorc gamorkveuli gvqonda, an V s. damlevis, an VI s. damdegisa unda iyos, 506 w. axlo xanisa. azaruxtis warweris daTariRebisaTvis samwuxarod araviTari dasayrdnobi cnoba ar mogvepoveba, magram vgoneb an cota mermindelia, an daaxloebiT imave xanasve unda ekuTvnodes. maincdamainc igic VI saukunis Zeglia. mcxeTis jvris demetre ¢patosis warwerac qronologiurad daaxloebiT gansazRvruli gvaqvs da 591-600 ww. Sua unda iyos amoWrili. qarTuli enis istoriisaTvis friad sayuradRebo garemoebaa, rom adarnerse ¢patosis warweraSi demetres warweris msgavsad meox xeyav ki ar aris, aramed meox eyav, e. i. mesame piris obieqturi TavsarTi xani aRar moipoveba. rogorc qvemoT gamorkveuli iqneba da axlad aRmoCenili xelnawerebic amas uciloblad adastureben, xan TavsarTis jer haed qceva da Semdeg xmovnebis win sruli gaqroba qarTuli samwerlobo enis istoriis saerTo movlena yofila. gamosarkvevia mxolod am movlenis dasawyisis xana da TariRi. adrnerse ¢patosis warwera swored im mxriv aris Zvirfasi, rom zemoaRniSnuli movlenis daTariRebis saSualebas gvaZlevs. raki igi, rogorc davrwmundiT, 626-634 ww. unda iyos amoWrili da am warweraSi xani ukve aRar moipoveba, demetre ¢patosisaSi ki xani winandebulad ixmareba, amitom cxadi xdeba, rom xanis gaqrobis procesi VII s. pirvel meoTxedSi dawyebulia. rasakvirvelia, amgvari movlena erTbaSad ar xdeba da TandaTanobiT vrceldeba xolme, amis gamo misi zedmiwevniTi daTariRebac SeuZlebelia. safiqrebelia, rom xani saqarTvelos romelsame kuTxeSi ufro adrec, ukve VI s. damlevsac haed gadaqcevis process dasdgomodes im dros, rodesac ganaTlebuli wreebis umravlesoba Zvels gamoTqmasa da marTlweras misdevda, imgvaradve rogorc VII s. meore meoTxedSic, rodesac ukve xanis gadagvarebis procesi adrnerse ¢patosis warweriT aris damowmebuli, da SesaZlebelia sxvebsa da ueWvelia saqarTvelos
ix. misi 1922 w. 23 maiss saqarTvelos saistorio sazogadoebis sxdomaze `qarTuli epigrafikis uZvelesi nimuSebis~ saTauriT wakiTxuli moxseneba, romlis erTi nawilic Tbilisis universitetis moambis amave (2) wignSia dabeWdili saTauriT: `naSTebi mesame piris obieqturi prefiqsis £marebisa £movnebis win qarTul zmnebSi~, gv. 262-281.
1

13

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

zogs kuTxeebSi mermec karga xans xanis xmarebisaTvis Tavi ar mienebebinaT. cxadia mxolod, rom xan TavsarTis gardanivTebis procesi VII s. pirveli naxevris damlevisaTvis ukve srulebiT mkafiod yofila gamoxatuli. VI [. . . . . . . . . . ] VII am xelnawerTa Sesaxeb mokle cnobebisa da zemonaTqvamis Semdgom, raki qarTuli paleografiisa da enaTmecnierebis debulebani ukve gaTvaliswinebuli gvaqvs, axlad aRmoCenili Zeglebis daTariRebac SeiZleba. yvela am xelnawer-palimfsestebis damaxasiaTebel Tvisebas damwerlobis TvalsazrisiT TavSekruli bani Seadgens. rasakvirvelia, unda mudam gvaxsovdes, rom es xuTive xelnaweri palimfsestia, e. i. iseTi Zegli, romelsac Zveli naweri SemdegSi gulmodgined jer gadarecxili, xolo Semdeg gadafxekili aqvs ise, rom xSirad etrati fxekisagan srulebiT gamWvirvale gamxdara, zogan ki gaxeulia. cxadia, amgvari recxva-fxekisagan yvelaze metad asoTa wvrili xazebi unda dazianebuliyo da marTlac dazianebula kidec. amis gamo asoTa pirvandeli, daweris drois, moxazulobis sruli da utyuari suraTis warmodgena am xelnawerTa mxolod guldasmiT Seswavlis Semdgom SeiZleba. erTsa da imave asos sxvadasxva adgilas gaSinjviTa da kargad Senaxul moxazulobasTan Sedarebis wyalobiT darwmundebiT, rom am asos pirvandeli saxe gadarecxva-gadafxekis dros umetes SemTxvevaSi dazianebula. es garemoeba unda ueWvelad gaTvaliswinebuli gvqondes am Cveni palimfsestebis pleogrfiulad dafasebis dros. bans Tavis zeviTi xazi xelnawerebSi kalmis subuqi mosmiT da amis gamo wvrilad, bewvis msgavsad hqonda xolme gamoyvanili da sxvebze metad da ufro xSirad, rasakvirvelia, am asos swored es nawilia gadarecxva-gadafxekis dros dazianebuli. amitom adamianma rom am garemoebis gauTvaliswinebliv Cveni palimfsestebis gadaSinjva daiwyos, erTis SexedviT bani Tavgaxsnili eCveneba. magram sakmarisia igi xelnawerebs karga daakvirdes da am asos moxazuloba sxvadasxva adgilas erTimeores Seadaros, rom erTsa d imave gverdze an furcelze, da xelnawerSi gadarecxva-gadafxekis gamo mraval Tavgaxsnilad qceulTa Soris es aso mkafiod TavSekrulic naxos. es garemoeba ki uflebas gvaZlevs vifiqroT, rom am xelnawerebSi Tavdapirvelad mis palimfsestad qcevamde bani yvelgan TaSvekrulic naxos. es garemoeba ki uflebas gvaZlevs vifiqroT, rom am xelnawerebSi Tavdapirvelad mis palimfsestad qcevamde bani yvelgan TavSekruli moxazulobisa unda yofiliyo. es paleografiuli niSani, ¢iesa da yaris moxazuloba, metad ki banis TavSekruloba, rogorc epigrafikuli Zeglebis Seswavlam dagvarwmuna, SeiZleba uTariRo Zeglebis dasa14

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

TariReblad iyos gamoyenebuli. radgan bani mxolod VI s. damlevamde iwereboda TavSekruli, maincdamainc VII s. pirveli naxevris miwurulSi ukve cxadad Tavi gaxsnili hqonda, amitom xuTive zemodasaxelebuli qarTuli palimfsesti VII s. damdegze ugvianesi ar unda iyos da VI s. unda miekuTvnos. am xelnawerebis paleografiuli Seswavla gvafiqrebinebs, rom isini asoTa moxazulobis zogierTi Tvisebebis gamo yvela erTi droisani ar unda iyvnen, aramed zogi ufro Zveli Cans, zogi SedarebiT ufro mermindeli. momavalSi amis mkafiod gansazRvrac SesaZlebeli iqneba, magram winaswar moxsenebaSi amaze saubari Soris wagviyvanda. enis Tvisebebis mxrivac, mesame piris obieqtur TavsarTad haes magier xanis xmarebac, rogorc davrwmundiT, qronologiurad gansazRvrisaTvis gamosadegi niSania. mcxeTis jvris warwerebidan cxadi Seiqmna CvenTvis, rom ukve VII s. pirveli meoTxedisaTvis xani aRar ixmareboda. xolo Cven xuTsave xelnawer palimfsestSi aramcTu am mxriv raime ryeva ar emCneva, piriqiT xani gabatonebulia mtkiced obieqtur prefiqsad yvelgan da meore piris subieqturi TavsarTisaTvisa haes magier xanivea yvelgan. amitom yovel eWvs gareSea, rom enis am TvisebebiT es Zeglebi, Tu yvela ara, saxarebis teqsti mainc, VI saukuneze uwinaresi unda iyos da SeiZleba V saukunes miekuTvnos. yvela zemonaTqvamis Semdgom paleografiulisa da enis niSnebis ZaliT ufleba gvaqvs davaskvnaT, rom xuTive palimfsesti, viTarca qarTuli mwerlobisa da damwerlobis Zeglebi, V-VI saukuneebisad unda iyos miCneuli1. rodesac yvelaferi, ris wakiTxvac Cvens palimfsestebSi aRWurvili Tu aRuWurveli TvaliT SesaZlebeli iyo, ukve gadmowerili mqonda, radgan xx. 89 da 844 imdenad gadarecxil-gadafxekilia, rom Tavdapirveli naweris amokiTxva uimedo saqmed Canda, amitom, an am pirvelxarisxovani Zeglebis udidesi nawilis wakiTxvaze samudamod xeli unda agveRo, an qimiuri damuSavebis saSualebiT misi Zveli teqstis gacxoveleba da wakiTxva gvecadna. saTanado dasturis Semdgom, meore gza varCie da amisTvis prof. iovel quTaTelaZes vTxove, rom gamoerkvia, SesaZlebeli iqneboda Tu ara am palimfsestebis pirvandeli naweris gacxoveleba. igi didi xalisiT Seudga am sakiTxis Seswavlas da sruli sifrTxiliT warmoebuli cdebis wyalobiT gamoarkvia, rom saqarTveloSi uZveles xanaSi da SemdegSi X-XII ss-Siac liTonis, rkinisagan Semzadebuli, melani uxmariaT. am garemoebam mas saSualeba misca xelnawerebi qimiurad ise daemuSavebina, rom Zveli teqstis aRdgenis dros mermindeli ar dazianebuliyo. mravalgzis cdis wyalobiT prof. quTaTelaZem isic moaxerxa, rom etrats damuSavebis Semdgomac feri sagrZnoblad ar Sescvloda, Tavdapirveli teqsti ki, sadac winaT srulebiT gadafxekili ar aRmoCnda, imde1 Cemi moxseneba ukve awyobili iyo, roca s. gorgaZem Sematyobina, rom wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis muzeumis etratis 3992 nomer xelnawerSi, romelic mTlad palimfsestia, sxvadasxva drois teqstebs Soris VI saukunis xanmeti nawerebic aRmoCnda 40 gverdamde, risTvisac didad vmadlob. marTlac, bani TavSekrulia (gv. 36, sv. 2, striq. 4). da gvxvdeba: `xaniWos~ (f. 13), `mixugebda~ (17), `xupatiosnes~ (45).

15

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

nad gamoaSkaravda, rom misi wakiTxva iqac, sadac winaT asoTa naalagevis meti araferi etyoboda, SesaZlebeli gaxda1. VIII axla am axlad aRmoCenili xelnawerebis mniSvnelobaze dagvrCa mxolod saTqmeli. viTarca saqristiano mwerlobis uZveles Zeglebs, maT mniSvneloba aqvT, rasakvirvelia, saerTod mecnierebisaTvisac — saxarebisa, dabadebisa da apokriful nawarmoebTa teqstis istoriisa da kritikisaTvis, magram metadre qarTuli filologiuri mecnierebisaTvisaa Zvirfasi es Zeglebi, misTvis unda Seiqmnes qvakuTxedad. rogorc qarTuli damwerlobisa da mwerlobis Zeglebi, es xelnawerebi araerTi qarTuli enaTmecnierebisa, mwerlobisa da kulturis istoriis pirvelxarisxovani sadavo sakiTxebis gadaWris saSualebasac gvaZleven. winaswar moxsenebaSi, metadre rodesac yvela teqsti jer wakiTxuli ara maqvs, rasakvirvelia, mxolod sazogado STabeWdilebis gamoTqma SemiZlia. amitom amJamad mxolod mokled da isic marto umTavres sakiTxebs Sevexebi im imediT, rom SemdegSi, rodesac axlad aRmoCenili teqstebi gamoicema, yvela sagulisxmo sakiTxi ufro vrclad da sruli dasabuTebiT iqneba ganxiluli. ramdenadac wakiTxuli teqstebidan irkveva, am V-VI ss. ZeglebSi Cven dabadebisa (1 mosesi, igavni solomonisni da ieremiasi), saxarebisa da apokrifuli saqme mociqulTas qarTuli Targmani gvaqvs Semonaxuli. am ukanasknel nawarmoebSi pavle, andria da petre mociqulis moRvaweobaa aRwerili. amasTanave ramdenadac gadarCenili nawyvetebidan daskvna SesaZlebelia, gansakuTrebuli yuradReba moTxrobaSi pavlesa aqvs miqceuli. saqarTveloSi jer kidev X s. dasasrulsa da XI s. damdegs apokrifuli TxzulebebiT yofilan dainteresebulni. amas giorgi beris efT¢me mTawmindelisadmi mimarTuli SekiTxvac mowmobs, am giorgi beris SekiTxvaze eklesiisagan Seuwynarebel da dageslil wignTa Sesaxeb efT¢me mTawmindeli Tavis pasuxSi amgvar wignTa Soris axali aRTqmis ramdensame apokrifsac axasiaTebs: `sxua¡ ars wigni `siyrme uflisa~ da arca mas Seiwynarebs da `mociqulTa cxorebani~ zogni ganryunilni arian mwvalebelTagan. wmidisa maTe maxareblisa¡ sxua¡ ra¡me ars da wmidisa andria¡si igmagi~2. pavle mociqulis `cxoreba~ efT¢me mTawmidels moxsenebuli ara aqvs. axlad aRmoCenilis msgavsi Sinaarsis nawarmoebi albaT am dros ukve aRar arsebobda. sxva qristian erTa mwerlobaSiac mxolod patara nawyvetebia SerCenili. marTalia, jerjerobiT arc qarTulada gvaqvs mTlianad es Zegli, magram misi mniSvneloba Zlierdeba imis gamoc, rom aseTs

yvla amisaTvis sasiamovno movaleobad mimaCnia prof. i. quTaTelaZes Cemi uRrmesi guliTadi madloba movaxseno. 2 qronikebi, II, 83.

1

16

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

Zvels xelnawerSia igi Senaxuli. ufro vrclad am Txzulebaze saubari SemdegSi gveqneba, rodesac TviT teqstic daibeWdeba. gansakuTrebiT didi mniSvneloba aqvs Cven xelnawerebs saxarebisa da qarTuli dabadebis Targmanis istoriisaTvis. Cveulebriv miRebuli iyo, rom saRmrTo werilis qarTuli Targmani V s. ekuTvnis; prof. n. marma 1899 w. saRmrTo werilis qarTuli teqsti somxuridan uZveles dros naTargmnad gamoacxada1, magram SemdegSi Tavis 1913 w. da 1914 w. dabeWdils ors SromaSi am SexedulebaSi TvalsaCino Sesworeba Seitana2. igi fiqrobda, rom qarTuli teqsti somxuridan unda iyos naTargmni iqneb iseT drosac, rodesac qarTulsa da somxurs eklesiaTa Soris ukve ganxeTqileba iyo momxdari, e. i. VII-VIII saukuneebSiac3. avtors samwuxarod Tavisi azri mkafiod ar aqvs gamoTqmuli da is sazogadod saRmrTo werilze laparakobs, magram safiqrebelia, rom am SemTxvevaSi dabadebis Targmans unda gulisxmobdes, radgan Zneli dasajerebelia, rom saxareba da axali aRTqmis sxva wignebi VII-VIII ss-mde gadmouTargmneli hgoneboda. Taviss 1914 w. Sedgenils somxur-qarTuli saRmrTo werilis TargmanTa STamomavlobiTs StoSic n. mars pirveli Targmani V-VII saukunisad aqvs aRniSnuli4. maSasadame, V s-Si raime unda yofiliyo naTargmni, ufro safiqrebelia, rasakvirvelia, saxareba. amgvarad, Tu saxareba ara, dabadeba mainc n. mars qarTulad VIIVIII ss-Si miaCnia naTargmni. axlad aRmoCenili xelnawerebi am azris srul usafuZvlobas cxadyofs. is garemoebac, rom moses pirveli wigni, igavni solomonisni, da ieremia winaswarmetyveli VI s. xelnawerSi gvxvdeba, vgoneb uflebas unda gvaZlevdes davaskvnaT, rom mTeli dabadeba am dros ukve srulad unda yofiliyo naTargmni. maSasadame, Tu V s-Si ara, VI s-Si mainc unda iyos dabadeba qarTulad gadmoTargmnili. rasakvirvelia, miT umetes V s-Si, Tu amaze uwinares ara, saxareba qarTulad naTargmnad unda vigulisxmoT. IX am VI s. xelnawerebis da V-VI ss. ZeglTa qimiur damuSavebamde da damuSavebis Semdgom wakiTxvam qarTuli V-VI ss. samwerlobo enisa da saRmrTo werilis qarTuli Targmanis redaqciebis Seswavlis saSualebac mogvca. gamoirkva, rom
Из поездки на Афон: Журн. Мин. Нар. Просв. 1899, №3, 12-15. „До сих пор обычный текст армянского перевода, так называемая вульгата, считается подлинником Vго века, и тем же временем готовы датировать грузиноведы наличный грузинский перевод, хотя бы в древнейщих до нас дошедших списках. Все это на самом деле не так“ (Заметки по текстам св. писания: Христианский Восток. II вып., 163). unda aRvniSnoT, rom prof. n. mars am sakiTxis Sesaxeb Tavis mraval patar-patara nawerebSi erTimeoris sawinaaRmdego da SeuTanxmebeli azri aqvs gamoTqmuli da ara Cans, Tu misi romeli azria saboloo. 3 «Перед нами стоит большой очередной вопрос, именно когда переведен грузинский текст?.. не восходит ли грузинский текст к А1 (Армянской версии 1), а не к А (Армян. вульг.), т. е. не длилось ли культурно-литературное общение грузин и армян и после традиционно освещаемого разрыва христянской церкви в Армении и Грузии? (Эчмиадзинский фрагмент древнегрузинской версии Ветхого Завета: Христ. Восток, II, 388, agreTve II, 163). 4 Христианский Восток, II, 387.
2 1

17

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

qarTuls zmnas meore piris subieqtur TavsarTad am dros yovelTvis xani hqonia da ara hae. amgvaradve mesame piris obieqtur TavsarTad xanive yofila da ara hae. es cxadad mtkicdeba qvemomoyvanili oriode magaliTiT da ufro am moxsenebasTan darTuli V-VI ss. teqstebis nimuSebiT. mag., meore piris subieqturi TavsarTi: «xgoneb, viTarmed Sevida» (x.737, gv. 337), «r˜a gulisxma xyoT, r˜ aRdga mko¢dreTiT» (iqve, gv. 323), «o¢ko¢eTo¢ xavasxebdiT maT romelTagan xesavT ko¢alad moRebasa» (x.86), `mixiRe Sjo¢li~ (x.737, gv. 335). mesame piris obieqturi TavsarTis magaliTebi, e. i. rodesac zmnas damateba micemiTs brunvaSi axlavs, an igulisxmeba, Tu subieqturi I piria: `aRsasro¢lsa x¢tyodi naTesavTa mimarT ano¢ meo¢febaTa aRRebad~ (oqsfordis bodl. palimfs.), `mixo¢ec £orci Cemi da sisxli Cemi maTT¢s~ (x.737, gv. 244). `r˜a mixo¢emsgavsneT Co¢en patiosansa mas moZRo¢arsa~ (x.737, gv. 329), — Tu subieqti me-3 piria: `xrqo¢a mas o¢falman~ (x.737, gv. 239, 242, 245, 323 da bevrgan sxvaganac), `xrqo¢a maT petre~ (iqve, gv. 327), `codvilnica codvilTa xavasxebed, r˜ moiRon swori~ (x.8). `Sexeracxos mas codva¡~ (x.737, gv. 245), `romeli xirekdes, ganxeRos~ (x. 844, gv. 87v da 82r), `xekicxevdes mas didiTa basrobiTa~ (oqsfordis bodl. palimfs.) da sxva. SedarebiTi xarisxis TavsarTic maSin `xu~ yofila, mag. `xo¢mjobes ars erisa, r˜ ara xolo marto¡~ (x.737, gv. 240). `raodenad xo¢fros mamaman Tquenman zecaTaman mogces~ (999, f. 135 b). ukuTqmiTi nawilakis TavsaTadac maSin xu uxmariaT, mag. `xo¢rjo¢lo¡~ (x.737, gv. 325). maSasadame, saRmrTo werilis uZveles qarTul Targmans axasiaTebs xanebis xmareba prefiqsebad. prof. akaki SaniZem qarTul saenaTmecniero sazogadoebis ama 1923 w. 1 aprilis sxdomaze wakiTxuls moxsenebaSi amisda mixedviT mSvenieri ganmarteba mouZebna erTs termins, romelic giorgi mTawmidelis cnobils anderZSia naxmari, romlis gasagebad araerTi Teoria iyo winaT Seqmnili. man azri gamoTqva, rom rodesac giorgi mTawmideli ambobda `Cuenni yovelni saxarebani pirveliTgan wmidad Targmnil arian da keTilad, xanmetnica da sabawmidurnica~-o1, `xanmet~ saxarebad swored amgvars xanebiT daxasiaTebuli saxarebis qarTul uZveles Targmans gulisxmobda2. prof. ak. SaniZis `xanmetis~ mniSvnelobis amgvari axsna, ueWveli, sruli WeSmariteba unda iyos da amis gamo SemdegSi saRmrTo werilis qarTuli Targmanis axlad aRmoCenil uZveles redaqcias xanmets vuwodebT xolme. X bolo dromdis uZvelesad X s. TariRiani saxarebis xelnawerebi iTvleboda. Semdeg, rodesac adiSis, anu, ufro swored rom iTqvas, Satberdis saxareba aRmoCnda, misi pirveli TariRis 897 wlisda mixedviT, uZvelesad ukve es IX
T. Jordania, qronikebi, II, 207. a. SaniZe, literaturuli cnoba axlad aRmoCenili uZvelesi qarTuli teqstebis Sesaxeb meTerTmete saukunis mwerlobaSi (`moambis~ amave nomerSi, qvemoT).
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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

saukunis damlevis teqsti unda yofiliyo miCneuli. magram am Zegls meore, qristesiT aRniSnuli, TariRic moepoveboda da aq igi 1001 w., e. i. XI s. damdegs dawerilad iyo gamoyvanili. amis gamo erTi am TariRTagani mcdari unda yofiliyo. da al. xaxanaSvili da e. TayaiSvili qarTuli qronikoniT moyvanil TariRsa Tvliden WeSmaritad, n. mars ki meore TariRi miaCnda ufro swored. im saxiT, ra saxiTac am xelnawerma Cvenamdis moaRwia, ambobs igi, adiSis saxarebis teqsti ufro 1001 wlisaa, vidre 897 wlisao1. Semdeg adiSis saxarebis drois Sesaxeb n. mars ufro gadaWriTac aqvs Tavisi azri gamoTqmuli da am SemTxvevaSi Tavisi msjeloba mas am xelnaweris teqstis enaze hqonda damyarebuli: yovlad SeuZlebelia es teqsti IX saukunisad miviCnioTo2. zogierTi iq naxmari sityva da forma mas axal qarTulisad hqonda gamocxadebuli, romlis msgavsi IX s. xelnawerSi n. maris azriT ar SeiZleboda rom yofiliyo. e. TayaiSvilma jer Satberd-adiSis saxarebis anderZSi moxsenebuli istoriuli pirebis moRvaweobis drois gaTvaliswinebiT daamtkica uciloblad, rom am xelnawerSi qarTuli qronikoniT aRniSnuli TariRi iyo swori da amis gamo igi ueWvelia IX s-Si dawerili Zeglia. Semdeg igive sakiTxi e. TayaiSvilma enis TvalsazrisiTac ganixila. Tu ramdenad Semcdari iyo n. mari Tavis msjelobis dros qarTuli enis Zveli da axali formebis daxasiaTebas rom cdilobda, e. TayaiSvilma imave Satberdis (adiSis) saxarebis fototipiuri gamocemis winasityvaobaSi gamoarkvia. man n. marisagan axal qarTul formebad da sityvebad cnobili forma-sityvebi X s. xelnawerSi amokiTxuli magaliTebiT Zvel qarTulSi arsebulad cxadyo. magram radgan TviT adiSis saxarebac n. mars XI saukunis damdegisad miaCnda, amgvari sabuTi mas, rasakvirvelia, ar daakmayofilebda. mainc srulebiT samarTlianad ambobda e. TayaiSvili, Cven ise naklebad gvaqvs Zveli, IX s. Zeglebis ena Seswavlili, rom ra aris Zveli da raa axali, jer Zneli saTqmeliao3. axla, rodesac IX s. xelnawerTa magier xelTa gvaqvs VI s. oTxi xelnaweri Tavdapirveli xanmeti teqstebiTurT, srulebiT cxadi xdeba n. maris am kategoriuli gancxadebebisa da msjelobis usafuZvloba. eCmiaZinis fragmentis qarTuli dabadebis teqstis ganxilvis dros, mag., man dabadebis baqariseul gamocemaSi naxmari `ebr~ Zvelad gamoacxada, oSk-aTonis dabadebaSi naxmari `msgavsad~ ki mdabiur axal qarTulad cno4. es vTomcda axali qarTuli sityva swored uZveles, VI s. xelnawerebSic ixmareba. amgvaradve Satberd-adiSis saxarebisa da xanmeti saxarebis teqstebis Sedarebam damarwmuna, rom adiSis saxareba marTlac Zveli IXs. Zeglia da umetes SemTxvevaSi xanmeti saxarebis teqstis redaqcias misdevs. magram SedarebiTi Seswavla, jerjerobiT mainc, iseT STabeWdilebas axdens, rom xanmetis redaq„В дошедшем до нас виде текст скорее 1001 г.“ (Из поездок в Сванию: Христ. Восток. II, вып. I, 26). „Адишская рукопись грузинского Евангелия считается древнейшею по одной из двух дат: состояние текста показывает, что согласиться с такой древнею датою, как IX век, нет никакой возможности“ (Заметки по текстам св. Писанию: Христ. Восток. II, вып. II, 172). 3 Материалы по Археологии Кавказа, XIV, 18-19, Москва, 1914. 4 „Вульгарное ново-гр. `msgavsad“: Эчмиадзинский фрагмент... Христ. Восток. II, 387.
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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

ciasa da Satberd-adiSis saxarebas Soris iseTi gansxvavebaa, romelic gvafiqrebinebs, rom xanmeti redaqciis Semdgom da Satberdis saxarebis gadaweramde, e.i. maincdamainc IX s-mde,kidev raRac redaqcia unda yofiliyo. es imiTac mtkicdeba, rom zogan xanmetsa da Satberdis xelnawerTa teqstebs Soris TvalsaCino gansxvavebaa da zogjer aseT SemTxvevebSi mermindeli, X s. saxarebis teqstebi, mag. tbeTisa, xanmets misdevs, Satberd-adiSisa ki ara, radgan giorgi mTawmidels saxarebis pirvandel da uZveles redaqciaTa Soris xanmetis Semdgom sabawmiduri aqvs dasaxelebuli, amitom SesaZlebelia es xanmetisa da Satberdis xelnaweris Sua momxdari redaqcia, romliTac ukanasknelis teqsti zogierT SemTxvevaSi pirvelisagan gansxvavdeba, swored sabawmiduri redaqcia iyos. aseTi gansxvavebuli adgilebi xanmetsa da Satberd-adiSis saxarebaTa teqstebs Soris, ramdenadac jerjerobiT daskvna SeiZleba, SedarebiT mainc xSiri ar aris da ukanaskneli Cveulebriv xanmet redaqcias misdevs mxolod uxanebod. am ukanaskneli garemoebis gamo safiqrebelia, rom Satberdis xelnaweris gadamwers xelT xanmeti saxarebis teqsti hqondes. Satberd-adiSis saxarebas rom dednad marTlac xanmeti saxareba unda hqonoda, amis kvali, Tu fototipiuri gamocema namdvil viTarebas ar amaxinjebs, TiTqos TviT adiSis xelnawerSiac kia Senaxuli. mag., iones Tavis saxarebis XXI, 14 weria: `ese samgzis ganxecxada i˜¢ mowafeTa m˜T~1. zmna `ganxecxada~-Si xani gadamwers wauSlia, magram misi naalagevi garkveviT moCans. etyoba dedanSi gadamwers amoukiTxavs `ganxecxada~ da am SemTxvevaSi daviwyebia, rom gadaweris dros xani unda gamoetoebina, da iseve dauweria, rogorc mexsierebaSi CarCenia. magram Semdeg, albaT, gadanaweris gadakiTxvis dros, Tavisi gulmaviwyobis Secdoma SeumCnevia da xani wauSlia. marTlac `xanmets~ saxarebaSi es adgili aseve ikiTxeba: `ese samgzis gamoxecxada~ da sxva. gasakvirvelic araferia, rom IXs. xanmeti saxarebis teqsti yofiliyo, radgan giorgi mTawmidelis naTqvamidan cxadi xdeba, rom amgvari xelnawerebi mis drosac, XI s-Sic yvelgan yofila. radgan Cveulebriv xanmeti redaqciis mimdevari Satberdis saxarebis teqsti, zogjer mainc, gansxvavdeba da aseT SemTxvevaSi iqneba igi, rogorc aRniSnuli gvqonda, sabawmiduri redaqciis teqsts imeorebdes, amitom cxadi xdeba, rom Satbed-adiSis saxarebis teqsti ori redaqciis Sereul SenaerTeb teqsts unda warmoadgendes. amgvari azri TavisdaTavad rom arafers SeuZlebelsa da daujerebels ar Seicavs da maSindel saqarTveloSi amnairi muSaoba iSviaTi ar yofila. amas TviT giorgi mTawmidelis misdroindel da mermindel qarTul gadamwerTadmi, mimarTuli vedrebac amtkicebs: `vinca vin swerdeT, viTa aqa hpooT, egre dawereT da... R˜TisaT¢s sityvaTa nu scvalebT, aramed viTa aqa sweria, egre dawereT~-o. xolo Tu romelime adgili ar mogewonoT, `Cuenni yovelni saxarebani pirvelTagan wmidad Targmnilnia da keTilad, `xanmetnica da sabawmidurnica~, muniT dawereT da R˜TisaT¢s erTmaneTsa nu gahrevT~-o. Tu giorgi mTawmideli iZulebuli iyo
1

ix. fototipiuri gamocema (Материалы по Археологии Кавказа, XIV, moskovi, 1914).

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

Tavisi droindeli gadamwerlebisaTvis eTxova RvTis gulisaTvis saxarebis teqstis gadaweris dros xanmetisa, sabawmidurisa da Cem Sewamebul saxarebaTa teqsti erTi-erTmaneTSi ar aurioT, aramed erT-erTi maTgani airCieT da is gadaiwereTo, cxadia, es maSin, Cveulebrivi Tu ara, xSiri movlena mainc unda yofiliyo. miT umetes amgvar sxvadasxva redaqciaTa teqstis erTmaneTSi gareva IX saukuneSia mosalodneli da Cveulebriv miRebuli iqneboda. maSasadame, giorgi mTawmidelis zemomoyvanili anderZis mowmobiT cxadi xdeba, rom jer kidev XI s. meore naxevarSiac ki xanmeti saxarebani aramcTu daculi yofila, aramed sargeblobdnen kidec da TviT qarTuli saxarebis teqstis aseTs mkacrs Semwamebels, rogoric giorgi mTawmideli iyo, SesaZleblad miaCnda, rom maSindel qarTvelebs saxarebis teqstisaTvis dednad xanmeti redaqciis xelnawerebi aeRoT. magram rogor? am dros da, rasakvirveli 4 saukuniT amaze uwinaresac iq, sadac xanmets redaqciaSi zmnaSi, agreTve SedarebiTi xarisxisa da ukuTqmiTi nawilakis TavsarTebad xani ismoda da iwereboda, es bgera aRar ismoda. maS rogor SeiZleboda, rom xanmeti saxarebis naweri XI s. dednad yofiliyo gamoyenebuli? cxadia ise, rom gadaweris dros es xanebi, sadac isini ukve aRar ixmarebodnen, gadamwers zepirad TiTonve unda gamoetovebina. sxva gza warmoudgenelia da Satberd-adiSis saxarebis zemomoyvanili magaliTic amave garemoebis damamtkicebelia. anra sakvirvelia, rom xanmetsaxarebaTa teqstebi XI saukunemde Senaxuli yofiliyo, rodesac axlad aRmoCenili xelnawerebis mermindeli teqsti XII-XIV saukuneebisad aris miCneuli, rodesac, maSasadame, Zveli Tavdapirveli xanmeti naweris gadarecxva-gadafxeka da etratis palimfsestad Semzadeba unda vigulisxmoT. amgvarad, irkveva, rom jer kidev XI-XIV ss-mde xanmeti xelnawerebi daculi yofila saqarTveloSi. qarTuli paleografiis dasabeWdad damzadebul saxelmZRvaneloSi saTanado werilobiTi wyarosda mixedviT gamorkveuli maqvs, rom XII saukuneSi CvenSi, TviT saeklesio wreebSic mrgvlovan asomTavrul damwerlobas imdenad gadaCveuli yofilan, rom am damwerlobiT naweri Cveulebrivi teqstebis wakiTxvac ki Turme uZneldebodaT, amis gamo iZulebuli yofilan mrgvlovani asomTavruliT naweri Zeglebi ukve nusxa-xucuriT gadaewerinebinaT. am droidan moyolebuli asomTavruliani xelnawerebi monastrebis wignTsacavebSi, cxadia, ukve uqmad unda debuliyo da sxvaTa Soris xanmeti xelnawerebis palimfsestad gamoyenebisa da sazogadod maTi daRupvisaTvis, rasakvirvelia, am garemoebasac unda Seewyo xeli. XI [. . . . . . . . . . ] XII

21

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

prof. ak. SaniZem jer kidev 1912 w. studentobis dros aRniSna, rom meore piris subieqturi TavsarTi zmnebSi qarTul kiloebSia daculi. amis Semdgom amave garemoebas Zvel qarTulSi prof. ios. yifSiZemac miaqcia yuradReba. mesame piris obieqturi TavsarTis bunebis gagebac ak. SaniZis Rvawls Seadgens, romelmac am or sakiTxs Zveli qarTuli werilobiTi Zeglebisa da Tanamedrove cocxali kiloebis meTodur Seswavlaze damyarebuli mSvenieri monografiuli gamokvleva uZRvna1. es Txzuleba pirveli, mravali Zeglis Seswavlaze damyarebuli Sromaa qarTuli zmnis bunebisa da agebulebis gamosarkvevad gamoqveynebuli. prof. ak. SaniZis am naSromSi kvleva-Ziebis istoriuli gzaa arCeuli, igi qarTuli sityvierebis ZeglTa enis Seswavlazea damyarebuli. amnairma monografiulma gamokvlevam prof. ak. SaniZe Semdeg ZiriTad debulebamdis miiyvana: `Zvel qarTulSi meore piris subieqturi nawilaki aris prefiqsi hae~, romelic `£movnis win qarTulSi advilad ikargeba~, xolo enis wverismier bgeraTa an afrikatebis win sanad da Sinad iqceva xolme mxolod brZanebiT kilos... meore pirSi araviTari TavsarTi ar sWirdeba, aramed igia wminda Tema namyo srulisa Tu namyo usrulisagan aRebuli~2. erTgvar gamonakliss mxolod ori zmna Seadgens: `var~ da `vval~, romelTac meore pirSi xani aqvT (xar da xval), imis magier, rom pirvels dahkargoda hae, xolo meores SehrCenoda igi~3. am ukanaskneli garemoebis Sesaxeb prof. ak. SaniZe ambobs: cxadia..., rom xani, rogorc subieqturi prefiqsi meore pirisa (xar, xual) ZiriTadi kilos kuTvnileba ar aris, igi nasesxebi unda iyos romeliRac sxva kilosagan, romelsac xanis prefiqsad £mareba axasiaTebda albaT ara marto or zmnaSi, aramed sxva zmnebis uRvlilebaSiac sazogadod4. Tanamedrove q˜li cocxali kiloebis Seswavlamac prof. ak. SaniZe daarwmuna, rom meore piris subieqturi prefiqsi bevr kiloSi, metadre aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi, axlac Senaxulia. am mxriv gansakuTrebiT sayuradRebo aRmoCnda TuSuri, moxeuri da xevsuruli kiloebi, romelTac amgvar prefiqsad x da R aqvT, mag., movqsove, moxqsove, — davfare, daxfare, — davbare, daRbare, — vnaxe, Rnaxe, — vavadob, Ravadob da sxva5. mecnieruli sifrTxilis gamo ak. SaniZes am garemoebamac ver Seacvlevina Tavisi ZiriTadi debuleba, rom meore piris subieqtur prefiqsad xani ucxo kilos kuTvnileba unda yofiliyo da ara ZiriTadisa. prof. ak. SaniZemve Zveli Zeglebis enis meToduri Seswavlisa da dakvirvebis Semdgom gamoarkvia, rom rodesac damateba micemiTs brunvaSi axlavs zmnas (Tu igulisxmeba), maSin am mesame piris obieqtur prefiqsad igive bgera hae emateba, romelic

subieqturi prefiqsi meore pirisa da obieqturi prefiqsi mesame pirisa qarTul zmnebSi, Tbilisi, 1920, Tbilisis universitetis gamocema. 2 iqve, 3-5. 3 iqve, 17-20. 4 iqve, 130. 5 iqve, 158-171.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

yvela zemoaRniSnul fonetikur wesebs emorCileba, mag. `hkiTxa mas, hkiTxa dedasa T¢ssa, vhkiTxe mas~ da sxva1. jer kidev studentobis droidan, rodesac me svanuris agebulebis Seswavlas peterburgSi Cem amxanag svan iv. T. niJaraZis daxmarebiT vcdilobdi, azri damebada, rom Tavdapirvelad qarTul samwerlobo enaSic svanuris msgavsad meore piris subieqtur TavsarTad xani unda yofiliyo. vfiqrobdi, rom TviT pirveli piris svanuri TavsarTi xv, romlis namdvili buneba da mniSvneloba maSin CvenTvis gaugebari iyo da mxolod axla xanmeti nawerebis aRmoCenis Semdgom gamoirkva, saerTo qarTulsac odesRac unda hqonoda. magram es svanuris agebulebis zegavleniT warmoSobili ubralo mosazreba iyo, romlis damtkiceba ar SemeZlo da amitom araviTari mniSvneloba ar hqonda CemTvisac. mxolod rodesac prof. ak. SaniZem gamoarkvia, rom aRmosavleT saqarTvelos zogierT Tanamedrove kiloebsac meore piris subieqtur TavsarTad x da R aqvT Senaxuli, amis Semdgom ukve SesaZleblad mimaCnda, rom x qarTuli enis saerTo movlenad CagveTvala. rodesac saqarTvelos or-sam aseT erTimeorisagan daSorebuls TemSi erTgvari movlena gvaqvs Senaxuli2, romlis kvalic Zvel qarTulSic emCneva, maSin Cven ufleba gvaqvs aseT movlenebSi saerTo qarTuli movlena veZioT. am meTodiT vxelmZRvanelobdi saerTo qarTuli uZvelesi warmarTobis Seswavlis dros da vfiqrob, rom mis sifrTxiliTa da windaxedulobiT gamoyenebas SeiZleba nayofieri Sedegi mohyves xolme. amitom prof. ak. SaniZis zemoaRniSnuli Txzulebis Sesaxeb sajaro paeqrobis dros gamovTqvi kidec Cemi azri, rom svanuri da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos zogierTi kiloebisa da `xar~ — `xval~-is naSTi Zvel samwerlobo qarTulSi, uflebas gvaZlevs xani meore piris subieqtur prefiqsad qarTuli enis Tavdapirvel saerTo movlenad vigulisxmoT. magram amis damamtkicebeli movlenis xilva maSin me mxolod Soreuls warsulSi mimaCnda SesaZleblad ise, rom rodesac prof. ak. SaniZem 1922 wels kerZo saubarSi moxsenebis wakiTxvamde yuradReba mcxeTis jvris demetre ¢patosis warweraze mimaqcevina, rom iq `meoxxeyav~-ia amoWrili, es movlena istoriulad cnobils xanaSi CemTvis imdenad moulodneli iyo ro eWvic ki damebada, aq xom mrCoblweriTi, anu dittografiuli Secdoma ar iyo. magram amgvari eWvis usafuZvlobas bolnisis ori warwera amtkicebda, sadac amgvarive formebia naxmari.

1 subieqturi prefiqsi meore pirisa da obieqturi prefiqsi mesame pirisa qarTul zmnebSi, Tbilisi, 1920, Tbilisis universitetis gamocema.41-45. 2 exla irkveva, rom xanis xmareba qarTlur Tanamedrove kiloSic ki yofila Senaxuli. am mxriv sayuradReboa xalxuri mwerlis iagor tetunaSvilis ena, romelic Tavis dabeWdils TxzulebebSi ase wers: `xyvandes“, `Semsvlels qals Tvals moxkramda“ da sxv. (ixile misi `cxovrebis gzaze“, Tbilisi, 1922, I, gv. 86 da 90). am garemoebaze da Txzulebaze Cemi yuradReba b-ma ios. WeiSvilma miaqcia, risTvisac did madlobas movaxseneb.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

prof. ak. SaniZem am warwerebSi naxmari xanic qarTulis erT-erTi dialeqturi wrisa Tu kilos kuTvnilebad CasTvala1. piradad me Cemi Zveli hipoTezi ufro samarTlianad mimaCnda, magram masala imdenad mcire iyo, rom masze damyarebas SeuZleblad vTvlidi da am azris gamarTlebis molodini isev mxolod Soreul warsulSi mqonda. axlad aRmoCenilma V-VIss. xanmetma Zeglebma cxadyves, rom ase Sors wasvla saWiro ar iyo da rom xani marTlac qarTuli sazogado samwerlobo enis kuTvnileba yofila. SesaZlebelia, aq kidev erTi sakiTxi wamoiWras, Tu rogor moxda, rom xani SemdegSi gaqra da zogs, maT Soris upirvelesad akad. n. mars, azri daebados kidec, viTomc am movlenaSi mainc `svanurobi~-dan gadmoqarTulebis procesTan gvqondes saqme? am sakiTxis ganxilvis dasamTavreblad amJamad esRa gvaqvs marto gasarCevi. XIII VI s. da VIII-IX ss. xelnawerTa enis ganxilva marTlac cxadyofs, rom VII s-Si qarTul samwerlobo enas cvlileba dastyobia: me-2 piris subieqturi da me-3 piris obieqturi TavsarTebi x, ori SemTxvevis garda, haed Secvlila2. rasakvirvelia, es erTbaSad ar moxdeboda da SesaZlebelia amgvari procesi sasaubro enaSi ukve VI s-Si dawyebuliyo, imgvaradve rogorc, cxadia, aqa-iq SesaZlebelia x VII saukunis damlevsa da VIII saukunis damdegsac, xolo kiloebSi ufro xangrZlivac yofiliyo winandeburad naxmari. gamosarkvevia mainc, Tu ra moxda maSin, enis wiaRSi warmoSobili erTgvari revolucia iyo, Tu bunebrivi ganviTarebis procesTana da evoluciasTana gvaqvs aq saqme? enis sferoSi revolucia SesaZlebelia jer erTi Sinagani mizezebiT yofiliyo gamowveuli sakuTar kilokavTa urTierTSorisi damokidebulebisa da ganwyobilebis SecvliT, rodesac amave eris romelime axali, winaT saerTo erovnuli cxovrebisaTvis umniSvnelo da saerTo Semoqmedebas moSorebuli, tomi upiratesobas moipovebda da Tanac Tavisi tomis kilokavis gabatonebiT saerTo enasac sagrZnob kvals daaCnevda. meore mxriT, enis revoluciebrivi gardaqmna SesaZlebelia srulebiT gareSe da ucxo Zalisa da enis SemoWrisa da gavlenis Sedegi yofiliyo, rodesac dapyrobili eri iZulebuli xdeboda gabatonebuli eris ucxo ena SeeTvisebina misi srulebiT gansxvavebuli agebulebiTa da enovani fsiqikiTurT. aseT SemTxvevaSi imis garda, rom damonebuli eri uneblieT dampyrobelis sityvebs mravlad iTvisebda, Tavisi enis sintaqsur wyobilebasac da TviT sityvaTa agebulebasac xSirad ucxouris zegavleniTa da msgavsada cvlida xolme. rac ufro xangrZlivi da mkacri iyo dampyro1 naSTebi mesame piris obieqturi prefiqsis £marebisa £movnebis win qarTul zmnebSi (universitetis moambis amave nomerSi[2], gv. 280-281). 2 saistorio sazogadoebis wignTsacavSi erTi palimfsestia, romelsac haes xmareba axasiaTebs. prof. ak. SaniZe amzadebs misi teqstis gamocemas.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

beli eris batonoba, miT ufro Zlieri iyo xolme enis revoluciebrivi cvlilebis procesi, romelic SeuRleba-Serevis wyalobiT SeiZleboda nawilobrivi an sruli gardanivTebiT da TviT gadaSenebiTac damTavrebuliyo. ucxo enis batonobiT warmoSobili gardaqmna gacilebiT ufro Zlieri iyo xolme, vidre Sinagani, tomobriv ZalTa ganwyobilebis cvlilebisagan warmomdgari. siZlieris intensivobis mxriv zegavlenisa da gardaqmnis procesi SeiZleba sam safexurad daiyos. pirveli yvelaze susti zegavlenisa da nawilobrivi gardanivTebis momaswavebeli safexuri ucxo enis sityvebis uxvad SeTvisebiT gamoixateba da ganisazRvreba xolme,meore,ufro TvalsaCino gavlenis momaswavebeli safexuri ukve enis fsiqikis sagrZnobi SecvliT gamoixateboda, rodesac sityvaTa sintaqsuri wyobileba da urTierTSorisi damokidebuleba gabatonebuli ucxo enis fsiqikisa da sintaqsisda mixedviT icvleboda.amgvari cvlileba mxolod maSin aris SesaZlebeli, rodesac damonavebul Tu dapyrobil ers dampyrobeli eris ena imdenad SeTvisebuli aqvs, rom masac sasaubrod xmarobs. mesame, ukve enis gardanivTeba-gadagvarebis momaswavebeli, safexuri TviT enis morfologiuri agebulebis cvlilebasac Seicavs xolme. romeli am sami procesTagani gvaqvs qarTul samwerlobo enaSi, rogorc igi axla gvexateba V-VI ss. da VIII-IX ss. ZeglebSi? leqsikurad, SeiZleba iTqvas, maT Soris TiTqmis araviTari gansxvaveba ar aris. iSviaTi SemTxvevaa, rom VIII-IX ss. saxarebisa da sxva wignebis xelnawerebSi srulebiT axali sityva iyo Setanili. sintaqsuradac V-VI ss. da VIII-IX ss. xelnawerTa da ZeglTa enaSi ar emCneva, rom raime TvalsaCino gansxvaveba moipovebodes. agebulebis mxrivac qarTul samwerlobo enas am saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi araviTari arc gardanivTebisa da arc gardaSenebis procesi ar emCneva da, maSasadame, arc erTi am safexurTaganis msgavsi movlena im cvlilebaSi, romelic V-VI ss. da VIII-IX ss. qarTul samwerlobo enas axasiaTebs, ar moipoveba. piriqiT, arc morfologiurad da sintaqsurad, arc TviT leqsikurad araviTari gansxvaveba ar Cans. Cven Tvalwin mxolod fonetikuri cvlilebaa, isic srulebiT kanonieri da marto meore piris subieqturi da mesame piris obieqtur TavsarTebsa, SedarebiTs da uaryofiT nawilakebSi. es garemoeba cxadyofs, rom VII-VIII ss. qarTul enas revoluciiT gamowveuli gardanivTeba da gardaqmna ki ar gamouvlia, aramed mxolod nawilobrivi evolucia, fonetikuri cvlileba. amgvarad, yovelsave eWvs gareSea, rom V-VI ss. saxarebisa, dabadebisa da sxva Zeglebis teqsti svanurad ki ar aris dawerili, rogorc amas `winaswarmetyvelebda~ da ucilobel WeSmaritebad acxadebda prof. n. mari, arc sanaxevrod svanur kilokavzea naTargmni, rogorc es prof. r. ble¡ks n. maris zegavleniT sCvenebia, aramed mxolod da mxolod qarTulad. axlad aRmoCenili xanmeti teqstebi imdenadve svanuri ar aris, ramdenadac aravis fiqrad ar mouva V da VI ss. martirologiuri Zeglebi, — iakob xucesis Txzuleba `wameba¡ SuSanikisi~ da evstaTe mcxeTelis martviloba, — svanurad gamoacxados. axla, rodesac Cven danamdvilebiT viciT, ra eniT da rogorc uweriaT qarTvelebs V-VII ss-Si, TiTqmis Seumcdarad SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom, mermindel gada25

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

mwerTagan Cadenil Secdomebs garda, iakob xucesis nawarmoebica da evstaTe mcxeTelis martvilobac swored imgvarad unda yofiliyo dawerili, ra eniTac maT Cvenamdis moaRwies, mxolod xanebianad, da am mxriv maTi naweris pirvandeli saxis aRdgena ukve amieridan dauZlevel siZneles ar warmoadgens. XIV xanmet ZeglTa aRmoCenam cxadyo, rom qarTuli enis istoriuli ganviTarebis safexurebis Sesaxeb miRebuli Sexedulebac unda Seicvalos, Tu winaT gvegona, rom qarTul samwerlobo enas ori mTavari safexuri hqonda, — erTi uZvelesi klasikuri, V-XII s-mde, meore amdroidan moyolebuli gardamavali, romelic XIX s-Si axal qarTuliT damTavrda, axla irkveva, rom qarTuli uZvelesi klasikuri samwerlobo enis dasawyisi saukuneTa wyvdiadSi gvekargeba, xolo misi batonoba VII s. damdegamdis aRwevs, daaxloebiT VII-VIII ss-idan iwyeba ukve qarTuli samwerlobo enis ganviTarebis meore safexuri, romlis damaxasiaTebel Tvisebas x TavsarTebis, subieqturis meore pirisa da obieqturis mesame pirisa, haed Secvla da sxva fonetikuri cvlilebebi Seadgens. rodemdis grZeldeboda es xana, jer kidev gamosarkvevia. kulturuli TvalsazrisiTac axlad aRmoCenili xelnawerebi friad sayuradRebo aris da sagulisxmo daskvnis gamoyvanis saSualebas gvaZleven. xelnawerebi, rogorc es gadarecxvis miuxedavad da Semdgomac kargad etyoba, lamazi, mSvenivrad CamonakvTili mrgvlovani asomTavruli damwerlobiT arian gamoyvanili. aSkaraa, rom am damwerlobas mravalsaukunovani muSaoba uZRoda win. marto imitom ki ara, rom asoebi gasaocari erTgvarobiTa da moxdenilobiT arian ganwyobili, aramed imitom, rom am V-VI ss-Ta ZeglebSi ukve mrgvlovani damwerlobis saucxood CamonakvTili nimuSi gvaqvs. maSasadame, mrgvlovani damwerlobis pirveli dasawyisi ramodenime saukuniT uwinares unda vigulisxmoT. xolo radgan mrgvlovani damwerlobis winamorbedad da warmomSobelad Cveulebriv kuTxovani damwerloba iyo da qarTuli uZvelesi kuTxovani nusxa-xucuric Tavisi arsebobiTaca da TvisebebiTac naTlad amtkicebs, rom saqarTveloSic kuTxovani xucuri asomTavruli ueWvelad unda yofiliyo, cxadi xdeba, rom am kuTxovani asomTavruli damwerlobis mxatvruli CamonakvTilobisa da miTumetes dasawyisi xana mravalsaukuneTa siRrmeSi unda veZioT. aqamdis, sanam V-VI ss-is damwerlobis Zeglebi TiTo-orola asos saxiT gvqonda Senaxuli fulebze da mxolod erTi 8-striqoniani warwera mogvepoveboda, amgvari azri SeiZleba saTuod yofiliyo miCneuli, axla ki VI s. xelnawerTa mTeli rigis aRmoCenisa da maTi mSvenieri mrgvlovani asomTavruli damwerlobis Semdgom qarTuli weriTi xelovnebis dasawyisis sapatio xniereba ukve ueWvel garemoebada xdeba. isicaa aRsaniSnavi, rom VI s. xelnawerebi aseT mSvenier etratzea naweri, rac gadarecxisda miuxedavad mainc cxadad emCneva, romlis did furclebze or an erT svetad, mdidrulad, faro da gaSlili weriT, adgilis dauzo26

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

gvelad teqstia gamoyvanili. etyoba, maSin saqarTvelos kargi Rirsebis saweri masala, etrati da melani uxvad hqonia. esec ase Tu ise maSindeli ganaTlebuli qarTveli wreebis qonebrivi simdidris maCvenebelia. Semdeg efrem mcirisgan vicodiT da aqamdis darwmunebulic viyaviT, TiTqos gankveTilobisa da sasveni niSnebi qarTul mwerlobaSi pirvelad swored efrem mcires SemoeRos. VI s. axlad aRmoCenili Zeglebi cxadyofen am azris usafuZvlobas, radgan gankveTilobisa Tu sasveni niSnebi aqac ukve ixmareba. sami sxvadasxva azris mqonebeli niSani mainc moipoveba. es garemoeba im mxrivac aris sagulisxmo, rom igi TavisdaTavad maSindel saqarTveloSi erTgvari gramatikul-samwignobro moZRvrebisa da skolis arsebobis momaswavebelia. XV kidev bevris mxriT SeiZleba daxasiaTdes axlad aRmoCenili Zeglebis mniSvneloba, magram Cemi isedac grZeli moxsenebiT ise mogqanceT da mec imdenad daviRale, rom saubari unda Sevwyvito. Cven win didi rTuli samuSaoa: am teqstebis wakiTxva da Rirseuli gamocema da, imedi maqvs, rom Cven, Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis mecnierni, am Cveni valdebulebis pirnaTlad asrulebas vecdebiT. saxareba-dabadebisa da sazogadod saRmrTo werilis Zeglebis Seswavla istorikosis saqme ar aris, aramed enaTmecnierTa da mwerlobis istorikosebisa da Cveni specialistebi saTanadod gamoiyeneben am fasdaudebels ganZs. iqneb bedma gagviRimos da am palimfsestTa Soris istoriuli Zeglebic aRmoCndes. maincdamainc Cven ukve aRar SegviZlia am miRweulobiT davkmayofildeT, aramed unda gaorkecebuli xalisiTa da energiiT ganvagrZoT Zieba. gza, sadac unda veZioT uZvelesi qarTuli mwerlobisa da damwerlobis Zeglebi, ukve gamorkveulia: palimfsestebi da dedamiwis siRrmeSi Camarxuli warwerebi bevrs axalsa da sainteresos gviqadian. Tu axlac, rodesac Cven xelnawerTa sistematur aRwerilobas mxolod viwyebT da arqeologiur kvleva-Ziebas CvenSi iSviaTad Tu Seuwuxebia droTa ganmavlobaSi miwaSi Cafluli naSTebi, aseTi uxvi samkali gvaqvs, me darwmunebuli var, momavali kvleva-Zieba qarTul mecnierebas brwyinvale aRmoCenaTa SesaZleblobas uqadis, romelic Cveni istoriis uZvelesi xanis saukuneTa siRrmis wyvdiadis gafantvas SeaZlebinebs.

ivane javaxiSvili Txzulebani Tormet tomad, t. IX, 1996, gv. 263-352 (ibeWdeba SemoklebiT)

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

akaki SaniZe

naSTebi mesame piris obieqturi prefiqsis xmarebisa xmovnebis win qarTul zmnebSi
ukve gamorkveulia, rom obieqturi prefiqsi mesame pirisa qarTulSi moepoveba mxolod micemiT damatebian zmnebs, e. i. iseT zmnebs, romelnic damatebas micemiT brunvaSi moiTxoven ara marto awmyoSi, aramed namyo srulSic1. gamorkveulia isic, rom am prefiqss qarTulSi saerTod ramdenime saxe aqvs (h, ¡, x, R, s, S, z, J, romelTaganac Zvel saliteraturo qarTulSi Cveulebriv mxolod h, s da S gvxvdeba), magram misi xmareba mxolod TanxmovniT dawyebuli fuZeebiT aris gansazRvruli. raica Seexeba xmovniT dawyebul feZeebs, aq obieqturi prefiqsi (Teoriulad h) ikargeba, ikargeba rogorc Zvels, ise axal saliteraturo enaSi da agreTve cocxal kiloebSic2.
1 a. SaniZe, subieqturi prefiqsi meore pirisa da obieqturi prefiqsi mesame pirisa qarTul zmnebSi. tfilisi, 1920. 2 ingilourSi, rogorc es m. janaSvilis mier Cawerili teqstebidan Cans, [Zveli saqarTvelo, t. II, ganyofileba meoTxe, gv. 181-210), aris iseTi formebi, sadac kacs egoneba, mesame piris obieqturi prefiqsis xmarebasTan gvaqvs saqme xmovnis wino. es aris saxeldobr is SemTxvevebi, rodesac hae Cndeba unis win anlautSi iseT formebSi, rogoricaa: huyvars, huxarian, humReris, huyivis, huyarauleben, hundoda, huTxra, hunaxi, huwuxni, hufiqri (an hufiqrni), huWami, huCnbi, huqni, huzaxni, hukiTxni, huTqom, huvazirebi, hurbeni, hukrav, hupovniay, hucxovriay da misT. magaliTad: `katas aq na£navi da tyi pirebze hutrialni, hunadirni, Citeb, Tageb huWeri“ (184); `sawyal qeCis amTon huzaxni, huxwni, hucodilni, rum wikoebibe¡T Tav hucnobebi, kar gaRebinebi“ (190); `meCongure¡ hunaxi; hukravs, age hukravs“ (195); `kars huyarauleben... saxlSi Saaslela minams ar huSben“ (196); `frinebel erTmerTs humReris, huyivis“ (198) da sxv. magram: jer erTi: ra wams zmnas preverbi gauCndeba da, maSasadame, anlautis uni inlautSi moeqceva, maSinve daikargeba es hae: danaxi, dazaxni, Camogdi, ayoni, wayoni, aRiay, dauWeriay, wauqceviay, daugleJiay, akidni, mici, day‘ra, mouSala da misT. magaliTad: `auRiay, xuT yoC miuciay, amma saklav ar aqoy, — saklavi kola zaRlebs kln. huTqom“ (195). amitom gvaqvs aseTi formebi: hu£navy (202) da mou£nav (202), huzaxni (190) da dazaxni (189; 181), hunaxi (182) da danaxi (181; 202) huWeri (185) da daWeri (202) da misT. mere meore: ingilourSi, imave teqstebis mixedviT, ar ixmareba hae arc anisa da arc enis win, sadac Teoriulad agreTve mosalodnelia О3: a: aq, aqonda, akoca, waayares, ver daaklebs, Tav gaaneb, daamirwyda, Tols ar aSorebda, miakra, gamaarTo, aWmevs, daanaxa, daadara, daavala da sxv. e: eyureb, ezaxian, Seefereb, esaxla, ebneboda, eqna, elaga, deerida, Ceeyara, geeyo, deeca, Seecoda, `£el-fey deezra. Tav-tan geeyina“ (205), `wiko¡ deegliJa, SeeWama, deezina, miepara“ (190) da misT. mesame: hae Cndeba ingilourSi agreTve maSinac, a) roca vi jgufisagan, saxelebSi Tu zmnis formebSi, warmomdgaria anlautis u: h‘r (`viri“), h‘c (`vici“), h‘ty‘ (`vityvi“), h‘Txov (`viTxov“), h‘qeifeb (`viqeifeb“), h‘povnoT (`vipovnoT~), h‘q (`viq“), h‘Wri (`viWri~) da sxv.

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magram xmovnis win marto mesame piris obieqturi prefiqsi rodi ikargeba; ikargeba agreTve meore piris subieqturi prefiqsic, romelsac iseTive fonetikuri saxeebi aqvs, rogoric mesame piris obieqtur prefiqss. mxolod aq erTi gamonaklisi moipoveba: esaa aris zmna, romelsac dRemdisac ki daucavs subieqturi prefiqsis xmareba xmovnis win meore piris formebSi: var, x-ar, ari-s. magram es erTi zmna yvelgan da yovelTvis ganmartoebiT dgas, radganac misi uRleba arc erTi cnobili kilos uRlebis normebs ar egueba: xmovnis win ara gvaqvs sxva SemTxveva meore piris subieqturi niSnis Senaxvisa. samagierod SeiZleba mas paralelebi movuZebnoT mesame piris obieqturi prefiqsis xmarebis SemTxvevebidan xmovnebis win. es paralelebia: xerTvis, xeyav, Sexewie da SexuabT. 1. xerTvis qarTulSi ar moipoveba zmnis forma xerTvis, magram moipoveba am formisagan nawarmoebi saxeli xerTvis-i. ras niSnavs igi? s. orbelianis leqsikoniT xerTvisi aris `zRvaTa da wyalTa saSuali adgili xmeli~. am ganmartebaSi `wyali~ uTuod mdinaris mniSvnelobiT aris naxmari da, maSasadame, s. orbelianis axsnis dRevandeli Targmani iqneba: zRvebsa da mdinareebs Soris mdebare xmeli adgili. magram zRvebsa da mdinareebs Soris mdebare xmeli adgili CvenTvis dRes SeiZleba kunZulic iyos da naxevar-kunZulic, imisda mixedviT, mTlad aris igi Semofargluli wyliT, Tu ara. romeli maTgani aqvs sulxans mxedvelobaSi? Tu yuradRebas mivaqcevT im garemoebas, rom xerTvisi mas miaCnia k u n Z u l i s a da W a l a k i s sinonimad (misi ganmarteba kunZulisa aseTia: xerT¢si, Walaki, xolo Walakisa: kunZuli, gina Wala), SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom mas xerTvisi dRevandel k u n Z u l a d esmodes. magram ara! aseTi gageba iqneboda dRevandel cnebaTa gadatana Zvels droSi da Cveni Sexedulebis moxveva sulxanis Tavze. Tumca axal qarTulSi gansxvavebuli gvaqvs k u n Z u l i da n a x e v a r -k u n Z u l i , magram Zvel qarTulSi aseTi diferenciacia ar unda yofiliyo da iq erTi da igive sityva (xerTvisi iqneboda igi, kunZuli, Tu Walaki) gamoyenebuli unda yofiliyo rogorc k u n Z u l i s , ise n a x e v a r k u n Z u l i s aRsaniSnavad. aseTi ganurCevloba k u n Z u l i s a da n a x e v a r -k u n Z u l i s a Zvel qarTulSi gasakviri ar aris, radganac igi marto Zvel qarTuls rodi axasiaTebs: msgavsive movlenaa arabulSic, sadac ‫ ﺟﺰﻳﺮة‬erTsac aRniSnavs da meoresac; kerZod ‫ اﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮة‬Suamdinarea,

b) an roca ve jgufisagan miRebuli gvaqvs anlautis : hyav (← veyav = `viyav“). aqedan is daskvna SegviZlia gamovitanoT, rom ingilourSi, mose janaSvilis mier Cawerili teqstebis mixedviT, haes warmoSobas Tavkiduris unis win zmnis formebSi araviTari morfologiuri safuZveli ar uZevs, aramed igi wminda fonetikuri xasiaTisaa imgvaradve, rogorc imave haes gaCena unisa da onis win anlautSi da, maSasadame, laparaki mesame piris obieqturi prefiqsis xmarebis Sesaxeb xmovnebis win, ingilouri masalebis mixedviT, SeuZlebelia.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

romelic j u a n S e r i s istoriaSi arabuli formiTac gvxvdeba1. arc Tu Zvel berZnulSia Zalian garCeuli k u n Z u l i da n a x e v a r k u n Z u l i . Tumca aq naxevarkunZulisaTvis specialurad χερσόνησοϛ (anu χεῤῥόνησοϛ), ἡ, moipoveba, raica qarTulad xmeleT-kunZuls niSnavs, magram mainc νῆσοϛ, ἡ, aRniSnavs ara marto kunZuls sakuTriv, aramed naxevar-kunZulsac. es cxadad Cans, magaliTad, peloponesis naxevar-kunZulis saxelwodebidan, raica etimologiurad pelopis kunZuls niSnavs: Πελοπόννησοϛ, ἡ = Πέλοποϛ νῆσοϛ. maSasadame, sulxanis xerTvisis axsnaSi Cven unda davinaxoT rogorc kunZuli, ise naxevar-kunZuli. d. CubinaSvilis leqsikonis pirvel gamocemaSi (1840 w.) xerTvisi axsnilia kunZulad (остров, ȋle), raica unda eyrdnobodes s u l x a n -s a b a o r b e l i a n i s ganmartebas, romelic gagebulia ara ise, rogorc igi TviT s u l x a n s esmoda, aramed Sig Cadebulia axali mniSvneloba. meore gamocemaSic (1887-90 w.w.) misi qarTuli axsnaa W a l a k i , k u n Z u l i , xolo rusuli Targmania перешеек, остров. es перешеек-i cota ver udgeba iqve moyvanil qarTul axsna-ganmartebas (`Walaki, kunZuli~) da ar vici, saidan momdinareobs da ras emyareba igi. d. C u b i n a S v i l s am ukanasknel gamocemaSi adgilic ki mohyavs, sadac xerTvisi unda gvxvdebodes: es yofila `tim. 36~. es `tim~. unda iyos albaT `moxil…a wmidaTa da sx…aTa aRmosavleTisa adgilTa timoTesagan qarTlisa mTavar-episkoposisa~, romelic dabeWda pl. i o s e l i a n m a tfiliss 1852 wels. magram verc am wignis 36 gverdze da verc sazogadod sadme am wignSi me ver vipove xerTvisi. t i m o T e am Tavis `moxil…aSi~ Cveulebriv an W a l a k s xmarobs (23, 20; 24, 4; 31, 1; 103, 17; 123, 20; 124, 3; 125, 9, 12-13; 174, 19; 179, 7, 10, 13, 15, 16-17, 22; 180, 6; 184, 13; 185, 1) an kidev kunZuls (25, 17; 53, 21; 103, 1-2; 116, 5; 121, 5-6; 123, 23). erT adgilas, magaliTad, igi wers: `mier warvediT kunZulsa subuqsa da mier Walaksa kunZulsa (sic) rodoss~ (125, 15-17)2. x e r T v i s i rom k u n Z u l i a , an n a x e v a r -k u n Z u l i , amis dasamtkiceblad SegviZlia marTlac davimowmoT Zveli Zeglebi.

jazireTi (broses gamocema, gv. 127, 23; mariam dedofliseul redaqciaSi, *345, gv. 148, 18, SecdomiT jazareTi ikiTxeba), anu jazira (broses gamocema, gv. 135, 24, 25, 28, 31; 137, 25 = mariam dedofl. red. *366-367, gv. 162, 22, 25: 163, 2, 7). 2 saRvTo werilis qarTul TargmanSic Cveulebriv Walaki ixmareba (mcxeTis dabadebaSic, T. Jordaniaseul xelnawerSic, moskovis gamocemaSic). dab. 10, 5; fsalm. 71, 10; 96, 1 (asea fsalmunis Zvel xelnawerSic, siZv. muz. 38); esaia 11, 11 23, 2; 23, 6; 24, 15; 41, 1; 42, 10; 42, 12; 42, 15; 49, 1; 51, 5: 59, 18; 66, 19; ier. 2, 10; 25, 22; 31, 10; ezek. 26, 15; 26, 18; 27, 3; 27, 6; 27, 7; 27, 15; 27 35; 39, 6; dan. 11, 18; sof. 2, 11; saqme 13, 6; 27, 26; 28, 7; 28, 9; 28, 11; gamocx. 1, 9). k u n Z u l i ukve vefxis tyaosanSia naxmari (d. kariWaSvilis gamoc. [1920] 584, 2 = kakabaZis gamoc. 564, 2 = abulaZis gamoc. 540, 2), saiubileo gamoc. 601, 2.

1

30

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

xerTvisi kunZulia a) grigol n o s e l i s erT wignSi, romlis Targmanic or redaqciad aris moRweuli, erT redaqciaSi x e r T v i s i ikiTxeba, xolo meore redaqciaSi — Walaki. aramed jer iyo WeSmaritad, ra¡Ta aramed pirvel samTavrosa jer-iyo ganimzados samefo¡ pirvel da ma- Semzadeba da esreTRa Semoyvaneba SinRa gamoCndes mefÀ. da viTar gan- mefisao. xolo vinaTgan yovelTa mzada dambadebelman yovelTaman dambadebelman viTarca sameufoni saunjÀ sameufo¡, — da ars ese queya- ezoni esreT ganumzadna meufed yona¡, zRua¡ da x e r T v i s n i , ese ca¡, fadsa mas zRua¡ da £meli da ca¡ da romeli ars magrilobel maT zeda, queyana¡ da W a l a k n i 2 da mdinareni daiunja saunjesa amas yoveli sim- da viTarca sarTuli da kamara moddidrÀ (`kacisa SesaqmisaT¢s~1, Zveli rika maT zeda samyaro ese yovlad redaqcia, Senaxuli Satberdis kre- Suenieri da sameufoTa amaT Sina sididre pirad-piradi dauunja [`dabulSi, gv. 11 b). badebisaT¢s kacisa~, axali redaqcia giorgi mTawmidlisa. wera-kiTxvis saz. muzeumis xelnaweri 1358 (f. 146); agreTve 2666 (rv. 13, gv. 3); 272 (gv. 223) da 120 (gv. 121)]. b) timoTe episkoposis wamebaSi3 vkiTxulobT: xolo gulis-Tquma¡ saeSmako¡ daenerga gulsa domentianos mefesa hromisasa, romeli iyo Semdgomad neron mefisa. ese aRegzna risxviTa didiTa zemo £senebulsa amas zeda wmidasa iovanes RrmTis-metyuelsa da SuriTa saeSmako¡Ta gandevna igi qalaqiT efeso¡T da ubrZana, ra¡Ta daemk¢dros igi Walaksa patmonisasa, romeli ars erTi SecvulTa xerTvisTagani4. aq moyvanil citatSi sityva `Secvuli~ SeiZleba ornairad gavigoT: igi unda iyos an daculi samxedro ZalebiT (romaelebi xom iq pyrobilebs gzavniden), an kidev garemoculi, irgvliv Semortymuli wyliT. wamebis gamomcemeli prof. k. kekeliZe ukanasknel ganmartebas uWers mxars da mec ase mgonia da, maSasadame, teqstis ukanasknel sityvebSi `romeli ars erTi SecvulTa xerTvisTagani~ unda igulisxmebodes kunZuli dRevandeli mniSvnelobiT, irgvliv garemoculi

1 am ZeglSi rom x e r T v i s i gvxvdeba, am garemoebaze Cemi yuradReba miaqcia varl. Tofuriam. 2 Walakni. ase ikiTxeba 1358 nomerSi. 272-sa da 266-Si ikiTxeba b a l a k n i , xolo 120-Si jer b a l a k n i yofila da Semdeg bani Warad gadausworebiaT. 3 vin icis, egebis am timoTes wamebas gulisxmobda leqsikologi d. CubinaSvili romelime xelnaweris mixedviT, roca igi x e r T v i s i s mniSvnelobis gamorkvevisaTvis romeliRac Zegls imowmebda. 4 prof. k. kekeliZe, qarTuli hagiografiuli Zeglebi. nawili pirveli. kimeni. t. I, tfilisi 1918, gv. 105, 13-18.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

wyliT. magram, Tu ki SeiZleba, rom xerTvisi iyos `Secvuli~ (e. i. kunZuli), albaT SeiZleba, rom igi iyos agreTve `Seucavic~ (e. i. naxevar-kunZuli). da, marTlac, aseTi mniSvnelobiTac aris igi naxmari Zvel ZeglebSi. xerTvisi naxevar-kunZulia a) evfemiane da aleqsis cxovrebaSi vkiTxulobT: pova mun navi £uamaldi da Sevida mas Sina da hrqua menaveTa maT: warvemarTneT asureTa, sada-igi ars x e r T v i s i da xati RmrTisa¡. da warvides mier da ganvides lavdikiad da povnes mogzaurni mekarauleni da Seevedra maT da warvida x e r T v i s a d asureTisa, sada-igi ars xati RmrTisa¡1. aq asureTis x e r T v i s a d nagulisxmevia mesopotamia, anu Suamdinare, romelic marTlac naxevar-kunZuls warmoadgens dijlasa da evfrats Sua. swored mesopotamiaSi mdebareobs urha qalaqi anu edesa, sadac, gadmocemis Tanaxmad, TiTqo iyo xelT-uqmneli xati, romelzedac saubaria moyvanil citatSi. b) wm. miqaelis wamebaSi vkiTxulobT: `miugo monazonman [amirmumlsa] da hrqua: oTxni kideni oTxTa saxarebaTani da aTormetni nawilni aTormetTa mociqulTani, romel arian eseni: sindeTi da hindoeTi, nubeTi da afrikeTi; guTeTi da saberZneTi, burRaneTi da qersoneTi, afxazeTi da xazareTi, delameTi da farRaneTi, — ese arian zR¢s-kideni; xolo Tquen, sarkinozni, mpyrobelni xarT erTisa x e r T v i s i s a n i da umravlÀsni erni queyanisa Tquenisani morwmuneni arian uflisa Cemisa da Sennica msaxurni warCinebulni mwignobarni da mkurnalni mosavni m£snelisa Cemisani~2. moyvanili adgilidan cxadia, rom xerTvisi unda iyos n a x e v a r - k u n Z u l i , ase rom `Tquen, sarkinozni, mpyrobelni xarT erTisa xerTvisasani~ dRevandel enaze gadmoTargmniT iqneba: T q v e n , s a r k i n o z e b s (e. i. a r a b e b s ) , g i p y r i a T e r T i n a x e v a r - k u n Z u l i . g) j u a n S e r s Tavis istoriaSi orjer aqvs naxmari xerTvisi. erT adgilas igi mogviTxrobs: (mariam dedof. red.) ewyunes igini zRuis kidesa mas, romel ars Walaksa, riyesa xerT¢sssa (*351, gv. 152). (ana dedof. red.) ewyvnes igini zRuis kidesa mas, romel ars Walaki, riye xerTviSisa (rveuli i˜e, gv. 15).

mariam dedofliseul redaqciaSi ukanaskneli sityva pativs qveS unda vigulisxmoT da, roca qaragmas gavxsniT da Zvel orTografiasac aRvadgenT, miviRebT: `Walaksa, riyesa xerTvisisasa~. ana dedofliseul redaqcias misdevs Teimuraz batoniSviliseuli xelnaweric, magram aq ukanaskneli sityvis formaa ara xerTviSisa, aramed xerTvisisa: `ewyvnes igini zRuis kidesa mas, romel ars Walaki, riye xerTvisisa~ (qarTlis cxovreba, I, peterb. 1849, gv. 129). am adgilma cota1 2

prof. k. kekeliZe, p. cit., gv. 162, 1-5. prof. k. kekeliZe, p. cit., gv. 170, 7-14.

32

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

odnad sagonebelSi Caagdo m. brose, romelmac igi ase gadaTargmna: `Le combat s’engage, au bord de la mer, dans l’ile caillouteuse de khertwis~ da Tanac aseTi SeniSvna daurTo1: `sityva xerTvisi, romlis warmoSoba me ar vici, sulxanis leqsikonis mixedviT aris `zRvaTa da wyalTa saSuali adgili xmeli~ da, maSasadame, k u n Z u l i , somx. կղղի. speri, sadac qarTvelebs dauxeviaT, arc Tu egre axloa zRvasTan, magram, rogorc Cans, vaxtangi daaxlovebia lazikis napirs. esec kia, rom, mematianis moTxrobis mixedviT, laparaki unda iyos, cxadia, ara zRvaSi mdebare kunZulze, aramed, ueWvelia, qveynis romelsame nawilze, romelic ramdenime mimdinare wyals Soris aris moqceuli da romelsac xerTvisi erqmeoda, rogoric aris amave saxelis mqone cixe iq, sadac sakuTriv mtkvars erTvis mdinare, romelsac vaxuSti javaxeTis mtkvars uwodebs~. am SeniSvnis meore nawili mxolod imdenad aris swori, ramdenadac igi sazogadod xerTvisis semantikas exeba. magram brose cdeba, roca igi, axali qarTulis gavleniT, brZolis asparezs zRvas aSorebs. marTlac da: sada aqvs juanSers warmodgenili omi: zRvis napirze, Tu zRvisagan moSorebiT? davukvirdeT mis moTxrobas. vaxtangma ganacxada Turme: `aRvdgeT aqa¡T da davibanakoTo zRuasa somxiTiT kerZo, ra¡Ta guaqundes Cuen gza¡ Wirisa da lxinisa¡~-o. amis Semdeg Turme `aRiyara laSqari igi garemos qalaqisa da vles xuTisa dRisa savali somxiTiT kerZo da dadges speriT kerZo~2 (qarT. cxovr., I, 1849, gv. 128). raki amis Semdeg moTxrobilia, rom `ewyunes igini zRuis kidesa mas, romel ars Walaki, riye xerTvisisa~ (an `romel ars Walaksa, riyesa xerTvisisasa~), cxadia, juanSeris warmodgeniT, omi momxdara zRvis pirad, riyeze, magram es zRvis piri Tavisi mdebareobiT yofila Walaki, e. i. am SemTxvevaSi naxevar-kunZuli, romelic erTi mxriT SesaZloa mdinariTac iyo Semofargluli. maSasadame, sxvanairad rom vTqvaT, es adgili yofila xerTvisi da SeiZleba, rom saxeladac mas sakuTrad xerTvisi erqva. am SemTxvevaSi ki bunebrivi iqneboda misi xerTviS-ad gadakeTeba Wanur-megrul wesze, rogorc es ana dedofliseul xelnawerSi ikiTxeba (dasaxelebul midamoebSi xom Wan-megrelTa tomebi mosaxleobdnen), rom aq ubralo Secdoma ar gvqondes. d) meore adgilas j u a n S e r i mogviTxrobs: (mariam dedof. red.) (ana dedof. red.) cnes sparsTa, rameTu damZimda vax- cnes sparsTa, viTarmed damZimda tang, da moao£res tfilisi da arma- vaxtang, moao£res tfilisi qalaqi zi qalaqi; xolo mcxeTa ver daip- da armazi qarTli, xolo mcxeTa ver yres, garna romeli zRudesa gare- daipyres, garna romelni zRudesa gniT iyo, moao£res, romeli-igi mux- garegniT iyvnes, moao£rnes, romelraniT da aragusa x e r T v i s s a ni-igi muxraniT da aragusa x e r T i y o (*397-398, gv. 183). v i s i s a i y o (rveuli i˜À, meoTxe gverdi bolodan).
istoire de la Géorgie, I, gv. 171. mariam dedofliseulsa (*346-347, gv. 149) da agreTve ana dedofliseul redaqciaSic es adgili cotaodenad Seryvnilia.
2 1

33

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

gamodis, maSasadame, rom sparselebs, juanSeris azriT, mcxeTisTvis rom vera daukliaT ra, mouoxrebiaT misi zRudis gareSe adgili `romeli-igi muxraniT da aragusa xerTvissa iyo~, e. i. muxranidan mokidebuli rac ki mtkvarsa da aragvs Sua naxevar-kunZulsaviT mdebare adgilebi iyo. m. broses xerTvisi aq kidev ufro farTod esmis: misTvis igia `aragvsa, mtkvarsa da qsans Soris mdebare adgili~1. magram me mgonia, rom xerTvisis sazRvrebi aq mxolod mtkvriT da aragviT unda SemoisazRvros. arsaidan ara Cans, rom juanSers qsanic hqondes mxedvelobaSi. xerTvisi misTvis, ueWvelia, or wyals Sua mdebare adgilia. marTalia, am or wyalTagan igi mxolod aragvs axsenebs, magram cxadia, rom meore mdinared mas mtkvari aqvs nagulisxmevi. Zveli teqstebis mowmobiT, maSasadame, xerTvisi aRniSnavda rogorc dRevandel k u n Z u l s , ise agreTve n a x e v a r -k u n Z u l s a c , romelTa diferenciacia maSin arc arsebobda. miuxedavad amisa, mainc unda vTqvaT, rom xerTvisi Tavdapirvelad unda yofiliyo n a x e v a r k u n Z u l i da ara k u n Z u l i , Tanac iseTi n a x e v a r -k u n Z u l i , romelic ori mdinaris SeerTebiT (an mdinaris zRvasTan SerTviT) aris warmomdgari. amas is garemoeba gvafiqrebinebs, rom sazogado saxeli xerTvisi sakuTar saxelad iqca qarTulSi da geografiul nomenklaturaSi amoyo Tavi. xerTvisi dResac geografiuli saxelia da igi ramdenimejer gvxvdeba. magaliTad, xuT-versian rukaze, romelic gamocemuli iyo kavkasiis samxedro topografiuli ganyofilebis mier, am saxelwodebiT (Хертвиси, Хертвись) xuTi sofelia aRniSnuli: 1. j a v a x e T S i , iq, sadac mtkvars axalqalaqis wyali erTvis. 2. f o c x o v S i , wurwyabidan 15-iode versis manZilze, CrdiloeTiT. 3. k l a r j e T S i , artanujis aRmosavleTiT, aTiode versis manZilze. 4. a W a r a S i , sadac Woroxs aWaris wyali erTvis (= zeda xerTvisi?). 5. a W a r a S i v e , maWaxelis wyalze (qveda xerTvisi). magram unda vifiqroT, rom xerTvisi, rogorc geografiuli saxeli, gacilebiT ufro metia saqarTveloSi, vidre rusul xuT-versian rukazea aRniSnuli. magaliTad SemiZlia davasaxelo 6. J i n v a n s gaRma mdebare adgili, sadac fSavis aragvs mTiuleTis aragvi uerTdeba da romelsac xerTvisi hqvian. igi dasaxelebul rukaze aRniSnuli ar aris. Tu yuradRebas mivaqcevT zemore CamoTvlili adgilebis mdebareobas, vnaxavT, rom yvelani mdinaris pirad imyofebian; metsac vityviT: yvelani SerTul mdinareebs Soris arian moqceulni; `arian moqceulni~-meTqi, magram ufro swori iqneboda, meTqva: `unda iyvnen moqceulni~, radganac ueWvelad da danamdvilebiT amis mtkiceba jer-jerobiT mxolod sami xerTvisis Sesaxeb SemiZlia: aragvisa, mtkvrisa da Woroxisa. erT maTgans vaxuSti batoniSvili ase niSandobliv agviwers: `sad erTvis mtkvars javaxeTis mtkvari, am ors mdinares
1

Histoire de la Géorgie, I, gv. 198, SnS. 4.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

Soris ars xerTvisi: mtkvris aRmosavleTis kidezed da javaxeTis mtkvris samxriT~1. sxva xerTvisebsac albaT aseTive mdebareoba aqvT, Tu, rasakvirvelia, romelime maTgani sxva xerTvisidan gadmosaxlebuli xalxis mier gaSenebuli ar aris da saxelic iqidan, Zveli xerTvisidan, gadmotanili da axalSenis mdebareobis Seufereblad darqmeuli ar aris. erTi sityviT, xerTviss unda movelodeT Cveulebriv mxolod iq, sadac mdinare mdinaresve an zRvas erTvis. erTvis — ai is zmnis forma, romelTanac etimologiuri kavSiri aqvs xerTviss2. rom es kavSiri udavoa, amas erTTavad isic adasturebs, rom rTva zmnisagan sxva geografiuli saxelic gvaqvs nawarmoebi, saxeldobr SerTuli, romelic sofelia didisa da patara liaxvis SesarTavTan. oRond SerTuli axali formaa, Zvelad ki igi mravlobiT ricxvSi yofila xmarebuli: SerTulni, SerTulTa, rogorc amas gviCvenebs Semdegi adgili qarTlis cxovrebisa: (mariam dedof. red.) T¢T Tavadi surtani dadga karbsa da merme Camodga S e r T u l T a (*501, gv. 271-272)3. (ana dedof. red.) da TuiT Tavadi surtani dadga karbs da merme Camovida S e r T u l T a (rv. k˜e, gv. 5).

am sityvis etimologia, dakavSirebuli soflis orografiul mdebareobasTan, jer kidev vaxuStis aqvs sworad ganmartebuli, romelic wers: `varians zeiT erTvis liaxvis aRmosavleTidam patara liaxvi, amis gamo ewoda dabasa amas S e r T u l i ~-o4. maSasadame, xerTvisi sul sxvanairad nawarmoebi saxeli yofila, vidre mravali geografiuli saxeli, romelTac boloSi is sufiqsi aqvT: aranisi, birTvisi, bolnisi, daTvisi, egrisi, Tuxarisi, krwanisi, largvisi, manglisi, marilisi, niCbisi, olTisi, pankisi, ruisi, sacxenisi, tfilisi, urbnisi, farcxisi, qsovrisi, yinwvisi, yornisi, ceronisi, wavkisi da sxvani, imitom rom xerTvisSi — is daboloebaSi me-3 piris niSani Sedis (i-s), CamoTvlil saxelebSi ki is naTesaobiTis brunvis niSania. es naTes. brunva am SemTxvevaSi gamowve-

1

ReoRraჶiuli aRwera saqarTvelo¡sa batoniSvilis vaxuStis mier. peterburgi, 1842, gv.

96.

xerTvisis etimologiuri kavSiri erTvis formasTan gaTvaliswinebuli hqonia i. rostomaSvilsac, romelsac oRond xani SecdomiT Semoklebuli xevi (scil. £evi) hgonia. javaxeTis xerTvisis Sesaxeb igi wers: «Хертвис — слово грузинское. Образовалось оно из двух слов: х сокращенное хеви — река, вода и эртвис (erTvis) — соединяется. И действительно, Хертвис стоит как раз у соединения р. Топараванки с Курой, на левой стороне первой и на правой — второй» (Ахалкалакский уезд в археологическоми отношении: Сборник материалов, XXV, 115). rom xsenebuli avtoris mier moyvanili etimologiis pirveli nawili Secdomaa, amas amtkicebs Tundac marto orTografia sityvisa: xerTvisi (da ara £erTvisi). amgvari orTografiiT es geografiuli saxeli gvxvdeba, magaliTad, qarTlis cxovrebaSi (t. I, broses gamocema 1849, gv. 26, 23). 3 Teimuraz batoniSviliseuli xelnaweri mariam dedofliseul redaqcias uWers mxars: `da T¢T Tavadi sultani dadga karbs da merme Camodga SerTulTa~ (broses gamoc., 131, 10). 4 Op. cit., gv. 250.

2

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

ulia sazRvruli sityvis mier, romelic Semdeg dakargula1, Tumca xSiria iseTi SemTxvevebic, roca msgavs warmoebaSi msazRvrelTan erTad Senaxulia agreTve sazRvrulic: axo [a£o] (baris a£o), gori (ifnis gori), Tavi (rusTavi, wyaros Tavi, xidis Tavi), kari (RarTis kari, xidis kari, taSis kari, lebais kari), piri (aragvis piri, ruis piri), ubani (vardis ubani), yana (dolis yana), yuri (lalis yuri), cixe (velis cixe, lastis cixe, mwyeris cixe, turis cixe, uflis cixe), Ziri (taxtis Ziri, cixis Ziri), wyaro (kodis wyaro), Wala (xevis Wala), xevi [£evi] (kavTis xevi, kisis xevi), xidi [£idi] (tinis xidi), juari (cixis juari) da sxv. egebis gvkiTxon: SeiZleba ki, rom zmnis forma gamoyenebul iqnes qarTulSi saxelad? — ratom ara! iqneba Cveni pasuxi. Tavi rom davaneboT iseT zmnis formebs, romlebic sakuTar saxelad qceula qarTulSi, rogoricaa: RvTisa var, mindi (mindia), gamixardi, maxare, gamaxela, gindra (=gind ra), mewyina (qalis sax.), kmara (qalis sax.), minda (qalis sax.), qalunda (=qali unda)2, Cven SegviZlia moviyvanoT imisi magaliTebic, rom saxelad awmyos TxrobiTis mesame piris forma iyos qceuli imgvaradve, rogorc xerTvisi; esenia: Rirs-i, ars-i da msgavs-i. am magaliTebSi Rirs-isa da ars-is warmoeba naTelia [Rirs-i = Rirs + i: v-Rir, h-Rir3, Rir-s. ars-i = ar-s + i: v-ar, x-ar, ar-s]. SeiZleba mxolod msgavs-ma Cagvagdos sagonebelSi. am ukanaskneli sityvis warmoSoba rom gamovarkvioT, igi orad unda gavyoT: ms + gavsi. pirvel nawilSi TiTqos gvaqvs Sekvecili mas, meoreSi ki — hgavs zmnis forma. maSasadame, msgavsi miRebuli unda iyos mas hgavs jgufisagan anisa da haes dakargviT da inis darTviT saxelobiTSi4. raki sakiTxi yovel mxriv aris ganxiluli, exla, maSasadame, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom xerTvisi, romelic Tavdapirvelad unda yofiliyo w y l e b i s S e s a r T a v T a n m d e b a r e a d g i l i , Semdeg o r w y a l s S u a m d e b a r e a d g i l i , aqedan meore naxevar-kunZuli da, ukanasknel, kunZuli, saSualebas gvaZlevs aRvadginoT zmnis forma mesame subieqtur-obieqturi pirisa awmyos TxrobiTSi mxolobiT ricxvSi: xerTvis. am formis dRevandeli Sesatyvisia erTvis, romelic vnebiTia Tavisi warmoebiT da romelsac damateba aqvs micemiTSi: erTvis mas. dRevandeli erTvis istoriulad *herTvis foramis analogiebi moipoveba agreTve megrulSica da svanurSic. qristesa-c amave jgufs unda ekuTvnodes, vinaidan qristesia miRebuli Cans aqedan: qristesi ars, Tumca SesaZlebeli kia, rom ani aq kninobiTis formisa iyos, rogorc saxelebSi: gogia, petria, pavlia, daTia, Teklia, ninua da sxv. TiTqo aseTive warmoebisaa araSenda soflis saxelic. 3 vRir, hRir — es Zveli formebia, romelTa nacvlad axal qarTulSi vRirvar da hRirxar gvaqvs. 4 saeWvoa, rom msgavs-is winare forma mis-i + hgavs-i iyos da ara mas + hgavs-i. kidev ufro saeWvoa, rom mani aq aqtiur mimReobaTa formebis analogiiT iyos ganviTarebuli, xolo sani haes bgerinacvlobas eweodes, e. i. sxvanairad rom gamovxatoT, TiTqo msgavsi = m + hgavs-i → m + sgavs-i. unda aRniSnul iqnes gansakuTrebiT is garemoeba, rom Zvel qarTulSi ara gvaqvs SemTxveva sanis asimilaciisa ganTan: msgavsi, emsgavsa da sxv. (da ara mzgavsi, emzgavsa da sxva). SeiZleba isic aRiniSnos, rom imave zmnis fuZisagan meore saxelic gvaqvs nawarmoebi: igavi (i-gav-i).
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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

misagan aris warmoSobili, rogorc amas Tanxmovniani zmnebis uRlebis normebi gviCvenebs. herTvis-Tan SedarebiT xerTvis-i dialeqturi formaa mxolod: hae (*herTvis → erTvis) da xani (xerTvis) mesame piris obieqturi niSnebia da erTimeoris bgerinacvalni. sakiTxavia: SeiZleba ki qarTulSi sazogadod aseTi dialeqturi forma? gvaqvs ki raime msgavsi warmoeba kidev, rom mesame piris obieqturi prefiqsi xmovnis win marTlac Senaxuli iyos xanis saxiT romelsame zmnis formaSi? — gvaqvs, rogorc gvarwmunebs Semdegi magaliTebi. 2. xeyav mcxeTis jvris saydris warwerebSi orjer aris naxmari zmna, romelsac Tema xmovniT ewyeba da damatebac aqvs micemiTSi: erTia adrnerse vipatosis warweraSi, xolo meore — demetre vipatosisaSi. orive vipatosi mTavarangelozebs evedreba: adrnerse gabriels, demetre ki miqaels. orive vipatosis vedreba mTavarangelozebisadmi erTnairad aris Sedgenili. gansxvaveba, Tumca mcireodeni, magram metad mniSvnelovani, moipoveba mxolod zmnis formaSi. (Crdilo aRmosavleTis sarkmelze) wmidao grigol mTavarangelozo, adr[ne]rses ¢patossa meox eyav. (samxreT-aRmosavleTis sarkmelze) wmidao miqael mTavarangelozo, demet[r]es ¢patos[s]a m[e]ox xeyav.

arc a. natroSvilsa1 da arc e. TayaiSvils2, romelTac moyvanili aqvT warwerebi, aRniSnuli ara aqvT, rom miqel mTavarangelozisadmi mimarTul locvaSi ikiTxeba meox xeyav da ara meox eyav, rogorc isini kiTxuloben. magram, rom warweraSi ori xania (meox xeyav) da ara erTi (meox eyav), amas amtkicebs d. ermakovis mier gadaRebuli fotografiuli suraTi, romelic amJamad tfilisis universitetis fotografiul kabinetSia daculi (18800/796)3. amasve amtkicebs igive warwera, moyvanili barTolomes numizmatikur-arqeologiuri werilebis bolos darTuls mesame tabulaze meoTxe nomrad, da agreTve TviT teqstSic dabeWdili, romlis Sesaxebac igi ambobs: SesaZlebelia, rom ukanasknel striqonebSi iseTive formula iyos, romliTac Tavdeba marjvena suraTis legenda4, magram esec kia, rom me kargad gavarCie ori x, romlebic aq erTurTs misdeveno5. maSasadame ori xanis arseboba udavoa da forma meox xeyav damowmebulia werilobiT. aq, marTlac, metad iSviaTi movlena: xanis saxiT xmovnis win Senaxulia obieqturi prefiqsi mesame pirisa; obieqturi mesamisa, da ara subieqturi meore pirisa, vinaiМцхета и его собор Свэти-цховели, 1901, gv. 19. jvris monastris warwerebi: `saxalxo furceli“, 1914, 8 ivlisi, 32. 3 Semdeg igi Sevida saq. saxelmwifo muzeumis fondSi. 4 marjvena mxares imave tabulaze barTolomes mohyavs adrnerse vipatosis vedreba gabriel mTavarangelozisadmi. 5 `Il est possible que dans les dernières lignes se retrouve la même formule qui termine la légende du tableau de droite, mais pourtant j’ai bien distingué les. deux X qui se suivent ici“ (Lettres numismatiques et archéologiques, relatives à la Transcaucasie é crites par le général J. Bartholomaei. S.-Pétersbourg 1859, p. 80).
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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

dan meox xeyav — es brZanebiTis kiloa, brZanebiTis formas ki subieqturi prefiqsi ar unda. aq gasakvirveli mxolod is aris, rom igive movlena ar aris dadasturebuli meore analogiur warweraSi, romelic adrnerse vipatoss ixseniebs. ras niSnavs es? egebis aq ubralo Secdomaa warweris amomWrelisa da rogorc adrnerses warweraSi, ise demetresaSiac ikiTxebodes namdvilad meox eyav? swored ase unda dagveyenebina sakiTxi, rom mcxeTis saydris xeyav formisaTvis ar moipovebodes analogiuri warmoeba imaze adrindelis bolnisis sionis warwerebSi da Tanac ara erTi, aramed ori. 3. Sexewie bolnisis sionis sakurTxevlis sarkmlis Tavze, garedan, uZvelesi asoebiT gamoyvanilia Semdegi warwera, romelSic Caxatulia wreSemovlebuli jvari. qriste, daviT ep[isk]opo[s]i krebuliTurT da amas eklesiasa Sina Senda mimarT Ta¢yanismcemelni Seiwyalen da m[S]{r}om{e}lTa amas ekle[si]{a}sa {Si}na {S}exewie ii es warwera pirvelad gamoaqveyna brosem barTolomes mier misTvis gagzavnil werilSi1. magram zogi ram iq ver aris garCeuli. warwera nawilobriv dazianebulia da zog Cem mier amokiTxul sityvasac ganmarteba unda. Ta¢yanismcemelni. es sityva kargad ikiTxeba. es Zveli da sayuradRebo formaa, sadac vinisagan warmoSobili ¢ (Tav-yanis-mcemeli → Ta¢yanismcemeli) jer kidev Tavis adgilzea da ar gadasula yars Semdeg. pirvandeli vini damowmebulia, magaliTad, Temestias warweraSi mcxeTis jvris eklesiis dedaTa sayoflis karze, SigniT mxares, sadac ikiTxeba: Tavyanisacemelad dedaTa. mSromelTa, aq pirveli aso mxolod nawilobriv Cans. meore aso srulebiT aRar aris, mesamisa isev nawilia Senaxuli, meoTxe da mexuTe kargad irCeva, meeqvsisa cotaRaa darCenili, sami ukanaskneli ki srulad aris daculi. Cemi azriT, aq unda ikiTxebodes mSromelTa. Tumca amaSi mTlad darwmunebulic ara var da cota eWvi kidev rCeba, magram kidev ufro saeWvoa mdgomelTa da sul ar udgeba mlocvelTa. barTolomes gadmowerilis mixedviT broses aq amoukiTxavs mxld mTlTa da, rogorc frangulis Targmanidan Cans, igi ase gaugia: mxolod marTalTa (“il n’y a que les justes qui...”), magram aseTi ram sul mTlad uadgiloa. Sexewie. am sityvaSi Sini cota dazianebulia, xans TavSi amotexili aqvs, magram Zalian kargad Cans da araviTar eWvs ar badebs. raica Seexeba wils, mas aRaraferi SehrCenia Tavis garda, romelic, konteqsti rom ara, taris Tavadac SegveZlo migveRo. am sityvis Tanxmovnebi Sxw rom kargad aris wakiTxuli, amas, erTi mxriT, b a r T o l o m e s wanakiTxic amtkicebs: mas ver gaurkvevia sityvis forma da Seexvwe[bian daunaxavs.
Lettres de M. Bartholomaei relatives aux antiquités géorgiennes: Mélanges asiatiques. T. II, S-Pétersbourg 1856, p. 323.
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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

ii. warweris bolos rom ori ini zis, amis Sesaxeb ki ra mogaxsenoT. aq mosalodnelia an qronikoni, an kidev amÀn, ufro ki ukanaskneli. kaci ifiqrebda, rom aq swored es sityvaa gamoyvanili isofsefiurad, rogorc es berZnebsa da koptebs sCveviaTo1, magram am SemTxvevaSi ii gvaZlevs an ass (10 X 10), ocs (10 + 10) da ara gamodis ra, vinaidan amÀn sityvis asoebis ricxvebi Seadgens oTxmocda cxramets (1 + 40 + 8 + 50 = 99) da erTi gvaklia, xolo, Tu amin-ad wavikiTxavT, raica metad saeWvo gamoTqmaa VI-VII saukunisaTvis, maSin erTiT mets miviRebT (1 + 40 + 10 + 50 =101)2. SeiZleba, ukanasknel, is azric gamovTqvaT, rom am or ukanasknel asoSi warweris amomWrelis saxeli imalebodes, magram es azri kidev ufro nakleb misaRebia. ramdenadac saeWvoa am warweris ukanaskneli ii, imdenad ueWvelia da cxadi Sexewie. aqac brZanebiTis formaa vnebiTi gvaris zmnisa, romelsac fuZe agreTve xmovniT ewyeba. damateba masac micemiTSi aqvs (`mSromelTa~) da am damatebis aRsaniSnavad zmnaSi moipoveba obieqturi prefiqsi mesame pirisa xanis saxiT. aq, maSasadame, iseTive movlenaa, rogorc mcxeTis jvris saydris warweris meox heyav formaSi, romelzedac zemoT iyo saubari. 4. SexuabT imave bolnisis sionis meore warweraSi, romelic moTavsebulia CrdiloeTis karis Tavze erT grZel striqonad, moTxrobilia karis Sebmis ambavi. warwera dazianebuli yofila jer kidev Du Bois-s dros, romelsac igi gadmouweria da b r o s e s T v i s gadaucia3. b r o s e m igi gamoaqveyna am gadmonaweris [mixedviT da saWirod aRar dainaxa, rom b a r T o l o m e s mier gadmowerilis mixedviTac gamoeca igi meored4. warweraSi ikiTxeba: [Sewevni]Ta [q]ÀsiTa me farn [- - -] da azaruxt Sexua[b]T e[s]e kar[i sa]locvelad s[ul]Ta [CuenTaT¢s]. zmnis forma am warwerisa SexuabT kargad ikiTxeba, miuxedavad imisa, rom bani dazianebulia. d v i b u a s tabulazedac agre ikiTxeba da teqstSic (gv. 107), sadac mxolod koreqturuli Secdomaa: ¸EXOªABT nacvlad am formisa: ¸EXOwABT. maSasadame, wakiTxuli sworad aris da araviTari eWvi ar aris, rom zmnis formaa SexuabT. es forma aseT winadadebaSi: me farn[- - -] da azaruxt SexuabT ese kari. dRevandel enaze rom gadmovTargmnoT, es iqneba: `me, farn[- - -]ma, da azaruxtma SevabiT es kari~5. Sevabi micemiT damatebiani zmnaa

V. Gardthausen, Griechiche Pal¥ographie2, Bd. II, Lpz. 1913, p. 309. amen mogvcemda oTxmocda Teqvsmets (1 + 40 + 5 + 50 = 96). 3 Explication de diverses inscriptions (Extrait des Mémoires de l’Académie Imprériale des sciences de St.Pétersbourg. VI-ième. Sc. politiques etc. t. IV). St.-Pétersbourg 1838, p. 107, Pl. XI, N31. 4 Mélanges asiatiques, t. II. p. 323. 5 aq rom karis Sebmazea saubari, aseTi magaliTi sxvac SegviZlia davasaxeloT: mRvimevis eklesiis karze, romelic amJamad saqarTvelos muzeumSi inaxeba, sweria: `ama karisa Sembmelsa ierusalimis TemiT mosulsa abesaloms lominas Zesa da missa meuRlesa Seundos
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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

(Sevabi mas igi), romelsac axal qarTulSi ini aqvs ganviTarebuli boloSi; Zvel saliteraturo qarTulSi es ini saWiro ar iyo. am Zveli saliteraturo qarTulis normebis mixedviT Sebma zmnis uRleba namyo srulis TxrobiTi kilos mesame obieqtur pirSi aseTi iqneba: S e v a b , S e a b , S e a b a , S e v a b T , S e a b T , S e a b e s . am formebSi Teoriulad yvelgan mesame piris obieqturi prefiqsi igulisxmeb haes saxiT: *Sevhab, *Sehab, *Sehaba, *SevhabT, *SehabT, *Sehabes. xmovnis win hae, rasakvirvelia, unda dakarguliyo qarTulis sazogado tendenciis mixedviT da daikarga kidec, magram romeliRac kiloSi es hae xanad qceula da amis gamo pirveli piris formas mravlobiT ricxvSi miuRia aseTi saxe: SevxabT. v qarTulSi metad moZravi bgeraa, romelic SeiZleba gadaisv-gadmoisvas sxvadasxva fonetikur garemoebaSi. SevxabT formaSi mas adgili ucvlia xanisaTvis da warmomdgara SexvabT, romelSic Semdeg es vini ukve umarcvlo unad qceula: SexuabT. vinis umarcvlo unad qveva gasakviri ar aris, radganac igive movlenaa movals — movida zmnaSi, sadac meore pirisaTvis Zvel qarTulSi aseTi formebi moipoveba: moxual (← xval), moxued (← moxved), mox¢de (← moxuide ← moxvide). maSasadame, bolnisis sionis warweris SexuabT formaSic Senaxuli gvaqvs obieqturi prefiqsi mesame pirisa xanis saxiT, romelsac oRond adgili ucvlia da pirveli piris subieqturi prefiqsis win moqceula. *** zemore ganxiluls oTx zmnis formaSi (xerTvis, xeyav, Sexewie da SexuabT) qarTuls Semounaxavs, maSasadame, naSTebi mesame piris obieqturi prefiqsis xmarebisa xmovnebis win. es naSTebi srul analogias warmoadgens ars zmnis meore piris formasTan mimarTebiT (xar), sadac agreTve Senaxuli gvaqvs naSTi meore piris subieqturi prefiqsis xmarebisa xmovnis win. es ori prefiqsi — subieqturi meore pirisa da obieqturi mesame pirisa — Tumca sxvadasxva funqcias asrulebs morfologiurad, magram maT erTsa da imave fonetikur viTarebaSi erTi da igive bgeriTi saxe aqvT. amitom Tanabar fonetikur pirobebSi erTis xmareba romelime saxiT meoris xmarebasac gulisxmobs imave saxiT. am garemoebis wyalobiT xar formis gverdiT mosalodneli iyo da kidevac aRmoCnda analogiuri warmoebani mesame piris obieqturi prefiqsiT xmovnis win. ase da amgvarad, yvela es formebi: xar, xerTvis, xeyav, Sexewie da SexuabT erTimeores mxars uWeren da amJRavneben, rom erTsa da imave dialeqtur wres, anu kilos ekuTvnian.

.

1922 w. noemberi [tfilisis universitetis moambe II (1922-1923), gv. 262-281]

RmerTma amin: amin:~ (Sdr. Г. Церетели, Археологическая экскурсия по Квирильскому ущелью: Материалы по археологии Кавказа, VII, 94).

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akaki SaniZe

uZvelesi qarTuli teqstebis aRmoCenis gamo
literaturuli cnoba axlad aRmoCenili uZvelesi qarTuli teqstebis Sesaxeb meTerTmete saukunis mwerlobaSi1 t f i l i s i s u n i v e r s i t e t i s m o a m b i s amave tomSi (II, gv. 262-281) dabeWdilia Cemi patara gamokvleva: `naSTebi mesame piris obieqturi prefiqsis xmarebisa xmovnebis win qarTul zmnebSi~2, romelic damyarebulia umTavresad mcxeTis jvris saydrisa da bolnisis sionis warwerebis enis garCevaze3. aRniSnuli gamokvleva daibeWda Cemi petrogradSi yofnis dros4. rodesac jer kidev moskovSi viyav, ianvarSi 1923 wels, erT dRes diliT prof. k. k e k e l i Z e s 5 ukiTxavs CemTvis: ra iqneba, akaki, rom sadme amogordes qva meeqvse sa-

1 es SeniSvna mofiqrebulia petrogradSi, dawerilia gzaSi da wakiTxulia moxsenebad q a r T u l i s a e n a T m e c n i e r o s a z o g a d o e b i s sxdomaze ruseTidan dabrunebis meore dRes, pirvel aprils 1923 wels, am saTauriT: `giorgi mTawmidlis erTi sayuradRebo mowmoba~. moxseneba aq ibeWdeba ramdenadme Sevsebuli saxiT. 2 am tomSi gv. 267-281. 3 mcxeTis jvris saydris warwerebis SeswavlisaTvis xelTa mqonda fotosuraTebi (ermakovisa da tixonovisa) da, amas garda, orjer (1919 da 1922 ww.) TviT monasterSic viyav. bolnisis warwerebs adgilobriv gavecani ivnisSi 1920 wels, rodesac samecniero mizniT iq gavemgzavreniT prof. g. CubinaSvili da me mxatvar T. qvineTurT (Th. Kühne). 16 oqtombers 1921 wels ukve damzadebuli mqonda dasabeWdad patara SeniSvna am saTauriT: `obieqturi prefiqsi mesame pirisa mcxeTis jvris saydrisa da bolnisis sionis warwerebSi~ magram igi Tavis droze ver daibeWda. masSi jer kidev ar iyo xerTvisi; igi ar iyo arc maSin, roca 23 maiss 1922 wels saqarT. saist. da saeTnogr. sazogadoebis sxdomaze moxseneba wavikiTxe am saTauriT: `qarTuli epigrafikis uZvelesi nimuSebi~ da, sxvaTa Soris, mcxeTabolnisis warwerebis xanian formebze SevCerdi dawvrilebiT. xerTvisis etimologia gamoirkva CemTvis mxolod 1922 wels, Semodgomaze (enkenisTvis bolo ricxvebSi), rodesac me irodion s o n R u l a S v i l T a n erTad diRmis xeobaSi vmogzaurobdi samecniero mizniT da erTi Rame diRomSi gavaTieT misi puradi Zmis i v a n e mRvdlis saxlSi, romelmac saubarSi Tavisi aranisSi yofna moigona, fSaur ambebze Camoagdo laparaki da, sxvaTa Soris, Jinvans gaRma mdebare xerTvisi axsena. aqve unda aRvniSnoT, rom xerTvisis `erTvis~ formasTan etimologiuri kavSirisTvis alRo auRia a. xaxanaSvils, romelic Tavis kritikaSi k. hanis kavkasiis geografiuli nomenklaturis Sesaxeb (К. Ф. Ган, Опыт объяснения кавказских географических названий: Сборник материалов, вып. XXXX. 1909) Semdegs ambobs: `xerTvisi mas warmouyenebia xerTvisidan = остров (?!) [es hans albaT brosedan aqvs amoRebuli. a. S.]. Cven vukavSirebT sityvas herTvis (SeerTvis), sadac TavsarTi h gamagrebulia x-ad (Seadare Sen x-ar)~ [`ganaTleba~ 1910, martis nomeri, gv. 144 b. amaze yuradReba mimaqcevina a. genkom, romelsac amisaTvis madlobas movaxseneb]. 4 gagzavnili viyav eqspertad, monawileoba mimeRo sakiTxis ganxilvaSi, rom saqarTvelos gadmoscemoda qarTuli siZveleebi da, kerZod, xelnawerebi. 5 prof. k. kekeliZec eqspertad iyo gagzavnili ruseTSi qarTuli siZveleebis saqarTvelosTvis gadmocemis sakiTxis gamo.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

ukunis warweriT ase TxuTmetiode striqonio, da me amaze mipasuxnia1: `sul xanebiT iqneba savse~-meTqi. me amis sabuTs, marTalia, mcxeTa-bolnisis warwerebis formebi maZlevda, magram aba ras vifiqrebdi, Tu am dros TbilisSi prof. i v . j a v a x i S v i l i paleografiuli sakiTxebis kvleva-Ziebis dros yuradRebas miaqcevda oqsfordis qarTul-ebraul palimfsests da Sig uZvelesi qarTuli teqstebis nimuSebis aRmoCenis gamo mas sixarulisagan guli Seuwuxdeboda! ras warmovidgendi, Tu am sasixarulo ambavs2 mohyveboda revizia qarTuli palimfsestebisa Cvens wignTsacavebSi da aRmoCena imave prof. i v . j a v a x i S v i l i s mier uZvelesi qarTuli literaturis Zeglebisa! rogor vifiqrebdi, Tu zemore dasaxelebuls Cems gamokvlevaSi moyvanils ramdensame gasakviral formas ase male gamouCndeboda auarebeli paralelebi, oRond ara miwidan amoRebuli qvebis warwerebSi3, aramed gadarecxil-gadafxekili etratis furclebze, xolo TviT gamokvleva ise male daZveldeboda am axali aRmoCenebis gamo, rom stambaSi udrood daberebuls oriode siWabukis dRec ki ar eRirseboda cota adre gamoqveynebiT! uZvelesi qarTuli teqstebis aRmoCena farTo horizontebs gviSlis Tvalwin mraval mxriv. Tu jer-jerobiT ar xerxdeba maTi qronologiurad gansazRvra sruli zedmiwevnobiT, is mainc cxadia, rom aq, yovel SemTxvevaSi, arabobamdeindel literaturasTan gvaqvs saqme. maSasadame, arabTa Semosevis wina xanebSi (e.i. meSvide saukunis naxevramde) arsebuli qarTuli mwerloba ar daRupula ise katastrofulad, rogorc es aqamomde gvegona, vinaidan, Cvenda bedad, zogi ram am epoqisa daRupvisagan gadaurCenia palimfsestebs. es faqti uaRresi mniSvnelobisaa rogorc qarTuli literaturisa da enis istoriis, ise paleografiisaTvisac. amieridan qarTuli istoriuli dialeqtologia mkvidr safuZvels poulobs da SesaZlebeli xdeba mravali bundovani istoriul-literaturuli sakiTxis gamorkveva. erTi aseT sakiTxTagania cnoba axlad aRmoCenili uZvelesi qarTuli teqstebis Sesaxeb, romelic daculia meTerTmete saukunis mwerlobaSi da romelic aqamomde gaugebari iyo.
rogorc manve momagona ruseTidan dabrunebis Semdeg. cnoba am ambis Sesaxeb me ukve petrogradSi miviRe 1923 wlis 17 marts prof. g. axvledianisagan 5 martis TariRiT gamogzavnil werilSi, romelic Sezavebuli iyo naxevrad xumruli kiloTi da romlis Sinaarsi pirvel xanebSi bundovani iyo CemTvis. mxolod rodesac werilSi naxsenebis akad. p. kokovcovis mier gamocemulis oqsfordis palimfsestis fototipiebi movZebne, sixarulisagan (mogecesT lxena!) mec Zalze amiCqrolda guli, radganac im wamsve mcxeTa-bolnisis warweraTa asoebis msgavsi moxazulobani da zmnis formebi meca TvalSi. 3 unda aRvniSnoT, rom, mcxeTa-bolnisis warwerebis formebiT dainteresebulma, me, prof. g. axvledianisa da universitetSi profesorobisaTvis mosamzadeblad datovebuli oTxi kacis daxmarebiT (Tofuria v., Ciqobava b., jakobia g., janaSia s.), 13 ivniss 1922 wels sasinji xasiaTis gaTxra vawarmove zedazens gadaRma saguramos qasuris wm. giorgis eklesiis nangrevebisa im mizniT, rom zemodan Camovardnili da miwaSi dafluli warweriani qvebi amogveRo da uZvelesi (VI-VII saukuneTa) epigrafikuli masalebi gagvemravlebina, raTa mcxeTa-bolnisis warwerebis formebis Semowmeba SesaZlebeli yofiliyo, winaswarma gaTxram mxolod im mxriv gaamarTla molodini, rom erTi warweriani qva marTlac amoviReT, magram, samwuxarod, qvis zedapiri ise SeeWama miwas, rom warwera TiTqmis mTlad gadaleuliyo da mxolod TiTo-orola asos garCeva SevZeliT.
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42

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

*** es cnoba moipoveba giorgi mTawmidlis anderZSi, romelic darTuli aqvs (ioanes Tavis bolos) misi redaqciiT gamarTuls qarTuli saxarebis teqsts, romelic mas berZnuli teqstis mixedviT Seusworebia. anderZi kargad aris cnobili da ramdenimejerac aris gamoqveynebuli: pirvelad igi gamosca m. brosem (gelaTis saxarebis mixedviT1, Semdeg d. baqra Zem (labsyaldis saxarebis mixedviT)2, Semdeg m . s a b i n i n m a (gelaTis saxarebis mixedviT)3, merme g . w e r e T e l m a (gelaTis saxarebis mixedviT)4, merme T . J o r d a n i a m (leCxumurisa da breTis saxarebaTa mixedviT)5, Semdeg a . ca gare lma (gadmobeWda d. baqraZisagan)6, merme kvlav T . Jor dania m (axalcixurisa da moqvis saxarebaTa mixedviT)7, Semdeg m . j a n a S v i l m a (gadmobeWda odnav SemoklebiT sabininisagan)8, Semdeg e . T a y a i S v i l m a (vanis saxarebis mixedviT)9, merme a . x a x a n a S v i l m a (labsyaldis saxarebis mixedviT)10 da, ukanasknel, n . m a r m a (ejmiawinis saxarebis mixedviT)11. anderZi yvela giorgiseul redaqciaSi erTnairad rodi ikiTxeba: igi ori (A da B) saxiTaa Cvenamde moRweuli12.

A gelaTisa (A)13, vanisa (B)14, leCxumisa (C), labsyaldisa (D)

B breTisa (E), axalcixurisa (F), moqvisa (G), ejmiawinisa (H), siZvel. muzeumisa 41 (I)15, ubisisa (K)1

Rapports sur un voyage archéologique etc. (3-ème liveraison), S-Pétersbourg 1851. XI Rapp., 25. Сванетия: „Записки Кавк. отделения“ русс. географ. общества, VI. tfilisi, 1854, gv. 74. 3 saqarTvelos samoTxe. peterburRi 1882, gv. 488. 4 Полное собрание надписей на стенах и камнях и приписок к рукописям Гелатского монастыря: „Древности Восточные“, т. I, вып. 2. Москва 1891, gv. 261. 5 qronikebi (I). tfilisi 1893, gv. 207. 6 Сведения о памятниках..., т. I, вып. 3. СПб 1894, gv. XXVII-XXVIII. 7 qronikebi, II. tfilisi 1897, gv. 89 da 173. 8 ganqiqeba da ganmarcvl: i v e r i a 1899, 3 agv. 164; (calke amonabeWdi) qarTuli mwerloba. wigni I. tfilisi 1900, gv. 113-114. 9 arxeologiuri mogzaurobani da SeniSvnebi: m o a m b e 1900, dekemberi, II, gv. 14; calke amonabeWdi (wigni pirveli). tfilisi 1907, gv. 14. 10 Сванетские рукописные евангелия (Приложение к „Материалам по Археологии Кавказа“. Вып. Х. Москва 1904), gv. 15. 11 Христианский Восток, I (1912), gv. 120. 12 variantTagan moyvanilia umTavresebi. gamcemebis cxadi Secdomebi mxedvelobaSi ar aris miRebuli. 13 broses. sabininisa da g. wereTlis gamocemaTa garda, me mqonda kidev prof. k. kekeliZis mier gadmowerili piri gelaTis saxarebis anderZisa. 14 e. TayaiSvili gamocemis garda, me xelTa mqonda agreTve TviT vanis saxarebac. 15 T. Jordania, Описание I, 36; a. xaxanaSvili. Сванет. рукописн. свангелия, gv. 16 SnS. (aqac da iqac moyvanilia anderZis dasawyisi).
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43

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

ese sacnaur iyavn yovelTa, rameTu ese wmida¡ oTxTavi1 axlad g¢Targmnia friadiTa iZulebiTa ZmaTa vieTme2 sulierTa¡Ta da berZnulTa saxarebiTada3 Seg¢wamebia friadiTa gamowulilviTa. da vinca vin daswerdeT4, viTa aqa hpooT, egre dawereT, Tu amisgan jer giCndes dawera¡, RmrTisaT¢s sityvaTa nu scvalebT, aramed v˜a aqa sweria, egre dawereT; da Tu ara ra¡me gaSundes5, Cuenni yovelni saxarebani pirveliTgan wmidad Targmnilnia6 da keTilad — xanmetnica7 da sabawmidurnica, — muniT dawereT da R˜TisaT¢s erTmanerTsa nu gahrevT8. da glaxakisa georgisT¢s9, r˜n ese vTargmne10, locva-yavT! variantebi:1 + Cuen C;2 vieTTame 3 CD, saxarebaTa C;4 swerdeT C;5 baqraZe SecdomiT kiTxulobda `gaqundesT~ da am Secdomas imeorebdnen a. cagareli da xaxanaSvili;6 Targmnil ars C;7 brose da sabinini SecdomiT kiTxulobdnen: xonmetnica:8 nu ganhrevT C;9 g˜isT¢s AC;10 r˜n ese vTargmne] — C.

ese1 sacnaur iyavn yovelTa, rameTu2 ese wmida¡ oTxaTavi ara Tu axlad g¢Targmnia3, aramed friadiTa4 iZulebiTa ZmaTa5 vieTme6 sulierTa¡Ta7 berZnulTa saxarebaTada8 Seg¢wamebia9 friadiTa gamowulilviTa. da vinca-vin swerdeT, viTa aqa hpooT, egre10 dawereT. Tu11 amisgan jer-giCndes dawera¡, RmrTisaT¢s sityuaTa nu scvalebT, aramed viTa12 aqa sweria, egre13 dawereT; da Tu ara ra¡me gaSundes14, Cuenni yovelni saxarebani pireliTgan wmidad Targmnilnia15 da keTilad — xanmetnica da sabawmidurnica, — muniT dawereT da RmrTisaT¢s erTmanerTsa nu gahrevT16! da glaxakisa g˜isT¢s locva-yavT! variantebi:1 ese — G;2 romel E; 3 miTargmnia (?) K;4 friadiTa] — H;5 ZmaTa] — H;6 vieTTame FG;7 sulierTa F; 8 saxarebaTa FGH; 9 Segumowmebia H;10 egreT H, ese E;11 da Tu EG;12 viTarca FG;13 egreT H;14 gaSudes H;15 Targmnil ars E;16 nu g˜nhrevT F, nu garevT G.

rogorc amonaweridan Cans, giorgi mTawmidlis Rvawli saxarebis qarTuli teqstis sabolood dadgenis saqmeSi sxvadasxvagvaradaa warmodgenili: erT (A) SemTxvevaSi ise gamodis, TiTqo mas sruliad axali Targmani moeces, meore (B) SemTxvevaSi ki mas miewereba Zvelad naTargmni teqstis Sewameba berZnulTan da Sesworeba, e. i. redaqtoroba. aRsaniSnavia is garemoeba, rom anderZis A redaqciaSi ara marto TavSia naTqvami, axlad gviTargmniao, aramed (leCxumur xelnawers garda) boloSiac ganmeorebulia igive azri: `da glaxakisa georgisT¢s, r o m e l m a n e s e v T a r g m n e , locva-yavT~-o. sayuradReboa TavisTavad gamorkveva imisa, Tu rogor esmoda giorgi mTawmidels Tavisi moRvaweoba, rogor afasebda mas da rogori iyo misi anderZis pirvandeli saxe, magram es amJamad Cvens mizans ar Seadgens da arc exeba Cvens pirdapir sagans. vityvi mxolod, rom, Tu literaturul faqtebs gaviTvaliswinebT, ufro dasajerebelia giorgis redaqtoroba, vidre misi
ubisis saxarebis anderZis dasawyisi sityvebi moyvanili aqvs e. TayaiSvils: Археол. путеш., разыск. и заметки; Сборник материалов, XLIV, Отдел III, стр. 34= Археологич. экскурсии, разыскания и заметки V, 1915 (отд. отт.), стр. 34.
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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

mTargmneloba, miuxedavad imisa, rom igi mTargmneladvea gamoyvanili vanis saxarebis anderZSic, romelsac mosdevs metad mniSvnelovani minaweri misi gadamwerlisa, romelsac Tavisi gadmonaweri saxareba ahyavs TviT giorgi mTawmidlis im avtografamde, romelic `nusxad mdebare~ yofila `didsa wignis sacavsa~: aTonis qarTvelTa monasterSi. ai ras vtyobilobT am minawerSi1: `sayuarelno, jer-ars, ra¡Ta wmidisa amis saxarebisa viTareba¡ ganemartos siwmidesa Tquensa, da ara T¢TSjulobiT hgonoT Secvla¡ sityuaTa¡ wmindisa amis saxarebisa anu anderZisaTa¡, aramed ese sacnaur iyavn yovelTa, rameTu yovelnive qarTulni saxarebani, mTawmindiT aRwerilni da gamosaxulni, Rirsisa mamisa giorgis Targmnilni, saeklesio¡sa saxarebisagan, romel mTawmidelni i£mareben, aRwerilni arian, da ara misgan, romeli T¢T giorgi Targmna da nusxad mdebare iyo didsa wignis sacavsa, aramed misgan gardawerilisagan. da mas2 nusxasa Tana friadi naklulovaneba¡ aqus da vhgoneb, romel T¢TSjulobiT vieTme ekadros mas Sina Secvla¡ sity¢sa¡, ginda anderZisa¡, vidre mwerlisagan ganryunad. xolo CuenTa amaT Sina JamTa didi moRuaweTa Soris beri zaqaria mi-ra¡-vida mTasa wmidasa, Zieba-yo giorgis mier aRwerilisa wmidisa mis saxarebisaT¢s da poa didsa wignis sacavsa Sina da aRivso sixaruliTa. da mier gardmoewera Satberdelsa xucessa stefanes da, aRmo-ra¡-vida romanas, me £el-vyav codvilman iovane aRwerad, rameTu adriTgan swyuroda sulsa Cemsa mogebad wmidisa saxarebisa. aw vinca swerdeT, viTa aqa hpooT, egre dawereT wentiliTa da pativTa zeda meoriTa sity¢Ta, rameTu anderZi, viTa aqa sweria, esre povnil ars nusxasa~. Zneli saTqmelia, Tu ramdenad Seefereba sinamdviles aq moyvanili cnoba, romelic Seexeba `TviTSjulobiT~ cvlilebaTa Setanas giorgiseuli saxarebis teqstSi, radganac giorgiseuli redaqciis teqstebi jer-jerobiT ar aris Sedarebuli da Sewamebuli erTmaneTTan. raica Seexeba anderZs, igi marTlac Secvlilia, yovel SemTxvevaSi ori redaqciiT aris Cvenamde moRweuli3. unda gavixsenoT erTi garemoeba: imave giorgi mTawmindelis mier berZnuli teqstis mixedviT Sesworebuli daviTnis anderZic imgvaradve iwyeba, rogoradac saxarebis anderZis A saxe: `wmidano da RmerT-Semosilno mamano da Zmano, romelnica wmidaTa amaT daviTTa miemTx¢neT, ese sacnaur iyavn yovelTa, rameTu friadiTa iZulebiTa wmidaTa da sulierTa mamaTa CemTa¡Ta vTargmnen ese daviTni axlad berZulisagan qarTulad me, glaxakman giorgi uRirsman xuces-monazonman, friadiTa WiriTa da rudunebiTa. T¢T icis RmerTman, mravalTa berZnulTa dedaTada daviTis TargmanTagan Seg¢wamebia friadiTa gamowulilviTa da gamoZiebi1 igi gamocemulia pirvelad e. TayaiSvilis mier [arxeol. mogz. da SeniSvnani: moambe 1900, dekemb. II, 15-16; calke amonabeWdi (wigni pirveli) tfilisi 1907, gv. 15-16]. 2 TiTqo ase unda vikiTxoT: da (a)mas (unda igulisxmebodes `gardawerili~). 3 egeb vinmem Tqvas: vin icis, iqneb anderZis orive saxe TviT giorgi mTawmidels ekuTvnodeso: Cven viciT xom, rom man samjer Seawama qarTuli teqsti berZnuls, amitom SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom pirveli Sewamebis Semdeg mas ar unda hqonoda imdeni Sesworeba Setanili, rom eTqva, es mTlad axali Targmaniao, magram meore Sewamebisa da, gansakuTrebiT ki, mesamis Semdeg mas saamisod meti sabuTi unda hqonodao; ase rom bunebrivi iqneboda, rom pirveli Sewamebis Semdeg anderZs erTi saxe hqonoda, ukanasknelis Semdeg ki — sxvao. saeWvoa.

45

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

Ta~1. aqac, maSasadame, axlad Targmnazea laparaki. ra Tqma unda, arc daviTnia giorgis mier sul axlad naTargmni: safuZvlad masac Zveli Targmanebi uZevs, romlebic g. mTawmindels Seusworebia mxxhh od berZnuli teqstis mixedviT, magram mainc ambobs: axlad vTargmneo. gvefiqra, viTom daviTnis anderZic gangeb Secvlilia visme miero, es metismeti eWvi iqneboda. radganac saxarebis anderZis A saxe da daviTnis anderZi erTi meores Zalian kargad udgeba, amitom SeiZleba swored A saxe CavTvaloT giorgiseulad, xolo B saxe gadamkeTebels mivaweroT. amitom marTlac SeiZleba davujeroT vanis saxarebis gadamwers, rodesac igi ambobs, rom `anderZi viTa aqa sweria, esre povnil ars nusxasa~-o. maSasadame, TavSi sami sityvis Camateba (`ara Tu... aramed), xolo boloSi samis gamokleba (`romelman ese vTargmne~), marTlac, `T¢TSjulobiT~ Setanili cvlileba unda iyos. es miT ufro dasajerebelia, rom cvlileba redaqciuli xasiaTisaa, romlis Semdegac giorgis Rvawli saxarebis saboloo redaqciis dadgenis saqmeSi meti sisworiT aris gadmocemuli, vinaidan misi namuSakevi arsebiTad ara axali da damoukidebeli Targmani iyo, aramed Zveli Targmanis gasworeba. marTlac, aba rogor unda SeewynarebinaT maSindel saeklesio wreebs, gansakuTrebiT ki konservatul nawils, giorgis mier cota gazviadebuli warmodgena Tavis Rvawlze da moewonebinaT misi sityvebi `axlad g¢Targmnia~ an `romelman ese vTargmne~, miT umetes, rom es arc Seefereboda saqmis namdvil viTarebas da, amas garda, arc hqondaT Zvel redaqciebs imdenad dakarguli ndoba, rom aseTi sityvebi misaRebi yofiliyo farTo wreebisaTvis, romlebic swored Zvel redaqciebs iyvnen SeCveuli2? rogoric unda iyos saqmis namdvili viTareba am mxriv, igi Cvens pirdapir sakiTxs odnavadac ver Secvlis: anderZis orsav redaqciaSi erTnairad ikiTxeba is adgili, romelic Seicavs cnobas axlad aRmoCenilis uZvelesi qarTuli xelnawerebis Sesaxeb: `da Tu ara ra¡me gaSundes, Cuenni yovelni saxarebani pirveliTgan wmidad Targmnilnia da keTilad — x a n m e t n i c a d a s a b a w m i d u r n i c a , — muniT dawereT da RmrTisaT¢s erTmanerTsa nu gahrevT~. `pirveliTgan wmidad da keTilad Targmnil~ saxarebaTagan giorgi mTawmindeli asaxelebs or redaqcias: xanmetsa da sabawmidurs, romelTa gagebaSi mkvlevarni sxvadasxva azrisani iyvnen.

1 daviTnis anderZi mTlad aqvs moyvanili m. sabinins nik. CubinaSviliseuli xelnaweris mixedviT (saqarTvelos samoTxe, gv. 487-488) da m. janaSvils mzeWabukis daviTnidan, romelic gadawerilia XV saukunis miwurulSi (`ganqiqeba da ganmarcvla“: iveria 1889, 3 agvisto, 164; `qarTuli mwerloba“, I. tfilisi, 1900, gv. 107-111). anderZis Tavis gamocemis dros Cven xelT gvqonda xuTi xelnaweri: siZvel. muzeumisa 350, 351, 914, saist. da saeTn. sazog. muzeumisa 16 da wera-kiTxvis sazog. muzeumisa 2601. 2 ufro saeWvoa, rom amisi winaukmo yofiliyos, e. i. TiTqo giorgi mTawmidels ekuTvnodes A redaqcia anderZisa, romelic Semdeg B-d gadaekeTebinos im nawils saeklesio pirebisas, ase vTqvaT `progresistebs~, romelTac qarTul saeklesio praqtikaSi berZnuli Sabloni SemohqondaT da romelTac giorgi mTawmindeli `friadi iZulebiT~ daiTanxmes, qarTuli teqsti berZnulTan Seedarebina da Seemowmebina; gadaekeTebinos im mizniT, rom saxeli gaetexaT ufro da ndoba daekargaT Zveli redaqciebisaTvis, xolo giorgiseuli redaqcia amiT ufro aemaRlebinaT xalxis TvalSi.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

kacma rom Tqvas, am or terminSi mkvlevarTaTvis nakleb dabkolebas `sabawmiduri~ warmoadgenda, Tumca mis ganmartebaSic ar iyo sruli Tanxmoba: miuxedavad imisa, rom TiTqmis yvelani im azrisani iyvnen, rom s a b a w m i d u r i aris sabawmidaSi SemuSavebuli redaqciao, CvenebiT aravis uCvenebia mainc konkretulad, Tu romeli saxareba unda vigulisxmoT saxeldobr sabawmidur redaqciad da ras warmoadgens igi formiT da SinaarsiT, an ra gansxvavebaa masa da sxvebs Soris. raica Seexeba `xanmets~, igi xom dauZleveli termini aRmoCnda da yvelam Taviseburad gaigo igi: m. b r o s e xanmetSi komentariebs xedavda1. d. b a q r a Z e s xanmeti miaCnda saxarebis danarTad. igi mas am sityviT Targmnida: с прибавлениями, Tumca, albaT, eeWveboda aseTi gageba, rodesac kiTxvas svamda: xanmetad xom ar unda gavigoT is, rac saxarebaSi Sevida da teqsts ar ekuTvniso2? a. c a g a r e l i gamoekamaTa d. b a q r a Z e s da is azri gamoTqva, rom am terminiT unda gavigoT TiTqos sruli saxareba da ara gamokrebuli saxareba, rogoricaa TviT giorgis mier Targmnilio3. bundovani iyo am terminis mniSvneloba agreTve T. J o r d a n i a s T v i s a c , romelsac xanmeti pirvelad geografiul punqtad miaCnda, Tumca es cota eeWveboda da kiTxviT niSans usvamda4, xolo Semdeg werda: `sityva `xanmeti~ aRniSnavs friad Zvels, Tu es leqsi geografiuli saxeli ar aris~-o5. m. j a n a S v i l s `xanmeti~ z o g j e r m e t i egona da amitom rTuli sityvis nawilebi calk-calke dawera (`xan meti, xan naklebi~)6.

aRniSnul adgils igi Targmnida: `Copiez aussi convenablement les commentaires et indications de S.-Saba“ da Semdeg Tavis azrs ase xsnida: `On voit que Giorgi a traduit les quatre Evangiles sur le texte grec, en y joignant les commentaires xonmetni (?) et d’autres notes qu’ il avait trouvées dans les originaux de S/-Saba“ (XI-ème Rapp., 26). 2 `Под словом xonmetni не разумеется ли все то, что вошло в евангелие и что однако не относится к его тексту~? (Сванетия, 77) 3 Под х а н м е т и `по мнению Бакрадзе разумеется евангелие с прибавлениями; но не вернее ли будет допустить, что этим разумеется просто полное евангелие, а не только евангелие, состоящее из дневных чтений, вроде перевода самого Георгия?~ (Сведения, III gv. XXVIII-XXIX). 4 qronikebi, I, 207. 5 qronikebi, II, 173. 6 zemore moyvanili adgili, axal qarTulze rom gadmovTargmnoT, mas ase esmoda: da Tu Cveni Sroma ar `gSvendes~, daiwereT pirveliTgan wmidad, keTilad da xan metad Targmnil saxarebaTagan da sabawmidurebidamo~. merme imowmebs saekl. muzeumis (amJamad saqarTvelos muzeumis A fondis) tyavze dawerili saxarebis (357) erT minawers, sadac gadamwereli ambobs: gaZlevT saxarebasa marTalsa da ufro¡s mzisa brwyinvalesa, axlad gawmendilsa w˜isa mamisa Cvenisa mier g˜i mTawmidelisa, romelsa S˜a ara ars erTica aso mrudi da nakluli da arca meti-o, da Tavis mxriT dasZens: «marTlac-da, meaTe saukunis uwinares Targmnil saxarebaSi `metic~ bevria da `daklebulic~ ara mcire. TviT aTons naTargmnSiac ki darCenila `meti~, mag. `mociqulTa saqmis~ me-2 Tavis me-2 muxlSi gvxvdeba saxeli `uJikni~, romelic sxva erTa saxarebaSi ar moipoveba» (ganqiqeba da ganmarcvla: iveria 1899, 3 agv. 164; qarTuli mwerloba, I, 1900, gv. 114-115; Sdr. gv. 66, 112).

1

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

prof. k. k e k e l i Z e m `xanmeti~ d r o -m e t a d gaigo da mas qronologiuri mniSvneloba misca1, xolo prof. n. marma terminis pirvel nawilSi sparsuli xana2 dainaxa, romelic somxuri tun-isa3 da arabuli be¡T-is4 mniSvnelobasTan dakavSirebiT muxlad gaigo, `xanmeti~ m u x l - m e t a d axsna da scada kidec, rom aseTi axsna daesabuTebina5. arc erTi am ganmartebaTagani swori ar aris, vinaidan xanmeti, romelic ase sacilobeli gamxdara, namdvilad sul sxvasa niSnavs. am terminis gageba da uciloblad da eWv-miutanlad misi mniSvnelobis gamorkveva SesaZlebeli xdeba axlad aRmoCenil uZveles qarTul ZeglTa formebis gaTvaliswinebiT; saxeldobr: palimfsestebis saxiT Cvenamde moRweulis arabobamdeindeli literaturuli Zeglebis enas erTi ram axasiaTebs, romelic mas metad ganasxvavebs aqamomde cnobili xelnawerebis enisagan. es aris xanebis xmareba prefiqsebad sami funqciisaTvis: zmnebSi meore piris subieqtisa da mesame piris obieqtis gamosaxatavad; xolo saxelebSi zedsarTavTa SedarebiT-aRmatebiTi xarisxis sawarmoeblad. marTalia, rogorc naSTebi aseTi movlenisa, x dRevandlamdec ki gvqonda SemorCenili ramdenime sityvaSi; mag., ars da vals zmnaSi meore piris subieqtis gamosaxatavad dResac igive xania (x-ar, mi-x-val), mesame piris obieqtur prefiqsad ki xans Cven dRevandlamde erTs gavrcelebuls geografiul saxelSi vxmarobT, romelic aris xerTvisi da romelic eqvs adgilas mainc gvxvdeba saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi6; xolo SedarebiT-aRmatebiTi xarisxis warmoebisaTvis xanis xmarebis kvali SemorCenilia xuces’Si, romlis megruli Sesatyvisia uCaSi (`ufrosi~) da svanuri xoSa (`ufrosi~) da romelic Cveulebrivi normebis mixedviT unda gvqonoda am saxiT: *ucesi (← *hucesi) da ara xucesi an miT umetes uxucesi (mrCobli prefiqsiT)7. magram es mxolod mcireodeni naSTia odesRac erT kiloSi sayovelTaod gavrcelebuli movlenisa, romelmac, rogorc ukve vicodiT, bolnisis sionisa da
1 «xanmeti обозначает редакцию «более древнюю (xani + meti), чем sabawmidurni, которой она противополагается» (Иерусалимский канонарь VII века. tfilisi gv. 310). 2 ‫ ﺧﺎﻧﻪ‬saxli. 3 տուն saxli; muxli. 4 ‫ ﺑﻴﺖ‬saxli; muxli. 5 `Что же касается «ханмет», то объяснение его приходится искать в составе самих евангелий, отличавшихся излишком («мет») «хан»-ов. Различные версии евангелия, как известно, отличались одни систематическим недохватом, другие – излишком определенных стихов. «Стих» в древности, так в эпоху перевода творений Ипполита, да и потом, у грузин назывался mu£li. Позднее «стих» по-грузински гласит taepi, но так называются собственно стихи в светской поэзии; стихи св. Писания называется «домами», так у армян - տուն. В грузинском в xan в значении «стиха» имеем, пожалуй, персидское ‫« ﺧﺎﻧﻪ‬дом», употреблявшееся, судя по словарю, и в значении стиха (ср. ‫ .)ﺧﻦ‬Появление слова иранского происхождения в церковной терминологии грузин не могло бы вызвать никакого недоумения, если бы сравнительные исследования самих грузинских версий поддержали наше предположительное толкование“ (k. kekeliZis mier gamocemulis `ierus. ganCinebisa da ganwesebis~ wignis kritikaSi: Христианский Восток. I. 121). 6 a. SaniZe, naSTebi mesame piris obieqturi prefiqsis xmarebisa xmovnebis win qarT. zmnebSi (t f . u n i v . m o a m b e , II, gv. 262-281) [am tomSi gv. 267-281]. 7 akad. n. marma swored aRniSna, rom xani xuces-Si ar aris Zireuli, magram igi Secda, roca xuces-i qarTulSi svanuridan nasesxeb formad aRiara

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

mcxeTis jvris warwerebSi iCina Tavi mexuTe-meSvide saukuneebSi. es kia oRond, rom am warwerebSi xani mxolod mesame piris obieqturi prefiqsis funqciis matarebelia (meox xeyav, Sexewie, SexuabT). raica Seexeba mis or sxva funqcias, es warwerebiT damowmebuli ar aris, samagierod axlad aRmoCenil uZveles xelnawerebSi uxvad gvxvdeba igi samive funqciiT1. friad damaxasiaTebelia am ZeglebisaTvis, rom xanis xmareba TiTqmis sistemebr aris gatarebuli inian vnebiTSi2. prefiqsis xanebi aRniSnul xelnawerebSi gvxvdeba rogorc xmovnebis win, ise agreTve Tanxmovnebis winac, magram zedsarTavTa SedarebiT-aRmatebiTi xarisxis formebSi igi mxolod xmovnis win modis (x-u), xolo zmnebSi — iqac da aqac. IX-XI saukuneTa qarTuli Zeglebis enaSi am xanebis adgilas Tanxmovnebis win an hae ixmareba (mamis bgerebis win), an kidev sani da Sini (dedis bgerebis win), xolo xmovnebis win Teoriulad mosalodneli hae srulebiT dakargulia. arabobamdeindeli Zeglebis enam, piris niSnebis xmarebis TvalsazrisiT, ar icis zmnebis dayofa maTi dasawyisi bgerebis mixedviT xmovnian da Tanxmovnian fuZeebad, xolo Tanxmovnian fuZeebSi kidev mamisa da dedis bgeraTa garCeva, rogorc es aris IX-XI saukuneTa da mermindel saliteraturo enaSi, an zogierT dRevandel kiloSi; aq xmovnisa Tu Tanxmovnis win, mamis bgerisa Tu dedis bgeris win3, yvelgan da yovelTvis ori erTsaxe prefiqsis funqcias asrulebs xani. amis magaliTebs mravlad ipovis kaci prof. i v . j a v a x i S v i l i s moxsenebis bolos darTuls uZvelesi qarTuli teqstebis nimuSebSi4. aq moviyvan mxolod ramdenime adgils da, rom naTeli iyos, Tu ra arsebiTi gansxvavebaa uZvelesi werilobiTi Zeglebis formebsa da mermindeli saliteraturo enis formebs Soris, paralelurad moviyvan imave adgilebs mecxre-meaTe-meTerTmete saukuneebis Zeglebis orTografiiT.

1 prof. iv. javaxiSvili aRniSnavs (tf. univ. moambe, II, gv. 348), rom yofila agreTve SemTxveva xanis uaryofiTi u nawilakis win xmarebisa, magram xani aq analogiurad ganviTarebuli Cans, rasac amtkicebs svanur formebTan Sedareba: umCa (`uberebeli~), udgara (`ukvdavi~), utixa (`daubrunebeli~) da sxv. 2 amaze specialurad sxva dros gveqneba saubari, rodesac subieqtur-obieqturi prefiqsebis sakiTxi ganxiluli iqneba megrul-Wanur da, gansakuTrebiT, svanur masalebTan SedarebiT. exla aRvniSnav mxolod, rom inian vnebiTSi xanebis gaCenas svanuri formebi ar uWers mxars. 3 mamis bgerebi vuwode im Tanxmovnebs, romelTac IX-X-XI saukuneebisa da mermindel ZeglebSi meore piris subieqtur da mesame piris obieqtur prefiqsad hae moudis win; es Tanxmovnebia: £ y R x k g q s z S J n r l v m p b f, sul cxrameti Tanxmovani (meoce iqneboda Teoriulad h, rom am bgeriT erTi zmna mainc iwyebodes), xolo dedis bgerebi davarqvi im Tanxmovnebs, romelTa win zmnebs imave prefiqsebad haes magivrad misi bgerisnacvali sani aqvT; esenia: t d T w Z c W j C, sul cxra Tanxmovani (sami ukanasknelis win sans xandaxan Sini enacvleba). am saxelwodebaTa safuZveli is aris, rom mama sityvis Tanxmovani (m) pirvel jgufs ekuTvnis, xolo deda sityvisa (d) ki — meores (a. SaniZe, sub. prefiqsi da sxv., gv. 183). [am tomSi es nawili ar aris gadmobeWdili]. 4 «tfil. universitetis moambe», II, gv. 371-391.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

saxareba maTesi1 (VII, 1-16) V-VII ss. 1. A nu daxSjiT, ra¡Ta ara daxisajneT. 2. rameTu romliTa xSjiT, miTca xisajneT da romliTa sawyauliTa mixuwyvideT, mogewyos Tqven. 3. ra¡sa xxedav wuelsa Zmisa Senisa Tualsa da Tu[alsa Sensa di]resa ara xxedav? 4. anu viTar xety¢ Zmasa Sensa: macade da aRmogiRo wueli igi T¢aliT SeniT da aha agera dir[À] ege || AB Tualsa Sina Sensa gic3? 5. orgulo, aRmoiRe-Ra pirvelad dirÀ4 Tualisagan Senisa da maSin xixilo aRmoRebad wueli Tualisagan Zmisa Senisa. 6. [n]u mixcemT siwmidesa ZaRlTa, nuca daxudebT5 margalitsa Tquensa ra¡Ta ara winaSe RorTa6, [daT]rgunon igi fer£iTa maTiTa7 da mogeqcen8 da gangxeTqden9 Tquen. 7. xiTxovdiT da mogeces Tquen, xeZiebdiT da xpooT10, xirekdiT da gangeRos Tquen. 8. rameTu yoveli romeli xiTxovs11, miiRis12;|| B da romeli xeZiebs, povis; IX-XI 1. nu da[h]SjiT ra¡Ta ara daisajneT. 2. rameTu romliTa (h)SjiT, miTca isajneT da romliTa sawyauliTa miuwyvideT, mogewyos Tquen. 3. ra¡sa (h)xedav wuelsa Zmisa Senisa Tualsa da Tualsa Sensa diresa ara (h)xedav? 4. anu viTar ety¢ Zmasa Sensa: macade da aRmogiRo wueli TualiT SeniT da aha egera dirÀ ege Tualsa Sina Sensa gic? 5. orgulo, aRmoiRe-Ra pirvelad dirÀ Tualisagan Senisa da maSin ixilo aRmoRebad wueli Tualisagan Zmisa Senisa. 6. nu miscemT siwmidesa ZaRlTa, nuca daudebT margalitsa Tquensa winaSe RorTa, ra¡Ta ara da-Trgunon igi fer£iTa maTiTa da mogeqcen da ganxeTqden Tquen. 7. iTxovdiT da mogeces Tquen, eZiebdiT da hpooT, irekdiT da gangeRos Tqven. 8. rameTu yoveli romeli iTxovs, miiRis; da romeli eZiebs, povis; da romeli ireks, ganeRis.

es erTi adgili maTes saxarebidan ori xelnaweris mixedviTaa dabeWdili: A — saq. saist. da saeTnogr. sazog. muzeumis999 da B — Tb. universitetis siZveleTa muzeumis 844. maT Soris gansxvavebani moipoveba da aqvea naCvenebi v a r i a n t e b i : 3 Tualsa Sida gic;4 dirÀ igi;5 nuca [d]axugebT;6 -Si es sityva TiTqo mxolobiTSi unda iyos (Rorsa), rogorc momdevno zmnis formebis gaTvaliswinebiT SeiZleba ivaraudos kacma;7 ra¡Ta ara daTrgunon igi fer£iTa maTiTa] — ;8 TiTqo: mogeqces;9 [gang]xeTqdes;10 xpovoT ;11 xiTxovn;12 moiin;13 S¢lTa (?);14 TqnTa¡;15 raoden;16 xufro¡s;17 moxces;18 romelni xTxovden;19 giyun;20 winawarmetyuelni;21 Sex[¢]dodeT;22 rameTu farTo ars bWÀ da v] — (dazianebis gamo);23 migiyuanis;24 mixiyvanis;25 poon cru-winaswarmetyuelTa maTgan B.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

V-VII ss. da romeli xireks, ganxeRis. 9. xiyos-me vin Tquengani kaci, romeli (?) xTxovdes ZÀ misi pursa, qva¡ nu mixcesa mas? 10. anu Tu [sa] Tevzsa xTxovdes, gueli nu mixcesa? 11. ukueTu Tquen ukeTurTa xiciT niWisa keTilisa || AB micema¡ SvilTa maT13 TquenTa14, raodenad15 ara xufros16 mamaman Tquenman zecaTaman mogces17 keTili, romeli xTxovdes18 mas. 12. yovelive ra¡ca gnebavs, ra¡Ta giyon19 Tquen kacTa, egreca Tquen xyofdiT maTa mimarT, rameTu egre ars Sjuli da winawarmetyueli20. 13. SevidodeT21 iwrosa mas bWesa, rameTu farTo ars bWÀ da vrcel22 ars gza¡, romelman miiyuanis23 warsawymedelad, da mraval || A arian, romelni Se[v]lenan... 14. B rameTu iwro || AB ars bWÀ da wulil gza¡, romelman miiyuanis24 cxovrebad, da mcired arian, romelTa povian25 igi. 15. xekrZaleniT cru-winawarmetyvelTagan, romelni movidodian Tquenda || B samosliTa cxovarTa¡Ta, xolo Sinagan arian mgelni mtacebelni. 16. xolo nayof[isa] maTisagan xicne[T] igini (iqve, gv. 375-380).

IX-XI 9. iyos-me vin Tquengani kaci, romelsa sTxovdes ZÀ misi pursa, qva¡ nu miscesa mas? 10. anu Tu Tevzsa sTxovdes, gueli nu miscesa? 11. ukueTu Tquen ukeTurTa iciT niWisa keTilisa micema¡ SvilTa maT qvenTa, raodenad ara ufros mamaman Tquenman zecaTaman mogces keTili, romeli sTxovdes mas! 12. yovelive ra¡ca gnebavs, ra¡Ta giyon Tquen kacTa, egreca Tqven hyofdiT maTa mimarT, rameTu egre ars Sjuli da winaswarmetyueli. 13. SevidodeT iwrosa mas bWesa, rameTu farTo ars bWÀ da vrcel ars gza¡, romelman miiyvanis warsawymedelad, da mraval arian, romelni Sevlenan... 14. rameTu iwro ars bWÀ da wulil gza¡, romelman miiyvanis cxovrebad, da mcired arian, romelTa povian igi. 15. ekrZaleniT cru-winawarmetyuelTagan, romelni movidodian Tquenda samosliTa cxovarTa¡Ta, xolo Sinagan arian mgelni mtacebelni. 16. xolo nayofisa maTisagan icnneT igini.

saxareba markozisi (IX, 46) V-VII ss. 17. amoiRe igi. xumjobÀs ars Senda erTiTa TualiTa Seslvad sasufevelsa RmrTisasa vidre oriTa TualiTa da STagdebad geheniasa. (iqve, gv. 381). IX-XI ss. 17. amoiRe igi. umjobÀs ars Senda erTiTa TualiTa Seslvad sasufevelsa RmrTisasa vidre oriTa TualiTa da STagdebad geheniasa.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

saxareba lukasi (II, 18-19) V-VII ss. 18. da romelTa xesmoda, xuk¢rda sityua¡ igi mwyemsTa¡ maT [m]aTa mimarT. 19. xolo mariams daxemarxnes sityuani ese da daxedva gulsa T¢ssa (iqve, gv. 382). IX-XI ss. 18. da romelTa esmoda, uk¢rda sityua¡ igi mwyemsTa¡ maT maTa mimarT. 19. xolo mariams daemarxnes sityuani ese da daedva gulsa T¢ssa.

saxareba iovanesi (XXI, 10-11) V-VII ss. 10. xrqua mas iesu: moiReT TevzTa magaTgani, romeli xipyarT aw. 11. gamovida simon-petre da gamoxiTrevda badesa mas qveyanad [savsesa] did-didiTa TevziTa (iqve, gv. 388). IX-XI ss. 10. hrqua mas iesu: moiReT TevzTa magaTgani, romeli ipyarT aw. 11. gamovida simon-petre da gamoiTrevda badesa mas qveyanad savsesa did-didiTa TevziTa.

moyvanili formebis SedarebiT cxadi xdeba, rom uZvelesi Zeglebis enasa da giorgi mTawmidlis samwerlo enas Soris gansxvavebas umTavresad prefiqsuli xanebi qmnis: iq, sadac uZveles xelnawerebSi xania, giorgi mTawmindlis enaze an hae aris (mamis bgerebis win), an ara da sani da Sini (dedis bgerebis win), an kidev sul araferi (xmovnebis win). gansakuTrebiT didia es gansxvaveba xmovnebisa da dedis Tanxmovnebis win. Tavisi drois saliteraturo Zeglebze skola gavlil giorgi mTawmidels ar SeiZleba TvalSi ar scemoda Zveli teqstebis xanebi da yurSi ucnaurad da metad uCveulod ar mohsmoda gamoTqma xaniani formebisa, sadac xani misTvis, ra Tqma unda, zedmeti iyo. zedmeti iyo igi ara Tu giorgisa da misi drois literatorTaTvis, aramed ufro adrec, mecxre da meaTe saukuneebis mweralTaTvisac, romelTac, albaT, saSinlad eCoTirebodaT xaniani formebi. marTlac, rogorc gviCvenebs ena sinaraiTis mamaTa mosrvisa, romelic gamocemulia uZvelesi qarTuli TariRiani xelnaweris mixedviT (saxeldobr, sinas mTaze daculi 864 wlis mravalTavidan)1, ukve mecxre saukuneSi yofila ukugdebuli xanis xmareba prefiqsebad. da Tu jer kidev mecxre saukuneSi iyo uaryofili xaniani formebi salitera1 k. kekeliZe, qarTuli hagiografiuli Zeglebi, nawili pirveli. kimeni. I. tfilisi 1918, gv. 28-44.

52

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

turo enaSi saxmareblad, miT umetes dasawuni da uarsayofi unda yofiliyo igi meTerTmete saukuneSi, giorgi mTawmidlis moRvaweobis dros. raki uZvelesi teqstebis xan TavsarTebi zedmeti iyo mecxre-meaTe-meTerTmete saukuneebis qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebis mixedviT, romlebzedac aRzrdili iyo giorgi mTawmideli, amitom gasagebia, rom am gamoCenil mwerals maTTvis saxelad xanmeti ewodebina1. ai es aris namdvili mniSvneloba am terminisa, romlebic amden xans ase gaugebari iyo. amitom, rodesac giorgi mTawmindeli Tavis saxarebis anderZSi ambobs: `Cuenni yovelni saxarebani pirveliTgan wmidad Targmnilnia da keTilad, x a n m e t n i c a da s a b a w m i d u r n i c a ~ - o , es imas niSnavs, rom y v e l a C v e n i s a x a r e b a p i r v e l i T g a n wmidad da kargad aris Targmnili, isinic, romlebSic zedmeti xanebi moipoveba, da isinic, romlebic sabawmidurebi ariano. romelia saxeldobr giorgi mTawmidlis mier moxsenebuli sabawmiduri im saxarebaTa calebSi, romelTac Cvenamde mouRweviaT giorgis wina droindeli xanidan, amis Tqma jerjerobiT gadaWriT ar SemiZlia, magram is ki cxadze ucxadesia, rom giorgi mTawmidlis mier dasaxelebul oTxTavis xanmet redaqciad unda vigulisxmoT uTuod prof. i v . j a v a x i S v i l i s mier palimfsestebSi aRmoCenili uZvelesi teqsti saxarebisa, romelsac xanis `zedmeti~ xmareba axasiaTebs prefiqsebis saxiT. maSasadame, giorgi mTawmidlis saxarebis anderZSi Cven mogvepoveba Zvirfasi cnoba uZvelesi qarTuli literaturuli Zeglebis Sesaxeb da maTi enis sxartuli daxasiaTeba.

haemetoba adiSis saxarebaSi2 uZvelesi qarTuli xelnawerebis aRmoCenam mravali sakiTxi wamoayena da erTbaSad waswia win Cveni istoriisa, literaturisa, enisa da paleografiis Seswavlis saqme. CamoTvlili samecniero dargebis muSakTa Soris am ambavma gamoiwvia cxoveli azrTa gacvla-gamocvla da zogierT Zvel debulebaTa da SexedulebaTa safuZvliani gadasinjva3. marTali iyo Cemi korespondenti, romelic ruseTSi myofs mwerda, rom qarTul filologiaSi revolucia xdebao.
1 misaRebia prof. iv. javaxiSvilis mier am moxsenebis wakiTxvis Semdeg gamarTuli sjabaasis dros gamoTqmuli mosazreba, rom xanmeti, rogorc termini albaT giorgi mTawmidelze adrec unda yofiliyo xmarebuli uZvelesi qarTuli teqstebis aRsaniSnavad. 2 wakiTxulia moxsenebad qarTuli saenaTmecniero sazogadoebis sxdomaze 28 maiss 1923 wels. 3 qarTuli enis ganviTarebis istoria (sazogadod da, kerZod, prefiqsebis xmarebis mxriv) me ise ara maqvs warmodgenili, rogorc es prof. iv. javaxiSvilis moxsenebaSia mocemuli (naxe misi `axlad aRmoCenili uZvelesi qarTuli xelTnawerebi da maTi mniSvneloba mecnierebisaTvis“: «tf. universitetis moambe», II, gv. 365-367). jer kidev mravali ramea gamosarkvevi, romelic exeba kiloebis teritorialur gavrcelebas da

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

am revoluciis erTi etapTagania saqarTvelos saistorio da saeTnografio sazogadoebis muzeumis erTi palimfsestis amotivtiveba (xelnaweri 1329), romelic gansakuTrebiT Zvirfasia da sayuradRebo imitom, rom igi jerjerobiT TiTqmis ganmartoebiT dgas enis formebis mxriT. aRniSnuli palimfsesti jer qimiurad damuSavebuli da Zveli teqsti gacxovelebuli ar aris, magram ise amokiTxuli ramdenime adgili mainc sakmao sabuTs gvaZlevs, gaviTvaliswinoT misi didi mniSvneloba da jerovnad davafasoT igi. am Zeglis enaze dawvrilebiT axlo momavalSi meqneba saubari. exla ki oriode sityviT movWri: rogorc Cans, Zveli teqsti, daaxlovebiT merve saukunisa, warmoadgens nawyvetebs `ierusalimis ganCinebis da ganwesebis~ wignidan, romelSic moyvanili yofila sakiTxavebi saxarebidan. ena am Zeglisa imiT aris sayuradRebo, rom Sig meore piris subieqturisa da mesame piris obieqturi prefiqsis gamosaxatavad ixmareba ara xani, aramed hae, romelic (yovelTvis ara, magram xSirad) xmovnebis winac ki Senaxulia: hicode, mihugo, hubrZana, dahuteva, hTnda, dahTesi, e. i. ixmareba iseTi formebi, romelTa mixedviT SeiZleba am Zeglis enas (da agreTve msgavsi movleniT daxasiaTebul sxva Zeglebis enasac, Tu ki aseTebi aRmoCndeba) haemeti vuwodoT, giorgi mTawmidlis xanmetis analogiiT. gansakuTrebiT unda aRiniSnos, rom am haemet ZeglSic inian vnebiTSi hae gvxvdeba imgvaradve, rogorc xanmet teqstebSi xani: hiyo || xiyo. unda aRiniSnos erTi sayuradRebo garemoeba: aRniSnuli palimfsestis enas ramdenadme mxars uWers adiSis saxarebac1, romelic, rogorc sabolood gamoarkvia prof. k. k e k e l i Z e m , gadawerilia mecxre saukunis dasasruls, vinaidan mis TariRebSi araviTari winaaRmdegoba ar aris, — samiveni (soflis dasabamiTgan, qristesiT da qarTuli qronikoniT) erTurTs udgebian da yvelani 897 wels gvaZleven2. es 897 wels SatberdSi gadawerili da adiSSi daculi saxareba3, rogorc exla irkveva, gadawerili yofila haemeti dednidan, radganac gadamwerels ramdenime SemTxvevaSi uneburad hae gahparvia xmovnebis win4. es darCenili kvali haes `zedmetad~ xmarebisa bevr rasme amJRavnebs. vidre xmovnebze gadavidode, unda Sevexo haes xmarebas Tanxmovnebis win, radganac haemetobis niSnebi aqac aris.

dajgufebas Zvel saqarTveloSi, maTs erTurTze gavlenasa da monawileobis miRebas saliteraturo enis SeqmnaSi, razedac sxva dros gveqneba saubari. 1 rodesac es werili daiwera (1923), maSin adiSis oTxTavi gamocemuli iyo fototipiurad: Материалы по археологии Кавказа. т. XII. Москва 1916. amJamad igi gamocemulia stamburadac: qarTuli oTxTavis ori Zveli redaqcia sami Satberduli xelnaweris mixedviT~ (= Zveli qarTuli enis Zeglebi, 2), 1945. 2 k. kekeliZe, rodisaa gadawerili adiSis saxareba (tf. u n i v e r s i t e t i s m o a m b e , II, gv. 393-397). 3 sofelia svaneTSi (svanurad hadiS iTqmis). 4 saeWvoa, rom dedani ki ara, aramed TviT gadamweri yofiliyos haemeti kilos warmomadgeneli.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

adiSis saxarebaSi ori erTsaxe prefiqsis aRsaniSnavad haes xmareba marto m a m i s TanxmovnebiT ki ar aris gansazRvruli, aramed igi ixmareba agreTve d e d i s Tanxmovnebis winac, Tumca aq SemTxveva misi xmarebisa mainc da mainc xSiri ar aris — aq ufro saqme gvaqvs Zveli movlenis naSTTan, vidre cocxali ramis sistemebr xmarebasTan. ai magaliTebi: da £¢rTiTa hcemdes da romelnime yurimalsa scemdes da etyodes (maTe 26, 67); ra¡saT¢s mez¢ereTa Tana da codvilTa hWamT da hsuamT (mark. 2, 16); da nayofi ara gamohca (mark. 4, 7); rameTu romliTa sawyauliTa hwyvideT, miTve mogewyos Tquen (mark. 4, 24); da verca puris Wamad hcaln (mark. 6, 31); xolo Tquen hTq¢T (mark. 7, 11); rameTu aRdgen cru-qristeni da cruwinawarmetyuelni da hcen saswauleb da niSeb sacTunebelad (mark. 13, 22); ra¡Ta hWamo zatiki igi (mark. 14, 12); ganhZarc¢es Zoweuli igi da Sehmoses mas samoseli T¢si (mark. 15, 20); rameTu warhZRue winaSe pirsa uflisasa (luka 1, 76); xolo mowafÀni misni mohWrides Tavsa £oilisasa (luka 6, 1); ra¡ hWamoT (luka 12, 22; 12, 29); romelni SehWamen saxlsa qurivTasa (luka 20, 47); rameTu hWameT purisa misgan da gansZeRiT (iovane 6, 26); ara Tu hWamoT £orci Zisa kacisa¡ (iovane 6, 53); hwyuris Tu visme, movedin Cemda (ioane 7, 37); Tqven hwuxdeT, xolo mwuxareba¡ Tqueni sixarulad geqmnes (iovane, 16, 20). aris SemTxvevebi, roca hae prefiqss Tan axlavs sanic imave dedis bgerebis win, e. i. SemTxvevebi, rodesac asimilaciis procesi jer ar dasrulebula, aramed gardamaval safexurze dgas. ai magaliTebi: ese miu£da pilates da mohsTxovna £orcni igi iesu¡sni (maTe 27, 58); aha leR¢ igi, romelsa hswyeve, gan£ma (mark. 11, 21); Tayuanis-hsces mas (luka 24, 52); da nugeSinis-hscemdes mas (iovane 11, 31). kacma rom Tqvas, dedis Tanxmovnebis win haes xmareba prefiqsebad marto adiSis saxarebaSi rodi gvxvdeba. aris SemTxvevebi misi xmarebisa mermindel ZeglebSic, rogoricaa aTonisa da tbeTis saxareba, aTonis dabadeba, iovane bolnelis qadagebani da sxva, magaliTad: aRhwio, Tay˜nis-hca, Tavyuanishcemed, warmohca, mohWamden, dahdva, romlebic moyvanilia ukve Cems gamokvlevaSi prefiqsebis Sesaxeb1, magram es movlena iq moqceulia sxva anomaliebs Soris da amiT daCrdilulia misi mniSvneloba, maSin rodesac gansakuTrebuli adgili unda eWiros, rogorc naSTebs im droidan, rodesac yvelgan hae yofila S2-adac da O3-adac xmovnebisa Tu Tanxmovnebis win, mamis bgerebisa Tu dedis bgerebis win. gansakuTrebiT xSiria mermindel (IX-XI sauk.) ZeglebSi dedis bgeraTa win gardamaval safexurze (srul asimilaciamde) mdgomi movlenebi, rodesac haes Tumca mTlad ar unda hqonoda dakarguli Tavisi bgeriTi saxe, magram imdenad unda yofiliyo daaxlovebuli gamoTqmis mxriT sanTan, rom am axali bgeris gamosaxatavad erTi sagangebo niSnis magivrad

1 a. SaniZe, subieqturi prefiqsi meore pirisa da obieqturi prefiqsi mesame pirisa qarTul zmnebSi, §53 [am tomSi gv. 211-212].

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

ori uxmariaT (hs)1. swored ase unda gavigoT exla hs jgufis warmoSoba dedis bgerebiT dawyebul zmnebSi: hsca, hstirT, mihsdevda, hsTnda, hsTqu, hsTxovdes, hsZinavs, SehsZina, dahscxa da misTanani2, romlebic meaTe saukunisa da mermindel ZeglebSic ki xSirad gvxvdeba3. ra Tqma unda, adiSis saxarebaSi sruli asimilaciis SemTxvevebi gacilebiT ufro xSiria, vidre nawilobrivisa anu sruli gadarCenisa asimilaciisagan, magram aseTi SemTxvevebi Cveulebrivia rogorc am saxarebaSi, ise mermindel ZeglebSi da amitom magaliTebis moyvana zedmetad mimaCnia. adiSis saxareba gansakuTrebiT imiT aris Zvirfasi, rom mas Semounaxavs ramdenime magaliTi meore piris subieqturisa da mesame piris obieqturi prefiqsis xmarebisa xmovnebis win haes saxiT. mcirea am SemTxvevaTa ricxvi, magram didia maTi mniSvneloba qarTuli saliteraturo enis ganviTarebis etapebisa da qarTuli istoriuli dialeqtologiis sakiTxebis gamorkvevisaTvis. amitom saWirod mimaCnia, CamovTvalo yvela isini da TiTo-orola paralelic movuyvano maT sxva adgilebidan imave formebis uprefiqsod xmarebisa, raTa naTlad iyos gaTvaliswinebuli, rom haes xmareba aq ufro tradiciaze damyarebuli da SemTxveviTi movlenaa, vidre normaluri da Cveulebrivi. 1. da ara Tav-huyos mamasa T¢ssa (maTe 15, 6). es erTad-erTi magaliTia am rTuli zmnis haeTi xmarebisa, sxvagan ki hae yvelgan dakargulia. Sdr.: Tavuyav mamasa da dedasa (maTe 15, 4); Tauyav mamasa Sensa da dedasa (maTe 19, 19); Tav-uyav mamasa Sensa da dedasa Sensa (markoz. 7, 10). ukanaskneli sami magaliTi brZanebiTis formebs warmoadgens, magram, radganac zmnas micemiTis damateba moepoveba, prefiqsi mesame pirisa Teoriulad yvelgan unda vigulisxmoT, maSasadame, aqac; faqtiurad ki gadarCenilia mxolod erT magaliTSi, romelic TavSia moyvanili. 2. arc me giTxra Tquen, romliTa £elmwifebiTa (a)mas h¢qm (maTe 21, 27). amas SeiZleba davupirispiroT, magaliTad, Semdegi adgili markozidan: arca me giTxra Tquen, romliTa £elmwifebiTa viqm amas (mark. 11, 33), maSasadame, aq gvaqvs Cven paraleluri formebi: viqm da h¢qm; erTSi ar aris obieqturi prefiqsi mesame pirisa, meoreSi ki aris. h¢qm formaSi hae gadmosulia vinis win, romelic Semdeg umarcvlo unad (ubrjgud) qceula da inTan SeerTebiT ¢ moucia: *vhiqm → *hviqm → *huiqm → *h¢qm. 3. Tquen nu hirquamT TavTa TquenTa moZRuars, rameTu erT ars Tqueni moZRuari (maTe 23, 8). hirquamT formaSi hae SeiZleba orgvarad gavigoT: an rogorc subieqturi prefqsi meore pirisa, an kidev rogorc obieqturi mesame pirisa, radganac am formaSi orive piria gamoxatuli. yovel SemTxvevaSi hae mosalodnelia, magram igi ar aris dadasturebuli meore
zogierT Tanamedrove kiloze (qarTlurze, fSaurze) dakvirveba gvafiqrebinebs, rom hae asoTi gamoxatuli bgera ¡ bgerisaken unda yofiliyo gadaxrili xmovnebsa da dedis bgerebs Soris. 2 iqve, §49, gv. 106-112 (am tomSi gv. 198-203). 3 anton kaTalikozis ukiduresi gadaWarbeba, rasakvirvelia, mxedvelobaSi misaRebi ar aris.
1

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

msgavs SemTxvevaSi cota qvemoT: da moZR¢ar(s) nu irquamT TavTa TquenTa, rameTu erT ars moZRuari Tqueni qristÀ (maTe 23, 10). 4, 5. ucxo viyav me da SemiwynareT me; SiS¢el h¢yav da SemmoseT me; sneul viyav da momxedeT me; sapyrobiles h¢yav da moxuediT Cemda (maTe 25, 35-36). aq sainteresoa is garemoeba, rom jer viyav aris naxmari, Semdeg h¢yav mosdevs, merme isev viyav aris da bolos kvlav h¢yav sweria, e. i. orjer h¢yav aris da orjerac viyav. `viyav~ vnebiTi formaa zmnisa, romelsac moqmedebiTSi micemiTis damateba ar moepoveba, amitom arc vnebiTSi aqvs igi da, maSasadame, arc obieqturi prefiqsia mosalodneli. magram xanmet teqstebSic Cveulebrivia xiyo (da ara iyo) da haemet xelnawerSic (1239) hiyo forma ikiTxeba. amitom pirvel pirSi bunebrivia h¢yav formis miReba, sadac haesa da vins erTimeorisaTvis adgilebi gaucvliaT, rasac Sedegad mohyolia fonetikuri cvlileba vinisa: *vhiyav → *hviyav → *huiyav →*h¢yav. 6. xolo herode hemtera mas da unda moklva¡ misi (markoz 6, 19). aq erTi Secdoma mohsvlia gadamwers: mas herodia unda daewera da SecdomiT herode duweria. Tu am Secdomas gavasworebT, maSin moyvanili adgili aseT saxes miiRebs: xolo herodia h e m t e r a mas da unda moklva¡ misi. zmnas micemiTis damateba aqvs da Sesaferisi obieqturi niSanic moepoveba xmovnis win, ra Tqma unda, rogorc naSTi. 7. xolo gety¢ Tquen, rameTuÀlia movida da huyves mas raodenica unda, viTarca weril ars misT¢s (mark. 9, 13). mSvenieri magaliTia haes Senaxvisa xmovnis win, magram aba SevadaroT amas Semdegi winadadeba: xolo igini aRivsnes mankierebiTa da zraxvides urTierTas, ukueTumca u y v e s ra¡ iesus (luka 6, 11). 8. sityuasa mas romelsa huetyode, man dasajos igi dResa mas ukuana¡sknelsa (iovane 12, 48). huetyode sityvaSi, romelic Cven gvainteresebs, eni gamohrCenia gadamwers da Tavze dauweria Semdeg, magram hae ki Tavidanve kargad gamouyvania. aqac iseTive magaliTi gvaqvs subieqtur-obieqturi prefiqsebis adgilis gacvla-gamocvlisa, rogorc zemoT h¢qm da h¢yav formebSi: *vhetyode → *hvetyode → huetyode. 9, 10. dges mun msaxurni igi da monani da egzna, rameTu yinel iyo, da hikusodes. dga maT Tana petreca da hikusoda (iovane 18, 18). haeTi mxolod aq aris es zmna naxmari, sxvagan ki hae ar aris: da simon-petre dga mun da i k u s o d a (iovane 18, 25); dajda igi msaxurTa Tana da i k u s v o d a mgzebelsa mas (markoz 14, 54); saxarebis sxva redaqciebSi am adgilebSi ikiTxeba: tfeboda, tfebodes, romlis sinonimebia hikusoda (an ikusoda, ikusvoda) da hikusodes. Tavisi formiT es zmna vnebiTia da amitom hae aqac iseTive warmoSobisaa, rogorisac hiyo da h¢yav formebSi.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

11. hevedrebodes pilates, ra¡Ta damusrnen1 w¢vni maTni da aRixunen (iovane 19, 31). Sdr.: da e v e d r e b o d e s mas, ra¡Ta Se- xolo-axon fesusa samoslisa misisasa; da romelTa Seaxes, cxondes (maTe 14, 36); e v e d r e b o d a mas da etyoda (luka 5, 12) da sxv. maSasadame, adiSis saxarebaSi sul aris TerTmeti SemTxveva haes prefiqsad xmarebisa xmovnebis win: Tav-huyos, h¢qm, nu hirquamT, h¢yav (orjer), hemtera, huyves, huetyode, hikusodes, hikusoda da hevedrebodes. amaTan mxolod erT formaSi SeiZleba gagebul iqnes h meore piris subieqtur niSnad (nu hirquamT), da isic saegebiod, radganac zmnas damatebac aqvs micemiTSi, danarCen SemTxvevebSi ki igi yovelgan mesame piris obieqturi niSania. es obieqturi niSani gansakuTrebiT naTelia Semdeg formebSi: Tav-huyos, h¢qm, hemtera, huyves, huetyode da hevedrebodes. raica Seexeba haes gaCenas vnebiTis warmoebaSi (h¢yav, hikusoda, hikusodes), es calkea gansaxilveli, rom gamoirkves sazogadod, moepoveba obieqtur prefiqss inian vnebiTSi sxva raime safuZveli, Tu aq ubralo analogiasTan gvaqvs saqme.

[tfilisis universitetis moambe. II. (1922-1923), gv. 399-424]

1

xelnawerSi `damosrnen~ ikiTxeba.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

arnold Ciqobava

xanmeti da haemeti teqstebis aRmoCenisaTvis
1923 weli gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis mqonea qarTvelTmetyvelebisaTvis. qarTuli mwerlobis xniereba TvalsaCinod gaizarda, qarTuli enaTmecnierebis win axal problemaTa wyeba gadaiSala, da zogi Zveli sakiTxi da misi gadawyveta axali gaSuqebiT mogvevlina. saqme exeba egreT wodebul xanmet da haemet teqstebs: igini daculia palimfsestebSi; pirvelTa aRmoCena ekuTvnis prof. i v . j a v a x i S v i l s , meorisa ki — prof. a k . S a n i Z e s . jer kidev 1920 wels Tavis gamokvlevaSi `prefiqsebi qarTuls zmnebSi~ prof. ak. SaniZem qaruli zmnis struqturis erTi ZiriTadi da rTuli Tavisebureba gaaSuqa. sakmao zedmiwevnilobiT gamoirkva, rom: 1) `Zvels saliteraturo qarTulSi (igulisxmeba me-X-XI s. samw. ena (a. C.) mesame piris damatebis aRsaniSnavad micemiT damatebian zmnas aqvs prefiqsi, romlis bgeriTi saxe sxvadasxva fonetikuri pirobebis mixedviT aris h(—) || s(S) (ix. `pref. qarT. zmn.~ gv. 83) da 2) imave Zvel saliteraturo qarTulSi meore piris sub¡eqtis gamosaxatavad zmnas aqvs iseTive prefiqsi: h(—) || s (S), ese igi: ob¡eqturi prefiqsi mesame pirisa micemiT damatebian zmnebSi fonetikurad igivea, rac sub¡eqturi prefiqsi meore pirisa sazogadod. orsave SemTxvevaSi am prefiqsis ZiriTadi saxe aris hae; — xmovnis win igi sruliad ikargvis, xolo TanxmovanTa erTi kategoriis e. w. mamis bgerebis win (£, y, R, x, k, g, q, s, z, S, J, n, r, l, v, m, p, b, f) mas Tavisi saxe SenarCunebuli aqvs, e. w. dedis bgerebis win (t, d, T, w, Z, c, j, W, C) asimilaciis gamo gvevlineba sanis an Sinis saxiT. prof. a. SaniZis imave gamokvlevaSi gaTvaliswinebuli iyo agreTve am prefiqsis viTareba kiloebSi: prefiqsis ZiriTad saxeebs da maT variaciebs kiloebma Sehmates: ¡, x, R, z, t. yuradReba miaqcia mkvlevarma formebs: `xar, xual~; maT Sesaxeb igi wers: `xani, rogorc sub¡eqturi prefiqsi meore pirisa (zmnebSi: `xar, xual~) ZiriTadi kilos kuTvnileba ar aris; igi nasesxebi unda iyos romeliRac sxva kilosagan, romelsac xanis prefiqsad xmareba axasiaTebda albaT ara marto or zmnaSi, aramed sxva zmnebis uRvlilebaSiac, sazogadod~ (Op. cit. gv. 130). manve aRniSna, rom mcxeTis jvris saydris da bolnisis sionis warwerebSi rom gvxvdeba formebi: 1) meox xeyav (jvris sayd.) 2) Sexewie da 3) SexuabT (ori ukanaskn. bolnis.), — amaTSi mocemulia naSTis saxiT xani, rogorc obieqturi prefiqsi mesame pirisa (xmovnis win). (ix. `naSTebi mesame piris ob¡eqt. prefiq. xmarebisa xmovnebis win: tf. u n i v e r s . m o a m b e , t. II, gv. 262-281). imave werilSi avtorma mogvca `xerTvis~ sityvis etimologiuri analizi da xani miiCnia agreTve ob¡eqtur prefiqsad (x-erTvis: igi mas...). 59

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

`yvela es formebi: xar, xerTvis, xeyav, Sexewie da SexuabT erTimeores mxars uWeren da amJRavneben, rom erTsa da imave dialeqtur wres an kilos ekuTvniano~, werda prof. a. S a n i Z e 1922 wels (ix. zemoxsen. werili: t f . u n i v . m o a m b e , t. II, gv, 281). ramodenisame Tvis Semdeg ki 1923 wlis damdegs prof. iv. j a v a x i S v i l m a aRmoaCina palifmsestebis rigi, sadac am xanis xmarebas ukve sistemuri xasiaTi aqvs, xolo imave gazafxulSi palimfsestebis reviziisas prof. a. S a n i Z e waawyda haemetobiT daxasiaTebul erT Zegls1. termini `xanmeti~, `haemeti~ saliteraturo qarTulis TvalsazrisiT am Zeglebis dafasebis nayofia. prefiqsuli xani Tundac mecxre-meaTe saukunis samwerlobo qarTulis TvalsazrisiT uadgiloa, `metia~ agreTve haec SemTxvevaTa mTels rigSi: xmovnebis, `dedis~ bgerebis win da sxv. (ix. qv.). `xanmeti~ — terminiT jer kidev meTerTmete saukuneSi g i o r g i m T a w m i n d e l i aRniSnavda iseT Zeglebs, rogorebic prof. iv. j a v a x i S v i l m a aRmoaCina; es pirvelad gamoarkvia prof. a. S a n i Z e m (ix. misi literaturuli cnoba axlad aRmoCenili uZvelesi qarTuli teqstebis Sesaxeb meTerTmete saukuneSi~: t f . u n i v e r s . m o a m b e , t. II, gv. 398 Smd.). mogvyavs xanmeti da haemeti teqstebis nimuSebi: I x a n m e t i : ...no¢ o¢ko¢e xzro¢navT da xity¢T ra¡ vWamoT. ano¢ ra¡ eso¢aT. ano¢ ra¡ SevimosoT, r(a¡meTu) amas yovelsa warmarTni xeZiebed (t f . u n i v . m o a m b e , t. II, gv. 375). ...o¢ko¢eTo¢ ara xisminoT Cemi... ara aRxiRoT t¢rTi da Sex¢dodiT bWeTa i(erusale¡)misaTa dResa SabaTTasa aRxo¢agzne cecxli bWeTa (iqve, gv. 373). ...sada igi matli maTi ara daxesro¢lebis da cecxli ara daxeSrtebis r(a¡meTu) y(ove)li cecxliTa daximarilos (iqve, gv. 381). ...raodenad xo¢fros mamaman Tqo¢enman zecaTaman mogces keTili (iqve, gv. 377)... xo¢mjobes ars Senda erTiTa To¢aliTa Seslvad saso¢fevelsa (iqve, gv. 381). II haemeti: da moiRo S¢di igi po¢ri da hmadlobda da gantexa da mihscemda mowafeTa misTa r(a¡T)a daho¢gon. x(olo) maT daho¢ges ersa mas da haqo¢nda Tevzi mci(r)ed da igic ako¢rTxa da ho¢brZana maT (tf. univ. moambe, t. III, gv. 379). da aRvida maT Tana navsa da dahcxra qari igi da ho¢met(e¡)sad daho¢k¢rdeboda mowafeTa misTa (i q v e , 378). ...Sevida sada igi hidva mko¢dari... (i q v e , gv. 377). ...ho¢mjob(e¡)s ars Senda... (i q v e , gv. 370)2. xanmet da haemet Zeglebs prefiqsis xmarebaSi mecxre-meaTe saukunis ZeglebTan SedarebiT Semdegi ram axasiaTebs:
a. SaniZem aRniSna haemetobis naSTebi adiSis saxarebaSi (ix. misi `haemetoba adiSis saxarebaSi~). 2 warmoudgeneli teqnikuri siduxWiris gamo qaragmebiani sityvebi iZulebuli gavxdiT srulad dagvewera: aseT SemTxvevaSi frCxilebSia Casmuli saTanado nawili; frCxilebSi moqceuli e¡ (e¡) kidev imave mizeziT merve enis aRniSvnis movaleobas kisrulobs!
1

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

1. prefiqsi aq erTi saxisaa: xani — xanmetSi, hae — haemetSi; momdevno bgerasTan asimilacias adgili ara aqvs, — maSin, rodesac mecxre-meaTe saukunis ZeglebSi prefiqsis ZiriTadi saxe hae san — Sinadac aris warmodgenili (ix. zemoT). 2. xmovnebis win ara marto xani, aramed haec Senaxulia1, — mecxre-meaTe saukunis ZeglebSi xmovnebis win hae ikargvis. 3. rogorc xani, ise hae prefiqsebis saxiT gvevlinebian vnebiTi gvaris zmnebSi; — amas mecxre-meaTe saukunis ZeglebSi adgili ara aqvs (amis Sesaxeb ix. qvemoT). 4. xani — xanmetebSi, hae — haemetebSi win daerTvis xarisxis aRmniSvnel uns zedsarTav saxelebSi; mecxre-meaTe saukunis ZeglebSi aseT SemTxvevaSi mxolod uni gvaqvs: amgvarad: xans — xanmetSi, haes — haemetSi iwves: 1. damateba mas, maT: O3; 2. qvemdebare Sen, Tquen: S2; 3. vnebiTi gvaris zmnis yvela piri da 4. SedarebiTi xarisxi zedsarTavi saxelebisa. ukanasknel ors SemTxvevaSi mecxre-meaTe saukunis qarTuls prefiqsi ara aqvs; es garemoeba fonetikur niadagze aixsneba; SedarebiTi xarisxis formanti TavSi unia; vnebiTis mwarmoebeli ki ini da eni (ipova, daiwera, ikla; epova, daewera, ekla...); cxadia, haemetis hae-prefiqsi aq xmovnebis win iseve daikargeboda, rogorc ikargeba igi xmovnebis win, roca meore piris sub¡eqtur an mesame piris ob¡eqtur prefiqsad gvevlineba. ase rom xanmetis xanisa da haemetis haes funqciaTa siWarbe meaTe saukunis sinamdvileSi SedarebiT mxolod moCvenebiTia: xmovnebis win rom hae-prefiqsi ar dakarguliyo, meaTe saukuneSi prefiqsi hae oTxsave zemoxsenebul SemTxvevaSi gveqneboda. morfologiuri struqtura ar Secvlila; gansxvavebuloba fonetikurma momentma gamoiwvia. zogierTi SeniSvnebi am gansxvavebuli saxeobisaTvis SedarebiTi xarisxis warmoebisas x || h-es xmarebis garkveva xanmetSi — dakavSirebulia am xarisxis mwarmoebeli formantebis genezisis garkvevasTan. SeiZleba Tavkiduri xu || hu mesame piris nacvalsaxelis formamdi adiodes; daboloebaSi ki naTesaobiTi brunvis daboloeba gvqondes; maSin SedarebiTi xarisxis forma iqneboda sinTeturi mTlianoba, romlis erTi elementi, — Tavkiduri — igi-s azrs atarebda, daboloeba ki aRniSnavda rasTan SedarebiT iyo igi meti `qvalitaturobis~ matarebeli2. es yvelaferi hipoTeturia da saegebiso, ufro sarwmunod ki migvaCnia Semdegi: SedarebiTi xarisxis TavkidurSi gamoyenebuli Ziri unda iyos organulad dakavSirebuli an identuri im elementTan, romelic prefiqsad aris gamoyenebuli zmnebSi (O3 da S2); maTi bedis erTnairoba gvafiqrebinebs amas, magram TviT am formantis genezisi amJamad Cven ar gvainteresebs. amitomac maze aq ar SevCerdebiT.
1 aqve unda SevniSnoT, rom hae haemetSi xSirad ikargvis xmovnebis win; es `uwesoba~ aaSkaravebs, rom aRmoCenili haemeti Zegli im xanisaa, roca haes xmareba ukve Seirya; mzaddeba niadagi Semdegi drois samwerlobo formebisaTvis. ufro dawvrilebiT amis Sesaxeb ix. a. SaniZe: `haemeti teqstebi da maTi mniSvneloba qarTuli enis istoriisaTvis~: t f . u n i v e r s i t e t i s m o a m b e , t. III, gv. 354-363. 2 Sdr. megruli konstruqcia: jaSi umaRalaSi, quaSi umangaraSi — `xisa umaRlesi~, `qvisa umagresi~.

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vnebiTi gvaris zmnis x || h-esaTvis saWiroa SevniSnoT Semdegi: zmnaSi x || h-es iwvevs an qvemdebare Sen, Tquen, an damateba — mas, maT, — e. i. igi aris an sub¡eqturi prefiqsi meore pirisa, an ob¡eqturi mesamisa. sakiTxavia vnebiTis xani sub¡eqturia Tu ob¡eqturi? rogorc xanmetSi — xani, ise haemetSi — hae yvela pirebSi gvxvdeba; es gvaiZulebs davaskvnaT, rom igi sub¡eqturi prefiqsi ar unda iyos: TviT svanurSi, sadac xan — sub¡eqturi prefiqsis saxiTac gvevlineba, mas adgili aqvs pirvelsa da meore pirSi, magram mesame pirSi — ara: mi xuari, si xari, eja ari... axlad aRmoCenil ZeglebSi x || h prefiqsi vnebiTi gvaris zmnebSi mesame pirSiac gvxvdeba: xiyo, xiyo¢nes... xipova... aq prefiqsis sub¡eqturoba gamoricxulia; gvrCeba meore SesaZlebloba: x || h vnebiTSi ob¡eqturi Camomavlobisaa. rogor avxsnaT es faqti? aris ori SesaZlebloba: 1. vnebiTi gvaris zmnebi, roca eniT iwarmoeba, moiTxovs damatebas micemiTSi: daekla igi mas, daewera igi mas zeda, ewoda igi mas, ebrZana igi mas... ob¡eqturi prefiqsi mesame pirisa aq, rogorc yovel micemiT-damatebian zmnasTan, saerTo wesiT gamarTlebulia. unda davuSvaT, rom vnebiTis iniT warmoebis SemTxvevebSi x || h — prefiqsi eniT warmoebuli SemTxvevebis analogiiT aris gadmoRebuli: xewera, xekla, xepova-s analogiiT: xiwera, xikla, xipova...1 2. meore SesaZlebloba ufro rTulia da nakleb mosalodneli. mainc arsebobs iseTi garemoeba, romelic misi gaTvaliswinebis saWiroebas gvikarnaxebs. saqme SemdegSia: mecxre-meaTe saukunis ZeglebSi mesame piris damatebas SeuZlia gamoiwvios ob¡eqturi prefiqsi h || s || S mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu igi micemiT brunvaSia dasmuli, xolo Tu saxelobiTs brunvaSia — prefiqss ar iwvevs: man sTxova mas igi, magram man kla igi2; meore da pirveli piris damateba ki saTanado ob¡eqturi prefiqsebiT (g, m) aris warmodgenili, iqneba igi micemiTs brunvaSi Tu saxelobiTSi: igi gklavs Sen, mklavs me; man gkla Sen, mkla me... kiTxva ibadeba: xom ar SeiZleboda gvefiqra, rom Tavdapirvelad obieqturi prefiqsi mesame pirisa Cndeboda maSinac, roca damateba mesame pirisa saxelobiTs brunvaSi iyo, da rom am mxriv mesame piri ar idga gancalkevebiT pirveli da meore pirisagan?! xanmetis xani, haemetis hae iniT nawarmoeb vnebiTi gvaris zmnebSi (Seximusra igi, xipova igi...) maSin iqneboda moqmedebiTi gvaris formidan vnebiTSi meqanikurad gadmosuli?! amis sawinaaRmdegod TiTqos yvelaze ufro is laparakobs, rom axlad aRmoCenil ZeglebSi damateba mesame pirisa saxelobiTs brunvaSi ar iwvevs ob¡eqtur prefiqss, da bunebrivia, Tu vityviT: x || h — prefiqsi rom yofiliyo gamowveuli mesame piris damatebiT saxelobiTs brunvaSi igi uwinares yovlisa moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnaSi unda gvqonoda da ara vnebiTisaSi. magram es argu1 ase xsnis am movlenas prof. a. SaniZe; ix. misi `haemeti teqstebi da maTi mniSvnel. qarT. en. istoriisaTvis~: t f . u n i v , m o a m b e , t. III, gv. 359. 2 ix. amis Sesaxeb vrclad a. SaniZe, sub. pref. meore pirisa da obieqt. pref. mesame pirisa qarTul zmnebSi, tfil. 1920, gv. 24 da Semd.

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menti absoluturi ar aris; Cven gvaqvs SemTxvevebi, roca movlenis pirveladi saxe daikarga, xolo sekundari Senaxul iqmna; magaliTad, Cven axla vambobT da vwerT: igini iyvnen: nari am formaSi meqanikurad aris gadmosuli moqmedebiTi gvarisagan, roca damatebad iyo mravlobiTi ricxvis saxelobiTi brunva nidaboloebiT warmoebuli: maT yves igi, magram: maT yvnes igini... aqidan: igini iyvnes misa mier (Tanamedr. iyvnen)1. ukanasknels SemTxvevaSi (`maT yenes igini). nari amJamad ar ixmareba; axla Cven vwerT da vambobT: maT yves igi, igini; amisda miuxedavad, moqmedebiTi gvaris garkveuls formaSi warmoSobili es nari, vnebiTSi meqanikurad gadabargebuli, Seenaxa enas am ukanasknels formaSi: iyvnen — sekundar SemTxvevaSi, xolo pirvelad mis `samSobloSi~ igi moispo. amgvarad, SeuZlebeli ar aris x || h saxelobiT damatebian zmnebSi moqmedebiT gvarSi dakarguliyo, xolo vnebiTs igi Seenaxa. amasTan dakavSirebiT SeiZleba movigonoT ori metad saintereso garemoeba, romelic a. S a n i Z i s xsenebul gamokvlevaSi moipoveba: 1. Cven vxvdebiT mecxre-meaTe saukuneSi saxelobiT damatebian zmnebs, romelTac ob¡eqturi prefiqsi moepovebaT; mkvlevaris azriT, es zmnebi Tavdapirvelad micemiT damatebianni yofilan; amas cxadhyofs vnebiTis warmoeba enis saSualebiT, rac micemiT damatebiani zmnebis Tvisebaa. droTa viTarebaSi maT sintaqsuri konstruqcia SecvliaT, morfologiuri agebuleba ki SeunaxavT; aseTi zmnebi: dahbada, dahmarxa, hmarTa, dahnerga, hgona, dah£Sa, dah£sna, sTesa, dasTxia2... rac unda yofiliyo Tavdapirvelad, faqti is aris, rom axal konstruqciaSi Zveli agebuleba SerCa zmnas (Tundac damwerlobaSi); saxelobiT damatebians gaaCnia iseTi Tviseba, romelic mxolod micemiT damatebians Sehferis. 2. ufro sagulisxmoa meore faqti; awmyo droSi ob¡eqturi prefiqsi mesame pirisa moepoveba zmnas usaTuod mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu igi namyo srulSiac moiTxovs damatebas micemiTSi; xolo Tu igi moiTxovs damatebas micemiTSi mxolod awmyo droSi, maSin ob¡eqturi prefiqsi SeiZleba iyos an ara: aq ori tipis zmnebi gvaqvs; hyofs tipisa, romelsac aqvs ob¡eqturi prefiqsi da qadagebs tipisa, romelsac prefiqsi ara aqvs3. zedmiwevniloba rom davicvaT, orive faqtidan erTaderTi daskvnis gakeTeba SeiZleba: damatebis qona micemiTs brunvaSi ar aris arc aucilebeli da arc sakmao piroba ob¡eqturi prefiqsis gaCenisaTvis. rom aucilebeli ar aris, es Cans `dahbada~ — tipis zmnebisagan: mxolod vnebiTSi micemiT damatebianoba sakmao aRmoCnda moqmedebiTSi saxelobiT damatebian zmnas ob¡eqturi prefiqsi gasCenoda; rom igi sakmao ar aris, amas mowmobs `qadaga~ — tipis zmnebi: awmyoSi damateba micemiTSia, — ob¡eqturi prefiqsi ki zmnas ar moepoveba.

1 2

ix. a. SaniZe, xsenebuli naSromi, gv. 12, SeniSvna. ix. a. SaniZe, iqve, gv. 74-83. 3 orive tipis zmnebis magaliTi da maTi ganxilva ix. iqve, gv. 85-105.

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ras niSnavs es garemoeba? mxolod imas, rom micemiT damatebiansa da saxelobiT damatebian zmnebs Soris gardauvali zRvari ar arsebobs. xanmeti da haemeti teqstebi ufro blomad rom gvqonoda da maTSi `dahbada~ da `qadaga~ tipis `anomaliebi~ rom aRmoCeniliyo, vnebiTis xanis axsnis meore SesaZlebloba arc ise usafuZvlo iqneboda1. amJamad ki es meore SesaZlebloba mxolod SesaZleblobaa, romlis sawinaaRmdegod meti mosazrebis moyvana SeiZleba, vinem sasargeblod; magram sakiTxad igi mainc rCeba. — pirveli SesaZlebloba ki, rogorc ufro bunebrivi da martivi, ufro dasaSvebad unda CaiTvalos. romel SesaZleblobasac ar davuSvebT, analogiis moments ver gamovricxavT. da es ki niSnavs: xan prefiqsis literaturuli fiqsacia maSin unda momxdariyo, roca misi xmareba racional safuZvels marto ar emyareboda: meqanikur-analogiuri warmoeba iyo ukve fexgadgmuli... aqidan kidev zogierTi daskvnebis gakeTeba SeiZleboda am prefiqsis bunebisa da istoriuli hasakis Sesaxeb, magram es Zalian Sors wagviyvanda. davubrundeT sxva morig sakiTxebs. erTi aseTi sakiTxia aRmoCenili Zeglebis daTariReba. rac Seexeba am Zeglebis `xnierobas~, prof. iv. javaxiSvili xanmet teqstebs VI saukunisad sTvlis, prof. a. SaniZes haemeti Zegli VIII saukunisad miaCnia. pirveli — Zeglebis paleografiul Taviseburebebs emyareba: v¡es, yarisa da gansakuTrebiT banis TavSekrulobas; prof. iv. javaxiSvili mcxeTis jvris qobul-stefanes warweris paleografiul TaviseburebaTa gamo daaskvnis: `qobul-stefanes mcxeTis jvris warweraSi b ukve odnav Tavgaxsnilia: es warwera, rogorc gamoirkva, VII s. Sua wlebs ekuTvnis, magram raTgan Cven araviTari sabuTi ara gvaqvs vifiqroT, rom bans Tavi pirvelad am warweris amokveTis dros gaexsna da Tanac viciT, rom amgvari procesi damwerlobaSi TandaTanobiT xdeba da misi dasawyisi ufro xelnawerebSia saZebneli, vidre epigrafikaSi, amitom ufro swore iqneboda dagveskvna, rom bans Tavi unda VI s. ukanasknel meoTxedsa da VII saukunis pirvel naxevars Soris xanaSi gaxsnoda (ix. misi `axlad aRmoCenili uZvelesi qarTuli xelnawerebi da maTi mniSvneloba mecnierebisaTvis. tf. universitetis moambe, t. II. gv. 334). amrigad: raki TavSekruli banisaTvis terminus post quem non VII saukunis pirveli naxevaria, da raki aRmoCenil teqstebSi bani TavSekrulia2, teqstebi meVI saukunisad unda miviCnioTo (ix. aRniS. werili: iqve, gv. 343)3.
1 aRmoCenil teqstebSi moipoeba oriode magaliTi am mxriv friad saintereso, rogorc magaliTad: mixiyvanis (man igi). ix. t f . u n i v e r s i t e t i s m o a m b e , t. II, gv. 389, aseT SemTxvevebs sxva dros davubrundebiT. 2 prof. iv. javaxiSivili aRniSnavs imasac, rom gadarecxa-gadafxekis gamo bani zoggan Tavgaxsnilis STabeWdilebas stovebs, magram palimfsestad qcevamdi bani mainc TavSekruli unda yofiliyo (ix. igive werili, gv. 343). 3 me-VIII saukunis pirveli naxevris Tundac warweris, magram mainc e r T a d e r T i banis Tavgaxsniloba Zneli safiqrebelia imis uryev sabuTad gamodges, rom amis Semdeg TavSekruli bani aRar gveqneboda, samwuxarod, paleografia-epigrafikas sinamdvilis iseT sferosTan

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

mraval sakiTxTa Soris, romelTa dasma aseTi Zeglebis aRmoCeniT aucilebeli xdeba, amTaviTve yuradRebas iqcevs xanmetobis `sadaurobis~ da misi haemetobasTan urTierTobis sakiTxi. aRvniSnavT aq akad. n. m a r r i s , prof. iv. j a v a x i S v i l i s a da prof. ak. S a n i Z i s Sexedulebebs. akad. n. m a r r i s Sesaxeb aq mxolod imdenad SeiZleba iyos laparaki, ramdenadac saRvTo werilis qarTulad Targmnis Sesaxeb gamoTqmulma misma azrebma SeiZleba iseTi STabeWdileba datovon, TiTqos akad. n. m a r r i s nawerebSi xanmetobis intuitiuri anticipacia iyos mocemuli1. prof. i v . j a v a x i S v i l i zemoxsenebul werilSi dawvrilebiT ixilavs akad. n. m a r r i s Sexedulebebs am sakiTxis Sesaxeb da sxvaTa Soris samarTlianad SeniSnavs, rom akad. n. m a r r s ara erTxel gamouTqvams am sakiTxis Sesaxeb erTmaneTis sawinaaRmdego azri. igi Cerdeba akad. n. m a r r i s azrze; misi mixedviT: `me-V-VI s. qr. Semdeg somxeTSi jer kidev cxovrobdnen svanebi, aq pirvelad iafetur enaze aRmocenda qristianuli mwerloba; rac ufro Zvelia teqsti, miT ufro bevria masSi `svanizmebi~ da kiTxvac ki aris dasmuli, xom ar iTargmna saRvTo werili pirvelad `svanur~ enaze, romelic mxolod Semdeg TandaTanobiT dauaxlovda qarTvelTa mSobliur enas, Tumca mainc mravali iracionali movlena Segvinaxa, romelic svanurs ekedlebao~. amaSia mocemuli akad. n. m a r r i s svanurobis Teoriis deda azri 1915 wlis versiiT2. istoriul faqtebze dayrdnobiT prof. i v . j a v a x i S v i l i kategoriulad uaryofs, rom aRniSnul periodSi somxeTSi svanebs ecxovros an iq svanuri laparaki yofiliyos (ix. misi dasaxel. werili, gv. 357-359). istoriis sabuTi upirdapirdeba filologiuri analiziT STagonebul intuitur daSvebas;

ara aqvs saqme, sadac individuali faqtis analizi zogadi wesis gamoyvanis SesaZleblobas eWvmiutanlad iZleodes. ase rom, daTariRebis sakiTxi sabolood gadawyvetilad ver CaiTvleba. amasTanave aRvniSnavT, rom jvarcmidan 974 wliT daTariRebul ZeglSiac (`daviTni~ — tfil. univer. siZvel. sacavis xelnaw. 38) vxvdebiT savsebiT TavSekrul yarebs, banebsac — sakmao xSiradac, magram amave Zeglis erT nawilSi, romelic gansxvavebuli xeliT aris dawerili, aseTi bani, yari ar moipoveba: es gvafiqrebinebs, rom am ZeglSi sxvaganac T a v S e k r u l i y a r i s , b a n i s w e r a a n a q r o n i z m s w a r m o a d g e n s da am asoTa normali ganviTarebis safexurebis mxilebad ver CaiTvleba. es SeniSvnebi dawerili gvqonda, roca moq. sargis kakabaZis azrs gavecaniT, pativcemuli istorikosi zemoxsenebuli `daviTnis~ magaliTebs emyareba da daaskvnis: `es garemoeba (e. i. rom TavSekruli y, ¢, b gvxvdeba — a. C.) cxadad amtkicebs, rom sakiTxi xsenebuli asoebis moxazulobis istoriulad ganviTarebis Sesaxeb jer kidev saWiroebs axal dakvirvebebs da masalebs... (ix. misi `saistorio Ziebani~. tfil, 1924, gv. 5). 968 wliT daTariRebul ioane oqropiris cxovrebaSi, romelic saistorio sazogadoebis muzeumSi moipoveba (3124), n u s x u r i iseTi garkveuli saxiT aris Camoyalibebuli, rom bunebrivad gvafiqrebinebs: misi winamorbedi m T a v r u l i s ganviTareba am dros ukve karga xnis dasrulebuli unda yofiliyo. amitomac vfiqrobT, rom `daviTnis~ xsenebul SemTxvevebze damyareba ar SeiZleba. TavSekruli mTavruli y, ¢, b-is wera Cven axlac SegviZlia, magam amas xom araviTari mniSvneloba ar eqneba am asoTa moxazulobis istoriis gamosarkvevad! 1 ase uyurebs saqmes magal. d-ri r. bleiki. ix. t f . u n i v e r s . m o a m b e , t. II, gv. 361. 2 ix. `Яфетические названия деревьев и растений~. И. А. Н. 1915 г. gv. 945.

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aseT SemTxvevaSi istoriis sityva gadamwyveti unda iyos; amdenadve prof. i v . j a v a x i S v i l i s pozicia uryevia1. magram kiTxva ibadeba: romel `svanebze~ laparakobs akad. n. marri? aris Tu ra es cxeniswylisa da inguris xeobaTa TavSi mcxovrebi `tomi~? `svanizmebi~, `svanuri ena~ akad. n. marrs brWyalebSi aqvs moqceuli; cxadia, aq erTgvar ryevas aqvs adgili. bunebrivad migvaCnia amitomac gaviTvaliswinoT misi Sexeduleba ori wlis Semdeg; es miT ufro saWiroa, rom, jer erTi, mas ar Sexebia prof. iv. javaxiSvili da, meorec, rac arsebiTia, aq sakmaod gansxvavebuli azria gamoTqmuli; masTanve ufro garkveuli. mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs akad. n. marris: Грузинская поэма: «Витязь в Барсовой Шкуре» Шоты из Рустава и новая культурноисторическая проблема (Изв. Рос. Акад. Наук. Петроград. gv. 415-506). aq mesxebzea laparaki. am tomis istoriuli bedis gaTvaliswinebasTan dakavSirebiT axali perspeqtivaa gadaSlili. bibliis mosoxi, asurelTa da qaldebis muSkebi kavkasiaSi Semodian im gziT, sadac Semdeg mesxeTi gvqonda. maT CrdiloeTiT kavkasionis qedisTvis miuRweviaT da kidec gadascilebian mas. Crdilo-dasavleTiT mesxebs Savi zRvis napirebisTvis miuRweviaT — es `abasxebia~, Semdeg qarTuls gamoTqmaSi abxazad || afxazad qceuli. `abxazTa aRmosavleTiT, — wers akad. n. marri, — igini Seerivnen sonebs anda movidnen ra maTTan Serevis Semdeg samxreTidan, damkvidrden sonebis anu svanebis saxeliT. ori saemigracio talRis mocilebis Semdeg, romelmac Seadgina afxazeTi anda damkvidrda svaneTSi, mesxebi anu mosoxebi didxans ganagrZobden samxreTSic yofnas. maTi mosaxleoba Seviwrovda samxreTiT da TandaTanobiT igini ikaveben mtkvris zemo auzs, mesxeTad wodebuls... mesxeTSi darCnil am mesxebze agreTve moaxdina gavlena sonTa megrul-Wanurma tomma, romelnic (sonebi) Seerivnen maT da Seqmnes son-mesxTa narevi tomi, romelsac agreTve somexs uZaxoden. SemdegSi qarTvelebma es saxeli gadaitanes armenebze~...2 maSasadame, gamodis, rom: 1. soni — megrul-Wanuri tomia; mesxi plus soni gvaZlevs sons anu svans, Tanamedrove svaneTis mkvidrs: igive mesxi plus soni gvaZlevs `somexs~. ara Cans aq naTlad, mesxebis emigraciuli talRa svaneTisken moZraobisas Seeria sonebs, Tu es Sereva moxda mesxebis winandel adgil-

metad sainteresoa, rom erTi wlis Semdeg akad. n. marri Tavis zemoxsenebul Sexedulebis sruliad uarmyofel garemoebas TviTve aRniSnavs: `Со II-го века до Р. Хр. римские и греческие писатели знают сванов там же приблизительно в тех же пределах, где застаем и мы~... ix. misi: К дате эмиграции Мосхов из Армении в Сванию: Изв. Ак. Наук, 1916, Петроград, gv. 1682. 2 «Восточнее от абхазов они смешались с сонами или, явившись с юга по смешении с ними, осели под названием сонов или сванов. По отделении двух эмиграционных волн, образовавших Абхазию или осевших в Свании, месхи или мосохи продолжали еще долго пребывать и на юге. Постепенно границы их южного разселения с‘узились и сосредоточились по верхнему бассейну Куры, в области называвшейся грузинами Месх-ет-и...... На этих месхов тоже повлияло мегрело-чанское племя сонов, которые смешались с ними и образовали смешаное племя сон-месхов, называвшееся также сомехами. Название «Сомех» грузинами впоследствии было перенесено на армян»... Изв. Акад. Наук. 1917, gv. 439-40.

1

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samyofelSi; da Tu es ukanaskneli SesaZleblobaa swori, ratom ewoda mas erTs SemTxvevaSi svani, meoreSi ki somexi?! da, albaT, es bundovanoba gamowveulia miT, rom aq istoria istoriuli faqtebis mixedviT ki ar iwereba, aramed terminebis filologiur analizze dayrdnobiT xdeba istoriuls sinamdvileSi hipoTeturi faqtebis introeqcia! yovels SemTxvevaSi am hipoTezis imanenti loRika gvavalebs gavakeToT saTanado daskvna: Tu mesxeTSi `somxuri~ ena iyo (da ara svanuri, rogorc fiqrobda akad. n. marri ori wliT adre), saRvTo werilic am `somxurze~ unda eTargmnaT. akad. n. marric pirdapir ambobs: `saRvTo werili pirvelad son-mesxursa an `somxur~ enaze iTargmnao; maSin es somxuri ena jer kidev iyo TavisTavadi, Tumca ar aris gamoricxuli SesaZlebloba, rom qarTuli sasaubro ena (речь) ukve axdenda masze garkveul gavlenaso~... (Изв. Ак. Наук. 1917, gv. 446). es erTi SexedviT TiTqos egueba akad. n. marris mier 1913 wels gamoTqmul azrs, roca igi werda: `saRvTo werili iTargmna `somxur~ kiloze... romelic an V saukuneSiac mTlianad svanuri enis kilod unda miviCnioT, an, Tu ki is iyo am xanebSi gaqarTulebuli, masSi yovel SemTxvevaSi mravlad unda viguloT svanuri enis im kilos naSTebi, romelic odesRac ZiriTadi iyo somxeTSi~ (Хр. Вост. II 23-24). amgvarad aqac `somxurzea~ laparaki, iseve, rogorc oTxi wlis Semdeg gamosuls nawarmoebSi. mxolod am `somxurze~ warmodgena gansxvavebulia: 1913 wlis `somxuri~ saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi svanuris kiloa (an svanizmebis matarebeli-Raa!), 1917 wlis somxuri ki `ligaturaa~: masSi mesxuri da sonuri Sedis, da rac ufro sayuradReboa, igi ukve enad ixsenieba da ara kilod, rogorc is 1913 wels iyo. araferia naTqvami misi svanurobis Sesaxeb. amrigad: 1913 wels `somxuris~ ganmarteba xdeba svanuris saSualebiT, 1915 wlis versia mxolod svanurobaze laparakobs (`V-VI s. qr. Semdeg `somxeTSi~ svanebi cxovrobden...~); albaT `svanur enaze~ iTargmnao. 1917 wels ki somxur enaze Targmnaa moTxrobili, svanurobis araferi ismis. sinamdvilis ase gageba akad. n. m a r r i s mxriv bunebrivia: `somxuri~ xom sonurisa da mesxuris (ukeT vTqvaT: sonTa da mesxTa) Serevis Sedegia: sonebi — megrul-Wanuri tomia; misi SereviT miRebul `ligaturaSi~ svanizmi mxolod im SemTxvevaSi aRmoCndeba, Tu meore komponenti — mesxi daxasiaTdeba aseTi riTime, Tu igi Tan atarebs mas. ase rom somxuris Sedgenilobis axali gageba a priori gamoricxavs svanurobaze laparkis SesaZleblobas. marTalia, imave sonTa da mesxTa Serevam mogvca svanebi, magram svanTa genezisis aseTi gagebiT ukve iTqva is, rom svanuri sxvis gasarkvevad aRar gamodgeba; TviT misi garkveva sxva cnebis niadagze unda moxdes: es cnebaa mesxi, komponenti rogorc svanis, ise `somexis~. ase rom: 1917 wlis versia axali fazaa akad. n. marris SexedulebaSi: 1913-sa da 1915 wels svanuri iyo miCneuli im garkveul odenobad (a), romelsac gasagebi unda gaexada gaurkveveli iqsi (x) — `somxuri~, 1917 wels svanuri TviT aris gasarkvevi iqsi (x), xolo mis amosacnobad akad. n. marrs wamoSvelebuli yavs me67

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

sxuri: amis saSualebiT unda gaiSalos rogorc svanuri: iqsi (x), ise `somxuri~ igreki (y). maSasadame, momavalSi mosalodneli iyo, rom laparaki iqneboda `somxurobaze~ da miT `mesxurobis~ Sesaxeb1. amitom sruliad gaugebaria, rodesac d-r r. bleikis cnobasTan dakavSirebiT akad. n. marri ambobs: ...Tu ki jer kidev VIII saukuneSi teqsti iyo naxevrad svanur Tqmaze Sedgenili, ra enaze unda yofiliyo igi dawerili V-VI saukuneSio?2 (ix. iv. javaxiSvilis zemoxsenebul gamokvlevaSi: tf. un. moambe t. II, gv. 361). amiT akad. n. m a r r i ubrundeba Sexedulebis im fazas, roca `somxuri~ svanuris niadagze iyo axsnili; magram amiT uaryofs meore ufro axlobel safexurs, sadac TviT svanuri mesxuramde iyo dayvanili. saeWvoa, rom Teoriis aseTi daudegroba mis mecnierul Rirebulebas rasme hmatebdes... Tavi rom davaneboT akad. n. marris Sexedulebis am sxvadasxvaobas, terminologiur bundovanobas da Sinagan winaaRmdegobas, mTavari azri SeiZleba Semdegi saxiT warmovidginoT: saRvTo werilis Targmna ar momxdara pirdapir im enaze, romlis organuli ganviTareba IX-X saukunis Zveli qarTulia: iyo raRac kilo (Tu ena?), SemdegSi gaqarTvelebuli, romlis mwerlobiT iyo gaSuamavlebuli ucxodan Targmna. akad. n. marris SexedulebaTa odiseaSi es azri ar icvleba. romeli iyo es kilo? amaze pasuxis gacemiT ki iwyeba azrTa kaleidoskopuri cvalebadoba: es xan `somxuri~ kiloa svanuri enisa, xan TviT svanuria, xan kidev somxuri ena, mesxurisa da sonuris SereviT warmomdgari... sanam prof. i v . j a v a x i S v i l i s Sexedulebis mimoxilvaze gadavidodeT, erTis aRniSvna mainc saWirod migvaCnia: xanmetobasTan dakavSirebiT roca sva1 Cven gverds uvliT aq sakiTxs, Tu ramdenad garkveuli odenoba TviT es mesxuri. ver SevCerdebiT aq imazec, Tu ramdeni, iafetidologiisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli principuli Tviseba aSkaravdeba am kerZo sakiTxis bedSi. 2 mesxsa da somexs akad. n. marri ubrundeba sxvaTa Soris erT-erT Tavis gamokvlevaSi: Астрономические и этнические значения двух племенных названий армян (Записки Восточного Отделения, t. XXV). aq somxuri enis analizTan dakavSirebiT mesxica da somexic friad gansxvavebuli gagebiT aris warmodgenili... «Термин someq... сваномесх, не что иное, как сибилянтная разновидность hay-hayk-a хай (о) хайка, будучи гибридным –в составе so-son) эквивалента термина hay (< hayn) и meq... эквивалента термина hayk» (gv. 242) da kidev: «Есть еще название армян – грузинское: someq, также этнический термин, до сугубый по составу. Каждое независимое название по природе принадлежит одному из племен входивших в племенной состав армянского народа» (ibid. gv. 240). ase rom: winandeli megrul-Wanuri tomi `soni~ aq SeuTanabres hay-s, `mesxi~ — hayk-s, ukanasknelTa Sesaxeb vtyobilobT, rom `igini didi kulturul-istoriuli mniSvnelobis mqone ers warmoadgenden, ara naklebs, vinem rasebi anu urartu. ... rom es eri iyo TavisTavadi: warmoSobiT iyvnen iafetidebi da qarTvelebs enaTesaveboden imdenad, ramdenad ukanasknelnic iafetidebs warmoadgenen... mesxebis qarTvelizacia moxda saSualo saukuneebSi (ibid. gv. 239). erTaderTi daskvna, romlis gamotana miudgomel mkiTxvels SeuZlia, aris is, rom axali gagebiT Teoria mets rols akuTvnebs am mesxs. sxvafriv ki es mesxi rCeba metafizikur raobad, substanciad, romlis arc erTi atributi Cven ar uwyiT, garda imisa, rom is iyo didmniSvnelovani iafeturi tomi Tu eri, e. i. pozitiurad rom `vTargmnoT~: es substancia aris nawilobrivi gamovlena im meore ufro zogadi substanciisa, romlis atributebi kidev ufro Zneli gasaTvaliswinebelia... da egre ad infinitum. CvenTvis aq gansakuTrebiT is aris saintereso, rom qarTuli samwerlobo enis gaCenis Sesaxeb axal gagebasTan dakavSirebiT araferia naTqvami.

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nizmebzea laparaki, prefiqsebSi msgavsebis garda, gansxvavebac ar unda iqnes ugulebelyofili: xanmet teqstebSi, iseve rogorc svanurSi, xani aris obieqturi prefiqsi mesame pirisa; pirveli piris ob¡eqtic orsave SemTxvevaSi maniT aRiniSneba, meore pirisa ki xanmetSi, ise, rogorc Zvelsa da axals qarTulSi, gania, svanurSi ki jini: gadmoRebis TvalsazrisiT es mniSvnelovani gansxvavebaa... prof. i v . j a v a x i S v i l i Tavis sakuTar gagebas upirdapirebs akad. n. marris Sexedulebas; misi azri martivi da mkafioa: xani dialeqtizmi ki ar aris aramed zogadi qarTuli movlena: igi axasiaTebda saerTod qarTuls misi kilokavebiTurT1; xanmet ZeglebSi mocemulia uZvelesi formacia im enis, romelsac Cven dRemde Zveli qarTulis saxeliT vicnobdiT. arc morfologiurad (prefiqsebis gamoklebiT), arc sintaqsurad dRemdis cnobili Zveli qarTulisagan es xanmeti Zeglebis ena ar ganirCeva; cxadia, prefiqsebis mxriv gansxvaveba enis fonetikur cvalebadobas miewereba; evoliuciis procesSi xan prefiqsi haed iqca, haed diferenciacia ki IX-X saukunis ZeglebSi gvaqvs mocemuli: jer xani, mere hae, mere amis diferenciacia; ganviTareba gardatexis gareSe: — ai prof. iv. j a v a x i S v i l i s Sexedulebis deda-azri. (ix. misi werili univer. moambe, t. II, gv. 360-367)... udidesi argumenti prof. iv. javaxiSvilis azris sasargeblod is aris, rom prefiqsebs garda, sxva mxriv xanmet teqstebs marTlac araviTari TvalsaCino gansxvaveba ar axasiaTebs IX-X saukunis ZeglebTan SedarebiT, — udidesi argumenti mis winaaRmdeg ki is aris, rom srulebiT gaugebaria: rogor moxda, rom fonetikurma cvalebadobam Tavi iCina mxolod garkveuls gramatikuls kategoriaSi — prefiqsebSi, da ar Seexo sxva elementebs?! fonetikuri cvalebadobis ZiriTadi Tviseba swored is aris, rom misTvis ar arsebobs fuZe, Ziri, formanti, esa Tu is gramatikuli kategoria, aramed mxolod bgera: Tu cvlilebis procesi daiwyo, igi ukan ar daixevs ama Tu im kategoriis win da yvelgan iCens Tavs2. da kidev: rogor moxda rom xani prefiqsebSi yvelgan gadagvarda haed, xolo ors SemTxvevaSi: `xar~ da `xual~ zmnaSi `gaqvavda~ da dRemdis moawia?! amas garda: cnebisaTvis `saerTo qarTuli~, safiqrebelia, rom masSi pr. iv. j a v a x i S v i l i gulisxmobs `praqarTuls~, e. i. im zogad enobriv sxeuls, romlis diferenciaciaa gadaSlili Cvens win qarTuli cocxali kiloebis, megrulisa da svanuris saxiT. svanurSi gvaqvs xan prefiqsi, xevsurulSiac iCens igi Tavs sagangebo pirobebSi. gvaqvs Tu ara ufleba aqidan davaskvnaT, rom xan prefiqsi `praqar1 sxvaTa Soris, prof. iv. javaxiSvili svanurs kilokavad ixseniebs (ix. misi werili, t v . u n i v . m o a m b e , t. II, gv. 360). magram ara Tu kilokavad, aramed kiloTac misi aRiareba mxolod im SemTxvevaSi iqneboda dasaSvebi, Tu mis korelatad aviRebdiT `zogad qarTuls~ masSi megrul-Wanuris CaricxviT, xolo misi moTavseba Tanamedrove cocxal kiloebTan (magal. xevsurulTan, ingilourTan, fereidnulTan...) erT sibrtyeze enaTmecnierebis TvalsazrisiT srulebiT dauSvebeli ram aris. 2 es garemoeba aRniSna kidec pr. a. SaniZem Tavis werilSi `haemeti teqstebi da misi mniSvneloba qarTuli enis istoriisaTvis~ t f . u n i v e r . m o a m b e , t. III, gv. 354. — garekaxursa da qiziyurSi magal., Cven gvaqvs amJamad sanis dasusteba mTels enobriv frontze.

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Tuli~ movlenaa? prof. iv. j a v a x i S v i l i dadebiTad upasuxebs am sakiTxze: faqti xanmeti teqstebis arsebobisa swyvets misTvis am sakiTxs (ix. xseneb. werili, gv. 363, 364). magram SeiZleba xanmetobis xanze damyareba? igi xom problemaa da ara faqti, ramdenadac misi genezisis sakiTxi ismeba! samsjavros winaSe dgas igi; da ganaCenis gamotanisas braldebuli TviT xom ver miscems xmas? mas SeuZlia mxolod Cveneba misces, da es Cveneba rodia savsebiT garkveuli: Tu miviCnevT xan prefiqss zogad qarTul movlenad, davuSvebT, rom am zogad samemkvidreo qonebas warmoadgens igi uZveless samwerlobo qarTulSi, — xanmetSi, Cven win aRimarTeba is ori sakiTxi, romelzedac zemod aris laparaki; maT auxsnelad xanmetobidan haemetobaSi gadasavali gza daxSulia. xanmetis Cvenebis is interpretacia, romelsac prof. iv. j a v a x i S v i l i iZleva, amrigad CixiT Tavdeba. xanmetobis Cvenebis gareSe ki sakiTxis gadawyvetisas mxolod cocxal enobriv movlenebsRa unda davemyaroT: gvrCeba qarTuli cocxali kiloebi, megruli, svanuri. da Tu svanuris xani da xevsurulis sekundari, gansakuTrebuls pirobebSi fonetikuri gziT miRebuli xani hbadeben fsiqologiur dispozicias, xan-prefiqsi praqarTulad (`zogad qarTul movlenad~) davsaxoT, araviTars SemTxvevaSi ar unda iyos ugulebelsyofili is faqti, rom xani ar aris sxva arc erTs aRmosavlursa Tu dasavlurs qarTuls cocxals kiloebSi da miT umetes megrulSi. amrigad xanis `zogad qarTul movlenad~ gamocxadeba damtkicebulad ver CaiTvleba sxvanairad uyurebs saqmes prof. a. S a n i Z e . misi azriT `gansxvaveba xanmetsa da haemet Zeglebs Soris imdenad qronologiuri ar aris, ramdenad dialeqturi. isini imdenad sxvadasxva epoqas ar ekuTvnian, ramdenad sxvadasxva kilos, xanmeti teqsti erT kilozea dawerili da haemeti meoreze. is garemoeba, rom Cvenamdi moRweuli xanmeti teqstebi qronologiurad win uswrebs haemet teqstebs da uciloblad Zvelia maTze, ra Tqma unda, TavisTavad jer kidev ar swyvets sakiTxs imis Sesaxeb, TiTqos qarTuli literatura paralelurad ar arsebobda haemet kilozedac; an kidev rom xanmeti literatura sazogadod ueWvelad xnieri iyos haemetze~1. haemet ZeglebSi Cven gvaqvs xar da ara `har~: xanmeti forma da ara haemeti; es mowmobs, Cvenis azriT, rom literaturulad ara marto aRmoCenili Zegl[eb]is mixedviT, aramed saerTod, xanmeti uswrebs haemets, igi ufro xnieria haemetze, vinaidan Zneli dasaSvebia, rom haemet kilos xanmetisagan mwerlobis gareSe esesxa es forma. amas garda prof. a. S a n i Z i s Sexedulebas, saerTod mravalmxriv mkvidr niadagze mdgoms, mZime tvirTad awevs movaleoba axsnas: erTi kilos (xanmetis) niadagze aRmocenebuli mwerloba, roca meore kilos (haemetis) wiaRSi Sobilma Sescvala, raT ar iCina Tavi gansxvavebam prefiqsebs garda sxva ele1

ix. prof. a. SaniZis zemoxsenebuli werili: t f . u n i v . m o a m b e , t. III, gv. 361.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

mentebSi: magaliTad, sufiqsebSi (rogorc zmnis, ise saxelis), sintaqsSi, da sxv. nuTu SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom mxolod am prefisebis mxriv arsebobda maT Soris gansxvaveba?! akad. n. m a r r i s , prof. iv. j a v a x i S v i l i s a da prof. ak. S a n i Z i s SexedulebaT zogadad rom gadavavloT Tvali, erTi garemoeba miiqcevs yuradRebas: rogorc akad. n. m a r r i , ise pr. a. S a n i Z e miuxedavad mravalmxrivi gansxvavebisa qarTuli samwerlobo enis warmoSobis sakiTxSi `dialeqtur~ Teorias icaven (Tu SeiZleba ase iTqvas): akad. n. marri deduqtiurad, zogadi mosazrebebiT, leqsikuri masalis analiziT midis am azramdi da, miuxedavad imisa, rom mravals erTmaneTis sawinaaRmdego konkretul Sinaarss sdebs sakiTxis gadawyvetisas, zogad formulas mainc ucvlelad stovebs; misi dasayrdeni TiTqmis mxolod leqsika iyo xanmet Zeglebis aRmoCenamdi1. prof. a. S a n i Z e ki sadisertacio gamokvlevis (`prefiqsebi qarTuls zmnebSi~) gamoqveynebidan (da ufro adrec) moyolebuli naSTebis analiziT miemarTeba im Sexedulebisaken, romelic man Camoayaliba haemeti Zeglis gamocemis ganmartebaSi; esec dialeqturi Teoriaa, miRebuli induqtiuri gziT, morfologiur analizze dayrdnobiT. gansakuTrebiT saintereso ki is aris, rom Tumc sxvadasxva dros, magram usaTuod erTmaneTisagan damoukidebliv `dialeqturi Teoriis am warmomadgenlebs leonti mrovelis cnoba agondebaT, — rom `uwin qarTlosianTa ena iyo somxuri da Semdeg Seiqmna qarTulio~, da, Tumca gakvriT, magram mainc orive mkvlevari am cnobis gaazrianebas cdilobs. pr. a. S a n i Z e wers: `...SeiZleba aixsnas is ucnauri anaqronistuli adgili leonti mrovelis istoriuls narkvevSi, sadac vkiTxulobT: `aqamdis qarTlosianTa ena somxuri iyo, romelsa zraxvides, xolo odes Semokrbes ese uricxuni naTesavni qarTls Sina, maSin qarTuelTac dauteves ena somxuri da amiT yovelTa naTesavTagani Seiqmna ena qarTuli~ (mariam dedofliseuli qarTlis cxovreba gv. 12-13). egebis am sityvebiT yrud iyos gadmocemuli istoriuli faqti, rom pirvelad qarTuli samwerlobo ena gaCnda somxiTis (xanmet) kiloze, xolo Semdeg es kilo mitovebul iqmna da mis nacvlad qarTlis (haemet) kiloze ganagrZo literaturuli ganviTareba~ (ix. zemoxsen. werili, univers. moambe, t. III, gv. 361). akad. n. mari ki wers: `mexuTe saukunis somexTa metyveleba rom migveCnia mTlianad svanuris kilod, ...maSin Zalauneburad mogvagondeboda qarTul matianeTa cnobili Cveneba, romelsac uaryofen rogorc Seusabamo mtkicebas. swored qar1 `xanmet Zeglebis aRmoCenamdio~ imitom vambobT, rom `mesxuris~ gageba iafeturi Teoriis `ganviTarebasTan~ (ufro swori iqneboda gveTqva evoluciasTan) dakavSirebiT iZleva axal SesaZleblobas Zveli formulebis axali SinaarsiT asavsebad. ix. SeniSvna 2, gv. 77 da, Tumca d-r r. bleikis werilTan dakavSirebiT akad. n. marris mier gamoTqmul azrs `arqauli~ motivebi etyoba, mainc SiSi gvebadeba — vai Tu axali Teoriuli eqstazis kulminaciam Seusabamod CaTvalos es Zveli gageba: warsulis uaryofa iafetidologiaSi ganviTarebad iwodeba.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

Tul matianeTa erT-erT versiaSi amtkiceben, rom qarTvelebi laparakobden somxurad (по сомехски), Semdeg ki ametyvelden qarTulad. mecnieruli kvleva-Ziebis aRniSnul msvlelobasTan dakavSirebiT es niSnavdes iqneba (это значило бы), rom Tavdapirvelad qarTvelebis saeklesio-samwerlobo enad qarTvelTaTvis iyo somxuri, e. i. `somexiis~ (sic) svanuri ena; garkveuli momentidan dawyebuli maT eklesiis saliteraturo enad aqcies Tvisi mSobliuri qarTuli ena.1 `dialeqtur~ Teorias upirispirdeba prof. i v . j a v a x i S v i l i s `unitari~, Tu SeiZleba iTqvas, — Teoria. amJamad Znelia gadaWriT Tqma, romeli maTgani ukeT xsnis arsebul sinamdviles; xanmeti da haemeti Zeglebi samwuxarod mxolod gansazRvruli odenobisRa aris jerjerobiT aRmoCenili. mainc SeiZleboda erTi risame aRniSvna: xanmetobis genezisis axsnas dialeqturi Teoriis niadagze ufro naklebi dabrkolebebi eRobeba; xanmeti samwerlobo qarTulis Semdegi evolucia ki unitari Teoriis sasargeblod laparakobs; sxvanairad rom vTqvaT: dialeqturi Teoria (umTavresad, prof. a. SaniZis azri gvaqvs mxedvelobaSi) Zlieria, ramdenadac igi xans dialeqturi warmoSobisad miiCnevs, xanis `gaCenas“ dialeqts miakuTvnebs, magram susti, ramdenad mis `dakargvas“ agreTve dialeqtur niadagze xsnis: haemetze gadasvla igi iZulebuli xdeba gardatexiT axsnas, romelic samwerlobo enam ganicada. es gardatexa ki enas ar etyoba. gardatexis uaryofidan gamodis `unitari~ Teoria; dRemde arsebuli faqtebi usaTuod laparakoben prof. iv. javaxiSvilis azris sasargeblod; magram rodesac am faqtidan mkvlevari daskvnas akeTebs, arc odesme gvqonia dialeqtizmTan saqmeo, Zneli dasaZlevi xdeba dabrkolebaTa rigi. dialeqturi wiaRidan samwerlo enaSi damkvidrebuli xani (albaT maSin, roca es dialeqti gansakuTrebul rols TamaSobda samwerlobo enis SeqmnaSi) — samwerlobo enidan CamoSorebul iqna ise, rom TviT es ena ar Secvlila; aseTia is STabeWdileba, romelic ibadeba zogierT garemoebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT. amiT navaraudevia Semdegi xanebisaTvis ucxo morfologiuri elementis Camocileba, e. i. reformis gatareba am prefiqsis mimarT, radganac igi metad eucxoveboda Semdegs xanebSi gabatonebul kiloTa Tvisebas. magram aseTi Semarigebeli gageba iZulebulia mTel rigs kiTxvebze gasces pasuxi: marTla reforma, e. i. Segnebuli Careva moxda Tu ara? an SeiZleba es ar momxdara? xans hqonda Tu ara xanmetSi Tavisi sruli fonetikuri Rirebuleba an Seix. misi: `Из поездок в Сванию~ Христианский Восток, t. II, nak. I. gv. 24. aqve unda aRvniSnoT, rom akad. n. mari erT SedarebiT ufro axal Tvis naSromSi qarTuli mematianis zemoxsenebul azrs sxvanairad afasebs: mematianem ar icoda is rTuli procesi tomTa metisaciisa da gadasxvaferebisa, romelmac somex-saxelwodebis warmoSoba gansazRvra da am niadagze warmoiSva is Tqmuleba, rom pirvelad qarTvelebi `somxurad~ laparakobden da Semdeg iwyes qarTulad laparakio (ix. misi: Астрономическия и этническия значения двух племенных названий армян, Записки Восточного Отделения. т. XXV, gv. 243). mesx-saxelwodebis axalma gagebam akad. n. marrs axali Tvalsazrisi gamoumuSava `somexze~: aman ki gamoiwvia mematianis cnobis dafaseba, rogorc gaugebrobaze aRmocenebulis.
1

72

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

iZleba igi gansxvavebuli saxisa iyo? da yvelafers rom Tavi davaneboT, ratom SegvrCa Cven `xar~ da `xual~ (`xval~) zmnebSi xani dRevandlamde ara marto samwerlobo qarTulSi, aramed yvela qarTul cocxal kiloebSi, raic gansakuTrebiT aZnelebs mis axsnas, ranairi TvalsazrisiTac ar unda miudgeT sakiTxs... ara erTi kerZo sakiTxi, romelic aRmoCenili xanmeti da haemeti teqstis ganxilvisas ibadeba, aRuniSvnelad rCeba aq. igini sagangebo ganxilvas moiTxoven. magram is oriode sakiTxic, romelic im TaviTve daisva, ar SeiZleba gadaWrilad CaiTvalos; arc erTs dRemde wamoyenebul Teorias ar ZaluZs igi damakmayofileblad axsnas. masze swori pasuxis gacema momavlis saqmea. magram rogoradac ar unda gadawydes es da sxva amasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi, is mainc faqtia, rom xanmetisa da haemeti Zeglebis aRmoCena qarTvelT-metyvelebisaTvis epoqis Semqmnelia.

1924 w. 16 oqtombers. tfiliss. [Jurnali `Cveni mecniereba~, 3-4, 1925, gv. 65-84. gv. 79-95]

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

giorgi rogava

xanmetobisa da haemetobis sakiTxisaTvis
qarTuli enis istoriis SeswavlisaTvis, rogorc cnobilia, udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba uZvelesi xelnawerebis, e. w. xanmeturi da haemeturi Zeglebis aRmoCenas. es Zeglebi gamosces da saTanado gamokvleva miuZRvnes maTs enas iv. javaxiSvilma da a. SaniZem1. am Zeglebis enas exebodnen sxva avtorebic. amJamad cnobili xanmeti Zeglebi V, VI, VII saukuneebis Zeglebad aris miCneuli, haemet Zegls ki momdevno saukuneebisad Tvlian. rogorc dadgenilia, am Zeglebis enaSi x- || h-prefiqsebi rogorc xmovniT, ise TanxmovniT dawyebul fuZeebTan gamoxatavs, erTi mxriT, meore subieqtur pirs (Sen xuwyi igi, Sen aRxiRe igi, Sen xtir || Sen huwyi igi, Sen htiri, Sen aRhiRe igi), meore mxriT, — mesame iribi obieqtis pirs (man xrqua mas igi, igini mixeaxlnes mas || man hrqua mas igi, igini miheaxlnes mas). amave dros x- || h-prefiqsi, rogorc iribi obieqtis aRmniSvneli, gamoyenebulia Zvel qarTulSi zedsarTavis SedarebiT-aRmatebiT formebTan: xudidÀs || hudidÀs, xufro¡s || hufro¡s. cnobilia agreTve, rom momdevno saukunis Zeglebis enaSi xmovniT dawyebuli fuZeebis win dasaxelebuli prefiqsebi ar Cans arc erTi funqciiT, xolo TanxmovniT dawyebuli fuZeebis win winaenismier xSulTan h-s nacvlad ixmareba s-: man misca mas igi, man sTxova mas igi, Sen stir da sxv., xolo danarCen TanxmovnebTan rCeba h-prefiqsi: man hrqua mas igi, man hkiTxa mas igi, man Sehmosa mas igi, Sen mohkued da sxv. s-prefiqsi fuZiseul TanxmovnebTan asimilaciiT gadasula z-, S-, J- bgerebSi2. x- da h- piris afiqsebis urTierTmimarTebis Sesaxeb specialur literaturaSi gamoiTqva rigi mosazreba. iv. j a v a x i S v i l i s azriT, x-prefiqsi qarTulis saerTo kuTvnileba unda yofiliyo, romelic SemdegSi h-d Cans Secvlili. x- bgeris h-d Secvla mas miCneuli aqvs qarTuli enis fonetikis bunebrivi ganviTarebis Sedegad3. sawinaaRmdego mosazreba aqvs gamoTqmuli am sakiTxis Sesaxeb a. S a n i Z e s . misi azriT, dasaxelebuli afiqsebis ZiriTad saxed unda miviCnioT h, romelic rig dialeqtebSi aqamdisac Semonaxula, xolo x-, ise rogorc R-, s-, z-, S-, J-, am ZiriTadi saxis fonetikur Senacvlebas unda warmoadgendes. a. Saix. amis Sesaxeb iv. javaxiSvili, axlad aRmoCenili uZvelesi qarTuli xelnawerebi da maTi mniSvneloba mecnierebisaTvis, tfilisis universitetis moambe, t. II, 1922-23. a. SaniZe, haemeti teqstebi da maTi mniSvneloba qarTuli enis istoriisaTvis, tfilisis universitetis moambe, III, 1923 da sxv. 2 ix. amis Sesaxeb a. SaniZe, dasaxelebuli naSromi; misive: piris niSani brunvian sityvasTan qarTvelur enebSi, Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis Sromebi, I, 1936. 3 iv. javaxiSvili, dasaxelebuli naSromebi, gv. 365.
1

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

niZe, sruliad samarTlianad, ar Tvlis SesaZleblad, rom x prefiqsi SeiZleboda fonetikur niadagze gadasuliyo h-Si, ramdenadac qarTul enas saerTod ar axasiaTebs x-s dasusteba da h-Ti Secvla. `rogor unda avxsnaT, — wers a. SaniZe, — rom xanis haed Secvla mxolod prefiqsebSi moxda, xolo sxvagan ki ara? ratom gvaqvs Cven dRes x a r e b a , x a t i , a x a l i , x e d v a , s a x e l i x i l v a , x o l o , x u T i , da sxva mravali, da ara ( h ) o l o , ( h ) a t i , a ( h ) a l i , ( h ) d v a , s a ( h ) e l i , ( h ) o l o , ( h ) u T i da misT~.1 xanmetsa da haemet teqstebs Soris damokidebuleba a. SaniZes Semdegnairad aqvs warmodgenili: gansxvaveba maT Soris imdenad qronologiuri ki ar aris, ramdenadac dialeqturi, e. i. isini imdenad sxvadasxva epoqebs ki ar ekuTvnian, ramdenadac sxvadasxva kilos, xanmeti teqstebi erT kilozea dawerili da haemeti ki — meoreze2. xanmeti da haemeti kiloebis ganlagebisa da maTi sazRvrebis Sesaxeb a. SaniZe varaudobs, rom xanmeti kilo unda yofiliyo samxreT-aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi, gansakuTrebiT `mcxeTa-bolnisis raionebSi da mimdgom mxareebSi~, ramdenadac xanmeti warwerebi dadasturebuli iyo mcxeTasa da bolnisSi, haemeti kilo ki unda yofiliyo dasavleT saqarTveloSi3. garkveuli mosazreba aqvs a. SaniZes gamoTqmuli imis Sesaxeb, Tu ram gamoiwvia qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriaSi xanmetobis gaqroba mervemecxre saukuneebidan da haemetobis damkvidreba. amis erT-erT mizezad SeiZleba yofiliyo, misi azriT, aRniSnul xanaSi arabebis Semoseva aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi da masTan dakavSirebuli gadanacvleba qarTuli kulturis centrisa dasavleT saqarTveloSi4. a. SaniZes dadgenili aqvs, rom x-prefiqsi da misi fonetikuri saxeoba Rimave meore subieqturisa da mesame obieqturi piris gamosaxatavad ixmareba qarTuli enis mTis kiloebSi — xevsurulSi, TuSursa da moxevurSi. es afiqsi arsebiTad TanxmovniT dawyebuli fuZeebis win gvxvdeba5. a. SaniZis azriT, mTis kiloebSi x- am SemTxvevaSi h-sagan aris miRebuli SedarebiT ufro gvian. x da misi fonetikuri varianti iseve meoreulia, rogorc s- da misi bgeriTi nacvali z-, S-, J-prefiqsebi6. dasaxelebuli x- || h- afiqsebis genezisisa da maTi uZvelesi fonetikuri saxis sakiTxs exeba a r n . C i q o b a v a . misi azriT, am afiqsebis amosavali SeiZleba yofiliyo s-prefiqsi. es afiqsi istoriulad piris aRmniSvneli ar unda yofiliyo. igi Tavidanve zmnaSi gamoxatavda gramatikul klass, ukeT, nivTis
1 a. SaniZe, haemeti teqstebi da maTi mniSvneloba qarTuli enis istoriisaTvis tfilisis universitetis moambe, t. III, gv. 360. 2 iqve, gv. 361. 3 a. SaniZe, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 361. 4 iqve, gv. 362. 5 a. SaniZe, subieqturi prefiqsi meore pirisa da obieqturi prefiqsi mesame pirisa qarTul zmnebSi, tfilisi, 1920, gv. 157-171. 6 a. SaniZe, haemeti teqstebi da maTi mniSvneloba qarTuli enis istoriisaTvis, tfilisis universitetis moambe, t. III, gv. 360.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

klass. piris niSnad es prefiqsi Semdeg Camoyalibebula. qarTuli zmnis pirovani uRvlilebis Camoyalibebis dros am prefiqss ori funqcia dahkisrebia: meore subieqturisa da mesame obieqturi pirebis gamoxatva. amosavali s bgerisagan SeiZleboda migveRo, erTi mxriT, h, ise rogorc es dasturdeba aWarul kiloSi (had = sad), xolo meore mxriT x bgerac: s → h || x1. aseTi axsnis Sedegad srulebiT garkveuli xdeba is metad ucnauri movlena, rom Zvel qarTulSi erTi da imave (x- || h-) formantiT iyo warmodgenili zmnaSi meore subieqturi da mesame obieqturi pirebi. x-prefiqsi ZiriTadad imave funqciiT, rac mas Zvel qarTulSi hqonda, rogorc cnobilia, Semonaxuli aqvs svanur enas xmovniT dawyebuli fuZeebis win: xam‰re `Sen amzadeb mas~, xam‰r…ne `igi mas amzadebinebs mas~ da sxva... TanxmovniT dawyebuli fuZeebis win x-prefiqsi, rogorc wesi, ara Cans. a. SaniZes, sruliad samarTlianad, x-s amosaval saxeobad svanurisTvisac miaCnia h-. es prefiqsi amJamad ar ixmareba svanur zmnebSi. dasaxelebul avtors dadasturebuli aqvs aq misi odesRac arsebobis kvali: ad- preverbian zmnis formebSi, sadac iribi obieqti ivaraudeba, preverbiseuli d yruvdeba piris h prefiqsTan Serwymis Sedegad: aT-meC ← *ad-h-meC `Sen daabere is~, Sdr. ad-meCe `man daabera is~; aT-biSe ← ad-h- biSe `miawode~.2 amgvarad, rogorc garkveulia, qarTvelur enebSi meore subieqturisa da mesame obieqturi pirebis h- || x-prefiqsebis xmarebis mixedviT amJamad Semdegi suraTi Cans: x-prefiqsi saliteraturo qarTulSi gadavardnilia merve saukunidan dawyebuli (gamonaklisia sami zmna). mTis kiloebSi gvxvdeba x-prefiqsi, h-sagan miRebuli (a. SaniZe), isic arsebiTad TanxmovniT dawyebuli fuZeebis win; h-prefiqsi Semonaxulia qarTulis aRmosavlur kiloebSi. dasavlur kiloebSi h-s arsebobis kvali-Ra Cans3. zanuri enis dialeqtebSi ar dasturdeba arc h-sa da arc x-s odesRac arsebobis kvalic. varaudoben, rom zanurisaTvis odesRac h-prefiqsi unda yofiliyo damaxasiaTebeli (a. SaniZe). svanurSi Semonaxulia x-prefiqsi mxolod xmovniT dawyebuli fuZeebis win. h-prefiqsis arsebobis kvali ki Cans. am werilSi Cven gvinda SevexoT x-sa da h-s istoriuli urTierTobis sakiTxs. ar unda iyos sadavo a. SaniZis mosazreba, romlis mixedviTac x- bgeras, meore subieqturi da mesame obieqturi pirebis afiqss, ar SeeZlo gadasvla hSi, piriqiT, SesaZlebeli iyo h-prefiqss moeca x-. marTlac, aseTi procesi Catarebula qarTulis mTis kiloebSi: xevsurulSi, moxeveursa da TuSurSi. dasaxelebul kiloebSi h- piris niSani rigi TanxmovniT dawyebuli bgeris win
1 arn. Ciqobava, gramatikuli kategoria da zmnis uRvlilebis zogi sakiTxi ZvelqarTulSi, iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecniereba, t. V, 1953, gv. 59. 2 a. SaniZe, umlauti svanurSi, arili, 1925, gv. 182; v. Tofuria, svanuri ena, I, zmna, 1931, gv. 16. 3 q. lomTaTiZe, naSTebi mesame piris obieqturi prefiqsisa gurulsa da aWarulSi, tfilisis sax. universitetis Sromebi, 1937, XI, gv. 123-138.

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Secvlila x-Ti. magram mTis kiloebis Tanamedrove viTareba geneturad ar ukavSirdeba Zvel qarTulSi navaraudev xanmet kilos. mTis kiloebi ar iTvleba xanmeti kilos STamomavlad (a. SaniZe). amave dros saeWvod gveCveneba qarTulis dialeqtebs Soris e. w. xanmeti dialeqtis arsebobaze laparaki aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mcxeTisa da bolnisis raionebSi, maSinac ki, roca am adgilebSi daweril ZeglebSi, e. w. xanmet ZeglebSi, gvxvdeba x-prefiqsi. Cveni azriT, Z v e l q a r T u l S i z m n i s m e o r e s u b i e q t u r i s a d a mesame obieqturi prefiqsebis ori saxeoba h- da x- ar unda yofiliyo fonemurad gansxvavebuli ori bgera h da x. meore subieqturi da mesame obieqturi pirebis aRmniSvnelad dasaxelebul epoqaSi (da ufro adrec) qarTul zmnebs unda hqonoda erTi da igive laringaluri (Tu: laringalur-faringaluri) spiranti h, romelic, zogan ufro Rrmad gamoTqmuli, iZleoda ukanaenismieri x spirantis STabeWdilebas. zog ZeglSi am afiqsis xaniTa da zogSi haeTi aRniSvna arsebiTad grafikuli xasiaT i s s x v a o b a u n d a y o f i l i y o , e. i. erTma literaturulma skolam am laringalur-faringaluri bgeris gadmosacemad hae aso ixmara, xolo meorem xani airCia. es arCevani, SesaZlebelia, TviT h bgeris dialeqturi sxvaobiT iyo Sepirobebuli: zog dialeqtSi es h SeiZleba ufro Rrmad da intensiurad gamoiTqmoda, zogSi ki — nakleb intensiurad. davuSvaT axla amis sawinaaRmdego debuleba, ukve gavrcelebuli Sexeduleba, romlis mixedviTac qarTuli enis zog dialeqtSi meore subieqtisa da mesame obieqtis pirebis prefiqsad gamoyenebuli iyo x- spiranti, am afiqsis pirvandeli, amosavali saxeoba (iv. javaxiSvili), anda igive x- spiranti meoreuli, h-sagan miRebuli (a. SaniZe); `Sen aRxiRe igi, Sen xixile igi, igi mixeaxla mas, igi xunda mas~ da sxvebSi x iseTive fonema iyo, rogoric sityvebSi xatavs, saxe, axali da sxva. aseT SemTxvevaSi riT unda avxsnaT am dialeqtebSi dasaxelebuli x-prefiqsis dakargva Tavisi orive funqciiT? a. SaniZes srulebiT damajerebeli sabuTi mohyavs imis uarsayofad, rom Zvels qarTulSi x-prefiqsisagan ar SeiZleboda migveRo h prefiqsi, ramdenadac x bgera sxva SemTxvevaSi (saxe, ixila da sxv.) h-Si ar gadasula. magram auxsneli rCeba meore mxare: Tuki h prefiqsi garkveul dialeqtebSi (xanmet dialeqtebSi) marTla x-Ti Seicvala, rogorc amas a. SaniZe varaudobs, ratom unda dakarguliyo aseTi x-prefiqsebSi, maSin rodesac igi (x) arc erT sxva SemTxvevaSi ar dakargula. x bgera qarTulSi, ise rogorc sxva qarTvelur enebSi, metad myari bgera Cans. Znelia daSveba SesaZleblobisa, TiTqos navaraudevi xanmeti dialeqti ase ukvalod gamqraliyo, ramdenadac am dialeqtis gamoyenebis are (mcxeTa, bolnisi, samxreT saqarTvelo da sxva) arc ise mcire da umniSvnelo iyo qarTuli enis gavrcelebis TvalsazrisiT. vimeorebT, qarTuli enis dialeqtTa Soris saeWvo Cans xanmeti kilos istoriuli arseboba. aseTi kilo rom marTlac yofiliyo V, VI, VII da wina saukuneebSi, igi Semdgom saukuneebSic ganagrZobda arsebobas da, SesaZlebelia, 77

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

aqamdisac moeRwia, ramdenadac x bgera qarTulSi myari bgeraa, dasaxelebuli afiqsebis dakargva ki, rogorc sayovelTaod cnobilia, mxolod fonetikur niadagze moxda. fonetikurad aramyari bgera, metnaklebad aramyari yvela qarTuli dialeqtisaTvis, iyo h bgera. amave warmoSobis h prefiqsi xmovniT dawyebuli zmnis fuZis win (da agreTve zedsarTavis SedarebiT-aRmatebiTi formis win), x-Si Cans gadasuli svanur enaSi (a. SaniZe). ramdenadac x bgera saerTod myaria qarTvelur enebSi, igi aqamdis Semoinaxa svanurma. aseve, rigi, TanxmovniT dawyebuli zmnis fuZis win mTis kiloebSi h prefiqsi gadasula x-Si da igi aqamdis Semoinaxes kidec am kiloebma. amgvarad, im qarTvelur enebsa da maTs dialeqtebSi, sadac xsenebuli h prefiqsi marTlac x-Ti Seicvala, es ukanaskneli yvelgan Semonaxuli Cans. sxva monacemebic SeiZleba davasaxeloT am mosazrebis sasargeblod: rom, marTlac, Zvel qarTulSi, rogorc varaudoben, xanmeti kilo yofiliyo gamoyofili, maSin mosalodneli iyo mJReri TanxmovnebiT dawyebuli zmnis fuZis win x-prefiqsi gamJRerebuliyo (e. i. gadasuliyo R-Si), rogorc amas adgili aqvs mTis kiloebSi, magaliTad, xevsurulSi — Rdgomiv, daRmalavs; TuSurSi — Rlesavs, moxeurSi — Rnaxe (Sen is) da sxva1. xanmet xelnawerSi gvxvdeba daxdev (xanmeti leqcionari i. 20,27) da ara daRdev, xrqua (xan. leqc. mr. 16,25) da ara Rrqua, xrwmena (xan. leqc. i. 20,8) da ara Rrwmena, STaxbera (xan. leqc. i. 20,22) da ara STaRbera da sxv. meore mxriT, metad sayuradReboa is faqti, rom xanmeti xelnawerebi, romlebic amJamad aris dadasturebuli, Cveulebriv wminda xanmeti ar Cans, ramdenadac maTSi sporadulad mainc gvxvdeba xanebis nacvlad haeebi.: xanmeti leqcionaris enis Sesaxeb a. SaniZe wers: `xanmeti leqcionari xanmeti xelnaweriao, vambobT Cvens Zeglze, magram aris ki savsebiT Sesaferisi misTvis es saxelwodeba? ara da TiTqos hoc. ara, imitom rom ZeglSi gvxvdeba iseTi formebi, sadac `meti~ xanebis nacvlad `meti~ haebi gvaqvs~... sazogadod unda SevniSnoT, rom xanTan erTad haes xmareba SeiZleba marto am Zegls ar axasiaTebdes. xanmeti palimfsestebis saboloo amokiTxva albaT sxvaganac daadasturebs haes arsebobas. magram axlac SemiZlia gadaWriT vTqva, rom am mxriv leqcionaris ena yovel SemTxvevaSi ganmartoebiT ar dgas, mas mxars uWers xanmeti ieremias nawyvetebis teqsti, sadac 20 formaTagan 17 xanmetia, 3 ki — haemeti~2. Cveni azriT, xanis gverdiT xanmet xelnawerebSi haes xmareba maCvenebeli unda iyos imisa, rom literaturuli skola, romelic laringalur-faringalur h bgeras Cveulebriv xaniT gamoxatavda, xSirad bolomde ver icavda am princips. zogjer amave h bgeras aRniSnavda hae asoTi. cocxal metyvelebaSi
a. SaniZe, subieqturi prefiqsi meore pirisa da obieqturi prefiqsi mesame pirisa qarTul zmnebSi, 1920, gv. 157-167. 2 a. SaniZe, xanmeti leqcionari, gv. 023.
1

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

rom marTlac iseTi bgera yofiliyo piris aRmniSvneli, rogoricaa x-, ar iqneboda mosalodneli, am dialeqtis warmomadgenels es bgera nawerSi gamoexata haeTi. vfiqrobT, am mosazrebas ar ewinaaRmdegeba ukve cnobili iseTi SemTxvevebi, sadac amJamadac qarTulSi Semonaxuli Cans sam zmnaSi meore subieqturi piris x-prefiqsi: xar, waxval, waxved. es formebi Semonaxulia ara mxolod im dialeqtebSi, sadac istoriulad navaraudevia xanmetoba, e. i. aRmosavlur kiloebSi, aramed im dialeqtebSic, sadac xanmetoba araa navaraudevi, e. i. dasavlur kiloebSi. TviT Zveli qarTulis haemet ZeglSic dasaxelebul zmnebTan ixmareba ara h-prefiqsi, aramed x-prefiqsi: Sen xara momavali igi (haemeti teqstebis nimuSebi, 30r,13)1. ar iqneboda marTebuli gvevaraudna, rom x-prefiqsis xmareba am sam zmnasTan yvela qarTul kiloSi savaraudo xanmeti kilodan iyo SeTvisebuli, anda es formebi saliteraturo enis gavleniT iyo gavrcelebuli. rogorc a. SaniZe varaudobs, saerTo qarTulisaTvis Tavis droze damaxasiaTebeli iyo h-prefiqsi, e. i. haemetoba iyo saerTo movlena qarTuli kiloebisaTvis. am saerTo haemetobis pirobebSi qarTul kiloebSi dasaxelebuli sami zmnis win h gadasula ufro myar bgeraSi, x spirantSi: *har → xar. *war-hval → war-x-ual, *war-h-ved → war-x-ued. am zmnebTan h-s gadasvlas x-Si SeiZleba morfologiurma momentmac Seuwyo xeli, ramdenadac samive dasaxelebuli zmna defeqturia. v a l da v e d zmnebTan isicaa SesaZlebeli, rom TxrobiT kiloSi pirveli piris formisagan gasarCevad m e w a r v a l , m e w a r v e d meore piris formaSi warmodgenili yofiliyo xazgasmiT meore piris prefiqsi h — Sen *warhval, Sen *warhved. romelic Tavis droze yvela kiloSi gadasula x-Si — Sen warxual, Sen warxued (araa gamoricxuli am SemTxvevaSi fonetikuri SesaZlebloba v-s mezoblobaSi h-s gadasvlisa x-Si). specialur literaturaSi dadasturebulia gaqvavebuli x-prefiqsiani saxelebi: x u c e s i , Sdr. svan. xoSa, megr. uCaSi `ufrosi~2, x e r T v i s i , nawarmoebi zmnisagan erTvis igi mas3, sakuTari saxeli x a x a r e (Sdr. zmnis forma a x a r e Sen mas)4. ar gveCveneba damajereblad, TiTqos naafiqsari x- am SemTxvevebSi navaraudevi xanmeti kilos gadmonaSTi iyos. x- am magaliTebSi saerTo qarTulis h-prefiqsisagan unda iyos miRebuli. h-prefiqsi am sityvebTan gaqvavebis Sedegad iqca ufro myar x spirantad. sayuradReboa amasTan dakavSirebiT is
1 a. SaniZe, haemeti teqstebi da maTi mniSvneloba qarTuli enis istoriisaTvis tfilisis universitetis moambe, III, gv. 366. 2 a. SaniZe, piris niSani brunvian sityvasTan qarTvelur enebSi, Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis Sromebi, t. I, gv. 388. 3 a. SaniZe, naSTebi mesame piris obieqturi prefiqsis xmarebisa xmovnebis win qarTul zmnebSi, tfilisis universitetis moambe, II, gv. 272. 4 s. janaSia, kidev erTi naSTi xanmetobisa Tanamedrove qarTulSi, weliwdeuli, 1923-1924, gv. 117.

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faqti, rom saqarTveloSi gaqvavebuli x-prefiqsiani x e r T v i s i sityva geografiuli adgilis mniSvnelobiT gvxvdeba ara mxolod im teritoriaze, sadac xanmeti kiloa navaraudevi, aramed iseT adgilebSi, sadac xanmetoba ar ivaraudeba, magaliTad, aWaraSi1. daskvna: Zveli qarTuli e. w. xanmeti da haemeti xelnawerebis arseboba ar unda iyos istoriulad ori kilos — xanmeti da haemeti kiloebis arsebobis anarekli. kerZod, xanmeti kilos arseboba qarTulSi istoriulad ar unda vivaraudoT. qarTulisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli unda yofiliyo meore subieqturisa da mesame obieqturi pirebis aRsaniSnavad h-prefiqsi, romelsac geneturad ukavSireben nivTTa klasis s-prefiqss. a m h - s z o g i l i t e r a t u ruli skola Zvel saqarTveloSi gamoxatavda haeTi, zog i s k o l a k i — x a n i T , rac SeiZleboda Sepirobebuli yofiliyo TviT am erTi da imave laringalur-faringaluri h bgeris dialeqturi TaviseburebiT.

(Semovida redaqciaSi 15. II. 1956). [quTaisis saxelmwifo pedagogiuri institutis Sromebi, t. XV, 1956, gv. 285-293]

1

ix. a. SaniZe, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 273.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

ruben enuqaSvili

xanmetoba-haemetobis sakiTxisaTvis qarTulSi
`xanmetoba-haemetobisa~ da maTi urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxebze ramdenime mosazrebaa gamoTqmuli1 (iv. javaxiSvili2, a. SaniZe3, arn. Ciqobava4, g. deetersi5, g. rogava6, T. goniaSvili7, al. oniani8, z. sarjvelaZe9). isini sayovelTaod cnobilia da amJamad ar ganvixilavT. aRvniSnavT mxolod, rom Cven viziarebT da Semdgoms msjelobaSi veyrdnobiT a. SaniZis Sexedulebas, rom gansxvaveba xanmet da haemet teqstebs Soris `imdenad qronologiuri ki ar aris, e. i. isini imdenad sxvadasxva epoqas ki ar ekuTvnian, ramdenad sxvadasxva kilos. xanmeti teqstebi erT kilozea dawerili da haemeti ki — meoreze~10. x prefiqsi xanmet ZeglebSi, xolo h prefiqsi haemet ZeglebSi ixmareba ori funqciiT: 1. meore subieqturi piris niSnad; 2. mesame obieqturi piris niSnad: a) micemiTobieqtian zmnebSi11, b) inian vnebiTebSi, c) ufroobiTi xarisxis formebSi. asea es ara marto xanmet da haemet ZeglebSi, aramed qarTuli enis istoriis mTel manZilze: meore subieqturi pirisa da mesame obieqturi piris aRmniSvneli prefiqsi erTi da igivea da TiTqos arc Cans raime safuZveli imis
1 am mosazrebaTa mokle mimoxilva mocemuli aqvs prof. S. ZiZgurs: `qarTuli dialeqtologiuri Ziebani~, 1970, gv. 28-31, n., agreTve, z. sarjvelaZe, xanmet da haemet teqstebSi dadasturebul zmnis pirian formaTa saZiebeli, 1971, gv. 26-41. 2 iv. javaxiSvili, axlad aRmoCenili uZvelesi qarTuli xelnawerebi da maTi mniSvneloba mecnierebisaTvis: tfilisis univ. moambe, II, 1922-23, gv. 313-370. 3 a. SaniZe, haemeti teqstebi da maTi mniSvneloba qarTuli enis istoriisaTvis: tfilisis univ. moambe, III, gv. 354-363. 4 arn. Ciqobava, xanmeti da haemeti teqstebis aRmoCenisaTvis: `Cveni mecniereba~, 3-4, 1924, gv. 65-86; n. agreTve: gramatikuli klas-kategoria da zmnis uRvlilebis zogi sakiTxi Zvel qarTulSi: ike, V, 1953, gv. 51-61. 5 G. Deeters, Das Kharthwelische Verbum, Leipzig, 1930, gv. 126. 6 g. rogava, xanmetobisa da haemetobis sakiTxisaTvis: quTaisis pedinstitutis Sromebi, XV, 1956, gv. 285-193; n. agreTve: iv. javaxiSvilis mier xanmeti Zeglebis aRmoCena da misi mniSvneloba qarTuli enis istoriisaTvis, ike, XVI, 1968, gv. 273-277. 7 T. goniaSvili, dialeqtizmebisaTvis hadiSis ZeglSi: enimkis moambe, IV, (2) 1938, gv. 115-162. 8 al. oniani, meore subieqturi da mesame obieqturi piris morfemaTa x da h segmentebis istoriuli urTierTmimarTeba: enaTmecnierebis institutis 26-e samecniero sesia, 1970, Tezisebi da muSaobis gegma. 9 z. sarjvelaZe, dasax. naSromi, gv. 361. 10 a. SaniZe, dasax. naSromi, gv. 361. 11 es formulireba (`micemiTobieqtian zmnebSi~) absoluturi ar aris: iribi obieqti, romelic mudam micemiTSi dgas, zmnaSi yovelTvis aRiniSneba, xolo orpirian gardamaval zmnaTa formebi I seriaSi yovelTvis ar warmogvidgenen obieqtur prefiqss, Tumca maTi obieqtic micemiTSia (ra Tqma unda, me-3 pirzea laparaki). n. amis Sesaxeb: a. SaniZe, subieqturi prefiqsi meore pirisa da obieqturi prefiqsi mesame pirisa qarTul zmnebSi, gv. 182-196; i. imnaiSvili, qarTuli enis istoriuli qrestomaTia, t. I, naw. II, 1971, gv. 63.

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savaraudeblad, rom SeiZleboda odesme es ori arsebiTad sapirispiro funqcia sxvadasxva formantiT aRniSnuliyo. ratom unda iyos aseTi viTareba morfologiuri elementebiT mdidar qarTul enaSi? am kiTxvas pirvelad Cven ar vsvamT. g. axvlediani aRniSnavda: `sruliad ar SeiZleba usafuZvlo skepticizmad CaiTvalos, Tu vityviT: vin icis, qarTuls, rogorc aseTs, SeiZleba arasodes ar hqonia S2 da O3 prefiqsebis xmareba aureveli, da marTlac: ra aris saerTo mniSvnelobis mxriv meore piris qvemdebaresa da mesame piris damatebas Soris, rom imaT prefiqsebs erTnairi fonetikuri saxe unda qondesT?1. gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa am mxriv a. SaniZis SeniSvna: `subieqturi niSani me2 pirisa da obieqturi niSani me-3 iribobieqturi pirisa erTnairi bgeraa, magram isini uTuod gansxvavebuli formebisagan momdinareoben. gansxvavebas maT Soris mwerlobis wina xanaSi unda hqonoda adgili: moRweuli werilobiTi Zeglebis enaSi es gansxvaveba arsad dadasturebuli ar aris~2. am mosazrebaze dayrdnobiT, vfiqrobT, rom S2 da O3 pirebis aRsaniSnavad erTi da imave prefiqsis gamoyeneba meoreuli unda iyos. gasaRebs ki `xanmetoba-haemetoba~ unda gvaZlevdes. ueWvelad ismis kiTxva: ratomaa haemet ZeglebSi var zmnaSi II subieqturi piris niSnad x (xar)?3. Cveni pasuxi aseTi iqneba: Tavdapirvelad, qarTveluri enebis erTobis adrindel safexurze, S2 da O3 pirebs sxvadasxva niSani gamoxatavda: S2 xaniT aRiniSneboda (romelic xar, xval, xved/xvid zmnebSi dRemde SemogvrCa), xolo O3 — haeTi. enaSi sakmaod xSiria S2 O3 kombinaciis SemTxvevebi4. Sdr. S2 O3 kombinacia qarTulSi: SexuabT, aRhumarTe, mivswere. maSasadame, qarTulisaTvis ar aris ucxo sxvadasxva piris aRmniSvneli ori prefiqsis xmareba zmnaSi. amdenad, savaraudebelia, S2 O3 kombinaciisaTvis gvqonoda: *SexhabT an *SehxabT; *aRxhmarTe an *aRhxmarTe; *mixhwer an *mihxwer5. a. SaniZe S2 O3 kombinaciisaTvis amosavlad varaudobs *SevxabT formas6. am varaudze dayrdnobiT Cvenc pirvelad dasaxelebul formebs miviCnevT amosavlad. x da h msgavsi bgerebia. raki formaTa erT wyebaSi isini erTad ixmarebodnen, analogiis Sedegad SeiZleboda xh prefiqsebi erTad aRmoCeniliyvnen iqac, sadac mxolod erT-erTi maTgani iyo saWiro da meores araferi esaqmeboda. es ki, ra Tqma unda, TandaTanobiT gamoiwvevda maTi Tavdapirveli funqciebis dabnelebas da maT Soris aRrevas. xar, xval, xved, xvid uZvelesi erTpiriani formebia, romlebSic arasdros ar iyo SesaZlebloba S2 O3 kombinaciisa, amitom x- meore subieqturi piris niSnad aq myarad idga da am zmnaTa
g. axvlediani, ori erTsaxe prefiqsi qarTulSi: `Cveni mecniereba~, 1, 1923, gv. 100. a. SaniZe, qarTuli gramatikis safuZvlebi, 1953, gv. 188. 3 aqve unda SevniSnoT, rom dabeWdil `haemeti teqstebis nimuSebSi~ val, ved / vid zmnaTa meore subieqturi piris formebi ara gvaqvs, Torem, savaraudebelia, rom maTac x- eqnebodaT niSnad, IX saukunisa da Semdegdroindel enaSi xom swored asea saqme. 4 dabeWdil xanmet da haemet teqstebSi 85-mde amgvari SemTxveva gvaqvs. 5 cnebebi, ra Tqma unda, pirobiTia. vTqvaT, weris cneba maSin, albaT, arc eqnebodaT. 6 a. SaniZe, naSTebi mesame piris obieqturi prefiqsis xmarebisa xmovnebis win qarTul zmnaSi: tfilisis universitetis moambe, II, 1922-23, gv. 280.
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metad xSiri xmarebis gamo aRar ganucdia aRrevis gavlena: `roca romelime morfologiuri tipi icvleba, am tipis zogierTma formam, romlebic myaradaa mexsierebaSi, SeiZleba ganagrZos Tavisi arseboba~1. aRrevas Sedegad mohyveboda is, rom damoukideblad xmarebis SemTxvevebSi orive prefiqss gamoiyenebdnen orive funqciiT, e. i. erTi mxriv, xani aRniSnavda rogorc S2, ise O3 pirebs; xolo, meore mxriv, haec aseve moiqceoda. SeiZleba am movlenis gamoZaxilad miviCnioT svanuris viTareba sadac S2 pirisaTvis ori formanti ivaraudeba: x da h prefiqsebi2. amgvari mdgomareoba isev x da h bgerebis msgavsebis gamo did xans ver gaigrZeboda. maTi erTad warmoTqma Znelia da erT-erTi maTgani unda dakarguliyo gamartivebisadmi enis mudmivi swrafvis gamo. vfiqrobT, rom dialeqtebis erT wyebaSi daikarga h da miviReT xanmeti kilo Tu kiloebi, dialeqtTa meore wyebaSi ki x daikarga da haemeti kilo Tu kiloebi warmoiqmna. haemeti kilo Tu kiloebi SeiZleba dasavlur arealSi vivaraudoT. Sdr. kolxuri, romelic `arsebiTad haemeti kilos Camomavalia~3. qronologiurad xh prefiqsebidan erT-erTis dakargva qarTul-kolxuri erTianobis xanaSi unda vivaraudoT, e. i. mas Semdeg, rac saerTo qarTvelurs svanuri gamoeyo. Tu Cveni msjeloba sworia, maSin SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom qarTuli enis ZeglebSi dadasturebuli viTareba, roca an x-, anda h-, s-, prefiqsebi ori funqciiT — S2 da O3 pirebis aRsaniSnavad gamoiyeneba, istoriulad meoreulia: Tavdapirvelad x meore subieqtur pirs aRniSnavda, xolo h — mesame obieqtur pirs. warmodgenili varaudi unda gvixsnides `xanmetoba-haemetobasTan~ dakavSirebul zogierT sakiTxs. kerZod, aRar gaCndeba kiTxva, ratom ara gvaqvs haemet ZeglebSi yvela Ziriseuli xanis nacvlad hae4 — Cveni mosazreba x da h bgerebis urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxs lokalurad, mxolod S2 da O3 pirebi prefiqsebSi warmogvidgens. es Tvalsazrisi haemet teqstebSi xar zmnis arsebobasac unda gvixsnides. Cven mxolod xanisa da haes urTierTmimarTebis garkveva vcadeT, amitom rigi sakiTxi, romelTac es saintereso problema moicavs5, ar gangvixilavs.

[Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti Zveli qarTuli enis kaTedris Sromebi, 19, 1976, gv. 177-180]

А. Мейе, Введение в сравнительное изучение индоевропейских языков, М., 1938, gv. 65. a. SaniZe, umlauti svanurSi: arili, 1925, gv. 182. n. agreTve, v. Tofuria, svanuri ena, I, zmna, 1931, gv. 5. 3 a. SaniZe, haemeti teqstebi da maTi mniSvneloba..., gv. 360. 4 h bgera qarTul ZirebSi Zalian iSviaTia. amdenad, sakiTxi, ratom ara gvaqvs xanmet ZeglebSi yvela haes nacvlad xani, arc ismis. Torem TavisTavad, es kiTxvac savsebiT kanonzomieria. 5 kerZod, samecniero literaturaSi aRZruli sakiTxebi: ra gansxvavebebia kidev haemet da xanmet kiloebs Soris: ratom gaqra xanmeti kilo ase ukvalod, ratom gvaqvs xanmet ZeglebSi haemeti formebi da a. S.
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arnold Ciqobava

mravlobiTobis aRniSvnis ZiriTadi principisaTvis qarTuli zmnis uRvlilebis sistemaSi ∗
qarTulsa (da sxva qarTvelur enebSic) zmnis uRvlileba, pirvel yovlisa, pirisa da ricxvis mixedviT cvlas gulisxmobs. pirebi aRiniSneba prefiqsebiT, — pirTa cvla prefiqsaciis principzea damyarebuli; es iTqmis obieqtis samive piris Sesaxeb (m-Txova me, g-Txova Sen, s-Txova mas) da subieqtis pirvelisa da meore piris Sesaxeb (v-ar me, x-ar Sen). erTaderTi piri, romelic sufiqss aCens, esaa subieqti mesame pirisa (ari-s, movid-a is, m-Txov-a me man...). mesame piris forma qarTuli zmnis uRvlilebis istoriaSi SedarebiT sxva pirebTan, yvelaze axali formaciisaa1. prefiqsebiT aRiniSneba piri mTis kavkasiur enebSic, rogoricaa: afxazuri, adiReuri. prefiqsacia aq miT ufro mkveTradaa gamoxatuli, rom erTdroulad ori da sami piris prefiqsi SeiZleba iyos warmodgenili zmnaSi. prefiqsebia gamoyenebuli kavkasiis mTianeTis im enebSic, romelTa zmnac gramatikuli klasebis mixedviT icvleba (mag., CaCnuri, xunZuri...): saxelis klas-kategoriis Cveneba aseT enebSi pirTa mixedviT cvlis adgils iWers. rogoria viTareba ricxvis aRniSvnis mxriv? saqme exeba mravlobiTs. mTis kavkasiur enebSi aqac prefiqsaciis principia ZalaSi: subieqtis mravlobiTobac da obieqtisac zmnaSi prefiqsebiTaa naCvenebi (afxazurSi, adiReurSi...); gramatikuli klasebic mravlobiTSi isev prefiqsebs iyenebs (CaCnurSi, xunZurSi...). amrigad, prefiqsaciaa saxelTa pirisa (resp. gramatikuli klasis) da mravlobiTi ricxvis aRniSvnis principi mTis kavkasiur enebSi. qarTulsa da danarCen qarTvelur enebSi pirze prefiqsebi miuTiTeben, ricxvi ki sufiqsebiT aRiniSneba: ax. qarT. Cven var-T Tqven x-ar-T isini ar-i-an megruli Cqi v-ore-T (`varT~) Tqva (o)re-T Tinefi re-n-a(n) svanuri nAY xv-Ari-d || l-Ari-d (varT, varsebobT) sgAY x-Ari-d ejYAr Ari-x

mravlobiTi, rogorc vxedavT, iyenebs piris imave prefiqsebs, rac mxoloobiTSi gvqonda, sufiqsebi martooden simravleze miuTiTeben; masTan,

* wakiTxulia moxsenebad saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademiis sazogadoebriv mecnierebaTa ganyofilebis VI sesiaze 24.IV.1942. 1 avtoris `mesame piris subieqtis uZvelesi niSani qarTvelur enebSi~: enimkis moambe, V-VI.

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pirvelsa da meore pirs erTi da igive sufiqsi aqvs (e.i. am or pirSi mravlobiTis aRniSvna erTi da imave xnovanebisaa, mesame pirSi ki saTanado sufiqsi SedarebiT axalia: am mxriv svanuris Cvenebaa sagulisxmo) 1. qarTvelur enebSi mravlobiTSi pirisa da ricxvis kategoria analizur wess misdevs: piris niSani igivea, rac mxoloobiTSi, ricxvs calke formanti aqvs. afxazursa da adiReurSi sinTezuri principia gatarebuli: ricxvica da piric erTi da imave prefiqsiTaa gadmocemuli; mxoloobiTis piris niSnebi mravlobiTSi ar meordeba: Sdr. me v-ar Sen x-ar Cven v-ar-T Tqven x-ar-T afxaz. sara sG-youp (var, varsebob, vimyofebi) uara u-youp... (Sen, mamakaci, imyofebi) hara ha-youp Siara SiG-youp

rogorc vxedavT, mravlobiTis pirveli da meore piris forma iyenebs `Cven~, `Tqven~ nacvalsaxelTa Zireul masalas formantad; es formantebi bunebrivad miuTiTeben saTanado pirsa da ricxvze. qarTvelur enebSi aseTi kavSiri nacvasaxelebsa da zmnis formantebs Soris ar dasturdeba, maincadamainc, mravlobiTSi (mxoloobiTSi pirveli piri da mesame piris subieqtiRa miuTiTeben xelSesaxebad nacvalsaxelTan zmnis formantis materialur kavSirze). subieqtis mravlobiTis aRniSvna vnaxeT. obieqtisa? amJamad, axal qarTulSi obieqtis mravlobiToba yovelTvis aRiniSneba pirvelsa da meore pirSi, mesame pirSi ki — im SemTxvevaSi, Tu zmna inversiulia da obieqti dasmulia micemiT brunvaSi; pirvelsa da meore pirSi, sul erTia, saxeli micemiT brunvaSi iqneba dasmuli, Tu saxelobiTSi, aRiniSneba; mesame pirSi ki SeiZleba iyos aRniSnuli micemiTi brunvis mravlobiToba, saxelobiTisa, aRuniSvneli rCeba:

Cven gv-Txov-a Tqven g-Txov-a-T maT [s-Txova

gv-aqo g-aqo-T aqo....]

Cven gv-i-Txovia Tqven g-i-Txovia-T maT u-Txovia-T

gv-yavs g-yav-T h-yav-T 2

Zvel qarTulSi micemiTis mravlobiToba zmnaSi ar Canda (pirveli piris sakiTxs aq ganze vtovebT):

1 amave TvalsazrisiT afxazurisa da adiReuris mravlob. mesame piric analogiur daskvnebs gvikarnaxebs. amaze aq ver SevCerdebiT. 2 ufro dawvrilebiT ix. avtorisve: ra Taviseburebebi axasiaTebs qarTuli enis agebulebas~, V: Jurn. `kultur. aRmSenebloba~ 1930, 7/8; `martivi winadadebis evoluciis ZiriTadi tendenciebi qarTulSi~: mecn. akad. moambe, t. II, 1-2,3; `riT aris warmodgenili mravl. saxel. dasmuli Zv. qarTulSi?~ tf. univer. moambe, t. IX (1928); `martivi winadadebis problema qarTulSi~, I, tf.1928, gv. 212-25.

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g-Txova Sen, Tquen —igi... g-aqebs Sen, Tquen...

g-iTxovies Sen, Tquen— igi... g-yavs Sen, Tquen igi.... u-Txovies mas, maT — igi... h-yavs mas, maT — igi.... 2

magram Tu obieqti saxelobiTSi iyo da mas -n awarmoebda, misi mravlobiToba zmnaSi iseve iyo naCvenebi, rogorc subieqtisa: v-adide igi adide adid-a ` ` v-adid-en igini adid-en adid-n-a ` ` hyavs mas igi — hyvan-an mas igini gyavs Sen igi — g-yvan-an Sen igini

obieqtis mravlobiTobis Cveneba, rogorc aqedan Cans, sufiqsebs ekisreboda: es iyo: -en → n sufiqsi Zvel qarTulSi — obieqt. saxelob. -T ` axal qarTulSi — obieqt. micem., saxelob. es -T sufiqsi igivea, rac subieqtis mravl. pirvelsa da meore pirSi xmarebuli -T (var-T, x-ar-T...: obieqtis mravlobiTobis Cveneba subieqtis mravlobiTis formants ekisreba)... -en sufiqsic igive unda iyos, rasac subieqtis mesame pirisaTvis viyenebT: akeTeb-en... zanursa da svanurSi obieqtis mravlobiTis aRniSvna imave safuZvelze xdeba, rac axal qarTuls axasiaTebs: Tu obieqti saxelobiTSia, mravlobiTi zmnaSi ara Cans, Tu — micemiTSia, aRiniSneba imave SemTxvevebSi, sadac qarTulSi aRiniSneboda (ix. zemoT). gansxvaveba am mxriv ara gvaqvs; sxvaoba sufiqsSi dasturdeba: simravles aRniSnavs aq mesame piris subieqtis sufiqsi (da ara meore da pirveli pirisa): -an, -es — zanurSi, -x — svanurSi: Sdr. ax. qarT. g-aqv-T, aqv-T, Wan.-megr. g-i-Run-an u-Run-an svan. j-uRva-x x-uRva-x

amgvarad, obieqtis mravlobiTobis aRsaniSnavad xmarebuli sufiqsis mxriv, qarTvelur enebs orgvari norma aqvT: qarTuli (S2, 1 – -T) da zanuri (S3 – -an, -es); ukanasknels svanuric misdevs (S3 – -x). geve zanuri normaa, gurulsa da qvemoimerulSi rom mJRavndeba: gaqv-en (=gaqv-T), aqv-en (aqv-T)... gqond-en (gqonda-T), qond-en (qonda-T)... aqamdis ganxiluli masala mowmobs, rom zmnis uRvlilebaSi ricxvze sufiqsi miuTiTebs: es Tanabrad exeba subieqtis mravlobiTsac da obieqtis mravlobiTsac, saxelobiTi brunvis aRniSvnasac da micemiTis xmarebis SemTxvevasac, Zveli qarTulis faqtebsac da axali qarTulis viTarebasac, Wanur-megrulsac da svanursac. amgvarad, mravlobiTis aRniSvna qarTvelur enaTa zmnis uRvlilebaSi sufiqsaciis princips iZleva iseve, rogorc piris aRniSvnaa prefiqsaciaze damyarebuli.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

erTaderTi gamonaklisia pirveli piris mravlobiTi: aq sufiqsi saWiro araa, prefiqsi gamodis pirisa da ricxvis niSnad: Tqven g-yav-T ` g-iTxovia-T, maT h-yav-T ` uTxovia-T — magram: Cven gv-yav-s — magram: Cven gv-iTxovia...

ukve Zvel qarTulSic SevxvdebiT aseT prefiqss, Tumca Zveli qarTulisaTvis es araa erTaderTi warmoeba: paralelurad -m prefiqsic ixmareba: guyavs Cuen || myavs Cuen... sailustracio magaliTebi Zveli qarTulisa: -gu prefiqsi micemiTi brunvis mravlobiTis Sesabamisad: moguÀcemiso: ... ityodes mze da wvima... misgan moguÀcemiso... aTon. 306,1. guwadis... gusuris: C~nca guwadis da gusuris xilva¡ misi... boln. 82,9. daguSjian: ... Cuen daguSjian kuerTxni ese C~nni... kim. 138,20. gang¢yofs: ...romelsa maRliT gang¢yofs yovelTa morwmuneTa... sasul. 205,1 guaqus: ... ara¡ guaqus sityua¡ Rirsi qebisa¡... sasul. 97,5 ... mog¢Zien o~o: warmarTni ese r~lTa ara guaqus mwyemsi... boln. 7,26. guaswavebs: ... da esrÀT guaswavebs T¢T igi Tavadi o~i... boln. 19,5. daguemorCilebian: ... ityodes o~o eSmaknica daguemorCilebian saxeliTa SeniTa ... ad. 125, b 2. Seguyvaneb: ... da nu Seguyvaneb C~n gansacdelsa o~o... ad. 13 a 2. daguemorCilneT: ... raTa TquÀn CuÀn daguemorCilneT... aTon. 315,34. guevno... mog¢go... gurq~: ...C~n ganvereniT da ara guevno da v~r moviqeciT berisa mog¢go da gu~rqa... kim. 24,5. mog¢£des... g¢Txres: ... mog¢£des C~n orni kacni... da g¢Txres... kim. 35,17. miguavlen: ...gevedrebi w~o R~Tisao nu miguavlen C~n siRrmesa mas ufskrulTasa... kim.191,10. gang¢Re: ¥ kaco gang¢Re Cuen jurRmuli ese... warty. À 11. meox gueyav: Rirso mamao evT¢mi... meox gueyav Cuen... sasul 38,15. moguaniWe: awca moguaniWe madli... sasul. 106,19. -gu prefiqsiani mravlobiTs: momaniWe me... moguaniWe Cuen formebi ganasxvaveben TiTqos mxoloobiTisagan

maswave me... guaswave Cuen...

mwadis me... guwadis Cuen

Sefardeba aq iseTivea, rogoric axal qarTulSi. axali qarTulisagan gansxvavebiT, Zv. qarTulSi m-prefiqsi maSinac gvaqvs, roca Cuen saxeli micemiTis funqciiTaa: warmiZR¢s Cuen... warmoZR¢s Cuen zecad... sasul. 60,2.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

maiZuleben ` : ...Cuenca morwmuneTa maiZuleben yofad saqmisa maTisa... warty. mÀ 4. ganmiRebs... magebs Cuen: ... ganmiRebs... samoTxesa da kualad magebs Cuen munve... sasul. 56,3. damSji... momageb Cuen: ... nu daSji monaTa SenTa da nu momageb codvaTa CuenTaebr... warty. mÀ 11. maqus Cuen: ityoda ufalo ara maqus Cuen kadniereba¡... warty. mz 22. ... o~o £orci misi maqus Cuen saWmlad da sisxli misi maqus Cuen sasumlad... warty. le 28. Semaxuedreben... merCian Cuen: ... sxuasa rasme Sromasa Semaxuedreben r~lni ara merCian C~n... kim. 46,16. mswavlis: igi viTarca RmerTi da mama¡ mswavlis Cuen... warty. le 29. magineb: moZR¢ar magas ra¡ ity¢ C~nca magineb... ad. 129 a 2. ganmeSora Cuen: ...ganveSoreniT Cuen RmerTsa da ganmeSora Cuen RmerTi... warty. kb 28. marqu Cuen: ... aw marqu C~n v~r jer-giCs... ad. 47 b 2 damiwera ` : ... moZRuar mose ese damiwera C~n... ad. 147 b1. momxeda ` : wyalobiT momxeda Cuen... sasul. 65,28. warmiZRua ` : ... da warmiZRua Cuen ... sasul. 66, 11. gamomecxada ` : ...gamomecxada C~n da momixuna mowyalebiTa T¢siTa ... kim.45, 15. momca ` : ... momca C~n mociqulman ... habo, 23, 18. aRmiSena ` : ... Sesakrebeli ese man aRmiSena C~n ... ad. 116, a 2. miyves... miyo Cuen:... da miyves Cuen yovelive nebisaebr maTisa...warty. T3. ... samarTliT ese yoveli miyo Cuen... warty. l 24. SememTx¢a Cuen: ... samarTlad ese yoveli SememTx¢a Cuen... warty. kb 18 momigo ` : ... momigo C~n abukura... kim. 166, 4 momec ` : ... o~o momec C~n igi... arimaT. 37, 25. meZina ` : ... waripares v~e C~n meZina... ad. 64 b 2. miTxar ` : ... iosef rCeulo miTxar C~n vin ars ese... sasul. 174,8. mewios ` : ... mswrafl mewios Cuen wyaloba¡ misi ... warty. mT 26. momces ` : ... mimcna Cuen monebasa ra¡Ta momces Tavisufleba ... iqve, lb 32. mrquas ` : ... mrquas C~n ra¡saT¢s ara grwmena misi... ad. 146 b1. m-aqu-s Cuen da gu-aqu-s Cuen Zveli qarTulisaTvis paraleluri warmoebaa: maqus igivea, rac mxoloobiTSi gvqonda: maqus me — maqus Cuen (Sdr. gaqus Sen — gaqus Tquen). rac Seexeba meore variants (gu-aqu-s Cuen), mas mravlobiTis prefiqsad Tvlian specialur literaturaSi.

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n. marisaTvis gu- aris `mravlobiTis specialuri nacvalsaxeluri fuZe~: gu ← gu -e¢ 1. g. deetersi aRniSnavs: pirveli piris obieqtis mravlobiTi orgvarad gadmoicemao: gamravlobiTebuli O1 -Ta da gu-prefiqsiT; pirveli saSualeba ufro Zveli Canso 2. a. SaniZe gu-prefiqss mravlobiTisad miiCnevs. `adrindel ZeglebSi guprefiqsian formebs iSviaTad vxvdebiT. iq ufro erTi forma gvxvdeba maniani~ 3. ra safuZveli gvaqvs xsenebuli gu-prefiqsi mravlobiTis niSnad davsaxoT? gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs, rogorc Cans, axali qarTulis Cvenebas. aq gv-prefiqsi upirispirdeba m-prefiqss: m-aqvs me — gv-aqvs Cuen ... m-iTxra me — gv-iTxra Cuen... axali qarTuli zmnis uRvlilebis sistema cxadyofs, rom gv-prefiqsi mravlobiTis formantia: -T, sufiqsi gv-prefiqsian formebs ar daerTvis: aqvs mas — aqv-T maT g-aqvs Sen — g-aqv-T Tqven m-aqvs me — gv-aqvs Cuen: `gvaqvT Cven~ SeuZlebelia; esaa morfologiuri sistemis obieqturi logika. amitom, rodesac Zvel qarTulSi maqus Cuen-is gverdiT guaqus Cuen Segvxvdeba, masSi igive gageba Segvaqvs, rac axali qarTulis `gvaqvs Cven~-s Seefereba. fsiqologiurad es savsebiT gasagebia, magram sakiTxavia: Seefereba Tu ara gu-prefiqsis aseTi gageba Zveli qarTulis morfologiuri sistemis obieqtur logikas? amis gasarkvevad sakontrolo saSualebad gamogvadgeba is SemTxvevebi, sadac zmnaSi aRniSnulia mravlobiTis saxelobiTSi dasmuli obieqti. mravlobiTobas aseT SemTxvevaSi gadmogvcems sufiqsi 4: -en- (sruli saxiT) da -n (xmovandakarguli): en → n 5. sanimuSod oriode magaliTi: a. C u e n saxelob. — m- — (-e)n: ganmaaxlna Cuen: ...ganmaaxlna Cuen pirvelsave saxesa uxrwnelsa mowyalebiT... sasul. 59,19.

Марр Н., Грам. древнелит. груз. яз., 1925, § 113 а, gv. 92. Deeters G., Das kharthw. Verbum, 1930, § 56, gv. 34: ...”das pluralisierte S1”... lafsusi unda iyos: O1 igulisxmeba. 3 a. SaniZe, Zv. qarT. ena — a. SaniZe, a. baramiZe, i. abulaZe: Zv. qarT. ena da literat. 1939 (meeqvse gamocema), § 40, gv. 297-98. 4 es exeba -n-ian saxelobiTs; -eb-ian saxelobiTs zmna ar eTanxmeba ricxvSi, sul erTia, subieqti iqneba saTanado saxeli Tu obieqti (ix. avtoris `martivi winadadebis problema Zv. qarTulSi~, gv. 251-256). 5 ix. avtoris werili: `riT aris warmodgenili mravlobiTis saxelobiTSi dasmuli Zv. qarTulSi?~ tf. univer. moambe, t. IX (1928), gv. 107-119.
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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

aRmadginna ... damsxna... madidna Cuen: ...aRdga da Tana aRmadginna, Tana damxsna da Tana madidna didebiTa miT samaradiso¡Ta... sasul. 299,8. aRmadginna ... macxovnna... aRmiyvanna Cuen: ... mis mier dacemulni aRmadginna da macxovnna simdabliT moslviTa. aRmiyvanna Cuen maRalTa Sina... sasul. 110,1. aRmirCina... myvna Cuen: ...RmerTman zeciT gardamogagdo Sen da Cuen aRmirCina da umjobes Sensa myvna man mxoloman... warty. le 23. ganmaSiSulna Cuen: ...ganmaSiSulna Cuen aqa samoselTagan da safaseTa... warty. lg 6. mimcna Cuen: da nacvlad pativisa mimcna Cuen Seuracxebasa...warty.kb 25. Semkriben ... ganmarinen Cuen: da viTarca ra¡ menaveT-moZRuarman £elovanman Semkriben Cuen yovelni myudrosa mas navsayudelsa da ganmarinen danTqmisagan... sasul. 134 1. Rirs myven Cuen: mxoloo naTelo waruvalo Rirs myven Cuen naTelsa Sensa ganwmedilni... sasul. 409, 24. aRmomiyvanen Cuen: quesknelTagan queyanisaTa aRmomiyvanen Cuen... warty. la 20. ganmaaxlen Cuen: da ganmaaxlen Cuen wyalobiT wyliTa... sasul. 222,5. Semiwyalen Cuen: saxierebiTa SeniTa Semiwyalen Cuen... warty. kÀ 13. ganmaZlieren Cuen: ganmaZlieren mosavni Senni... sasul. 295,3. mi£snen Cuen: da etyodes o~o mi£snen Cuen, r~ warvwymdebiT ... mT. VIII 25 beneS. ganmamdidrne Cuen: ra¡Ta ganmamdidrne daglaxakebulni urCebiTa... sasul. 84,12. Semiwyalnes ... gamomiyvannes Cuen: ra¡Ta ... Semiwyalnes Cuen ... da gamomiyvannes satanjvelisa amisgan... warty. ¡ 11. myvnes ... ganmanaTlnes Cuen: ra¡Ta wmida myvnes da ganmanaTlnes wyliTa... sasul. 219,22. b. Cuen — saxelobiTi — gu - — (-e)n- : aRguamaRlna... daguamdablna Cuen: ...ra¡meTu ufalman aRguamaRlna Cuen...da nacvlad amaRlebisa daguamdablna Cuen...warty. kb 22,1, 24. Seg¢wynarna ... g¢stumrna Cuen: ... mRdelT-moZRuarman mis adgilisaman keTilad Seg¢wynarna da g¢stumrna... aTon. 318-319. Seg¢yuarna Cuen: da o~n C~n m~n i~¢ q~n Seg¢yuarna C~n... saxismety.11,3. migucna Cuen: da migucna Cuen £elsa mterTa CuenTasa... warty. 3,6. g¢xilna Cuen: xolo man... g¢xilna ra¡ maxloblad Cuenda movida... aTon. 335,6. dagubaden Cuen: r~lni Sen ukudavo xatad Senda dagubaden... sasul. 169,2. ganguanaTlen Cuen: da ganguanaTlen naTlis RebiTa SeniTa m£snelo... sasul. 237,20. dag¢faren Cuen: misiTa meoxebiTa dag¢faren mgalobelni Senni... habo 51,8. guyven Cuen: ...Seismine oxa¡ misi da mk¢dr guyven sasufevelsa... habo 51. 90

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

...Tquen monawile guyveniT wmidaTa locvaTa TquenTa... xanZT. id,14. dag¢cven Cuen: dag¢cven o~o mowyalebiTa £elisa Senisa¡Ta... kim. 52,35. mog¢Zien Cuen: o~o ivne da mog¢Zie C~n cxovarni ese SecTomilni... boln. 7,21; ... Seguewien, guacxovnen, Seg¢wyalen da dag¢cuen Cuen RmerTo SeniTa madliTa... habo 46; o~o ivne da guacxovnen Cuen... bol. 7,28. ganguwmiden... ganguaTavisuflen Cuen: ...guasxure Cuen wyali cxoveli... mxolod Sobilo da ganguwmiden Cuen codvaTagan ... da ganguaTavisuflen £elmwifebisagan bnelisa... sasul.108,19. guyvnes ... ganguaSornes Cuen: ra¡Ta.. keTilad ganagos Cuenica ese cxoreba¡ da ara £uebul guyvnes, arca ganguaSornes sanatrelTa maT mamaTa... aTon. 5,15; ... ra¡Ta ara ugulebels guyvne monani Senni... xanZT. ¡d 20. g¢xilnes Cuen: brZaneba¡ gamosrul iyo ra¡Ta gare filopatsa g¢xilnes... aTon. 334,27. SevadaroT erTmaneTs: gan-m-aaxl-n-a Cuen da gan-gu-aaxl-n-a Cuen: Cuen obieqti mravlobiTSia; obieqtis mravlobiToba zmnaSi -n (← -en-) sufiqsiTaa warmodgenili: gan-m-aaxla me — gan-m-aaxl-n-a Cuen, rom obieqti pirvel pirSia, amaze m- miuTiTebs; rom is mravlobiTSia, — -n sufiqsi. pirsac da ricxvsac Tav-Tavisi formanti moepoveba. asevea maSinac, roca obieqtad Tquen (meore piri), gina igini (mesame piri) gveqneba: man gan-m-aaxla me — ` gan-g-aaxla Sen — ` gan-aaxla igi — man gan-m-aaxl-n-a Cuen ` gan-g-aaxl-n-a Tquen ` gan-aaxl-n-a igini

ganvixiloT axla meore varianti: man gan-gu-aaxl-n-a Cuen; -a sufiqsi subieqtisaa (man); obieqtiTaa gamowveuli gu- da -n; mravlobiTobas aq isev -n gadmogvcems; ris niSania gu? pirveli pirisa iseve, rogorc m: sxva araferia aq gamosaxatavi, raki mravlobiTobis sufiqsi -n calke mogvepoveba. gu- rom mravlobiTis formanti iyos, sruliad gaugebari iqneboda gan-gu-aaxl-n-a tipis warmoebaSi -n (||-en) sufiqsis gamoyeneba (isev obieqtis mravlobiTis saCveneblad). daskvna erTia: Zvel qarTulSi gu-prefiqsi araa mravlobiTis pirveli piris prefiqsi, roca es pirveli piri saxelobiTSia. magram Tu gu-prefiqsi araa saxelobiTSi dasmul obieqtTan (Cuen), mravlobiTis prefiqsi, arc micemiTSi dasmul obieqtTan (Cuen) iqneba igi am funqciis mqone. amrigad: gu-prefiqsi Zvel qarTulSi obieqtis mravlobiTobas arc iseT magaliTebSi aRniSnavs, rogoricaa: gan-gu-aaxl-n-a man Cuen da arc iseT magaliTebSi, romlis nimuSicaa: mo-gu-aniWa man Cuen... 1.

1 gakvriT es debuleba wamoyenebulia avtoris werilSi: `martivi winadadebis ZiriTadi tendenciebi qarTulSi~: mecn. akad. moambe, II, 1-2 (1914).

91

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

ki, magram iqneb Cuen nacvalsaxelis erT-erTi semasiologiuri variantia gu-sTan dakavSirebuli (magaliTad inkluziuri): -n- sufiqsma simravle gamoxata, gu-prefiqsma misi nairsaxeoba: gan-gu-aaxl-n-a Cuen — me da Sen (Tquen)... egreT wodebuli inkluzivi. Sesabamisad gan-m-aaxl-n-a eqskluzivi iqneboda: ganmaaxlna me da is (isini) 1. aseTi ram araa mosalodneli: inkluzivis formanti mravlobiTobis niSanic aris, mravlobiTobis sxva sufiqsi aseT SemTxvevaSi zedmetia da uadgilo. maSasadame: Tu gu-prefiqsi inkluziuri (anda: eqskluziuri — principSi es sul erTia) Sinaarsisaa, mravlobiTobis -n- sufiqsisaTvis adgili ara rCeba; magram raki -n-s sakiTxi (sxva faqtebis mixedviTac) eWvmiutanlad wydeba, gu-prefiqsis mravlobiToba gamoricxulia: arc inkluziuri da arc eqskluziuri Sinaarsi mas ar SeiZleboda hqonoda Zvel qarTulSi. inkluziv-eqskluzivis Sesaxeb zemoT wamoyenebuli debuleba svanuris Cvenebas emyareba: obieqtis inkluzivi da eqskluzivi svanurSi martooden prefiqsebs iyenebs: gu-Rve (`gvaqvs me da Sen~), n-uRve (`gvaqvs me da mas~); araviTari damatebiTi niSani mravlobiTisa zmnis formaSi ara Cans (da arcaa mosalodneli). sxva mdgomareobaa subieqtis inkluziur da eqskluziur formaTa warmoebisas: l-Ari-d (`varsebobT me da Sen~), xv-Ari-d (`varsebobT me da is~). aq prefiqsebic garCeulia (l- — xv-) da mravlobiTis -d sufiqsicaa warmodgenili. magram qarTulSi `Cven~ obieqtis sakiTxs vixilavT da am mxriv obieqtis inkluziuri da eqskluziuri formebis warmoebis princips (svanurSi) unda gaewios, cxadia, meti angariSi, vinem subieqtis analogiur formaTa agebis wess. da, rac mTavaria, swored es subieqtis inkluziv-eqskluziv formaTa warmoebaa auxsneli svanurSi: maT (kerZod, inkluzivis) warmoebas, saxeldobr, mravlobiTis -d sufiqsis darTvas axlavs gadaulaxavi dabrkolebebi (amis Sesaxeb ix. qvemoT). erTi sityviT, inkluziuri da eqskluziuri formebi mravlobiTis Sinaarss iZleva sagangebo sufiqsis gareSe, TviT prefiqsebiT. asea es svanurSi, sadac inkluzivisa da eqskluzivis garCevis udavo faqti gvaqvs. ase unda yofiliyo es Zvel qarTulSic, Tu xsenebul morfologiur kategoriaTa naSTebs vivaraudebdiT gu- || m-prefiqsian formebSi (miT ufro, rom svanurSica da qarTulSic inkluziurobis sakiTxi erTsa da imave afiqsTan — gu-sTan aris dakavSirebuli). amgvarad, Zv. qarT. gan-gu-aaxl-n-a tipis warmoebis analizi amTaviTve gamoricxavs imasac, rom gu- mravlobiTis aRmniSvnelad davsaxoT, da imasac, rom mas mravl. pirveli piris inkluziuri gageba davakisroT. gu- iseve araa mravlobiTis prefiqsi, rogorc m- . amaSi zedmetad gvarwmunebs gu- || m-prefiqsTa xmareba erTi da imave Cuen nacvalsaxelis gadmosacemad.

1

aseTi varaudi, marTlac iyo wamoyenebuli, rogorc amas qvemoT vnaxavT.

92

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

a. Cuen micemiTis funqciiTaa: moguaniWe — aRmisrule (vis?) Cuen: ... raJams... moguaniWe morwmuneTa windi mk¢drobisa Cuenisa¡. m£snelo. raJams aRmisrule uJamod qadebuli mterisa moSurnisa¡ da RmerT hyav buneba¡ kacobrivi... sasul. £À 7. dag¢wera — aRmZravs (vis?) Cuen: ... romelmanca RmrTis metyueliTa eniTa dag¢wera moqalaqoba¡ antoni netarisa¡ da aRmZravs yovelTa galobad RmrTisa... sasul. 241, 26-28. momageT—mogueciT—momizReT Tquen (vis?) Cuen: ... aw ukuÀ momageT CuÀn boroti ese nacvali, sixaruli moxarulTa Tana moguÀciT CuÀn, tirili mtiralTa Tana momizReT CuÀn... aTon. 340,5. STagubera—mrqua (vis?) Cuen: ...maSin STagubera C~n o~n C~nm~n i~¢ q~n da mrqua C~n... arimaT. 37, 26. guamxileb—miyof—momageb (vis?) Cuen: ... ufalo nu gulis wyromiTa guamxileb Cuen, aramed wyalobiTa SeniTa ganmarinen1 Cuen, ufalo nu codvaTa CuenTaebr miyof Cuen nuca uSjuloebaTa CuenTaebr momageb Cuen, aramed saxierebiTa SeniTa Semiwyalen1 Cuen... warty. kÀ, 12. moguawono—miTxar (vis?) Cuen: ... ¥ monazono, ra¡ ukue moigono r~ xar Sen pasuxTagan uRono, aw ra¡ sityua¡ moguawono miTxar C~n ukueTu iwono... kim. 167,37. guesma—dameca (vis?) Cuen: ... xolo C~n v~r guesma £~¡ maTi dameca C~n z~a SiSi didi... kim. 36,22 metyoda—gamog¢Targmanebda (vis?) Cuen: v~r igi metyoda C~n gzasa zeda da v~r igi gamog¢Targmanebda C~n wignTa... xanmeti leqcionari: univer. moambe, IX, gv. 335 (lk XXIV, 32). b. Cuen saxelobiTis funqciiTaa: dagubaden—momiyvanen—(vin?) Cuen: romelmanca £eliTa magiT saRmrTo¡Ta dagubaden miwisagan xatad Senda da arara¡sgan momiyvanen arsebad da Semmose ...samoseli... sasul. 144,19. dagubadna—mi£snnes— (vin?) Cuen: viTarmed ufali mowyale ars da ara dagubadna Cuen satanjvelad aramed man mi£snnes Cuen... warty. nT, 24. Semkriben—aRguzarden—dag¢teven—dagufanCen— (vin?) Cuen: ra¡ ese SemamTx¢e CuÀn viTarmed sada¡ Semkriben da aRguzarden anu aw sada dag¢teven da dagufanCen... aTon. 337,35. gutanjnes—ganmarinnes— (vin?) Cuen: gutanjnes Cuen siciviTa da yinuliTa aqa ra[¡]Ta mun ganmarinnes Cuen RrWenisagan kbilTa¡sa... warty. lg 3.

1

saxelobiTSi dasmul Cuen nacvalsaxelis magaliTebs qvemoT davubrundebiT.

93

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

dagubaden—miziaren— (vin?) Cuen: r~lni Sen ukudavo xatad Senda dagubaden da miziaren uxrwnelsa d~bsa... sasul. 169,6. g. Cuen erT SemTxvevaSi saxelobiTia, meoreSi — micemiTi: gu- || m- : damaviwyen (vis?)... mog¢£senen (vin?) Cuen: nu damiviwyeb Cuen madidebelTa SenTa mamao mog¢£seneni winaSe RmrTisa... sasul. 163,20. guamxileb (vis?)...ganmarinen (vin?)...momageb (vis?)... Semiwyalen (vin?) Cuen: ufalo nu guliswyromiTa SeniTa guamxileb Cuen aramed wyalobiTa SeniTa ganmarinen Cuen ufalo nu codvaTa CuenTaebr... momageb Cuen, aramed saxierebiTa SeniTa Semiwyalen Cuen... warty. kÀ 12. damdva (vis?)... aRmadginna (vin?)... guetyoda (vis?) — Cuen: maSin damdva £eli T¢si y~lTa z~a TiToveulad C~nganTa da aRmadginna C~n da guetyoda esrÀT ... arimaT. 35. myven (vin?) ... moguaniWe (vis?) — Cuen: gmadlobT Sen o~o Rirs myven C~n codvilni ese da moguaniWe C~n cxovreba¡... kim. 148, 9. momi£sene (vin?)... meox gueyav (vis?) — Cuen: momi£sene (?) m£snelo sasufevelisa aw meox gueyav madidebelTa SenTa ... habo, 51,12. momec (vis?)...mog¢teven (vis?) ...Seguyvaneb (vis?)... mi£snen (vin?)— Cuen: puri Cueni samaradiso¡ momec Cuen dRÀs da mog¢teven C~n Tananadebni Cuenni... nu Seguyvaneb C~n gansacdelsa o~o a~d mi£snen C~n borotisagan... ad. 13 a2. mixilna (vin?) ...moguegeba (vis?)... mog¢kiTxna (vin?)... Seg¢wynarna (vin?)... Semiyvanna...aRmiyvanna...dagusxna (vin?) — Cuen: x~ man mixilna C~n mimavalni mowrafed moguegeba da mowled mog¢kiTxna da sixaruliT Seg¢wynarna da Tqua: R~Tman keTilad mogiyvanna: da Semiyvanna da senakad aRmiyvanna da vyavT locva¡ da dagusxna... kim. 165, 21. damSji (vis?)...dagubaden (vin?)... moguaqcien (vin?) — Cuen: nu damSji saxiero monaTa SenTa ... romelni dagubaden miwisagan da kualad moguaqcien miwad... sasul. 274,20. warmodgenil sailustracio masalaSi Cuen nacvalsaxels xan micemiTis funqcia aqvs, xan — saxelobiTisa (zogjer kidev erTsa da imave frazaSi erT zmnasTan saxelobiTis rols asrulebs, meoresTan — micemiTisas), magram am sityvas (Cuen) mniSvneloba erTi da igive aqvs: Semkriben da aRguzarden Cuen... STagubera da mrqua Cuen... nu damiviwyeb da ... mog¢£senen Cuen... vinaa es `Cuen~? me da Sen, Tu me da is? pirvelsa da mesame magaliTSi CuenSi `me da is~ (isini) unda igulisxmebodes: meore pirs mimarTavs mTqmeli: me da is Semkribe da aRguzarde-o... nu damiviwyeb da mog¢£seneni-o...

94

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

magaliTSi — STagubera da mrqua Cuen — `Cuen~ nacvalsaxelis Sinaarsi ise naTeli araa: vis STabera da vis uTxra man? me da Sen (Tqven) Tu me da mas? ufro pirveli unda igulisxmebodes saTanado konteqstSi, vinem meore... magram ase iqneba ganmartebuli `Cuen~ Tu ise, garkveuli iqneba misi mniSvneloba Tu bundovani, es ar wyvets sakiTxs, sakiTxs wyvets sxva ram: zmnaTa wyvileulebTan erTi da igive Cuen gvaqvs; da es erTi da igive Cuen erT zmnaSi m-prefiqsiT gadmoicema, meoreSi — gu-prefiqsiT (sufiqsebis mxriv sxvaoba araa): Semkriben da aRguzarden ... STagubera da mrqua... ras mowmoben xsenebuli faqtebi? mxolod imas, rom ar SeiZleboda m- da gu-prefiqsebi sxvadasxva (anda gansxvavebuli) mniSvnelobisa yofiliyo imisaTvis, vis kalamsac saTanado frazebi ekuTvnis (e.i. SeuZlebelia Cuen sityvis mniSvnelobis nairsaxeobaze vifiqroT da am niadagze avxsnaT m- da gu-prefiqsTa xmareba). maS, ratom ixmareboda paralelurad orive varianti (guaqus || maqus Cuen), Tu mniSvnelobis mxriv sxvaobas adgili ara hqonda? imitom, ratomac erTsa da imave ZeglSi, magaliTad, `vefxistyaosanSi~ erTi meoris gverdiT gvxvdeba isi da igi, — erTi mniSvnelobisa, magram sxvadasxva dialeqturi warmomavlobis erTeulebi. am nacvalsaxelebs axal saliteraturo qarTulSic vipoviT, magram srul sinonimebad maT ver miviCnevT: is msazRvreladac gamodgeba, subieqtad da obieqtadac gamoiyeneba, igi-s msazRvrelad ver vixmarT: Sdr. is movida — igi movida; is kaci — `igi kaci: es ukanaskneli axali saliteraturo qarTulis TvalsazrisiT dialeqtur faqtadaa gaazrebuli (Zveli qarTulisaTvis `kaci igi~-a norma!). `vefxistyaosanSi~ isi — igi sintaqsuri funqciis mixedviT sruli sinonimebi Cans (Tuki, saerTod, SesaZlebelia sruli sinonimi gvqondes metyvelebaSi). ai, oriode nimuSi igi || isi-s msazRvrelad xmarebisa: igi: ... igi veli gairbina, laSqarTagan gaekida... t, 172,1; komisiis teqsti, univer. gamoc. 1937w. 1. ...usisxlod movkal igi yma, Tumca £mda sisxlisa deniT... t. 557,4. ...avTandil igi mindori oTx-axmiT gardaiara... t.178,1 ...igi Wiri ar unaxavs ar ramins da arca vissa... t 183,3. isi: ... rome cudad ar moRorde, isi kacni gRalatoben... t.434,1. ...ufero qmnilni minaxvan, vardni da isi iani... t.223,2. ... isi diaci aqa zis, mnaxavi kacTa mravalTa... t.1092,1. ... ras geqadda isi kaci? meswrafebis metis metad... t.1119,2. rogorc cnobilia, is nacvalsaxeli Zveli qarTulisaTvis ucxo iyo, mxolod igi ixmareboda, (magram gvqonda ese: ese— ege— igi)... axalma qarTulma is gaabatona, igi-c ixmareba, magram misi gamoyeneba SezRudulia. warmoSobis mixedviT ese — isi da ege — igi ori sxvadasxva dialeqtis kuTvnilebaa. s-iani
1

orTografia aRdgenilia (£, umarcvlo u).

95

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

varianti TandaTanobiT Zlierdeba, g-iani sustdeba; magram orive gvaqvs axal qarTulSi, Zv. qarTulSic `aq myofis~ aRsaniSnavad ukve gvqonda ese... analogiuri viTareba Cans gu- || m-prefiqsTa SemTxvevaSic: es prefiqsebi sxvadasxva dialeqturi wrisa unda iyos; maTi bedic qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriaSi cvalebadia: TvalsaCino cvlilebaa momxdari maTs gamoyenebaSic (rasakvirvelia, analogia zogad momentebs exeba). gu- da m- Zvel qarTulSi iyo; axalma qarTulma mxolod gu- icis; mvarianti mravlobiTisa axali qarTulisTvis iseve ucxoa, rogorc isi nacvalsaxeli Zveli qarTuli ZeglebisaTvis (V-X ss.). am mxriv erTi faqtia sayuradRebo: `vefxistyaosnis~ enam ar icis `maqus Cuen~ tipis warmoeba. erTaderTi formaa gu-prefiqsiani varianti. es niSnavs: XII saukunidan saliteraturo qarTuli wyvets kavSirs im dialeqtur samyarosTan, romelsac Semohqonda `maqus Cuen~ varianti. Cven saSualeba gvqonda, sxvagan aRgveniSna, rom erTgvari gardatexa saliteraturo qarTulis istoriaSi SemTxveviT ar modis XII saukuneze. Tbilisidan arabebi gandevnili arian (1122 w.), TbilisSi gadmoinacvla politikuri da kulturuli cxovrebis centrma da ukve daviT aRmaSeneblis droidan aRmosavleT saqarTvelos cocxali dialeqturi metyvelebaa saorientacio: mTeli rigi axali enobrivi faqti Tavs iCens saliteraturo qarTulSi — dasabami eZleva axal saliteraturo qarTuls. `vefxistyaosanSi~ am axali saliteraturo enis nimuSia warmodgenili 1. `maqus Cuen~-is rigis warmoeba ar icis aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTis im dialeqtebmac ki, romelTa arqaizmebic Zveli qarTulis zogi normis dacvamdisac ki midis (aseTia, mag., xevsuruli). `maqus Cuen~ tipi aRikveTa qarTuli saliteraturo enis sinamdvilidan mas Semdeg, rac gawyda kavSiri samxrul da dasavlur qarTul kiloebTan. am tipis warmoeba am kiloebidan (anda, yovel SemTxvevaSi, am kiloTa meSveobiT) unda Sesuliyo saliteraturo Zvel qarTulSi. amJamad igi daucavs zanurs: Wanursa da megrulSic axlac mravlobiTis pirvel pirSi m-prefiqsi gvaqvs obieqtis aRsaniSnavad, oRond axali qarTulis msgavsad mravlobiToba sufiqsiT aRiniSneba: Wan. ma miRun — Cqun miRun-an `Cven <<m-aqv-en>> — Sdr. Tqven gaqvT (gaqv-en), maT aqvT (aqv-en)... ricxvSi maT, Tqven, Cven nacvalsaxelebTan zmnis SeTanxmeba SedarebiT axali movlenaa. aseve meoreulia Cqun miRun-an: Zvelad aqac unda yofiliyo Cqun m-iRu-n =`Cuen maqus~, e.i.: Cuen maqus zanuri normaa, zustad rom vTqvaT, is normaa, romelic zanurma Semogvinaxa, magram zanurTan axlo mdgomi qarTuli kiloebisTvisac damaxasiaTebeli unda yofiliyo...
im movlenaTa Sesaxeb, romlebic axali saliteraturo qarTulis normebad unda vcnoT, `vefxistyaosanSi~, ix. avtoris werili `dialeqtizmebis sakiTxisaTvis `vefxistyaosanSi~ — enimkis moambe III, 1938 (gv. 209-227). iq, sxvaTa Soris, naTqvamia: `Zv. qarTuli leqsikisa da morfologiur-sintaqsuri sistemis Segueba am axal dialeqtur sinamdvilesTan, saliteraturo qarTulis gadayvana axal liandagze — esaa procesi axali saliteraturo qarTulis Camoyalibebisa... es procesi aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi mimdinareobs. quTaisidan politikuri centris tfilisSi gadmosvlas gulisxmobs da mas mosdevs~ (gv. 227). CamoTvlilia axali qarTulis damaxasiaTebeli movlenebi `vefxistyaosnis~ enaSi gv. 224-226.
1

96

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

gu- sxva qarTuli kilos kuTvnilebaa. ra kiloa es? amJamad mxolod is SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom: 1. es kilo qarTuli saliteraturo enis aRnagobaSi erTi uZvelesi ingredientia, 2. misi faqtebi svanuris morfologiaSic mTels Sres qmnis, — saziaroa qarTulisa da svanurisaTvis (magram ucxoa zanurisaTvis). aq CvenTvis mTavari isaa, rom gu- elementi, zemoTqmulis Sesabamisad, Zveli kuTvnilebaa saliteraturo qarTulisa, gacilebiT ufro Zveli, vinem <<maqus Cuen>> tipi... ra sabuTi gvaqvs amisaTvis? yvelaze Zvel ZeglebSi gu- ufro xSiria, Semdeg m- tipi ikafavs gzas, XII saukuneSi ki es mocile `erTbaSad~ qreba. `xanmeti mravalTavis~ gamomcemels, a. SaniZes samarTlianad aqvs SeniSnuli, rom am ZeglSi `pirveli piris obieqtur prefiqsad mr. ricxvSi erTxelac ar aris naxmari m-, aramed yvelgan gu-~1. saWirod vTvli moviyvanoT saTanado magaliTebi: ...ukueTu... gunebavn queyanisa amis sawuTro¡sa sargebeli...xanmeti mravalTavi: univ. moambe, VII, gv.125. ...raodenisa bevreulisa vedrebisa g¢Rirs r~lsa Jamsa... Seiwirvis... iqve. ... miveaxlebiT r~imca guawrafebda miaxlebad sasufevelsa... iqve, gv.126. ...romel ese dideba¡ moguaqus... iqve. ...v~a pavle mociqulman guaswava... iqve, gv.131. ...gamog¢Cnda C~n daSjilTa macxovrad... iqve. gv.132. ...gamog¢Cnda R~i ... da kulad monebad guewoda... iqve. ...r~lni... siglaxakesa Sevrdomil viyveniT mefobadve mog¢yvanna... iqve. gamog¢brwyinda da CC¢lTa mixmadla esev~ri...iqve. gv.133. ...winawametyuelo d~T g¢Txar C~n vin ars ese dRes momavali... gv.133. ... aw yrmano g¢TxarTRa C~nca vina¡ T~qn ...gv.134. ... xrcxuenian da g¢Txroben... gv.137. ... xayenebT da (xety¢T)... nu guamxileb C~nsa mas uSjuloebasa... gv.139. ... C~nca z~a guac sity¢s migeb(a¡)... gv.150. vTqvaT, am teqsts qadagebis xasiaTi aqvs, mTqmeli `Cveno~ rom ambobs, msmenelsac gulisxmobs: guaswrafebda miaxlebad — vis? me da Tquen... xrcxuenian da g¢Txroben — vis? me da Tquen... SeiZleba Tu ara amis mixedviT davaskvnaT: gu-prefiqsi yvelgan imitom gvaqvs, rom yvelgan Cuen nacvalsaxeli erTi da imave mniSvnelobisaa, saxeldobr, inkluziurisaao (Cuen=me da Tquen)... es rom ase iyos, gu-prefiqsis siZvele ki ar damtkicdeboda, aramed misi inkluziuri Sinaarsi cxadi da xelSesaxebi gaxdeboda... samwuxarod, amas ver vityviT:

1 a. SaniZe, `xanmeti mravalTavi~, univ. moambe, VII, 1926, gv.117. Sdr. imave avtoris zogadi debuleba: `adrindel ZeglebSi gu prefiqsian formebs iSviaTad vxvdebiT, iq ufro erTi forma gvxvdeba m-aniani~ (Zveli qarT. ena § 40).

97

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

sxva magaliTebs rom Tavi davaneboT, sami SemTxvevaa, sadac Cuen SeuZlebelia gavigoT, rogorc `me da Tquen~. ...winaswarmetyuelo d~T g¢Txar C~n... (vis? me da maT) ...aw yrmano g¢TxarTRa C~nca... (vis? me da maT) ...(xety¢T) nu guamxileb... (vis? me da maT) meore piri Tquen (||Sen), ver Semova Cuen sityvis mniSvnelobaSi, es gamoricxulia: am meore pirsaa, rom mimarTaven... maSasadame, samsave SemTxvevaSi Cuen uciloblad eqskluziuri Sinaarsisaa, zmnaSi ki gu-prefiqsi gvaqvs: 15 magaliTidan —samSi! gu-prefiqsi danarCen 12 magaliTSic isevea inkluziuri pirveli piris prefiqsi, rogorc am samSi. erTferovnebis mizezi siZvelea: rac unda iyos, VIII saukunis aqeT am Zeglis daTariReba ar gadmoiwevs... aseve damaxasiaTebelia gu-prefiqsi iv. javaxiSvilis mier gamocemul xanmet teqstebSi: ...xityodes va¡ Cuenda r~... mog¢yuannes Cuen aqa ixileT ZliT ese sikudili v~r ese SeguamTxueven Cuen: gevedrebiT Tquen g¢Cuene Cuen gza¡ r~a x¢tyodeT... univ. moambe, II (1923), gv.390. <<Cuen>> ukanasknel magaliTSi arsebiTad gansxvavdeba Tavisi mniSvnelobiT pirveli ori SemTxvevisgan (g¢Cuene vis? — me da maT, <<Sen>> gamoricxulia); guprefiqsi ki am zmnaSic isevea gamoyenebuli, rogorc danarCen orSi. analogiuri viTarebaa haemet teqstSi: miugo simon petre da h~qa o~o C~n gurwmena da g¢cnobies r~ Sen xar qÀ... a. SaniZe, `haemeti teqstebis nimuSebi~: univ. moambe, III, gv.388. xanmetsa da haemet ZeglebSi ori SemTxvevaRa dasturdeba m-prefiqsisa mravlobiTSi. ...dedaTaca vieTme C~nganTa damak¢rves 1 C~n... (lk XXIV 22): `xanmeti leqcionari~: univ. moambe, IX (1929), gv. 334. ...da igini xityodes urTierTas, anu ara guli Cueni gan£urvebul xiyo Cuen Sovris. v~r igi metyoda C~n gzasa zeda: da v~r igi gamog¢Targmanebda C~n wignTa (lk XXIV 32): iqve, gv.335. ukanaskneli SemTxveva sainteresoa im mxriv, rom erTi da igive Cuen (SerTuli winadadebis or zmnasTan) sxvadasxva prefiqsebiTaa gadmocemuli, e.i. m- da gu- Tanabar funqciisadaa miCneuli. es funqcia, ra Tqma unda, arc inkluzivis Cvenebaa da arc eqskluzivisa: `Cuen~ aq udris — konteqstis mixedviT — `me da Tquen~-s (mowafeebi `xityodes urTierTas~). amdenad aq m-prefiqsi srulebiT uadgilo unda yofiliyo. adiSis oTxTavSi saTanado adgili (lk XXIV 32) ase ikiTxeba:

1

asea es nabeWd oTxTavSica da adiSis oTxTavSic.

98

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

...ara gulni C~nni gan£urvebul iyvnes v~e igi guetyoda C~n da v~r gang¢martebda C~n wignebsa... nabeWd oTxTavSi (romelic xSirad opiza-tbeTis teqsts misdevs) gvaqvs: ...viTar igi metyoda Cuen gzasa zeda da viTar igi gamomiTargmanebda Cuen wignTa (lk XXIV 32). rom SevupirispiroT es sami Cveneba erTmaneTs, aseT suraTs miviRebT: a d i S i T: guetyoda... da gang¢martebda Cuen... x a n m e t i l e q c i o n a r i T: metyoda... da gamog¢Targmanebda Cuen... nabeWdi oTxTaviT: metyoda... da gamomiTargmanebda Cuen... I. orivegan gu-, II. m- || gu-, III. orivegan m-. Cveni varaudiT, esaa mSvenieri ilustracia am prefiqsTa gamovlenis dinamikisa Zveli saliteraturo qarTulis istoriul ganviTarebaSi, oRond im SeniSvniT, rom martooden gu-prefiqsi SeiZleba gvqonoda, magram martooden m-prefiqsis xmarebamdis saqme ar misula: X-XI saukuneTa manZilze — m-prefiqsis moxSirebisda miuxedavad — gu-prefiqsi mainc ZalaSia. m-prefiqsis xmarebis dinamika SeiZleba gaviTvaliswinoT oTxTavis mixedviT; Sesadareblad viRebT adiSisa da opiza-tbeTis (beneSeviCis gamoc.) teqsts; gadaweris TariRis mixedviT maT mcire manZili aSorebs (adiS. 897w. — opiz. 915 w. — tbeTi 995 w., gadaTargmnilia ki es Zeglebi gacilebiT ufro adre; adiSis teqsti mainc didi siZvelisa Cans). 1. adiS.: mou£des mas mowafÀni misni da hrques g¢Txar C~n igi RuarZlisa¡ da agarakisa¡... mT XIII 36, tab.29 a2 opiza-tbeT.: miTxar... Cuen... mT XIII 36: beneSev. 2. adiS.: hrqua maT rasa aqa sdegiT dRe yoel cudad: hrques mas r~ aravin dag¢dgina Cuen... mT XX7, tab. 42 b1 opiza-tbeT.: ...aravin damidginna Cuen... : beneSev. 3. adiS.: x~ sulelni igi etyodes brZenTa maT gueciT C~nca zeTi... r~ sanTelni C~nni daguSrtebian miuges brZenTa maT da hrques nu uk¢e ver gueyos C~n da T~qn ...mT XXV 8-9, tab. 54 a1-2. opiza-tbeT.: ...meciT C~n zeTisa...sanTelni daSrtebian... ver gueyos Cuen da T~qn ... mT XXV 8-9: beneSev. saWiroa SevCerdeT am ukanasknel magaliTze. opiz-tbeTis `meciT C~n~ eqskluziuri gagebisaa da formac (m-) TiTqos Sesabamisia; `ver gueyos C~n da T~qn~ inkluziuri mniSvnelobisaa da gu-c, erTi SexedviT, Tavis adgilasaa. amgvarad, opiza-tbeTis es adgili imis sarwmuno magaliTi Cans, rom m- da gugansxvavebuli funqciisaa: erTi — eqskluziurisaa, meore — inkluziurisa. magram sakmarisia amas SevupirispiroT saTanado adgili adiSis oTxTavidan, rom xsenebul faqtebs sxvagvari gaSuqeba mieces: adiSis teqstSi aq yvelgan gu-prefiqsia: gueciT... gueyos... daguSrtebian ukanaskneli zmna op.-tbeTis teqstSi erTpiriania: sanTelni daSrtebian), e.i. araviTari eqskluzivi da 99

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

inkluzivi, araviTari sxvaoba formaSi, Tumca `Cuen~ nacvalsaxelis mniSvneloba gueciT...daguSrtebian zmnebTan sxvaa (eqskluziuria: Tquen mogueciT me d maT), gueyos zmnasTan sxva (inkluziuria: gueyos Cuen da Tquen)... Cuen nacvalsaxelis mniSvnelobis sxvaobas, rogorc vxedavT, zmna araviTar angariSs ar uwevda, yvelgan gu- ixmareboda. Semdeg erT-erT zmnaSi gu-s adgili m-prefiqsma daiWira (sxva dialeqturi norma SemoiWra!) da am SemTxvevis gamo Seiqmna iseTi mdgomareoba, TiTqos inkluziv-eqskluzivis garCeva hqonoda opiza-tbeTis teqsts mxedvelobaSi! warmovidginoT, rom esa Tu is mwerali amJamad xmarobs formebs: s-Canxar, s-dgaxar, s-tiri... da amasTan: s-Cans, s-dgas, s-tiris... SeiZleba Tu ara aqedan davaskvnaT: meore piris subieqtur prefiqsad es mwerali s-prefiqss xmarobso (am zmnebSi)... aseTi daskvna usafuZvlo iqneboda: s-Canxar formaSi s iseve araa piris niSani, rogorc s-Cans formaSi prefiqsi s piris niSnad ar miiCneva... arc erTsa da arc meore SemTxvevaSi s-prefiqsi subieqtis niSani araa im pirisTvis, vinc s-Canxar, s-Cans formebs xmarobs. s-prefiqsis namdvil Rirebulebas meore pirTan (s-Can-xar) Suqsa fens mesame piris forma (s-Cans); da es savsebiT kanonzomieria: pirTa formebi sistemas qmnian, sistemis monawile yoveli wevris adgili ki sxva wevrTan mimarTebas gulisxmobs, — esaa erT-erTi (magram ara erTaderTi!) ZiriTadi TvisebaTagani sistemaSi Semavali faqtebisa. rac s-prefiqsis Sesaxeb iTqva, savsebiT vrceldeba gu- da m-prefiqsebzedac. kidev oriode magaliTi: 4. adiS.: hrques mas moguec C~n r~a davsxdeT marjul Sensa... mkz X 37, tab. 87 a2-b1. opiza-tbeT.: ... momec Cuen r~a davsxdeT... beneSev. aqac `umarTebulo~ gu- (moguec: unda yofiliyo me da maT — momec) ufro axal ZeglSi `marTebuli~ formiTaa Secvlili mo-mec Cuen (me da maT). gamodis, rom inkluziv-eqskluzivis garCeva mecxre saukuneSi ar unda yofiliyo da meaTe saukuneSi ufro mkveTri gamxdara! namdvilad ki amaSi sxva tendencia isaxeba; gu-prefiqsis adgils iWers m-, — sxva dialeqturi wris norma. an kidev: 5. adiS.: da evedrebodes mas da hrques miguavlinen C~n Rorebsa imas... mkz V12, tab. 73 a1. opiza-tbeT.: ...mimavlinen Cuen Rorebsa imas... beneSev. 6. adiS.: giZlavs Tu ra¡me Seg¢ewie C~n da wyaloba yav C~n zeda... mkz IX, 22,83 b2. opiza-tbeT.: Semewien Cuen da wyaloba yav Cuen T¢s... 7. adiS.: moZRuar mose dag¢wera C~n... mkz. XII 19 tab.91 a1. opiza-tbeT.: moZRuar mose esre damiwera Cuen... 8. adiS.: ...man giCuenos T~qn qori didi da mun dagumzadeT C~n... mkz. XIV, 15 95 b1. 100

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

opiza-tbeT.: ...da mun mza miyavT Cuen... 9. adiS.: RaRat yves da Tques miwyalen C¢en i~¢Zeo d~Tiso x~ erman man Sehrisxna maT r~a dadumnes maT ufro¡s RaRat yves da T~qs g¢wyalen C~n Zeo d~Tiso da dadga i~¢£ma uyo maT da hrqua: ra¡ gnebavs da giyo T~qn hrques mas o~o r~a aRmexunen C~n T¢alni... mT. XX, 30 -33, 43 b2. aq <<eqskluziuri Cuen.>> miwyalen, aRmexunen formebs kargad Seewyoboda, iqve rom ar gvqondes g¢wyalen imave Cuen nacvalsaxelisaTvis: miwyalen || g¢wyalen Cuen... opiza-tbeT.: ... Semiwyalen C~n ... ufr~s RaRadebdes Semiwyalen C~n o~o ... aRguexilnen Tualni Cuenni... aq pirveli zmna m-prefiqsiT meordeba, magram gu-prefiqsi aRmoaCnda mesame zmnas (aRguexilnen), romelic adiSSi m-prefiqsiani iyo (aRmexunen)... gu-prefiqsi inkluziur Cuen nacvalsaxelisa konteqsts ar efardeba: brmebi yvirian — Cven Tvali agvixileo! visac mimarTaven, vinc unda auxilos Tvali, is am Cven-Si ver Semova, Tvalxilulia... 10. adiS.: puri Cueni samaradiso¡ momec Cuen dReÀs da mog¢teven C~n Tananadebni Cuenni... da nu Seguyvaneb C~n gansacdelsa o~o a~d mi£snen C~n borotisagan... mT VI 11-13 tab.13 a2 (ix. gv.103). ori gu-prefiqsi mainc gamoeria, Tumca Sesabamisi Cuen arafriT ar gamoirCeva im ori sxva Cuen-isagan, zmnaSi rom m-prefiqss aCens... opiza-tbeTisaSi oTxsave SemTxvevaSi m-prefiqsi gvaqvs: ... puri [ese] Cueni arsobisa¡ momec Cuen dRes da momiteven Cuen Tananadebni Cuenni... da nu Semiyvaneb Cuen gansacdelsa a~d mi£snen Cuen borotisagan... adiSis oTxTavis gu-prefiqsi ara erTgan opiza-tbeTis oTxTavSic amave saxiTaa daculi. masTan did wil SemTxvevaSic Cuen nacvalsaxelis garkveul (inkluziur) gagebasTan raime kavSirze laparaki SeuZlebeli xdeba: mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs is SemTxvevebi, sadac meore pirisadmi mimarTvaa gadmocemuli da, maSasadame, es meore piri gamoricxulia (Cuen=me da maT... da ara: me da Tquen)... gu-prefiqsi TiTqos ar gamoricxavs inkluziur gagebas: adiS.: ... da urTierTas ityodes r~ puri ara guaqus...da hrqua maT ra¡saT¢s ganhzraxavT. r~ puri ara guaqus... mkz VIII 16, tab. 81 a2. op.-tb.: ...ara guaqus... adiS.: etyodes mas da hrques ganuteve ese. r~ Segudgs C~n da RaRadebs... mT XV 23, tab. 33 b1. op.-tb.: ...Seg¢dgs Cuen... adiS.: hrques mas naTlisRebad g¢Zlavs ... mT XX 22, tab.43 b1. op.-tb.: ... maT hrques Zal g¢c... adiS.: ...vTquaT Tu zeciT iyo: gurquas rad ara grwmena misi uk¢eTu vTquaT kacTagan iyo g¢eSinis erisagan... maT XXI 25,45 b1-2. 101

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

op.-tb.: gurquas Cuen...gueSinis erisa amis... adiS.: da Tqua basrobs ra¡saRa gu£ms mowame...mT XXVI 65, tab. 60 a1. op.-tb.: ra¡sa[Ra] g¢£man mowameni... gu-prefiqsTan gamoricxulia inkluziuri gageba [Cuen= me da igi ||igini (me da mas || maT)]: adiS.: ...da hrques moZRuar gunebavs r~a ra¡ca gTxooT: miyo C~n... mkz X 35, tab. 87 a 2. op.-tb.: ...moZRuar gunebavs r~a ra¡ca gTxovoT miyo Cuen... beneSev. adiS.: ... moviden sxuani igi qalwulni da ityodes o~o o~o ganguRe C~n ... mT XXV 11, tab. 54 a 2. opiza-tbeT.: ... gang¢Re C~nca ... beneSev. adiS.: miugo petre da hrqua mas gamoguTargmane C~n igavi ege... mT XV 12 tab. 54 a 2 opiza-tbeT.: ...gamog¢Targmane Cuen igavi ege... iqve: beneSev. adiS.: da hrques moZRuad gunebavs Sengan saswaulisa xilva¡... mT XII 38, tab. 26 a 2. opiza-tbeT.: ...gunebavs Sengan... iqve, beneSev. adiS.: ...evedrebodes mas da ityodes ganTuguasxam C~n g¢brZane Cuen mislvad koltsa imas Rorebisasa... mT VIII 31, tab.17 a 2-b1. opiza-tbeT.: ...ukueTu ganguasxam... g¢brZane Cuen...iqve, beneSev. adiS.: x~ maT h~qs mas ara guaquns aqa garna xuTi puri da ori Tevzi... mT. XIV 17, tab. 31 b1. opiza-tbeT.: ... ara guaqus aqa... adiS.: hrekeT mas da ety¢ed. g¢winawarmetyuelbd C~n q~À ... mkz XIV 65, tab. 98 a 2. opiza-tbeT.: g¢winawt~ylebd Cuen... adiSis oTxTavidan Sesadareblad aRebuli gvqonda maTe da markozi: mxolod es nawilia opiza-tbeTis oTxTavidan gamocemuli (beneSeviCis mier). saTanado masalis SedarebiTi analizi zeviTaa mocemuli 1. amis Semdeg interesmoklebuli ar iqneba zogi cifrobrivi maCvenebelic davurToT. O1 mr. adiSisaSi gvaqvs: m- —13, gu- —39. opiza-tbeTisaSi ` : m- — 21, gu- — 25. SeniSvna: 6 SemTxvevaSi zmnas mravlobiTis pirveli piris obieqtis forma ara aqvs:

1 Cven ganzraxuli gvqonda, oSkis dabadebis (X s.) teqstic gangvexila (SedarebiT), magram arc am Zeglis fotopiri, arc xelnaweri gadaRebuli aqedan, CemTvis xelmisawvdomi ar aRmoCnda.

102

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

adiS.: sulgrZel meqmen Cuen z~a (mT XVIII 29) — opiza-tbeT.: sulgrZel iqmen Cem z~a... `puri ara guaquns (mT. XVI 7) — opiza-tbeT.: puri ara moviReT... `damasworen C~n igi (mT XX 12) — opiza-tbeT.: swor Cuenda hyven igini ... da a.S. amrigad, m- || gu-prefiqsian formaTa ricxvi opiza-tbeTisaSi adiSis magaliTebTan SedarebiT eqvsiT naklebia. amisda miuxedavad, garkveuli dinamika Cans m- || gu-s sixSiris SefardebaSi: adiSis 13 : 39, opiza-tbeT.: 21 : 25 gu- ise Warbadaa gamoyenebuli adiSis ZeglSi, rom kaci ifiqrebda: esaa Semzadeba XII-XIII saukunis saero literaturis normisa, roca m-, rogorc O1 mravl., sruliad gamqralia... adiSis Zegli, rogorc es eWvmiutanlad gaarkvia korn. kekeliZem, 897 welsaa gadawerili (da ara XII s. dasawyisSi, rogorc winaT zogi mkvlevari fiqrobda)... amgvarad, gu-s siWarbe IX saukuneSi gadaweril ZeglSi dasturdeba. mere: xanmetsa da haemet ZeglebSi gu- an erTaderTi formantia O1 mravl. anda TiTqmis erTaderTi: m- – O1 mravl. aq gacilebiT ufro iSviaTia, vinem X-XI saukunis ZeglebSi. es niSnavs: XII saukunis saero literaturis normis Semzadebad ver miviCnevT gu-prefiqsis sixSires adiSis oTxTavSi: aq es arqaizmia. am konteqstSi SeiZleba movigonoT sxvagvari arqaizmebiT mdidari iseTi Zeglis Cveneba, rogoricaa `udabnos mravalTavi~ (saqarTvelos muzeumis xelnaw. 1139). am ZeglSi m- || gu-prefiqsTa Sefardeba aseTia: 25 : 114. samwuxarod, teqstis Sinaarsi imgvari Sedarebis SesaZleblobas ar iZleva, rogoric oTxTavis masalis mimarT gamoviyeneT. SeuZliaT gviTxran: iqneb, inkluziuri SinaarsiT naxmari Cuen-aa teqstSi gamoyenebulio. ra Tqma unda, ara (uadgilobis gamo aq sailustracio masala ar mogvyavs). `iakob xucesis Jamis wirvaSi~ (xelnaw. 86, gamocemulia korn. kekeliZis mier) pirveli piris obieqtis simravlis aRsaniSnavad naxmaria: m- — 18-jer, gu- — 35-jer. aRsaniSnavi isaa, rom am 35 SemTxvevidan 31-Si gu- moudis iseT zmnas, romlis subieqtic meore piria da, maSasadame, Cuen obieqti inkluziuri SinaarsiT SeuZlebelia iyos naxmari: Seg¢wyalen Cuen 12,8; 41,3; 41,6 mog¢£senen Cuenca 57,8 dag¢cven Cuen 80,5; 83, 15 daguawynaren Cuen 85,5 guakurTxen 83,2 ganguanaTlen 104,1 guasminen 17,7 moguxeden 25,3 mogumadle 25,5; 122,9 103

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

moguaniWe 5,17; 40,12 da sxv. Zveli qarTulis paraleluri formebidan Seg¢wyalen || Semiwyalen Cuen ... guaqus || maqus Cuen gu-prefiqsiani formebia saliteraturo qarTulis TvalsazrisiT ufro Zveli. amrigad, Zveli qarTuli Zeglebis monacemTa analizma im daskvnamdis migviyvana, rom: 1. gu-prefiqsi mravlobiTis niSani iseve ar yofila Zv. qarTulSi, rogorc m-: Tu Cuen saxelobiTis funqciiT iyo naTqvami, misi mravlobiToba yovelTvis aRiniSneboda, magram sufiqsiT (gan-gu-aaxl-n-a man Cuen): sul erTi iyo m-prefiqss vixmardiT, Tu gu-prefiqss. Tu Cuen micemiTis funqciiT iyo aRWurvili, misi mravlobiToba aRuniSvneli rCeboda iseve, rogorc Tquen, maT nacvalsaxelTa (micem.: aqus maT, g-aqus Tquen, m-aqus || gu-aqus Cuen). mravlobiTis prefiqsad gu- Zvel qarTulSi imitom gveCveneba, rom axal qarTulSi aqvs am formants aseTi mniSvneloba: guaqus Cuen-Si gu-s miCneva mravlobiTis niSnad — esaa axali qarTuliseuli gagebis gadatana Zvel qarTulSi, e.i. istoriuli perspeqtivis daucveloba. rogor iqca gu- mravlobiTis prefiqsad? imave gziT, rogoradac -an, -en, -es sufiqsebi iqca mesame piris mravlobiTis formantebad, Tumca Tavdapirvelad eseni martooden simravlis maCvenebelni iyvnen. 2. gu- da m- sxvadasxva dialeqturi wris mieraa Semotanili saliteraturo qarTulSi. am ukanasknelSi gu-prefiqsi uZvelesia, m-prefiqsia minarevia. m-prefiqsis moxSireba X-XI saukuneebze modis; XII saukunis saero literaturis enaSi m-prefiqsi (maqus Cuen tipi) qreba; maqus Cuen warmoeba zanuria, ufro zustad, zanuriseburia. 3. guaqus || maqus formaTa sxvaobas inkluziuri da eqskluziuri gageba safuZvlad Zvel qarTulSi ar udevs. calkeuli faqtebi, sadac m- eqskluziursa da gu- inkluziur gagebas iguebs, SemTxveviTia; is miRebulia martivi albaTobis niadagze: gvaqvs ori afiqsi, vvaraudobT or funqcias: SeuZlebelia, zogan damTxveva ar miviRoT (zeviT, adiSisa da opiza-tbeTis magaliTTa Sedarebisas, vnaxeT, Tu rogor xdeba es). aseTia saqmis viTareba, Tu Zveli qarTulis faqtebs, qarTuli enis monacemTa mixedviT, qarTuli enis istoriuli ganviTarebis perspeqtivaSi davafasebT. magram sxvagvari STabeWdileba SeiZleba miviRoT, Tu svanuris Cvenebas davemyarebiT: svanurSi pirveli piris mravlobiTSi garCeulia inkluzivi da eqskluzivi, — es exeba subieqtis pirvel pirsac da obieqtisasac. mere, rac xazgasasmelia, obieqtis inkluziuri forma gv-prefiqsiTaa gadmocemuli. swored svanurze dayrdnobiT iZleodnen Zv. qarTulis formis Tavisebur ganmartebas: gu-|| m-prefiqsTa gamoyeneba inkluziv-eqskluzivis gamovlenaao. `vinaidan Zv. qarTuls O1 mravl. ori forma aqvs, romlebic, marTalia, mniSvnelobis mixedviT ukve aRar gansxvavdeba, SesaZloa vivaraudoT, rom in104

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

kluziur da eqskluziur prefiqsTa sxvaoba Zvelia da mxolod svanurs aqvs SemorCenilio~ — wers g. deetersi 1. ` gU - da n- formantebTan dakavSirebiT Zveli qarTulis gu da m- gvagondeba. ukanasknelTa Soris, albaT, ise iyo roli ganawilebuli, rogorc dRes aris svanurSi. gvgonia, rom gU - Seesabameboda gu-s xolo n- — m-s. megrulSi gu ara Cans, albaT, daikarga~ — vkiTxulobT v. Tofurias monografiaSi svanuri zmnis Sesaxeb2. amave sakiTxs specialuri werili uZRvna karp. donduam 3. avtoris daskvna aseTia: Zveli qarTulis ZeglebSi darCenilia inkluziv-eqskluzivis kvali. inlkuzivis niSania gu-prefiqsi, eqskluzivisa — m. gu-prefiqsi `metad Zveli prefiqsia svanursa da Zvel qarTulSi~. Zv. qarTulSi gu-s `ukve aRebuli aqvs Tavis Tavze odesRac eqskluziuri m-prefiqsis funqcia. gu-s Seuferebeli gamoyenebis magaliTebi xSiria, meqskluzivisTvis ufro Tanamimdevruladaa gamoyenebuli...~ avtors aRniSnuli aqvs, rom aris SemTxvevebi, sadac gu- || m-prefiqsebi erTsa da imave Cuen-ze miuTiTeben, magram SeumCneveli rCeba miguavlinen, g¢wyalen rigis formebi, sadac obieqtis mravlobiToba sufiqsiT aris gadmocemuli da gu-s saamiso funqcia ara aqvs, arc saTanado daskvnebia gakeTebuli. karp. donduasTvis iseve, rogorc v. TofuriasTvis amosavalia svanuris viTareba, svanurSi inkluzivisa da eqskluzivis kategoriaTa arseboba. es bunebrivicaa: qarTvelur enaTa Soris svanurs rigs SemTxvevaSi ZvelisZveli movlenebi aqvs SemorCenili. magram inkluziv-eqskluzivis formaTa warmoebas svanurSi imdeni sirTule axlavs, rom, sanam mas ar moevleba, svanuris es kategoriebi qarTulis Zvels viTarebas ver gamogvirkveven. pirvel rigSi, pasuxi unda gavceT kiTxvaze: pirveladi, Zveli movlenaa svanurSi inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoriaTa garCeva Tu meoreuli? amJamad, vfiqrobT, meti sabuTi arsebobs imisaTvis, rom svanurSi am kategoriaTa meoreuloba vamtkicoT, vinem — piruku. svanurio, rom vambobT, amas dazusteba esaWiroeba. svanuri rTuli Sedgenilobisaa; masSi SeiniSneba: erTi fena, romelic mas qarTulTan akavSirebs; meore fena, romelic zanuridan (Wanur-megrulidan) modis; mesame fena, romelic garkveviT adiReur masalas warmogvidgens; da kidev erTi, romelic kanonzomier SefardebaSia qarTulTan (da miT zanurTanac). qarTvelur enaTa istoriis TvalsazrisiT swored es ukanaskneli fenaa, romelsac ufleba aqvs `svanuris~ saxeli ataros da qarTulisa da zanuris gverdiT axal, calke erTeulad iyos miCneuli qarTvelur enaTa wreSi.

Deeters G., Das kharthw. Verbum, 1930, § 45, gv. 27. svanuri ena, I, zmna (1931) § 6 B1, gv 26, svanuri umarcvlo u xan U-Tia qvemoT gadmocemuli, xan v-Ti (wyaros mixedviT). 3 Категория инклюзива-эксклюзива в сванском и ее следы в древнегрузинском: krebuli: «Памяти акад. Н.Я. Марра» (1938), gv. 135-151.
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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

sanam svanuri inkluziv-eqskluzivis CvenebaTa SedarebiTi analizi da kvalifikacia iqnebodes mocemuli, saWiroa faqtobrivi viTareba sqematurad gaviTvaliswinoT. es viTareba vrclad aris ganxiluli v. Tofurias gamokvlevaSi svanuri zmnis Sesaxeb (iqvea gadmocemuli, sxva avtorTa Sexedulebanic). warmovadgenT ZiriTad debulebebs: a. eqskluzivi da inkluzivi subieqtis formebSic gairCeva da obieqtisaSic: eqskl.: nAY xU-Ari-d `varT~ t-U-ixe-d `vabrunebT~ n-aya `gvyavs~ (me da is) (me da mas) inkl.: nAY l-Ari-d ` lG-txe-d vabrunebT gU-aya `gvyavs~ (me da Sen) (me da Sen) xv = S1 eqskl. xmovniT dawyebul fuZeebTan n – O1 eqskl. v- = ` ` TanxmovniT ` ` gU- O1 inkluz. l – S1 inkl. b. subieqtur formaTa inkluzivi da eqskluzivi yvela svanurma kilom icis, obieqtis formebSi ki es kategoriebi mxolod zemosvanurma (inguris xeoba bals zemoT da bals qvemoT!) icis, qvemo svanurSi — laSxur-lentexurSi es formebi garCeuli araa, O1 mravlobiTi erTi formiTaa cnobili da saTanado formanti aris gv- : gv-aya `gvyavs~. gv-prefiqsi, amrigad, svanuri kiloebisaTvis saerToa, oRond mas zogan qarTulis msgavsad zogadi mniSvneloba aqvs, zogan ki inkluziuri gageba axlavs. c. obieqtisa da subieqtis eqskluziur da inkluziur formantTa aRnagobaSi araviTari kanonzomieri Sefardeba ara Cans: fonetikurad erTmaneTTan axlos myofi n — l, xv — gv funqciiT ZiriTadad gansxvavdebian: n — obieqtis eqskluzivisaa, l —subieqtis inkluzivisaa, gv— obieqtis inkluzivisaa, xv — subieqtis eqskluzivisa. mere: am prefiqsTa Sefardeba mxoloobiTis pirveli piris prefiqsebTan araa erTgvari: `ver vityviT, l- S inkl. iseTsave mimarTebaSi iyos xv S1 mxol., rogorSic gv — O1 inkl. — m- O1 mxoloobiTSi 1. d. O1 inkl,. gU- v. Tofurias rTuli Sedgenilobis prefiqsad aqvs nagulvebi da ase Slis: g- O2, U ← m O1 ... 2. es, erTi SexedviT, savsebiT bunebrivi varaudi metad racionaluri gamodis da mere, rac mTavaria, mas xU-prefiqsis Cveneba eRobeba: xU prefiqsi ar iSleba am wesiT; ukeT rom vTqvaT, iSleba, magram inkluziuri Sinaarsisa gamodis

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k. dondua, Категория инклюзива-эксклюзива: krebuli, gv. 143. svanuri ena, § 6, Ba, gv. 26.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

da ara eqskluziurisa: x – S2, U – S1. es garemoeba, v. Tofurias TqmiT, gadaulaxavi dabrkolebaa xU -s daSlisaTvis (im wesiT, ra wesiTac gU iqna daSlili) 1. eqskluziuri n-s `Sedgenilobac~ funqciis Sesabamisad ver ixsneba... 2. subieqtis inkluzivi da eqskluzivi svanuris yvela kiloSi gvaqvs, obieqtisa — ara: gu- || n- mxolod zemosvanurSi ixmareba. rogor unda aixsnas es faqti? yvelgan iyo garCeuli da axla mimdinareobs am kategoriaTa moSla Tu piruku: amJamadac araa dasrulebuli procesi gU - || n-prefiqsTa gamoyenebisa inkluziuri da eqskluziuri O1 formantebad? Cven ukanaskneli SesaZlebloba migvaCnia ufro sarwmunod. ratom? imitom rom zemo svanurSic gU- || n-prefiqsTa xmarebaSi gvaqvs erTgvari ryeva. saTanado faqtebi dadasturebulia v. Tofurias mier, is wers: `uSgulurSi, romelsac laSxuris gavlena etyoba, gU -sa da n-s xmarebis wesi sakmaod areulia, rac inkluziv-eqskluzivs Soris arsebuli sxvaobis waSlasa da n-s dakargvis dasabams moaswavebso~ 3. avtoris mier moyvanili uSguluri magaliTebi – mAY jekUes, eja gUAyr (`rac gsurdes, is gviyav~)... Yedi J’oguxUt `anda amogvwyvite~ 4 imdenad aRrevas ar mowmobs, ramdenadac gU-prefiqsis zogadi mniSvnelobiT gamoyenebas; es savsebiT im rigis magaliTebia, Zveli qarTuli teqstebidan rom moviyvaneT zemoT: gamog¢Targmane Cuen... gang¢Re Cuen... g¢brZane Cuen... gu- iq zis, sadac svanurSi n-s movelodiT (da Zv. qarTulSi m-s, Tuki inkluziuri da eqskluziuri formebi gamijnuli aRmoCndeboda). msgavsi faqtebi SeniSnuli aqvs imave avtors ifarelTan da ecerelTan; ifarSi msmeniao: SUidebde logUHeda (nacvlad SUidebde lanHeda-si — `mSidobiTac mogvixvel!~)... `si oR gUiri SUidebd~ (—`Senmca gvyavxar mSvidobiT~) — ecerelma ase dagvloca aq TbilisSio~ da dasZens: `amaT msgavsi magaliTebi sul ramdenimeRa moiZebneba Sekrebils masalebSi. sarkvevia, Tu ratomaa es. unda iTqvas, rom: 1. n- niSnis nacvlad gU-s xmarebis SemTxveva imdenad mcirea Cvens masalebSi da 2. n- da gU- imdenad cocxali formantebia zemosvanurSi, rom ara gvgonia, es am ukanasknelTa aRreviT iyos gamowveuli. Cveni maswavleblebi maT arasodes ar revdnen erTmaneTSi. maTi areva arc dabeWdil prozaul teqstebSi SeiniSnebao 5. aRreva aq, marTlac, ara gvaqvs; aRreva iqneboda, gU - gvepova iq, sadac n-s movelodiT da, piruku, n-prefiqsi mjdariyo iq, sadac gU - s adgilia. aq ki normis calmxriv darRvevas vxedavT: n- unda iyos da gU - aris, e.i. n-prefiqsis gamoyenebis area SezRuduli da gU-prefiqsisa, piriqiT, gafarToebuli. zeviT ukve vTqviT, rom analogiuri mdgomareoba gvaqvs Zvel qarTulSic.

svanuri ena, § 6, Ba, gv. 29. iqve, gv. 28 3 iqve, gv. 25 4 iqve, gv. 26 5 iqve, SeniSvna.
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107

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

laSxuris gavleniT uSgulurSi normaTa Seryeva erTgvarad moulodnelia. Tu laSxursa da lentexurSi gU- || n- garCeuli iyo da sxvaoba merea moSlili da am gziT miviReT, marto gU-prefiqsi, sakvirvelia, ratom arsad SemogvrCa n-prefiqsis xmarebis naSTi. Tundac salocavebis gamoTqmebSi, rogoricaa, jgGrAg[u] logvSeda... jgGrAg, si logveSd! – jgiragimc (giorgimc) Segvwevia.... jgirag, Sen Segvewie!1. (igive gamoTqma latalelTan aseT saxes iRebs: jgGrAgi si laneSd! 2 es eqskluziuri forma kanonzomieria). laSxur-lentexurSi n- arsad Cans. samagierod, gU - ara mxolod uSgulurSi gvevlineba n-s adgilas, leqsebSi aseTi rame sxvaganac gvaqvs. m u l a x S i Cawerilia leqsi `murzabeg~, sadac vkiTxulobT: aS gvibina liz-liCedi, ase dagviwyia svla-wasvla, SyaJvmiS qarvan sga logxvidda: mwyris qaravani Semogvxvda: mesme lAnSAn ala gvera 3 mesame niSani es gveqneba. gU aq uadgilo Cans... amave leqsSi rigi sxva msgavsi forma mogvepoveba. verc uSgulis da verc, miT ufro, laSxuris gavlenas amas ver mivawerT. marTalia, leqsebs Cveulebrivad farTo gavrceleba aqvT, Temis farglebi maTTvis ar arsebobs poezia `saerTo svanuria~, Tu SeiZleba iTqvas (da ara dialeqturi), magram swored amitom leqsis enis Cveneba gansakuTrebiT faseulia. leqsebis enaSi, vimeorebT, gU - ara erTgan aRmoCndeba xolme n-s adgilas, `uSgulizmebi~ marto uSgulurs, etyoba, ar axasiaTebda... mestiaSia Cawerili `gierg dadvan~; aqac ikiTxeba: aS gvibina liz — liCedi (—ase dagviwyia svla-wasvla—), Tumca inkuluziuri Sinaarsi aq Seuferebelia: gierg dadvani Cegemlebma daatyveves, CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi mihyavT da datyvevebuli gviyveba Tavis ambavs: daviwyeT svlao — vin? tyved wayvanilma momTxrobma da damtyveveblebma (`me da maT~)... gansakuTrebuli yuradRebis Rirsia mulaxSi Cawerili leqsi `vicbilmacbil~: xvilzigaled latlAr hoker, lalzigales dAr gvaCoda. qa lAlqexnid latlArxAnqa vsaxlobT latalelebis bolos, saxlobas aravin gvaclida. gadavsaxldebiT latalelebisgan, (Cvens) kvals (`navals~) davtovebT. Tormeti weli gagvxdomia (`gagvsvlia~), Tbili puri ar gviWamia;

nazuares Cu elcvired.

1 svanuri poezia, gv. 312. Cawerilia a. SaniZis mier. `svanebi iyvnen [Camosuli] TbilisSi da imReres muSaTa sasaxlis erT-erT oTaxSio...~ araa naCvenebi, sadaurebi iyvnen. Caweris TariRi 8.XII. 1932. 2 iqve, gv. 312 3 iqve, gv. 16.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

eSdYeru zAY qav gvaCeda, tebdi diAr desa gvima; YeSdYeru zAY qav gvaCeda, qor i lirded mad gviznana; YeSdYeru zaY qav gvaCeda, muWxvi lirde desa gvara. codva guSgve¡ nov xaSdexax, mAY xaSondax xexvAr guSgve¡d? semi zaild qav gvaCeda, ecer-cxGmAr u£na-ulaSvinduv gvicvira...

Tormeti weli gagvxdomia, saxl-karisaTvis ar mogvivlia; Tormeti weli gagvxdomia, tkbili cxovreba ara gvqonia. codva Cveni ar gamoleodeT (`numc gamoleviaT~), rad enanebodaT colebi CvenTvis?... sami weli gagvxdomia, ecer-cxumari uxnav-uTesad dagvitovebia...

(svan. poez. 78-81) gvaCoda (`gvaclida~)...gvaCeda (`gagvsvlia~)... gvima (`gviWamia~)... gvara (`gvqonia~)...gvicvira (dagvitovebia~)... guSgve¡ (`Cveni~)... guSgve¡d (`CvenTvis~, `Cvenda~) — yvela inkluziuri formaa, magram inkluziuri Sinaarsi arc erT amaTgans ara aqvs da arc SeiZleba am konteqstSi hqondes: vicbil-macbil TavianT Tavgadasavals hyvebian: aq vesaxleT, ase mogvivida da aseo... vis? me da Tqven? msmenels da mkiTxvels? ra Tqma unda, ara: `me da Cems Zmaso~... (e.i.: me da mas): gv-prefiqsi inkluzivis Sinaarsisa aq ar SeiZleba iyos... leqsi iwyeba sityvebiT: `xvilzigaled~ `vsaxlobT~, mis gverdiTaa gvaCoda: ukanasknels iseve ar axlavs inkluziuri gageba, rogorc xvilzigaled formas (inkluzivi iqneboda `lilzigaled~). xvilzigaled latlAr hoker, lalzigaled dAr gvaCoda... xvilzigaled ara mxolod imiTaa faseuli, rom xazgasmiT gvaCvena — gvaCoda inkluzivi araao, aramed sxva mxrivac; gvaCoda iseve zogadi formaa obieqtis pirveli pirisaTvis, rogoric xvilzigaled unda yofiliyo zogadi forma subieqtis pirveli pirisaTvis mravlobiTSi: svanuris istoriulad upiratesi formebi mravlobiTisa esenia xU– gU (n- O1 da l- S1 meoreuli monacemebia). leqsis mesame da meoTxe taepSi S1 inkluziuri formebia amotivtivebuli lAlqexnid, elcvired: es momxdaria leqsis modernizaciis procesSi... egeve iTqmis negni, nuRva, naku. niSgve¡ formaTa Sesaxeb (eseni isev im Cven-ze miuTiTeben, ramac gvaCeda, gvicvira, guSgve¡ formebi mogvca):

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

nAY¡ fayvare TxumJi negni, nebgvaJi nAY¡ svindis nuRva, xexvAr niSgve¡Y niSgveY¡d naku!

Cven qudebi Tavze gvexureba, Sublze Cveni sindisi gvaqvs, colebi Cveni CvenTvis gvinda~.1

sakvirveli is ki araa, rom aseTi formebi, Tanamedrove zemosvanuri normebis Sesabamisi, leqsSi gaCnda; sakvirveli isaa, rom rig SemTxvevaSi Zveli normebi daculi aRmoCnda. formebis mxriv leqsis gadamuSavebis damaxasiaTebeli faqtia `vicbil-macbilSi~ mocemuli. amgvari gadamuSavebis SesaZlebloba gaTvaliswinebuli unda gvqondes, roca svanuri leqsebis teqstis istoriuli saxis aRdgenas davisaxavT miznad... amjerad gU-prefiqsis Sesaxeb moyvanili masaliT davkmayofildebiT (imave `svanur poeziaSi~ msgavsi sxva faqtebic dasturdeba, magram maTze aq ver SevCerdebiT). aqamde Tqmuli gasagebs xdis, ratom vvaraudobdiT, rom gU|| n-prefiqsTa garCeviT gamoyeneba meoreulia; sadac maTi gamijvna ar xerxdeba (`uSgulizmebi~), iq swored Zveli viTarebaa daculi. gU-prefiqsi Zvel qarTulSi ar aRmoCnda O1 mravlobiTobis niSani. es prefiqsi mTel svanur metyvelebaSi Cans: esaa erTi im morfologiur faqtTagani, romelic qarTuls (ukeT, mis erT fenas) da svanurs mWidrod akavSirebs rogorc saerTo ingredientis, orive enobrivi erTeulis monawile dialeqtis, kuTvnileba. gU-prefiqsi Zv. qarTulSi arc mravlobiTobis niSani iyo da arc misi inkluziuri variantis maCvenebeli. bunebrivia, rom amasve movelodiT svanurSi: gU- svanurSic ar unda yofiliyo mravlobiTobis formanti da, maSasadame, is ver iqneboda am mravlobiTobis erT-erTi varianti, inkluziuri: is SeiZleboda mxolod SemdegSi qceuliyo aseT formantad, aRWurviliyo am funqciiT iseve, rogorc axal qarTulSi mogvevlina obieqtis pirveli piris mravlobiTis niSnad. am funqciiT aRWurva unda dawyebuliyo imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom svanurSi (e.i. im enaSi, romelsac axla svanuri ewodeba) — dialeqtTa Tu enaTa Serevis Sedegad — erTmaneTis gverdiT aRmoCnda gU- da n-prefiqsebi. svanuris garkveul fenaSi Cven nacvalsaxelad nAY mogvepoveboda da zmnaSic gvqonda Sesabamisi prefiqsi n- pirveli pirisa mravlobiTSi (es prefiqsi iseTsave damokidebulebaSia nAY nacvalsaxelTan, rogorSic afxazuri hara `Cven~ ha prefiqsTan: hara ha-youp `Cven varT~ — Sdr. nAY¡ n-aya `Cven gvyavs~: mravlobiTis Cveneba n-prefiqss imTaviTve SeeZleboda, Tu mas nAY¡ nacvalsaxelTan aqvs geneturi kavSiri). meore fenam gU-prefiqsi moitana. maTi simbiozis procesSi gU- ||n- funqciaTa gamijvna miviReT. xvedri wona? gU- kilosi gacilebiT meti unda yofiliyo, vinem n-si. masTan n- fenis gamgrZeleblebi zemo svaneTis TemebSi arian warmodgenili. aseTia varaudi. am varaudSi yvelaze daujerebelia gU-s funqcia. rogor SeiZleboda gUar yofiliyo mravlobiTis niSani?
1

svanuri poezia, gv. 80.

110

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

qarTulSi gu-s funqciis sakiTxi gadawyvita gan-gu-aaxl-n-a tipis warmoebam. svanurs aseTi ram amJamad ara aqvs. magram ufleba gvaqvs vifiqroT, rom Tu eqneboda, sufiqsiT aRniSnavda saTanado obieqtis (saxelob.) simravles. rac Seexeba maqvs, myavs tipis zmnebs, micemiTis mravlobiToba arc Wanurmegrulsa da arc svanurSi iseve ar unda yofiliyo aRniSnuli, rogorc ar gvqonda Zv. qarTulSi. amgvarad: Tu mravlobiTis aRniSvnis is principi, rac qarTulsa da zanurSi dasturdeba, svanuris mimarTac ZalaSia, guprefiqsis kvalifikacia ar SeiZleba iyos sxvanairi, vinem qarTulSi. erTaderTi SemTxvevaa, rodesac sxvagvari gzac rCeba: es maSin, Tu guprefiqss aRmoaCndeboda Sesabamisi nacvalsaxeli mravlobiTisa `Cven~, e.i. Tu afxazuridan cnobili viTareba dadasturdeboda: maSin gu-prefiqsi iseTsave mimarTebaSi iqneboda saTanado nacvalsaxelTan, rogorSic n-prefiqsia nAY-sTan an afx. ha-prefiqsia hara-sTan. aseTi nacvalsaxeli ara Cans: aris kuTvnilebiTi niSgueY¡ – gUiSgUeY¡ `Cveni~, magram `Cven~ aris martooden nAY¡. gUiSgUeY-saTvis igive odenobaa amosavali, rac gU-sTvis, da es amosavali odenoba ar unda yofiliyo Cven nacvalsaxelis mniSvnelobisa (amaze qvemoT). n-prefiqsiani dialeqti rom ara, zemosvanurSi gveqneboda iseTi viTareba, rogoric qvemosvanurs (laSxursa da lentexurs) axasiaTebs: man mxolod gU-prefiqsi icis (swored imgvaradve, rogorc esaa axal qarTulSi). amgvarad, qvemosvanurSi (laSxur-lentexurSi) ufro Zveli mdgomareobaa daculi, vinem zemosvanurSi. vTqvaT, yvelaferi es asea; gU- zemosvanurSi inkluzivis funqciiT mere aRiWurva. Tavdapirvelad arc inkluzivs, arc mravlobiTs gU- ar aRniSnavda. es mosazrebebi saboloo angariSSi emyareba Zv. qarTulis mowmobas: gu- mravlobiTis niSani iq ar aRmoCnda. TviT svanurSi Tu gvaqvs imis magaliTi, rom inkluzivSi (an eqskluzivSi — principulad es sul erTia!) ara mravlobiTis, mxoloobiTis sufiqsi iyos gamoyenebuli? mxolobiTi ricxvis cnobili da udavo prefiqsia, subieqtis eqskluzivisaTvis romaa gamoyenebuli: xUArid `varT~, `varsebobT~ (me da is ||isini), tUixed `vabrunebT~ (me da is||isini)... Sdr. mxol. xUari, tUixe... xU-Ari – xU-Ari-d erTmaneTTan savsebiT iseTsave mimarTebaSia, rogoric Wan. v-ore — v-ore-T, qarT. v-ar — v-ar-T formebs Soris arsebobs: mravlobiTis pirveli piri udris mxoloobiTis pirvel pirs plus mravlobiTobis -d sufiqsi (Wanursa da qarTulSi T ← d). mravlobiTobis es sufiqsi aq aucilebelia, radganac subieqtis mravlobiToba unda iqnes aRniSnuli (obieqtis mravlobiTobaze es ar iTqmis: micemiTSi dasmuli obieqti zmnas mravlobiTSi ar SeiTanxmebda). xUArid ordinaruli mravlobiTia, xUAri’sagan nawarmoebi. xUAri iseve SeuZlebelia iyos eqskluzivi (Tu inkluzivi), rogorc qarT. var (an Wan. vore) aseTi mniSvnelobis mqone ver iqneba. svanuri eqskluziuri formisaTvis gamoyenebulia mxoloobiTis prefiqsi; es faqtia, masTan iseTi faqti, romelic ama Tu im svanur kilos ki axasia111

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

Tebs, aramed svanuris yvela kilosTvis normas warmoadgens. am faqts principuli mniSvneloba aqvs: inkluziv-eqskluzivis formantebi aucilebeli araa Tavis SedgenilobaSi Seicavdes sxvadasxva piris prefiqsTa kombinacias (pirvelisa da mesamis, pirvelisa da meoris...), saWiro araa veZioT inkluziv-eqskluzivis formantTa SedgenilobaSi ori piris prefiqsi1. Cveulebrivi mravlobiTi2 SeiZleba ganekuTvnos inkluzivs an eqskluzivs, roca subieqtis pirveli piris mravlobiTs exeba saqme, da Cveulebrivi mxoloobiTis formac SeiZleba amave rolSi gamovides, Tu obieqtis inkluziv-eqskluzivia gadmosacemi (obieqtis mravlobiToba SeiZleba ar iyos aRniSnuli). sakmarisia, xUArid formis eqskluziuri Sinaarsi davsaxoT amosavlad da xU-prefiqsSi ori piris niSnis kombinacia miviCnioT, rom gadaulaxavma dabrkolebebma iCinon Tavi. ase, magaliTad, Suxardti xU prefiqsSi gamoyofda x — O3 da U — S1 ... magram aseT SemTxvevaSi xUArid s u b i e q t u r i forma aRar gamovidoda. v. Tofuria eqskluzivis xU-s Sesaxeb ambobs: `xU-s garegnoba gvacTunebs, rom masSi S2 x- da S1 U davinaxoT~, magram maSin xUArid inkluzivi iqneboda (`varT me da Sen~), aris ki eqskluzivio... mere: Tu xU-s SedgenilobaSi or pirze miTiTeba ukve gvaqvs, raRas maqnisia -d sufiqsi? meore piris – xAri-d `xarT~ — analogiiT misi axsna 3 damajerebeli, rasakvirvelia, araa. da kidev: Tu mravlobiTis xU-Ari-d formidan amovalT da xU-prefiqsSi eqskluzivobis Sinaarss CavdebT, rogor moevleba xU-prefiqss mxoloobiTSi: xU-Ari `var~: aq xom pirveli piris garda sxva araferia gadmosacemi? mravlobiTis analogiiT gaCnda mxoloobiTSi x-anio, ar iTqmis. miT ufro xelovnuria axsna: `meore piris subieqturi prefiqsi pirvel subieqtur pirSia gadasuli analogiis wyalobiTo~4. karp. dondua wers: xU-prefiqsi analogiis mixedviT Seqmnili ver iqneba; misi orive Semadgeneli nawili —x-, U- — uciloblad pirveladia da TiToeul maTgans garkveuli formantis mniSvneloba aqvso. magram radganac xU-prefiqsi erT pirze miuTiTebs rogorc mxolobiTSi (xUAri), ise mravlobiTSic (xUArid), safuZveli gvaqvs vifiqroT, rom x- aq araa piris niSani (meorisa ginda mesamisa), aramed `raRac gansakuTrebuli morfologiuri daniSnuleba aqvs, romelic svanurisa da mis monaTesave enaTa masalaze unda gairkveso. es x- saerToa pirveli da meore pirisaTviso 5. warmodgenili msjelobis negatiuri nawili saqmis Sesabamisi unda iyos.

amaze samarTlianad miuTiTebs karp. dondua: Категория инклюзива-эксклюзива: krebuli, gv. 143. 2 S1 eqskluzivs aseTi zogadi, Cveulebrivi mravlobiTis gageba aRmoaCnda zmnaSi `xvilzigaled~ `vsaxlobT~ leqsSi `vicbil-macbil~. 3 svanuri ena, § 6, C1, gv. 29. 4 a. SaniZe, ulmauti svanurSi: `arili~, gv. 182, SeniSvna. 5 k. dondua, xsen. werili: kreb., gv.140.

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112

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

deetersis mixedviT xU-prefiqsi pirveladi araa: raki Zvel qarTulSi mxolod v gvaqvs, xU- axali unda iyoso 1. amJamad, erTi ram cxadia: xU- mxoloobiTSi (xUAri) SeuZlebelia mravlobiTis mixedviT gaSuqdes; piruku: mravlobiTi unda daemyaros mxoloobiTs: amas moiTxovs qarTvelur enaTa zmnis uRvlilebis principi. mravlobiTidan amosvla kidev, rogorc viciT, eqskluzivisaTvis saWiro prefiqsebis Ziebam gamoiwvia. aqamdis Tqmuli SeiZleba ase SevajamoT: arc O1 inkluzivis gU- da arc S1 eqskluzivis xU mravlobiTis prefiqsebi araa: qarTulisa da svanuris Cveneba amas mowmobs. svanuri inkluzivi da eqskluzivi ver gamodgeba dasayrdenad Zv. qarTulis gu- || m-prefiqsTa interpretaciisaTvis; TviT svanurSi es kategoriebi moiTxoven garkvevas. maTi Sedgeniloba-warmoqmnis istoriis dadgenisas Zveli qarTulis gu-s funqcia saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebas iZleva. gu- araa imTaviTve mravlobiTis niSani, ese igi prefiqsiT mravlobiToba qarTuli zmnis uRvlilebaSi ar gadmoicemoda: qarTul zmnaSi mravlobiTze sufiqsi miuTiTebda. mesame da meore piris mravlobiTSi es principi dRemdis daculia SeubRalavad; pirvel pirSi cvlileba meoreulia. amgvarad, qarTuli enis istoriisaTvis SeuzRudavad SeiZleba davtovoT ZalaSi debuleba: ricxvis kategoria zmnaSi sufiqsebiT aRiniSneboda iseve, rogorc piris kategoria prefiqsebiT. mesame piris subieqti da pirveli piris obieqtis mravlobiTi iyo, amas rom arRvevda: orive meoreuli, gviandeli movlenaa. amiT SeiZleba CvenTvis saintereso sakiTxis ganxilva dagvemTavrebina: rogoria mravlobiTobis aRniSvnis ZiriTadi principi qarTuli zmnis uRvlilebaSi... magram bunebrivia vikiTxoT: Tu gU- (da xU-c!) araa imTaviTve mravlobiTis niSani, raRaa es prefiqsebi? rogoria maTi warmomavloba? amaze dawvrilebiT mogviwevs saubari zmnis pirTa analizTan dakavSirebiT. aq mokled warmovadgenT erTgvar varauds. gU- da xU-prefiqsebSi unda Sediodes U-prefiqsi pirveli pirisa. subieqtisa Tu obieqtis? igi orivesTvis saziaro unda yofiliyo 2; magram aq es araa mTavari; arsebiTi aq isaa, rom U formantia pirveli pirisa. raRaa g- da x-? morfologiuri odenoba arc erTi unda iyos da arc meore; orive fonetikuri danarTi Cans. g- U ← U x- U ← U amgvari varaudi rom msjelobis sagani gaxdes, saWiroa garkveuli winapiroba: analogiuri faqtebi sxva SemTxvevaSic unda dadasturdes, amas moiTxovs TviT cneba fonetikuri xasiaTis cvlilebisa. gvaqvs ki g, x TanxmovanTa v-sTan fonetikurad ganviTarebis sxva SemTxvevebi? pasuxi dadebiTi iqneba: bagismier
1 2

Das kharthw. Verbum, 1930, § 45, gv. 26. dawvrilebiT amaze — sxvagan.

113

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

v (U)-s win fonetikuri danarTis saxiT gvxvdeba g, R, q ukanaenismieri Tanxmovnebi. saTanado magaliTebi qarTulSic gvaqvs, svanurSic da zanurSic. am fonetikur danarT Tanxmovnebs ixilavs v. Tofuria specialur werilSi: `v sonantis gadasvla Rv, gv qv-d~ 1 . Cven davkmayofildebiT am werilSi naCvenebi faqtebis aRnusxviT da, Cveni mxriT, zog axal faqtzec SeiZleba mivuTiToT. Rv ← v: svan. Rvin-Al... megr. Rvin-i, Wan. RUin-i, Rin-i, qarT. Rvino... igive fuZe uRanod: laT. vinum, berZ. FFοινος... svan. RvaJ, qarT. vaJ-i svan. (laxam.) RvAz, laSx. vBz, qarT. vaz-i svan. RvaW, qarT. maWo, manWo, somx. մաճ svan. RvaWAr, qarT. vaWar-i, somx. վաճաը svan. balszem. RveSgd || veSgd, laSx. RoSd ‘ukan’ RveSgin || veSgin, lSx. RoSgin... svan. RvaS `mamali jixvi~, qarT. vac-i svan. RolYBq ‘cxvari’, laSx. laRvlYBq... balszem. laRolYBqMr|| lavulYBqMr ‘farexi’ (`sacxvre~) svan. RvArklAY, lSx. RvarklaY ‘wvivSiSveli’, qarT. barkal- ... ukanaskneli sami magaliTi v. Tofurias ekuTvnis; maTSi R-s meoreuloba damajerebelia; kerZod, RolYBq-is Sesaxeb amJamad s. JanaSiasa 2 da g. rogavas mier garkveulia, rom misi fuZe adiReuria: R- darTvia svanurSi (adiR. mBlG — sv.* val-aq→ * vol-aq → Rvol-aq → Rol-Y-aq ... g. r o g a v a s varaudiT). gv ← v: gves-i — somx. Գվէս ‘mzakvari’ guaspuragani ← vaspuragani: da qarTli missa xarksa Seudga: da somxiTi da sivnieTi da guaspuragani... moqc. qarTl.: Satb. mravalTavi, gv. 442. sparsni uflebdes qarTls: da somxiTs da sivnieTs da guaspuragans... iqve, gv 445. Wan. guruni, Wan. da megr. girin-i, qarT. vir-i. Zv. qarT. guale ‘iare’ — Sdr. val... war-val-s ... 3. svan. gveS-i, laSx. goS-i ‘savse’, li-gvS-il-e ‘gavseba’ , Wan. o-fS-a, qarT. sa-vs-e... svan. gulmaS-Ar, qarT. ulvaS-ebi
1

esaa mexuTe werili seriidan: `fonetikuri dakvirvebani qarTvelur enebSi~: enimkis moambe, X (1911, gv. 231-236. werilSi Tavmoyrilia literaturaSi (kerZod, n. maris) dasaxelebuli magaliTebi da Sevsebulia avtoris dakvirvebaTa safuZvelze. avtori movlenis fonetikur safuZvelsac warmogvidgens. 2 svanur-adiReuri (Cerqezuli) enobrivi Sexvedrebi: enimkis moambe, XII, 1942, gv. 272. 3 guale zmna sxva mxrivac iwvevs interess. amaze aq ver SevCerdebiT.

114

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

svan. gvidam-i, qarT. midamo... zemosvan. gvidAm, laSx. midam `midamo~ svan. gindver `mindori~. magaliTebi, — pirveli samis garda — yvela v. Tofuriasia. arsebiTi mniSvneloba aqvs sakiTxs: gvidam-Si g- v-s daerTo Tu m-s da mere gm → gv? am sakiTxs aravin Sexebia. qv ← v: qarT. qviSna, sityva cnobilia ind.-evr. enebSic (mag., rus. вишня, Zv. frang. guisne), TurqulSic višne. liter. nivT-i, somx. նիւթ, raW.-imer.-kax. niqvT-i 1. qarT. eqvTime, berZn. Ευϑυμος. giorgi w e r e T e l m a daadastura: zemoimerulSi niqvTi gvxvdebao. manve migviTiTa Semdeg magaliTebze: aqto ← avto, ixmareba zemoimerulSi qarT. muqTi, arab. muфti ‘ufaso’ zemoxsenebulTa garda SeiZleboda dagvesaxelebina: Cveni: O1 gv ← v: guaqus, guyavs... g- unda iyos ganviTarebuli megr. gverSap-Si ‘veSap-i’ ... S-s win r darTulia gaazrianebis niadagze g-s ganviTarebis Semdeg... qarT. gvalva, Sdr. megr. do-val-u ‘dawva’, ‘daazro axlad gafurCqvnili yvavili, foToli’... fonetikuri gziT unda iyos warmoSobili -gU svanuris beCour kilokavSi: xuTr-asgU `vsvamdi~, xGTr-asgU, `svamdi~, GTra `svamda~ tuix-asgU `vabrunebdi~, tix-asgU `abrunebdi~, tix-a `abrunebda~ qUic-asgU `vWridi~, qUic-asgU `Wridi~, qUic-a `Wrida~ xUaklATxi-dasgU `vamaRlebdi~, xaklATxi-dasgU `amaRlebdi~, aklATxida `amaRlebda~ xUaHni-dasgU `vxnavdi~, xaHni-dasgU `xnavdi~, aHni-da `xnavda~ xUirdi-dasgU `vzrdidi~, xirdi-dasgU `zrdidi~, irdi-da zrdida~... 2 v. T o f u r i a wers: `I da II piris niSnad -asgU, -dasgU ki ar aris marto, aramed: 1. AsgU, -dAsgU, 2. -Asg[G], dAsg[G]-c, 3. -asU, -dasU, 4. -AsU, dAsU da, ukanasknel, 5. -As, -dAs. yvelani rom -asgU, -dasgU sufiqsebis variants warmoadgenen, es erTi SexedviTac cxadia, oRond eseni erTnairad gavrcelebulni ar arian: xanSi Sesulebi namyo usrulis sawarmoeblad Cveulebriv -asgU, -dasgU formantebs mimarTaven, maTTan SedarebiT axalgazrdebi (Suaxnisani) ki – AsgU, dAsgU-s,

imerulisaTvis ix. b. wereTeli: zemoimeruli leqsikoni — SromaSi: `guruli, zemoimeruli da leCxumuri leqsikoni~, Tb., 1938. 2 svanuri ena, I, zmna, § 25 B, gv. 94-95.

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115

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

xolo axali Taoba -AsU, -dAsU bolosarTebs abatonebs. ukanasknelTaganve gaigonebT agreTve -asU, -das-sa da iSviaTad -AsgG, -dAsgG-sac~1. aq zogi ram araa naTeli, kerZod is, Tu ratom aRmoaCnda Suaxnisebs umlautiani variantebi, roca xanSi Sesulebi wminda a-nian variantebs warmoTqvamen: -asgU, dasgU... e.i. mTqmelTa asaki da variantis siZvele-siaxle SeiZleba damatebiT Ziebas moiTxovdes; magram Tundac rom dadasturdes -AsU, dAsU-s siaxle, mainc faqti sagulisxmoa: is cxadyofs AsgU || asU sufiqsTa paralelur gamoyenebas da mogvagonebs qarTulidan da zanuridan cnobil process, roca kompleqsis fonetikurad gamartivebisas amosaval mdgomareobas vubrundebiT: wyal-i, Wan. arq. wkar-i, aTin. w-ar-: amosavali iyo wal-, megr- Wor-of-a — `gvalvis sawinaaRmdego cneba~. -asU variantis siaxle mainc araa damarwmunebeli: Zalauneburad gvagondeba meSveli zmnis namyo xU-AsU, x-AsU, l-AsU, romelic axali formaciis movlena ar unda iyos! CvenTvis g-s ganviTareba iyo saintereso; R da q-s ganviTareba sagulisxmoa im mxriv, rom g-s ganviTareba ganmartoebiT ara dgas; esaa erT-erTi saxis ukanaenismieris darTva v-ze... v. T o f u r i a s werilSi araa dasaxelebuli x-s ganviTarebis SemTxvevebi. magram am bgeris ganviTareba mosalodnelia, raki R-s ganviTarebis magaliTebi gvaqvs. erTi udavo magaliTi iqneboda: xvale, Zv somx. վաղիւ 2: ... Tiva¡ velisa¡ r˜l dRes ars da xvalisagan Tornesa STaagdian mT VI30, adiS. 14 a2 ...զխռան ի վայըի ռը այսօը է ե վաղիւն ի ձնռց աըվանի... aseTive xv ← v gvaqvs svanur S1 : xU-ar-i, Sdr. Zv. qarT. v-ar-i... aRniSnulia, rom v-s gadasvla Rv, gv, qv-d aixsneba misi artikulaciiT: enis ufro meti miaxloebiT sasasTano (analogiuri fonetikuri movlenebi dasaxelebulia sxva enebidanac). Cven sarwmunod migvaCnia mosazreba, rom R, g, q bgeraTa ganviTareba v-s warmoebis TaviseburebasTanaa Sepirobebuli. R, g, q-s garda x-s ganviTarebis sakiTxic dadebiTad unda gadawydes (Tumca saamiso faqtebi ufro iSviaTia). afxazurisa 3 da xunZuris 4 Cveneba mowmobs, rom v- fonemis Taviseburebis sakiTxs qarTvelur enaTa wris iqiT gavyavarT: v- bgeris sakiTxi kavkasiur enaTa istoriuli fonetikis sakiTxia, magram amaze aq sityvas ar gavagrZelebT.
svanuri ena, I, zmna, § 25 Bc, gv. 95-96. am sityvaTa kavSiri naCvenebi aqvs n. mars (Тексты и разыск., VI, § 12, gv. XXXIII), oRond amosavlad miCneulia xval da x- ivaraudeba dakargulad somxurSi. 3 q. lomTaTiZe, ¢ bgerisaTvis afxazurSi: wakiTxuli iyo moxsenebad Tbil. univer. kavkasiur enaTa kaTedraze 1937 wels. 4 arn. Ciqobava, leqsikuri Sexvedrebi xunZurisa qarTvelur enebTan: moxseneba wakiTxuli iyo enimkis kavkas. enaTa ganyof. sxdomaze 1937 wels.
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gU, xU-prefiqsebSi formantia U (||v), pirveli piris prefiqsi. subieqtisa Tu obieqtisa? orivesTvis gamoyenebuli, gaudiferencirebeli Tavdapirvelad; g- da x- fonetikuri danarTia; mas Tavidan araviTari morfologiuri funqcia ar gaaCnda. dasasrul, erTi SeniSvnac. rodesac svan. xU U-sagan miRebulad davsaxeT, gU-s analogiis garda erTi garemoebac iyo: xU prefiqsi svanurSi xmovniT dawyebul fuZeebs daerTvis, TanxmovniT dawyebulT martooden U aqvT, isic infiqsirebuli: xU-Ar-i `var~, magram d-U-ige `vaqrob~, t-U-ixe `vabruneb~... es ar unda iyos SemTxveviTi: x- viTardeboda xmovnis winamaval v-sTan (amave pirobebSia R- ganviTarebuli TiTqmis yvelgan, — ix. zemoT). am pirobas gU-prefiqsi amJamad svanurSi ar saWiroebs: si gutxe `Sen gvabruneb~ (inkluz.). u aseT SemTxvevaSi marcvals qmnis, sruli xmovani xdeba. xom araa es imis maCvenebeli, rom gu-prefiqsis warmomSobi dialeqti, svanuris morfologiur aRnagobaSi Rrmad Cafenili, mainc ar iyo `svanuri~ am sityvis sakuTrivi mniSvnelobiT? marTlac, igi unda yofiliyo damaxasiaTebeli im fenisaTvis, romelic saerToa Zveli qarTulisa da svanurisaTvis.

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damana meliqiSvili

inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoriis gamoxatvis istoriisaTvis qarTul zmnaSi1
rogorc cnobilia, m- da gu-prefiqsebi Zvel qarTulSi paralelurad gvxvdeba zmnaSi I piris (pirdapiri da iribi) obieqtis aRmniSvnelad. aqedan mprefiqsi orsave ricxvSi (gan-m-aZliera man me. gan-m-aZ-lier-n-a man C u e n , maqus me igi, m-aqus C u e n igi); xolo gu-prefiqsi ki mxolod mravlobiTSi (gan-gu-aZlier-na-a man C u e n ; gu-aqus C u e n igi). am paralelur formaTa Sesaxeb gamoTqmuli mosazrebebi cnobilia. is faqti, rom m- da gu-prefiqsebi mravlobiTs ricxvSi dasmuli I obieqturi piris aRniSvnisas Zvel qarTulSi enacvleba erTmaneTs, ori varaudis gamoTqmis SesaZleblobas iZleoda: 1. maTi funqciebi warmoSobiT sxvadasxvaa: kerZod, maT odesRac inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoriis gamoxatvis funqcia ekisrebodaT zmnaSi (1, gv. 25, §6. 3, gv. 335 SnS. 1; 4. gv. 373-334; gv. 185, §224; 5, gv. 223); 2. istoriulad isini sinonimuri formantebia (rogorc I obieqturi piris aRmniSvnelni zmnaSi) da sxvadasxva dialeqturi wridanaa Semosuli saliteraturo enaSi (6, gv. 114). meore mosazreba damtkicebulia im wanamZRvridan amosvliT, rom mravlobiTisa da inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoria erTia da, amdenad, inkluzivis (gu-) formanti, rogorc amave dros mravlobiTis niSani, ar SeiZleba Tanaarsebobdes mravlobiTis (-en > -n) sufiqsTan erT formaSi. xolo radganac guprefiqsi saxelobiTSi dasmuli obieqtis mravlobiTis -n sufiqsTan erTadaa warmodgenili zmnaSi (gan-gu-aaxl-n-a), amitom Zvel qarTulSi igi ar SeiZleba iyos mravlobiTis niSani. prefiqsi gu-, iseve rogorc m-, I obieqturi piris gamomxatveli formantia rogorc saxelobiTSi dasmul obieqtian formebSi (daguamdablna man Cuen), aseve micemiTSi dasmul obieqtTan (gu-aqus Cuen 6, gv. 100). amas mxars uWers is faqtic, rom qarTulSi mravlobiTis aRniSvnis ZiriTadi principi sufiqsuria da gamonakliss swored mxolod gu-prefiqsi warmoadgens. aseT SemTxvevaSi am mosazrebisaTvis erTaderTi damabrkolebeli faqti isaa, rom Zvel qarTulSi gu-prefiqsi mxolobiTi ricxvis I piris obieqtis gamomxatvelad arasodes ar gvxvdeba. igi ixmareba mxolod mravlobiTs ricxvSi dasmuli obieqtis aRsaniSnavad. magram pirveli mosazreba ganmtkicebul iqna im amosavali debulebiT, romelic gulisxmobs, rom mravlobiTi ricxvisa da inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoriebi sxvadasxvaa da, amdenad, isini zmnaSi sxvadasxva morfemebiT
1

wakiTxulia moxsenebad 1974 w. maisSi filologiis fakultetis XVIII samecniero sesiaze.

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unda yofiliyo aRniSnuli1. naSromSi `inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoriis sakiTxisaTvis qarTvelur enebSi~ (2. gv. 233) svanuri enis masalaze dayrdnobiT a. onianma daasabuTa, rom inkluziv-eqskluzivis prefiqsebs ar akisria mravlobiTis gamoxatvis funqcia. mravlobiTis formantebi sufiqsebia, xolo prefiqsebi — sul sxva, inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoriis gamomxatvelnia zmnaSi (xu-ri-d — l-ri-d). aseT SemTxvevaSi gu-prefiqsisa da mravlobiTis -en (-n) sufiqsis Tanaarseboba zmnis formaSi winaaRmdegobas aRar Seicavs da TiTqos marTldeba is mosazreba, romlis mixedviTac Zvel qarTulSi m- // gu-prefiqsTa paraleluri xmareba da maTi urTierTSenacvleba I obieqtur pirSi gadmonaSTia odesRac inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoriis garCevisa qarTuli zmnis pirian formebSi. am mosazrebis avtorTa azriT, gu-prefiqsi unda yofiliyo inkluzivis aRmniSvneli, m- ki eqskluzivisa. magaliTad, a. oniani warmogvidgens varauds, rom `Zvel qarTulSi dadasturebuli formebi (maqus Cuen da damidginna Cuen) eqskluzivis odindeli gamoxatvis naSTia, xolo m- formanti am kategoriis odindeli niSani~ (2, gv. 234), aseve gu-prefiqsi — inkluzivis odindeli niSani. Tu dasaxelebuli mosazreba gamarTlebulia gu-prefiqsis mimarT (romelic inkluzivis gamomxatveli unda yofiliyo odesRac), igi ver gavrceldeba m-prefiqsze, romelic aSkarad I obieqturi piris niSania zmnaSi da ver SeiTavsebda sxva funqcias (miT ufro, eqskluzivisas, romelic mravlobiTis gagebas Seicavs), Tu gaviTvaliswinebT amosavalSi qarTuli zmnis agebulebis aglutinaciur princips (rac dResac ZiriTad principad rCeba). amis naTel sabuTs isev svanuri zmna warmoadgens; masSi aglutinaciis principi istoriulad III subieqtur pirSic ki aris gatarebuli (l-i — l-i-x, sadac l ← *n (1, gv. 8). unda vifiqroT, rom gu-prefiqsis (rogorc inkluzivis gamomxatveli formantis) cali — eqskluzivis formanti unda yofiliyo ara m-prefiqsi, romelic Zvel qarTulSi gu-prefiqsis paralelurad ixmareba, aramed sul sxva afiqsi, romlis kvalic ukve gamqralia Zvel qarTulSi. Tu svanuris monacemebs mivxedavdiT, sadac obieqturs uRvlilebaSi O1=m-, O1=gu, xolo Oe=n-, maSin qarTulisaTvis obieqturi uRvlilebisas es sqema aseve warmogvidgeboda, oRond n-prefiqsis adgils ucnobi x afiqsi daiWerda: O1=m- O1= gu-Oe=x magram sakiTxi ase iolad ver gadawydeba. aq unda gaviTvaliswinoT is mosazreba, romelic a. onians aqvs ganviTarebuli svanurSi inkluziv-eqskluzivis formisa da mravlobiTi ricxvis O1 da S1 pirTa formebis urTierTmimarTebasTan dakavSirebiT. saqme isaa, rom svanurSi am mxriv gansxvavebaa subieqtursa da obieqturs uRvlilebaSi. I subieqturi piris mravlobiTi ricxvisa da eqskluzivis
1 igive mosazreba damoukideblad gamoTqva d. ninuam sadisertacio naSromSi `brZanebiTi kilo qarTulSi~.

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formebi prefiqsebiT ar gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan (S mx. — x…aT…ri; — Se x…aT…ri-d). inkluzivi ki l- ∼lˆ — prefiqsiTaa gamoxatuli (Si l-aT…ri-d). gansxvavebiT subieqturi uRvlilebisagan, obieqturs uRvlilebaSi I pirs Tavisi niSani aqvs — O1 m-; inkluzivs — Tavisi: Oi gu-; eqskluzivs ki Tavisi — Oe n-. amitom, bunebrivia, daisva kiTxva: amosavali viTareba subieqturs uRvlilebaSia daculi Tu obieqturSi? a. onianis azriT, amosavali viTareba daculi unda iyos subieqturs uRvlilebaSi, e. i. iq, sadac Si da Se formebi emTxveva erTmaneTs. inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoriis Camoyalibebis periodSi mxolobiTisagan gansxvavebuli is forma unda yofiliyo, romelic or personalur pirs aerTianebda (I da II). eqskluzivi ki — romelic I pirTan erTad `arapersonalur~ mesame pirsac Seicavda (xolo II-s gamoricxavda), mxolobiTi ricxvis formasTan ise mkveTrad ar unda yofiliyo dapirispirebulio (2, gv. 230). magram am savsebiT logikuri varaudis safuZvelze avtori sruliad moulodnelad daaskvnis, rom `I obieqturi piris prefiqsi istoriulad eqskluzivis niSnadac unda yofiliyo gamoyenebulio~. aseTi niSani ki aris yvela qarTvelurs enaSi, esaa m-, romelic svanurSi amJamad mxolod mxolobiTs ricxvSia dadasturebulio. eqskluzivis niSani n-prefiqsi, romelsac qarTvelur enebSi Sesatyvisi ar moepoveba, meoreuli Cans da miRebuli unda iyos m-sgano. sabolood, svanurSi inkluziv-eqskluzivis gamoxatvis a. onianis mier warmodgenili sqema aseTia: sub. uRvlileba S1 x… Se x… ob. uRvlileba O1 mOe *m- → nO1 gu-

S1 lrogorc vxedavT Si da Se gamoxatulia erTi da imave prefiqsiT (x…); Oi da Oe amosavalSi gamoixateba erTi da imave (m-) prefiqsiT, dRes ki maTi gamoxatuleba sxvadasxvaa (Oi — m-; Oe — n-). Tu amgvari sqema sinqroniul aspeqtSi gamarTlebulia (mas Semdeg, rac obieqtur uRvlilebaSi Oi da Oe-is prefiqsebi gansxvavda da, amgvarad, eqskluzivs Tavisi sakuTari niSani gauCnda, amis mixedviT SeiZleba subieqturs uRvlilebaSic eqskluzivis niSnad x…-prefiqsi viguloT, e.i. igive S1 piris prefiqsi), amosavalSi amgvari sqemis daSveba SeuZlebelia. O1-is prefiqsi, m-, iseve, rogorc S1—is v- (x…-) istoriulad (amosavalSi) ar SeiZleboda gamoyenebuli yofiliyo eqskluzivis niSnadac (romelsac mravlobiTis gageba unda hqonoda), Tu gaviTvaliswinebT qarTuli (//svanuri) zmnis pirisa da ricxvis gamoxatvis aglutinaciur princips (cnobilia, rom fleqsiuri tipis

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gamovlenis gamonaklisi SemTxvevebi qarTul zmnaSi meoreulia da amosavalSi struqturuli TvalsazrisiT aglutinaciur tips gviCvenebs. mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs svanurSi S3-is prefiqsuli wesiT gamoxatvis gadmonaSTi SemTxvevebi, qarTulSi S3 mravlobiTi ricxvis sufiqsebi, romelTac dRes piris gamoxatvis funqciac akisriaT, dabolos O1-is mravlobiTis gu-prefiqsi, romelic, rogorc gamoirkva, istoriulad ori funqciis matarebeli ar yofila). inkluzivis formaSi I pirTan erTad aRsaniSni II piricaa. inkluzivis kategoria I pirTan erTad aucileblad Caricxavs II pirsac, III piri ki SeiZleba igulisxmebodes, SeiZleba ara. eqskluzivis forma II pirs gamoricxavs, igi I da III pirs gulisxmobs. amgvarad, III piris arseboba orive formaSia SesaZlebeli — inkluziurSic da eqskluziurSic. mniSvneloba eniWeba imas, aris Tu ara Caricxuli II piri: Tu aris — amas gamoxatva esWiroeba, Tu ar aris — ara. aqedan cxadia, rom inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoria gansakuTrebuli afiqsiT II piris aRniSvnas moiTxovda misi arsebobis SemTxvevaSi (inkluzivi), misi ararsebobis aRniSvna ki, cxadia, saWiro ar iyo (eqskluzivi). aqedan logikuria daskvna, rom inkluzivs unda hqonoda niSani, eqskluzivs ki ara. amgvarad, istoriulad erTmaneTs upirispirdeba ori forma: niSniani — inkluzivisa da uniSno — eqskluzivisa. es ukanaskneli, cxadia, daemTxveoda mxolobiTi ricxvis formas orsave uRvlilebaSi (obieqturSic da subieqturSic). sqema Semdegi saxisa iqneboda: ob. uRvlileba C1 m- Ci guOe ∅ sub. uRvlileba S1 v-(x…-) Si x (l) Se ∅

ra principi unda dasdeboda safuZvlad inkluzivis kategoriis gamoxatvis wess? principi metad martivi iyo: formaSi igulisxmeboda I da II piri — niSnebic orive pirisa iyo warmodgenili (saqme exeba mxolod obieqturs uRvlilebas: SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom qarTulSi, subieqturs uRvlilebaSi kvalic ki ar aris darCenili am kategoriis arsebobisa, maSin, rodesac gu-prefiqsi obieqturs uRvlilebaSi dResac cocxalia, Tumca sxva funqciiT). sqema aseTi iqneboda: O2 > *gm → g… sadac g-s momdevno poziciaSi, TavdapirveO1

lad Tanxmovnebis win (gmC) Semdeg ki analogiiT xmovnebis winac (gmV), m gadadioda umarcvlo u-Si (Sdr. qmrivi → qurivi → qvrivi)1. amgvari daSveba logikurad savsebiT gamarTlebulia da es hipoTeza, rogorc cnobilia, adreve iqna gamoTqmuli (1, gv. 26), oRond mis aRiarebas xels uSlida is faqti, rom svanurSi subieqturs uRvlilebaSi eqskluzivis
1 O2 piris niSnad svanurSi dRes j-s arseboba dabrkolebad ver CaiTvleba, radganac `misi pirvandeli saxe g- unda yofiliyo“ (1, gv. 26).

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niSnad miCenuli x…-prefiqsi, romelic zemoT miRebuli wesis mixedviT S1 S3-s unda gulisxmobdes, Sedgenilobis mixedviT S2 (x) S1 (u) -s Semcveli gamodioda, rac Sinaarsis mixedviT SeuZlebelia. magram ismis kiTxva: aris Tu ara svanuri zmnis sub. uRvlilebaSi eqskluziv-inkluzivis forma iseTive agebulebisa, rogorc obieqturs uRvlilebaSi? dRevandeli suraTis mixedviT amas ver vityviT: inkluzivis niSani aris l-, erTi bgera (romelsac veraviTari lingvisturi manipulaciiT ver CavTvliT miRebulad ori prefiqsisagan). subieqturs uRvlilebaSi, vfiqrobT, saqme sul sxvagvarad unda yofiliyo. aq arc eqskluzivis niSani unda CaiTvalos amgvari warmoSobisad. logikurad ori daSvebis SesaZlebloba gvaqvs: an am uRvlilebaSi inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoria ufro gviandeli Camoyalibebulia, vidre obieqturs uRvlilebaSi, da maSin gasagebia, ratom ar daedo safuZvlad mis gamoxatvas Zveli wesi: kategorias ukve abstraqtuli gageba hqonda da niSanic abstraqtuli miiRo. SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom svanurSi am funqciiT daitvirTa ufunqciod darCenili S2-is prefiqsi l-, mas Semdeg, rac S3 gamoxatva zmnur sistemaSi sufiqsebs daekisraT, xolo eqskluzivs ki, iseve, rogorc obieqturs uRvlilebaSi, niSani ar hqonda. x…-prefiqsi, sadac ZiriTad elementad … miaCniaT, S1is Tavdapirveli prefiqsis — v-s win x fonetikurad iyos ganviTarebuli (Sdr. qviSna, Rvino). Semdeg ki x-s momdevno poziciaSi v →u (Sdr. Zv. qarT. x‚yav; SexuabT: Sevaxeb > Sexvab > Sexuab). amgvarad, svanurSi eqskluzivis formis x…- aris ara am kategoriis niSani, aramed S1-is niSani (sadac …-s win x ganviTarebulia). am daSvebas mxars uWers is, rom qarTulSi subieqturs uRvlilebaSi araviTari kvali ar Cans am kategoriis garCevisa maSin, roca obieqtur uRvlilebaSi m- da gu-prefiqsTa paraleluri arseboba Zvel qarTulSi gvavaraudebinebs am kategoriis odindel garCevas zmnis formaSi (rasac mxars uWers svanuris dRevandeli viTarebac: m- mxolobiTi ricxvis O1; gu- inkluzivi). an is dagvrCenia vivaraudoT, rom inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoriis Camoyalibebisas svanur S1 prefiqss ukve miRebuli hqonda x…- kompleqsis saxe da, amgvarad, inkluzivis niSnad veRar miiRebdnen S1 S2 (vx > xv > x…) niSanTa kombinacias, radganac inkluzivis forma aseT SemTxvevaSi daemTxveoda S1-isas da aqedan — eqskluzivis formas. amitom, enaSi inkluzivis gamosaxatavad gamoiZebna sul sxva saSualeba, kerZod l- niSani, romelic, sruliad SesaZlebelia, warmoSobiT swored S2 piris funqciadakarguli prefiqsi iyo da iseve ganagrZobda arsebobas (ufunqciod). rogorc odesRac qarTulSi gu-prefiqsi (manam, sanam am ukanasknels ar mouswro Zvrebma sintaqsis sferoSi da mravlobiTis gamoxatva ar daakisra).

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

asea Tu ise, obieqturi da subieqturi uRvlileba inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoriisa da mravlobiTi ricxvis gamoxatvis TvalsazrisiT svanurSi struqturulad gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan: 1. obieqturi uRvlileba: Zveli: axali: C1 guC1 guC2 mOe nCe ∅ (m-) 2. subieqturi uRvlileba: C1 x…Si lSe -∅- (S1 x…-) mr. r. suf. -d -d

istoriulad arc obieqturs uRvlilebaSi da arc subieqturs uRvlilebaSi eqskluzivs niSani ar hqonda. amitom obieqturs uRvlilebaSi igi emTxveoda mxolobiTi ricxvis formas. subieqturs uRvlilebaSi ki eqskluziuri forma ar emTxveoda mxolobiTisas (Tumca S1 prefiqsi x…- axlda), radganac mas boloSi mravlobiTi ricxvis sufiqsi erTvoda: x…ri — x…rid, romelic mas mxolobiTisagan ganasxvavebda, meore mxriv ki igi inkluzivis formisganac gansxvavdeba S1 prefiqsis gamo: x…rid lrid. SesaZlebelia swored amitom gaxda saWiro obieqturs uRvlilebaSi eqskluzivis formis gansxvaveba mxolobiTisagan (mi m a y a — n¡ m a y a ). morfologiurma saWiroebam gza gauxsna SesaZlebeli fonetikuri procesebis ganxorcielebas: rogorc al. oniani uSvebs, obieqturs uRvlilebaSi mxolobiTisagan eqskluzivis formis gansxvaveba unda momxdariyo m-s n-Si gadasvlis gziT. amis mizezi ki unda yofiliyo mravlobiTi ricxvis n¡ nacvalsaxeli, romelic aucilebeli Tanamdevi iqneboda mravlobiTi ricxvis gagebiT naxmari romelime maya formisa (romelic mxolobiTi ricxvis formas emTxveoda, radganac micemiTSi dasmuli obieqtis mravlobiToba zmnaSi ar aRiniSneboda). meore garemoeba, romelsac m>n gadasvlaze SeeZlo emoqmeda, es misi mxolobiTis wyvilTan (mi maya) tipologiuri damsgavsebis, analogiis gavlena unda yofiliyo n¡ maya > n¡ naya (g. maWavariani). ase gansxvavda obieqturs uRvlilebaSi mxolobiTis formisagan eqskluzivis forma zemosvanurSi. qvemosvanurSi, rogorc cnobilia, inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoria ar arsebobs. Tu vigulisxmebT, rom iq es kategoria arsebobda da moiSala, amisaTvis xeli imas unda Seewyo, rom iq, rogorc Cans, eqskluzivis formaSi ar momxdara m > n gadasvla, e. i. ar momxdara eqskluzivis formis mxolobiTisagan gansxvaveba, xolo, radganac ar arsebobda inkluzivTan mkveTrad dapirispirebuli eqskluzivis forma (es ukanaskneli mTli-

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anad emTxveoda mxolobiTis formas), azrobrivi dapirispirebac TandaTan moiSala. amitom gaxda SesaZlebeli am procesze gavlena moexdina qarTuls. amgvarad, obieqturs uRvlilebaSi eqskluzivis kategoriis niSniT gaformeba meoreuli movlenaa, subieqturs uRvlilebaSi ki daculia amosavali viTareba: eqskluzivs niSani ara aqvs, magram svanurSi igi formiT mainc gansxvavdeba mxolobiTis formisagan mravlobiTi ricxvis sufiqsiT: S1 — x…Sxi, Si — lSxid, Se — x…Sxid. Tu zemoTqmuls Tavs movuyriT, SeiZleba davasknaT: 1. gu-prefiqsi, istoriulad inkluzivis niSani, O2 + O1 prefiqsTa kombinaciiTaa Sedgenili: gm > g…. 2. eqskluzivs niSani istoriulad ar hqonia, radganac gansakuTrebul afiqss mxolod II piris arsebobis aRniSvna saWiroebda. obieqturs uRvlilebaSi (svanurSi mxolobiTis formisagan gansxvavebis saWiroebam gza gauxsna fonetikur-fsiqologiuri procesis ganxorcielebas: n¡ maya — n¡ naya da, amgvarad, svanurSi obieqturs uRvlilebaSi eqskluzivis niSnad sabolood gaformda n-prefiqsi. 3. svanurSi subieqturs uRvlilebaSi inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoriis garCeva SedarebiT gviandeli movlena Cans. amitom misi gamoxatvis wess ar dasdebia safuZvlad ori piris niSnis kombinacia. inkluzivi sagangebo lprefiqsiTaa aRniSnuli, romelic SesaZlebelia istoriulad S3 prefiqss davukavSiroT. eqskluzivs ki aqac ara aqvs niSani. 4. qarTulSi, rogorc Cans, subieqturs uRvlilebaSi inkluziv-eqskluzivis dapirispirebis gaCenamde es kategoria obieqturma uRvlilebamac dakarga, gansxvavebiT zemosvanurisagan, sadac es kategoria kidev ufro gaZlierda da subieturs uRvilebaSic moxda inkluziv-eqskluzivis formaluri garCeva. 5. qvemo svanurSi, rogorc Cans, imis gamo, rom eqskluzivis forma ar dapirispirebia erTi mxriv — mxolobiTisa da meore mxriv — inkluzivis formas, e.i. ar mieca gasaqani zemoT dasaxelebul fonetikur process (n¡ maya — n¡ naya). inkluziv-eqskluzivis dapirispireba aRarc subieturs uRvlilebaSi momxdara. Semdgom ki qarTulis gavleniT es dapirispireba obieqturs uRvlilebaSic Sesustda da sabolood moiSala. 6. inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoriis gamoxatvis sqema istoriulad ase SegviZlia warmovidginoT: obieqturs uRvlilebaSi svanurSi: Ci gu < gm C1 mCe n- < o1m-) ∅ qarTulSi: C1 gu- < gm C1 mCe ∅

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subieqturs uRvlilebaSi svanurSi: C1 l- (d) C1 x…Ce ∅ (d-) qarTulSi subieqturs uRvlilebaSi amgvari dapirispireba ar ganviTarebula.

damowmebuli literatura 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. T o f u r i a v., svanuri ena. zmna. Tbilisi, 1967. o n i a n i al., inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoriis sakiTxisaTvis qarTvelur enebSi, `macne~, 1965, 1. S a n i Z e a., qarTuli zmnis saqcevi, Tsu moambe, t. VI, 1926. S a n i Z e a., orgvari forma mravlobiTi ricxvis I pirisa svanurSi, `weliwdeuli~, 1923-24. S a n i Z e a., qarTuli gramatikis safuZvlebi, I, Tbilisi, 1953. C i q o b a v a arn., mravlobiTis aRniSvnis ZiriTadi principisaTvis qarTuli zmnis uRvlilebis sistemaSi, ike, t. I, 1946.

saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis macne (enisa da literaturis seria), 4, 1977, gv. 159-165.

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Teimuraz metreveli

inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoriisaTvis Zvel qarTulSi
pirveli obieqturi piris mravlobiT ricxvSi ori erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebuli gu- da m-prefiqsiani formebis arsebobam Zvel qarTulSi Tavidanve miiqcia yuradReba. jer kidev adre mocemuli formebi prof. a. SaniZem inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoriis naSTad miiCnia da gamoTqva varaudi, rom inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoria, romelic dResac moqmedebs svanurSi, saerTo qarTuli kategoria unda yofiliyo ([1], 335, SnS. 1; [2], 372, 4). gamoTqmuli mosazreba gaiziares v. Tofuriam ([3], 25-6), k. donduam [4], g. deetersma ([5], 27). Tavisi varaudi gu- da m-prefiqsiani formebis Sesaxeb a. SaniZem SemdgomSic gaimeora `qarTuli gramatikis safuZvlebis~ orsave gamocemaSi (1953 w. gv. 185; 1973 w., gv. 183) da bolo xans gamosul `Zveli qarTuli enis gramatikaSi~ (1976 w. gv. 65). sul sxva varaudi wamoayena arn. Ciqobavam [6], romelmac rogorc m-prefiqsi, iseve gu-prefiqsic mxolobiTi ricxvis niSnad CaTvala ([6], 100) da isini erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebul dialeqtur fenebs miakuTvna ([6],105). rac Seexeba inkluziv-eqskluzivis Sesaxeb wamoyenebul debulebas, igi, misi azriT, svanuris Cvenebas emyareba ([6],100), sadac es kategoria meoreuli warmoSobisa unda iyos da amitom misi (svanuris) monacemebis gaTvaliswineba Zveli qarTulisaTvis dasayrdenad ver gamodgeba ([6],115). 1965 wels `macneSi~ (1) daibeWda a. onianis specialuri naSromi [7], romelSic sagangebodaa ganxiluli svanurSi arsebuli viTareba da uaryofilia inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoriis meoreuloba svanurSi. a. onianis azriT, ufro bunebrivi iqneboda gvevarauda, rom inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoria qarTulsa da megrul-WanurSi moiSala, xolo svanurma ki arqauli viTareba Semogvinaxa ([7],231). iqve a. oniani ganagrZobs, rom, marTalia, Zvel qarTulSi m- da gu-prefiqsTa adrindeli funqcia moSlilia, magram zmnis uRlebis sistemaSi isini kvlav tradiciulad ixmarebian da arqauli viTareba aqvT daculi. es ki, askvnis avtori, safuZvels gvaZlevs, inkluziv-eqskluzivis odindeli arseboba qarTulSic vivaraudoT ([7],234). aseTia a. onianis ZiriTadi daskvnebi, romlebic, faqtobrivad uaryofen gu- || m-prefiqsTa arn. Ciqobavaseul gaazrebas da sabolood a. SaniZis mier adre gamoTqmuli mosazrebis siswores asabuTeben. am TvalsazrisiT, sakiTxi SeiZleboda gadaWriladac CagveTvala, miTumetes, rom a. onianis msjeloba sakmaod safuZvliani da amomwuravia.

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magram naSromSi ZiriTadi yuradReba mainc svanurs eTmoba da sailustracio masala Zveli qarTulidan naklebadaa moxmobili. amitom, meti damajereblobisaTvis mainc saWiro Cans Zveli qarTuli enis calkeuli Zeglebis ufro detaluri analizi. am miznisaTvis yvelaze ufro axali aRTqmis wignebis, upirveles yovlisa ki `qarTuli oTxTavis ori Zveli redaqciis~ [8] analizi migvaCnia Sesaferad. radgan, marTalia, Satberduli xelnawerebi gadawerilia IX-X ss, magram maTi ena ZiriTadad mainc IV-V saukuneTa enis normebs asaxavs ([8], 011). teqstTa analizamde winaswar unda iTqvas, gu- da m-prefiqsTa Soris arsebuli sxvaobis dasadgenad, svanuris monacemebis gaTvaliswinebaze aranaklebi mniSvneloba TviT qarTuli zmnis struqturis gaTvaliswinebas eniWeba. kerZod, mis unars, gamoxatos Tavisi formiT rogorc subieqturi, iseve obieqturi piric (an pirebic). pirTa SesaZlebeli kombinaciebi gviCvenebs, rom Tu zmnis formaSi obieqturi piri pirvelia, maSin subieqtad SeiZleba gvqondes meore an mesame piri. aqedan, Tu subieqti meore piria, maSin obieqtis mravlobiToba SeiZleba gulisxmobdes mxolod pirvel da mesame obieqtur pirTa urTierTobas. aseT SemTxvevaSi forma, cxadia, eqskluziuri Sinaarsisa iqneba, radgan meore piri obieqtis mravlobiTobidan gamoricxulad igulisxmeba. magram Tu subieqti mesame piria, maSin obieqtis mravlobiTobaSi SeiZleba igulisxmebodes rogorc pirveli da meore piris urTierToba, iseve pirveli da mesame piris urTierTobac, e.i. forma SeiZleba iyos rogorc inkluziuri Sinaarsisa, iseve eqskluziurisac. Tu zemoT aRniSnul pirTa SesaZlebel kombinaciebs gaviTvaliswinebT, maSin gu- da m-prefiqsiani formebi SeiZleba apriorulad miviCnioT Zveli qarTulis adreul etapze moqmedi inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoriis naSTad (miTumetes rom gu- da m-prefiqsiani formebis arn. Ciqobavaseuli inertpretacia miuRebeli Cans Tundac imitom, rom gu-prefiqsiani formebi Zvel qarTulSi saerTod ar dasturdeba mxolobiTi ricxvis mniSvnelobiT. Sdr. [7] 233). zemoT aRniSnuli SesaZlebeli kombinaciebis gaTvaliswineba imasac naTelyofs, rom Zvel qarTul teqstebSi upirveles yovlisa eqskluziur formaTa kvali unda veZioT. amitom teqstis analizisas ZiriTadi yuradReba m-prefiqsian formebs eTmoba. enobrivi masalis analizi qvemoT cal-calkea ganxiluli j r u W - p a r x li s a (936 w., 973 w.) da a d i S i s (897 w.) oTxTavebi, radgan pirveli ori erT DE redaqcias iZleva, mesame ki gancalkevebiT dgas (C redaqcia) qarTul oTxTavTa Soris ([8] 08-010).

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DE redaqcia maTes saxareba. gvaqvs 17 m prefiqsiani forma, romelTagan 15 me-2 subieqtur piriani formaa da amitom, cxadia, `Cuen~ gulisxmobs 1-li da me-3 obieqtur pirTa urTierTobas: 1. puri ese Cueni arsobisa¡ momec Cuen dRes (6,11), 2. da momiteven Cuen Tana-nadebni Cuenni (6,12), 3. da nu Semiyvaneb Cuen gansacdelsa (6,13), 4. aramed mi£snen Cuen borotisagan (6,13), 5. ufalo, mi£snen Cuen (8,25), 6. mibrZane mislvad koltsa imas RorTasa (8,31), 7. Semiwyalen Cuen, ufalo (9,27), 8. miTxar Cuen igavi igi RuarZlisa¡ (13,36), 9. gamomiTargmane Cuen igavi ege (15,15), 10. Semiwyalen Cuen, iesu (20,30), 11. Semiwyalen Cuen, ufalo (20,31), 12. aw marqu Cuen (22,17), 13. miTxar Cuen (24,3), 14. meciT Cuen zeTisagan Tquenisa (25,8), 15. gafuceb Sen, RmrTisa cxovelisa, ra¡Ta miTxra Cuen (26,63). yvela 15-save SemTxvevaSi formebi aSkarad eqskluziuri mniSvnelobisaa. aseve eqskluziuri mniSvnelobisaa danarCeni ori formac: 16. xolo maT hrques mas: aravin damidginna Cuen, ufalo (20,7). meore obieqturi piris Sinaarsidan gamoricxulia, radgan, Sinaarsobrivi TvalsazrisiT, meore piri winadadebSi `ufalo~ sityviTaa realizebuli, romelic namdvilad ar igulisxmeba `damidginna~ formis Sinagan damatebad. gamoricxulad igulisxmeba meore obieqturi piri m-prefiqsiani formis mniSvnelobidan momdevno magaliTSic: 17. mowafeni misni Rame movides da waripares igi, vidre Cuen meZina (28,13). rac Seexeba gu-prefiqsian formebs, maT SeiZleba hqondeT rogorc inkluziuri gageba, iseve eqskluziuric. eqskluziuri gagebisaa, magaliTad, me-2 subieqtur piriani brZanebiTis formebi: 1. ufalo, ufalo, gang¢Re Cuenca (25,11); 2. g¢winawarmetyuelebd Cuen, qriste (26,68). gamoricxulia me-2 obieqturi piri sxva SemTxvevebSic: 3. ukueTu ganguasxam Cuen... (8,31). subieqti aqac, me-2 piria da amitom obieqtis mravlobiTobaSi mxolod pirveli da me3 piris urTierToba igulisxmeba. 4. moZRuar, gunebavs Sengan saswaulisa xilva¡ (12,38). `gunebavs~ formis eqskluziur Sinaarss xazi esmeba winadadebaSi mocemuli `moZRuar~ da `Sengan~ leqsikuri erTeulebiT. 5. da hrques petres: moZRuarman Tquenman ara mogucesa xarki? (17,24): obieqtis mravlobiTobaSi igulisxmeba petresTan moubari xarkis amkrefelebi da danarCenebi, e.i. pirveli da ara me-3 piri da ara petre, romelic aq me-2 pirad unda gavigoT, radganac mas mimarTaven. analogiuri TvalsazrisiT dgindeba `Zal-g¢c~ formis eqskluziuri Sinaarsi momdevno magaliTSic: 6. xolo maT hrques: Zal-g¢c (20,22). samagierod, momdevno magaliTSi gu-prefiqsiani forma ukve inkluziuri Sinaarsisaa: 7. nuukue ver gueyos Cuen da Tquen (25,9). inkluziuroba konteqstualuradaa xazgasmuli — winadadebaSi gvaqvs `Tquen~ nacvalsaxeli. igive iTqmis `gurquas~ (21,25), `gueSinis~ (21,26) da `g¢£man~ (26,65) formebis Sesaxebac: 8. ukueTu vTquaT: zeciT, gurquas Cuen (21,25); 9. ukueTu vTquaT: kacTagn, gueSinis erisa amis (21,26); 10. ra¡sa-Ra g¢£man mowameni? aha esera gesma gmoba¡ magisi (26,65). pirveli ori formis SemTxvevaSi obieqtis mravlobiToba TanamosaubreTa (e.i. pirveli da me-2) piris urTierTobas gulisxmobs. mesame 128

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

formis SemTxvevaSi ki mRvdelT moZRuari mimarTavs krebuls (mwignobrebs, cru mowameebs...), romelic, gramatikuli TvalsazrisiT, winadadebaSi realizdeba, rogorc me-2 obieqturi piri mravlobiTi ricxvisa (`Tquen~). amitom samive forma (`gurquas~, `gueSinis~, `g¢£man~) inkluziuri gagebisaa. isev inkluziuri gagebisa unda iyos maTes saxarebis danarCeni gu-prefiqsiani formebic: 11. mama¡ g¢vis Cven abrahami (3,9); 12. xolo maT hrques mas: arara¡ guaqus (14,17); 13. ganuteve ese, rameTu RaRadebs da Seg¢dgs Cuen (15,23); 14. gardamo£edin aw magier juariT, da gurwmenes ege (27,42). aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom bolo oTxi formidan yvela erTnairi sicxadiT ar gamoxatavs inkluziurobas. sabolood SeiZleba iTqvas: maTes saxarebis DE redaqciis monacemebi gviCvenebs, rom 17-ve m-prefiqsiani formis mniSvnelobidan aSkarad gamoricxulia me-2 obieqturi piris gageba da amitom isini yvela SemTxvevaSi eqskluziuri gagebisa arian. rac Seexeba gu-prefiqsian formebs, maT SeiZleba hqondeT rogorc inkluziuri gageba, aseve eqskluziuric. yovelive damokidebulia konteqstze. am TvalsazrisiT, isini eqkluziurobis sapirispiro gagebas ver ayalibeben. prefiqsTa Sefardebaa: m (17) : gu (14). markozis saxareba. m-prefiqsiani formebi aq SedarebiT naklebia, sul rvaa. aqedan 6 me-2 subieqturi piriani brZanebiTis formaa da amitom maTi mniSvnelobidan me-2 obieqturi piri gamoricxulia da isini aSkarad eqskluziuri gagebisa arian: 1. mibrZane Cuen Rorebsa imas, ra¡Ta maTa SevideT (5,12), 2. Semewie Cuen, ufalo (9,22); 3. momec Cuen, ra¡Ta davsxdeT erTi marjueniT da erTi marcxeniT Sensa dResa mas didebisasa (10, 37); 4. marqu Cuen (12,14); 5. miTxar Cuen, odes yofad ars ese (13,4); 6. mun mza-miyavT Cuen (14,15). eqskluziuri gagebisaa `damiwera~ formac momdevno winadadebaSi: 7. moZRuar, mose esreT damiwera Cuen (12,9). meore piris fardad winadadebaSi nagulisxmevia `moZRuar~, romelsac mimarTaven da romelic, am TvalsazrisiT ar unda Sediodes m-prefiqsiT aRniSnuli obieqtis mravlobiTobaSi. eqskluziuri gagebisaa `miyo~ formac, radgan subieqtad aq me-2 piri gvevlineba: 8. moZRuar, gunebavs, ra¡Ta, romeli gTxovoT, miyo Cuen (10,35) 1. bolo winadadebaSi mocemuli `gunebavs~ forma ukve inkluziuri gagebisa unda iyos, magram igi, iseve rogorc `miyo~ forma, eqskluziurobis gamomxatvelia: me-2 piris fardad winadadebaSi `moZRuar~ igulisxmeba, romelic ar Sedis `gunebavs~ formis gagebaSi. aseve eqskluziuri Sinaarsisaa `g¢winawarmetyuelebd~ (14,65) formac. `g¢winawarmetyuelebd Cuen, qriste~ winadadebaSi, radgan igi I brZanebiTis formaa da subieqtad gvaqvs me-2 piri, romelic aRar SeiZleba Sediodes obieqtis mravlobiTobaSi. eqskluziuri gagebisa unda iyos `Zal-g¢c~ formac: `xolo maT hrques mas: Zal-g¢c (10,33). `Zal-g¢c~ me

iseT SemTxvevebs, roca erT winadadebaSi erTi da igive gagebis formebs xan gu aqvT da xan m, sagangebod ixilavs arn. Ciqobava da maT gu- da m-prefiqsebis sxvadasxva dialeqturi warmomavlobis damamtkicebel argumentad miiCnevs [6,] 101-104). Cveni azriT, aq ubralod formaTa gaTanabrebasTan gvaqvs saqme.

1

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da iovanes (an me da iakobs) — gvaqvs 1-li da me-3 piris urTierToba (igive urTierTobaa adre ganxilul `gunebavs~ (10,35) formaSic). sul sxva mniSvnelobisaa `Zal-g¢c~ forma momdevno winadadebaSi: `vina¡ Zal-g¢c aqa ganZRebad puriTa esodeni eri udabnosa zeda?~ (8,4). `Zal-g¢c~ aq ukve inkluziuri Sinaarsisaa da obieqtis mravlobiTobaSi igulisxmeba `Cuen da Sen~. rogorc vxedavT, erTsa da imave gu-prefiqsian formas sxvadasxva konteqstSi SeiZleba hqondes rogorc inkluziuri gageba, iseve eqskluziuric. inkluziuri gagebisa unda iyos markozis saxarebis danarCeni gu-prefiqsiani formebi: `da ityodes, viTarmed: puri ara guaqus~ (8,16); `romeli Cuen ara Seg¢dgs~ (9,38); `ukueTu vTquaT: zeciT iyo, gurquas Cuen~ (11,31); `da ukueTu vTquaT: kacTagan gueSinis erisa~ (11,32); `ra¡sa-Ra g¢£man mowameni?~ (14,63); `gardamo£edin aw juariT, ra¡Ta vixiloT da gurwmenes~ (15,32) 1. `Cuen guesma magisi sityua¡~ (14,58); `vin gardag¢gorvos Cuen lodi igi karisa misgan saflavisa?~ (16,3). markozis saxarebis gu-prefiqsiani formebi, iseve rogorc maTes saxarebisa, yvela SemTxvevaSi erTnairi sicxadiT ar gamoxatavs inkluziurobas. markozis saxarebis SemTxvevaSi gamotanili daskvna maTes saxarebis SemTxvevaSi gamotanili daskvnis analogiuri iqneba. amitom aq mxolod markozis saxarebaSi mocemul prefiqsTa Sefardebas vaCvenebT: m (8) : gu (12) 2. lukas saxareba. yvelaze meti m-prefiqsiani forma aq gvaqvs — 25. aqedan 14 SemTxvevaSi forma me-2 subieqturi pirisaa da amitom 14-ve forma eqskluziuri Sinaarsisaa: 1. Svilo, ra¡sa esrÀT miyav Cuen? (2,48); 2. puri Cueni Tanaarsobisa¡ momec Cuen dRiTi-dRed (11,3); 3. da momiteven Cuen codvani Cuenni (11,4); 4. da nu Semiyvaneb Cuen gansacdelsa (11,4); 5. moZRuar, magas ra¡ ity¢, Cuenca magineb (11,45); 6. SemZine Cuen sarwmunoveba¡ (17,5); 7. iesu moZRuar, Semiwyalen Cuen (17,13); 8. miTxar Cuen, romliTa £elmwifebiTa amas iqm (20,2); 9. warvediT da momimzadeT Cuen pasqa¡ (22,8); 10. mun mza-miyavT Cuen (22,12); 11. ukueTu Sen xar qriste, miTxar Cuen (22,67); 12. aRiRe ege da momiteve Cuen baraba (23,18); 13. dameceniT Cuen (23,30); 14. damfareniT Cuen (23,30). gvxvdeba iseTi SemTxvevebic, sadac subieqti mesame piria, miuxedavad amisa, formaTa eqskluziuri Sinaarsi oTx SemTxvevaSi sakmaod naTladaa gamoxatuli: 15. iovane naTlis-mcemelman momavlinna Cuen Senda (7,20); winadadebaSi mocemuli `Senda~ gamoricxavs `momavlinna~ formidan me-2 obieqtur pirs. 16. moZRuar, mose esre damiwera Cuen (20,28). ix. markozis saxareba (12,19); 17. da Sesakrebeli Cueni man aRmiSena Cuen (7,5); asisTavma Sesakrebeli aRuSena moubars (1-li piri) da danarCen huriebs (me-3 piri) da ara qristes, romelsac mimarTaven da romelic, am TvalsazrisiT, me-2 pirad unda vigulisxmoT winadadebaSi. gamoricxulia me-2 obieqturi piri momdevno SemTxvevaSic: 18. aramed

bolo 6 forma Sdr. maTes saxarebis analogiur gu-prefiqsian formebs: 14, 17; 15,23; 21,25; 21,26; 26,65; 27,42. 2 D redaqciaSi gu-prefiqsiani forma erTiT naklebia: Zal-g¢c —Zal-gic (8,4).

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dedaTaca vieTme CuenganTa damak¢rves Cuen (24,22); me-2 obieqturi piri (am SemTxvevaSi qriste) arc aq igulisxmeba m-prefiqsian formaSi. or SemTxvevaSi m-prefiqsiani formis mniSvneloba bundovania: 19. viTarca-igi momces Cuen, romeli dasabamiTgan T¢T-mxilvel... yofil iyvnes sity¢sa mis (1,2); 20. romelTa momxeda Cuen aRmosavalman maRliT (1,78). danarCen 5 SemTxvevaSi m-prefiqsiani forma inkluziuri gagebisa unda iyos: 21. Tques mwyemsTa maT urTierTas: ...vixiloT sityua¡ ese...romel-igi ufalman mauwya Cuen (2,15); 22. ukueTu vTquaT, viTarmed: zeciT iyo, mrquas Cuen (20,5); 23. da ukueTu vTquaT, viTarmed: kacTagan yovelman erman qva¡ damkribos Cuen (20,6). sainteresoa, rom bolo ori formis nacvlad maTesa da markozis saxarebaSi marTebuli gu-prefiqsiani forma gvaqvs (gurquas: m. 21,25: mrkz. 11,31; gueSinis: m. 21,26; mrkz. 11,32). 24—25. da igini ityodes urTierTas: anu ara guli Cueni gan£urvebul iyo Cuen Soris, viTar-igi metyoda Cuen gzasa zeda... da gamomiTargmanebda Cuen wignTa? (24,32). rogorc vxedavT, lukas saxarebaSi yvelgan araa daculi m-prefiqsian formebSi eqskluziuri gageba da es arcaa gasakviri, radgan mocemuli kategoriis kvali Zvel qarTulSi naSTis saxiTRaa SemorCenili. gu-prefiqsiani forma lukas saxarebaSi 16-ia (E redaqciaSi erTiT metia: gueCuena 1,78). aqedan nawili inkluziuri gagebisaa, nawili ki eqskluziurisa. aSkarad inkluziuri gagebisaa magaliTad, `moguegebis~ forma `rameTu Cuen samarTlad Rirsi, romeli vqmeniT, moguegebis (23,43) winadadebaSi. inkluziuroba konteqstis meSveobiT sakmaod naTladaa gamoxatuli: `moguegebis~ igi Cuen (Cuen =me+Sen). erTmaneTs mimarTavs ori Z¢ris moqmedi, romelTaganac erTi pirvel pirad igulisxmeba, meore ki — meored. inkluziuri gagebisa Cans momdevno formebic: `aRg¢dgina Cuen rqa¡ cxorebisa¡ Soris saxlsa mas daviTis~ (1,69); `mama¡ g¢vis Cuen abrahami~ (3,8); `da Cuen vayenebdiT mas, rameTu ara Seg¢dgs Cuen Tana~ (9,49); `ra¡-Ra g¢£ms wameba¡?~ (22,71) 1 ; `da ityodes: ufalo, eSmaknica daguemorCilebian saxeliTa SeniTa~ (10,17); `romeli Tana-guedva yofad, vyavT~ (17,10); `Cuen T¢T guesmis pirisagan misisa~ (22,71). sxva formaTa ganxilvamde unda iTqvas, rom aq CamoTvlili formebi yvela SemTxvevaSi erTnairi sicxadiT ar gamoxataven inkluziurobas. danarCen SemTxvevebSi gu-prefiqsiani formebi SeiZleba eqskluziuri gagebisa iyvnen: upirveles yovlisa, es exeba me-2 subieqtur pirian zmnur formebs: `ufalo, guaswave Cuen locva¡~ (11,1); `ufalo, ufalo, gang¢Re Cuen~ (13,25); `da ubanTa CuenTa zeda guaswavebd~ (13,26). aseve eqskluziuri gagebisaa is danarCeni oTxi formac, romelTa SemTxvevaSic subieqti me-3 piria: `raodeni guesma saqmÀ Seni kafernaums, qmen aqaca~ (4,23). obieqtis mravlobiTobidan me-2 piri namdvilad gamoricxulia, rasac konteqstualurad esmeba xazi `Seni~ leqsikuri erTeulisa da `qmen aqaca~ frazis meSveobiT. `aha esera
1 Sdr. maTesa (3,9; 15,23; 26,65;) da markozis (9,38; 14,63;) saxarebis analogiur gu-prefiqsian formebs.

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mtueri romeli aRguekra fer£Ta CuenTa qalaqisagan Tquenisa, ganviyriT Tquen zeda~ (10,11): mimarTaven me-2 pirs, romelic obieqtis mravlobiTobis gagebaSi ar Sedis da igi aqac konteqstualuradaa gamoricxuli. `da hrques mas: ara gunebavs meufeba¡ magisi Cuen zeda~ (19,14). mocemul SemTxvevaSi guprefiqsiani formis mniSvneloba erTgvarad bundovania. samagierod, ukeTesad Cans formis eqskluziuroba Semdgom SemTxvevaSi~ `...nu gaklda ra¡ Tquen? xolo maT Tques: arara¡ guaklda~ (22,35). aseTia viTareba lukas saxarebaSi. prefiqsTa Sefardebaa m (25) : gu (16). iovanes saxareba. gvaqvs 7 m-prefiqsiani forma, romelTaganac oTxSi subieqti me-2 piria da amitom obieqtis mravlobiTobidan me-2 piri gamoricxulad igulisxmeba: 1. rasa saswaulsa miCueneb Cuen (2,18); 2. ufalo, maradis momec Cuen puri ese (6,34); 3. miCuene Cuen mama¡ Seni (14,8); 4. miCuene Cuen mama¡ Seni (14,9). eqskluziuri gagebisaa momdevno formac: 5. nu Sen ufro¡s xar mamisa Cuenisa iakobisa, romelman ese jurRmuli momca Cuen? (4,12). iakobma jurRmuli misca iesusTan moubar dedakacs (1-li piri) da danarCen samaritelebs (me-3 piri) da ara iesus, romelsac dedakaci mimarTavs da romelic amitom me-2 pirad unda miviCnioT. gvrCeba kidev ori m-prefiqsiani forma, romelTaganac erTis mniSvneloba bundovania (hrqua mas dedakacman man: ...odes movides igi, miTxras Cuen yoveli: 4,25), xolo meore ki inkluziuri gagebisa unda iyos (Tques mowafeTa misTa urTierTas: ra¡ ars ese, romelsa mety¢s Cuen: 16,17). asea Tu ise, m-prefiqsiani formebi iovanes saxarebaSic ZiriTadad eqskluziurobis gagebis gamomxatvelia. gu-prefiqsian formebs aq, iseve rogorc danarCen saxarebebSi, SeiZleba hqondeT rogorc inkluziuri gageba, iseve eqskluziuric. inkluziuri gagebisaa, magaliTad, `mig¢Ron~ forma `da moviden hromni da mig¢Ron Cuen adgilica Cueni da naTesavica~ (11,48) winadadebaSi erTmaneTs mimarTaven moubarni da amitom gvaqvs 1-li da me-2 piris urTierToba. analogiuri viTarebaa momdevno SemTxvevaSic: `iyide, ra¡ g¢£mdes dResaswaulsa amas~ (13,29). samagierod, aSkarad eqskluziuri gagebisaa, magaliTad, me-2 subieqtur piriani formebi: `g¢Txar Cuen, vin xar Sen~ (1,22); `da Sen guaswaveba Cuen?~ (9,34); `g¢Txar Cuen gancxadebulad~ (10,24); `rameTu Cuen gamog¢cxadeb Tavsa Sensa~ (14,22). sul iovanes saxarebaSi 19 gu-prefiqsiani formaa (aqedan sam SemTxvevaSi gu-prefiqsiani forma mxolod E redaqciaSia: guaqus (4,11), guaq¢s (5,39), g¢£mdes (18,29), magram danarCen formebs aq aRar SevexebiT (isini arafriT gansxvavdebian sxva saxarebebSi ganxiluli formebisagan), radgan ZiriTadi CvenTvis mainc m-prefiqsiani formebia. rogorc vxedavT, iovanes saxarebaSi danarCeni saxarebebis analogiuri viTarebaa. prefiqsTa saerTo Sefardebaa m (7) : gu (19).

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zemoT Cven cal-calke ganvixileT DE redaqciis oTxive saxarebis monacemebi. analizma gviCvena: a) maTes saxarebis 17 m-prefiqsiani formidan 17-ve eqskluziuri Sinaarsisaa. aseve eqskluziuri Sinaarsisaa markozis saxarebis rvave m-prefiqsiani forma. lukas saxarebis 25 m-prefiqsiani formidan 18 eqskluziuri Sinaarsisaa (2 formis Sinaarsi bundovania, 5 forma inkluziuri gagebisa unda iyos). iovanes saxarebis 7 m-prefiqsiani formidan 18 eqskluziuri Sinaarsisaa (1 formis Sinaarsi bundovania da erTic inkluziuri gagebisa unda iyos). maSasadame, sul oTxive saxarebis 57 formidan 48 eqskluziuri Sinaarsisaa. amdenad, dabejiTebiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom jruWisa da parxlis oTxTavebSi mocemuli m-prefiqsiani formebi aSkarad iZlevian saSualebas, naSTis saxiT davadginoT adre moqmedi eqskluzivis kategoriis kvali. b) rac Seexeba gu-prefiqsian formebs, maT SeiZleba hqondeT rogorc inkluziuri gageba, iseve eqskluziuric. am TvalsazrisiT, isini ver ayalibeben eqskluziur formaTa sapirispiro kategoriul mniSvnelobas (maTi gagebidan araa gamoricxuli eqskluziuroba). sul DE redaqciaSi 61 gu-prefiqsiani formaa. g) miuxedavad imisa, rom m-prefiqsiani formebi DE redaqciaSi ZiriTadad eqskluziurobis gamomxatvelia, formaTa gaTanabrebis procesi jruWisa da parxlis oTxTavebis enaSi mainc sakmaod Sorsaa wasuli da gu-prefiqsian formebs maTi xmarebis TiTqmis naxevarSi natvirTi aqvT eqskluziurobis gagebis gadmocema (gaTanabrebis maCvenebelia m-prefiqsiani formebis xmarebis is gamonaklisi SemTxvevebic, roca isini ar gamoxataven eqskluziurobas). oTxsave saxarebaSi mocemul prefiqsTa saerTo Sefardebaa m (57) : gu (61). C redaqcia maTes saxareba. DE redaqciis 17 m-prefiqsiani formis nacvlad C redaqciaSi 12 gvaqvs. aqedan orive redaqciisaTvis saziaro formebia: 1. puri Cueni samaradiso¡ momec Cuen dRes (6, 11); 2. aramed mi£snen Cuen borotisagan (6,13); 3. ufalo, ganmarinen Cuen (8,25) 1 ; 4. miwyalen Cuen, Zeo daviTiso (9,27); 5. miwyalen Cuen, iesu, Zeo daviTiso (20,30); 6. aw marqu Cuen (22,17); 7. marqu Cuen: odes yofad ars ese (24,3); 8. gafuceb Sen RmrTisa cxovelisa, ra¡Ta miTxra Cuen (26,63); 9. da waripares igi, vidre Cuen meZina (28,13). mocemuli formebi DE redaqciis analizisas iyo ganxiluli da aRiniSna, rom isini yvela eqskluziuri gagebisaa.

calkeul muxlebSi DE da C redaqciebSi msgavsi Sinaarsis erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebuli leqsikuri erTeulebi gvaqvs. aseT SemTxvevebSi qvemoT mxolod C redaqciis erTeulebia moyvanili xandaxan.

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aseve eqskluziuri gagebisaa is sami formac, romlebic DE redaqciis uprefiqso formebis nacvlad gvaqvs C redaqciaSi: 10. sulgrZel meqmen Cuen zeda (sulgrZel iqmen Cem zeda: DE 18,29); 11. da damasworen Cuen igi (swor Cuenda hyven igini: DE 20,12). orive forma me-2 subieqtur piriani formaa. 12. ufalo, ra¡Ta aRmexunen Cuen Tualni Cuenni (ufalo, ra¡Ta aRvixilneT Tualni Cuenni: DE 20,33). mimarTvaa me-2 pirisadmi, romelic, cxadia, veRar Seva obieqtis mravlobiTobaSi. gu-prefiqsiani forma C redaqciaSi 24-ia, e.i., 10-iT meti vidre DE redaqciaSi. aqedan 13 SemTxvevaSi formebi orive redaqciisaTvis saziaroa: `g¢vis~ (3,9), `gan-Tu-guasxam~ (C 8,31) || `ganguasxam~ (DE), `gunebavs~ (12,38), `ara guaqus~ (C 14,17) || `arara¡ guaqus~ (DE), `Seg¢dgs~ (15,23), `g¢Zlavs~ (C 20,22) || `Zalg¢c~ (DE), `gurquas~ (21,25), `gueSinis~ (21, 26), `ver gueyos~ (25,9), `gang¢Re~ (25,11), `g¢£ms~ (C 26,65) || `g¢£man~ (DE), `g¢winawarmetyuelebd~ (26,68), `gurwmenes~ (27,42). am formebs ukve SevexeT DE redaqciis analizisas da vnaxeT, rom maT SeiZleba hqondeT rogorc inkluziuri gageba, iseve eqskluziuric. sam SemTxvevaSi DE redaqciis uprefiqso formebs C-Si gu-prefiqsiani formebi upirispirdeba: `puri ara guaqus~ (C 16,7) ← `puri ara moviReT~ (DE), `rameTu sanTelni Cuenni dag¢Srtebian~ (C 25,8) ← `rameTu sanTelni Cuenni daSrtebian~ (DE). magram redaqciaTa Sedarebisas yvelaze saintereso isaa, rom DE redaqciis 8 m-prefiqsiani formis nacvlad C-Si gu-prefiqsiani forma gvaqvs: 1. da mog¢teven Cuen Tana-nadebni Cuenni (C 6,12) ← da momiteven Cuen Tana-nadebni Cuenni (DE); 2. da nu Seg¢yvaneb Cven ganacdelsa (C 6,13) ← da nu Semiyvaneb Cuen gansacdelsa (DE); 3. g¢brZane Cuen mislvad koltsa imas Rorebisasa (C 8,31) ← mibrZane mislvad koltsa imas RorTasa (DE), 4. g¢Txar Cuen igavi igi RuarZlisa¡ (C 13,36) ← miTxar Cuen igavi igi RuarZlisa¡ (DE); 5. gamog¢Targmane Cuen igavi ege (C 15,15) ← gamomiTargmane Cuen igavi ege (DE); 6. aravin dag¢dginna Cuen (C 20,7) ← aravin damidginna Cuen (DE); 7. ufalo, g¢wyalen Cuen (C 20,31) ← Semiwyalen Cuen, ufalo (DE); 8. gueciT Cuenca zeTi zeTisa magis Tquenisa¡ (C 25,8) ← meciT Cuen zeTisagan Tquenisa (DE). DE redaqciis analizisas vnaxeT, rom aq CamoTvlili m-prefiqsiani formebi eqskluziuri Sinaarsisaa. amitom, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom C redaqciis Semcvlel gu-prefiqsian formebs aq yvelgan eqskluziuri Sinaarsi aqvT natvirTi. rogorc vxedavT, maTes saxarebis SemTxvevaSi redaqciebi arsebiTad gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisgan gu- da m-prefiqsis xmarebis TvalsazrisiT. marTalia, m-prefiqsiani formebi C redaqciaSi yvelgan eqskluziuri gagebisaa, magram maTi raodenoba 5-iT naklebia DE redaqciasTan SedarebiT. samagierod, C redaqciaSi gu-prefiqsiani formebi 10-iT metia. magram ZiriTadi mainc isaa, rom 8

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SemTxvevaSi DE redaqciis marTebuli m-prefiqsiani forma C redaqciaSi guprefiqsiani formiTaa Secvlili. am TvalsazrisiT, C redaqciaSi formaTa gaTanabrebis procesi DE redaqciasTan SedarebiT kidev ufro Sorsaa wasuli. Sesabamisad, C redaqciaSi formaTa Sefardebac gansxvavebulia: gu (24) : m (12). markozis saxareba. m-prefiqsiani formebi aq kidev ufro iSviaTia. DE redaqciis rva formis nacvlad C-Si gvaqvs sami: 1. ra¡ca gTxooT, miyo Cuen (10.35); 2. aw marqu Cuen (12,14); 3. miTxar Cuen, odes iyos ese (13,4). samsave SemTxvevaSi forma eqskluziuri xasiaTisaa, radgan subieqtad me-2 piria nagulisxmevi. danarCen 5 SemTxvevaSi DE redaqciis m-prefiqsiani forma C redaqciaSi gu-prefiqsiani formiTaa Secvlili: 1. miguavlinen Cuen Rorebsa imas, ra¡Ta SevideT maTa (C 5,12) ← mibrZane Cuen Rorebsa imas, ra¡Ta SevideT (DE); 2. Seguewie Cuen (C 9,22) ← Semewie Cuen, ufalo (DE); 3. moguec Cuen, ra¡Ta davsxdeT... (C 10,37) ← momec Cuen, ra¡Ta davsxdeT... DE); 4. moZRuar, mose dag¢wera Cuen (C 12,19) ← moZRuar, mose esreT damiwera Cuen (DE 5. mun dag¢mzadeT Cuen (C 14,15); ← mun mza-miyavT Cuen (DE). yvela SemTxvevaSi formebi eqskluziuri Sinaarsisaa (ix. DE redaqciis analizi). amitom gu-prefiqss mocemul SemTxvevebSi m-prefiqsis funqcia aqvs nakisri. am xuT gu-prefiqsian formas emateba orive redaqciisaTvis saziaro cxra gu-prefiqsiani forma: `ara guaqus~ (DEC 8,16), `gunebavs~ (DEC 10,35), `g¢Zlavs~ (C 10,39) || `Zal-g¢c~ (DE), `gurquas~ (DEC 11,31). `guesma~ (DEC 14,58), `g¢£man~ (DEC 14,63), `g¢winawarmetyuelebd~ (DEC 14,65), `gurwmenes~ (DEC 15,32), `gardag¢gorvos~ (DEC 16,3). aqve emateba is ori forma, romelTa nacvlad DE redaqciaSi uprefiqso formebia: `guacade, ra¡ Zes Cueni da Seni~ (C 1,24)— `eha, ra¡ ars Cueni da Seni~ (DE); `rameTu puri ara guaqus~ (C 8,17)— `rameTu puri ara gaqus~ (DE). gu-prefiqsian formebs C redaqciaSi, iseve rogorc DE redaqciaSi, SeiZleba hqondeT rogorc inkluziuri gageba, iseve eqskluziuric. markozis saxarebaSi maTes saxarebis analogiuri viTarebaa. prefiqsTa Sefardeba : gu (16) : m (3). lukas saxareba. gvaqvs 17 m-prefiqsiani forma, romelTagan 14 eqskluziuri Sinaarsisaa: 1. Svilo, ra¡ saqme maqmen Cuen? (2,48); 2. da Sesakrebeli ese man aRmiSena Cuen (7,5); 3. ioane naTlis-mcemelman momavlinna Senda (7,20); 4. puri Cueni Tanaarsobisa¡ momec Cuen dRiTi-dRed (11,3); 5. da momiteven Cuen codvani Cuenni (11,4); 6. da nu Semiyvaneb Cuen gasacdelsa (11,4); 7. moZRuar magas ra¡ ity¢, Cuenca magineb (11,45); 8. SemZine Cuen sarwmunoeba¡ (17,5); 9. miTxar Cuen, romliTa £elmwifebiTa amas iqm (20,2); moZRuar, mose esre damiwera Cuen (20, 28); 11. ukueTu Sen xar qriste, miTxar Cuen (22,67); dameceniT Cuen zeda (23,30); 13. damfareniT Cuen (23,30); 14. aramed dedaTaca vieTme CuenganTa damak¢rves Cuen (24,22). CamoTvlili formebi ganxilulia DE redaqciaSi. 135

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samagierod, inkluziuri gagebisaa `momegebis~ forma: 15. ...marTl-Rirsad saqmeTa CuenTaebr momegebis Cuen (23,41). erTi Z¢ris moqmedi mimarTavs meores da amitom gvaqvs 1-li da me-2 piris urTierToba. unda iTqvas, rom DE redaqciaSi marTebuli `moguegebis~ forma gvaqvs. isic unda aRiniSnos, rom oTxTavis teqstSi sul ramdenime iseTi SemTxvevaa, roca DE redaqciis guprefiqss C-Si m-prefiqsi enacvleba. inkluziuri gagebis Cans m-prefiqsiani formebi momdevno or winadadebaSic: 16. ukueTu vTquaT, viTarmed: zeciT ars, mrquas Cuen (20,5); 17. ukueTu vTquaT: kacTagan yovelman erman qva¡ damkribos Cuen (20,6). rogorc vxedavT, sami gamonaklisi SemTxvevis garda, m-prefiqsiani formebi lukas saxarebis C redaqciaSi yvelgan eqskluziuri gagebisaa. erT SemTxvevaSi DE redaqciis m-prefiqsian formas C-Si uprefiqso forma enacvleba: ganuteve Cuenda baraba (C 23,18) — momiteve Cuen baraba (DE). xolo or SemTxvevaSi ki DE redaqciis m-prefiqsiani formebis Semcveli muxlebi C-Si naklulia (22,8; 22,12). magram mocemul redaqciul cvlilebebs ar aqvs arsebiTi xasiaTi. ZiriTadi aq, iseve rogorc sxva saxarebebSi isaa, rom 6 SemTxvevaSi DE redaqciis m-prefiqsiani forma C-Si Secvlilia gu-prefiqsiani formiT: 1. romel ufalman guacnoba Cuen (C 2,15) — romel-igi ufalman mauwya Cuen (DE); 2. viTar gang¢martebda Cuen wignebsa (C 24,32) - viTar-igi gamomiTargmanebda Cuen wignTa (DE). 3. vidre-igi guetyoda Cuen (C 24,32)—viTar-igi metyoda Cuen (DE); 4. viTarca moguaswaves Cuen (C1,2)- viTarca-igi momces Cuen (DE); 5. romelTa moguZinnes Cuen mzeman aRmomavalman maRliT (C 1,78)— romelTa momxeda Cuen aRmosavalman maRliT (DE); 6. iesu moZRuar, Seg¢wyalen Cuen (C 17,13)— iesu moZRuar, Semiwyalen Cuen (DE). aqedan pirvel sam SemTxvevaSi Secvla sworia, me-4 da me-5 SemTxvevaSi formebis Sinaarsi bundovania da mxolod bolo SemTxvevaSia aSkarad aramarTebuli Secvla, radgan zmnur formaSi subieqti meore piria (ix. DE redaqciis m-prefiqsian formaTa analizi). amdenad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom C redaqciaSi, mocemul SemTxvevebSi prefiqsebi ufro marTebuladaa naxmari. mocemul gu-prefiqsian formebs emateba orive redaqciisaTvis saziaro gu-prefiqsiani formebis xmarebis 11 SemTxveva: `guesma~ (DEC 4,23), `ara Semog¢Tqs~ (C 9,49) || ara Seg¢dgs~ (DE), `aRguekra~ (DEC 10,11), `daguemorCilebian~ (DEC 10,17), `guaswave~ (DEC 11,1), `gang¢Re~ (DEC 13,25), `guaswavebd~ (DEC 13,26), `Tana-guedva~ (DEC 17,10), `ara¡ guakda~ (C 22,35) || arara¡ guaklda~ (DE), `g¢£ms~ (DEC 22,71), `guesma~ (C 22,71) || `guesmis~ (DE). or SemTxvevaSi guprefiqsi mxolod C redaqciaSia `guelmoda~ (2,48), `gunebavs~ (9,54). maSasadame, sul gvqonia 19 gu-prefiqsiani forma, romelTac aqvT rogorc inkluziuri gageba, iseve eqskluziuric.

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SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom, marTalia, lukas saxarebaSic igive tendencia SeimCneva, magram igi maTesa da markozis saxarebisgan (iseve rogorc iovanes saxarebisgan) mainc sakmaod gansxvavdeba m-prefiqsis xmarebis sixSiriT. prefiqsTa Sefardebaa: gu (19) : m (17). iovanes saxareba. m-prefiqsiani forma samia: 1. ukue miTxar Cuen, vin xar Sen (1,22); 2. vidremdis warm£di sulTa CuenTa? (10,24); 3. marqu Cuen gancxadebulad (10,24). samsave formaSi subieqti me-2 piria da amitom m-prefiqsi aq sworad unda iyos naxmari. sainteresoa aRiniSnos, rom DE redaqciis Sesabamis adgilebSi samivegan gu-prefiqsia. rogorc iTqva, msgavsi redaqciuli Senacvleba oTxTavSi Zalze iSviaTia. samagierod, DE redaqciis m-prefiqsiani formebis nacvlad C-Si yvelgan gu-prefiqsiani formebi gvaqvs: 1. ra¡ saswaul g¢Cueno Cuen (C 2,18) ← rasa saswaulsa miCueneb Cuen (DE); 2. romelman ese jurRmuli moguca Cuen? (C 4,12) ← romelman ese jurRmuli momca Cuen? (DE); 3. ufalo, guec Cuen puri igi yovelsa Jamsa (C 6,34) ← ufalo, maradis momec Cuen puri ese (DE); 4. ufalo, g¢Cuene Cuen mama¡ (C 14,8) ufalo, miCuene Cuen mama¡ Seni (DE); 5. g¢Cuene Cuen mama¡? (C 14,9) ← miCuene Cuen mama¡ Seni? (DE); 6. man g¢Txras Cuen yoveli (C 4,25) ← miTxras Cuen yoveli (DE; 7. romelsa guety¢s Cuen (C 16,17) ← romelsa mety¢s Cuen (DE). aqedan pirvel xuT SemTxvevaSi Secvla marTebuli ar unda iyos (ix. DE redaqciis m-prefiqsiani formebis analizi). am Svid gu-prefiqsian formas emateba orive redaqciisaTvis saziaro guprefiqsiani formebis xmarebis 10 SemTxveva: `gurwams~ (DEC 4,42) `guesmis~ (C 4,42) || `guesma~ (DE), `gurwmenes~ (DEC 6,30), `gurwmena~ (DEC 6,69), `gumoZRuri~ (C 9,34) || guaswaveb~ (DE), `gunebavs~ (DEC 12,21), `guesma~ (C 12,34) || `guasmies~ (DE), `g¢£mdes~ (DEC 13,29), `guaqus~ (DEC 19,7), `ara g¢vis~ (DEC 19,15). aqve unda davumatoT is sami SemTxveva, roca gu-prefiqsiani forma mxolod C redaqciaSia `g¢Txarn~ (11,57), `g¢yide~ (13,29), `gurwams~ (16,30). sul iovanes saxarebaSi gvaqvs 20 gu-prefiqsiani forma, romelTac, sxva saxarebebis gu-prefiqsiani formebis msgavsad, SeiZleba hqondeT rogorc inkluziuri gageba, iseve eqskluziuric. iovanes saxarebis C redaqciaSic aSkarad SeimCneva m-prefiqsis gu-prefiqsiT Secvlis tendencia, rasac sakamod naTlad gviCvenebs prefiqsTa Sefardeba: gu (20) : m (3). SevajamoT C redaqciis enobrivi masalis analizis Sedegebi: a) maTes saxarebis 12-ve m-prefiqsiani forma eqskluziuri Sinaarsisaa. aseve eqskluziuri Sinaarsisaa markozis saxarebis samive m-prefiqsiani forma. lukas saxarebis 17 m-prefiqsiani formidan 14 eqskluziuri Sinaarsisaa da mxolod 3 SemTxvevaSi aqvT formebs dakarguli eqskluziurobis gageba. iovanes saxarebis samive m-prefiqsiani forma eqskluziuri Sinaarsisaa. ro-

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gorc vxedavT, oTxive saxarebis 35 m-prefiqsiani formidan 32 eqskluziuri Sinaarsisaa. amdenad, adiSis oTxTavis SemTxvevaSic SeiZleba iTqvas, rom m-prefiqsiani formebi namdvilad iZlevian saSualebas, naSTis saxiT davadginoT adre moqmedi eqskluzivis kategoriis kvali. b) gu-prefiqsian formebs C redaqciaSi, iseve rogorc DE redaqciaSi, SeiZleba hqondeT rogorc inkluziuri gageba, iseve eqskluziuric da amitom gu-prefiqsiani formebi ver ayalibeben eqskluziurobis sapirispiro mniSvnelobas. sul adiSis saxarebaSi 79 gu-prefiqsiani formaa. oTxive saxarebisTvis formaTa saerTo Sefardebaa: gu (79) : m (35). C redaqciis SemTxvevaSi gamotanili daskvnebi saerTod emTxveva DE redaqciis SemTxvevaSi gamotanil daskvnebs, magram redaqciaTa Soris gvaqvs arsebiTi saxis sxvaobac, romelic ZiriTadad imaSi mdgomareobs, rom DE da C redaqciebi aSkarad gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan gu- da m-prefiqsTa xmarebis sixSiris TvalsazrisiT da sakmaod xSirad (26 SemTxvevaSi) DE redaqcias m-prefiqsiani forma C redaqciaSi gu-prefiqsiani formiTaa Secvlili. sxvaoba SeiZleba dialeqturi xasiaTisa iyos. yovel SemTxvevaSi, erTi ram cxadia: C redaqciaSi formaTa gaTanabrebis procesi DE redaqciasTan SedarebiT gacilebiT Sorsaa wasuli, rasac TvalnaTliv gviCvenebs prefiqsTa saerTo Sefardebebis Sedareba: DE — m (57) : gu (61); C — m (35) : gu (79). miuxedavad aq aRniSnuli sxvaobisa, DE da C redaqciebis SemTxvevaSi gamotanili daskvnebi SeiZleba ganzogaddes da sabolood iTqvas: 1. orive redaqciis 92 m-prefiqsiani formidan 80 eqskluziuri gagebisaa da amitom SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom oTxTavis orsave Zvel redaqcias sakmaod kargad Semounaxavs adre moqmedi eqskluzivis kategoriis kvali. 2. gu-prefiqsian formebs aqvT rogorc inkluziuri gageba, iseve eqskluziuric (amitom isini ver ayalibeben eqskluziurobis sapirispiro gagebas), rac imis maCvenebelia, rom oTxTavis DEC redaqciebi asaxaven Zveli qarTuli enis ganviTarebis im stadias, roca gaTanabrebis procesi ukve sakmaod Sorsaa wasuli da sxvaoba m- da gu-prefiqsian formebs Soris naSTis saxiTRaa SemorCenili. gaTanabreba upirveles yovlisa gu-prefiqsian formebs Sexebia (Sdr. [4] 293). qarTuli oTxTavis DEC redaqciebis analizma gviCvena, rom inkluziveqskluziur formaTa Soris arsebuli sxvaoba ukeTaa Semonaxuli DE redaqciaSi. es swored is redaqciaa, romelic protovulgatad yofila miRebuli X saukuneSi da romelsac `mxars uWers saerTod sxva oTxTavebi X saukunisa: opizisa (913 w.), berTisa (988 wlamde) da tbeTis (955 w.)~ ([8] 08). marTlac, berTis oTxTavis 1 DE redaqciasTan Sedareba gviCvenebs, rom mda gu-prefiqsebis xmarebis TvalsazrisiT igi TiTqmis mTlianad emTxveva am
1 berTis oTxTavis analizisas visargebleT Tsu-is Zveli qarTuli enis kaTedris TanamSromel v. turaSvilis mier fotopirebidan gadmowerili teqstiT.

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ukanasknels. gansxvaveba maT Soris minimaluria da mxolod ramdensame SemTxvevaSi Tu gvaqvs m- da gu-prefiqsTa monacvleoba. analogiuri viTareba unda gvqondes opizis oTxTavSic (ix. arn. Ciqobavaseuli analizi ([6] 108-112). ufro sainteresoa tbeTis oTxTavis monacemebi ([9], [10], [11]), radgan misi redaqciuli damuSaveba eqvTime mTawmindels unda ekuTvnodes ([11] 165). misi DE redaqciasTan Sedareba gviCvenebs, rom m- da gu-prefiqsebi aqac TiTqmis ucvleladaa datovebuli da gansxvaveba aqac minimaluria. niSandoblivia, rom eqvTime mTawmideli prefiqsTa swored DE redaqciaSi mocemul ganawilebas uWers mxars. mosalodnelia, rom eqvTime mTawmidlisaTvis m- da guprefiqsTa Soris arsebuli sxvaoba mxolod dialeqturi xasiaTisa rom yofiliyo (rogorc amas arn. Ciqobava varaudobs ([6] 105), igi ramdenadme mainc Seecdeboda erTiani principis gatarebas. igive Sedegs iZleva nabeWdi oTxTavi [12] Sedareba DE redaqciasTan. rogorc mosalodneli iyo, ([8] 05,08), igic m- da gu-prefiqsTa xmarebis TvalsazrisiT, calkeuli gamonaklisebis garda, TiTqmis mTlianad misdevs DE redaqcias. rogorc vxedavT, oTxTavis teqstis Semdegdroindel gadamwerebs Tu redaqtorebs mizanSewonilad miaCniaT m-prefiqsis ucvlelad datoveba. sainteresoa `saqme mociqulTas~ [13] monacemebi, radgan, jer erTi, igi qarTuli enis erT-erTi uZvelesi ZeglTagania da, meorec, `saqme mociqulTa~ saSualebas iZleva, erTmaneTs SevudaroT Zveli da axali, giorgi mTawmidlisa da efrem mcires, redaqciebi. Sepirispireba gviCvenebs, rom giorgi mTawmideli da efrem mcire TiTqmis ucvlelad stoveben Zveli nusxebis m-prefiqsian formebs. safiqrebelia, rom giorgi mTawmideli da efrem mcire m-prefiqsian formebs gu-prefiqsiani formebisgan gansxvavebuli Sinaarsis erTeulebad aRiqvamden. isev TiTqmis ucvlelad stoveben m-prefiqsian formebs giorgi mTawmideli da efrem mcire `kaTolike epistoleTa~ wignSic [14]. SedarebiT Tavisuflad epyrobian m-prefiqsian formebs giorgi mTawmideli da efrem mcire `pavlenSi~ [15], sadac Zveli redaqciebis daaxloebiT 20-mde m-prefiqsiani forma Secvlilia gu-prefiqsianiT (unda aRiniSnos, rom aqedan ramdensame SemTxvevaSi gu-prefiqsiani forma gvaqvs B redaqciis nusxebSic, romelsac unda emyarebodes kidec giorgi mTawmideli ([15] 012), Tumca, Zveli redaqciebis m-prefiqsiani formebis daaxloebiT 70 % (60-mde SemTxveva) `pavlenSic~ ucvleladaa datovebuli. rac Seexeba `iovanes gamocxadebas~ [16], igi raimes Tqmis saSualebas ar iZleva, radgan m- da gu-prefiqsiani formebi aq mxolod kantikuntad Tu gvxvdeba. samagierod Zalze sayuradRebo Sedegs iZleva `fsalmunnis~ [17] Zveli da axali, giorgi mTawmidlis, redaqciebis Sepirispireba. Zveli nusxebis m139

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

prefiqsiani formebi TiTqmis yvela SemTxvevaSi (80-ze met SemTxvevaSi) ucvleladaa datovebuli giorgi mTawmidlis redaqciaSi. sainteresoa, rom aqedan 60-ze met SemTxvevaSi m-prefiqsiani formebi aSkarad eqskluziuri gagebisaa, radgan zmnur formebSi subieqtad me-2 piri gvaqvs. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom giorgi mTawmideli `fsalmunnis~ xelaxla Targmanisas berZnulidan `gamowulilviT~ Sejerebis garda TviT qarTuli enis bunebasac sagangebo yuradRebas uTmobda (`nuca CaurTavT, nuca daaklebT: C~n romeli jer-iyo, Cag¢rTavs da romeli jer-iyo, dag¢klia, viTa Cuensa enasa mohvidoda da wesi saqmisa eZiebda~ ([17] 027) da mxedvelobaSi miviRebT im faqts, rom SemTxvevaTa umetes nawilSi m-prefiqsi me-2 subieqtur pirian formebTan gvaqvs, SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom giorgi mTawmideli mocemul ZeglSi m-prefiqsian formebs gu-prefiqsiani formebisgan gansxvavebuli Sinaarsis mqone (SeiZleba vivaraudoT eqskluziuri Sinaaris mqone) erTeulebad iazrebda, swored amitom stovebda maT ucvlelad. magram aq arc tradiciis Zala unda dagvaviwydes: m-prefiqsiani formebis ucvlelad datoveba axal redaqciebSi SeiZleba nawilobriv saRmrTo werilis wignTaTvis damaxasiaTebeli enobrivi konservatizmiTac aixsnas. naTqvamSi advilad davrwmundebiT, Tu zemoT ganxilul Zeglebs SevudarebT giorgi mTawmidlis originalur nawarmoebs — `iovanes da efT¢mes cxovrebas~ [18], romelic gviCvenebs, rom klasikuri Zeglebis enaze aRzrdili giorgi mTawmideli `cdilobs Zveli saliteraturo qarTulis ukanaskneli periodis (IX-X ss.) normebis mixedviT weros, magram ver axerxebs, Tavi daaxRwios cocxali enis Zlier gavlenas. es gavlena Tavs iCens yvelgan: fonetikur sakiTxebSi, saxelTa brunebasa da zmnis uRlebaSi, sintaqsur movlenebsa da sityvebis SerCevaSi~ ([18] 81-2). swored cocxali sametyvelo enis gavlena unda iyos, rom am sakmaod mozrdil TxzulebaSi, rogorc wesi, pirveli obieqturi piris mravlobiToba gamoxatulia gu-prefiqsiT, romelsac, konteqstis mixedviT, SeiZleba hqondes rogorc inkluziuri gageba, iseve eqskluziuric (50-ze met gu-prefiqsian formas upirispirdeba svinaqsarul redaqciaSi mocemuli erTaderTi m-prefiqsiani forma). giorgi mTawmideli ar warmoadgens am mxriv gamonakliss. efT¢me mTawmidelic, romelic saerTod araa winaaRmdegi m-prefiqsiani formebisa (ix. tbeTis oTxTavi, sadac TiTqmis ucvleladaa datovebuli Zveli redaqciebis mprefiqsiani formebi), qarTuli paterikis miseul TargmanSi [19] arsad ar xmarobs m-anian formebs, risi mizezic, albaT, e.w. patristikuli novelebis Janrobrivi Tavisebureba unda iyos, Tavisebureba, romelic garkveul enobriv Tavisuflebas aniWebs mTargmnels. aSkaraa, rom am periodis cocxali sametyvelo enisaTvis ucxo iyo inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoria. isic cxadia, rom es kategoria Zvel qarTulSi gacilebiT adre unda moSliliyo, amitomaa, rom m-aniani formebis xmareba Zvel qarTulSi erTgvar arqaul elfers atarebs da Zveli qarTuli enis ZeglTa

140

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

umetesobaSi, kerZod, iseT klasikur ZeglebSic ki, rogoric `sinuri mravalTavia~ [20], erTob Wirs inkluziv-eqskluzivis kvalis dadgena (isic unda aRiniSnos, rom mocemuli Zegli, oTxTavis Zveli redaqciebis enasTan SedarebiT, qarTuli enis ganviTarebis ufro gviandel stadias asaxavs). amave mizeziT SeiZleba aixsnas m-aniani formebis simcire Zvel qarTul originalur ZeglebSi. miuxedavad amisa, sabolood kidev erTxel SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Zveli qarTuli enis calkeul ZeglebSi aSkarad Cans naSTis saxiT SemorCenili inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoriis kvali, rasac TvalnaTliv adasturebs zemoT Catarebuli oTxTavis ori Zveli redaqciis enobrivi analizi. P.S. wakiTxulia moxsenebad 1977 wlis 17 noembers Zveli qarTuli enis samecniero sesiaze. amitom aq araa gaTvaliswinebuli d. meliqiSvilis naSromi (`inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoriis gamoxatvis istoriisaTvis qarTul zmnaSi~), romelic daibeWda `macnes~ 1977 wlis me-4 nomerSi da romlis Sesaxebac unda iTqvas: a) naSromi ZiriTadad isev svanurSi arsebul viTarebas ixilavs, b) avtoris msjeloba zogadi, Teoriuli xasiaTisaa da, g) rac mTavaria, miuRebeli Cans mxolod logikur msjelobaze damyarebiT gamotanili daskvna, rom sakuTari niSani unda hqonoda inkluzivs, eqskluzivs ki — ara (gv. 162), radgan enobrivi masalis aRweriTi analizi swored rom sawinaaRmdego daskvnis gamotanis safuZvels iZleva. enobrivi masalis analizi ki msgavsi daskvnis gamotanisaTvis aucilebelia. literatura a. a. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. SaniZe, qarTuli zmnis saqcevi, franguli reziume, t.u,m: VI, 1926. SaniZe, orgvari forma mravlobiTi ricxvis pirveli pirisa svanurSi, weliwdeuli, 1923,1924. v. Tofuria, svanuri ena, I, zmna, 1931. k. dondua, Категория инклюзива-эксклюзива в сванском и её следы в древнегрузинском, rCeuli naSromebi, I, 1976. g. deetersi, Das Kharthwelische Verbum, 1930. arn. Ciqobava, mravlobiTobis aRniSvnis ZiriTadi principebisaTvis qarTuli zmnis uRvlilebis sistemaSi, ike I, 1946. al. oniani, inkluziv-eqskluzivis kategoriis sakiTxisaTvis qarTvelur enebSi, saq. mecn akademiis macne, 1. 1965. qarTuli oTxTavis ori Zveli redaqcia sami Satberduli xelnaweris mixedviT, gamosca a. SaniZem, 1945. saxareba¡ oTxTavi oTxTa £elnawerTagan Sig da SJe welTaTa, peterburgi, 1909 w. (maTe) da 1911 w. (markoz.) gamosca v. beneSeviCma. qarTuli enis istoriuli qrestomaTia, t. I, naw, I, gv. 66-112, 1970. tbeTis oTxTavi, gamokvleva da teqsti, i. imnaiSvili, Zveli qarTuli enis kaTedris Sromebi, 20, 1977. 141

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

10. axali aRTqma, tfilisi, 1879. 11. saqme mociqulTa, Zveli xelnawerebis mixedviT gamosca i. abulaZem, 1950. 12. kaTolike epistoleTa qarTuli versiebi, gamosca q. lorTqifaniZem, 1956. 13. pavles epistoleTa qarTuli versiebi, gamosacemad moamzades q. ZoweniZem da k. daneliam a. SaniZis redaqciiT, 1974. 14. iovanes gamocxadeba da misi Targmaneba, gamosca i. imnaiSvilma, Zveli qarTuli enis kaTedris Sromebi 7, 1961. 15. fsalmunis Zveli qarTuli redaqciebi, gamosca mz. SaniZem, 1960. 16. cxoreba¡ iovanesi da efT¢mesi, gamosacemad daamzada iv. javaxiSvilma, gamosca a. SaniZem, 1946. 17. Sua saukuneTa novelebis Zveli qarTuli Targmanebi, I, gamosca m. dvalma, 1966. 18. sinuri mravalTavi y¡d wlisa, gamosca a. SaniZem, 1959.

142

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

varlam Tofuria

namyos saxeobaTa saerTo niSnisaTvis qarTulSi 1
namyos oTxi saxeobaa qarTulSi cnobili: uwyveteli, wyvetili, TurmeobiTi I da TurmeobiTi II. amaTgan ZiriTadad miCneulia wyvetili, ramdenadac igi emyareba zmnis Zirs an pirvelads fuZes. II TurmeobiTi igive wyvetilia, oRond ukanasknelis vnebiTi gvaris saxeobas warmoadgens. warmoebiT gansxvavebulia erTmaneTisgan uwyveteli da TurmeobiTi I: isini sxvadasxva fuZes iyeneben. 1. rogorc dadgenilia, wyvetili ori saxiT ixmareba: uniSnod an narTauli -i -T da -e sufiqsiT. uniSnos SeuZlia dairTos ufunqcio -i. aseTi zmnebi raodenobiT mcirea. maTi fuZe an umarcvloa, an kumSvadia. -e sufiqsiT iwarmoeba fuZeukumSveli zmnebi. maTi raodenoba ganusazRvrelia. nimuSi: Zv. qarT. Sevkar Sehkar Sekr-a Sevkar-T Sehkar-T Sekr-es fuZea: Sekar gardamavali da ax. qarT. Sevkar-i Sehkar-i Sekr-a Sevkar-i-T Sehkar-i-T Sekr-es Zv. da ax. qarT. vnaxe (h)naxe nax-a vnaxe-T (h)naxe-T nax-es naxe

fuZe kargadaa Semonaxuli ara marto I da II pirSi, aramed Zveli qarTulis brZanebiTis III pirSic: Sekar-n, naxe-n. fuZiseuli -e sufiqsi mokvecilia III piris a da mr. ricxvis -es bolosarTTa gavleniT: naxe+a → nax-a, naxe+es → nax-es 2. amrigad, wyvetilis niSnebia: 0 (nuli), ufunqcio -i da sufiqsi -e. 2. TurmeobiTi II imeorebs wyvetilis fuZesa da bolo niSnebs, gansxvavebulad aqvs vnebiTis e- TavsarTi; mag: Sevekar an Sevekari Seekar an Seekar-i Seekra venaxe enaxe enaxa

aqac igive 0 (nuli), ufunqcio -i da -e sufiqsia, rac wyvetilSi gvaqvs.

amoRebulia stalinis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis samecniero sesiaze 1954 w. 23 noembers wakiTxuli moxsenebidan: `mwkrivis sakiTxisaTvis qarTulSi~ (samecniero sesiis Tezisebi, 1954, gv.125-126). 2 svanuri ena: I, zmna, 1931, gv.142-143.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

am niSanTagan -i fonetikur niadagze aRmocenebuli TanxmovanT-gasayari bgeraa, Semdeg narTaulad qceuli 1. rac Seexeba -e sufiqss, igi samecniero literaturaSi aRdgenilia da mis pirvel saxed *-ev aris gamocxadebuli. n. mars -ev dakavSirebuli aqvs esva zmnis spirantul saxesTan *hv 2 da meSvel zmnad miiCnevs. n. maris es mcdari Sexeduleba ukugdebulia dasaxelebul recenziaSi (gv.302-304). -e sufiqsis warmomavlobas -ev-isagan asabuTebs g. rogava qarTuli dialeqtebisa da megrulis monacemTa Rrma analizis safuZvelze. wamoyenebuli debuleba mas SesaZleblobas aZlevs, axsnas III piris -o sufiqsisa da kavSirebiTis o sawarmoebeli niSnis Sedgeniloba,3 magram aris rigi dabrkolebebi, romelTa gaTvaliswineba saWiroa. 3. uwyveteli, -d sufiqsiania Tu -od sufiqsiani, XII saukunidan gaTanabrebulia: mas an ar daerTvis, an darTuli aqvs ufunqcio -i. magaliTad: vixarebd an vixarebd-i viqmod-i ixarebd an ixarebd-i iqmod-i Zvel qarTulSi d-oniani da od-iani gaTiSuli iyo erTmaneTisagan: pirvels SeiZleba hqonoda narTauli -i, xolo meores awarmoebda e- sufiqsi,4 romelic orive ricxvis III pirSi xmovniT dawyebuli sufiqsis gavleniT ikveceboda. amgvarad, gvqonda: Zv. qarT. d sufiqsiani Zv. qarT. od sufiqsiani vixarebd an vixarebd-i ixarebd an ixarebd-i ixarebd-a vixarebd-i-T ixarebd-i-T ixarebd-es fuZea: ixarebd fuZe daculia brZanebiTis II da III pirSi: ixarebd ixarebd-i-n iqmode iqmode-n viqmod-e iqmod-e iqmod-a viqmod-e-T iqmod-e-T iqmod-es iqmod-e

1 ufunqcio (narTauli) -i-s Sesaxeb: arn. Ciqobava, recenzia n. maris Zveli qarTuli lit. enis gramatikisa: mimomxilveli, 1926, gv. 319.; a. SaniZe, qarTuli gramatikis safuZvlebi, 1953, gv.439. 2 n. mari, Грамм. древнелит. груз. яз., 1925, § 152, 153,179 da sxv. 3 g. rogava, aoristisa da kavSirebiT meoris zog afiqsTa genezisisaTvis -ev sufiqsTan dakavSirebiT qarTulsa da megrulSi: saq. ssr mecn. akad. moambe, t. VI, 8, 1945, gv.647-655. 4 movlena dadgenili aqvs a. SaniZes werilSi: mwkrivTa moZRvrebisaTvis qarTulSi. I. sami mwkrivis warmoebis Taviseburebani Zvels qarTulSi: saq. ssr. mecn. akad. moambe, t.VI, 10, 1945, gv. 834-844. n. agreTve misi qarTuli gramatikis safuZvlebi, 1953, gv 434—436, 455—456.

144

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

Cans, uwyvetlis fuZes igive niSnebi daerToda, rac wyvetils: 0 (nuli), ufunqcio -i an sufiqsi -e. -e bolosarTi ar aris Semonaxuli XII saukunidan samwerlobo enaSi da arc dialeqtebSi, garda TuSurisa, sadac -i niSnianTa paralelurad -e sufiqsiani formebi ixmareba; mag.: stvexde zdvebde dgvebode stexde zdebde zdgebode stexd-a zdebd-a zdgebod-a da sxv. 1 moxeurSi daculia -e sufiqsi -od-Tan erTad, oRond es od-e formanti daerTvis wyvetilis fuZes II pirSi (iSviaTad III pirSic) da gamoxatavs TxovniTs brZanebiTs: gaakeTode! miTxrode! (maiyvanodes!)...2 agreTve magaliTebi teqstebidan: uTxrode mamaSensao, ludi aduRas wamzeda... simona, es kotias miscode... Tu ar hkmainebs saWmeli, do dausxodeT jamzeda... sarkeSi CaixedodeT, wveri iparceT ybazeda da sxv. 3. es forma al. yazbegs arcTu iSviaTad aqvs gamoyenebuli dialogis dros: batknebs uyureo, sicxeSi yinulzed arekodeo (II, 69) da sxv. 4 Sdr. fSauri -o-d-i da TuSuri da xevsuruli -i-d-i sufiqsebiani TxovniTi brZanebiTi: daiwerodi, ga¡stexodi (fS.) da gaRlesidi, Rnaxidi (TuS., xevs.) 5. safiqrebelia, rom cocxal metyvelebasa da xalxur leqsebSi daculi formebi: `brZandebode, Camoirbende (saqme rom ara gqondes ra, Camoirbende Cvensao), momitande, Semasmevde~ da misT. igive uwyveteli unda iyos, romelic SemogvrCa brZanebiTis saxiT da ara kavSirebiTi, rogorc es garegnulad Cans6. amgvarad, uwyvetlis niSani -e dResac Semonaxulia aqa-iq. etyoba, igi savsebiT ar gadaSenebula. 4. TurmeobiTi I orgvarad iwarmoeboda Zvel qarTulSi: uniSod (-av da am sufiqsianebi) da i-e bolosarTebiT; mag.: dauxatav dauxatav dauxatav-s vhgonie hgonie dauwerie dauwerie dauwerie-s Sdr. mas me mas Sen mas igi da sxv. hR¢Zav-s sZinav-s

analogiuri warmoebisa iyo statikuri zmnebi awmyoSi:

1 a. SaniZe, S2 da O3 qarTul zmnebSi, 1920, gv. 158-162.; Sdr. T. uTurgaiZe, Тушинский диалект грузинского языка, 1954, gv.10 2 oT. qajaia, Moxeвский диалект грузинского языка, 1954, gv.16; agreTve k. guguSvili, moxeuri kilo. 3 amoRebulia iv. qavTaraZis mier adgilobriv Cawerili teqstebidan. 4 a. SaniZe, qarTuli gramat. saf., gv. 211; iv. qavTaraZe, moxeuri kilo yazbegis enaSi: Tbilisis univ. Sromebi, XXXV b, 1949, gv.94. 5 a. SaniZe, S2 da O3, 156, 161, 167. 6 Sdr. a. SaniZe, qarTuli gramatikis safuZvlebi, gv.437, Sdr. svanuri ena, gv.173.

145

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

hgonies hSorav-s da sxv. -i-e sufiqsebidan -e ukve cocxali aRar aris, arc gadmonaSTis saxiT Senaxula sadme. misi adgili yvelgan meSvelma zmnam daiWira: davuweri-var dauweri-xar dauweri-a vhgoni-var hgoni-xar hgoni-a

samecniero literaturaSi aRniSnulia, rom Zvel qarTulSive III pirSi -a sufiqsi arcTu iSviaTad gvaqvs; misi gavleniT -e mokvecilia; mag.: dResa Sina erTsa ra¡mkon, mimicemia: xanZT. na 25 micvalebulTa mamaTaT¢s xanZTa¡ ganmiwesebia: iqve, id 25 mirCevia Sesuma¡ wamlisa¡: kim. I, 170,30 aTS¢dmeti weli dauyofia saxlsa Sina Cemsa: iqve, 164,10 miuRebia niWi igi: arimaT. 46, 43 da sxv. magram I da II pirSi -e daculia, meSveli zmna Tavs ar iCens. TurmeobiTi I-is -i-e niSnebi daSlilia da -i- da xolmeobiTis -i istoriulad erTi da imave odenobad aris gamocxadebuli 1. rac Seexeba -e-s, mis Sesaxeb sxvadasxva azri arsebobs. n. maris mtkicebiT, -es badalia ars meSveli zmnisa da gvevlineba gansakuTrebiT aRweriTsa da Sedgenil zmnebSi 2. amis safuZvels is uTuod imaSi xedavda, rom -es daboloebis adgili Semdgom a(rs) meSvelma zmnam daiWira. magram mosazreba rom ZirSive mcdaria, es Tundac iqidan Cans, rom -es mTliani sufiqsi ki ar aris, aramed Sedgenilia -e- elementisa da III subieqturi piris -s niSnisagan. SeiZleboda kacs -e meSvel zmnad mieCnia da svanuri enis -i meSvel zmnasTan (xv-i, x-i, l-i) daekavSirebina, magram is garemoeba, rom -e III pirSi ikveceba (dauweri-a...) da Tanac meSveli zmna aq mosalodneli ar aris, am varaudze xels agvaRebinebs. -a sufiqsis genezisis Sesaxeb Tanxmoba ar aris. n. mari da a. SaniZe mas ars zmnis Sekvecil saxed Tvlian,3 magram a. SaniZisave sityviT igi `zog SemTxvevaSi mravlobiTis formidan modis [hgoni-a(n)] da garegnulad ars meSveli zmnis Sekvecil saxes hgavs~ 4. gamodis, rom -a umetesad ars zmnis Tavkiduri a-nia, zogjer kidev mr. ricxvis -an sufiqsis naSTia. Tu movigonebT, rom statikuri zmnebi da TurmeobiTebi istoriulad mWidro kavSirSi arian erTmaneTTan da cvla-ganviTarebas erTdroulad da erTnairad ganicdian, maSin, cxadia, -a-s genezisis sxvadasxvagvari axsna gaumarTlebelia. isic gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom Zvel qarTulSi hgonies da misTana statikuri zmnebi mravlobiTSi an sul ar ixmareba an metad iSviaTad da amgvari iSviaTi formearn. Ciqobava, ergatiuli konstruqciis problema iberiul-kavkasiur enebSi, I, 1948, gv. 93-98. 2 Грамм. gv. 125, 175. 3 Грамм. gv. 125; qarT. gram. saf., gv. 447. 4 qarT. gram. saf., gv. 328.
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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

bisagan rom xSiri formebi iyos miRebuli -n-s mokveciT, metad saeWvo Cans. nu dagvaviwydeba, rom Zveli qarTulis hrq¢an da msgavsma formebma meoce saukunemde moaRwies ise, rom -n-s mosacileblad Careva gaxda saWiro. esec ar iyos, -e sufiqsi daikarga -a-s gavleniT, meSvel zmnas ki, Tundac Sekvecili saxiT warmodgenils, fuZiseuli xmovnis mokveca ar SeuZlia (mag.: xe-a, mze-a). aSkaraa, rom TurmeobiTis -a pirvandeli warmoSobiT meSveli zmna ar aris. igi aseTad gaazrianebulia mas Semdeg, rac I da II pirSi meSveli zmna marTlac gaCnda. gamodis, rom arc -e-s warmomavlobaa garkveuli da arc -a-si. TurmeobiTis -e amJamad, SeiZleba iTqvas, garkveulia. igi aoristis -e sufiqsTan aris identificirebuli da arcTu usafuZvlod. iv. qavTaraZe wers: `momenturi aspeqtis formas... aoristis nakvTi gamoxatavda, igi imatebda Cveulebriv -e daboloebas, magram ara wminda fuZeze, aramed uSualod permansivis aRniSnul formaze: v-h-g-i-e, h-g-i-e, h-g-i-e-s... SemdegSi aoristis es formebi, am tipis zmnaTa gansakuTrebuli semantikuri Taviseburebis gamo (rezultatiuri Sinaarsi), awmyod qceula da aoristis -e niSani awmyoSic SenarCunebula~ 1. raRaa -a? Tu TurmeobiTis -e igivea, rac wyvetilis -e, cxadia, -a III piris subieqturi niSani iqneba. Cans, nod. naTaZis mosazreba -a-s III piris sufiqsobis Sesaxeb gamarTlebulia. amitomaa, rom mas -e-s mokveca SeuZlia TurmeobiTSic ise, rogorc wyvetilSi. amgvarad, TurmeobiT pirvelsac axasiaTebs uniSnoba da -e sufiqsi. 5. amgvarad, -e sufiqsi gvaqvs namyos oTxive saxeobaSi; saxeldobr (sxva niSnebTan erTad): uwyvetelSi -d- 0 (nuli)-d-i - od-e wyvetilSi - 0 (nuli) -i -e 2 TurmeobiT I-Si - 0 (nuli) - i-e TurmeobiT II-Si - 0 (nuli)-i -e -e saerToa yvela namyoSi. igi rogorc warmoSobiT, ise funqciiTac erTi da igivea. misi mokveca SeuZlia III pirSi pirisa da ricxvis formantebs. -e-s funqcia savsebiT naTeli ar Cans. igi dros uTuod ar gamoxatavda, radganac dros Camoyalibebamde wyvetilSi gamoyenebuli iyo. Tu momentur aspeqtze miuTiTebda, rogorc amas samarTlianad fiqrobs f. erTeliSvili, maSin xolmeobiTis fuZes rogorRa daerTo da miT ufro, roca statikuri vnebiTi wyvetilTan erTad Zvelze Zveli Cans. vidre ar gairkveva wyvetilis, TurmeobiTi I-isa da uwyvetlis qronologiuri mimarTeba da es ki SesaZlebeli Cans, manamde funqciis sakiTxi sabolood gadawyvetili ar gveqneba. 6. kiTxva ismis: SeiZleba Tu ara sxvadasxva mwkrivs erTi da igive niSani hqondes? amaze dadebiTi pasuxi gasca didi xniT adre arn. Ciqobavam. man uCvena, rom -i
iv. qavTaraZe, zmnis ZiriTadi kategoriebis istoriisaTvis Zvel qarTulSi, 1954, gv. 183, 185. 2 -e imdenad damaxasiaTebelia wyvetilisa, rom mis meSveobiT aris nawarmoebi iseTi zmna, rogoricaa guale (iare), romlis amosavali val fuZe val-s zmnas warmoadgens.
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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

sufiqsi saerToa xolmeobiTi pirvelisa da xolmeobiTi meorisa. garda amisa, XIXIII ss-Si, rogorc a. SaniZe aRniSnavs, iyo cda -i sufiqsis gamoyenebisa III seriis formebSi (eqmn-i-s, ebrZan-i-s...) da amdenad, III xolmeobiTis Camoyalibebisa.1 Semdgomi kvleva-ZiebiT irkveva, rom egeve -i gvaqvs awmyosa da pirveli TurmeobiTis formebSi 2. maSasadame, erTi -i sufiqsi saziaroa yvela seriis permansivSi. aseve, saziaro -e bolosarTi dadasturebulia samive seriis kavSirebiTebSi (swerd-e — I kavS., aRdg-e — II kavS., eqmn-e III kavS.) da amdenad sworia debuleba imis Sesaxeb, rom II seriis mwkrivTa daboloebebi Senaxulia I seriis mwkrivebSi 3 (oRond uwyvetelSi igulisxmeboda uniSnoba da ufunqcio -i). maSasadame, namyos oTxive saxeobaSi -e gamarTlebuli Cans. 7. ukanaskneli kiTxva: riT avxsnaT, rom wyvetilma, TurmeobiT pirvelma da TurmeobiT meorem paraleluri formebi Semogvinaxes, uwyvetelma ki unifikacia moaxdina d da od sufiqsian formaTa da yvelas -i daurTo? uwyvetlis uniformacia iwyeba X saukunidan da mTavrdeba XII s-Si da unda vifiqroT, rom mas xeli Seuwyo uwyvetlisagan I kavSirebiTis, romelsac analogiuri formebi hqonda, gamijvnis tendenciam. uniformaciis tendencia dResac grZeldeba kiloebSi da igi exeba TiTqmis yvela mwkrivs, maT Soris iseT Zvel mwkrivsac, rogoricaa wyvetili. marTlac, wyvetilis formebSi uniformaciis Sedegad ingilouris kakur dialeqtSi -e mokvecilia da yvela zmna uniSnodaa an -i sufiqsiTaa warmodgenili (damal, Cahyar, dahkid, da¡karg... Sdr. dahkar, giTxar...), xolo aliabaTurSi, piriqiT, -e sufiqsia kumSvad zmnebs darTuli (uTxare, gama¡cane, mohkale, deweve, qene... Sdr. da¡Wire, vikiTxe...) 4. -e-s mokvecisaken midrekileba xevsurulsac axasiaTebs, magram farTod modebuli ar aris. unifikacia gatarebulia TurmeobiT I-is formebisa TiTqmis yvela dialeqtSi. aRsaniSnavia, rom aq ori mimarTuleba iCens Tavs: erTi mimarTulebaa — gaabatonos -i-a sufiqsebi da moSalos -av da -am Tematuri niSnebi, meore ki, piriqiT, gaavrcelos -av da garkveul SemTxvevaSi -iv. pirveli tardeba baris kiloebSi — qarTlurSi, kaxurSi, imerulSi da sxvagan — da aqedan lamobs literaturul enaSic SemoWras (minaxia, uTqvia...),5 -av ki modebulia xevsurulSi6, fSaurSi, TuSurSi7 da fSauridan vaJas Semotanili aqvs samwerlobo enaSi: nidayvis ZirSi dauWrav (=dauWria: I, 18), me Tavi Camibarebav (Camibarebia: I, 37), CagigdavT (=CagigdiaT: 35) da sxv., rac sakmaod cnobilia.
1 a. SaniZe, mwkrivTa moZRvrebisaTvis. II. erTi ucnobi mwkrivi qarTulSi: moxsenebaTa krebuli, 1, 1947, gv. 1-14. 2 arn. Ciqobava, ergat. konstruqciis problema, gv. 6 da Semd. 3 arn. Ciqobava, recenzia n. maris gramatikisa: mimomxilveli, gv. 317, SenS. 2. 4 gr. imnaiSvili, zogierTi drois warmoeba ingilourSi: iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecniereba, VI, gv. 159-161; r. RambaSiZe, Ингилойское наречие грузинского языка, 1949, gv. 14-15. 5 a. SaniZe, qarT. gram. saf., gv. 447. 6 b. gabuuris teqstebi, dabeWdili `weliwdeulSi~. 7 T. uTurgaiZe, op. cit., gv. 10.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

unifikacia ganxorcielebulia agreTve kavSirebiTSi -a sufiqsis sasargeblod xevsurulsa da moxeurSi 1: nax-a-s, dawer-a-s, aiR-a-s da sxv., maSin rodesac zemoimerulSi (WiaTura-saCxere) tendenciaa -o sufiqsis gavrcelebisa -e bolosarTis nacvlad: wavid-o-s, mic-o-s da sxv. maSasadame, uniformacia sxvadasxva mwkrivis formebSi axlac mimdinareobs da, ra gasakviria, uwyvetelsac ganecada igi, miT ufro, roca msgavsi warmoeba axasiaTebda pirvel kavSirebiTsac. rogorc davinaxeT, dabrkoleba ar arsebobs, rom -e namyos saerTo niSnad vcnoT. aqedan isic irkveva, rom -e ar momdinareobs -ev sufiqsisagan, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi is unda yofiliyo uwyvetelSic, TurmeobiTSic, rac qarTuli enis monacemebiT ar dasturdeba. garda amisa, yuradRebas iqcevs erTi garemoebac: permansivis saerTo niSania -i, aseve kavSirebiTis saziaro niSania -e, Cans, yvela sawarmoebeli formanti xmovania da uTuod esec mxars dauWers wyvetilisa da saerTod namyos niSnis xmovnur warmomavlobas. igi marTlac -e unda yofiliyo. sakiTxi dgas namyosa da kavSirebiTis -e niSanTa genetikuri urTierTobis Sesaxeb: warmoSobiT orive erTi da igive formantia, Tu kavSirebiTis -e marTlac ere-sagan momdinareobs, e-sa da sxva formantTa sakiTxebi calke ganxilvas moiTxovs.

1

a. SaniZe, S2 da O3, gv. 157; oT. qajaia, dasax. Sr., gv. 16.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

ilia abulaZe

qarTuli zmnis iSviaTi formebi VIII—X ss-is Zeglebis mixedviT
Zveli qarTuli enis VIII—X ss-is Zeglebis Sesaxeb saubris dros Cveni miznisaTvis mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs mxolod iseTebi, romlebic warmoSobasTan erTad gadaweriTac umetesad aRniSnul periods ekuTvnis. aseTebi zogjer, sabednierod, ramdenime calad mogvepoveba, magram ara iSviaTad unikaluradac aris moRweuli. Cven qvemoT or iseT Zegls SevexebiT, romlebic ZiriTadad X s-is nusxebiT aris Semonaxuli. pirveli `marxvis sakiTxavebis~ wigns anu krebuls warmoadgens da mwerlobis asketur dargs miekuTvneba, xolo meore amave dargis `TxrobaTa~ krebulia, e.w. `samoTxe~, romlis avtorad VI—VII s-is palestineli moRvawe ioane mosxi iTvleba1. `marxvis sakiTxavebis~ avtorebi umetesad msoflio eklesiis iseTi cnobili mamebi arian, rogoric, mag., ioane oqropiri, basili didi da efrem asuri. maTi nawerebis gverdiT moTavsebulia agreTve nawarmoebebi egvipteli da palestineli moRvaweebisa, eklesia-monastrebis mamebisa (V—VI ss.), rogoric mag., markozisa, sahakisa, abrahamisa, amonasi da martvirisa. ukanaskneli avtori, prof. k. kekeliZis nakvlevis Tanaxmad, 2 qarTveli unda iyos. dRemde am krebulis ori uZvelesi nusxa iyo cnobili: sinuri 3 da aTonuri 4. amJamad amaT emateba klarjulic, romelic daviT mamflis saxelTan aris dakavSirebuli. am nusxis (S–1139) gadamweris xeliT Sesrulebuli minaweri erTgan (26-e gverdis marcxena kideze, zemoT) gvamcnobs: `q~n daicevin mamfali d~T dRegrZelobiT da simrTeliT, a~n~. maSasadame, es xelnaweri dawerilia daviTis gardacvalebis (943 wlis 5 ) uwinares, misi mamflobis Jams, X sauk-is ocdaaTian wlebSi, Tu ufro adre ara. daaxloebiT amave xanisaa sinuri nusxac, romelic sabas lavraSi yofila gadawerili 925 wels6. es nusxa CvenTvis xelmiuwvdomelia. araa misawvdomi agreTve aTonuri nusxac, romelic 977 wels aris gadawerili, oSks, ioane-Tor-

K.Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinishen Literatur, gv.187, 1935. martviri qarTveli (VI-VII) da misi Sroma `sinanulisaT¢s da simdablisa~ k. kekeliZis redaqciiTa da gamokvleviT: literaturuli Ziebani, III, gv. 261-313, Tbilisi, 1946. 3 iv. javaxiSvili, sinis mTis qarTul xelnawerTa aRweriloba, gv. 74-83, Tb., 1947. 4 Catalogue des manuscripts georgiens de la bibliotheque de la laure d’Jwiron au mont Athos, par R.P.Blake. Extrait de la Revue de I’Orient chretien, 3-e serie, t. VIII (XXVIII), №3 et 4, pp 41-51, 1932. 5 sumbat daviTis Zis qronika tao-klarjeTis bagrationTa Sesaxeb, gamocema III, e. TayaiSvilisa, Tb., 1949. 6 martviri qarTveli (VI-VII) da misi Sroma `sinanulisaT¢s da simdablisa~ k. kekeliZis redaqciiTa da gamokvleviT: literaturuli Ziebani, III, gv. 265, Tbilisi, 1946.
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150

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

nikis dakveTiT 1. amisi mxolod ori piri mogvepoveba: erTi XVIII saukunisa, domenti kaTalikozis (1704—1724) TaosnobiT gadawerili (A–56) 2, da meore Cveni saukunisa, ilia banZelis mier gadmowerili aTonsve (A–1142) zogierTi orTografiuli cvlilebiT. klarjulisa da oSkuris (gadmoRebuli pirebis) garda Cvens xelT iyo kidev am krebulis erTi sxva nusxac H–1662 3, romelic ierusalimuria warmoSobiT da gadawerilia 1040 w., e.i. aRebuli periodis uaxloes xans. meore Zeglis, ioane mosxis `samoTxis~ qarTuli Targmani daculia rogorc sinur nusxaSi, ise oSkurSic. Cvens gankargulebaSi mxolod oSkuri nusxaa, isic ilia banZelis mier Cvens droSi gadmoRebuli piris saxiT, romelic, rogorc aRvniSneT, zogierTi orTografiuli cvlilebiT aris Sesrulebuli. Cveni Zveli mwerlobis dasaxelebuli Zeglebi enobriv niSneulebaTa mixedviT VIII—X ss-Sia warmoSobili, ara ugvianes X s-is pirveli meoTxedisa, radgan am xanidan maT Semcvel xelnawerebsac ki mouRwevia Cvenamde. yvelaze mkafiod es periodi gamoikveTeba ZeglTa leqsikuri Sedgenilobis mixedviT, rasac Cven sxvagan vexebiT specialurad. aq amgzobis imas aRvniSnavT mxolod, rom merve saukuneze adrindeli es Zeglebi ver iqneba, radgan maTSi SeiniSneba xmareba iseTi leqsikuri wyebisa, romelic arabobis saistorio asparezze gamosvlis Semdeg SeiZleboda warmoSobiliyo maxlobel aRmosavleTSi da, maSasadame, asaxuliyo qarTul saliteraturo enaSic. am sagulisxmo moments garda dasaxelebuli Zeglebi Cvens yuradRebas imiTac ipyrobs, rom maTSi vxvdebiT iseT formebs, gansakuTrebiT qarTuli zmnis farglebSi, romlebic jer sxvagan an aravis SeuniSnavs, anda, Tu romelime maTgani SeuniSnavT sadme, mcired, rogorc SemTxveva iSviaTi xmarebisa Zvel qarTulSi. I qarTuli zmnis Taviseburi da aqamomdis ucnobi zogierTi formebi, romlebic VIII—X ss-is ZeglebSi aqa-iq gvxvdeba, pirvel rigSi xolmeobiTTa mwkrivebs Seexeba, saxeldobr, maTi mesame subieqturi piris daboloebas. Tu dRemde is vicodiT, rom Zvel qarTulSi umetesad xolmeobiTi meore ixmareboda, xolo mis Semdeg pirveli xolmeobiTi gamodioda (isic mesame piriT, radgan sxvebi am mwkrivs ar gaaCnda), axla, garda imisa, rom xolmeobiTi meoris mesame pirisaTvis mravlobiT ricxvSi zogjer cnobilisagan gansxvavebuli forma gvaqvs, isic sagulisxmoa, rom xolmeobiTTa dasaxelebul mwkrivebs gverdSi udgeba uwyvetlis xolmeobiTi, romelic mesame subieqturi piris gamosaxatavad mravlobiT ricxvSi imave formantebs mimarTavs, romlebsac xolmeobiTi

ix. r. bleikis zemoT dasaxelebuli katalogi, gv. 50. Ф. Жордания, описание рукописей церковного музея, I, gv. 46-48. 3 saqarTvelos saxelmwifo muzeumis qarTul xelnawerTa aRweriloba, t. IV. Sedgenili da dasabeWdad damzadebuli elene metrevelis mier, Tbilisi, 1950, gv. 89.
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151

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

meore da romelTagan axlad gamovlinebuli Tavisi saxiT sxva araferia, Tu ar awmyos anu pirveli xolmeobiTis niSani mravlobiT ricxvSi, e.i. -ed. xolmeobiT meoreSi am formantiT nawarmoebi gardauvali da gardamavali zmnis Semdegi formebi gvaqvs: a. gardauvali zmnebisa mividied, sxdied — dasxdied, (mxiarul) iqmnied, daSuried, dawynardied da daex¢nied. mowmobani teqstebidan: 1. mividied `ara xolo Tu mefeni iTxoven maTgan Sewevnasa, aramed mravalni eSmakeulnica m i v i d i e d saflavTa maTTa da ganikurnnian~. (`marxvaTa sakiTxavni~ A 1 , 47gv; C 1 , 16 r; B) mividied] miivltied] B1. 2. sxdied `rameTu viTarca-igi romelni Jamsa sicxisasa maxlobelad s x d i e d gamosadinelsa wyalTasa da sigrilisa misgan haerisa ganernian mZlafrisa misgan sicxisa, egreTve romeli miivltodis wignTa wmidaTasa, ganarinos suli T¢si yovelTagan vnebaTa~. (`marxvaTa sakiTxavni~ C, 4 r; A-sa da B-s aklia). 3. dasxdied `da vidre igi ilocavn, igini tablasa ganhmzadebed da munTquesve dasxdied purisa Wamad~. (`samoTxe~). 4. (mxiarul) iqmnied `da odes ixilnian pirni maTni, gina samoselni, gina £amli maTi, gina sayofelni maTni, mxiarul i q m n i e d guliTa da uxarin~. (`marxvaTa sakiTxavni~ C, 42 v; A-s aklia) mxiarul iqmnied] ganixarnian B. 5. daSuried `viTarca-igi romelni asparezsa cxenTasa erTierTsa uswroben da ganscxrebied, da sargebel vera¡ poian maT moswrafed morbediTa maTiTa da m£urvaled moqmedebiTa, rameTu aravin miagis misagebeli maTi, arca g¢rg¢nosan yunis, da cudad d a S u r i e d~. (`marxvaTa sakiTxavni~ C 36 v.; A-s aklia) daSuried] daSurian B. 6. gancivnied `Zmano Cemno, ara gueSinisa Jamisa misgan, odes-igi g a n c i v n i e d fer£ni da Zwola¡ Seedvis mu£lTa, odes-igi SeSfoTnes stomaqi da dai£Snen Tualni

1 A-Ti aRvniSnavT daviT mamfliseul nusxas: S–1139-s; B-Ti — oSkurs: A—1142-s da C-Ti — ierusalimurs: H–1662-s.

152

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

da dadumnes piri, da gamohyavn suli angelozTa maT saSinelTa da mrisxaneTa, da amxilebed mas saqmeTa misTa borotTa, da ra¡Ta sityua¡ misces man yovelTaT¢s codvaTa misTa, romelni eqmnes mas sofelsa amas Sina sawuTrosa~. (`marxvaTa sakiTxavni~ A,22 gv; C, 79 v.; B ) gancivnied] ganc¢brdian A (rac uTuod non sens-ia, aRmocenebuli dednis uxeirod amokiTxvaze). 7. dawynardied `ganisuenian vaWarTa moswrafeTa, raJams-igi ganvlian zRua¡ mS¢dobiT, damTqmeli, da ganernian zrunvasa da mwuxarebasa, da ganisuenian WirTa da SromaTagan. ixarebed, raJams ganvlian queyana¡ igi saSiSi da gza¡ igi iwro¡, d a w y n a r d i e d SfoTisagan da sirbilisa, da daeyudnian mindobiT~. (`marxvaTa sakiTxavni~ A, 146 gv.; C, 150 v.; B) dawynardied] dawynardian C. 8. daex¢nied `viTarca-igi ra¡ orbi spetaki ipoebis yoladve adgilTa sulmyralTa, mwinkulevanTa, da eridebis igi bostanTa da samoTxeTa da adgilTa surnelTa. da egreTve mwerTa dautevnian guamni surnelni da cocxalni da d a e x ¢ n i e d wuTxsa wylulebaTasa~. (`marxvaTa sakiTxavni~ A, 172 gv.; C, 172 r.; B ) daex¢nied] daex¢nian AB. yvela zemoT moyvanili da saTanado nimuSebSi xazgasmuli gardauvali zmnis forma, garda ukanasknelisa, erTpiriani zmnebisaa. isini an saSualo gvarisa arian: mividied, sxdied—dasxdied, anda vnebiTisa: daSuried, (mxiarul) iqmnied, gancivnied da dawynardied. ukanaskneli magaliTis zmnis forma — daex¢nied — orpiriani vnebiTi gvarisaa. subieqtad maT, ukanasknelTan erTad, rogorc wesi, Sewyobili aqvT saxelebi saxelobiT brunvaSi: mividied eSmakeulnica, sxdied romelni, dasxdied igini, daSuried [igini], (mxiarul) iqmnied [igini], gancivnied fer£ni, dawynardied [vaWarni]; daex¢nied [mwerni]. erTpiriani zmnis formebSi, romlebSic mxolod subieqturi piria xolme asaxuli (ise orpirian vnebiTisaSic, sadac subieqtur pirebTan erTad iribi obieqtis pirebic aRiniSneba), piris niSnebi Tu bolosarTad modis, mesame subieqturisaa. Cvens magaliTebSi CamoTvlili subieqtebi, romlebic mravlobiT ricxvSi dganan, bolosarTovani -ed niSniT arian warmodgenili. maSasadame, es -ed mravlobiTSi mdgomi mesame suqbieqturi piris niSania. Tu saTanadod gavaanalizebT moyvanil formebs da maT aRnagobas davukvirdebiT (mo-vid-i-ed, sxd-i-ed — da-sxd-i-ed; da-Sur-i-ed, i-qmn-i-ed, gan-civn-i-ed, da-wynar-d-i-ed, da-e-x¢n-i-ed), vnaxavT, rom isini meore serias ganekuTvnebian, kerZod xolmeobiT meores, rac aRniSnuli -ed formantis win mdgomi i niSniT aris gadmocemuli. amrigad, moyvanil zmnaTa formebi, romlebSic Cvens yuradRebas -ed formanti iqcevs, xolmeobiTi meoris mwkrivisaa — mesame subieqturi pirisa mravlobiT ricxvSi. 153

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

b. gardamavali zmnebisa Seimosied, (juars) —acunied, ixilnied. mowmobani teqstebidan: 1. Seimosied `saxÀ, romeli hmosied moZRuarsa, igive Seimosied mowafeTa~. (`marxvaTa sakiTxavni~ A, 32 gv.; C, 91 r.; B) Seimosied] Seimosian C, Seumosies B. 2. (juars) acunied `da wariyvannes igini m£edarTa maT adgilsa, romelsa hrq¢an panton, sadaigi borotis-moqmedni juars-acunied~. (samoTxe, Txroba, 58). 3. ixilnied `rameTu wmidani raodenca mieaxlebied RmerTsa, ixilnied, Tavni T¢sni ucodvilesad yovelTa kacTasa~. (`marxvaTa sakiTxavni~, B. A-sa da C-s aklia). aRnusxuli gardamavali zmnebis formebi yvela orpiriania. Sewyobili pirdapiri obieqtebi imis gamo, rom zmnaTa formebi II serias ekuTvnis, saxelobiT brunvaSi dgas, erTgan mxoloobiTisa (Seimosied saxÀ) da sxvagan — mravlobiTisaSi (juars acunied borotis-moqmedni, ixilnied Tavni T¢sni). es saxelobiTni nariT arian nawarmoebni, amitom maTi ricxvis aRmniSvnelnic formebSi saTanadod (`n~-Ti) arian warmodgenilni (juars-acu-n-ied, ixil-n-ied). radgan pirdapiri obieqtis mesame piris wesisamebr zmnaTa formebSi ausaxvelia, amitom moyvanil formebSi mxolod subieqtis saTanado piris niSnebia saZiebeli, es piri ki yvela SemTxvevaSi mesamea (mravlobiT ricxvSi — `maT~) da, rogorc wesi, bolosarTadaa warmodgenili: -ed. am formantis win mdgomi i xolmeobiTis niSania da radgan aRnagobis mixedviT (Se-i-mos-i-ed, a-cu-n-i-ed, i-xil-n-ied) moyvanil zmnaTa formebi II serias ekuTvnis, amitom es xolmeobiTi meorea. amrigad, aqac moyvanil zmnaTa formebi xolmeobiTi meoris mwkrivisaa, saxeldobr mesame subieqturi pirisa mravlobiT ricxvSi, rac -ed formantiTve aris gadmocemuli. -ed formanti aRniSnuli funqciiT, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, ara marto xolmeobiT meoreSi gvxvdeba, aramed uwyvetlis xolmeobiTSic. saerTod uwyvetlis xolmeobiTis formebi Cvens teqstebSic (ise rogorc es SeniSnulia sxvebis mimarTac Zveli xanisaTvis 1) iSviaTad gvxvdeba2. isic
1 a. SaniZe, sami mwkrivis Taviseburebani Zvels qarTulSi: saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademiis moambe, VI, gv. 845, 1945. 2 moviyvanT aq maT: a) `movidian saflavsa da dautevian igi marto¡ da warvidian saxed T¢sad... da swrafiT monagebsa mis[s]a ganiyofdian~ [C, 259 r]. b) `raJams meuflis seni igi £orcTa¡, ese yoveli gua£sobn da guls-vetyodiT sikudilisaT¢s da sinanulisa, da viTarca ganmeSoris seni igi, yovelive daguaviwydes da

154

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Cvens teqstebSi, Tu sadme gvxvdeba am mwkrivis formebi, umTavresad mainc mravlobiTSia. -ed formants uwyvetlis xolmeobiTSi vpoulobT rogorc vnebiTis, ise moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebSi: zrunvidied, etyodied, scvidied, £umilvied. mowmobani teqstebidan: 1. zrunvidied `da viTarca agrZnian igi, odesme cecxlsa Sevidian uSiSad da ara Seexis maT, da odesme siRrmesa wyalTasa zeda vlened da ara dainTqnian da arca eWueul iqmnian, rameTu sarwmunoeba¡ ganaZlierebn maT da aras z r u n v i d i e d xilvisaT¢s da saqmisa saSinelTa saqmeTaT¢s~. (`marxvaTa sakiTxavni~, C; 250 r; B. A-s aklia). zrunvidied] zrunvied (!) B. 2. etyodied `maSin ganecxados yovelTa saqme misi, viTarca-igi maTi, romelni e t y o d i e d meufesa dResa mas gankiTxvisasa: ufalo, ufalo, ara saxeliTa SeniTa vwinawarmetyuelebdiTa da saxeliTa SeniTa ZalTa mravalTa viqmodeTa?~ (`marxvaTa sakiTxavni~, C; 28 v; BB. A-s aklia). etyodied] ity¢ed B. 3. scvidied, 4. £umilvidied `iqmen Sen viTarca m£umilni, romelni £umilvidied samwysosa gina savena£esa, rameTu ityuelved £elTa maTTa da £miTa maRliTa RaRadeben da izaxebed. da oxrisa maTisagan ivltied yovelni romelTa hnebavn miparvad samcvelo¡ maTi, romelsa s c v i d i e d~. (`marxvaTa sakiTxavni~ C, 16 v; A -sa da B-s aklia). warmodgenil zmnaTa formebis rogorc sintaqsuri Sewyoba ([igini] zrunviedied aras; romelni etyodied meufesa; [igini] scvidied romelsa; romelni £umilvidied samwysosa gina savena£esa), ise aRnagoba (zrunv-id-i-ed; e-ty-od-i-ed; s-cv-id-i-ed; £umilv-id-i-ed) aSkarad gviTiTeben, rom isini I seriisa arian. maT fuZeTa savrcobebze uSualod darTuli i xolmeobiT mwkrivs aCens, xolo bolosarTad mosuli -ed am mwkrivis mravlobiTi ricxvis mesame pirze metyvelebs. amrigad, es formebi, romlebic warmoebulia -ed formantiT, uwyvetlis xolmeobiTi mwkrivisa arian, saxeldobr mesame subieqturi pirisa mravlobiTSi. -ed formanti, romelic zemoT moyvanil mowmobaTa mixedviT xolmeobiT mwkrivTa mesame subieqturi piris niSani Cans mravlobiTSi, Zveli qarTulisaarRara vzrunvidiT da arca movi£senebdiT satanjvelTa maT saukuneTa, romeli ganmzadebul ars codvilTaT¢s~ [C, 261, v; B]. c) `ukueTu vinme aRmidgis, vhrisxvidi... da Z¢rsa uzraxvidi mankierebiT~ [A 380; C,225 v]. d) `Cuen codvaTa maTTa vxedvidiT, xolo sinanuli maTi da keTilisa saqme ver vcniT da usamarTlod ganvikiTxvidiT~ [C, 273 r; B] .

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

Tvis Cveulebrivi -an formantis paralelurad (uwyvetlis xolmeobiTsa da meore xolmeobiTSi), gvxvdeba Zvelad agreTve mesame piris brZanebiTis erTaderT mawarmoeblad mravlobiTSi. mxolobiTSi ki aseTi SemTxvevebis dros yovelTvis -n formanti moipoveba. eseve formantebi, rogorc cnobilia, awarmoeben mesame subieqturi piris formasac pirvel (awmyos) xolmeobiTSi, romelsac prof. arn. Ciqabava zogad awmyos uwodebs 1. ra urTierTobaa am saziaro formantis mqone dasaxelebul mwkrivTa Soris? am kiTxvaze pasuxs prof. arn. Ciqobavas erT-erT naSromSi vpoulobT (`mesame piris subieqtis uZvelesi niSani qarTvelur enebSi~, enimkis moambe VVI, gv. 13-44, Tb.,1940). avtoris SexedulebiT, es niSnebi mesame piris aRsaniSnavad awmyos garda uwyvetelsaca da wyvetilsac unda hqonoda adreve erTaderT formantad (sufiqsad) mesame pirSi, romlebic SemdegSi, Zvel qarTulSi, gamoyenebul iqmna mesame piris brZanebiTisaTvis. sxvanairad rom vTqvaT, Zveli qarTulis mesame piris brZanebiTi sxva araferia, Tu ar wyvetilisa da uwyvetlis mesame subieturi piris odindeli formebi, romlebic martooden -n, — -ed formantebiT iwarmoebodnen. xolmeobiT meoreSi SeniSnuli erTi SemTxveva: moiR-i-n (`r~ yoveli romeli xiTxovn, moiRin~2) da mesame piris brZanebiTis daSrt-i-n tipis formebi, romlebic, avtoris azriT, aoristisa da namyo xolmeobiTis (meore xolmeobiTis) mesame piris adrindeli formebia3, sadac agreTve mesame subieqturi piris niSnad -n gamodis, prof. arn. Ciqobavas avaraudebinebs, rom es `n~ am mwkrivSic (e.i. xolmeobiT meoreSic) adre erTaderTi niSani unda yofiliyo zmnebisaTvis da, Sesabamisad amisa, amave mwkrivis mravlobiTSi yvelgan -ed daboloeba unda arsebuliyo, rogorc mag.: dadrik-i-ed, aRadgin-i-ed 4. TiTqmis yvela mwkrivSi `n~ sufiqsis mesame subieqturi piris niSnad miCneva prof. arn. Ciqobavas ayenebinebs erT zogad debulebasac, romlis Tanaxmad, `n~ sufiqsi uZvelesi sufiqsia mesame pirisa; igi gamoyenebuli iyo, rogorc droTa (anu: mwkrivTa) meore jgufSi (e.i. seriaSi), ise droTa (anu: mwkrivTa) pirvel jgufSi (anu seriaSi) da es mesame piris sufiqsic droTa (anu mwkrivTa) mixedviT ar icvlebodao 5. mesame piris brZanebiTis formebi rom saTanado wyvetilisa da uwyvetlisagan amodis da, SeiZleba, maT odindel formebsac iyenebdes, saeWvo ar unda iyos. arc is unda iyos sacilobeli, rom meore xolmeobiTSi mesame subieqtur pirs mxoloobiTSi -i-n da mravlobiTSi -i-ed sufiqsi hqonoda. dadrik-i-ed da aRadgin-i-ed Cveni teqstebis monacemebis Semdeg Teoriulad warmosadgeni
1 arn. Ciqobava, mesame piris subieqtis uZvelesi niSani qarTvelur enebSi: enimkis moambe, V-VI, Tb., 1940. 2 iv. javaxiSvilis mier amokiTxuli xanmeti teqstidan (palimfsestidan): Tbilisis universitetis moambe, II, gv. 377. 3 arn. Ciqobava, mesame piris subieqtis uZvelesi niSani... gv. 32, 39. 4 iqve, gv. 37. 5 iqve, gv. 40.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

formebi ki aRaraa, aramed realuri faqtia Zvel qarTulSi. aseve realurad misaCnev formad gamodis Cvenive teqstebis mowmobaTa mixedviT prof. arn. Ciqobavas mier navaraudebi ixarebd-i-ed forma uwyvetlis xolmeobiTisaTvis1. Cveni teqstebis monacemebiT -ed formanti xolmeobiT mwkrivTa mesame pirisaTvis xmarebulia mravlobiTSi Zveli qarTulisaTvis aseT SemTxvevebSi -an sufiqsis gverdiT. arsad mxoloobiTSi am formantis sapirispirod Cveulebrivi -s sufiqsis paralelurad mosalodneli -n ar SeimCneva, rogorc es awmyos xolmeobiTSia da xolmeobiTis sxva mwkrivebisaTvis -s-s paralelurad aqvs navaraudebi prof. arn. Ciqobavas. kiTxva ismis, damowmebuli SemTxvevebi Zveli movlenis gadmonaSTia Cveni teqstebisaTvis, Tu igini axali movlenis Canasaxs warmoadgenen, vTqvaT, awmyos anu pirveli xolmeobiTis analogiiT wamowyebuls; anda dialeqturi formis xmareba xom araa nebsiT Tu uneblieT Semotanili mTargmnelisa an gadamwerisagan? Cven Sesawynareblad pirveli varaudi ufro migvaCnia. axlis Canasaxi rom iyos, ganviTareba unda moeca Semdgom xanaSi, rasac versad vxedavT; piriqiT, aseT formebze qarTul mwerlobas xeli aqvs aRebuli. agreTve aseTi formantis dialeqturi xmarebac dasaxelebuli mwkrivebisaTvis arsad SeiniSneba. Cans, is gadmonaSTia Zveli movlenisa, gansakuTrebiT xolmeobiTi meorisaTvis, romelzedac SemTxvevaTa meti raodenoba modis. aqedan unda iyos is gadasuli uwyvetlis xolmeobiTSi, romelic sazogadod gviandel warmoqmnil mwkrivad iTvleba da arcTu xolmeobiTi meoris gareSe. II VIII-X ss-is dasaxelebuli Zeglebi gviCvenebs zmnis formaTa kidev erT Taviseburebas: -d formantis alag-alag xmarebas statikuri zmnebis awmyosa da TurmeobiTi pirvelis mesame subieqtur pirSi Cveulebrivi -s sufiqsis nacvlad da agreTve -ed sufiqsis iSviaT xmarebas amave piris aRsaniSnavad mravlobiTSi gardamaval zmnaTa TurmeobiTi pirvelisa, sadac Cveulebriv -an sufiqsi ixmareba Zvelad. ganvixiloT es SemTxvevebi. a. statikuri awmyo hgied, gugonied, hmosied. mowmobani teqstebidan: 1. hgied a. `Targmaneba¡ amis askia¡sa¡ sa£orcielo¡sa¡ ese ars: tabla¡, romelsa zeda hgied erTi xolo saWmeli~. (`marxvaTa sakiTxavni~ B; aklia A-sa da C-s). b. `da Tu vinme eSjin, ara sityua ugebn, da yovelsa sityuasa zeda da saqmesa ganmtkicebuli SeucTomelad h g i e d savse yovliTa saqmiTa keTiliTa~. (`marxvaTa sakiTxavni~ A 342; gv.; B; C-Si ar ipoveba).
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arn. Ciqobava, mesame piris subieqtis uZvelesi niSani... gv. 40.

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c. `mrisxanesa daamS¢debn myudroebiT da siyuarulsa missa zeda Seuorgulebelad h g i e d~. (`marxvaTa sakiTxavni~ A 342 gv; B; C-Si ar aris). hgied [hgien B. 2. gugonied `ra¡me ukue vyoT... SfoTisa da SurisaT¢s, romelman Seg¢pyrnis maTT¢s, romelni cxovndian, ara xolo Tu mterni, aramed megobarnica Cuenni da mwuxareba¡ maTi nugeSinis-cema Cuenda g u g o n i e d.~ (`marxvaTa sakiTxavni~ B, 40 r; C ; A-s aklia). 3. hmosied `saxÀ, romeli hmosied moZRuarsa, igive Seimosied mowafeTa; wesi, romeli daudvis mefeman, masze zeda iqcevin gundi erisa misisa¡~. (`marxvaTa sakiTxavni~ A 32 gv; C 91 r; B). hmosied] hmosies B. aRniSnuli statikuri zmnebis formebs TavsarTad irib-obieqturi piris niSnebi moepovebaT (h-gied, gu-gonied, h-mosied), xolo bolosarTad — mesame subieqturi piris niSani, romelic aq, Zveli qarTulisaTvis, Cveulebrivi -s-s nacvlad aseT SemTxvevaSi d-Ti aris warmodgenili (hgie-d, gugonie-d, hmosie-d). am bolosarTis win maT darTuli aqvT fuZeze rTuli ie (i-e) sufiqsi, ase, rom xsenebuli formebis Semdegnairi analizi iqmneba: h-g-i-e-d; gu-gon-i-e-d-; h-mos-i-e-d. Zveli qarTulis erT sxva ZeglSic gvxvdeba agreTve `hmosied~ forma. esaa iakob mociqulis, uflis Zmad wodebulis wamebis wigni, romelic Zvel mravalTavebs daucavs. mis erT-erT nusxaSi, parxals gadawerilSi XI-s-is damdegs, naTqvamia, rom `ara Seimosis man matylisa samoseli, aramed hmosied mas stevisa samoselio~. e. w. svanur mravalTavSi, romelic X saukunisad iTvleba xelis mixedviT, `hmosied~-is nacvlad `hmosien~ aris, da `stevisa~-s magier `selisa~. am mowmobiT erTi garemoeba irkveva: statikuri zmnis awmyos mwkrivSi mesame subieqturi piris niSnad mxoloobiTSi `s~ da `d~ bolosarTebs garda kidev `n~ yofila. sul SemTxveviTi es movlena ar unda iyos. amas mowmobs `hgied~ formisaTvis zemore moyvanili is magaliTi (1 c), romelSic agreTve `hgied~-s sxva nusxaSi `hgien~ moepoveba Sesatyvisad. b. TurmeobiTi pirveli uqmnied, miuRebied, Segiracxied. mowmobani teqstebidan: 1. uqmnied `xolo guami daiwuvin ficxlisa misgan sim£urvalisa da suli etyinebin cecxliTa codvisa¡Ta, romel uqmnied wina¡swar~. (`marxvaTa sakiTxavni~A, 150 gv.; C, 150 r).

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2. miuRebied `maSin ubrZanis misgan ganZarcuvad suli wmida¡, romeli miuRebied mas dResa mas gamo£snisasa, romlisasa hgonebn mis Tana yofasa~. (`marxvaTa sakiTxavni~ C 28 v; B; A-s aklia). warmodgenili formebi rom gardamaval zmnaTa TurmeobiTi pirvelisaa, amas mowmobs rogorc subieqt-obieqtis Sewyoba (romel uqmnied [sulsa], romeli miuRebied mas), ise am wevrebis inversiulad warmodgena zmnis formebSi ([h]-uqmnie-d, mi-[h]-uRebie-d). TavsarTad aqac gramatikuli obieqtis piris niSnebia warmodgenili (mesamisa — h), xolo bolosarTad gramatikuli subieqtis mesame piri d-Ti. ukanasknelis win fuZis savrcobia, igive rTuli sufiqsi i-e, romelic statikuri zmnebis awmyoSic Segvxvda. maSasadame, aRniSnuli zmnebi Semdegnairad analizdeba: (h)-u-qmn-i-e-d, mi-(h)-u-Reb-i-e-d. erT sxva xelnawerSi (H-341, XI s-is nusxaSi) warmodgenil wamebis wignSi (`wameba¡ S¢dTa efeselTa¡~), romelic leqsikuri niSnebiT VIII-X ss-Si unda iyos Targmnili, TurmeobiTi I-is mesame subieqturi piris niSnad mxoloobiTSi `n~-s vxvdebiT, msgavsad statikuri awmyos zogierTi formisa (`hgied~, `hmosien~): 2 a. ucnobien `viyveniT Cuen viTarca yrma¡, romel ars mucelsa dedisasa da ara scnobn pativsa gina upatiobasa, arca Sromasa, arca gansuenebasa, da cxoreba¡ ara u c n o b i e n (u-cnob-i-e-n) cxovelTa Tana da mkudarTa~ (gv. 603). moyvanil mowmobaTagan naTlad Cans, rom formanti d (romelsac iSviaTad n enacvleba) subieqtis mesame piris niSania mxoloobiTSi. raRaa mravlobiTSi? amis gamosarkvevad mxolod erTi magaliTi mogvepoveba. esaa: 3. Segiracxied `da Sen, ¥ kaco, kadnierebiTa da apartavanebiTa arad S e g i r a c x i e d glaxakni da ikadreb moZulebad da vnebad maTda da mterobad~. (A, 76 gv.; C, 135 r; B) Segiracxied] Segiracxien A. Segiracxian B. wina magaliTebisagan (1, 2) gansxvavebiT aq gramatikuli subieqti mesame pirisa Sewyobilia mravlobiTSi (glaxakni Segiracxied Sen). misi niSanic amitom gansxvavebuli unda iyos im -d bolosarTisagan, rac mxoloobiTSi mdgomi gramatikuli subieqtis mesame piris Sewyobisas iyo. Tu gavaanalizebT mocemuli zmnis formas (Se-g-i-racx-i-e-d), vnaxavT, rom mravlobiTSic gramatikuli mesame subieqturi piri imave -d sufiqsiT aris warmodgenili, romliTac mxoloobiTSi iyo. gamodis, TiTqos ziari formantia aq -d bolosarTi. magram, prof. v. Tofurias marTebuli axsniT, aq namdvilad -d sufiqsi ki ar aris mravlobiTSi, aramed -ed, romlis e xmovnis Sexvedram fuZis rTuli i-e savrcobis boloxmovan e-sTan, marto erTi e warmogvidgina daboloebaSi. mgonia, aq savrcobis e unda iyos dakarguli, rogorc amas adgili aqvs maSin, roca Zveli qarTulisaTvis Cveulebrivi sufiqsiT vawarmoebT am mwkrivis mesame piris formas mravlobiTSi, sadac savrcobis e elementi aRara Cans (Segi159

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

racx-i-e-s — Segiracx-i-an). amrigad, `Segiracxied~ zmnis formis aseTi analizis safuZvelze irkveva, rom TurmeobiT pirvelSi gramatikuli subieqtis mesame piris niSnebia mxolobiTSi -d (Cveulebrivi s-s nacvlad) da mravlobiTSi -ed (Cveulebrivi an-is magier), msgavsad statikuri awmyosi, sadac mxoloobiTSi agreTve gramatikuli subieqtis mesame piris niSnad -d bolosarTi aRmogvaCnda (Cveulebrivi s-s nacvlad) da mravlobiTSi ki -ed sufiqsia sagulvebeli (Cveulebrivi -an-is magier). `Segiracxied~ formasTan dakavSirebiT sagulisxmoa isic, rom Cveni Zeglis uZveles nusxaSi, — msgavsad statikuri awmyos zogierTi (`hgien~, `hmosien~) formisa (da TurmeobiTi I-is erTi SemTxvevisa mxoloobiTSi: `ucnobien~), sadac qarTulisaTvis iSviaTi -d sufiqsis nacvlad sxva nusxebSi kidev ufro iSviaTi -n moipoveba, — zmnis es forma isea warmodgenili, rom -d daboloebas -n enacvleba (`Segiracxien~). magram aq imis Semdeg, rac irkveva, rom `Segiracxied~ aris gardamavali zmnis TurmeobiTi pirvelis forma mravlobiT ricxvSi mdgomi gramatikuli subieqtis mesame pirisa, romelic ara -d sufiqsiT, aramed -ed-iT aris warmodgenili, erT-erTi nusxis es gansxvavebuli wakiTxva namdvilad warmoadgens ara -d da -n bolosarTebis monacvleobas, rogorc es statikuri awmyos zog formaSi gvqonda, aramed -ed da -en sufiqsebisas. amrigad, TurmeobiT pirvelSi gramatikuli subieqtis mesame piris Semdegnairi sufiqsebia Zvel qarTulSi Cveni teqstebis mixedviT: mxoloobiTSi Cveulebrivi -s-s paralelurad iSviaTi xmarebis -d da zogjer, ukanasknelis paralelurad, kidev ufro iSviaTi -n-c, xolo mravlobiTSi Cveulebrivi -an sufiqsis paralelurad iSviaTi xmarebis -ed aris da zogjer, ukanasknelis paralelurad, kidev ufro iSviaTi -en-ic. rom sruliad SemTxveviTi ar aris erTi mxriv -d-sa da n-s, xolo meore mxriv -ed-isa da en-is aseTi monacvleoba, amas oTxTavis Zveli Satberduli nusxebis erTi Cvenebac unda amtkicebdes. SeniSnulia ukve 1, rom oTxTavis jruW-parxlis nusxebSi gvxvdeba agreTve erTgan TurmeobiTi pirvelis -d-oniani forma: `moimki, sada ara dasTesi, da Seikribi, sada ara gangibnevied~ (maTe 25,24), anda: `movimki, sada ara davsTesi da Sevikribi, sada ara ganmibnevied~ (maTe 25,26). aRniSnulia samecniero literaturaSi isic, rom adiSis oTxTavis mixedviT pirvel SemTxvevaSi `gangibnevied~ formis nacvlad `gangibnevian~ gvaqvs, xolo meoreSi — `gangibnevied~ formis magier `ganmibnevien~ aris2. ukanaskneli forma, sxvaTa Soris, imis mauwyebelicaa, rom d-sa da n-s monacvleoba aqaca gvaqvs, Tu monacvle formebi gramatikul subieqts iwyoben mxoloobiT ricxvSi (rac zemoT zogan statikuri awmyosa da erTgan TurmeobiTi I-s mxoloobiTi ricxvis formaSi SeiniSneboda), xolo -ed-isa da -en-is monacvle-

1 a. SaniZe, winasityvaoba gamocemisa: qarTuli oTxTavis ori Zveli redaqcia sami Satberduli xelnaweris mixedviT: Zveli qarTuli enis Zeglebi, 2, Tb., 1945, gv. 043. 2 arn. Ciqobava, mesame piris subieqtis uZvelesi niSani... gv. 39; a. SaniZe, qarTuli oTxTavis ori Zveli redaqcia... gv. 92.

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oba iqneba, Tu monacvle formebi gramatikul subieqts mravlobiT ricxvSi Seiwyobs (msgavsad zemoT aRniSnuli `Segiracxied — Segiracxien~ formisa). dasaxelebul wyaroebs garda `n~ gramatikuli subieqtis mesame piris niSnad TurmeobiT pirvelSi (mxoloobiTi ricxvisa) Segvxvedria agreTve X s-sad miCneuli samociqulos erT nusxaSic: `da nu Tana aRereviT mas, ra¡Ta Seikdimos, da nu viTarca mteri Segiracxien igi, aramed aswavebdiT viTarca Zmasa~ (S - 407, 141 r 1). sxvaTa Soris, es adgili nabeWd samociquloSi2 ase ikiTxeba: `da nu Tana aRereviT mas, ra¡Ta Seikdimos, da nu viTarca mtersa SeracxT mas, aramed aswavebdiT viTarca Zmasa~. msgavsi iSviaTi xmarebis zmnis formebi TurmeobiT pirvelSi sxva Zveli qarTuli enis Zeglebis mixedviT SeumCneveli ar darCenia prof. a. SaniZes, romelmac Tavisi amonawerebis erTi nawili gadmomca kidevac sargeblobisaTvis. adiSis oTxTavis xsenebul `ganmibnevien~ formasTan dakavSirebiT aq prof. a. SaniZe SeniSnavs: `sainteresoa, rom amgvari ram sxvaganac gvxvdebao~ da CamoTvlis: 1. `SiSsa Seupyrian momruSeTa guli da sulsa uqmTasa hmSiodis~ (igavni, 19, [15] 12). `radganac aq — vkiTxulobT SeniSvnaSi — arc subieqti (`SiSsa~) da arc obieqti (`guli~) mravlobiTSi ar aris, cxadia, n mravlobiTis niSnad ar SeiZleba gamocxadebul iqnes~-o. mis mier SemCneuli sxva analogiuri adgilebi Semdegia: 2. `saZagel ars kaci marTali kacisa codvilisa, da saZagel usjuloTa, romelTa warumarTebien gzasa~ (igavni 29, 27). 3. `kaci qvelis-moqmedi Tavsmdeb eqmnebis moyuassa T¢ssa, xolo romelsa waruwymedien sircx¢li, Suva daadginis igi~ (isu ziraqi 29,17). msgavs SemTxvevaSi -n-s paralelurad -d-s mqone formebsac asaxelebs prof. a. SaniZe antioqe stratigis `wartyuenva¡ ierusalemisa¡s~ qarTuli Targmanidan 3, saxeldobr: 4. `mRdelsa ze aRupyried 4.... sauflo¡ xorci~ — iÀ, 3. 5. `diakonTa samoseli igi ze aRupyried~ 5 — iÀ, 8. `an~-is adgils mravlobiTSi `ed~-is xmarebis samowmod prof. a. SaniZis magaliTebidan erTi SemTxveva Cans: 6. `dedakacisa¡ saxnierisa¡ netar ars qmari misi da ricxuni cxorebisa misisaTani orwil Seuracxied gonebasa missa~ (ise ziraqi, 26,1).

il. abulaZe, qarTuli weris nimuSebi, paleografiuli albomi, Tbilisi, 1949, tab. 30, meore svetis me-4 striqoni. 2 saRmrTo samociqulo, Tb., 1899, gv. 286. 3 n. maris gamocema, TR. IX, 1909. 4 xelnawerSi, 341 (gv. 639), aq ipoveba `aRupyrien~. 5 xelnawerSi, H 341 (gv. 639), aq ipoveba: `upyrian~.

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SemTxvevebi d formantis xmarebisa TurmeobiT pirvelsa da statikur awmyoSi gramatikuli subieqtis mesame piris niSnad prof. v. Tofuriasac hqonda SeniSnuli Zveli qarTuli enis sxva ZeglebSi. garda `SuSanikis martvilobisa~, romelSic, marTlac, vxvdebT am formis xmarebis or SemTxvevas (1. `xolo nu vis uflied Cuen Tana-Semoslvad~ [VI,3] 1 da 2. `Tayuanis sacemelad kiliki erTi mcire que warugdebied~ [14, 20] 1), xsenebulma mkvlevarma Semdegi magaliTebi moiyvana Tavis moxsenebaSi, romelic man gaakeTa 1952 wels: `umtkmied~ (`fiziologidan~ — `piri ze umtkmied~), `hnTied~ da `hgonied~. aRniSnuli -d formantisa da zogjer misi monacvle -n-s, anda -ed formantisa da zogjer mis magieri -en-is aseTi iSviaTi xmareba statikur awmyosa da TurmeobiT pirvelSi mesame piris aRsaniSnavad erT SemTxvevaSi -s-sa da meoreSi -an niSnebis gverdiT Zvel qarTulSi, aqac kiTxvas gviyenebs: gadmonaSTi an axali movlenis Canasaxi xom ar aris d||n an ed||en formantebi aRniSnuli mwkrivebisaTvis anda dialeqturi movlenis asaxvas xom ar warmoadgenen isini? aqac Cveni pasuxi is iqneba, rac zemoT xolmeobiTTa mwkrivebis -ed formantis mimarT iyo, saxeldobr is, rom d||n an ed||en formantebi mesame subieqturi piris niSnad statikuri zmnis awmyosa (mxoloobiTSi mxolod -d||n) da TurmeobiT pirvelSi (mxoloobiTSi -d||n da mravlobiTSi — ed||en) Zvelis gadmonaSTi ufro unda iyos, vidre axlis Canasaxi, radgan ukanasknels maSin ganviTareba unda moeca, rasac Zvel mwerlobaSi versad vxvdebiT. arc dialeqturi movlenis asaxva unda iyos aq, vinaidan msgavsi ram qarTuli enis dialeqtTa Soris SeniSnuli araa. dasasrul, statikur awmyosa da TurmeobiT pirvelSi mesame subieqturi piris niSnad Cveulebrivi -s-s nacvlad zogjer -d||n-s arseboba Zvel qarTulSi da amave piris niSnad mravlobiTSic -ed||-en-is dadastureba TurmeobiT pirvelSi, romelic statikuri awmyosebri warmoebisa aris, bunebrivad gvikarnaxebs vifiqroT, xom ar gvaqvs aq Cven SemTxvevebi, rom am niSnebiT Zvel qarTulSi adre arsebuli xolmeobiTi iyos gadmocemuli, ise rogorc es Zveli qarTulis sxva awmyoSia warmodgenili (wern — wered)? mgonia, rom damowmebuli SemTxvevebi amas ar ewinaaRmdegeba, miT umetes, rom Cven mier moyvanil Sesabamis teqstebSi Zalze xSirad maT gverdiT pirveli xolmeobiTisa da meore xolmeobiTis mwkrivebia xmarebuli. uTuod sagulisxmoa isic, rom aseTive varaudi gaaCnia prof. a. SaniZesac mis mier SeniSnulsa da Cven mier zemoT warmodgenil SemTxvevebTan dakavSirebiT, rac naTlad Cans im SeniSvnidan, romelsac -n-s mxoloobiTis niSnad aRiarebas urTavs: `igia albaT xolmeobiTis -n mxoloobiT ricxvSi~.

iakob curtaveli, martviloba¡ SuSanikisi, qarT. da somx. teqstebi gamosca, gamokvleva, variantebi, leqsikoni da saZiebeli daurTo ilia abulaZem, Tb., 1938; prof. a. SaniZes `uflied~ statikur zmnaTa siaSi aqvs moTavsebuli, ix. misi `qarTuli gramatikis safuZvlebi~, nakveTi meore, Tb., 1943, gv. 307.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

movlenis aseTi SefasebiT unda iyos gamowveuli prof. a. SaniZis mier misi SeniSvnisaTvis gakeTebuli aseTi saTauric — `III xolmeobiTis Zveli saxe?~ rom aq namdvilad -n-Ti xolmeobiTi mwkrivis formaa gadmocemuli TurmeobiTi pirvelisaTvis, amas Cveni teqstis kidev erTi magaliTic mowmobs: `rameTu kacman odesme Zilsa Sina ixilis xati, romeli ara sada uxilavn, da SeZrwundis guli misi da ganZ¢ndis SiSi~. (`marxvaTa sakiTxavni~ A, gv. 321; C, 256 r). -av Temian zmnasTan xmarebuli es `n~ aSkarad miaTiTebs mis xolmeobiTobaze, rogorc es konteqstiT Cans da TurmeobiTi pirvelis mwkrivis warmoebis xasiaTiTac dasturdeba. rogorc irkveva, TurmeobiTi pirvelisa da statikuri zmnebis awmyosTvis erTxans Cvens enaSi Zveli qarTulis uwinares arsebula mesame subieqtur pirSi xolmeobiTis gamosaxatavad ZiriTadad iseTive niSani (`n~ mxoloobiTSi da `ed~ mravlobiTSi), rogorc Zvel qarTulSia daculi pirvel xolmeobiTSi. Canda isic, rom aseTive niSani Zvel qarTulSi mesame subieqturi pirisaTvis arsebobs aqa-iq mravlobiT ricxvSi (ed) xolmeobiTis sxva mwkrivTaTvis: xolmeobiT meoresa da uwyvetlis xolmeobiTSi. es niSnebi Zvel qarTulSi rom gadmonaSTis saxiT SeiniSneba, imas mowmobs, rom enaSi isini moSlilan, ise rom erT SemTxvevaSi (statikuri zmnebis awmyosa da TurmeobiTi pirvelisaTvis) mniSvneloba ukvalod gahqrobia, xolo meoreSi (xolmeobiT meoresa da uwyvetlis xolmeobiTSi), Tumca rogorc mwkrivi ar moSlila, magram niSnad sxva gamomxatveli moupovebia: `an~ nacvlad `ed~-isa (mravlobiTSi; mxoloobiTze veras vambobT, radgan paraleluri formebi ar Segvxvedria). SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom wyaro am nairsaxeobisa, romelic dasaxelebul mwkrivebSi gadmonaSTis saxiT mesame subieqturi piris niSnis xmarebaSi SeiniSneba, iyos xalxuri metyveleba, sxvadasxva dialeqtis monacemi.

163

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

giorgi rogava

mravlobiTi ricxvis mesame subieqturi piris -an sufiqsisaTvis qarTulSi
rogorc cnobilia, mesame subieqturi pirisa da ricxvis gamoxatva sufiqsebis saSualebiT qarTveluri enebidan damaxasiaTebelia qarTulisa da zanurisaTvis. es sistema Zvel qarTulSi ufro rTuli Cans, vinem Tanamedrove qarTulsa da zanurSi. Zvel qarTulSi dadasturebulia, garda amJamad moqmedi a || o da -s mesame subieqturi piris sufiqsebisa, -n da -d sufiqsebic. agreTve, garda mravlobiTi ricxvis mesame subueqturi piris -en, -n, -an da -es sufiqsebisa -ed sufiqsic. Zvel qarTulSi dasaxelebul mxolobiTi ricxvis -a || -o, -s da -n sufiqsebs mravlobiTSi, rogorc viciT, moepoveba Sesabamisi afiqsebi: -en ||n, -an, -es, -ed. mx. r. a || o werd-a dawer-a mokl-a warvid-a aRiR-o -s wer-s wero-s dawer-i-s Wr-i-s rb-i-s imaleb-i-s -n wer-n movedi-n mr. r. -es wer-es dawer-es mokl-es warvid-es aRiR-es -en || -n, -an wer-en wero-n (←wero-en) daweri-an Wr-i-an rb-i-an imaleb-i-an ed wer-ed movid-ed

axal qarTulSi, rogorc cnobilia, dairRva Zveli qarTulisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Sesabamisoba mesame subieqturi piris mxoloobiTisa da mravlobiTis sufiqsTa Soris, saxeldobr: 1. namyo ZiriTadSi -a || -o sufiqss mravlobiTSi -es sufiqsTan erTad (mokl-a: mokl-es) Seesabameba -en sufiqsic (gardauval zmnebSi) — daimal-a: daimal(n)-en... 2. namyo usrulSi Zveli qarTulis mimarTeba — a: -es (werd-a: werd-es) Seicvala mimarTebiT — -a: -en (werd-a: werd(n)-en). 164

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

3. awmyoSi dinamikuri gardamavali zmnebis -s sufiqsi Secvala -a sufiqsma (izrdebi-s →izrdeb-a), amdenadve, mimarTeba (i)-s: (i)-an (izrdeb-i-s: izrdebi-an) Seicvala mimarTebiT — a: (i)-an (izrdeb-a: izrdebi-an). mesame subieqturi piris mr. ricxvis -an sufiqsi, rogorc cnobilia, gvxvdeba mx. ricxvis mesame piris -s prefiqsis Sesabamisad, erTi mxriT maSin, roca zmnis fuZeSi Sedis i sufiqsi: Wr-i-s: Wr-i-an, mk-i-s: mk-i-an, izrdeb-i-s: izrdeb-i-an, ic-i-s: ic-i-an, xolo meore mxriT, gardauval ugvaro zmnebSi — dum-s: dum-an, wux-s: wux-an, Zv. qarT. uyuar-s: uyuar-an 1... zanurSi mesame subieqturi piri warmodgenilia mxoloobiTSi -u, -s da -n sufiqsebiT, xolo mravlobiTSi -an || -n, -es sufiqsebiT: mx. r. -u doWar-u `dawera~ Warund-u `werda~ -s Warun-s `wers~ War-a-s- `weros~ -n Ruru-n `kvdeba~ xe-n `zis~ irdu-n `izrdeba~ mr. r. -es doWar-es `daweres~ Warund-es `werdnen~ -an || -n Warun-an `weren~ War-a-n (←*War-a-an) weron~... n-an Ruru-n-an `kvdebian~ xe-n-an `sxedan~ irdu-n-an `izrdebian~

-n sufiqsi mesame piris mravlobiT ricxvSi zanurSi moudis mxolod gardauval zmnebs da es afiqsi gadahyveba mravlobiTis formebSic: Ruru-n: Ruru-n-an 2. qarTulsa da zanurs mesame subieqturi pirisa da ricxvis afiqsebidan erTiani warmoSobisa aqvT mxoloobiTi ricxvisa — qarT. -a: zan. -u (←o), qarT. -n: zan. n; mravlobiTi ricxvisa — qarT. -en: zan. -an. zanurSi mesame subieqturi piris -s sufiqsi, rogorc n. mari 3 varaudobs, qarTulidan Cans SeTvisebuli. Tu marTla, rogorc ivaraudeba, -s sufiqsi geneturad daukavSirdeba -is CvenebiT nacvalsaxels, maSin zanurSi mosalodneli iyo -s sisina spirantis kanonzomieri Sesatyvisi -S SiSina spiranti, ramdenadac is nacvalsaxelis zanuri Sesatyvisia iS, qarT. ase — ((as-re): megr. a-S-i || T-aSi `ase~4.

1 n. mari, Грамматика древнегрузинского литературного языка, gv. 121; a. SaniZe, qarTuli gramatikis safuZvlebi, gv. 180. 2 n. mari, Грамматика чанского (лазского) языка, gv. 45.; arn. Ciqobava, Wanuris gramatikuli analizi, gv. 97. 3 n. mari, dasax. naSr., gv. 45. 4 v. Tofuria, fonetikuri dakvirvebani qarTvelur enebSi, I, mimomxilveli, gv. 203.

165

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

qarTulis -an da -es mravlobiTobis sufiqsebs zanurSi ar moepoveba Sesatyvisi variantebi: -on da -aS. specialur literaturaSi samarTlianad aris navaraudevi, rom -es sufiqsi zanurSi qarTulidan aris SeTvisebulio 1. amgvarad, saerTo warmoSobis mr. ricxvis mesame subieqturi piris afiqsad qarTulsa da zanurSi mxolod erTi afiqsi SeiZleba davasaxeloT — qarT. -en, zan. -an 2. sakvlevi rCeba qarTulis mravlobiTobis -an sufiqsis genezisis sakiTxi. mas zanurSi, rogorc viciT, ar gaaCnia Sesatyvisi varianti, saxeldobr, -on sufiqsi. b. foCxua sakiTxs svams am afiqsis zanuri warmoSobis Sesaxeb 3. aseTi varaudi araa gamoricxuli, magram SesaZlebelia, qarTulis es -an sufiqsi -en sufiqsis fonetikuri varianti iyos, ukeT, -en-isagan iyos miRebuli garkveul fonetikur poziciaSi. amis safuZvels iZleva is faqti, rom qarTulSi -an sufiqsi, rogorc wesi, garkveul fonetikur mezoblobaSi gvxvdeba, saxeldobr, -i sufiqsis momdevno poziciaSi — tir-i-an, Wr-i-an, ic-i-an da sxv. vfiqrobT, rom yvela aseT SemTxvevaSi an-is amosavali saxeoba unda yofiliyo -en. e xmovani SeiZleboda gadasuliyo a-Si i-s momdevno poziciaSi xmovanTa kompleqsis nawilobrivi difTongizaciis safuZvelze. ase, rom tir-i-an ← * tiri-en, Wr-i-an ←* Wr-i-en, ic-i-an (*ic-i-en da sxv... ie kompleqsis erTgvari difTongizacia, e.i. ia-Ti Secvla SesaZlebelia qarTuli enisaTvis yofiliyo erT dros damaxasiaTebeli 4. ie kompleqsis gadasvla ia-Si principSi igivea, rac qarTulisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli ea kompleqsis gadasvla ia-Si: qristiani←qristeani, fSauri miama←meama, giama←geama, iama←eama, mciria←mcirea... 5 vimeorebT, ie-s ia-Si gadasvlaSic unda gvqondes saqme difTongizaciisaken midrekilebasTan. rogorc Cans, aris safuZveli vifiqroT, rom qarTulis -an sufiqsi poziciurad iyos miRebuli -en-isagan, e.i. winamavali zmnuri i afiqsis momdevno poziciaSi yvela saxis zmnebSi i-en → i-an: gardamaval dinamikur zmnebSi — Wr-i-an, mki-an, Zv. qarT. dawer-i-an; gardamaval statikur zmnebSi — ic-i-an, uwy-i-an; gardauval dinamikur zmnebSi — ibadeb-i-an, izrdeb-i-an; gardauval statikur zmnebSi — ar-i-an, tir-i-an, yvir-i-an... magram Cvens varauds TiTqos ar eTanxmeba is faqti, rom qarTulSi -an sufiqsi ixmareba, rogorc cnobilia, iseT zmnebSic, sadac ar Cans -i sufiqsi. aseTia gardauvali statikuri zmnebi — wux-s, wux-an, dum-s, dum-an, uyvar-s, uyvar-an... magram es dabrkoleba SeiZleba moixsnas, ramdenadac,
b. foCxua, mravlobiTobis nariani mawarmoeblebi Zvel qarTulSi, qarTvelur enaTa struqturis sakiTxebi, II, gv. 60. 2 iqve, gv. 61. 3 iqve, gv. 62. 4 qarTulis dasavlur kilokavebSi tir-i-en, Wr-i-en da sxv... samarTlianad miCneulia inovaciad, e.i. aq mesameul movlenasTan unda gvqondes saqme. 5 a. SaniZe, vaJas leqsikoni, vaJa-fSavela, III, 1930; misive, qarTuli gramatikis safuZvlebi, gv., 28; S. ZiZiguri, xmovanTa kompleqsis fonetikur procesTa saerTo safuZveli qarTul kiloebsa da zanurSi, ike, t. I, gv. 26.
1

166

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

rogorc cnobilia, dasaxelebuli rigis zmnebs istoriulad axasiaTebda diuratiulobis -i sufiqsi, romelic masdaris formebSia Semonaxuli: wux-s ← *wux-i-s, Sdr. wux-i-l-i, dum-s ← *dum-i-s, Sdr. dum-i-l-i da sxv...1 amdenadve, dum-an ← *dum-i-an, wux-an (*wux-i-an, uyvar-an ←* uyvar-i-an... maSasadame, am rigis zmnebs -i sufiqsis dakargvis Semdegac mravlobiTobis aRsaniSnavad -an sufiqsi SemorCa. amgvarad, duR-s, wux-s tipis zmnebs rom marTlac axlda istoriulad -i diuratiulobis sufiqsi, amis erT-erT damadasturebel sabuTad (sxva monacemebTan erTad, rogoricaa masdaris forma wux-i-l-i, dum-i-l-i...) gamodgeba TviT mravlobiTis -an sufiqsis xmareba, nacvlad mosalodneli misi amosavali -en variantisa. i-en-is i-an-Si gadasvlis safuZvels iZleva is faqtic, rom bgeraTa Tavyriloba ien ucxoa qarTulisaTvis, maSin, rodesac ian bunebrivia. Tu sworia Cveni varaudi qarTulSi mr. ricxvis mesame subieqturi piris -an sufiqsis poziciurad -en-isagan miRebisa, maSin erTgvarad gaimarTeba mesame subieqturi piris mxoloobiTisa da mravlobiTis afiqsTa Soris mimarTeba, saxeldobr: mx. r. mr. r. a|| o -es wer-a wer-es aiR-o aiR-es -s wer-s werde-s Wr-i-s wux-i-s → wux-s -en (→n) → -an wer-en *werde-en → werde-n *Wr-i-en → Wr-i-an *wux-i-en→ *wux-i-an→ wux-an

-n -ed wer-n wer-ed amis mixedviT, qarTulSi mravlobiTi ricxvis mesame subieqturi piris sami sufiqsi ivaraudeba — -es, -en, -ed, romlebic erTi da imave -e xmovniT iwyeba. sakiTxad rCeba, ra mimarTebaSia am sufiqsebis TanxmovniTi elementebi mesame piris mxoloobiTi ricxvis niSnebTan, romlebsac isini bgerobriv emTxvevian.

1 arn. Ciqobava, saxelis fuZis uZvelesi agebuleba qarTvelur enebSi, gv. 222; misive, ergatiuli konstruqciis problema iberiul-kavkasiur enebSi, I, gv. 105.

167

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

elene nikolaiSvili

mesame subieqturi piris -es sufiqsis -(n)en -iT Secvlis istoriisaTvis
Zvel qarTulSi zmnis III subieqturi piri mravlobiT ricxvSi namyo usrulsa da srulSi -es sufiqsiT aRiniSneboda (igive sufiqsi gvqonda II TurmeobiTSic, sadac inversiis gamo igi obieqts gamoxatavda). Tanamedrove saliteraturo qarTulSi -es daboloeba SerCaT mxolod gardamaval zmnebs namyo srulSi: gaakeT-es, dawer-es, Wam-es, iTamaS-es da a.S. danarCen SemTxvevebSi ki misi adgili -nen sufiqsma daiWira. ase mouvidaT, saxeldobr, namyo srulSi gardauval zmnebs, namyo usrulSi ki yvela zmnas, — gardamavalsac da gardauvalsac (namyo usruls misdevs agreTve xolmeobiTi, romelic mxolod zmniswiniT gansxvavdeba misgan da gvian gamoiyo calke erTeulad). amrigad, dRes gvaqvs: isini iyv-n-en, daemsgavs-n-en, gaTb-n-en, Tbebod-nen, akeTebd-n-en, werd-n-en, Wamd-n-en da a.S. Zvel qarTulSi ki iyo: igini iyvnes, daemsgavsn-es, gantf-es, tfebod-es, werd-es, Wamd-es, da a.S. cvlileba Zvelidan axali qarTulisaken gardamaval safexurze moxda. magram, saxeldobr, rodis daiwyo aRniSnuli procesi da sabolood rodis dasrulda igi, es sakiTxi dRemde Seuswavlelia: `nen daboloebis gavrcelebis detalebi (qronologiuri sakiTxebi da sxv.) gamosarkvevia~1. winamdebare gamokvlevis mizania swored -es sufiqsis (n)en-iT Secvlis qronologiuri sazRvrebis dadgena. cxadia, enobriv cvlilebaTa qronologiis kvleva unda daemyaros pirvel rigSi iseT teqstebs, romlebic dednis saxiT aris Cvenamde moRweuli, an im nusxebs, romlebic teqstis Seqmnis maxlobel xanebSia gadawerili. maTi meSveobiT SesaZlebelia ramdenadme davazustoT dro ama Tu im enobrivi movlenis warmoSobisa da SevamowmoT, ramdenadaa daculi adrindeli enobrivi formebi Semdgom. samwuxarod, Zveli qarTuli mwerlobis klasikuri xanis iseTi umniSvnelovanesi Zeglebi, rogoricaa: `amirandarejaniani~, `visramiani~, `Tamariani~, TviT `vefxistyaosani~ da sxvani, Cvenamde Semonaxulia mxolod gviandeli xelnawerebiT, romlebic ramdenime saukuniTaa daSorebuli maTi Seqmnis epoqas. kritikuli analizis gareSe SeuZlebelia, rom am ZeglebSi warmodgenili yvela forma XII—XIII saukuneTa enobrivi viTarebis amsaxvelad miviCnioT. meore mxriv, Cven SedarebiT mcire raodenobiT mogvepoveba XIII—XVI saukuneebSi

1

a. SaniZe, qarTuli enis gramatikis safuZvlebi I, morfologia, 1973, gv. 458.

168

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

Seqmnil-gadawerili sxva Zeglebic da amitom am saukuneTa enobrivi viTarebis yovelmxriv gaTvaliswineba gaZnelebulia. sakvlevad dasaxuli miznisaTvis Cven SevecadeT, ramdenadac es SesaZlebeli iyo, Segvemowmebina Cvenamde moRweuli adrindeli teqstebi, gamocemuli Tu xelnawerebis saxiT daculi. rogorc teqstebis Seswavlam gviCvena, XV saukunemde gadawerili xelnawerebi CvenTvis saintereso sakiTxSi icaven Zvel normas: mravlobiTi ricxvis III subieqturi piris niSnad rogorc namyo usrulSi, ise namyo srulSi aq ixmareba -es sufiqsi. -en sufiqsi saliteraturo enaSi Tavs iCens mxolod XV saukunidan1. uZvelesi xelnaweri, sadac -en sufiqsi dasturdeba, esaa `qarTlis cxovrebis~ anaseuli nusxa, romelic aRmoaCina akad. i. javaxiSvilma da manve daaTariRa igi 1479-1495 wlebiT. teqsti mTliani saxiT pirvelad gamosca akad. s. yauxCiSvilma2. xelnawerSi juanSeris Txzulebis teqsti `cxovreba da moqalaqoba vaxtang gorgaslisa~ erT adgilas ase ikiTxeba: `da dajda mefed Ze misi daCi saydarsa mamisa Tuisisasa, xolo coli da orni Zeni vaxtangisni wariyvannes samTa erisTavTa, daipyres dasavleTi qarTlisa, romeli misca vaxtang. da dasxdes wondas qalaqsa, da zafxulis da zamTris iyunian oZr£es, da ara ewoda maT mefed, aramed erisTavTa mTavrad, da iyunen morCilebasa Zmisa maTisa daCi mefisasa3. meore aseTive forma gvxvdeba iqve `qarTlis matianeSi~: `da Tu visme genebos gancdad eseviTarTa SewevnaTa RmrTisa mimarT, ixilneT da ganicadneT uricxuni £elis apyrobani RmrTisamierni amas didsa bagrats afxazTa zeda mefesa, romelni aravis zeda mowevnul iyunen sxuisa mefisa~4. dasasrul, laSa giorgis droindeli mematianis TxzulebaSi, romelic anaseul nusxas boloSi erTvis da mxolod am xelnaweriT aris cnobili, ikiTxeba: `dalewnes sparseTisa qalaqni da marandi amoswyuides da eranis
1 ufro adrindeli Zeglebidan -nen sufiqsis xmarebis oriode SemTxveva SeniSnulia `amirandarejanianSi~ (wavidnen, 162,sq.5; iyvnen 355,1 — ix. l. aTaneliSvili, mose xonelis `amirandarejaniani~, gamokvleva erTvis Zeglis gamocemas — 1967, gv. 064—065). magram Txzulebis xelnawerebi XVII saukuneze adrindeli ar mogvepoveba da masSi zemoxsenebulTa msgavsi formebi gadamwerTa kalmis nayofad unda miviCnioT. aseve eWviT unda SevxedoT msgavs formebs klasikuri xanis TxzulebaTa gviandel xelnawerebSi. ra Tqma unda, axali da uCveulo forma, romelic saliteraturo enis tradiciiT ar aris ganmtkicebuli, avtorsac iseve SeiZleba gaeparos, rogorc gadamwers, magram misi avtoriseuloba mxolod maSin iqneba ueWveli, Tu msgavsi formebi avtoris epoqaSi sadme sxva xelnawerebiTacaa dadasturebuli. 2 `qarTlis cxovreba~, ana dedofliseuli nusxa, dasabeWdad moamzada filologiis ganyofilebam simon yauxCiSvilis redaqciiT, Tb., 1942. xelnaweri daculia saq. ssr. mecnierebaTa akademiis k. kekeliZis saxelobis xelnawerTa institutSi, Q fondi 795. 3 xelnaweri Q 795, gv. 229. ix. sim. yauxSivilis redaqciiT gamocemuli `qarTlis cxovreba~, 1942. gv. 140,8. sxva xelnawerebSi ikiTxeba: iyvnes (ix. `qarTlis cxovreba~ I, teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier, Tb., 1955, gv. 205,3). 4 xelnaweri Q 795, gv.306. ix. sim. yauxCiSvilis redaqciiT gamocemuli `qarTlis cxovreba~, 1942, gv.181,23. sxva xelnawerebSi mowevnul iyvnes (ix. `qarTlis cxovreba~ I, s. yauxCiSvilis redaqciiT, 1955, gv. 290,5).

169

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

queyana. esodenad siSoresa Sina mividen, romel arca Tu saxeli qarTvelobisa ismoda~1. konteqstidan aSkarad Cans, rom iyunen, mowevnul iyunen, mividen formebi namyo srulisaa da aq -en sufiqsi udavod III subieqturi piris niSania mravlobiT ricxvSi. sxva xelnawerebSi, Tumca isini ufro gviandelia, daculia Zveli, -es sufiqsiani formebi. rogorc Cans, anaseuli nusxis gadamwers am vrcel xelnawerSi ramdenime adgilas gaparvia imdroindeli saliteraturo enisaTvis uCveulo, magram cocxal metyvelebaSi ukve fexmokidebuli -en sufiqsiani formebi; Tumca es formebi im dros cocxal metyvelebaSic jer kidev ar unda yofiliyo savsebiT gabatonebuli, Torem -en sufiqsian formaTa raodenoba aseT vrcel saero, istoriuli xasiaTis teqstSi gacilebiT meti iqneboda, gansxvavebiT saeklesiosagan, sadac dabejiTebiT cdilobdnen Zveli formebis SenarCunebas. erTi aseTive forma moipoveba `Sah-names~ qarTuli Targmanis prozaul versiaSi, romelic fragmentis saxiT aris moRweuli (leningradis sajaro wignTsacavis xelnaweri 50). rogorc gamomcemelni aRniSnaven, `igi gadmoTargmnilia, yvela niSnebiT, ara ugvianes meTxuTmete saukunisa~2. am xelnawerSi vkiTxulobT: `igi pirmzeni gulisa wamRebni Sahrinaz da arnavaz axlos gverdiTa fardagTa Sigan TeTriTa piriTa da guariTa frqveulsa zedan wiTliTa iagundiTa Sekazmulsa taxtsa zedan mokazmulsa sxden da maTsa bedsa swyevlides, da zaaqs mesisxled xedvides, misis SiSiTa bagesa ver SesZrevdes~ (gv.377,3-7). sxden agreTve namyo srulis formaa. mis gverdiT imave frazaSi -es sufiqsiani ramdenime zmna gvaqvs namyo usrulis formiT. -en sufiqsiani forma `sarCliden~ Segvxvda erT-erT istoriul dokumentSi — `sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaSi elia uriayofilisa da kostantiles Soris sasisxlo davaze~, romelic miCneulia XV saukunis (1446-1465 ww.) dokumentad. sabuTSia: `sxvas partaxtebs da adgilebs sarCliden erTmaneTsa da misi asre iqmnas, rac batonsa ramazisaTvis mieces da daeTvalos, imas maWavariani eliai nuras ecilebis...~ da a.S. iqvea: `sxvas namekobravsa sarClides erTmanerTsa da misi asre iqmnas...~ imave sabuTSia: `...sxvas mosamarTlebisa dakodilobasa Civoden iqiTac da aqeTac...~3. XV saukunis xelnawerebSi -en sufiqsiani formebi jerjerobiT meti ver gamovavlineT. es albaT aixsneba saerTod imiT, rom am xelnawerTa umetesoba an sasuliero xasiaTis, SinaarsiTac da formiTac dogmaturi nawerebia, an samarTlis Zeglebia, romelnic, maTi specifikis gamo warsuli drois
1 xelnaweri Q 795, gv. 419. ix s. yauxCiSvilis redaqciiT gamocemuli `qarTlis cxovreba~ Tb., 1942, gv. 242,6. 2 abul-yasim firdousi, Sah-name, qarTuli versiebi, t. II, iust. abulaZis, al. baramiZis, p. ingoroyvas, k. kekeliZis da a. SaniZis redaqciiT, komentarebiT da leqsikoniT, Tb., 1934, winasityvaoba, gv.111. 3 ix. xelnawerTa institutSi daculi istoriuli dokumentebis katalogi Hd fondi, 1797, 33,1. Seadgines T. enuqiZem, r. patariZem, n. SoSiaSvilma da m. jandierma, T. enuqiZisa da n. SoSiaSvilis redaqciiT, Tb., 1964.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

formebs saerTod mcire raodenobiT Seicaven. namyo usrulisa da srulis formebi, sadac subieqtad III piria mravlobiT ricxvSi, am ZeglebSi friad iSviaTia da, sadac ki Segvxvda, yvelgan piris niSnad -es sufiqsi gvaqvs. CvenTvis saintereso formebi sruliad ar gvxvdeba (arc -es da arc -en sufiqsiani) vahanis qvabTa monastris kedlebze warweril leqsebSi, romlebic S. onianma gamoaqveyna1; ar gvxvdeba es formebi arc `mcire qronikebSi (kinklosebis istoriul minawerebSi)~2, arc `usworo karabadinSi~3, arc zaza fanaskertelis `karabadinSi~4, arc `saaqimo wignSi~5 da sxv. amrigad, XV saukunis xelnawerebSi jerjerobiT vipoveT sul remdenime -en sufiqsiani forma: iyunen, mowevnul iyunen, mividen, sxden, sarCliden, Civoden. advili SesaZlebelia, rom Semdgomi kvleva-ZiebiT -en sufiqsiani formebi XV saukunis ZeglebSi kidev gamovlindes. rogorc vTqviT, qarTuli enis Zeglebi XVI saukunidanac mcire raodenobiT mogvepoveba. maT did nawils isev da isev iuridiuli dokumentebi warmoadgens, sadac warsuli drois zmnuri formebi Zalze mcire raodenobiT gvxvdeba. saxeldobr, XVI saukunis dokumentebSi, romlebic Setanilia `qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebis~ sam tomSi, Segvxvda namyo usrulis (aseve xolmeobiTis), namyo srulisa da II TurmeobiTis sul 50-ode forma, sadac subieqtad warmodgenilia mr. ricxvis III piri6. am formaTa daaxloebiT oTx mexuTedSi daculia Zveli norma, e.i. subieqturi piris niSnad naxmaria -es sufiqsi: gardmovidodes (II,188,34), mogvi£debodes (III,353,35), dahyolodes (IV,35,34), irCodes (IV,12,14; 13,17-27; 14,3: 35,28; 42,13; 43,26; 46,5; 51,10), icilebodes (IV,43,30), gviCuenebdes (IV,43,34), movides (II,205,16; 111,354,11), gueajnes (II, 205,19), iyunes (II, 205,24; IV,35,30-31-33; 44,3-4), iqmnnes (III,258,37;353,5), geerigebinnes, geesazRurnes, Seewirnes (II, 198,16), Seewirnes (III, 266, 25), daemtkicnes (III, 266, 26) da sxv. sapirispiro suraTia sul aTiode magaliTSi, sadac -en sufiqsi gvaqvs: miscemden (II, 152,15), moqmedebden (II, 152,24), ganxsniden (II, 155,12), sarCliden (IV, 47,36), SeisarClen (IV, 41,25), iyvnen (III, 250,10), iyunen, yofiliyunen (II, 231,3)...
S. oniani, vahanis qvabebis poezia, Jurn. `droSa~, 1957, 6. mcire qronikebi (kinklosebis istoriuli minawerebi), teqstebi gamosca, Sesavali werili da komentarebi daurTo jumber odiSelma, Tb., 1968. 3 xelnaweri daculia saqarTvelos ssr mecn. akademiis xelnawerTa institutSi, Q-26. igi XIV-XV saukunisadaa miCneuli. 4 xelnaweri daculia xelnawerTa institutSi, Q-877, gamosca m. saakaSvilma, 1950 wels. winasityvaoba ekuTvnis k. grigolias, romelic paleografiuli niSnebis mixedviT XV saukunis II naxevriT aTariRebs am xelnawers. 5 xelnaweri daculia xelnawerTa institutSi, S-1274, igi dawvrilebiT aRwerili aqvs e. TayaiSvils da miaCnia XV-XVI saukunisad; gadmoTargmnilia ufro adre, XIII saukuneSio (Описание рукописей, 1, gv. 640-686). teqsti gamoc. aqvs l. kotetiSvils: `wigni saaqimo¡,~ 1936. 6 Cven vimowmebT dokumentebs, romlebic gamosca prof. i. doliZem: qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi, teqstebi gamosca, SeniSvnebi da saZieblebi daurTo prof. i. doliZem, t. II, Tb., 1965; t. III, 1970; t. IV, 1972 (I, V da VI tomebSi XVI saukunis samarTlis Zeglebi ar Sedis). amJamad gadacemulia dasabeWdad xelnawerTa institutSi daculi dokumentebi, T. enuqiZisa da n. SoSiaSvilis redaqciiT. CvenTvis cnobilia, rom zogi dokumenti aq gansxvavebuladaa daTariRebuli, aris teqstologiuri gansxvavebanic.
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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

XVI saukunis mxolod ori sabuTia warmodgenili `dokumentebSi Tbilisis istoriisaTvis~1. amaTgan erTSi CvenTvis saintereso formebi sruliad ar gvxvdeba, meore ki (siTarxnis wigni, micemuli luarsab mefisagan tfilelis ymebisadmi 1540 w.) Seicavs namyo srulisa da II TurmeobiTis TiTo formas, sadac III sub. piri mr. ricxvSi dgas. amaTgan namyo srulis forma -nen sufiqsiania: iyunen (gv. 8), II TurmeobiTisa ki -es sufiqsiani: gangueTavisuflnes (iqve). -en-iani formaa fiqsirebuli `qarTlis cxovrebis~ XVI saukunis xelnawerSi, WalaSviliseul nusxaSi: `[haoss] ewien didni igi gmirni da daumtkices ganzraxva igi da gan[u]dges nebroTs da arRara misces xarki~2. -es da -en (nen) sufiqsian formaTa sixSiriTa da urTierTmonacvleobiT gansakuTrebul yuradRebas iqcevs `ioseb-zilixanianis~ Zveli versia, galeqsili ucnobi avtoris mier. igi Semonaxulia erTaderTi dazianebuli xelnaweriT, romelic agreTve XVI saukunes miekuTvneba. igi daculia xelnawerTa institutSi S-1283 nomriT. `ioseb-zilixanianis~ teqsti am xelnaweris mixedviT gamocemuli aqvs g. jakobias3. muSaobis procesSi Cven viyenebdiT xelnawers. poemis teqsti naklulia, amJamad Seicavs 736 strofs. dawerilia rusTaveluri SairiT, mdabio xalxuri eniT, romelic xSirad angariSs ar uwevs saliteraturo enis tradiciebs. amis damadasturebelia iseTi formebi, rogoricaa: gawydes Suvazeda, gverc mxlebeli, Semwrwunebeli, yvevli da sxva mravali. poemis teqstSi sakmaod xSiria rogorc namyo usrulis (da xolmeobiTis), ise namyo srulis formebi, sadac subieqtad warmodgenilia III piri mravlobiT ricxvSi. ramdenime strofSi sariTmo erTeulebadac swored aseTi formebia gamoyenebuli (aseTebia, saxeldobr, 7r, 18v, 22v,30r, 34v, 57r, 65,v, 67r, 110r, 115r gverdebze warmodgenili strofebi). subieqturi piris niSnad am formebSi xan -es sufiqsia warmodgenili, xan ki -en, dasturdeba -nen sufiqsic (SedarebiT iSviaTad). orivegvari, — rogorc Zveli, ise axali, — formebi gvxvdeba erTmaneTis paralelurad, zogjer erTsa da imave striqonSic ki; magaliTad: `dilas Sesxden dakazmulni, qalaqisken wacavides~ (22v;), `Sevides, dasxden nadimad, darbaiselni Seyares~ (23 r); `gaemarTnes saxsarosa da arCevden saqmesa Znelsa~ (29,v); `mas gareSemo exvivnes, aZlevden fass uTvalavsa~ (39,r) da sxv. xan -es da xan -en sufiqsiT gvxvdeba erTi da igive zmna; magaliTad: `moiyvanes da datvirTes, wina-ukan Sesxdes virsa~ (92,r), magram iqve gvaqvs: `virsa Sesxden, gaemarTnen~ (96,r). asevea: `laSqarni modges salamad~ (17v); `movides srulni pirutyvni, lomi, vefxvi da mgelia~ (32v), magram: `ra moviden, karze modgen~ (36v), `CemTvis sadiT sad moviden, indoni da abaS-romi~ (50v) da sxv.
1 dokumentebi Tbilisis istoriisaTvis (XVI-XIX ss.). wigni I, Seadgines niko berZeniSvilma da mamisa berZniSvilma, Tb., 1962. 2 daculia xelnawerTa institutSi, Q-207, gv. 19; ix.: `qarTlis cxovreba~ gamocemuli s. yauxCiSvilis redaqtorobiT, 1942, gv. 3,14. 3 g. jakobia, ioseb-zilixanianis qarTuli versiebi, kritikuli teqsti leqsikonisa da saZieblebis darTviT, tf, 1927.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

aRsaniSnavia, rom saerTod poemaSi vid zmna sxvadasxva zmniswiniT namyo srulis III subieqturi piris mravlobiT ricxvSi 36-jer dasturdeba. aqedan 22 SemTxvevaSi is warmodgenilia -es sufiqsiT, 14 SemTxvevaSi ki -en sufiqsiT. Cven SevecadeT, aRgvenusxa CvenTvis amJamad saintereso formebi am poemaSi. Tu romelime forma SemTxveviT gamogvrCa, vfiqrobT, saerTo suraTs es mainc ver Secvlis. saerTo suraTi ki aseTia: -es sufiqsi dasturdeba 87 SemTxvevaSi (gardamaval zmnaTa namyo srulis formebis CauTvlelad), -en sufiqsi —108, -nen ki 14 SemTxvevaSi. dro-kiloTa mixedviT maTi ganawileba aseT suraTs iZleva: namyo usrulSi -es sufiqsi gvxvdeba 13-jer, -en —72-jer, -nen — sruliad ara. namyo srulSi -es gvxvdeba 71-jer, -en — 35-jer, -nen —13-jer. II TurmeobiTSi 3 formaSi gvaqvs -es sufiqsi, TiTojer — -en da -nen. yovelive aqedan Cans, rom poemis enaSi -es da -en sufiqsebi Tavisuflad enacvlebian erTmaneTs, Tumca sxvadasxva mwkrivSi maT Soris Sefardeba sxvadasxvagvaria: -en ukve gabatonebulia namyo usrulSi, maSin roca namyo srulSi jer kidev myaria -es sufiqsi, romelic xmarebis sixSiriT orjer sWarbobs -en-s. rac Seexeba -nen sufiqss, is gvxvdeba mxolod namyo srulSi da isic umetesad prefiqsian vnebiTebSi, sadac Zvelad -nes daboloeba gvqonda: iyvnen (36v, 57r, 78v, 80v,101v); meSveli zmnis egeve formaa gamoyenebuli II TurmeobiTSic: Seyriliyvnen (85r); daifantnen (57r), Seicvalnen (78v), gaemarTnen (95r), miegebnen (99v), moeWidnen (96v), moekidnen (101r), Seexvewnen (79r), wavidnen (57r). rogorc vTqviT, Targmani mdabio xalxuri eniT aris Sesrulebuli da saliteraturo enis tradiciebs nakleb angariSs uwevs. swored amiT aixsneba aq -en sufiqsiani formebis simravle. am xelnawerTan dakavSirebiT aRsaniSnavia erTi datalic. S-1283 xelnawers axlavs 12 brwyinvaled Sesrulebuli miniatura. gamokvleulia, rom miniaturebi sxva xelnaweridan aris gadmotanili da Cakruli am xelnawerSi. miniaturebma, romelTa Sida mxareze nawerebi SeniSnes, miipyro ara marto xelovnebaTmcodneebis yuradReba. saqarTvelos xelnawerTa institutis sarestavracio laboratoriaSi axsnes qaRaldze dakruli miniaturebi da gamovlinda miniaturebis Sida mxaris teqstebi. es teqstebi qarTuli `iosebzilixanianis~ sparsuli wyaroebis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT Seiswavla al. gvaxariam da gaarkvia, rom isini anonimuri versiis axali nusxis fragmentebs warmoadgenen1. anonimur versias al. gvaxaria XVI saukuniT aTariRebs, miniaturebian fragmentebs ki ufro adrindelad miiCnevs2. Cven gavsinjeT miniaturebis Sida mxareze nawerebi CvenTvis saintereso sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT. dazianebul, zogjer nakuw-nakuw Cawebebul furclebSi, romlebzedac zogan mTliani strofebia da zogan — maTi nawilebi, aRmoCnda Cveni saZebni formebic: `moTamaSe damkvrelebi mas wina mousxdeboa. gvaxaria, `ioseb-zilixanianis~ qarTuli versiebis sparsuli wyaroebi, I, anonimuri versia, Tb., 1958, gv.104-113. 2 iqve, gv. 143-144.
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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

den~ (min. 97r,4), miniaturis teqstSi es sityva waSlilia, magram -den daboloeba naTlad Cans. asevea es sityva S-1283 xelnawerSi (67r,1). iqvea: `dgeboden~ (97r,5). igi ar ikiTxeba miniaturis dazianebul furcelze, magram `mousxdeboden~ sityvasTan riTmaSi mosalodnelia -den. S-1283 xelnawerSi Sesabamis adgilzec `dgeboden~ formaa (67r,2). `moymesa uRimRimebden da... `es forma kargad ikiTxeba (min. 97r, 6; S-1283,67r,3). `qveS-qveS ecineboden~ (min. 97r,6; S1283,67r,3). ar Cans, magram riTmis gamo -den daboloeba unda iyos da xelnawerSic asea; asevea `eniSneboden~ formac (iqve, 97r,7; S-1283, 67r,4). gvxvdeba iseTi formebic, romlebic miniaturebian formebSi, gansxvavebiT S-1283 xelnawerisagan, Zveleburadaa naxmari. magaliTad: `[dila]s Sesxdes dakazmulni~ (min. 24r,4) – Sesxden (S-1283,22v,10); `...gamou£des, isari hkres erTsa Txasa~ (min. 31r, 2) — gamou£den (S-1283, 32r,11); `... ukubrundes da wavides~ (min. 31r, 1) — waviden ukubrunden (S-1283, 32r,10). yovelive zemoTqmulTan dakavSirebiT gvinda SevniSnoT, rom Tu anonimur versias mkvlevari XVI saukunis Sua wlebiT aTariRebs, fragmentebi (miniaturebiani nusxa) XV-XVI saukuneTa mijnaze unda vivaraudoT, radgan, amave mkvlevris azriT, am nusxas `xmarebis xangrZlivi gza unda gaevlo, rom mwyobridan ase gamosuliyo~, da misi xelic `ufro adrindelia, ufro msxvili da kuTxovani, ufro arqaulia enobrivi monacemebi~. sayuradReboa, rom `ioseb-zilixanianis~ Teimuraziseul TargmanSi, romelic erTi saukuniT gviandelia ucnobi poetis versiasTan SedarebiT, -en (nen) sufiqsi gacilebiT iSviaTad gvxvdeba. saxeldobr, namyo usrulSi gvaqvs -en sufiqsiani Semdegi formebi: `yovls kacsa unda sasyidlad, SuRlobden bevraTasebi~ (22v,3); `gulsa etyoden yovelni, radgan daebiT, srul ebiT~ (51 r,1); `naxvis fasad daufenden feindazad maTsav sulsa~ (28r, 5); `aiSala nadimoba, vera sWamden, verca smides~ (32v,2); `qals uZaxden baziyasa, mas saxelad igi sZesa~ (32r,3); `mas uWvretden gakvirvebiT~(16v,3); `srul icnobden mas mnaTobsa, mijnuroba sWirda senad~ (31v,5); sTxriden (53r,3); icoden (28v,5); gmirobden (14v,2); Zvirobden, upirobden, monadirobden (14v,2); arCevden (13r,5); rboden (11v,5), gZraxviden (31r,2)1. sul ramdenime SemTxvevaa -en sufiqsis xmarebisa namyo srulSi: `brZana, daxvden srul qalaqni. yvelam ZRveni miitana~ (33r,3); `gahkvirden, zedan Semokrfen moqalaqeni krebuli~ (21r,2)2. `vazirni dasxden, arCevdes, hqondes

magaliTebi damowmebulia `ioseb-zilixanianis~ Teimuraziseuli Targmanis yvelaze adrindeli variantidan, S-403 (xelnawerTa instituti). ix. g. jakobia, dasax. wigni, gv. 06-011. am ukanasknel magaliTSi S-1511 da S-2694 xelnawerebi iZleva Zvel formas: g Z r a x v i d e s. 2 iqve gvxvdeba meore `gahkvirden~, romelsac variantuli wakiTxvebi moepoveba sxva xelnawerebSi: `ganhkvirdnen~ (S-3189), gahkvirdes (H-59, S-3693) gankvirdes (S-1546), ganhkvirdes (S-1511), gakvirdes (S-2694).

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

janyi da yriloba~ (50v,1); `daxalvaTden, darCeulni sxvani karSi gamoyares~ (31v,3); davalden (13v,3)1. -en sufiqsze ufro xSirad namyo srulSi gvxvdeba -nen sufiqsis xmarebis SemTxvevebi: `wadgnen da hkadres, mefeo, vikadrebT miwa-mtverebi~ (51r,2); `mividnen da Tayvani sces, dablad modrknen miwis pirsa~ (50v,2); `ymas Seadgnen sailaTod, unda, Tumca gaaretes~ (40r,1); `yovlgniT Semokrbnen mijnurni~ (13v,4); `gverdT iaxla igi mas Ramesa, tkbilad iyvnen viT da debiT~ (34v,1); `visis dedaman hamians iyvnen jimSedis gvarebi~ (12r,3). `iyvnen~ forma gvxvdeba saTaurSi: `ambavi misr-egviptisa, mecnierni iyvnen da mekerpoba moigones~ (28v,17 strq.), iqmnen (37v,1), wamovidnen (52v,5), waadgnen (15r,2), idgnen (43v,2; 20v,3)2. II TurmeobiTSia: `TviT qmnil iyvnen saaqimo, misTvis raRa Saegona~ (32v, 4); `ra kargs Wkvaze damdgariyvnen, Tavs vaglaxi daeyara~ (28r,3)3. amrigad, `ioseb-zilixanianis~ Teimuraziseuli Targmanis am variantSi (xelnaweri S-403) -en sufiqsis xmarebasTan dakavSirebiT Semdegi viTarebaa: -en gvxvdeba namyo usrulSi 16-jer, namyo srulSi — 6-jer, -nen sufiqsi 13jer (yvela namyo srulSi, vnebiTi gvaris zmnebSi). rogorc variantebidan Cans, Teimurazis kalams yvela es formac ar ekuTvnis da zogi maTgani uTuod gadamwerTa mier aris Setanili. -en sufiqsian formaTa sapirispirod gvaqvs asamde magaliTi, sadac III subieqturi piris (mr. r.) aRniSvnis mxriv Zveli normaa daculi da -es sufiqsia warmodgenili (magaliTebi namyo usrulsa da sruls Soris daaxloebiT Tanabrad nawildeba). maSasadame, Teimurazi met angariSs uwevs saliteraturo enis tradiciebs da cdilobs daicvas Zveli norma, Tumca yovelTvis ver axerxebs amas, radgan (n)en sufiqsiani formebi am droisaTvis cocxal metyvelebaSi ukve farTod unda yofiliyo gavrcelebuli. ra Tqma unda, (-n)en sufiqsis SeWra saliteraturo enaSi da Zveli -es sufiqsis gamoyenebis TandaTanobiT SezRudva cocxali metyvelebis gavlenis Sedegia, magram saqme ise ar unda warmovidginoT, TiTqos cocxal sasaubro metyvelebaSi XVI an Tundac XVII saukuneSi -n(en) sufiqsi ukve sabolood iyo gabatonebuli. rogorc Cans, karga xnis ganmavlobaSi xalxis metyvelebaSic paralelurad ixmareboda orive sufiqsi da swored amitom maTi Widili saliteraturo enaSic sakmaod didxans gagrZelda.
es forma mxolod S-403 xelnawerSia, S-3693 da S-1511-Si aris `davardes~, sxvebSi — `dadeldes~. 2 meore SemTxvevaSi (20v,3) sxva xelnawerebSi zmna mxolobiTi ricxvis formiTaa warmodgenili. 3 xelnawerebSi es striqoni sxvadasxvagvaradaa mocemuli, oRond `iyvnen~ zmna yvelgan am formiT gvxvdeba am strofis Sesabamis adgilas, garda S-1511 da S-2694 xelnawerebisa, iqaa: iyvnes.
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saintereso Cans Cvens sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT italieli misioneris patri bernardes arqivSi mikvleuli qarTuli zRaprebi (XVII saukunis 70-iani wlebi)1. am zRaprebSi CvenTvis saintereso formebSi Warbobs -es sufiqsi, magram -en (nen) sufiqsic sakmaod xSiria. maT Soris Sefardeba daaxloebiT aseTia: 3:1. aRniSnuli zRaprebis teqstSi -es da -en (nen) sufiqsiani formebi paralelurad gvxvdeba zogjer erT frazaSi da erTsa da imave zmnaSi; magaliTad: `wavides da erTis mTis ZirSi dadges... iares im kacebma da sadac is vaWari iyo, iq mividen... waviden da mTis ZirSi dadgen~ (10v-11r); `wamoviden baRdadisaken, movides Sua gzazeda. dadges~ (28v 1-2). `mozdevdes mravali m£arda£dili da TmadaSlili. mozdevden, tiroden da Tavs icemodes, zars ityodes~ (37r, 15-16); `moegebnen, rac qalaqis ufrosi kaci iyunes~ (67r,7). zRaprebSi Zalian xSirad gvxvdeba vid zmna (sxvadasxva zmniswiniT), romelic namyo srulis III sub. pirSi (mr.r.) metwilad -es sufiqsiania: `movides da £elmwifoba miuloces~ (13v,9); `sadac is vaWari idga, iq movides~ (11r,9); `wavides da yoveli queyana moiares da vera Seityues ra~ (10v,10); `wamovides erTs qalaqSi~ (13v,15); Sevides (4v,2), Semovides (73v,10), Cavides (21v,2), Camovides (39r,1), gamovides (19r,10), gardavideso (62r,4)... magram iqve gvxvdeba agreTve -en da -nen sufiqsiani formebic: `sadac is vaWari iyo, iq mividen~ (10v,14); `Seiyarnen da wamoviden... wamoviden da moviden erTs sa£elmwifoSia~ (58r,2); `waviden (40v,16), `...waviden qajni, daifantnen yovlis queyanasa~ (7v,1); wamovidnen (iqve); `mividnen £elmwifesTana~ (8v,12). -es da -en sufiqsebi Tavisuflad monacvleoben deg da sxed Zirisagan nawarmoeb formebSic: `adges da uTxres~ (38r,6); `im Ramesa iq dadges~ (30r,2); `gamoiRviZes, daiaraRdes da waudges, zogni bargs moudges~ (62r,1-2); `midgen mravali jari TofiTa da isriTa~ (49r,6); `meore dRes mcvelnic ukumodgen~ (58r,4)... `dasxdes lxinad~ (23v,10); `Sesxdes £elmwife da misi Svili cxensa~ (35v, 11); isxdes (62v,5)... `ormoci muaxle devebis m£ars Seusxden~ (35v,1); dasxden (58r,6)...

zRaprebis Sesaxeb pirveli cnobebi ekuTvnis cnobil avstriel qarTvelologs hugo Suxardts: (H. Schuchardt, Georgische Handschriften in Toronto del Greco, Beilage zur Allgemeinen Zeitung, Ausburg-München, 1896. am zRaprebis xelnaweri inaxeba neapolis centralur nacionalur biblioTekaSi. misi mikrofiri da fotopirebi daculia saqarTvelos mecn. akademiis centralur biblioTekaSi. muSaobis dros Cven gamoviyeneT dednis fotopiri: `n~—1. zRaprebi gamocemuli aqvT e. virsalaZes: masalebi qarTuli folkloris istoriisaTvis, `lit. Ziebani~, t. IV, Tb., 1948 da mix. Ciqovans: XVII saukuneSi Cawerili qarTuli zRaprebi, `mravalTavi~, saqarTvelos istoriis, arqeologiis, eTnografiisa da folkloris samecniero sazogadoebis krebuli, I, Tb., 1964. samecniero literaturaSi l. kotaSvili gamoiTqva mosazreba, rom es zRaprebi naTargmnia da ara qarTuli folkloris nimuSebi (, bernardoseuli koleqciis (XVIIs.) zRaprebi, `macne~, enisa da literaturis seria, 2, 1975. CvenTvis mniSvneloba aqvs imas, rom zRaprebi aramwignobruli, Tavisufali eniTaa dawerili da cocxali metyvelebis Zlieri gavlena emCneva rogorc leqsikis, ise gramatikuli formebis mxriv. damaxasiaTebelia fonetikuri dawerilobis principi (gverc=gverds, erTaT, kargaT da misT.).

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meSveli zmna umravles SemTxvevaSi warmodgenilia iyunes formiT: `sanamdis Seityobdes rasme, am simwuxaresa da vaebaSi iyunes~ (47v,15); `iyunes lxinsa da simxiaruleSia~ (57r,6); `lxinobdes da erTaT iyunes~ (64r,2); `mo£eleni ufros-ufrosi dedakacni iyunes~ (43v,3) da sxv. Tumca gvxvdeba agreTve iyunen: `arami da vinca vin iyunen, win waviden~ (33v,6); `srul Seyrili darbaiselni iq iyunen~ (72r, 8).... -es da -en sufiqsebs Soris raime diferenciacia arc sxva zmnebSi SeiniSneba, — namyo usrulSica da srulSic erTi da imave tipis zmnaTagan zogi erT sufiqss dairTavs, zogi — meores. saxeldobr, namyo usrulSi gvaqvs: aZlevdes (55v,2), exveodes (55v,11), akocebdes (55v,12), iarebodes, ikiTxevdes (39v,1-2), gamodivodes (70r,6); meore mxriv: icileboden (6v,2), asargeblebden (62v,14), naRlobden (57v,2), movidoden, miTxovden (67r,1), iyriden (70r,9). namyo usrulSi -es da -en sufiqsebi zRaprebis teqstSi daaxloebiT Tanabari raodenobiT gvxvdeba. namyo srulSi ki -en iSviaTia, gacilebiT xSiria -es sufiqsiani formebi: miaxlovdes (34v,2), Camo£des (33r,1), daRondes (38v,8), ganmxiaruldes (29r, 6), gahkvirdes (28r,8), Cavardes (39v,7), Seiqnes (50v,10), moiqces (58r,10), aiyarnes (33v,4), daikargnes (23r,3), moegebnes (33v,15), Semoexvivnes (61v,8), daemzadnes (44r,3), gamoesalmnes (30r, 10), Seexvewnes (38v,13), dawunes (13v,2), uwunes (32v,4), dagvesxnes (10v,15) da sxv. SeadareT -en sufiqsiani formebi: Serigden (8v,10), gaerTden (63v,2), gahkuirden (43v,6) da sxv. II TurmeobiTis saTanado magaliTebi zRaprebSi iSviaTad gvxvdeba, xolo rac ki gvaqvs, yvelgan -es sufiqsia warmodgenili: daeyarnes (43r), miaxloebodes (61v), amowyuetiliyunes (45r), mosuliyunes (56v). saerTod, rogorc aRiniSna, -es sufiqsiani formebi samjer sWarbobs -en(nen) sufiqsian formebs, magram ganxiluli masalis mixedviT isic aSkaraa, rom es formebi Tavisuflad enacvlebian erTmaneTs da ixmarebian erTmaneTis paralelurad, rac uTuod imdroindeli cocxali metyvelebis anareklia. cocxali metyvelebis suraTis gasaTvaliswineblad friad mniSvnelovania vrceli qarTuli eposi `rusudaniani~, romelic mkvlevarTa nawils XVII saukuneSi Seqmnilad miaCnia, zogi ki mas ufro adrindel Zeglad miiCnevs1. asea Tu ise, `rusudanianis~ uZvelesi nusxebi XVII saukunisaa da enac am epoqis amsaxvelia. nusxaTagan erTi (BB nusxa – S-3698) dasavleT saqarTveloSia gadawerili da, rogorc aRniSnaven, savsea `guruli dialeqtizmebiT. sxva xelnawerebSi (A, C da sxv) es dialeqtizmebi aseTi didi raodenobiT aRar gvxvdeba, magram mainc sakmaod moipoveba. es nusxebi erTmaneTisagan momdinare ar Cans, maT safuZvlad sxva nusxa Tu nusxebi dasdebiaT. es ki imaze migviTiTebs,

1 `rusudaniani~, ilia abulaZisa da ivane gigineiSvilis redaqciiT, Tb., 1957. erTvis iv. gigineiSvilis gamokvleva: `rusudaniani~, ix. gv. X-XII.

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rom maT wyaroSic es dialeqtizmebi aseve unda yofiliyo warmodgenili da xelnaweris gadamnusxavis Senatani ar unda iyos~1. Cven ganvixileT `rusudanianis~ -es da -en(nen) sufiqsiani zmnebi (yvela formis aRnusxva da detaluri analizi aRarc ki gaxda saWiro, imdenad naTelia teqstSi warmodgenili suraTi). gairkva, rom am vrceli Txzulebis sxvadasxva monakveTi (kari) da sxvadasxva xelnaweri am zmnaTa xmarebis mxriv ramdenadme gansxvavebul suraTs iZleva. magram, rac mTavaria, yvela karSi da yvela xelnawerSi paralelurad gvxvdeba rogorc -es, ise -en sufiqsi (gzadagza dasturdeba agreTve -nen). isini ganurCevlad ixmareba erTmaneTis gverdiT, xSirad erT frazaSi da erTsa da imave zmnaSi. saxeldobr, Txzulebis enisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia aseTi adgilebi: `ra naxes, gahkvirdnen missa Svebasa da tanisa nakveTianobasa, romeli didad safalavnod Seqmnili iyo. ezaraT misi iseTi agebuloba da gulsa Sina sikudilsa gahpirdes da sinjevden mklavisa misisa Zalsa da beWisa misisa farToebasa~ (4,14-18). `meoTxesa dResa aiyarnes... da mivides indoeTisa qalaqTa, turfad mokazmulTa. gamoegebnes moqalaqeni... Tavsa ayriden gvarsa da RmerTsa madlobden missa xilvasa. mividen darbazsa~ (80,35-81,2). `wavidnen sanadirosa. mivides kargsa sanadirosa da inadires~ (332,8-9). `tiroden da evedrebodes RmerTsa yaisis gamarjvebisaTvis~ (334,38). `kacni yvela miTve rigiTa iyvnen, gana sxvarigad uturfesad Semkulni iyvnen da saxl-karnica uamesni da umSvenieresni iyvnes~ (141,1-3). `adgen ornive da, masve qvabSi iyo misi kari, gaaRes da Sevides~ (60,1112). `miexvivnes srulad Cinelni didebulni... xelsa da fexsa kocniden da RmerTsa evedreboden misis naxvisaTvis da sixarulisa cremlsa afrqvevden~ (102, 12,15). `ukrevdes amosa xmasa da ityoden leqssa~ (329,29). `mravalsa gvemociqulnen da mravalferad ecadnen, rom badeSi SevegdeniT, magram TviT maTve didebulTa ara qnes. bevrs SfoTevdes igi grZneulni, magram raRas gaawyobdes!~ (557,18-21). `tiroden mwared da godebdes mSoblisa gayrisaTvis~ (599,4). `moexvivnen erTmaneTsa... didsa xansa yelgadaWdobiT idges. merme mobrundes da ... nadimad dasxdes~ (83,16,18). `pirvel rom Seibnen, dRe mesamedi ar iyo. misni laSqarni gakvirvebulni uWvretdes da amas ityodes~ (293, 29-31). `wagviZRves da erTi kvira ase viareT. mivediT faxfur mefis srasa. didebulni da xelmwifis moxeleni moguegebnes... wagviZRven da ... iq Camogvaxdines~ (441, 35-38). `aiyarnen da wamovidnen SinaT da wamoitanes Tana CrdiloeTisa xelmwife borkiliTa dabeWdili... da TviT wamovides gamarjvebulni... iares mravali dReni da movides samefosa Tvissa. moegebnes moqalaqeni da ayrides yaiss Tvalsa da margalitsa da ufendes mis cxensa stavrasa da naxlsa... gardaxdes cxenisagan da Sevides palatsa samefosa... da Sevidnen mefeni sadedoflosa da moegebnes dedofalni wina~ (373,22-38) da sxva mravali.

1 `rusudaniani~, ilia abulaZisa da ivane gigineiSvilis redaqciiT, Tb., 1957. erTvis iv. gigineiSvilis gamokvleva: `rusudaniani~, ix. gv. gv. XVII.

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-es da -en niSanTagan `rusudanianSi~ ukve gabatonebulia -en, magram -es sufiqsic sakmaod xSirad gvxvdeba, zog monakveTSi igi sWarbobs kidec -en-s (magaliTad IV karSi — ix. gv. 332, 333, 335, 351, 352, 353, 359, 360, 372, 373 da sxv). ase rom, ver vityviT, is mxolod naSTis saxiT aris SemorCenilio1. rac Seexeba -nen-s, misi xmareba aqac zmnebis mcirericxovani jgufiT, ZiriTadad prefiqsiani vnebiTebiT, Semoifargleba (iyvnen, Seiyarnen, SeiWidnen, moexvivnen, moegebnen, daezavnen, gaemarTnen, Semogvebnen, Semogvexvewnen, SegviZRvnen, gahkvirdnen, adgnen, movidnen, Seaqcevdnen...). rasakvirvelia, igive zmnebi gvxvdeba -es da -en sufiqsebiTac. saerTod, Tu me-17 saukuneSi Caweril qarTul zRaprebSi -es da -(n)en sufiqsebs Soris Sefardeba iyo 3:1 -es sufiqsis sasargeblod, `rusudanianSi~ daaxloebiT aseTive Sefardeba gvaqvs -(n)en sufiqsis sasargeblod. erTisa da imave epoqis Zeglebs Soris aseTi sxvadasxvagvari Tanafardoba aRniSnul sufiqsTa xmarebaSi SesaZloa sxvadasxva dialeqturi wris gavleniT aixsnebodes. am mxriv sagulisxmoa, rom `rusudaniani~ mkvlevrebs dasavleT saqarTveloSi SeTxzulad miaCniaT. rogorc cnobilia, -en sufiqsi dResac dasavlur kiloebSi ufro aqtiuria2 (igi SeWrilia gardamaval zmnaTa namyo srulSic) da savaraudebelia, istoriuladac aq ufro adre iyo gavrcelebuli. ase rom, am kiloebs didad unda SeewyoT xeli saliteraturo enaSi misi damkvidrebisaTvis. Cven sityvas aRar gavagrZelebT XVII saukunis sxva literaturul Tu araliteraturul Zeglebze, rogoricaa: `mefeTa salaro~. (A-617), `yanCaeTis Jamngulani~ (H-1452), `Jamngulani~ (H-1738), me-17 saukunis samarTlis Zeglebi, Tbilisis istoriuli dokumentebi me-17 saukunisa, amave xanis istoriuli dokumentebi imereTis samefosa da guria-odiSis samTavroebisa (wigni pirveli (1466-1770), teqsti gamosca, winasityvaoba da saZiebeli daurTo S. burjanaZem. Tb., 1958), `Sahnames~ XVII saukunis xelnawerebi (H-61, H-921, S-1594, Q-1440) da sxv. aRvniSnavT mxolod, rom maTSi metnaklebi sixSiriTaa warmodgenili mesame subieqturi piris mravlobiTobis -es da -(n)en sufiqsebi; zog ZeglSi Warbobs -es sufiqsi, zogSi -(n)en, magram mTlianobaSi mainc garkveviT Cans, rogor TandaTanobiT xSirdeba -(n)en sufiqsiani formebi da Sesabamisad mcirdeba -es sufiqsian formaTa raodenoba. Tu me-17 saukunis ZeglebSi ar iZebneba iseTi, rom Tavidan bolomde sistemebr icavdes erT-erT sufiqss, me-18 saukunis dasawyisSive ukve gvxvdeba iseTi SemTxveva, roca erTi avtori sistematurad xmarobs -(n)en sufiqss. am mxriv saintereso suraTs iZleva vaxtangiseuli `qilila da damanas~ da sabas avtografis urTierTSedareba. cnobilia, rom vaxtang bagrationma `qilila da damana~ Targmna iranSi yofnisas 1712-1716 wlebSi. man Tavisi Targmani `gasaCalxavad~ gaugzavna
Sdr. `rusudaniani~, gv. XXVI. Sdr. xevsuruli da TuSuri, sadac dRemde gardamaval zmnebTan da gardauvalebTanac erTaderTia -es sufiqsi: a. SaniZe, qarTuli kiloebi mTaSi, Txzulebani, I, Tb., 1960, gv.101.
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sulxan-saba orbelians. `sulxan-saba orbelians `qilila da damanas~ vaxtaniseuli Targmani safuZvliand gadaumuSavebia rogorc leqsiTs, ise proziTs nawilSi. gamoCenil qarTvel mwignobars vaxtangis teqsti marTlac `gemoanad gauCalxavs~ da misi sruliad axali redaqcia moucia~1. vaxtangisa da sabas redaqciebis urTierTSedarebiT irkveva, rom vaxtangi, cocxal metyvelebaze dayrdnobiT, ZiriTadad -en sufiqsian formebs xmarobs, saba ki xSirad cvlis xsenebul formebs -es sufiqsiani formebiT. qvemoT moyvanili paraleluri adgilebi am redaqciis teqstebidan naTlad warmoaCens am gansxvavebas (Cven xelT gvqonda leningradis aRmosavleTmcodneobis institutis vaxtangiseuli xelnaweris M-53-is fotopiri, Rt 11 20, daculi xelnawerTa institutSi, da sabas avtografi S-31). v a x t a n g i: sxvani amxanagni wadgen da uTxres (209,5); maTuyam misis amxanagebiT bade waiRes da mifrinevden (336,10); frinvelni erTgan dagrovden da amaze SeiTqvnen (423,3); merme erTmanerTTan yofniT ixarebden (393,1); isini lomis samsaxuridam gamoviden (205,14); kacni Soridam da axlodam misis patiosnobisa da misis locvis Sesawevnelad movidoden da wavidoden (275, 16); yvelani misis brZanebis mayurebelni iyunen (401,17); dibiSlim ori Tavis amaRlebulni kacni mindobiT da erdgulobiT kacis angariSSi Cagdebuli yvanden da rCeviTa da sikeTiT Semkobil iyunen (47,4-6). s a b a: sxvani amxanagni wadges, uTxres (45r,37); maTuya da misni amxanagni badian mifrinvides (73r,23); frinvelni mokrbes da erTad SeiTqvnes (92r, 20); erTmaneTTan yofiTa ixarebdes (85v,31); igini lomis samsaxuriT gamovides (44v,14); maxlobelni da Sorielni misis naxvisa da patiosnis locvis miRebad mividodes (59v,12); yovelni misis brZanebis morCilni iyunes (87v,11); dibiSlims orni T¢sni saCinoni erTgulni da misandobelni didebulni kacni hyues rCeviTa da Wkuis gziT srulni iyvnes (14r,11-12). amgari magaliTebidan, romlebic sakmaod xSiria, cxadad Cans, rom saba met angariSs uwevs saliteraturo enis tradicias da upiratesobas aZlevs -es sufiqss. magram bolomde Tanmimdevrobas didi mweralic ver icavs: mis avtografSic erTmaneTis paralelurad gvxvdeba rogorc -es, ise -en da -nen sufiqsebi. Tu erT SemTxvevaSi vaxtangiseuli moviden sabas Secvlili aqvs movides formiT, (Sdr., vaxtangi 231,9 — saba 50r,18), meore SemTxvevaSi vaxtangis moviden-is adgilas sabasTan ikiTxeba: mividnen (Sdr. 208,7 vaxtangi da 45r,19 saba); mesame SemTxvevaSi piriqiT, vaxtangis -nen sufiqsian formas saba cvlis -en sufiqsianiT: `vezirni meore dRes £elmwifis samsaxurSi movidnen, alagi rom ganwesebuli qondaT, mun dadgnen da £elmwifis brZanebis mosmenas yuri miugdes~
1 al. baramiZe, qilila da damana (winasityvaoba); sulxan-saba orbeliani, Txzulebani, II, Tb., 1962, gv. 12-13; a. WinWarauli, xevsurulis Taviseburebani, Tb., 1960, gv. 101.

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(vaxt.48,7-9)— `meore dRes vezirni £elmwifis win moviden da ganwesebuls adgils dadgen da £elmwifis brZanebas eloden~ (saba 14r, 34-35). SeadareT sxvagvari Sesworebis nimuSi: gamoegebnen (vaxt, 609,1) — miegebnes (saba140v, 31). aseT viTarebaSi Znelia Tqma, ra princips icavs saba. TiTqos igi cdilobs -es sufiqsis dacvas saliteraturo enaSi, magram -en da -nen sufiqsebsac ar mimarTavs iSviaTad. mis originalur TxzulebebSi -en(nen) ufro xSiradac ki gvxvdeba, vidre -es; magaliTad, `sibrZne-sicruis~ wignSi -en da -es sufiqsebis Sefardeba aseTia — 4:1. `mogzaurobaSi~ erTi-ori magaliTia Zveli warmoebisa. sabas `swavlanic~ ki veraa dazRveuli am axleburi formebisagan. TxzulebaSi, sadac saba cdilobda formac Sinaarsis Sesaferad maRali, saeklesio, Zveleburi yofiliyo, araerTi SemTxveva aRinusxa -(n)en-iani zmnebisa. magaliTisaTvis moviyvanT erT abzacs: `ucxosa viriT momavalsa CCvilni osannas ugalobdes, moxucebulni pirTa miridebdes; ucxosa glaxakni wina miegebvides da mdidarni karTa dau£Svides; ucxosa mowafe gamcemel eqmneboda, erni Seipyrobden, mRvdelni moiZagebden, mwignobarni moiZulebden, mRdelTmoZRuarni Sehkrviden, msajulni sikudilad miscemden... borotsa uyofden... ganbasrevden... gankicxevden... aginebden... Seborkilviden... moavlebden... SeRebden~ da a.S. (A-479, gv. 277-278, XVIII s. dasawyisis xelnaweria). sizustisaTvis isic unda vTqvaT, rom vaxtang VI-sTanac, romelic sistematurad xmarobs -(n)en sufiqss, TiTo-orola SemTxvevaSi mainc aris -es sufiqsiani formebi: `amad saxelad xajustarrai ewodeboda da umaunfal aras saqmes uimisod £els ar mihyofda da mis urCevlad arca didsa da arca mciresa saqmesa ar mouvlida. asparezsa brZolisasa da simxiarulis masnaTsa da dorzedan uimisod ar dajdeboda da ar ilxenda. yovelTvis Tu mefeni da £elmwifeni da amaRlebulni kacni Wkuiansa da moxucebuls ar hkiTxevdes da rCeviT ar iqmodes, brZanebis SemzadebaSi ar unda gaereodes da Tu unda, rom sul Zali da SemZlebeloba didrovanTa kacTa Taviss £elTa hqondes kargis veziriTa...~ (15,14-20). rogorc aRiniSna, am drois werilobiTi Zeglebidan cxadad Cans, rom III subieqturi piris mravlobiTobis -es sufiqsi ukve sistematurad icvleba -(n)en sufiqsiT gardamaval da gardauval zmnebTan namyo usrulSi, gardauvalebTan — namyo srulSic. asea es esopes igavebSi, melis wignSi, asea daviT guramiSvilTan, vaxuStis `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~... me-18 saukunis erT-erTi popularuli Zeglis, `Timsarianis~ xelnawerSi (A-860), romelic miCneulia erT-erT karg da mniSvnelovan xelnawerad1, -(n)en-iani formebi namyo usrulSi 25-mde aRwevs, maSin, rodesac, -es-iani formebi mxolod samiode SemTxvevaSi gvxvdeba; namyo srulSi (n)en-iani forma 75-mdea, -es-iani 12 SemTxvevaSia.
`Timsariani~ Targmnilia sparsulidan mefe Teimuraz II-is (1700-1762) mier, gadauweria igi cnobil gadamwers nik. CaCikaSvils 1774-1779 wlebSi (М. Джанашвили, Описание рукописей церковн. музея..., кн. III, 1908 gv. 85-90; qarTul xelnawerTa aRweriloba, A-fondi, I, II, III...). `Timsariani~ gamosca, teqsti daadgina, Sesavali da leqsikoni daurTo Tengiz goreliSvilma, Tb., 1965. Cven xelT gvqonda mikrofiri.
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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

aseve Cveulebrivia, -(n)en sufiqsi `Timsarianis~ meore xelnawerSic, isic XVIII saukuniseulia – S-15381, oRond A-460-sagan gansxvavebiT, aq sistematurad -nen gvaqvs -en-is magier; A-Sia: Seiyreboden (286v,38) S-Sia: Seiyrebodnen (49r,9), A-Sia: misdevden (284v,6-7), S-Sia: misdevdnen (41r,8) da a.S. yovelive zemoTqmulidan cxadi xdeba, rom -es da -(n)en sufiqsebis Widili arsebiTad mTavrdeba XVIII saukuneSi -(n)en -is saboloo gamarjvebiT. marTalia, -es sufiqsiani formebi aqa-iq SeiZleba XIX saukunis TxzulebebSic Segvxvdes, magram mxolod rogorc Zveli saliteraturo enis anarekli an stilizaciis saSualeba. cocxal sasaubro metyvelebaSi aseTi formebis arseboba XVIII saukunis bolos ukve aRar aris savaraudebeli. axla oriode sityva TviT -en da -nen sufiqsTa urTierTobis Taobaze. rogorc aRvniSneT, -en sufiqsis win n Tavdapirvelad mxolod vnebiTi gvaris zmnebSi gvxvdeboda. prefiqsian vnebiTebSi mis xmarebas regularuli xasiaTi hqonda Zvel qarTulSic — -es sufiqsis win. warmoSobiT igi miCneulia pirdapiri obieqtis mravlobiTobis niSnad, romelic moqmedebiTidan vnebiT gvarSi aris gadmoyolili. Zvel qarTulSi gvqonda: iyvnes, SeiTqunes, aResrulnes... roca -es sufiqsi en-ma Secvala, bunebrivia, miviReT: iyvnen, SeiTqvnen, aResrulnen... rac Seexeba moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnebs, -es sufiqsis win n aqac gvqonda namyo srulSi, oRond mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, roca pirdapiri obieqti mr. ricxvSi iyo warmodgenili: maT igini dawernes, SeWamnes, moklnes, mosrnes, wariyvannes... esaa gardamavali zmnebi: sadac -es sufiqsi dRevandlamde ucvleli darCa da, cxadia, -nen ar SeiZleboda migveRo. namyo usrulSi obieqti (pirdapirica da iribic) micemiT brunvaSi dgas da misi mravlobiToba zmnaSi ar aRiniSneba, ase, rom, Zvelad aq -es sufiqsis win n ar gvqonia. amrigad, -en sufiqsis -nen-iT Secvla vnebiTi gvaridan modis. imave periodSi, roca -es sufiqsi -en-iT icvleba, SeiniSneba kidev meore procesi: n-s gaCena sxva zmnebSic. -es sufiqsis win n-m Tavi iCina iseT formebSic, sadac igi Zveli qarTuli enis normis mixedviT, ar iyo mosalodneli. saxeldobr, `Sah-names~ prozaul versiaSi gvxvdeba aseTi formebi: movidnes, amouvidnes (gv.372), gamovidnes (gv.389; 392;395), wavidnes (395), Seubernes (396; 421) da sxv. amrigad, erTdroulad mimdinareobda ori procesi: -es sufiqsis Secvla -en-iT da n-s gaCena mis win. roca -es sufiqsma sabolood daTmo asparezi, mis adgilze aRmoCnda ori paraleluri formanti: -en da -nen. vnebiTi gvaris formebSi ufro xSiri iyo -nen, danarCen SemTxvevaSi — -en. maTi Widili XX saukunis 30-ian wlebamde gagrZelda. sabolood saliteraturo enaSi sakiTxi gadawyvita Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturo enis normaTa damdgenma mudmivma saxelmwifo komisiam, romelmac upiratesoba mianiWa -nen sufiqss2.
1

xelnaweri aRwerili aqvs e. TayaiSvils (Описание, I, gv. 390-391) da safuZvlad udevs `Timsarianis~ miseul gamocemas, (1903). 2 Tanamedrove qarTuli saliteraturi enis normebi, I, 1970, Tb., gv. 185-190.

182

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

giorgi gogolaSvili

mesame subieqturi piris mravlobiTobis narian mawarmoebelTa urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxisaTvis
axal qarTulSi subieqturi mesame piris mravlobiTobas xuTi sufiqsi gamoxatavs: -n, -en, -an, -nen, -es (Zvel qarTulSi amaT emateboda -ed, ar gvqonda -nen). -nen sufiqsi rTuli Sedgenilobisaa — Seicavs imave -en sufiqss, romelic calke mawarmoebladac gamoiyofa, amitom mis Sesaxeb ar vimsjelebT. Cveni interesis sferoSi ar Semodis arc -es sufiqsi. ganvixilavT sakiTxs: ra mimarTebaa -n, -en, -an sufiqsebs Soris. gansaxilveli sufiqsebidan TiToeuls xmarebis garkveuli are aqvs: a) -n gvxvdeba mxolod xmovnis Semdeg: mokla-n, gaTbe-n, gaakeTo-n... b) -en gvxvdeba mxolod Tanxmovnis Semdeg: akeTeb-en, malav-en... daimaln-en, iyvn-en, gaTb-en, gaxm-en... g) -an gvxvdeba i xmovnis Semdeg: tiri-an, akeTi-an... da zog statikur zmnasTan Tanxmovnis Semdeg: wux-an, dum-an, dgan-an, wvan-an... ar xdeba am sufiqsTa Senacvleba — sadac gvaqvs erTi maTgani, ar SeiZleba Segvxvdes meore. is faqti, rom TiToeuli maTgani gvxvdeba mxolod garkveul fonetikur garemocvaSi, aris ZiriTadi mizezi imisa, rom isini erTmaneTis fonetikur variantebadaa miCneuli. amosavlad miiCneven e xmovnian variants, xolo nul da a xmovniani variantebi mis saxesxvaobadaa CaTvlili. kerZod, aRniSnaven, rom xmovnis momdevno poziciaSi xmovanTkompleqsi martivdeba progresuli gavlenis gziT, ikargeba sufiqsiseuli xmovani [1-3] a-en → -a-n: mokl-a-en → mokla-n... o-en → -o-n: akeT-o-en → akeT-o-n... e-en → -e-n: gaTb-e-en → gaTb-e—n... am ukanasknel SemTxvevaSi xmovanTa Serwymasac varaudoben [2]. a xmovnian variants (-an) -en-is disimilirebul saxed miiCneven: i-en → ian (mki-en → mki-an) [4]. warmoadgenen Tu ara mravlobiTi ricxvis mesame subieqturi piris -n, -en, -an mawarmoeblebi erTmaneTis fonetikur variantebs da ramdenadaa SesaZlebeli amgvari fonetikuri cvlilebebi zmnur formebSi? rogorc aRvniSneT, -n sufiqss miiCneven -en sufiqsis reducirebul variantad. sufiqsiseuli xmovnis reduqcia araa ucxo qarTveluri enebisaTvis [5], magram gasaTvaliswinebelia is faqti, rom aRniSnul SemTxvevebSi sufiqsiseuli xmovnis reduqcias iwvevs mxolod momdevno xmovani: mo-kl-en-a → mo-kl-n-a, mas-

183

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

wavleb-el-isa → maswavleb-l-isa... es asea rogorc zmnebSi, ise saxelebSi 1 (fuZiseul resp. sufiqsiseul) da sufiqsiseul xmovanTa Sexvedrisas sami SemTxveva gairCeva: a) ikargeba winamavali xmovani — akeT-e-a → akeT-a, b) rCeba xmovanTgasayari Tanxmovani — a-xe-eb-s → a-xe-v-eb-s... da g) warmoiqmneba xmovanTkompleqsi yovelgvari gamartivebisa da xmovanTgamyaris gareSe — a-dro-eb-s. xmovanTkompleqsTa gamartiveba momdevno xmovnis dakargvis gziT araa istoriulad qarTulisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli. yovel SemTxvevaSi, msgavsi faqtebi dadasturebuli araa. asea es amJamadac [6]. xmovanTkompleqsebSi fonetikuri procesebi sakmaod gavrcelebulia da rTul suraTs qmnis dRevandel qarTul dialeqtebsa da zanurSi, magram yvela SemTxvevaSi kompleqsis meore wevri daculia — fonetikuri procesebi mimdinareobs kompleqsis meore komponentis cvlis xarjze [7,8]. yovelive zemoTqmuli eWvqveS ayenebs -en sufiqsiseuli xmovnis dakargvis sakiTxs xmovnis momdevno poziciaSi. amgvari, dadasturebuli kanonzomierebis sawinaaRmdego procesis moqmedebis dasamtkiceblad mxolod erTi SemTxveva araa sakmarisi. Cven ar uarvyofT -n da -en sufiqsebs Soris SesaZlo genetikur kavSirs; aRvniSnavT mxolod imas, rom sxvaoba maT Semadgenilobas Soris araa momxdari zmnur formebSi. isini ar warmoadgenen erTmaneTis fonetikur variantebs maTi zmnur afiqsebad Camoyalibebis Semdeg. zemoT aRvniSneT, rom -an sufiqsi miCneulia -en-is fonetikur variantad. kerZod, i-s momdevno poziciaSi e disimilirdeba da gvaZlevs a-s. amave dros SeniSnaven, rom `ie kompleqsis gadasvla ia-Si principSi igivea, rac qarTulisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli ea kompleqsis gadasvla ia-Si~ [4]. sakiTxis amgvarad dasma sadavoa. ie→ ia da ea→ ia procesebs Soris arsebobs principuli sxvaoba. ea→ ia procesi regresul gavlenazea damyarebuli da xdeba farTo xmovnis daviwroeba. orive es movlena bunebrivia da kanonzomieri qarTulisaTvis [7,8]. ie → ia procesis dros ki sawinaaRmdego movlenasTan gvaqvs saqme — gavlena progresulia da adgili aqvs viwro xmovnis gafarToebas, rac arabunebrivia qarTulisaTvis. gamonaklisis arseboba moqmed fonetikur procesSi dasaSvebia, magram amjerad ar xerxdeba am gamonaklisis axsna. vfiqrobT, arca gvaqvs safuZveli misi daSvebisaTvis. ie → ia procesis arsebobis Sesaxeb seriozul eWvs badebs agreTve isic, rom -an sufiqsi dasturdeba Tanxmovnis momdevno poziciaSi da es iseT zmnebTan, romlebic uZvelesi formaciis zmnebadaa miCneuli: wux-an, dum-an... Tu es SemTxveva SeiZleba imiT aixsnas, rom am tipis zmnebs i sufiqsi gaaCndaT
1 (saxelebSi gvaqvs gamonaklisi: naTesaobiTi da moqmedebiTi brunvis niSniseuli i ikargeba fuZeukvecel saxelebTan. sakiTxis specialuri Seswavlis Sedegad dadginda, rom es aris erTaderTi SemTxveva fuZiseul (resp. sufiqsiseul) da sufiqsiseul xmovanTa Sexvedrisas warmoqmnil kompleqsebSi meore wevris Cavardnisa. gamonaklisi SemTxveviTi ar unda iyos (arc raime kanonzomierebis gamovlena) — -is, -iT sufiqsebi rTuli Sedgenilobisaa, i araa organuli nawili s da T Tanxmovnebisa. vfiqrobT, amas gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eniWeba momxdar procesebSi.)

184

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

da is iyo mizezi -en → an procesisa [4], imaves ver vityviT dgan-an, wvan-an, yvan-an... tipis formebze, sadac i sufiqsis arseboba arc dadasturebulia da arc Teoriulad savaraudo. saeWvoa agreTve analogiis procesis daSvebac. yuradRebas ipyrobs agreTve is faqtic, rom ie kompleqsi ar Cans arabunebrivi qarTulisaTvis. Zvel qarTulSi sakmaod gavrcelebulia ie daboloeba statikuri zmnebis awmyosa da gardamavali zmnebis pirvel TurmeobiTSi: upyries, hgies... dauweries, gaukeTebies... ie kompleqsis ia-Ti Secvla axal qarTulSi (upyria, dauweria... ) ar Cans fonetikuri procesis Sedegi, aramed aRniSnul formaTa warmoebis tipis SecvlasTan unda iyos dakavSirebuli. ie kompleqsis bunebriobas unda uWerdes mxars isic, rom -an sufiqsis adgils rig dialeqtSi iWers -en sufiqsi da warmoiqmneba swored is kompleqsi, romlis gamartivebis Sedegad miRebuladac ivaraudeba -an sufiqsi: modi-en, ari-en, tiri-en, yviri-en... amgvarad, iseve rogorc wina SemTxvevaSi, vfiqrobT, rom -an sufiqsi ar aris -en-is fonetikuri varianti, warmoqmnili misi zmnur afiqsad Camoyalibebis Semdeg. yovelive es ki gamoricxavs -en sufiqsis pirveladobas; igi araa amosavali -an da -n sufiqsebisaTvis zmnur formebSi. -en sufiqsis pirveladobis erT-erT sabuTad miiCneva zanurSi dadasturebuli -an sufiqsi, romelic iTvleba qarTulis kanonzomier Sesatyvisad. amgvari ram dasaSvebia, magram gasaTvaliswinebelia is faqti, rom -an varianti gvaqvs qarTulSic, romelic, Cveni azriT, ar warmoadgens -en-is fonetikur variants da, Tu subieqturi mesame piris mravlobiTobis -es sufiqsi zanurSi qarTulidan Sesulad ivaraudeba [2], zanurSi gvaqvs -n sufiqsic, romelic qarTulis identuria (Sesatyvisobaze saubari am SemTxvevaSi Znelia), ratom ar SeiZleba zanuri -an igive qarTuli -an sufiqsi iyos da ara -en-is Sesatyvisi? warmodgenili msjelobidan gamomdinare, vvaraudobT, rom -n, -en, -an sufiqsebs Soris arsebuli fonetikuri sxvaoba ar unda iyos momxdari zmnur formebSi. Tu maT Soris genetikuri kavSiri arsebobs1, formobrivi diferenciacia am elementTa zmnur afiqsebad Camoyalibebamdea momxdari. variantTa ganawileba zmnur formebSi warmoqmnil bgeraTkompleqsTa bunebriobis mixedviT unda iyos momxdari.

1 vambobT `Tu~-s, imitom rom funqciuri da masalobrivi msgavseba ar unda iyos sakmarisi afiqsTa genetikuri kavSiris dasamtkiceblad.

185

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

literatura: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. SaniZe, qarTuli enis gramatikis safuZvlebi, Tb., 1973, 433. foCxua, qarTvelur enaTa struqturis sakiTxebi, II, 1961, 60-62. v. Tofuria, ike, V, 1953, 520. g. rogava, ike, XVI, 1968, 76. SaniZe, weliwadis etimologiisaTvis, Txz., t. I, Tb., 1957, 316. g. gogolaSvili, Tsu studentTa XXXI samecniero konferencia, enaTmecnierebis seqcia. moxsenebaTa Tezisebi, Tb., 1969. S. ZiZiguri, ike, I, 1946. gogolaSvili, saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademiis moambe, 75, 3, 1974.

186

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

avTandil arabuli

sporadulad gamovlenil mesame piris -n/-d, -en/-ed sufiqsTa funqciisaTvis Zvel qarTulSi
Zveli qarTuli enis ZeglebSi, gardamaval zmnaTa I TurmeobiTSi, mesame subieqturi piris -s sufiqsTan sporadulad monacvleobs -n da -d formantebi. erTi da imave Zeglis sxvadasxva redaqciebma SeiZleba samive varianti gviCvenos: da raJams ganhqardis, ara a£sovn, ra uqmnied. (apokr. 37, 23 f); ID: uqmnies; F: uqmnied. igive formantebi monacvleoben statikur zmnaTa awmyos III pirSi: reca Tu sity¢Ta xolo winamZRuar arn, bunebasave zeda hgien (ant. 27,6 f); ,: hgied. uqmnien // uqmnied, hgien // hgied iSviaTi xmarebis formebi adreve iqna SeniSnuli da swori segmentaciac Catarda 1. realuri obieqtis mravlobiTobis SemTxvevaSi uqmnien // uqmnied formebSi en//-ed sufiqsebs gamoyofen; ivaraudeba, rom ori sufiqsuri -e-s Sexvedrisas erTi Cavardnila: uqmnie+en//ed 2. z. sarjvelaZis naSromSi -en (-an sufiqsis nacvlad) paradigmis gasworebis Sedegadaa miCneuli (mipyries — mipyrien). -en//-ed formantebi monacvleoben S3 piris mravlobiTobis -an sufiqsTan, romelic inversiul zmnebSi saxelobiTbrunviani realuri obieqtis mravlobiTobas gadmoscems: da Sen, ¥ kaco, kadnierebiTa da ampartavanebiTa arad Segiracxien glaxakni... (mam. swavl. 103, 24); B: Segiracxian; C: Segiracxied. amgvarad, Segiracxie-n// Segiracxie-d (igi) — Segiracxi-en//Segiracxi-ed (igini); formaTgarCeva mxolod konteqstiTaa SesaZlebeli. Zveli qarTuli enis ZeglebSi mkvlevrebma didi moculobis masala daZebnes warmodgenili formantebis gamosavlenad, amitomac SeiZleba mxolod tipobriv nimuSebs davjerdeT: -n (S3 mx.): Se-same-uracxien unayofo¡ igi viTarca sxua¡? (sin. 139,13); ... da nu viTarca mteri Segiracxien igi (Tquen)... (pavl. 341, 15. AB); ...romel damiwerien, amsaxurebd... (haemet. 364,14); ... da cxoreba¡ ara ucnobien cxovelTa Tana... (Svd. yrm. 115,30); ...arca Sorieli ucnobien... (sin. 104,23); da Sevikarn. Ciqobava, mesame piris subieqtis uZvelesi niSani qarTvelur enebSi: enimkis moambe, V—VI, 1940, gv.36; v. Tofuria, enis ganviTarebis Sinagan kanonTa erTi nimuSi qarTulSi: ike, V, 1953; i. abulaZe, qarTuli zmnis iSviaTi formebi VIII-X s-is Zeglebis mixedviT: Tsu Sromebi, t. 53, 1954; iv. qavTaraZe, zmnis ZiriTadi kategoriebis istoriisaTvis Zvel qarTulSi, 1954, gv. 14, 187; d. gewaZe, mesame piris subieqtis niSani -d Zvel qarTulSi: quTaisis ped. inst. Sr., t.XI, quTaisi, 1952—53; z. sarjvelaZe, d/ed da n niSnebiani mesame subieqturi piris iSviaTi formebi Zvel qarTulSi: macne, 2, 1973. 2 i. abulaZe, dasax. naSromi, gv. 140—145, z. sarjvelaZe, dasax. naSromi.
1

187

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

ribi, sada ara ganmibnevien (tbeT. maTe, 25,26) (opiz. ganmibnevied); ... daRaTu vis dauklien sakiTxavi... (novel. II, 63, 19); Tu WeSmaritad uswavien fsalmunisa kanoni... (kim. II, 159,31); ... r~lsa uwyien wuerTa gamoslva¡ (kim. I, 312,29); da £eliTa moekidis sabelsa, romeli STamoubamn qartocsa senakisasa... (mam. cx. 157,34); ... romelsa aRuTquamn, ra¡Ta ara codos... (mam. cx.304,7); ...aRiRis wyali igi, romel saSuval saxlsa mas daudgamn... (nikol. 84,28); r~i igi uTquamn, aRi£oca... (kim. I, 135, 21); aRmoiRos, romeli-igi STaunTqamn... (equs. 131,16); ... ixilis xati, romeli ara odes uxilavn (mam.swavl. 221,8), g¢xilavn (kaci) (g. mTawm. 158,27. G); ... da friadiTa ofliTa da SromiTa utvirTavn igi (lim. 9,8; igive: g. mTawm. 132, 17); ... da nu didad mogiTualavn warsavali ese (ant. 69, 7. f u: mogiTualavs); ... da mciredi igi aRnadginebiTurT daumarxavn (balavar. 40,15. f); moukrZalavn Tavi T¢si (novel. II, 111,12; C: moukrZalavs); Seudresien furceli (novel. II, 87, 25). Sdr. statikuri awmyo: ... da, sadaca-igi hnTien, y~d mun arn (sin. 122,7); hmosien (samoseli) (sin. 9,15; igive: kim. II, 98,12); ... xolo juari nu ese ggonien... (sin. 247,19); ... da hgonien sircxvileuli... (ant. 43, 8; igive: fiziol. 16,12); mCuari upyrien (novel. II,16,7); da maniaki oqro¡sa¡ yelsa acun (novel. II,14,14); da STasadebeli igi mas hkidavn (tbeT. iov. 12,6; igive: mam. swavl. 294,3); mkidavn (novel. II, 39,4). -en (S3 mr.): aw Segiracxien igini RmerTad (kim. I,190,22); yovelTa gang¢wesebian ese kanonni (mc. sjul. 84, 16); C: gang¢wesebien; Seupyrien (igini) (mam. swavl. 138, 20; ZiriTadi: Seupyrian). Sdr. statikuri awmyo: upyrien saydarni (sin. 169,29). -d (S3 mx.): ... da ganaSorebn Cemgan, romeli-igi micnobied... (balavar. 6,23.f); ucnobied sargebeli (ant.51,19); ... romeli uqmnied wina¡swar (mam. swavl. 140,30; igive: balavar. 67,31 f); diakonTa samoseli igi ze aRupyried (warty. ierus. iÀ,8; igive: warty. ierus. iÀ,3); ... suli wmida¡ romeli miuRebied mas dResa mas gamo£snisasa (mam. swavl. 20,26); codviTa gansZarc¢s, romeli Seumosied... (balavr. 7,27); ...da aRumtkmied piri (apokr. 41,18,f) ganutevebied (sanTeli) (lim. 64,2); ...kiliki erTi mcirÀ que warugdebied (SuSanik. 25,11,HK: warugebied; G: warugdebed)... romeli mas ara Seuswavlied (balavar. 67,28 f); da Seikribi, sada ara gangibnevied (tbeT. maTe, 25,24); Tavi Seuyofied (mam. swavl. 265, 15, b). statikuri awmyo: upyried wesi (balavar. 47, 35. f); hgonied (sin.269,18); piri zÀ umtkmied (fiziol. 36,8); ...xolo sxuasa nu vis uflied Cuen Tana Semoslvad (SuSanik. 16,22); ... aramed hmosied mas selisa samoseli (sin. 55,12); ... viTarca sanTeli hnTied (TualT. 30,25). Sesasxmelni (efrem. (g.). 55,8); uqmnied (saqmeni) (mam. swavl. 139, 27.BC); warutacebied mamani (mam. swavl. 187,6. B); miuvlinebied igini (TualT. 42,16). saanalizo formaTa Sepirispireba rig sakiTxebs aCens: 188

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

1. subieqturi mesame piris formantTa Sesabamisi suraTi pirveli TurmeobiTis mxolobiTsa da mravlobiTSi aseT saxes miiRebs: mx. r. s, n, d mr. r. an, en, ed. mravlobiTobis formantTa rigSi ar Semodis -es sufiqsi. 2. -av da -am TemisniSnian zmnebTan ar dasturdeba -d sufiqsi, gvaqvs: uxilavs//uxilavn, hkidavs//hkidavn, magram araa: *uxilavd, *hkidavd. 3. imave formebTan ar dasturdeba uSualod mravlobiTobis -en sufiqsis darTva, ara gvaqvs: *gixilven, *Seusxmen. 4. -n//-d, -en//-ed formantebi aSkarad moSlis tendenciiT xasiaTdeba. gadamwerebs ukve aRar esmiT formantTa funqciebi da Tavs iCens Secdomebi (amas formobrivi damTxvevebic uwyobs xels): a) -n sufiqss ukavia -an-is pozicia, igi gagebuli Cans mravlobiTobis niSnad: didni locvani da marxvani mixilavn mis Tana... (kim. I,163,38); da C~n y~lTa g¢ixilavn ebistoleni igi... (kim.I, 94,27); aramed sxuanica saRmrToni werilni friad mikiTxavn (antioq. 137,24); ...aramed wvalebani mravalni CaurTavn masve... (kim.II,91,16); Sdr.: ...frTxiliTa gulis-sity¢Ta gangixilvan sak¢rvelebani dRisani (DE: gangixilavn) (equs. dR. 63,29); ...siwmidesa Ramisasa migixedvan (DE: migixedavn) (equs. dR. 63,24). b) dasturdeba ormagi sufiqsacia, rac agreTve funqciur daCrdilvaze mianiSnebs: ...da moucumaned wyalTa da egrÀT iguemebied maT Sina (mam. swavl. 117, 18; Sdr. B: moucumied). Sdr. statikuri awmyos mxoloobiTi: ...Tana wariRis da sadaca-igi hnTied, y~d mun arn (sin. 122,7). aRwerilma enobrivma faqtebma orgvari interpretacia miiRo qarTul saenaTmecniero literaturaSi. pirveli TvalsazrisiT s//n//d, an//en//ed formantebi identuri funqciis morfologiuri variantebia — isini mesame subieqturi piris sufiqsebia, warmomavlobiT dialeqturad gansxvavebuli 1. meore SemTxvevaSi iSviaTi (n//d, en//ed sufiqsiani) zmnuri formebi Sefasebulia, rogorc Zveli xolmeobiTis naSTebi dro-kiloTa mesame jgufSi 2. i. abulaZe mas III xolmeobiTs uwodebs (imowmebs a. SaniZesac), xolo l. kiknaZe I TurmeobiTis xolmeobiTs.

arn. Ciqobava, dasax. naSr., gv.36; v. Tofuria, dasax. naSr.; iv. qavTaraZe, dasax. naSr., gv.187; d. gewaZe, dasax. naSr.: i. imnaiSvili, qarTuli enis istoriuli qrestomaTia, t. I. naw. II, Tb., 1971, gv. 159-160. 2 i. abulaZe, dasax. naSr., gv.145-146; l. kiknaZe, Sereuli xolmeobiTis mwkrivi Zvel qarTulSi: orioni, Tb., 1967, gv. 192; z. sarjvelaZe, dasax. naSr., gv.148.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

meore Tvalsazrisi saxelmZRvaneloebis tipis naSromebSi arsad asaxula, magram mainc yuradRebas iqcevs, rogorc araswori morfologiuri analizis erTi nimuSi. aseTi azri dro-koloTa dajgufebis principSi daSvebuli uzustobis logikuri Sedegia, kerZod, mas uSualo kavSiri aqvs `awmyos xolmeobiTis~ calke nakvTad gamoyofis sakiTxTan. `awmyos xolmeobiTma~ Zveli qarTuli enis saxelmZRvaneloebSi damoukidebeli adgili daimkvidra 1. am azrs iTviseben saSualo da umaRlesi saswavleblebis msmenelebi. sakiTxi exeba ars//arn, arian//aried paraleluri formebis arsebobas Zvel qarTulSi. am formaTa SefasebaSi Tanxmoba araa; SeiZleba gamoiyos sami pozicia: a) erTi SexedulebiT, arn-aried igive awmyos formebia S3-is uZvelesi -n, -ed sufiqsebiT da, maSasadame, calke nakvTze laparaki zedmetia 2. b) meore SexedulebiT, es formebi warmoadgenen damoukidebel (pirnakl) nakvTs — awmyos xolmeobiTs 3. g) mesame — Semrigebluri — TvalsazrisiT, saqme gvaqvs uZvelesi awmyos formebTan, romelTac droTa ganmavlobaSi xolmeobiTis funqcia ukisria. es azri sabolood meore Sexedulebis poziciaze dgeba — `awmyos xolmeobiTis~ nakvTs gamoyofs 4. sakiTxi yvelaze ufro amomwuravad mocemulia arn. Ciqobavas werilSi — `mesame piris subieqtis uZvelesi niSani qarTvelur enebSi~. aq naCvenebia, rom, -n, -ed sufiqsebi ar SeiZleba iyos xolmeobiTobis matarebeli imitom, rom a. isini mxolod III pirSia, drois sawarmoebeli sufiqsi yvela pirSi unda gvqondes; b. Tu -n, -ed-s xolmeobiTisad CavTvliT, raRa iqneba piris niSani? g. -n gvxvdeba -i sufiqsian namyo xolmeobiTSic, rac mis piris niSnobas adasturebs (gv. 20-27). magram -n, -ed sufiqsebi rom piris niSnebia, amas `awmyos xolmeobiTis~ momxreebic ar uaryofen.

1 a. SaniZe, Zveli qarTuli enis gramatika, Tb., 1976, gv. 69;. imnaiSvili, dasax. naSr., gv. 210 da sxva. 2 arn. Ciqobava, martivi winadadebis problema qarTulSi, I, qvemdebare-damatebis sakiTxi Zvels qarTulSi, meore gamocema, Tb., 1968, gv.136,163; misive, mesame piris subieqtis uZvelesi niSani... ; misive, ergatiuli konstruqciis problema iberiul-kavkasiur enebSi, I, 1948, gv.77-80; v. Tofuria, dasax. naSr.; misive, n da s fenebisaTvis qarTvelur enebSi: mecn. akad. moambe, t. II, 1,2; g. rogava, mravlobiTi ricxvis mesame subieqturi piris -an sufiqsisaTvis qarTulSi: ike, Tb., 1968. 3 a. SaniZe, subieqturi prefiqsi meore pirisa da obieqturi prefiqsi mesame pirisa qarTul zmnebSi: Txzulebani, t. I, 1957, gv.7 da Semdeg yvela naSromSi; i. abulaZe, dasax. naSr., gv.133; l. kiknaZe, uwyvetlis xolmeobiTis mwkrivi Zvel qarTulSi: Tsu Zveli qarTuli enis kaTedris Sromebi, 7, 1961, gv.231 da sxva; misive, Sereuli xolmeobiTi... gv.192; z. sarjvelaZe, dasax. naSr.: misive, qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi, 1975, gv. 149—157. 4 i. imnaiSvili, dasax. naSr., gv.159-160; misive, xelnawerebi da maTi ena; qarTuli enis istoriuli qrestomaTia, II, 1963, gv.204.

190

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

aSkaraa, rom zmnis nakvTeulTa dajgufebis morfologiuri principiT, rac n. marma danerga, SeuZlebelia ars//arn, arian//aried formebi cal-calke nakvTebad gamoiyos, ramdenadac amis formobrivi safuZveli ar arsebobs — morfologiuri opozicia ar iqmneba. saqme isaa, rom `awmyos xolmeobiTi~ amosavalSi Camoyalibebulia, rogorc funqciuri kategoria. mxolod imis Segnebam, rom klasifikaciis principi irRveoda, gamoiwvia aucilebloba, am funqciis matarebloba piris formantebisaTvis daekisrebinaT. aris piradigmis `gasworebis~ cdac: z. sarjvelaZis azriT, awmyos xolmeobiTma I da II piri imitom dakarga, rom misi formebi emTxveoda awmyos Sesabamisi piris formebs, III piri ki gansxvavebuli iyo1. formobrivi identoba, cxadia, kvlav funqciur gansxvavebas gulisxmobs. funqciis xazgasma aqvs g. maWavariansac, roca ambobs, rom awmyo zogadi (-n, -ed sufiqsiani awmyo) arsebiTad xolmeobiTs emTxveva Tavisi funqciiTo2. rogorc cnobilia, Zvel qarTulSi xolmeobiTis nakvTebs sakuTari mawarmoebeli aqvT, esaa sufiqsi -i 3. ramdenadaa mosalodneli, rom -n, -ed formantebma xolmeobiTobis funqcia itvirTon? qarTuli aglutinaciuri tipis enaa, magram principSi SeuZlebeli araa, rom erTma morfologiurma elementma ori da meti funqcia itvirTos; isic SesaZlebelia, rom erT Sinaarss ori formanti emsaxurebodes 4. qarTuli enis morfologiaSi orives faqtebi SeiZleba dadasturdes. -n, -ed formantebi rom mxolod e.w. `awmyos xolmeobiTSi~ dasturdebodes, kidev SeiZleboda imis daSveba, rom `xolmeobiToba~ am arqaul piris niSanTa SeZenili, ase vTqvaT, Tanafunqcia iyos, magram -n, -ed sufiqsiani formebi dro-kiloTa TiTqmis yvela nakvTis mesame pirSi dasturdeba (awmyo, kavS. I, namy. usr. xolm., aoristi, II xolm., I Turm.). yvela nakvTs ki, cxadia, mewyviled Sesabamis pirnakl xolmeobiTs ver amovuyenebT, rom aRaraferi vTqvaT mTavar argumentze, -i sufiqsiani xolmeobiTis formebTan -n, -ed formantebis dadasturebaze5 (amis nimuSebi yvela dasaxelebul werilSi mravladaa warmodgenili). rogorc aRiniSna, `awmyos xolmeobiTi~ funqciis donezea gamoyofili. funqciis gansazRvra ki garemomcvel zmnur formaTa mniSnelobiT, teqstis SinaarsiT — konteqstiT — xdeba.
z. sarjvelaZe, qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi, gv.150, SeniSvna. g. maWavariani, aspeqtis kategoria qarTvelur enebSi: qarTvelur enaTa struqturis sakiTxebi, IV, 1974. 3 arn. Ciqobava, permansivis (`xolmeobiTis~) istoriuli adgilisaTvis qarTuli zmnis uRvlilebis sistemaSi: mecn. akad. moambe, t. IV, 1, 1943; misive, ergatiuli konstruqciis problema, §3; iv. qavTaraZe, xolmeobiTis kategoriis istoriidan qarTulSi: qarTvelur enaTa struqturis sakiTxebi, II, 1961, gv.5-6; f. erTeliSvili, ratom iyenebs II brZanebiTi wyvetilis fuZes: Tsu Sromebi, 61, 1956. 4 arn. Ciqobava, qarTuli enis zogadi daxasiaTeba: qegl. I, 1950, gv.31-32. 5 arn. Ciqobava, mesame piris subieqtis uZvelesi niSani... gv.20-22.
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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

unda aRiniSnos, rom konteqsti xSirad arasaimedo lingvisturi argumentia. sanam CvenTvis dadgenili ar aris zmnur formaTa Tanaarsebobis SesaZlebloba Zvel qarTulSi martivi Tu rTuli winadadebis farglebSi, sruli safuZveli gvaqvs konteqstis cnebas eWviT SevxedoT. kerZod, roca vambobT, magaliTad, winadadebaSi — `xolo raJams damwifdis nayofi igi, munquesve miavlinis mRuli, rameTu mowevnul arn mka¡ misi~ (markoz. 4, 29. f) — `arn~ zmna xolmeobiTis Sinaarsisaa, ramdenadac winadadebaSi ori zmnaa xolmeobiTis formiTo, am poziciidan Cveulebrivi awmyo (ars) gamoricxuli unda gvqondes, aq awmyos funqcia gaumarTlebeli unda iyos. am mxriv mainc sainteresoa z. sarjvelaZis mier Catarebuli vrceli masalis analizi. konteqstebze dakvirveba mas Semdeg suraTs aZlevs: 1. awmyo gvaqvs iq, sadac konteqstis mixedviT awmyos xolmeobiTia mosalodneli; 2. erTsa da imave winadadebaSi erTmaneTis gverdiT dasturdeba awmyosa da awmyos xolemobiTis formebi; 3. erTi da imave teqstis erT nusxaSi rom awmyos xolmeobiTia, meoreSi saTanado adgilas awmyoa; 4. awmyos gverdiT dasturdeba uwyvetlis xolmeobiTis, II xolmeobiTis, an III xolmeobiTis formebi; 5. gadamweri awmyos xolmeobiTis `gadaazrianebas~ cdila (igulisxmeba -ns gageba mr-is formantad da Secvla en/an-iT) 1. Cveni azriT, es masala `awmyos xolmeobiTis gadavardnis gzaze dadgomis~ ki ara, imis sabuTia, rom e.w. `awmyos xolmeobiTi~ funqciur donezec ver gamoiyofa Cveulebrivi awmyosagan. miRebulia, rom awmyosa da xolmeobiTis mwkrivebs erTmaneTTan swored diuratiulobis, gangrZobiTobis momenti akavSirebs 2. amitomacaa SesaZlebeli maTi konteqsturi Tanaarseboba. amdenad, `awmyos xolmeobiTs~ araviTari damoukidebeli funqcia ar gaaCnia. `awmyos xolmeobiTi~ arc formis da arc funqciis TvalsazrisiT gamosayofi araa. erTaderTi, rac -n, -ed sufiqsian awmyos akavSirebs xolmeobiTebTan, Tanadrouloba unda iyos. arqaulobaa xolmeobiTebis gverdiT maTi ufro xSiri gamovlenis mizezi. -n, -ed formantebi im drois naSTi unda iyos, roca jer kidev aspeqtis Zveli sistema moqmedebda 3. e.w. `awmyos xolmeobiTis~ funqciuri damoukideblobac rom dadasturebuliyo, misi adgili qarTuli zmnis nakvTeulTa sistemaSi mainc ar aRmoCndeboda, ramdenadac formaTa morfologiur klasifikaciaSi funqciuri kategoriebis Careva klasifikaciis wesis darRvevad CaiTvleba. am wesis darRvevis logikuri Sedegi iyo is, rom I TurmeobiTis III piris iSviaT formebs III xolmeobiTis saxeli daerqva (i. abulaZe, l. kiknaZe, z. sarjvelaZe). perfeqtuli nakvTisTvis `xolmeobiTobis~ miwera, cxadia, ufro metad moulodnelia.

z. sarjvelaZe, qarTuli salit. enis ist. sakiTxebi, gv.149-157. arn. Ciqobava, mesame piris subieqtis uZvelesi niSani... ; misive, permansivis istoriuli adgilisaTvis... ; misive, ergatiuli konstruqciis problema... §7; iv. qavTaraZe, zmnis ZiriTadi kategoriebi... gv.14. 3 arn. Ciqobava, mesame piris subieqtis uZvelesi niSani..., gv.22-23.
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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

amgvarad, n//d, en//ed mesame subieqturi piris arqauli formantebia; isini ukve Zvel qarTulSi arian gadaSenebis gzaze damdgari elementebi. yuradRebas iqcevs erTi sagulisxmo faqti: -n da -ed formantebs unari SeswevT Seenacvlon piris danarCen sufiqsebs, roca am danarCenTa urTierTmonacvleoba SezRudulia — maT TavianTi poziciebi gaaCniaT. es movlena, jer erTi, SeiZleba -n, -ed sufiqsTa uZvelesobas adasturebs, meorec — maTs erTaderTobas garkveul etapze; SeiZleba isini im drois naSTebia, roca mxoloobiTsac da mravlobiTsac TiTo sufiqsi gamoxatavda. Sdr.: kl-a kal-n Seudg-es \ Seudg-ed (ant.72,32) >n{ dasxdi-an — ed { dasxdi-ed (lim.27,32) ar-s ar-n SeSWam-en / SeSWam-ed (lim. 34,18) qarTvelur enaTa monacemebis gaanalizebiT b. foCxua mivida im daskvnamde, rom mravlobiTobis formantTagan ZiriTadia -en, xolo -an sufiqsi zanuri warmoSobisad CaTvala 1. g. rogavam uaryo -an-is zanuri warmomavloba da is miiCnia -en-is fonetikur variantad; es procesi unda momxdariyo -i-s Semdeg2. Tu am azrs gaviziarebT, I TurmeobiTSi SemorCenili gvqonia amosavali formebi: Seupyrien (→Seupyrian). S3 mr-is gamosaxatavad TurmeobiT I-Si istoriulad ori amosavali formanti gvrCeba: -en, -ed. sxva nakvTebidan maTTan Semova mesame wevri -es. am sam wevrs daupirispirdeba sami sufiqsi S3 mx-isa (-s, -n, -d) da dadgeba sakiTxi maTi urTierTmimarTebisa 3. miuxedavad imisa, rom subieqturi mesame piris sufiqsuri warmoeba yvelaze gviani formaciisad iTvleba4, aq dadasturebul formantebs masalobrivad mWidro kavSiri aqvs iberiul-kavkasiur enebSi arsebul nivTis kategoriis klas-niSnebTan. s, n, d TanxmovniTi elementebi qarTuli enis morfologiis mTel sivrceze iCenen Tavs, rogorc Zveli movlenis naSTebi 5.

b. foCxua, mravlobiTobis nariani mawarmoeblebi Zvel qrTulSi: qarTvelur enaTa struqturis sakiTxebi, II, 1961, gv.61. 2 g. rogava, mravlobiTi ricxvis mesame subieqturi piris -an sufiqsisaTvis... gv. 76-77. 3 iqve. gv. 77. 4 arn. Ciqobava, mesame piris subieqtis uZvelesi niSani, gv. 16. 5 arn. Ciqobava, gramatikul klas-kategoriaTa niSnebis etimologiisaTvis qarTvelur enebSi: mecn. akad. moambe, V, 4, 1944; misive, gramatikuli klas-kategoria da zmnis uRvlilebis zogi sakiTxi qarTulSi (1945): ike V, 1953; misive, gramatikuli klas-kategoria da brunvis niSanTa genezisis sakiTxi qarTulSi: mecn. akad. moambe, VII, 1-2, 1946; misive, saxelis fuZis uZvelesi agebuleba qarTvelur enebSi, 1942; v. Tofuria, n da s fenebisaTvis... ; misive, enis ganviTarebis Sinagan kanonTa erTi nimuSi... ; misive, xmovanTavsarTuli saxelebi; Tsu Sromebi, 30 b—31 b, 1947; misive, ne-, ni-, na-prefiqsebisaTvis: Tsu Sr., VII, 1938; n. andRulaZe, klasovani da pirovani uRvlilebis istoriis zogi sakiTxi iberiul-kavkasiur enebSi, Tb., 1968, gv. 55; Sdr. a. oniani, qarTvelur enaTa istoriuli morfologiis sakiTxebi, Tb., 1978, gv. 66-69, 166-185, 206-208.

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farnaoz erTeliSvili

-d //-n (-en) vnebiTobis sufiqsTa genezisis sakiTxisaTvis
sufiqsiani vnebiTi Tanamerove qarTulSi mxolod -d-bolosarTiania, Zvel qarTulSi d-s garda n (-en) sufiqsic gvqonda. rogorc cnobilia, am bolo xans vnebiTis warmoebas saerTod meoreulad miiCneven, vnebiTi gvaris zmnis fuZeebi moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnis fuZeebs emyarebao. Tu asea, -d, -n sufiqsebs, romlebic amJamad da Zvel qarTulSic vnebiTis mawarmoebel elementebad arian miCneuli, adre sxva funqcia unda hqonodaT; vnebiTobis morfologiuri Sinaarsi am sufiqsebisaTvis mermindeli SenaZeni unda iyos. vnebiTi gvaris sufiqsuri warmoeba rom gviandelia prefiqsulTan SedarebiT, es iqidanac Cans, rom amgvari warmoeba svanurSi saerTod ar mogvepoveba1, xolo rac Seexeba zanurs, aq aseTi viTarebaa: megrulSi `aqa-iq d-iani vnebiTic daCndeba: doSquron-d-u SeSinda; goWiTon-d-u gawiTlda. . . d-iani vnebiTi qarTulidan Sesuli Cans, arc Wanurisa da arc megrulisaTvis es tipi damaxasiaTeblad ver miiCneva, am tipis uqonlobam farTo gasaqani misca megrulSi sxva tipebs: e—u, o—u, a—u~2. aqedanac gamomdinareobs, rom, jer erTi, vnebiTebis sufiqsuri warmoeba qarTulSi qarTvelur enaTa diferenciaciis Semdegdroindeli movlenaa, da meorec, rom —d//-n (←-en) sufiqsTa warmomavloba mxolod qarTulis monacemebis mixedviT SesaZlebelia aixsnas. qvemoT am —d//-n (←-en) sufiqsTa genezisis sakiTxze gveqneba msjeloba. sanam sakiTxis ganxilvaze gadavidodeT, mokled SevexoT, ra aris cnobili dReisaTvis —d//-n (-en) sufiqsebis Sesaxeb. `sufiqsiani vnebiTi axasiaTebs nasaxelar zmnebs: mdidari — mdidr-d-eba, mwvane — mwvan-d-eba... kanti-kuntad is pirvelad zmnebSic moipoveba: tex-s — ty-d-eba (←*tx-d-eba), xeTqs — sq-d-eba (←*xTq-d-eba), Zv. q. da-h£sna — da-h£snd-a da sxva... rogorc Zv. qarTulis masalebi gviCvenebs, sufiqsiani vnebiTis niSani d miRebulia —n-sagan disimilaciis niadagze narnara (n r l) bgerebTan, romlebic saxelTa fuZeebs abolovebdnen: gan-mdidr-n-a( gan-mdidr-d-a, gan-marTl-n-a → gan-marTl-d-a da misT. Semdeg es d ganzogadda da yovelgvari bgeriT gaTavebul fuZes daerTo: Se-wux-n-a → Se-wux-d-a, aR-yuav-n-a → aR-yuavg. maWavariani, zmnis ZiriTadi morfologiuri kategoriebi qarTvelur enebSi, naw. 1, sakand. disertacia, manqanaze nabeWdi, 1953. 2 a. Ciqobava, Wanuris gramatikuli analizi, 1936, 114.
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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

d-a, da-mZim-n-a → da-mZim-d-a da sxva. es n naSTia -en marcvlisa, romelic aRdgeboda wyvetilis I-sa da II pirSi: Se-vwux-en, Se-swux-en, magram: Se-wux-n-a~1. es debulebebi saTanado ilustraciiT a. SaniZes ufro vrclad aqvs gadmocemuli adre gamoqveynebul gamokvlevaSi2. v. Tofurias sityviT, amJamad Ziriseulad gamocxadebuli -d (→ -ed) istoriulad vnebiTis formati unda iyos. man vnebiTis mawarmoebel formantad miiCnia ed marcvali Semdeg fuZeebSi: jed, miswued, Semxueda, mohkued, gardamo£ed, *ced-ebis (→ cT-ebis), *Sed-ebis (← ST-ebis); agreTve svanuris zmnur fuZeebSi — xe-wed-en-i (→ xe-wd-eni `naxavs~), sed-n-i `rCeba~, £ed-n-i `modis~...3 avtoris daskvna ganxiluli sakiTxis irgvliv zogadad aseTia: `vnebiTis sawarmoeblad -e(n) bolosarTTan erTad (e)d-ic iyo gamoyenebuli Zvel qarTulSi. -e(n) gvxvdeboda upiratesad saxelebTan, xolo -(e)d zmnis fuZeebTan. ukanaskneli adridanve Ziriseuladaa qceuli: jed, sxed, wued da sxv. . . vnebiTis ed-is arseboba qarTul da svanur zmnebSi gviCvenebs, rom is axali warmonaqmni ar aris. amdenad unda gadaisinjos sakiTxi ed-is meoreuli warmoSobis Sesaxeb. amas moiTxovs iseTi formebis arsebobac, rogoricaa dadum-d-en... daumZim-d-a... aRyuavil-n-a...~4. vnebiTobis —d/n (-en) sufiqsebs Seexo g. maWavariani Tavis sakandidato disertaciaSi. igi fiqrobs, rom —d-sufiqsi n-sagan ar unda iyos miRebuli disimilaciiT. disimilacia aq, SesaZlebelia, saerTod moulodneli ar aris, `magram obieqtis simravlis -n ← -en sufiqsi imave pirobebSi disimilacias ar ganicdis: gan-kurn-n-a, qmn-n-a, aR-iyvan-n-a... igini. garda amisa, -d sufiqsi ukve Zvel qarTulSi gvxvdeba iseT zmnebSic, romelTa fuZeebi narnara bgerebiT ar aris daboloebuli. Sdr. ganty-d-a da gan-sTq-d-a yovelTvis -d sufiqsiT warmogvidgeba. Sdr. agreTve da-mZim-d-a, da-a-viwy-d-a. SeiniSneba erTgvari meryeobac: da-dum-n-a // da-dum-d-a, aR-borg-n-a // aR-borg-d-a, aRyuav-n-a // aR-yuav-d-a, gan-cruv-n-a // gan-cruv-d-a. meore mxriv, n SeiZleba narnara bgeris mezoblobaSic Segvxvdes: aR-yuavil-n-a. es faqtebi imis sasargeblod metyveleben, rom d -n-sagan ar unda iyos miRebuli disimilaciis gziT. -d (←ed) damoukidebeli formanti unda iyos, rogorc amas varaudobs prof. v. Tofuria~5. g. maWavariani jed tipis fuZeebSi gamoyofil -ed sufiqss vnebiTi gvaris mawarmoebel sufiqsad ar miiCnevs: `-ed sufiqsi rom uTuod vnebiTobasTan da dinamikurobasTan ar aris dakavSirebuli, amaze Tundac is faqti miuTiTebs, rom igive -ed sx-ed-an //sx-en-ed zmnis fuZeSic gamoiyofa. es zmna ki aSkarad statikuria. yovel SemTxvevaSi vnebiTi gvaris zmnad mas ver miviCnevT.
a. SaniZe, qarTuli gramatikis safuZvlebi, 1953, gv. 298. a. SaniZe, nasaxelari zmnebi qarTulSi, qarTuli enis struqturisa da istoriis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi, 1, 1957, gv. 35-44. 3 v. Tofuria, qarTvelur enaTa sityvawarmoebidan, II, enimkis moambe, V-VI, 1940, gv. 534-6. 4 iqve, gv. 536. 5 g. maWavariani, zmnis ZiriTadi morfologiuri kategoriebi qarTvelur enebSi, gv. 208.
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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

`jdebis~ tipis zmnaTa ed-s ver davacilebT im -ed sufiqss, romelic fuZedrekad zmnebSi gamoiyofa: wm-ed-s — wm-id-a, wyu-ed-s — wyu-id-a (wy¢da)... wm-ed-s, wyu-ed-s... gardamavali zmnebia, maSasadame, -ed sufiqsi gardamaval zmnebSic SeiZleba gvqondes. mo-wy-d-a → mo-wy-ed-a zmnis -ed iseve ar aris vnebiTis mawarmoebeli, rogorc wyu-ed-s zmnis -ed ar aris moqmedebiTi gvaris mawarmoebeli. da-j-d-a ← *da-jed-a zmnis -ed iseve ar aris vnebiTis niSani, rogorc mo-wy-ed-a zmnis -ed~1. avtors mohyavs sxva sabuTebic Tavisi mosazrebis sasargeblod. aseTia mokled sakiTxis irgvliv arsebuli mosazrebani. aRniSnul mosazrebaTagan CvenTvis amosavalia Semdegi debulebani: -d//n sufiqsebi Zvel qarTulSi vnebiTi gvaris mawarmoebeli bolosarTebia; -d da -n ( en) erTmaneTisagan damoukidebeli, paraleluri sufiqsebia (-d ar aris miRebuli -n-sagan); Zvel qarTulSi -n (-en) gvxvdeba upiratesad nasaxelar zmnebSi, xolo -d-zmnur fuZeebSic da nasaxelar fuZeebSic. axla uSualod vnebiTobis -d//-n (-en) sufiqsTa genezisis Sesaxeb. a) -d sufiqsiani vnebiTi Zvel qarTulSi yuradRebas iqcevs erTi rigis saSualo gvaris zmnaTa Cveneba, romelTac awmyoSi fuZis mawarmoeblad araviTari sufiqsi ar daerTviT. fuZis agebulebis mixedviTac da semantikuradac aseTi zmnebi uZvelesi zmnebia. esenia: wux-s, dum-s, Can-s, ax-s, uZn-s, duR-s, uyuar-s, eWu-s, hmarju-s, sZul-s. hSur-s, sZag-s, akl-s, uk¢r-s, w¢m-s...2 aRniSnul zmnaTa namyos (uwyvetlis) fuZe yovelTvis -d-sufiqsiania: wux-d-a, dum-d-a3, Cn-d-a, ax(l)-d-a, uZn-d-a, duR-d-a, uyuar-d-a, eWu-d-a, hmarju-d-a, sZul-d-a, hSur-d-a, sZag-d-a, akl-d-a, uk¢r-d-a, w¢m-d-a... TiToeuli aq damowmebul formaTagan namyo drois formaa an, rogorc es miRebulia, namyo uwyvetlisa, radgan yvelgan -d-sufiqsi gvaqvs fuZeSi. . . magram aseTi zmnebi, rogorc wesi, statikuri Sinaarsisaa, amitom maTi namyo yovelTvis uwyvetlis gagebas ki ar gvaZlevs, rogorc es dinamikur zmnebSi SeimCneva, aramed saerTod namyos, namyo zogadisas (Sdr.: aRaSeneb-s // aRaSeneb-d-a da: wux-s // wux-d-a). wux-s jgufis zmnebi namyo droSi usruli aspeqtis zmnebia. srul aspeqts qarTulSi, rogorc cnobilia, awarmoeben zmniswinebi, magram isic cnobilia, rom saSualo gvaris zmnebi, rogorc wesi, zmniswinebs ar dairTaven, an `Tu dairTaven, mxolod zogierTebi da isic mxolod awmyos wris mwkrivebSi: mi-goravs, mi-frinavs, mi-qris, mo-swons, Ca-sdgams da misT. sxva mwkrivebSi mediumi zmniswins iSviaTad miiRebs~4.
g. maWavariani, zmnis ZiriTadi morfologiuri kategoriebi qarTvelur enebSi, gv. 210—211. sailustracio masalis nawili amoRebuli gvaqvs iv. qavTaraZis wignidan `zmnis ZiriTadi kategoriebis istoriisaTvis Zvel qarTulSi~, 1954. 3 dum-s zmnis namyo Cveulebriv n sufiqsiania: dum-n-a. 4 a. SaniZe, qarTuli gramatikis safuZvlebi, 320.
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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

aseTsave suraTs aqvs adgili Zvel qarTulSic. saSualo gvaris zmnebTan zmniswinebi iSviaTad iCenen Tavs da, Tu gvxvdeba, Cveulebriv moZraobis aRmniSvnel zmnebTan: gan-evltis (imarxis guelman ormeoc dRÀ, vidre tyavi ganevltis, saxismety. id 12), mo-vivlti (aw Senda movivlti, sasul sJÀ 242), aR-modis (aRmodioda wyaro¡ winaSe Wabukisa mis, saba, 1020), mo-rbis (romelni morbied misa, kim. 1, 1436), mi-vtontmaneb (vidre me mivtontmanebdi, I 5,7), mi-hyvebis (maSin mihyveboda da ara uwyoda, vidre miiyvaneboda, kim. 1, 1671), mi-vaqu (viTarca Seabrkola navi igi. . ., miuteveT da mivaqundiT, mociq. 27, 15), gamo-aqus (romelsa nayofi ar gamoaqus, boln. 18), mo-xual (Sen Cemda moxuala m 3,4), ganxual (nu ganxual Sen amier, habo, 673), war-vals (vldomiT Tana warvals igi, ipol. 2132), Se-vals (sxuanica mravalni Sevlenan misa, Tekl. 9614)... oriode saSuali gvaris zmna moZraobis aRmniSvneli ar aris, magram preverbdarTulia: mo-veli, Se-hgavn. . . (wyalobasa moveli, SuS. 4148), Zuelsa mas ver Sehgavn sadgmeli axlisa samoslisa¡, l 5, 36). roca moZraobis aRmniSvnel zmnebs zmniswinebi erTvis, isini moZraobis mimarTulebas aRniSnaven (mi-vals, mo-vals, war-vals, gardamo-vals...), amitom preverbebi zmnis awmyos formebTanac gvaqvs da dro-kiloTa sxva formebSic, ra Tqma unda, gadmosacemi Sinaarsis moTxovnilebis Sesabamisad (movivlti, mo-vivltode, mo-vivltodi. . .). cxadia, zemoT moyvanil magaliTebSi zmniswinebs aspeqtis aRniSvnasTan araviTari damokidebuleba ara aqvT. magram am azriT yuradRebas iqceven erTi jgufis saSuali gvaris zmnebi, romlebTanac awmyoSi zmniswinebi Cveulebriv SeuZlebelia, namyos formebSi ki — bunebrivi da, radgan mxolod zmnis namyos formebSi emateba isini zmnebs, amitom am SemTxvevaSi zmniswinebs aspeqtis aRniSvnasTan ukve uSualo damokidebuleba aqvT. awmyo Can-s ax(l)-s uZn-s duR-s namyo (usruli aspeqti) Cn-d-a ax(l)-d-a uZn-d-a duR-d-a namyo (sruli aspeqti) gamo-Cn-d-a mi-ax(l)-d-a Se-uZn-d-a da-duR-d-a

uyuar-s

uyuar-d-a

Se-uyuar-d-a

eWu-s

eWu-d-a

Se-eWu-d-a

aha tredi igi kualad gamoCnda, ravax. 838 rameTu miaxda sikudid, i 4, 47 saqme ese friad SeuZnda iovanes, zarzm. 1728 da daduRda igi matliTa saSineliTa, kim. I, 31622 friad Seuyuarda kurapalatsa adgili igi, xanZT. kv 34 SeeWuda sityuasa angelozisas, kim. 1, 1811 197

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

awmyo h-Sur-s

namyo (usruli aspeqti) h-Sur-d-a

namyo (sruli aspeqti) Se-Sur-d-a

akl-s

akl-d-a

mo-akl-d-a

uk¢r-s £ur-s

uk¢r-d-a £ur-d-a

da-uk¢r-d-a gan-£ur-d-a

SemSurda... da SemeSina Targmanebad, qrest. 6716 xolo igi moaklda, viTarca kuamli, kim. 1, 23618 me damik¢rda, SuS. 2532 gan£urda guliTa, kim. 1, 20219

amaT SeiZleba davumatoT zmnebi, romelTa namyo drois sruli aspeqtis formebisaTvis masala Zveli qarTulis teqstebidan xelT ara gvaqvs, magram aseTebi SeuZlebeli ar aris. Tumca saWiroa isic aRvniSnoT, rom qvemomoyvanil zmnaTa namyos sruli aspeqtis formebi Zvel qarTulSi kidevac rom ar dadasturdes, mogviano qarTulSi aseTi formebis arseboba faqtia. scal-s scal-d-a da-s-cal-d-a wux-s wux-d-a Se-wux-d-a dum-s dum-d-a da-dum-d-a s-Zul-s s-Zul-d-a Se-s-Zul-d-a a£sov-s a£sov-d-a da-a-£sov-d-a // da-a-£som-d-a s-Zag-s s-Zag-d-a Se-s-Zag-d-a w¢m-s w¢m-d-a ga-w¢m-d-a h-marju-s h-marju-d-a gan-umarju-d-a *un-a un-d-a mo-un-d-a da a.S. rogorc Cans, namyo drois sruli aspeqtis formebi miviReT namyos (uwyvetlis) fuZeze zmniswinebis darTviT. magram amJamad sruli aspeqtis formebs aseTi kvalifikacia ki ar eZleva, aramed wyvetilis zmnebs ganixilaven, rogorc vnebiTis namyo wyvetilis formebs. romeli klasifikaciaa ufro swori? arc erTi ar aris mcdari. romelime `gamoCnda~ forma namyo wyvetilic aris, sruli aspeqtisac, vnebiTi gvarisac. magram ra aris risTvis amosavali? vnebiTobis gageba aqvs safuZvlad aspeqts Tu, piriqiT, sruli aspeqtis Sinaarsia amosavali vnebiTobis morfologiuri SinaarsisaTvis? roca aRniSnuli tipis zmna upreverboa, masSi araferi mogvepoveba iseTi, rac vnebiTi gvaris morfologiur niSnad SeiZleboda migveCnia. zmniswinebis darTvas araviTari uSualo damokidebuleba ara aqvs gvaris kategoriasTan, samagierod zmniswinebis mimatebas namyos fuZeze uSualo damokidebuleba aqvs aspeqtis aRniSvnasTan. maSasadame, romelime `gamoCnda~ forma pirvel rigSi namyo drois sruli aspeqtis formaa, vnebiTis Sinaarsi ki am formisTvis meoreulia. vnebiTobis Sinaarsis damkvidrebas xels uwyobs is garemoebac, rom namyo drois fuZis niSani -d ufunqciod rCeba mas Semdeg, rac 198

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

zmniswinebis darTvis wyalobiT zmnis forma srulaspeqtiani xdeba. amis niadagzea, rom ufunqciod darCenili namyo fuZis -d sufiqss sxva Sinaarsi — vnebiTi gvaris morfologiuri Sinaarsi eufleba. rac Seexeba meore rigis saSuali gvaris zmnebs, CvenTvis saintereso TvalsazrisiT, romelTac awmyoSi fuZis sawarmoeblad -i, -av, -ob, -eb, -ovi sufiqsebi aqvT, maT doniani vnebiTi Zvel qarTulSi iSviaTad ewarmoebaT (borg-i-s — aR-borg-d-a, yuav-i-s — aR-yuav-d-a, orgul-eb-s — Se-orgul-d-a, frin-av-s — aR-frin-d-a, brwyin-av-s — gamo-brwyin-d-a...). Zvel qarTulSi Tu saSuali gvaris zmnebis awmyos fuZis daboloebad -i sufiqsi iCens Tavs, maSin aseTi tipis zmnebs namyoSi (uwyvetelSi) -od sufiqsi eqnebaT mawarmoeblad. es normaa. amis mixedviT borg-i-s zmnas namyo uwyvetelSi unda moeca borg-od-a. borg-od-a forma Zvelma qarTulma ar icis, uwyvetelSi -d sufiqsiani formebia dadasturebuli (vborgd maT zeda da vsdevnidi, mociq. 1611; da can, rameTu maronitelTa wvalebiTa borgdes, antioq. 5917). namyos fuZis mixedviT awmyosTvis borg-s forma aRdgeba da ara borg-i-s, Tu Zveli qarTulis normebs davicavT, miuxedavad imisa, rom Zvel qarTulSi Cveulebriv borg-i-s gvxvdeba (eSmaki ars mis Tana da borgis, i 10, 20). simarTlesTan ufro axlos viqnebiT, Tu davuSvebT, rom awmyoSi borg Ziri sufuqsianic unda gvqonoda da usufiqsoc — borg-s // borg-i-s. namyo uwyvetlis formebi nawarmoebi Cans awmyos usufiqso fuZisagan: borg-s — borg-d-a. aqedan unda iyos miRebuli Semdgom aR preverbiani sruli aspeqtis (vnebiTi gvaris) forma — aR-borg-d-a (aRborgda karauli igi da gardamoagdo igi queyanad, kim. 1, 33720). es fuZe vnebiTis paralelur —n-arian warmoebasac avlens — aR-borg-n-a (ufro¡sRa aRborgna, xanZT. ¡T 24). h-Suen-i-s zmnis namyo uwyvetelia h-Suen-od-a. namyos fuZe -od sufiqsiania, magram sruli aspeqtis (vnebiTis) forma aqedan gan-Suen-od-a ki ar aris, aramed gan-Suen-d-a (sasul. mT 67). gan-Suen-d-a-s mixedviT uwyveteli h-Suen-d-a saxisa unda aRdges, xolo awmyos fuZe h-Suen-s saxisa. orZ-i-s zmnis namyo uwyveteli Zvel qarTulSi ar aris dadasturebuli (*orZ-od-a an *orZ-d-a). sruli aspeqtis (vnebiTis) formebi aseTia: aR-orZ-n-d-a (keTilad aRorZndi, Satberdo, xanZT. og 16), aR-orZ-in-d-a (raisa-me aRorZinda hasaki ese siyrmiTgan, kim. 1, 14327). -n -in sufiqsis Taobaze sxvadasxva varaudi SeiZleba gamoiTqvas1, magram asea Tu ise, aRorZn-d-a fuZeSi -d- amJamad vnebiTis niSania da warmoSobiT, SesaZlebelia, isic namyos niSani iyos.

1 a) es —n→in awmyos fuZis kuTvnilebaa istoriulad (*orZ-in-s) da aqedan aris gadasuli sruli aspeqtis Sinaarsis mqone fuZeSic: *orZ-in-s — orZ-in-da — aR-orZ-in-d-a. sxva SemTxvevaSi, albaT maxvilis gamo, fuZiseuli i-s reduqcia xdeboda (aR-orZ-n-d-a). b) SesaZlebelia, es -n -in moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnis fuZidan iyos gadmoyolili (orZ-i-s, aR-a-orZ-in-a, aR-orZ-in-d-a). g) SesaZlebelia, gvqonoda orZ fuZisagan nawarmoebi n-ariani namyoc orZ-n-a // aR-orZ-n-a (Sdr. dum-n-a // da-dum-n-a). sruli aspeqtis formaa aR-orZ-n-a (Sdr. da-dum-n-a), ufro gvian es -n fuZiseulad iqna gaazrebuli da vnebiTis sufiqsi -d isev daematao (Tumca am ukanasknel mosazrebas naklebi safuZveli aqvs).

199

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

aR-yuav-d-a (aR-h-yuav-d-i viTarca mcenarÀ, sasul. riz 55) formis mixedviTac SeiZleboda aRgvedgina awmyosTvis *yuav-s, xolo uwyvetlisaTvis *yuav-d-a formebi. msgavsadve, zogierTi zmnis sruli aspeqtis formebis (resp. vnebiTebis) mixedviT TiTqos SeuZlebeli ar aris aRvadginoT awmyos iseTi fuZeebi, romlebic Zvel qarTulSi ar aris daculi: gan-c¢br-d-a ←*c¢br-s, aR-SÀn-d-a ←*SÀn-s, Se-cbun-d-a ←*cbun-s1 (←cb-i-s). axla Tu aq moyvanil zmnaTa sruli aspeqtis formebis mixedviT aRvadgenT namyo uwyvetlisa (usruli aspeqtisa) da awmyos savaraudebel formebs, aseT suraTs miviRebT: namyo (sruli aspeqti) aR-borg-d-a gan-Suen-d-a aR-orZ(i)n-d-a aR-yuav-d-a gan-c¢br-d-a aR-SÀn-d-a Se-cbun-d-a a-tir-d-a (mogviano qarTulisa) gan-Z¢n-d-a namyo (usruli aspeqti) *borg-d-a *Suen-d-a *orZ(i)n-d-a *yuav-d-a *c¢br-d-a *SÀn-d-a *cbun-d-a *tir-d-a *Z¢n-d-a awmyo *borg-s *Suen-s *orZ(i)n-s *yuav-s *c¢br-s *SÀn-s *cbun-s *tir-s *Z¢n-s. . .

im zmnebs, romelTac awmyos fuZis niSnebad moudiT -av, -ob, -eb, -ovi sufiqsebi, doniani vnebiTi Zvel qarTulSi ewarmoebaT rogorc gamonaklisi (orgul-eb-s — Se-orgul-d-a, frin-av-s — aR-frin-d-a, brwyin-av-s — gamo-brwyin-d-a, zrun-av-s — Se-zrun-d-a). Tanamedrove qarTulSi aRniSnuli tipis zogierT zmnas vnebiTebi gauCnda (RaRad-eb-s — a-RaRad-d-a, mo-qmed-eb-s — a-mo-qmed-d-a, Tav-£ed-ob-s — gaTav-xed-d-a. . .), magram xSir SemTxvevaSi amgvari warmoeba erTgvarad xelovnurobis STabeWdilebas tovebs (gmin-av-s — gmin-d-eb-a, kiskis-eb-s — kiskis-d-eb-a, luRluR-eb-s — luRluR-d-eb-a, Srom-ob-s — Srom-d-eb-a... Tumca saWiroa isic aRiniSnos, rom damowmebuli vnebiTebis formaTagan zogierTi II seriis mwkrivebSi ukve bunebriv warmoebas gviCvenebs: a-gmin-d-a, a-kiskis-d-a, a-luRluR-d-a... ). rogorc Cans, saSuali gvaris zmnebs vnebiTad moqcevis dros awmyos fuZis bolosarTebi (-av, -ob, -eb, -ovi) ara aqvT. aq igive sakiTxi ismis, rac -i sufiqsian fuZeebTan dakavSirebiT daisva: a) aqac amosavlad an awmyos usufiqso fuZe unda davuSvaT (aR-frin-d-a — *frin-d-a — *frin-s; Se-zrun-d-a — *zrun-d-a — *zrun-s...), rac ufro nakleb mosalodnelia, an b) warmoeba vnebiTis fuZeebisa, romlebic sufiqsian awmyos fuZeTagan aris miRebuli, usufiqso awmyos fuZeebSi momxdari

1

Tu, ra Tqma unda, -un sufiqsi aqac moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnis fuZisagan ar aris gadmosuli.

200

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

procesis analogias unda mivaweroT. Tu es ukanaskneli varaudi aRmoCndeba swori, maSin, cxadia, awmyosa da namyos fuZeebs varskvlavebi moexsneboda. rogoric unda iyos varaudi aRdgenili fuZeebis Taobaze, sakiTxis irgvliv msjelobis pozitiuri nawili am saxiT warmogvidgeba: -d sufiqsi ukve Zvel qarTulSi vnebiTi gvaris mawarmoebeli sufiqsia, igi upiratesad gvxvdeba zmnur fuZeebTan, warmoSobiT es -d sufiqsi igive namyos (uwyvetlis) bolosarTi unda iyos, vnebiTis niSnad is merea qceuli, gansakuTrebiT mas Semdeg, rac sruli aspeqtis Sinaarsis mqone fuZeebisagan SesaZlebeli gaxda dro-kiloTa sxva formebis warmoebac (wux-d-a — Se-wux-d-a... Se-wuxd-ebi-s, Se-wux-d-eb-od-a...) -d sufiqsis sruli saxe Tavdapirvelad SesaZlebelia marTlac -ed iyo. es varaudi albaT im SemTxvevaSi iqneba marTebuli, Tu aRmoCndeba, rom namyos (uwyvetlis) d←ed. magram -d sufiqsi Zvelsave qarTulSi gvxvdeba ara mxolod zmnur fuZeebTan, igi sakmaod xSirad iCens Tavs nasaxelari zmnebis fuZeebSic: gan-mwuan-d-a, gan-Zlier-d-a, gan-mdidr-d-a, da-ber-d-a, da-mcir-d-a, ganmwar-d-a, gan-ciskr-d-a, gan-qar-d-a, aR-m£edr-d-a, gan-marTl-d-a, gan-mravl-d-a, aR-maRl-d-a, da-mdabl-d-a, da-bnel-d-a, gan-cxovel-d-a, gan-SiSul-d-a, gan-mxiarul-d-a, da-sneul-d-a, gan-Tavisufl-d-a, aR-mojejil-d-a, Se-orgul-d-a... -d-sufiqsiani nasaxelari zmnebi yovelTvis zmniswinianebia (erTi uzmniswino forma mohyavs a. SaniZes — m£n-d-a1) da yovelTvis sruli aspeqtis Sinaarsis mqoneni. amaTi usruli aspeqtis formebi agreTve uzmniswinoebia, magram awmyoSi maT awmyos fuZisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli sufiqsebi erTviT: aR-maRl-d-a maRl-ovi-n gan-mdidr-d-a mdidr-ovi-n Se-orgul-d-a orgul-eb-s gan-mxiarul-d-a mxiarul-ob-s ga-mef-d-a (mogviano qarTulisa) mef-ob-s marTalia, usruli aspeqtis fuZeebi yvela ar aris dadasturebuli Zvel qarTulSi (gvaqvs, magaliTad, gan-Zlier-d-a, da-mdabl-d-a da a.S. formebi, magram TiTqos ar Cans: Zlier-ob-s, Zlie-ovi-n, mdabl-ob-s, mdabl-ovi-n...) da arc yvela aspeqtis formebi (gvaqvs: episkopos-ob-s, £elmwif-ob-s, creml-ovi-n..., magram ar Cans: gan-episkopos-d-a // gan-episkopos-n-a, gan-£elmwif-d-a // gan-£elmwif-n-a, aR-creml-d-a // aR-creml-n-a...), magram aseTebis aRdgena Zvelive qarTulisaTvis morfologiuri kanonzomierebis farglebSi SesaZlebelia, Tundac mxedvelobaSi ar miviRoT is faqti, rom mogviano qarTulSi aseTi formebi ukve savsebiT bunebrivia (mdabl-ob-s Sdr. Tavmdabl-ob-s, gaepiskopos-d-a, ga-xelmwif-d-a, a-creml-d-a...). aqac ori varaudi isaxeba: a) -d sufiqsiani fuZeebis mixedviT an unda aRvadginoT awmyosa da uwyvetlis savaraudo fuZeebi (ase, magaliTad, *maRl-s — *maRl-d-a — aR-maRl1

a. SaniZe, nasaxelari zmnebi..., 42.

201

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

d-a), rac nakleb mosalodnelia, radgan aseT daSvebas winareqarTulis morfologiur faqtebTan mivyavarT, sufiqsiani vnebiTi ki, kerZod qarTuli, mogviano movlenaa; b) an -d sufiqsiani nasaxelari zmnebi zmnuri fuZeebis sruli aspeqtis Sinaarsis mqone formebis analogiiT gaCenilad unda miviCnioT (Se-wux-d-a, Se-Sur-d-a, mo-akl-d-a... Sdr.: gan-mdidr-d-a, gan-mwar-d-a, da-bnel-d-a...). es varaudi ufro marTebuli Cans. nasaxelar zmnebSi -d sufiqsi ukve vnebiTisaa; igi uSualod namyos sufiqsisagan ki ar momdinareobs, aramed gaCenili unda iyos analogiiT da maSin, roca zmnuri fuZeebis sruli aspeqtis formebs ukve vnebiTis Sinaarsi hqondaT SeZenili. b) -n (-en) sufiqsiani vnebiTi is, rom -d vnebiTis sufiqsi warmoSobiT SesaZlebelia namyo drois niSani iyos da rom morfologiur funqciaTa aseTi monacvleoba warmoudgeneli ar aris, es -n (-en) sufiqsiani vnebiTebis magaliTzedac Cans. Zvel qarTulSi, rogorc cnobilia, -n (-en) vnebiTebis mawarmoeblad upiratesad nasaxelar zmnebSi gvaqvs (gan-laR-n-a ← *gan-laR-en-a; gan-mtkic-n-a ← *gan-mtkic-en-a...), magram Zvelsave qarTulSi dadasturebulia ramdenime forma, romlebSic -n (-en) sufiqsi zmnur fuZeebTan gvxvdeba. wuxs da dums zmnebis uRleba, magaliTad, awmyoSi, Zveli qarTulis monacemebis mixedviT, aseTia: v-wux s-wux wux-s namyoSi, erTi mxriv, gvaqvs: v-wux-d-i s-wux-d-i wux-d-a meore mxriv: Se-v-wux-en Se-s-wux-en Se-wux-n-a v-dum-en s-dum-en dum-n-a v-dum-d-i s-dum-d-i dum-d-a v-dum s-dum dum-s

dums zmnis -en sufiqsiani namyo Cveulebriv uzmniswinoa, wuxs zmnisa — zmniswiniani. -en →-n sufiqsi aRniSnul zmnebSi vnebiTobis niSnad aris miCneuli. Sewux-n-a, dadum-n-a formebisagan nawarmoebia dro-kiloTa sxva nakvTebi (Se-wux-n-ebi-s, Se-wux-n-eb-od-a, Se-wux-n-eb-od-es... da-dum-n-ebi-s, da-dum-n-eb-od-a, da-dum-neb-od-e-s...), magram Tu awmyosa da -n (-en) sufuqsian namyos formebs erTmaneTs SevupirispirebT, aRmoCndeba, rom, -en sufiqsi pirvel rigSi namyos fuZis mawarmoebeli bolosarTia: v-wux — *v-wux-en — Se-v-wux-en (da-v-wux-en). 202

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

Sdr.: v-wux-d-i Se-v-wux-d-i v-dum — v-dum-en Sdr.: v-dum-d-i da-v-dum-d-i m-rwam-s v-h-rwam m-rwm-en-a1 v-h-rwm-en-i

da-v-dum-en

egeve -en sufiqsi iCens Tavs hrwams zmnis namyoSic:

am SemTxvevaSi ki -en sufiqsis vnebiTis niSnad miCneva gaWirdeboda. maSasadame, -en→ -n sufiqsi Tavdapirvelad namyo drois fuZis mawarmoebeli afiqsia. zogi zmnuri fuZe namyoSi, -d sufiqsis paralelurad, -n /-en sufiqssac aCvenebs: aR-borg-n-a (//aR-borg-d-a), aR-yuav-n-a (//aR-yuav-d-a), zogi ki mxolod —n sufiqsiania — aR-JRav-n-a, da-yud-n-a. igive sufiqsi SeimCneva ramdenime zmnaSi, romelTa Ziri saziaroa saxelisa da zmnisaTvis. zrq- Zirisagan, magaliTad, erTi mxriv, nawarmoebia zedsarTavi zrq-el-i, xolo meore mxriv, gan-zrq-n-a zmna (ganzrqna guli erisa¡ amis, m 13, 15); vrc- Zirisagan, erTi mxriv, gvaqvs zedsarTavi vrc-el-i, xolo meore mxriv, zmna gan-vrc-n-a (ganvrcna piri Cemi zeda mterTa CemTa, sas. poez. rJ rJa). safiqrebelia, rom namyo drois fuZis niSani — sufiqsi -n / -en zmnuri fuZeebidan aris gadasuli nasaxelar fuZeebSi: gan-laR-n-a, gan-ficx-n-a, daglaxak-n-a, gan-spetak-n-a, gan-Wabuk-n-a, gan-cruv-n-a, gan-did-n-a, gan-wmidn-a, Se-SfoT-n-a, gan-mtkic-n-a, gan-kac-n-a. . . -n (-en) sufiqsiani zmnebi yovelTvis sruli aspeqtisani arian, mniSvnelobiTac da formis mixedviTac yovelTvis zmniswinianebia; maTi uRleba namyo wyvetilSi, rogorc cnobilia, aseTia: gan-v-laR-en gan-h-laR-en gan-laR-n-a Tu -n (-en) sufiqsiani nasaxelari fuZeebi yovelTvis sruli aspeqtisaa da uzmniswino fuZeebi ki Zvel qarTulSi ar aris dadasturebuli, maS rogorRa gadmoicemoda amaTi usruli aspeqti (Sdr.: wux-d-a da Se-wux-d-a, uyuar-d-a da Se-uyuar-d-a). aqac -en sufiqsian nasaxelar zmnaTa usruli aspeqtis formebi Zvel qarTulSi zmniswinis CamocilebiT ki ar aris nawarmoebi, aramed fuZis monacvleobiT (fuZeSi sufiqsis SecvliT). usruli aspeqtis formebi (awmyosi, namyo uwyvetlisa) am SemTxvevaSic uzmniswinoa. gan-laR-n-a zmnis usruli aspeqtis Sinaarsis Semcvel formaTa uRleba, magaliTad, aseTia:

hrwmena zogjer uwyvetlis mniSvnelobiT aris naxmari: v~a grwmena, geyavn Sen, m 8, 13 (= как ты веровал).

1

203

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

v-laR-ovi h-laR-ovi laR-ovi-n

v-laR-o(v)-od-e h-laR-o(v)-od-e laR-o(v)-od-a

v-laR-o(v)-od-i h-laR-o(v)-od-i laR-o(v)-od-i-s

sruli aspeqtis formebis sawarmoeblad zmnebs ematebaT zmniswini, rogorc es -d sifiqsiani fuZeebis sruli aspeqtis formaTa warmoebisas SeimCneva, awmyos fuZis mawarmoebeli sufiqsi CamoscildebaT da ematebaT namyos sxva mawarmoebeli sufiqsi -en. Zvel qarTulSi gan-v-laR-o(v)-od-e (Sdr.: v-wux-d-i // Se-v-wux-d-i) daudasturebeli formaa iseve, rogorc v-laR-en, Tumca aseTi ram rom SeuZlebeli ar aris, amaze v-dum-en forma miuTiTebs, nasaxelari zmnebis uzmniswino formebi ki saerTod ar gvxvdeba, Tu aqac mxedvelobaSi ar miviRebT gamonakliss — m£n-d-a. maSasadame, vnebiTobis -n (-en) sufiqsi warmoSobiT agreTve namyo drois sufiqsia. -n (-en) namyo drois fuZis niSnad Tavdapirvelad zmnur fuZeebSi unda gvqonoda (iseve rogorc -d sufiqsi), merme amaTTan analogiiT Cans gadasuli igi nasaxelar zmnebSic. ratom unda vifiqroT, rom zmnur fuZeebSi -n (-en) Tavdapirvelad namyo drois fuZis niSani unda yofiliyo da ara vnebiTisa? aviRoT, magaliTad, dums zmna. amisi namyos formebia dum-n-a1, da-dum-n-a. dum-n-a — da-dum-n-a nariani vnebiTis formebia; namyos formebs awmyoSi da-dum-n-eb-i-s forma Seesatyviseba, romelic Tavisi SinaarsiT dinamikuria. marTalia, da-dum-n-eb-i-s dinamikuria da namyo wyvetilSi mas agreTve dinamikuri da-dum-n-a Seesabameba, magram, rogorc erTi SexedviTac naTlad Cans, da-dum-n-ebi-s forma sxva samTan SedarebiT bolo safexurs warmoadgens: dum-s dum-n-a da-dum-n-a da-dum-n-ebi-s amitom da-dum-n-ebi-s zmnasTan dakavSirebuli viTareba meoreulia. iyo dro, roca gvqonda dum-n-a da da-dum-n-a da ar gvqonda da-dum-n-ebi-s. . . axla Tu dum-n-a da da-dum-n-a formebs SevudarebT erTmaneTs, formaTa ganmasxvavebel elementad mxolod zmniswini mogvevlineba. ra funqciisaa igi? mimarTulebis aRmniSvneli rom iyos, zmniswini awmyoSic unda gvqondes (da-dum-s), aseTi ar Cans. zmniswinebis cnobil funqciaTagan erTia — zmnis axali mniSvnelobis warmoeba. aq aseT SemTxvevas ara aqvs adgili. darCa erTi funqcia — aspeqtis — sruli aspeqtis gamoxatvisa (Sdr.: dum-n-a — da-dum-n-a). da-dum-n-a namyo drois sruli aspeqtis formaa. sruli aspeqtis Sinaarsis Semcvel fuZeSi unda hqondes dasabami vnebiTobis Sinaarss. mas Semdeg, rac dadumna-s gverdiT gaCnda da-dum-n-ebi-s, da-dum-n-eb-od-a... formebi, -n (-en) sufiqsis funqcia — gamoexata namyo dro — daiCrdila da masac vnebiTi gvaris Sinaarsi daepatrona.

oTxTavis teqstis mixedviT dum-n-a zmnis mniSvneloba xan dum-d-a-a, xan da-dum-d-a (= молчал и замолчал).

1

204

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

* ** rogorc ukve aRiniSna, vnebiTobis mawarmoebel sufiqsebad Zvel qarTulSi ori bolosarTi gvqonda -d da -n (-en). amaTgan axal qarTuls mxolod -d sufiqsi SemorCa. Zveli qarTulidan rac ufro aqeT moviwevT, naTlad Cans, rogor farTovdeba kvlav doniani tipis warmoebis are, ranairi TanamimdevrobiT cvlis axla ukve prefiqsian vnebiTebs sufiqsiani vnebiTebi1. i-qorwinebis gan-i-nawilebis da-i-dgina aR-i-maRla da-i-marila gan-i-RmrTo Se-e-rTda mo-e-£sena mo-e-gona Se-e-Sura gan-e-Sora aRmo-e-cena mo-e-wyura Se-e-mSia da-e-mtkica aR-e-Sena Sdr.: qorwil-d-eba nawil-d-eba dadgin-d-eba amaRl-d-a damaril-d-a gaRmerT-d-a SeuerT-d-a mo£sen-d-a moagon-d-a SeSur-d-a ganSor-d-a aRmocen-d-a moswyur-d-a moSiv-d-a damtkic-d-a aSen-d-a da a.S.

Sdr.:

unda vifiqroT, -doniani vnebiTebis saerTo gavrcelebisa da damkvidrebis saqmeSi analogia TamaSobs gadamwyvet rols. * * * a. SaniZes aRniSnuli aqvs, rom gvxvdeba iseTi zmnebic, `pirveladi zmnebi, romelTac mawarmoeblad d-oni aqvT, magram aseTi zmnebis ricxvi Zalian mcirea~2. aseTebad mas dasaxelebuli aqvs gan-tyda ((*gan-txda), gan-sTqda ((*gan-hTqda), da-h£snda. gamokvlevaSi moyvanilia aRniSnul zmnaTa Sesabamisi moqmedebiTi gvaris fuZeebic, romelTagan miRebulia vnebiTis formebi (gan-texa, gan-xeTqa gan-heTqa, da-h£sna).

1 Л. М. Нозадзе, О взаимоотношении префиксального и суффиксального образования глаголов страдательного залога в грузинском языке. Автореферат работыб представленной на соискание ученой степени кандитата филологических наук, 1956, gv., 8—9 (magaliTebic aqedanve mogvyavs).  2 a. SaniZe, nasaxelari zmnebi qarTulSi, gv. 37.

205

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

Tu gan-ty-d-a marTlac miRebulia gan-tex-s formisagan da gan-sTq-d-a gan-xeTq-a (*gan-heTqa)-sagan, cxadia, rom vnebiTad moqcevisaTvis moqmedebiTi gvaris fuZeebSi xmovani amoRebulia, garda amisa orpiriani zmna erTpirianad aris qceuli, Ziri gaumarcvloebulia. es cvlileba agreTve analogiiT unda iyos momxdari, magram analogiiT im zmnebTan, romlebSic zemoaRniSnuli procesebi dasturdeba: gan-wmida mo-wy¢da war-wymida da-Srita mo-drika Se-kriba Seadare amaT: gan-texa gan-xeTqa gan-tyda gan-sqda gan-wmda mo-wyda war-wymda da-Srta mo-drka Se-krba1

1

magaliTebi mogvyavs a. SaniZis dasaxelebu;li gamokvlevis mixedviT.

206

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

lamara nozaZe

prefiqsuli da sufiqsuri vnebiTebis urTierTobisaTvis qarTulSi
warmoebis mixedviT qarTulSi gamoiyofa vnebiTi gvaris zmnaTa ori jgufi1: erTs vnebiTis sawarmoeblad prefiqsebi axasiaTebs, meores amave funqciiT — sufiqsebi. prefiqsul vnebiTs i-, e- TavsarTebi awarmoebs (i-mal-eb-a, e-wer-eb-a...), sufiqsurs — -d bolosarTi, Zvel qarTulSi -d-s paralelurad — -en (-n) -ic (da-ber-d-a, aR-yuav-n-a...). vnebiTis prefiqsuli warmoeba axasiaTebs rogorc pirvelad zmnebs, ise nasaxelars. sufiqsuri warmoeba Cveulebrivia nasaxelari zmnebisaTvis; araiSviaTad gvxvdeba pirvelad zmnebTanac (ga-ty-d-a, da-£sn-d-a... gan-vrc-n-a, gan-siv-n-a...). vnebiTis sufiqsuri tipi metad produqtiulia. Tanamedrove saliteraturo qarTulSi axali zmnebisagan vnebiTs TiTqmis mxolod -d sufiqsi awarmoebs. aRsaniSnavia, rom gvaqvs erTi da imave fuZisagan orgvarad — prefiqsiT da sufiqsiT — nawarmoebi vnebiTebi: da-i-Jang-eba // da-Jang-d-eba, mo-e-wyineb-a // mo-swyin-d-eba, da-e-Tanxm-eb-a // da-sTanxm-d-eb-a, Ca-e-safr-eb-a // Cau-safr-d-eb-a, ga-e-qan-eb-a // ga-qan-d-eb-a2. . . am paraleluri formebidan Tanamedrove saliteraturo qarTuli, iseve rogorc cocxali metyveleba, upiratesobas sufiqsian formebs aZlevs3. vnebiTis paraleluri formebi warmoadgens gardamaval safexurs prefiqsuli warmoebidan sufiqsurze gadasvlisas4. Tanamedrove saliteraturo qarTulSi sufiqsuri warmoeba axasiaTebs mTel wyebas vnebiTebisas, romlebic Zvel qarTulSi prefiqsebiT iwarmoeboda. aseTebia:

1 gamoyofen vnebiTis mesame tipsac, e.w. uniSno vnebiTebs Tbeba, Sreba, dgeba... rigisas (a. SaniZe, qarTuli gramatikis safuZvlebi, I, 1953. § 358, gv. 299; v. Tofuria, mesame tipis vnebiTis warmoeba qarTulSi: saq. ssr mecn. akad. moambe, t. III, 9, 1942). aRniSnul zmnebs vnebiTobis mawarmoebeli niSani ara aqvT da arc unda hqonodaT. maSasadame, maTi vnebiTis formebad miCneva gaumarTlebelia (q. lomTaTiZe, uniSno vnebiTis istoriisaTvis qarTulSi: akad. n. maris saxlobis enis institutis VI samecniero sesia, 1949, Tezisebi, gv. 10—11; misive, Tbeba tipis zmnaTa istoriisaTvis qarTulSi: iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecniereba, IV, 1953, gv. 75—81; arn. Ciqobava, qarTuli enis zogadi daxasiaTeba: qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, I, 1959, gv. 060. 2 Tanamedrove saliteraturo qarTulisaTvis orive tipis formebi kanonieria. 3 zogjer amgvarad nawarmoebi vnebiTebi mniSvnelobiTac gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan; Sdr: ga-i-naz-eb-a // ga-naz-d-eb-a, e-xerx-eb-a // xerx-d-eb-a, ga-e-xmaur-eb-a // ga-xmaur-d-eb-a... gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobebi safuZvels qmnis enaSi orive tipis SenarCunebisaTvis. 4 zog dialeqtSi, magaliTad, kaxurSi, qarTlurSi TiTqmis erTaderTi warmoebaa: gaqanda, dasTanxmda, moswyinda...

207

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

i-qorwin-a, Sdr. da-qorwin-d-a naSobni amis soflisani iqorwinebian da ganhqorwineben: l 20, 34 da-i-maril-a, Sdr. da-maril-d-a yovelive Sesawiravi msxuerplisa Tquenisa¡ mariliTa daimarilen: levit. 2, 13 ukueTu marili igi wbil iyos, ra¡Ta daimarilos: mrk 9, 50 gamo-i-saWuris-a, Sdr. da-saWuris-d-a rameTu arian saWuris, romelni dedis mucliTgan iSvnes egreT da arian saWuris, romelni kacTagan gamoisaWurisnes: m 19, 12 Se-i-erT-a, Sdr. Se-erT-d-a rameTu SeierTnes £mani wina¡swarmetyuelTa da mamamTavarTani: sasul. poez. ng 154—155 amas dResa SeierTnes zecisa da queyanisani erTobiT qebad Senda: kim. I, 187, 34 Se-i-mzad-a, Sdr. Se-mzad-d-a WurWelnica maSin Seimzadnes, raJams ebrZana erTad Sekreba¡ wyalTa¡: equs. 44, 16 Se-i-zav-a, Sdr. Se-zav-d-a Seiyuaren sasZeurni Senni ufro¡s R¢nisa, ara¡Tu romeli igi Seizavebis qristÀs mier, aramed igi, romliTa wina¡swar mTrvalobiT dasulba nove: ipol. ka 17 da-i-megobr-n-es, Sdr. da-megobr-d-nen friad daimegobrnes urTierTas zabilovan da patreaqi: moqc. 739, 18 i-moyur-n-es, Sdr. da-moyvr-d-nen da imoyurnes herode da pilate mas dResa Sina, rameTu wina mter iyvnes urTierTas: l 23, 12 aRmo-e-cen-a, Sdr. aRmo-cen-d-a xolo Tqmul ars cecxlisa amisaT¢s, viTarmed aRmoecenebis sabervelTagan efesto¡sTa mTasa romelsame zeda: elinT. 3o, 5 ara brZana, ra¡Ta Tesli da nayofi erTbamad aRmoecenos, aramed ra¡Ta aRmoecenos da daamwuanos queyana¡: equs. 55, 3 aR-e-Sena, Sdr. a-Sen-d-a missa ikonomosobasa aReSena monasteri: cx. efT¢m. 84, 3 kualad nikol-wmida¡. . . maTiTave sa£mriTa aReSena: aTon. 256, 10 da-e-mk¢dr-a, Sdr. da-mkvidr-d-a sulsa Sina ukeTursa SiSi RmrTisa¡ ara daemk¢drebis: zarzm. 165, 12 warvides marto¡ udabnod da daemk¢dris: saxismety. 49, 7 da-e-wes-a // gan-e-wes-a, Sdr. da-wes-d-a adgilsa, romelsa daewesis, arRara ganeSoros vidre sikudidmde: swav. 242, 19 da ganewesa, ra¡Ta miuklebelad sami kandeli enTebodis: aTon. 301, 3 da-e-mtkic-a // gan-e-mtkic-a, Sdr. da-mtkic-d-a piriTa CC¢lTaTa¡ qeba¡ daemtkiceboda: warty. kv 20 meyseulad ganemtkicnes fer£ni misni da koWni: mociq. 16, 7 208

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

aR-e-srul-a, Sdr. a-srul-d-a maSin aResruleboda Tqmuli igi: ipol. nb. 5 sityua¡ igi mociqulisa¡ Cuen Soris aResrulos: xanZT. id 57 gan-e-mzad-a, Sdr. ga-umzad-d-a dRes ganemzadebis quabi misT¢s: sasul. poez. ¡T 10 rameTu pirutyuTa sazrdeli ganemzada: equs. 50, 19 Se-e-Sur-a, Sdr. Se-Sur-d-a eSureboda raqel dasa T¢ssa da hrqua iakobs: mec me Svili: dabad. 30, 1 kaci vinme aRZrviTa eSmakisa¡Ta SeeSura bersa visme da aRudga mterad: kim. I, 240, 11 mo-e-£sen-a, Sdr. ga-axsen-d-a xolo R¢nis mnesa mas ara moe£sena ioseb, aramed daaviwyda: dabad. 40, 23 moe£sena mas tyueoba¡ igi ZeTa israÀlisaTa¡: warty. mv 5 maSin moe£sena amira mumlsa da hrqua: urh. 337, 18 mo-e-gon-a, Sdr. mo-a-gon-d-a uwinarÀs mSobelTa CemTa momegone: kim. I, 12, 30 moegona mamasa missa Jami igi: C i 4, 53 Se-e-mSi-a // mo-e-mSi-a, Sdr. mo-Siv-d-a xolo mowafeTa misTa SeemSia: C m 12, 1 SeemSia yovelsa queyanasa eg¢ptisasa: dabad. 41, 55 momemSios, ra¡ vWamo misgani, friad Semawuxebs: asur. 183, 29 mo-e-wyur-a // Se-e-wyur-a, Sdr. mo-s-wyur-d-a didisa mis sicxisagan friad moewyura netarsa sabas: kim. II, 147, 2 viTarca miiwivnes udabnosa mas urwyulsa, moewyura maT friad: asur. 151, 16 Seewyura ersa mas wyliTa da drt¢nvida mun eri igi mosesT¢s: gamoslv. 17, 3 gan-e-Sor-a, Sdr. ga-Sor-d-a aw daRacaTu £orciTa gangeSorebi, xolo suliTa maradis Sen Tana var Sewevnad Senda: xanZT. og 22 viTarca wuT erT ganveSore maTgan, warvides: ipol. nb 2 Se-e-erT-a, Sdr. Se-u-erT-d-a ukueTu Sen eziaro wmidasa amas saydarsa, yovelni SemogueerTebian: kim. I, 83, 25 ganhvlen cani kretsabmeliTa £orcTa¡Ta da SemeerTen Cuen: sasul. poez. tT 43 SeeerTa Zuali Zualsa da ZarR¢ ZarRusa: kim. I, 246, 34 Se-e-nawevr-a, Sdr. Se-u-nawevr-d-a romlisa wamlisa £umeviTa kulad Seenawevra ege mklavsa Sensa: damask. 156, 13 da-e-megobr-a, Sdr. da-u-megobr-d-a sxuani vinme movides da daemegobrnes maT: somx.-qarT. lit. urT., 17. rogorc ukve aRniSnuli gvqonda, dasaxelebuli vnebiTebis Taviseburebas Seadgens is, rom maT Tanamedrove saliteraturo enaSi sufiqsuri warmoeba axasia-

209

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

TebT1. es imas niSnavs, rom saliteraturo qarTuls aqvs tendencia prefiqsuli warmoebis vnebiTebi sufiqsuriT Secvalos, sufiqsiani vnebiTebi gaabatonos2. aRniSnuli faqti garkveuli daskvnis gamotanas gvavalebs im vnebiTebis mimarT, romlebic Zvel qarTulSive mxolod sufiqsuri warmoebiT aris cnobili. magram sanam amas SevexebodeT, gaviTvaliswinoT qarTulis sxva monacemebi da danarCeni qarTveluri enebis Cveneba. Tanamedrove saliteraturo qarTulSi damkvidrebuli sufiqsuri warmoebis nacvlad vnebiTis prefiqsuli formebi dasturdeba XIII—XVIII ss. ZeglebSi; magaliTad: ga-e-kvirv-a, Sdr. ga-u-kvir-d-a qumsi gawyra: `rostoms aqebT, mekvirvebis metad mia~: Sahn. 3582, 1 ekvirveboda siturfe mWvretelTa vaWarT mirisa: Svid. 914, 2 Se-e-pir-a, Sdr. Se-h-pir-d-a rome aqaT ar waxvide, Sen Tu amas Semepiro: v. t. 112, 1 oseTSi kaci gavgzavne osebis saSovnelad, . . . mepirebian da jer ara Cans ra: iese, 94, 18 da-e-Ron-a, Sdr. da-Ron-d-a mefe tarias qebasa dahkrTebis, daeRonebis: v. t. 699, 3 ese mesma, daveRone, Wiri ufro gamiWirda: omain. 100, 1 da-e-yovn-a, Sdr. da-yovn-d-a erTi Tue mun dameyovnebis: visram. 157, 2 daeyovnebis, wasula jereT cotai xania: v. t. 1241, 4 da-e-Wir-a, Sdr. da-s-Wir-d-a me ra dameWirebis egeTi, romel Senebrsa guariansa... movacTunebde: visram. 72, 5 odes kacsa daeWiros, maSin unda Zma da Tvisi: v. t. 773, 4
1 am zmnaTa umravlesobas Zvel qarTulSive moepoveba sufiqsiT nawarmoebi formebic: Sdr: SeSurda (aTon. 92, 27), aRmocenda (aTon. 70, 23), dayovndeboda (mraval. 271, 21), dasruldebis (equs. 4, 22), ganmtkicna (asur. 18, 1), aSenda (aTon. 267, 20)... 2 am debulebas ver arRvevs vnebiTis is ramdenime magaliTi, romlebic Zvel qarTulSi dasturdeba da zemoaRniSnuli movlenis sapirispiro viTarebas gviCvenebs. esenia: gan-£snd-a, Sdr. ga-i-£sn-a ganh£sndes sakrvelni igi, romliTa damoekida: kim. I, 141, 31; Sdr. yovelTa krulebani gani£snes: mociq. 125, 26 gan-wmd-n-a, Sdr. ga-i-wmind-a meyseulad ganwmdna igi keTrovanebisa misgan: D m 8, 3; Sdr. ganiwmideniT da iyveniT, rameTu wmida vari me: levit. 11, 44 gan-yin-d-a // Se-h-yin-d-a, Sdr. ga-i-yin-a ganyindes ra¡ sisxli, Seicvalebis igi £orcad: equs. 92, 9 ganipnes wyalni, Sehyindes da dadges: gamoslv. 15, 8; Sdr. ganiyinis igi da Seicvalis simtkiced qvisad: equs. 88, 18 mosalodneli iyo, rom axal qarTuls am paraleluri warmoebis vnebiTebidan Tuki erTerTi SerCeboda, es sufiqsuri vnebiTi iqneboda. sinamdvileSi ki piriqiT gvaqvs: Tanamedrove saliteraturo qarTulma mxolod prefiqsiani formebi icis. magram amgvari magaliTebi Zvel qarTulSi mcirea (SesaZloa sufiqsiani formebi arc Zveli samwerlobo enisaTvis yofiliyo Cveulebrivi) da saerTo suraTs odnavadac ver cvlis.

210

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

da-e-Cem-a, Sdr. da-s-Cem-d-a esec didi sakvirvelebaa, rom sneuleba ara dameCema ra: iese, 82, 28—29 ga-e-oc-a, Sdr. ga-oc-d-a rome davyav weliwadi, Tve Tormeti, gameoca: v. t. 1526, 1 da-e-pirispir-a, Sdr. da-u-pirispir-d-a ornive laSqarni daepirispirnes erTmanerTsa: visram. 22, 5 da-e-cqir-a, Sdr. da-a-cqer-d-a daecqira, gaicina, monadirisa maxesa gabnuli iyo: qil. 409, 3 sul yvela ver gavsinje, marto Sobas davecqire: mogz. 36, 11 da-e-ber-a, Sdr. da-u-ber-d-a vardi axlad ifurCqnebis, me yvavili damebera: v. t. 1526, 1 ga-e-mwar-a, Sdr. ga-u-mwar-d-a tkbilni misni wyalobani bolod asre gamemwarnes: iqve, 112, 1 Se-e-Zag-a, Sdr. Se-s-Zag-d-a visic sityva iameba, Senca uqo, Tvara uZago, ar eZageba da Sen gacruvde: sibrZne sicr. 68, 2 ama mizeziTa nuTu deda-wulT zrunvaTagan Tavi SeeZagos: qil. 263, 30 saliteraturo qarTulSi damkvidrebuli sufiqsuri warmoebis nacvlad vnebiTis prefiqsuli formebi dasturdeba XIX—XX saukunis ZeglebSic: a-e-fofx-a, Sdr. a-fofx-d-a wisqvilis karebs miadga, aefofxa, qurdobas hbedavda: vaJa, VI, 234, 13 Ca-e-naoW-a, Sdr. Ca-u-naoW-d-a dedabers tanjvisagan mTlad CanaoWebuli saxe xan gaeSleboda odnav da xan ufro CaenaoWeboda: S. aragv. I, 45, 13 da-e-gub-a // mo-e-gub-a, Sdr. da-u-gub-d-a saflavis qvas daSterebodnen da etyobodaT, orives cremlebi egubebodaT: S. aragv. II, 38, 24 xma Cauwyda, veRar-ra sTqva, moeguba TvalSi cremli: ilia, I, 192, 2 ga-e-mklav-a, Sdr. ga-u-mklav-d-a martodac gaemklaveba: S. aragv. I, 362, 25 Se-e-sisxlxorc-a, Sdr, Se-u-sisxlxorc-d-a ube-kalTebi da Tqveni Txemi Saesisxlxorca Cem gul-gonebas: vaJa, I, 198, 36 da-e-Zmobil-a, Sdr. da-u-Zmobil-d-a sulxans kidevac vaqeb da kidec veZmobilebi: baCana, 513, 23 gana me is giTxar, qistebTan daiWire zavio, urjulos eZmobileo: vaJa, V, 416, 24 Tu mxedvelobaSi ar miviRebT individualuri warmoSobisa da xelovnuri warmoebis calkeul magaliTebs, unda vifiqroT, rom zemoT dasaxelebuli formebi cocxali, xalxuri metyvelebisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli. maTi warmomSobi wyaro dialeqtebia. amas mowmobs dialeqtebis Cveneba. qarTuli enis dialeqtebSi dasturdeba vnebiTis prefiqsuli warmoeba zog iseT zmnasTan, romelsac saliteraturo enaSi sufiqsuri warmoeba axasiaTebs, magaliTad: 211

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

Ca-i-Saqra, Sdr. Ca-Saqr-d-a memre mzidan ro aviRebT (leRvs), SavinaxamT, cota CaiSaqreba Calagebuli: a. mart. da gr. imn. kax. dialeqti, teqst., 53, 10 da-e-Wira, Sdr. da-s-Wir-d-a CemTan ar gind simamace, a iq geWirebis, ro Tavze flasn dagxurnes: b. gab. £evs., 137, 10 da-e-Janga, Sdr. da-u-Jang-d-a karga moyure xanjarsa, eJangeboda wveria: a. San. xevs. poez., 455, 25 da-e-cqira, Sdr. da-a-cqer-d-a ra lamazia, rodesac vaJi qals daecqireba: iv. xorn. fSav., 211, 14 erTi dRei idga da ecqireboda ai umfrosi mosamsaxure qali : J. noR. aWar., 18, 15 Ca-e-bara, Sdr. Ca-bar-d-a SensaviT male maCvena, visac Sen Caebarebi: s. ebral. qiziy., 162, 5 saxlo, mogikvdes amgebi, visac Sen Caebarea: iv. xorn. fSav., 224, 5 ga-e-Txova, Sdr. ga-Txov-d-a ebedi ar gaveTxuebi, sityvas giCivi guliTa: imerxev., 49, 13 igi adre geeTxua: m. ZiZ. gur. da-e-feTa, Sdr. da-feT-d-a im gogos SemoeTvala, Sen biWo, Cemo nefeo, qorwils nu daagvianeb, me SenTvis davefeTeo: p. umik. xalx. sityv., 389, 22 ga-e-Wena, Sdr. ga-Wen-d-a ro gaveWene zedan da davyvire vallahi, me SemeSinda im zmisa: j. noR. aWar., 25, 7 gadaxta win melam da geeWena: m. xub. aWar., 35, 5 Se-e-mSa // mo-e-mSia, Sdr. mo-Siv-d-a erT sofelSi SeemSa da unda saWmeli: v. kax. aWar., 37, 19 me mival saxlSi, momemSia: m. cinc. kirn.-marad. metyv., 13 ga-e-javra, Sdr. ga-javr-d-a im goSpara¡ geejavra: arn. Ciqob. qiziy., 75 i¯maT kiden ge¯javr: T. uTurg. TuS., 10, 9 rogorc movides, Zalian gaejavra: S. ZiZ. glol., 10 ga-e-braza, Sdr. ga-braz-d-a gamebraza, ratom meqceva igre-Tqo: n. abes. kax. amgvarad, vnebiTis istoriul aspeqtSi ganxilva gviCvenebs, rom wyeba vnebiTebisa, Zvel qarTulSi rom prefiqsiT iwarmoeba, Tanamedrove saliteraturo enaSi sufiqsuri warmoebisaa. saliteraturo qarTulis sufiqsuri vnebiTebis nacvlad prefiqsuli formebi gvxvdeba XII—XX saukuneTa ZeglebSi, aseve — qarTuli enis dialeqtebSi1.
1 rogorc vnaxeT, aseTi vnebiTebis ricxvi sakmaod didia. sayuradReboa isic, rom maTi umravlesoba enis ZiriTadi leqsikuri fondis sityvebs warmoadgens.

212

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

es imas niSnavs, rom saliteraturo qarTuls axasiaTebs sufiqsuri vnebiTebis gabatonebis tendencia. igi vnebiTis prefiqsuli da sufiqsuri warmoebidan upiratesobas ukanasknels aniWebs. aseT pirobebSi bunebrivi Cans sakiTxi daisvas im vnebiTebis mimarTac, romelTa mxolod sufiqsuri warmoebaa CvenTvis cnobili1: xom ar axasiaTebdaT maTac Tavdapirvelad prefiqsebi? sakiTxis dadebiTad gadawyvetis SesaZleblobas iZleva upirveles yovlisa TviT qarTuli enis monacemTa gaTvaliswineba2, rasac mxars uWers sxva qarTveluri enebis Cvenebac. megrul-Wanurisa da svanurisaTvis damaxasiaTeblad miiCneva vnebiTis prefiqsuli warmoeba3. amgvarad, megrul-Wanursa da svanurs dRemde SenarCunebuli aqvs is mdgomareoba, romelic qarTulisTvisac unda yofiliyo damaxasiaTebeli garkveul periodSi. Tuki qarTulSi vnebiTis sawarmoeblad gamoyenebuli unda yofiliyo mxolod prefiqsebi, maSin riT avxsnaT amave funqciis mqone sxva rigis niSnebis -en, -ed sufiqsebis arseboba? ra mimarTeba unda vivaraudoT prefiqsuli da sufiqsuri warmoebis vnebiTebs Soris? safiqrebelia, rom vnebiTis sufiqsuri tipi qarTulSi garkveuli dialeqturi wris monacemia. am TvalsazrisiT sayuradReboa, rom XII—XX ss. Zeglebsa da qarTuli enis dialeqtebSi dasturdeba sufiqsiT nawarmoebi vnebiTi gvaris zmnaTa formebi iseT SemTxvevebSic, rodesac Tanamedrove saliteraturo qarTuli prefiqsul warmoebas mimarTavs. XII—XVIII ss. Zeglebidan saamiso nimuSebia: ga-Rim-d-a, Sdr. ga-e-Rim-a gaRimdis, Zowi gaapis, kbilTagan elva krTeboda: v. t. 1337, 2 yrmaman odnad moilxinis, bage gaxvnis, ga-ca-Rimdis: Svid. 416, 1 gamo-mgzavr-d-a, Sdr. gamo-e-mgzavr-a (ramin) gamomgzavrda misiTa moyuariTa da laSqriTa: visram. 315, 23
1 mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs vnebiTebi: gandidna, aRyuavna, gankacna, ganTavisuflda, ganc¢frda, mouZlurda... 2 sadac iqorwinebis, aReSenebis, aResrulebis, moegonebis, moewyurebis.formebia, iq ganididebis, ganikacebis, ganic¢frebis... formebsac unda movelodeT. 3 donian vnebiTs megrul-WanurSi qarTulidan Sesulad miiCneven (arn. Ciqobava, Wanuris gramatikuli analizi, 1936, gv. 114). svanurSi i-/e-iani vnebiTebis namyo ZiriTadis formebSi gamovlenili -en, -a>n, -aÐn, a>Ðn sufiqsebisa da e.w. fuZedrekad zmnaTa awmyos -en (-n) sufiqsis vnebiTis niSnad miCnevas dabrkoleba axlavs: dasaxelebuli sufiqsebi rom vnebiTis mawarmoebeli niSnebi iyos, isini unda gvqondes drokiloTa yvela formaSi. aRniSnulisa da sxva sabuTebis safuZvelze gamoTqmulia mosazreba, rom en svanurSi ar unda iyos vnebiTis mawarmoebeli niSani, igi sxva warmoSobis afiqsia (g. maWavariani, zmnis ZiriTadi morfologiuri kategoriebi qarTvelur enebSi, sadisertacio Sromis avtoreferati, 1953, gv. 15; Sdr. G. Deeters, das kharthwelische Verbum, 1930, 205-206; arn. Ciqobava, Картвельские языки, их исторический состав и древний лингвистический облик: iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecniereba, II, 1948, gv. 64.

213

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

mo-s-Zal-d-a, Sdr. mo-e-Zal-a ese ZiZaman ar icoda, Tu visis guli eqca da mosZalda mijnuroba: visram. 78, 35 mo-s-won-d-a, Sdr. mo-e-won-a mogwondebis damnaxvelTa Tma melnisa da giSrisa: Teim. I, 122, 81 Se-h-fer-d-a, Sdr. Se-e-fer-a xelmwifisa Svili aris, Sehferdebis CvenTan jdoma: omain. 132, 4 a-baZ-d-a, Sdr. mi-e-baZ-a mec maT avbaZdio, es sofeli gauSvio: mogz. 47, 4 da-zar-d-a, Sdr. da-e-zar-a wyalsa da wyaros Sexedav da Tvalis mosxleta dagzardeba: iqve, 24, 16 da-mowm-d-a, Sdr. da-e-mowm-a CemTa damowmdi naTqvamTa wynarad, ar sityva cqafiTa: omain. 366, 4 XIX—XX ss. literaturidan: ga-ToS-d-eb-a, Sdr. ga-i-ToS-eb-a is TandaTan ToSdeboda, magram xmas mainc ar iRebda: a. yazb. II, 253, 25 ga-tvrin-d-a, Sdr. ga-i-tvrin-a batkansac etyoboda, iameboda da tvrindeboda da siamovnebiT izmoreboda: T. razik. 239, 23 maxare swrafad miimala buCqebSi da gatvrinda: S. aragv. II, 371, 17 ga-yin-d-a, Sdr. ga-i-yin-a goneba Sesdga, gayinda, kacma ver gasZra xelia: a. yazb. III, 244, 33 gulma RrRna damiwyo, sisxli ZarRvebSi gamiyinda: ilia, II, 103 ga-u-jibr-d-a, Sdr. ga-e-jibr-a unda daganaxva, es da-Zma rom gaujibrdebian xolme erTmaneTs ariTmetikaSi: n. lom. 76, 38 setyva, Weqa-quxili, elva-qariSxali da yovelis mxridan movardnili niaRvrebi. . . erTmaneTs ujibrdebodnen: n. lom. 137, 35 ga-u-Rim-d-a, Sdr. ga-e-Rim-a mas laparakSi saxe uRimdeboda, uRimdeboda Savi kuprsaviT Tvalebi: a. yazb. I, 199, 1 kowias saxe borotad SeuTamaSda, gauRimda am sityvebis gagonebaze: e. nin. 36, 26 da-nan-d-a, Sdr. da-e-nan-a TiTqo mas (mzes) nandeba qveyniereba, TiTqo mas nandeba mdeviviT caTamdin Tavmibjenili mTani: a. yazb. III, 561, 12 dananda melanas nugeSo, dananda da gulmduRared atirda: a. xoSt. 33, 34-35 Se-u-xuT-d-a, Sdr. Se-e-xuT-a SemeSinda, suli SemixuTda: d. kld. 349, 7 me vkvdebi... — warmosTqva gulom da xelaxla SeuxuTda suli: e. nin. 173, 9 Ca-u-wveT-d-a, Sdr. Ca-e-wve-T-a

214

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

rostomis da antonis sicili gulnatken marabdels mainc SxamiviT CauwveTda: m. javax. marab., 118 dialeqtebidan: qn-d-a, Sdr. i-qn-a zog dRes xuTi, zogs dRes aTi SiqaliRa (nadiroba) qndebis: arn. Ciqob. fereidn. 241, 29 is WinWvela ra qndao? Tagvsa SeuWamiao: p. umik. xalx. sity., 277 Se-fer-d-a //mo-fer-d-a, Sdr. Se-e-fer-a Tu daxvdi usaWuris Zes, qalis saqmared Saxferdebi: a. San. xevs., 759, 6 qoroRlis erTi heme vici, qarTula sul ar moferdeba is da haide: m. xub. aWar., 27, 5 Se-xaTr-d-a, Sdr. Se-e-xaTr-a ro mudam SenTan yofniTa arvisgan SamxaTrdeboda: iv. xorn. fSav., 200, 1 a-u-xil-d-a, Sdr. a-e-xil-a (zanzaram) Tavi das uTxra: Sen iqiT iyure exlao, me Tvalebi amixildebao da ar SegeSindeso: a. mart. da gr. imn. kax. teqst., 160, 6 mo-a-Cven-d-a, Sdr. mo-e-Cven-a vardis feraT maCvendebi, rogorc gamsili mTvareo: j. noR. aWar., 114, 15 ze da mTvareT maCvendeba, Citi mgonia mercxali: m. xub. aWar., 42, 18 angelozaT momaCvendi, rom gadagare Tvalebi: j. noR. aWar. teqst., 67, 9 mo-s-won-d-a, Sdr. mo-e-won-a yvela xalxs ro moswondeba, mo¡ da Sen nu moqwondeba: iqve, 61, 3-4 biWiza gogos ameirCevs deda¡, Tu moswondeba: S. ZiZ. qob., 202 erTxel vixile, batono, momwonda (momewona) Seni saxeo: j. noR. aWar., 114, 14 u-axl-d-a, Sdr. e-axl-a levanma da aleqsandrem Semohyares piri pirsa, iaxles Tan msaxurebi, yeens karze uaxldesa: p. umik. xalx. sityv., 122, 2 (xevi) Se-s-wir-d-a, Sdr. Se-e-wir-a neta es Cemi qarvasla axla vis unda darCesa ... odes sinsila gawydeba, eCmiaZins Seswirdesa: p. umik. xalx. sityv., 121, 27 zemoTqmulis safuZvelze SeiZleba davaskvnaT: vnebiTis warmoebaSi istoriulad gamoxatulebas unda poulobdes ori sxvadasxva dialeqturi wre, erTs vnebiTis sawarmoeblad mxolod prefiqsebi axasiaTebda, meore am funqciiT sufiqsur warmoebas iyenebda. maTgan prefiqsuli warmoeba qarTuli enis ZiriTadi da amave dros arqauli fenis kuTvnileba Cans. es fena akavSirebs qarTuls sxva qarTvelur enebTan, sufiqsebi SedarebiT axali formaciisa unda iyos1. -en, -ed vnebiTis mawarmoebeli niSnebiT qarTuli sxva qarTveluri enebisagan gancalkevebiT dgas.
vnebiTis mawarmoebeli sufiqsebi axali formaciisad miaCnia iv. qavTaraZes (zmnis ZiriTadi kategoriebis istoriisaTvis Zvel qarTulSi, 1954, gv. 310—311) da g. maWavarians (zmnis ZiriTadi morfologiuri kategoriebi qarTvelur enebSi, sadisertacio Sromis avtoreferati, 1953, gv. 15).
1

215

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

leli baramiZe

vnebiTi gvaris zmnaTa awmyos daboloebisaTvis Zvel qarTulSi
cnobilia, rom gramatikuli gvari qarTulSi SedarebiT gvian Camoyalibebuli kategoriaa. amitom zog cvlilebas, romlebic am mxriv moxda enaSi, SeiZleba Tvali gavadevnoT Cvens mravalsaukunovan warilobiT ZeglebSi. gansakuTrebiT SeiZleba es iTqvas vnebiTis Sesaxeb, romelic qarTulSi mdidaria formebiT. vnebiTi gvaris Sesaxeb araerTi gamokvleva dawerila, romlebSic ganxilulia masTan dakavSirebuli esa Tu is sakiTxi. amJamad gvinda SevexoT vnebiTis I seriis Temis Camoyalibebis sakiTxs. vgulisxmobT dinamikur vnebiTs. vnebiTi qarTulSi mWidro kavSirSia moqmedebiTi gvaris formebTan. `qarTuli ena umetesad aqtiuri formebis enaa. Tanac cotaa iseTi vnebiTi zmnebi, romelTac saTanado moqmedebiTi ar moepovebaT~ [1], § 346). amis gamo miaCniaT, rom vnebiTi gvaris formebi aris mobrunebuli saxe moqmedebiTisa ([1], § 346). aqedan gamomdinareobs is siaxlove, romelic am ori gvaris TemaTa Soris gvaqvs. msgavseba metia Zvel qarTulSi, sadac istoriuli kavSiri moqmedebiTsa da vnebiTs Soris ufro naTelia, vidre axal qarTulSi. Zvel qarTulSi daiwyo da dRemde grZeldeba procesi, romelic mimarTulia vnebiTi gvaris formaTa unifikaciisaken, rac amave dros iwvevs vnebiTis sxva gvaris formebTan dapirispirebis zrdas. I seriis Temis erT-erTi, yvelaze gavrcelebuli, ganmasxvavebeli saSualeba aris Temis niSani. xSir SemTxvevaSi Temis niSani aris zmnaTa sxvadasxva gvaris formaTa dapirispirebis saSualebac. vnebiTs ar gaaCnia sakuTari Temis niSani, e.i. iseTi, rom moqmedebiTSi ar ixmarebodes ([1], § 466). maSasadame, vnebiTSi unda gvqondes (mosalodnelia, gvqondes) igive Temis niSani, rac Sesabamis moqmedebiTSia, radganac vnebiTisaTvis moqmedebiTi gvaris formebia amosavali1. Zvel qarTulSi ZiriTadad es asec aris, ramdenadac amis saSualebas ena iZleva. wesi darRveulia mxolod maSin, roca misi dacva formaTa damTxvevas, arevas gamoiwvevda. magram amasTan erTad Zvel qarTulSive aris Casaxuli is cvlilebebi Temis niSanTa TvalsazrisiT, romlebic axal qarTulSi gvaqvs. moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnaTa I seriis Tema, romelsac vnebiTi eyrdnoba, uTemisniSnoa, an Temis niSani daerTvis. uTemisniSno, anu martiv-Temian zmnebSi gamoiyofa ori jgufi: 1. erT-Temiani zmnebi da 2. xmovan-monacvle,

1 igulisxmeba prefiqsiani vnebiTi, sufiqsiani vnebiTis mimarTeba Sesabamis moqmedebiTTan sxvagvari unda iyos ([2], 37): [3].

216

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

anu e.w. fuZedrekadi zmnebi. Temis niSnebad ki, rogorc cnobilia, gvxvdeba i, av, am, em, eb, ob, of, ev afiqsebi. vnebiTSi meordeba, gadadis yvela Temis niSani, garda i-nisa, romelsac eb enacvleba. amasTan eb Temis niSanive uCndebaT martiv-Temian zmnebs, yvelas — erTTemianebsac da xmovan-monacvleebsac. ratom ar gadahyva i vnebiTSi, rogorc Temis niSani da ratom Seicvala zmnis Tema zemoT aRniSnul SemTxvevebSi saerTod? mizezi unda iyos is, rom vnebiTis awmyos formebi am SemTxvevaSi daemTxveoda moqmedebiTis II seriis zogierT formas. saqme isaa, rom dinamikur vnebiTs awmyoSi fuZis bolos axasiaTebs i xmovani (iTxoveb-i-s, imalv-i-s, iTqum-i-s da misT.) da martiv fuZeze am i-s mirTviT miRebuli forma savsebiT daemsgavseboda saTaviso qcevian II xolmeobiTs: Seimoss (igi mas), Seimos-i-s (man igi) da: Seimos-i-s (igi). vnebiTis formis, agebulebis istoriuli TvalsazrisiT Seswavla sayuradReboa ara mxolod TviT vnebiTis istoriis gasarkvevad; bevrjer aq Tavs iCens moqmedebiTi gvaris formaTa ganviTarebis gzebic. amdenad, orive gvaris formebi urTierTsakontrolo saSualebad gamogvadgeba. Zvel qarTulSi, rogorc aRvniSneT, moqmedebiTis Temis niSnebi Cveulebriv daculia vnebiTSi, magram Zveladve SeiniSneba unifikaciis tendencia, romelic gamoixateba eb Temis niSnis gamoyenebis aris gafarToebaSi. Zveli qarTulis viTarebis gasacnobad vnebiTi gvaris zmnebs ganvixilavT TemaTa mixedviT da, ramdenadac saSualeba gveqneba, maT davupirispirebT moqmedebiTis Sesabamis formebs1.

prefiqsiani vnebiTi
1. erT-Temiani da xmovan-monacvle zmnebi Cvens xelT arsebuli masala ZiriTadad erT-Temiani zmnebia. oriodezmnaa xmovan-monacvleTagan. radgan orive jgufi erTnair viTarebas gviCvenebs, maT erTad ganvixilavT. am tipis zmnebs, rogorc iTqva, moqmedebiTSi Temis niSani ar aqvT. vnebiTSi ki maT daerTvis eb, romelsac mosdevs i. es i, romelic dinamikuri vnebiTi gvaris zmnaTa boloSi gvaqvs, amJamad gagebulia rogorc mwkrivis niSani ([1] § 467), Tumca istoriulad, rogorc cnobilia, mas sxva daniSnuleba unda hqonoda. bans2: da dahbanda1 cremliTa, boln. 13, 10. romeli-igi ibanebin, sin. 186, 31; ganibanebis igi, swav. 54, 29; yoveli eri. . . ganibanebodes, moqc. 109, 4.
moqmedebiTis forma mocemuli vnebiTis sruli Sesatyvisi SeiZleba yovelTvis ar iyos, mag., pirianobis an qcevis mixedviT, magram aseTi ram dasaSvebad miviCnieT, radgan Temis niSnebi erTia. 2 ama Tu im fuZes, Cveulebriv, ramdenime zmniswini daerTvis, yvelas miTiTeba aq ar moxerxdeba.
1

217

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

hguems: nu mguem me, mr. 5, 7 C. borotad viguemebi, evst. 40, 40; iguemebis eSmakisagan, xanZT. 292, 4. iTxovs: ara iTxovs igi niWTa, swav. 173, 23; iTxovebis Cemgan, equs. 133, 21. romeli ufro¡sad meTxovebis, swav. 228, 19. dahkecs: daikecebin igi zurgsa zeda wylisasa, kac. ag. 146, 11. mohkueTs: nucaRa warhkueTn sasoebasa, ist. qr. 11, 19, 28. moikueTebis yoveli neba¡, jav. aRw. 79, 22; ganikueTebis igi, gamocx. 15, 2 T; moekueTebis Tavi winawarmetyuelsa mas, sin. 210, 19; Tavi warmekueTebis, evst. 44, 30. dahlews: dahlewdes brZolisa max¢liTa, boln. 40, 6. Zualni Cemni dailewebied, ist. qr. 11, 83, 6; dailewebodian SiSisagan, swav. 124, 16. Seimoss: Sevimos £eliT werilsa Sensa, lim. 75, 3. imosebi ZoweuliTa, boln. 69, 5; ZaZiTa imosebin, swav. 72, 21; Seimosebis, equs. 46, 38. Sehracxs: TquenTa Tana Sevhracx, kost. 172, 22. yovelive. . . Seiracxebis, efr. mc. 96, 14; equs. 76, 3; SeviracxebiT, fs. 43, 23. numca locva¡ Seni codvad Segeracxebis, swav. 10, 24; Seeracxebis, lim. 70, 17; sin. 37, 5; iqve 37, 9. iSviaTad am zmnis moqmedebiTs Zvel qarTulSive daerTvis Tematuri sufiqsebi, esenia av, eb: nu Semracxav me codvilTa Tana, fs. 27, 3 C; nu Semracxeb, iqve, a. Sdr. Semracx, iqve, E. es aisaxa vnebiTSiac: locvad Segeracxvis, jav. 124, 4, qv. hreks: kbilni erekebied, sin. 119, 6; mu£lni misni erekebodes erTmaneTsa, ist. qr. 11, 91, 24. mihfens: mihfens, efr. 87, 1; ganhfens, boln. 8, 21. WeSmariteba¡ yovelsa sofelsa miefinebis, sin. 234, 28; aseve: xanZT. 317, 27; miefineboda, moqc. 155, 16; moefinebis, boln. 65, 1 qv; zarzm. 320, 6. qsovs: romeli iqsovebis sulisagan, boln. 39, 16; moiqsoebis, iqve, 46, 20. daswerts: daviwertebodiT aqave SuriTa maTiTa, swav. 31, 6. daswnexs: igi daswnexs sawnaxelsa mas, gamocx. 19, 15. sada siwmidisa tevani ara daiwnixebin, boln. 35, 8. aRswons: aRswonda... saqmeTa T¢sTa, boln, 10, 25; yoveli sasworiTa iwoneboda, xanZT. 277, 11. axal qarTulSi moqmedebiTis formas i daerTvis: wonis. Wams: yoveli saWmeli, romeli iWamebis, levit. 11, 34; SeviWamebiT urTierTas, swav. 266, 27. ganxerxs: ganixerxebodes guliTa maTiTa, saqme 7, 54. xuets: guerdni maTni. . . ixutebodes, sin. 258, 10. mohxueWs: usamarTlod mohxueWen mravalTa, swav. 307, 30, monagebi maTi miixueWebis, iqve, 134, 21. aR£ocs: ah£oca hromTa ersa? sin. 252, 4; aRmovh£oc, lim. 17, 17. sarwmunoebiTa aRi£ocebian codvani, swav. 55, 2.

1 qvemoT yvelgan jer moqmedebiTs moviyvanT, Semdeg — vnebiTis formebs, oRond simoklisaTvis ar mivuTiTebT. vnebiTi, sadac orive mogvepoveba, jer i-niani iqneba moyvanili, Semdeg — e-niani.

218

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

martivi unda yofiliyo Tes fuZec, magram mas Zvelsave qarTulSi aqvs darTuli av, romelic vnebiTSic iCens Tavs: nu dasTesav, sin, 48, 21; romeli iTesvis, levit. 11, 37; daiTesvis, boln. 18, 5. axal qarTulSi ki sxva av-ianTa msgavsad amasac eb daemata: iTeseba. erT-TemianTa umravlesobas axal qarTulSi daerTo sufiqsi av ([1] § 451): Tib-av-s, kaf-av-s, kec-av-s, lew-av-s, Semos-av-s, aRricx-av-s, Wed-av-s, xerxav-s, amoxoc-av-s da misT. Sesabamisad Seicvala maTi sawyisic: Tibva, kafva, dakecva, galewva, Semosva, aRricxva, Wedva, xerxva da sxva. vnebiTSi es cvlilebebi ar asaxula, is Zveleburad eb afiqsiania: Semos-av-s — Semos-v-a, magram: Seimos-eb-a; Tib-av-s — Tib-v-a, magram: iTib-eb-a... av sufiqsi daerTo zogierT xmovan-monacvle zmnasac, magram aq is ise gavrcelebuli araa, Tanac maT gverdiT ixmareba Zveli formebic ([1] § 452). vnebiTSi isev eb gvaqvs: daSrets (evagr. 224, 24), Sdr. ax. q. daSrets — daSritavs, magram: daiSriteba. 2. i Temis-niSniani zmnebi rogorc aRiniSna, Temis niSani i vnebiTSi ar gadahyveba, mis adgilas vnebiTi gvaris formebSi gaCenilia eb ([1] § 467). warhgzavn-i-s: warigzavneboda ierusalÀmd, l. 13, 22. sdevn-i-s: warsdevnis m£urvalebasa missa, evagr. 224, 24; sdevnides, abo 76, 5. aw amis iuda¡sgan videvnebi, sin. 242, 31; idevnebi, zed. 210, 19; idevnebis, sin. 204, 24. zrd-i-s: mzrdis Cuen RmerTi, swav. 145, 11. mwuanvilica izardebis, kac. ag. 176, 13; izardebi, swav. 25, 5. izardebian, equs. 112, 9. daTxr-i-s: kedeli daiTxareboda, sin. 223, 14. hmwysis: romeli hmwysi israelsa, fs. 79, 2. aspitnica neliTa sity¢Ta daimwysebian, sin. 214, 14. ganhryun-i-s: Sueniereba¡ ganiryunebis, swav. 91, 23; ganiryunebin, fs. 56, saT. dasj-i-s: me ara vsji mas, i. 12, 47 c sasoebisaT¢s. . . me visajebi, saqme, 23, 26; Sen daisajebi, boln. 43, 6; davisajebiT, swav. 95, 1; iSviaTad fuZe SekumSulia: gare isjebodian £orciTa, garej. 234, 9. aRfxur-i-s: ifxuriden TmaTa, ist. qr. 69, 28; bWeni qalaqisani aRifxurebodes, boln. 85, 11. Sl-i-s: spec. literaturaSi miTiTebulia Slis da Salavs [4], [5], [6]. marTlac, erTi mxriT, gvaqvs: nuvis uSalavT, sig. mR. (qrest. 95, 24), meore mxriT: nuvin £elhyofT Slasa (iqve, 94, 26; 96, 15), romelic amosavlad gulisxmobs Slis formas. vnebiTi Cveni masalis mixedviT eb-iania. SeTxzuleba¡ ese cxorebisa Cuenisa¡ dRiTi-dRed daiSalebis, swav. 252, 24. savaraudoa, rom av-iani forma SedarebiT gviandelia. sWr-i-s: dahSWrides, ist. qr. 103, 6. ganiWreboda tkivilisa simZafriTa, zarzm. 243, 3; daiWrebodes, xanZT. 261, 11. romelTa-igi asoni moeWrebied max¢liTa, swav. 68, 23. 219

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

mih£d-i-s: aw windsa mim£dia? sin. 27, 8. sasjeli mige£adebis, lim. 59, 13; mie£adeboda. sin. 12, 7; sityua¡ migue£adebodis, swav. 15, 22. a s e v e a: qenjnis — iqenjnebodes (iob. 5, 4); RularWnis — iRularWnebodes (ist. qr. 91, 25); miayris — mieyreboda (moqc. 148, 4); ganxrwnis (fs. 57, saT.) — gani£rwnebis (swav. 158, 25; lim. 96, 25); gamomcdiT (m. 22, 18) — gamoicadebis (swav. 275, 24); ganicadeboda (boln. 19, 6 qv.); aRh£sniT (mr. 11, 5), dah£snian (swav. 243, 9) — i£snebis (swav. 81, 30), gani£snebis (sin. 74, 29), dai£snebis (equs. 107, 25)... am tipis zmnaTa erT nawils garkveuli Tavisebureba axasiaTebs Zvel qarTulSi: maTi saerTod kumSvadi fuZeebi vnebiTSi ukumSvelad ixmareba ([4] 204), ([5] 48). SekumSulia xolme moqmedebiTi, magram ara yovelTvis, aramed I seriaSi: zrdis, sjis, daTxris da misT. ([5] 48): zemoT warmodgenil masalaSi aseTia: izardebis (Sdr. ax. q. izrdeba), daiTxarebis, daisajebis, daiSalebis, gamoicadebis, gardai£adebis... 3. av-iani zmnebi yvela av-iani zmnis vnebiTi axal qarTulSi eb-i daboloebaze gadavida da miviReT aseTi dapirispireba: moqmedebiTSi av Temis niSani gvaqvs, vnebiTSi — eb. eb daerTo ara uTemisniSno, aramed av-ian fuZes. es av SekumSuli saxiT zogjer Semonaxulia fuZeSi: daixvneba, daiwvneba (Sdr. dawnavs). moyvanil formebSi av gadasmulia, magram es xdeba ara yovelgvar fuZeSi, aramed mxolod garkveul SemTxvevebSi, Sdr. rg-av-s — irg-v-eba. maSasadame, aq sufiqsTa monacvleoba ki ara gvaqvs, aramed fuZis axali sufiqsiT garTuleba xdeba. Zvel qarTulSi av-iani moqmedebiTis Sesabamisi vnebiTi ZiriTadad agreTve av-iania, oRond av SekumSulia: av→v. mas mosdevs dinamikuri vnebiTisaTvis saerTod damaxasiaTebeli bolokiduri i: SesTxz-av-s — SeiTxz-v-is, dahkl-av-s — daikl-v-is, ganikiTx-av-s — ganikiTx-v-is, Sehkr-av-s — Seikr-v-is, mal-av-s — imal-v-is, far-av-s — ifar-v-is. . . magram unda aRiniSnos, rom ukve Zvel qarTulSive sakmaod xSirad gvxvdeba eb darTuli formebic: ikiTxvis — ikiTxvebis, moikiTxvis — moikiTxvebis, aRmoikiTxvis — aRmoikiTxebis, daimalvis — daimalebis, gamoisaxvis — gamoisaxebis, daiwuvis — daiwuebis, ixilvis — ixilvebis. . . zogierT SemTxvevaSi eb-iani forma vnebiTSi Cveulebrivia, amosavali av-iani forma ki an iSviaTia, an kidev TiTqos ar Cans. aseTebia: ixilavs — ixilvebis, locavs — ilocvebis, elocvebis, stanjavs — itanjebis, zraxavs — izraxebis... enis ganviTarebis garkveul doneze Tematuri afiqsebis gamoyenebis are gansazRvrulia. istoriulad ki is cvalebadia. saliteraturo enisagan gansxvavebuli viTareba SeiZleba gvqondes dialeqtebSic. ganviTarebis sxvadasxva doneTa monacemebis SerevasTan unda gvqondes saqme, roca erTsa da imave zmnas daerTvis xan erTi, xan meore afiqsi. dasaSvebia agreTve, rom es faqti dialeqturi warmomavlobisa iyos. Zvel qarTulSi gvxvdeba sawyisebi winamigebva¡ (urh. 323, 30) da: migebeba¡ (sin. 149, 8; i. 12, 13). vnebiTSi av iCens Tavs, eb TiTqos ara gvaqvs: miegebvis. msgavsi viTarebaa zemoT moyvanil Sla — 220

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

Salva da iSalebis formebSi. aseT SemTxvevebSi vnebiTis monacemebs, vfiqrobT, angariSi unda gaewios. mogvyavs sailustracio masala. migeb-v-a¡: ese naTesavi aravis miegebvis, jav. aRw. 239, 18; miegebvian, sin. 145, 25; miegebvoda, saqme, 10, 25; gamoegebvoda, m. 8, 34 c; mr. 5, 2 C. mozRud-av-s: sity¢Ta miT. . . moizRudvoda, sin. 22, 24. dasTes-av-s: gulis-sityuani keTilni daeTesvodes, ist. qr. 108, 36. miiTual-av-s: iTualavn welTa misTa, swav. 141, 25; migiTualav, moqc. 11, 8. arca vedreba¡ miiTualvis, swav. 281, 12. axal qarTulSi av-is nacvlad i Temis niSani gvaqvs am zmnaSi: Tvlis, miiTvlis. fuZec SekumSulia. dahkl-av-s: dahklvides, mr. 14, 12. romeli daiklvis, boln. 40, 13; 41, 4. Sdr. CuenTv¢s daikla, abo, 53, 1. mohkl-av-s: moiklavs Tavsa, i. 8, 22. yovelni moiklvian, sin. 214, 7; romelni... moiklvian, gobr. 183, 7; moiklvodes, ist. qr. 71, 11. Sdr. moikla mefÀ igi, evst. 37, 34. ax. qarTulSi am zmnas vnebiTi ar ukeTdeba, gamoyenebulia sxva fuZe: mokvdeba. ganikiTx-av-s: (swav. 82, 25): vdga da ganvikiTxvi, saqme, 26, 6; ganikiTxvis, iqve, 25, 8 a; sin. 72, 12; ukueTu Cuen ganvikiTxviT, saqme, 4, 9; ganikiTxvian, jav. 196, 35; ganikiTxvoda, abo, 78, 17. ikiTx-av-s: vikiTxavTca, sin. 239, 26; aRmogikiTxavs, m. 12, 5c. samaradisod ikiTxvodin, jav. 130, 15 qv.; romeli-ese aRmoikiTxvis, iqve, 242, 20; romelni warikiTxvian, boln. 6, 9. amaT gverdiT gvxvdeba eb darTuli formebic: juari. . . ikiTxvebis, sin. 233, 17; jav. 1. 34; raJams aRmoikiTxvebodis saxareba¡, sin. 11,24; saqmeni. . . aRmoikiTxvebodian, swav. 123, 9; iqve, 125, 29; sin. 156, 5. moikiTxavT, l. 10, 4. moikiTxvebis saxeli meuRlisa¡, sin. 38, 9. Sehkr-av-s: sakrveliTa Sehkravs, swav. 145, 7. Seikrvis ena¡ Cemi, boln. 33, 13; jav. 133, 3; Seikrvian eSmakni, sin. 259, 1; swav. 150, 29; equs. 114, 1. hkrZal-av-s: Tavsa hkrZalavs, vefx. 397, 4; krZalva¡. m. 16, 12; gankrZalvad, lim. 105, 21; nuraras ikrZalvi, nuca iridebi maTda, xron. 229, 28; Sdr. n. baraTaSvilis ikrZalvis (`suli oboli~). mTa¡ yoveli. . . ekrZalvoda, iov. da efT. 92, 21; ar mekrZaloda, vefx. 38, 1. . . aqtivi eb Temis niSniTac gvaqvs: ganakrZalebs, efr. 95, 3; gamocx. 3, 11. T. Zv. qarTulSi Cveulebrivia swored amisi pasivi: ekrZalebis, sin. 214, 22; mr. 6, 20c. uloc-av-s: ulocvides, xanZT. 260, 28. elocvis ar Segvxvedria. xanZTas Sina elocvebis yovelTa dafanCulTa, xanZT. 260, 23. dahmal-av-s: davhmalav, sin. 174, 1. petre. . . ivltoda da imalvoda, sin. 266, 10; aseve: ist. qr. 77, 26; daimalvoda, fs. 56, saT. eb sufiqsiani: romelnime ivltodes da daimalebodes, ist. qr. 101, 34. dahmarx-av-s: dahmarxvida, l. 2, 19c. daimarxvis, equs. 40, 32.

221

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

aseve: gamohkueravs — gamoikuervis (iob. 28, 2); dahnergavs (sin. 246, 31) — daenergvis (boln. 18, 6); SehrTavs — SeerTvi (swav. 150, 28), moerTvin (kac. ag. 168, 27), STaerTvian (equs. 102, 28); Sehmusravs (jav. 105, 15 qv.) — Seimusrvin (swav. 117, 14; sin. 52, 28); SehmsWualavs — SeimsWualvin (sin. 119, 7); gan-, moiparavs — ganiparvis (swav. 253, 3), moiparvian (jav. 233, 5), gamoiparvian (iqve 233, 6); rwyavs (iat. qr. 17, 36) — irwyvoda (xanZT. 273, 11; iqve, 282, 11); dahfaravs (sin. 173, 36) — mefarvi (iob. 13, 24), daefarvis (swav. 111, 14; lim. 100, 13); dahflavs (swav. 225, 1) — daeflvi (sin. 88, 33); gamosaxavs (gamocx. 6, 3) — gamoisaxvis (boln. 31, 7; iqve, 60, 3 qv.); mosravs (fs. 77, 34) — moisrvodes (sin. 252, 1; boln. 85, 9 — 10); ganst¢navs (saqme 7, 59) — ganit¢nvodes (swav. 129, 22); dahfaravs (sin. 173, 36) — daifarvis (swav. 9, 19), ifarvin (sin. 192, 10); SeZerwavs — SeiZerwvis, SeiZerwvian (jav. 105, 15 qv.); gansZarcuavs (swav. 180, 22) — ganeZarcuvoda (sin. 258, 7), moeZarcuvis (iqve, 75, 24); aRsZravs (sin. 38, 3) — iZrvis (kac. ag. 150, 8; levit. 11, 14), aRiZrvis (swav. 164, 25), SeiZrvi (lim. 91, 28); Seiwiravs (swav. 100, 5) — Seiwirvis (swav. 83, 3; zanZT. 290, 39); daswuavs (swav. 184, 31) — daiwuvin (iqve, 140, 28), daiwuvied (iqve, 68, 24); Seswuavs (xanZT. 269, 8) — Seiwuvin (fs. 9, 23; iob. 30, 17); swylavs (efr. 88, 11) — iwylvodes (sin. 135, 26), moviwylvodiT (swav. 76, 3); SeWuravs — SeiWurvoda (tiriW. 187, 38), aRiWurvoda (zed. 209, 10); gamohxatavs (sin. 116, 1) — gamoixatvis (boln. 31, 7); dah£Savs (gamocx. 3, 7 T) — dai£Svis (iqve 3, 8 T), dai£Svied (swav. 60, 11). av-ian zmnaTa erTi nawilis eb darTuli variantebi iqve moviyvaneT. aseTi formebi moepovebaT sxva zmnebsac. magaliTad: daefarebis (swav. 135, 30); irwyvebin (zarzm. 320, 4; garej. 239, 21), irwyveboda (il. qarTv. 10, 33), irwyvebodes (zarzm. 335, 26; 334, 29); gamoisaxebis (boln. 64, 6); it¢rTebis (sin. 175, 2); iwuebis (jav. 133, 10), daiwuebi (swav. 73, 12), daiwuebis (equs. 50, 18; jav. 192, 3; swav. 246, 7), daiwueboda (lim. 120, 31), daiwuebodes (swav. 14, 26), daiwuebodis (swav. 93, 26; ist. qr. 96, 14), daviwuebodio (ist. qr. 79, 17); Seiwuebis (iob. 16, 17; gam. 3,2), Seiwuebodi (sin. 219, 32; iov. da efT. 96, 11; sin. 204, 26), Seiwuebodes (dab. 43, 30; ist. qr. 43, 19), Seiwuvebodes (evagr. 223, 30). zogierTi zmnis axali (eb-iT garTulebuli) formebi ufro xSirad gvxvdeba, vidre Zveli. mag., irwyvebis, iwuebis. . . zogjer ki, rogorc aRvniSneT, mxolod axali formebi aRmogvaCnda. es, ra Tqma unda, ar niSnavs, rom Zveli forma teqstebSi arsad iqneba Semonaxuli, magram imas ki miuTiTebs, rom axali formebi gabatonebulia. erTi aseTi zmnaa stanjavs (efr. 85, 21). vnebiTis formebi sakmaod xSiria da eb afiqsiania yovelTvis: vitanjebi (l. 16, 24 DE). itanjebi (iob. 15, 11), itanjebis (boln. 36, 1), vitanjebiT (swav. 95, 3; 95, 8), itanjebian (iqve, 51, 6), itanjeboda (iqve, 146, 2; 145, 5), itanjebodes (xanZT. 229, 12) da sxva. ixilavs zmnis vnebiTis mosalodneli av-iani forma mxolod erTxel Segvxvda: odes ixilvis sizrqe mwuervalTa misTa¡ (equs. 83, 4). eb-iani formebi ki Cveulebrivia. es unda aixsnebodes imiT, rom av II seriaSic gadahyva vnebiTis formebs, rom moqmedebiTs ar damTxveoda: ixilva (sin. 75, 31; xanZT. 292, 43; iqve, 267, 33). Sdr. moqm. ixila. magaliTebi: ixilvebis (xanZT. 222

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

312, 19; sin. 195, 2; swav. 148, 16; kac. ag. 160, 3; iqve 150, 16), ixilvebian (xanZT. 313, 17; equs. 60, 3; zarzm. 325, 15), ixilvebodes (xanZT. 299, 35) da misT. asevea: zraxavs — izraxebis (swav. 76, 27), izraxebodes (sin. 116, 40), izraxeboden (jav. 94, 16); locavs — ilocvebis (jav. 114, 2 qv.); mamlavs — imamlebis (Sdr. imamlvis): Sina¡ca qaTami maradis imamlebian1 (equs. 112, 20); aRmoswyavs — aRmoiwyvebian (Tualni, swav. 93, 25). axal qarTulSi ramdenime av-iani zmna Zveli formiTac ixmareba. erTi maTgania iwvis (asevea ewvis, iZvris, erTvis da sxv.), magram misi gamoyeneba Semoifargleba mxolod awmyos wriT, myofadis mwkrivebSi (e.i. sruli aspeqtis SemTxvevaSi) ukve eb-is darTva aris aucilebeli ([1] 457): iwvis, iwvoda, iwvodes, magram: daiwveba, daiwveboda, daiwvebodes2. rogorc cnobilia, Temis niSanTagan ax. qarTulSi `sicocxlis unari mxolod sams Seswevs. esenia: av, eb, ob~ ([1] 432). axal-axali saxelis fuZeebisagan rom zmna vawarmooT, romelime am sufiqsTagani unda gamoviyenoT. Tu aqtivi a — eb afiqsebiT iwarmoeba, misi vnebiTi sufiqsiania ([1] 292) da, maSasadame, eb eqneba pasivsac: a-niav-eb-s — niav-d-eb-a, a-lamaz-eb-s — lamaz-d-eb-a... Tu moqmedebiTi gvaris zmna av-iT keTdeba, misi vnebiTi prefiqsiania ([1] 292), sufiqsad ki av-is nacvlad ax. qarTulSi isev eb gvaqvs: daR-av-s — idaReb-a, cel-av-s — icel-eb-a... amis mixedviT kargad Cans, Tu rogor farTovdeba eb Temis niSnis gamoyenebis are vnebiTi gvaris zmnebSi. 4. am-iani zmnebi am-ian zmnaTa ricxvi saerTod cotaa. kidev ufro naklebad gvxvdeba maTi vnebiTis formebi. vnebiTSi am sufiqsi gadahyveba, oRond is SekumSulia: am→m. dasdg-am-s: dasdgmides cxedrebiTa, saqme 5, 15. daidgmodes savarZelni, iob. 29, 7. davadgamT, gamocx. 9,9T. g¢rg¢ni daedgmoda mas, sin. 80, 6. Tqu-m-a: beTania `saxl mS¢dobis~ iTqumis, sin. 126, 11; aseve: xanZT. 290, 40; sin. 38, 8; iqve, 34, 7; kac. ag. 150, 17 da sxv. XI s. erT xelnawerSi gvxvdeba eb darTuli forma: iTqumebis [7], asevea ufro adrindel ZeglSiac: cxoreba¡ aReTqumeboda, ist. qr. II, 42, 20. aRmosTqu-am-s: raodeni aRmoiTqumodis Cuen mier, efr. 85, 27. gansTquam-T (sin. 125, 20). sarwmunoeba¡ Tqueni ganiTqumis, lim. 93, 32; ganiTqumoda misi igi sak¢rveleba¡, sin. 144, 12. mimosTqu-am-s: da mimoiTqumodes yovelni ese sityuani, l. 1, 65.

asea. unda iyos an: qaTami... imamlebin, an qaTamni... imamlebian. stilisturi mizniT gamoiyeneba zogjer ax. qarTulSi av-iani formebi: iuRvlis, ibrunvis... Sdr. iuRleba, ibruneba... moqmedebiTia auRlebs, abrunebs, av-iani varianti TiTqos ar Cans.
2

1

223

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

danTq-am-s: nu damTqamn me, fs. 68, 16, wisq¢li. . . meysa Sina dainTqmis, gamocx. 18, 22T; romelnime. . . dainTqmied RelvaTa simZafriTa, swav. 117, 14; dainTqmodes igini, l. 5, 7; dainTqmodis ukeTureba¡, swav. 14, 7. rqu-m-a: romelsa darialan erqumis, abo, 58, 5; aseve: i. 19, 17c; abo 54, 1; ganasx-am-s (swav. 148, 7): huriaTa igi krebuli ganisxmis, sin. 92, 17; miisxmodian viTarca sacxovarni, swav. 16, 23; warisxmodian igini, iqve 123, 2. dasx-m-a: xolo Tquen rasaRa. . . damesxmiT, kost. 169, 23; daesxmiT kacTa zeda, fs. 61, 47 g; zedaca daesxmied mas, mr. 3, 10c. juars-acu-am-s: kualad juars-ecumia, ufalo, sin. 246, 22; juarsecumoda, sin. 82, 8. gardaacu-am-s: mS¢ldsa missa gardaucuams (fs. 7, 13). romeli-igi gardaecumis. . . sawuTrosa, efr. 88, 11. ganuxu-am-s maT bWeTa, efr. 95, 8. wignni igi matianTani ganexumodian, swav. 123, 8. saerTo viTarebis mixedviT suams zmnis vnebiTi unda iyos isumis. Cven xelTa gvaqvs erTaderTi forma, romelic eb sufiqsiania ukve; yoveli saWmeli, romeli iWamebis... da yoveli sasumeli, romeli isumebis, levit. 11. 34. rogorc aqedan Cans, eb daerTvis am Temis niSnian formas: isu-m-eb-is. Sdr. iTqu-m-eb-s. am-iani zmnebi sxvaca gvaqvs1: gamoabams (sin. 134, 29), moarTuams (m. 4, 24), gare-Seirtyams (sin. 9, 1), Searwyams (sin. 49, 34), daasxams (nelsacxebelsa ZualTa, sin. 258, 39), gardaasxams, STaasxams (RelvaTa navsa, mr. 4, 37). winadausxams (asoTa, sin. 173, 34), ganusxams (ekalTa), daacuams (TavTa Zelsa, ist. qr. 103, 10), STaicuams (sin. 108, 3). savaraudoa, rom amaTi vnebiTis uZvelesi formebi zemoT moyvanilTa msgavsad iqneboda agebuli: gamoebmis, moerTumis, ganesxmis... 5. em Temis-niSniani zmnebi cnobilia, rom em afiqsi aqvs erTaderT fuZes (cem), romelsac zmniswinTa darTviT ramdenime sxvadasxva mniSvneloba aqvs miRebuli ([1] 407). es zmnebi ZiriTadad sampiriania da, maSasadame, e-niani vnebiTi Seesabameba. em Temis niSani Cveulebriv vnebiTSic gadahyveba da, Tu SeiZleba ase iTqvas, sakmarisia, mas aRaraferi emateba arc Zvels da arc axal qarTulSi. sc-em-s: saidumlo¡ mecemis yurTa CemTa, boln. 41, 8; yovelTa maT ecemin sisurnele, zed. 214, 2; ecemoda, sin. 60, 18. aRmosc-em-s: erTisagan. . . wyaro¡sa... aRmoecemis madli igi, sin. 17, 31; aRmoecemian, equs. 68, 11. Sdr. wyali aRmoecena, sin. 10, 14; mTaTa CemTa gamoecemoda sZÀ, iob. 29, 6. zRua¡ igi dasavalisa¡. odesme aRematis da gardaecemin, da odesme damdabldis, equs. 93, 30. mdinare, romelsa hrq¢an fasis, gardamoecemis mwuervalTagan kavkasiisaTa, equs. 46, 19; gardamoecemodes... wyalni, fs. 77, 16.

1

es sia, ra Tqma unda, sruli araa.

224

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

aseve: dascems (m. 26, 31) — daecemis (equs. 54, 16; sin. 74, 28; fs. 81, 7); miscems (swav. 104, 9 — 10) — miecemis (xanZT. 282, 35; mr. 14, 21; iob. 21, 30) da sxv. egeve fuZe gvaqvs rTul zmnaSi: Tayuans-scems, nugeSinis-scems (garej. 239, 14), sadac pird. obieqturi piri rTul zmnaSi Sedis da amitomac forma mTlianad orpirianad aris qceuli. miuxedavad amisa, gvxvdeba maTi i-niani vnebiTic da e-nianic: didad nugeSinis-mecemis, jav. 130, 18 qv.; moi£senebn da nugeSinis-ecemis, swav. 141, 1. i-niani formebi mxolod Zvel qarTulSi gvxvdeboda da Cveni masalis mixedviT eb-sac irTavs: romlisa mier nugeSinis-icemebodis, zed. 208, 32; Tayuanis-icemebis ZÀ, sin. 16, 8; iqve, 134, 33; iqve, 53, 4; boln. 16, 7, qv.; zed. 196, 12; eSmaki Tayuanis-icemeboda, sin. 234, 2; 82, 4; boln. 28, 4 qv. Zvelad gvqonda: scems — sca (man mas kuerTxi); zmna sampiriani iyo da i-niani vnebiTi TiTqos ar unda hqonoda. rogorc Cans, erTi piri zmnas Zv. qarTulSive ekargeboda zogjer, rasac gviCvenebs vnebiTis forma: £elni, romelni man dahbadna, maTgan icema, swav. 151, 15. mosalodneli iyo: ica, magram Temis niSani adreve Sexorcebuli Cans fuZesTan. am zmnaTa erTi nawili daikarga, aRar ixmareba, meore nawili isev gvxvdeba da maT Zveli warmoeba aqvT SenarCunebuli. 6. eb-iani zmnebi eb Temis niSani Zlier gavrcelebulia moqmedebiTSi, aqedan ki — Sesabamis vnebiTSi. vnebiTis orive prefiqsi Tanabrad xSirad gamoiyeneba. aq vnebiTi ukeTdeba TiTqmis yovelgvar zmnas. ax. qarTulSi am formaTa erTi nawili aRar gvxvdeba. abraleb (swav. 148, 11) — vibralebi (saqme 26, 7), vibralebodiT (swav. 41, 12); brZanebs — ibrZaneboda (sin. 34, 28); moigebs — moigebis (evarg. 225, 32; (swav. 6, 25); aginebn (boln. 50, 18) — iginebis (swav. 29, 28), Seiginebis (boln. 38, 12); hgulebs — igulebis (swav. 175, 8); davsdeb (i. 10, 15) — daidebis (sin. 210, 22), gardaidebis (boln. 70, 3); STaideboda (i. 12, 6); adidebs — ididebis (sin. 15, 32; abo 51, 25); SeaerTebs — SeierTebis (efr. 81, 38; iqve 82, 13); daiviwyebs — daiviwyebis (swav. 91, 24; sin. 265, 21); ganazogadebs (kac. ag. 160, 16) — ganizogebis (iqve, 164, 5); ikadrebs — ikadreboda (xanZT. 266, 18); ganhkurnebs1 (sin. 11, 33) — ganikurnebis (sin. 4, 26; swav. 108, 30); hmsaxurebs (swav. 175, 6) — imsaxurebis (saqme 17, 25; sin. 233, 5); moinadirebs — moinadirebis (equs. 130, 26); anaTebs — inaTebin (swav. 182, 16); inatrebs — inatrebian (sin. 92, 18); ganapebs, daipebs2 (daipebdes, ist. qr. II, 44, 22; ganpebad, iqve, 38, 6) — ganipebis (equs. 54, 1); vhpoveb (l. 23, 14; Sdr. ax. q. vipovi)3 — ipovebis (lim. 39, 12; equs. 132, 23; iob. 28, 13); gaswavebs (sin. 167, 1) — iswavebis (iqve 195, 2); miiyvanebs (m. 7, 14; Sdr. ax. q. miiyvans —

1 ax. qarTulSi av-iania: gankurnavs; vnebiTsa da sawyiss Zveli warmoeba SemorCaT: gankurneba, ganikurneba. 2 ax. qarTulSi am zmnas ob afiqsi aqvs aqtivSiac da pasivSiac: gaapobs — gaipoba. 3 zmniswinians isev eb aqvs: moipovebs.

225

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

miiyvanebodis (swav. 180, 9); Seiyvarebs — Seiyvarebis (jav. 85, 21); aCinebs (jav. 41, 16 qv.) — iCinebis (sin. 234, 30) da misT. e-niani formebi: dahbadebs1 — daebadebis (sin. 31, 18)2; Sevhvedreb (fs. 30, 6) — evedrebis (kac. ag. 156, 16); ganhzavebs — ganezavebis (swav. 63, 4); Seezavebian (sin. 212, 5); mihmadlebda (l. 7, 21) — miemadlebis (efr. 89, 1), miemadleboda (SuS. 22, 24); aRhmarTebs (ist. qr. 103, 11)3 — aRemarTebis (sin. 202, 32; swav. 110, 6); warhmarTeben (fs. 67, 18) — waremarTebis (fs. 36, 23); hpovebs4 — epovebis (swav. 127, 20; evst. 34, 18); apkurebs (swav. 65, 11) — epkurebis (gobr. 181, 34) da sxv. 7. ob-iani zmnebi ax. qarTulSi ob-ian zmnebs Cveulebriv vnebiTSic ob aqvT, Tu pasivi prefiqsiania. ob-ian zmnaTa erTi nawilis fardia e.w. uniSno vnebiTi, romelsac mxolod eb axasiaTebs: albobs —lbeba, aTbobs — Tbeba, acxobs — cxveba... sayuradRebo viTarebaa Zvel qarTulSi: gvxvdeba mosalodneli ob-iani formebic, magram sakmaod xSirad prefiqsiani vnebiTi ob-iani zmnebisa eb-s gviCvenebs am ob-is adgilas. ganbW-ob-s: sikeTe igi dabadebisaT¢s ganibWobvis, equs. 61, 10. hgm-ob-s (m. 9, 3); igmobis saxeli RmrTisa Cuenisa¡, jav. 227, 15. magram: RmerTica igmeboda, swav. 137, 9; romeli-igi. . . igmeboda, lim. 74, 8. daaTr-ob-s: nu daiTrobiT R¢niTa, zed. 203, 35 a variantebia: daiTrvobiT, y (Sdr. daiTrvnian, i. 2, 10) da: daiTrobviT, romelic sqolioSia Catanili5, Sdr. nu daiTrvebi R¢niTa, boln. 82, 4 qv. daalt-ob-s (evagr. 218, 19): cremliTa iltobvodes, iob. da efT. 91, 17. variantebi: iltobodes (ramdenime xelnawerSi), ivltebodes (erT nusxaSi). rogorc Cans, am zmnis fuZeSiac gvqonda v, romlis adgili lt-s Semdeg iyo: fer£ni maTni ara dailtvnes, evst. 40, 8; dailtvnian, sin. 64, 15. Seamk-ob-s (sin. 116, 1): dRes Tabori. . . Seimkvebis RrubliTa naTlisa¡Ta (sin. 191, 18). aRimsT-ob-s (fs. 62, 2)6: moiqcevied da aRimsTobied, fs. 77, 34. Seipyr-ob-s: nu Seipyrobin goneba¡ Seni, ist. qr. 14, 29. Sdr. samsa mas dResa... jojoxeTisagan ipyrobeboda, sin. 82, 11. aqedanac Cans, rom eb sxva Temis niSnebs ki ar enacvleba, aramed mierTvis maT, arTulebs fuZes. mosp-ob-s: (swav. 180, 14): movispebi me suliTa mimotacebuliTa, iob. 17, 1. S-ob-s: kaci iSvebis salmobad, iob. 5, 7; aseve: sin. 31, 18; swav. 31, 5 da sxv.

en-iani zmnebis erTi nawili SinaarsiT erTpiriania. esenia cnobili `dahbada~ tipis zmnebi. iSviaTad am zmnas SenarCunebuli aqvs orive piris gageba: Svili ara mebadebis (=miCndeba, ist. qr. II, 86, 3). 3 Sdr. ax. q. aRmarTavs. 4 sampiriani ar Cans teqstebSi. 5 xelnaweri, romelSic gvxvdeba es ukanaskneli, safuZvlad uZevs v redaqcias. ar Cans, daiTrvobiT forma c nusxaSi gvaqvs, Tu gamomcemlis Sesworebaa. 6 zmna uobieqtoa, subieqti moTxrobiTSi Seewyoba.
2

1

226

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

SeaST-ob-s (m. 18, 28): kaci igi iSTvebin, swav. 140, 11; eSmakisagan iSTveboda (lim. 111, 21); daiSTvebodes zRuasa Sina, mr. 5, 13 ?. mouTxr-ob-s (fs. 9, 12): dRes. . . gancxadebulad mogueTxrobis Cuen, sin. 3, 30; romliTa mogueTxrobvis RmerTi, kac. ag. 167, 21. daam£-ob-s: mTavroba¡ misi daem£obvis, pal. alb. gv. 208, 19; adre daem£obvis mefoba¡ misi, iqve, 208, 291. miand-ob-s: nu miendvebi Tavsa Sensa, swav. 287, 1; iqve 304, 27. Seund-ob-s (swav. 40, 1): ara Seendobis maT, iqve 40, 2; Seendoboda brZolad, iqve 309, 29; Seendobvoda Seslvad, xron. 138, 26. miayrdn-ob-s: kedelsa aravin mieyrdnobin, iov. da efT. 70, 8; Sdr. kedelsa. . . aravin mieyrdneboda, xanZT. 266, 5. wy-ob-a¡: marxviTa guewyobis, ist. qr. 40, 21. ufro xSiria eb-iani formebi: simdablesa ewyvebis ampartavneba¡, swav. 70, 19; hbrZavn da ewyvebian, iqve 18, 30; iqve 108, 1; ewyvebian, iqve, 108, 26; wina-guewyvebis, zed. 205, 8; ewyveboda, abo, 60, 10; sin. 117, 38; guewyvebian, kac. ag. 153, 23. moyvanili magaliTebis mixedviT Cans, rom vnebiTSi ob-is monacvled TiTqmis yovelTvis gvaqvs eb: igmobis — igmebis, daiTrobis — daiTrvebis, iltobvis — ivltebis, ewyobis — ewyvebis... zogi zmnis ob-iani forma Cveni masalis mixedviT ar Cans, aris mxolod eb-iani formebi: Seimkvebis, moispebis, iSvebis, iSTvebis. gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa is garemoeba, rom TiTqmis yvela zmnis fuZeSi Tavs iCens v, romelic SekumSuli Temis niSani unda iyos: daiTrvebi, Seimkvebis, iSTvebis, miendvebi... am viTarebaSi SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom moyvanil zmnaTa ob meoreulia TviT moqmedebiTSi. misi winamorbedi unda iyos eb, romelic v-inTan urTierTobaSi gvaZlevs ob-s. es varaudi specialur literaturaSi gamoTqmulia [8], [9]. warmodgenili masalac mas uWers mxars. igive v analogiis gziT gadasula ob-ian vnebiTSiac, oRond gadasmulia, radgan o-s win iyo moqceuli. zog SemTxvevaSi ki v ikargeba, rogorc mosalodneli iyo: ganibWobvis ← ganibWvobis, daiTrobviT ← daiTrvobiT, iltobvodes ← iltvobodes, mogueTxrobvis ← mogueTxrvobis, daem£obvis ← daem£vobis, Seendobvis ← Seendvobis... maSasadame, vnebiTis Cveneba am SemTxvevaSi moqmedebiTis formaTa istorias gviTvaliswinebs; masSi ufro Zveli viTarebaa daculi. ob-iani zmnebis vnebiTSi ob-is gverdiT eb-is gamoyeneba am Temis niSanTa ubralo monacvleoba ar unda iyos da arc vnebiTSi eb-i daboloebaze gadasvlis tendenciis gamoxatuleba. axal qarTulSi eb vnebiTis yvelaze gavrcelebuli afiqsia, magram ob-ian zmnebTan is ar gvaqvs. amasTan eb gzas ikafavs vnebiTebSi ara monacvleobis saSualebiT, aramed ise, rom Zvel afiqss mierTviss (Sdr. ipyrobeboda).

1 xelnaweri gvian gadawerilia (1661), magram mainc SesaZleblad miviCnieT misi damowmeba, radgan TviT es formebi Zalze sayuradReboa.

227

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

8. of-iani zmnebi of afiqsic erT fuZes aqvs: yof. ax. qarTulSi es fuZe mxolod zmniswinTan erTad gvxvdeba, Zvelad uzmniswino formebic hqonda: hyofs, ganhyofs... aqvs prefiqsiani vnebiTi. i-niani formebi an aqtivis msgavsad of-s gviCvenebs, an amasTan erTad erTvis eb-ic. es ukanaskneli SedarebiT axalia da saerTo tendenciis gamomxatvelia: iyofis — iyofebis; ganiyofis — ganiyofebis... iyofebis forma axal qarTulSi imyofeba-m Secvala, romelSic m gaCenili unda iyos myofi mimReobis gavleniT. e prefiqsiani pasivi moqmedebiTis fuZes imeorebs, eb aq ar Cans. hy-of-s: viyofvi (lim. 120, 21); iyofvis (sin. 229, 4); iyofviT (fs. 31, 9); iyofiT (m. 6, 16); v SenarCunebulia uwyvetelSic, o-s win: iyofvoda (abo 66, 8; l. 21, 37); iyofvodes (kol. 184, 41). v, romelic moqmedebiTidan modis, am zmnaSic gadasmulia (iyvofis iyofvis), an ikargeba o-s win, agreTve eb-is darTvis SemTxvevaSi. eb darTuli formebi araiSviaTia: iyofebis (swav. 20, 9; iqve, 76, 28); iyofeboda (lim. 132, 32); iyofebodes (garej. 231, 25); gulisxma-iyofebis (jav. 634, 8). uy-of-s: sargebel eyofvis (sin. 276, 23); geyofis (xanZT. 319, 2); eyofin (iqve, 289, 35); eyofvoda (lim. 47, 13) da sxv. ganhy-of-s: suli ara ganiyofvis (sin. 186, 16; equs. 84, 10; kac. ag. 164, 5). ganiyofebis (efr. 81, 39); ganiyofebian (iqve 98, 37). . . ganuy-of-s: ganeyofvis (sin. 17, 29); ganeyofis (sin. 9, 4); ganeyofvodes (ist. qr. 104, 14). Sehy-of-s: Seeyofvis igi haersa (equs. 60, 20; kac. ag. 166, 23). 9. ev-iani zmnebi rogorc Zvel, ise axal qarTulSi ev-ian zmnaTa vnebiTSi meordeba moqmedebiTis fuZe, maTi saxiT dResac Semonaxulia vnebiTis Zveli warmoeba. am mxriv ev-iani zmnebi gansxvavdebian sxva xmovan-monacvleebisagan, romelTac eb afiqsic daerTvis vnebiTSi. ganabnevs (m. 12, 30) — ganibnevis (boln. 18, 3); gansTxevs (swav. 176, 25) — daiTxevis (equs. 58, 4), miiTxevis (iqve 58, 3); akurTxevs (abo 47, 12) — ikurTxevis (swav. 19, 11), ganhlevs (swav. 135, 12) — ganilevis (sin. 191, 12); aRamrRuevs — aRimrRueodes (moqc. 127, 30 g); daarRuevs (mr. 15, 29) — dairRuevoda (saqme 27, 41 a); aryevs — iryevian (abo 50, 12); ganarCevs — ganirCevian (efr. mc. 92, 23); aqcevs (swav. 117, 16) — iqcevis (lim. 91, 19); daaqcevs (ist. qr. 11, 40, 24) — daiqcevis (swav. 44, 5); iZevs ( iov. da efT. 79, 7) — gamoiZevis (jav. 26, 28). gardamosTxevs (swav. 275, 16) — gardamoeTxeodes (fs. 17, 9 a); mivemTxuevi (iob. 17, 1), SeemTxuevis (kac. ag. 145, 6); aRhrevs — aRerevi (lim. 125, 3); gardahrevs — gardagereodis (fs. 61, 11 a); dastevs — daetevis (i. 8, 37 E); Seswavs (swav. 175, 18) — Seewevis (sin. 11, 36); moaxuevs — moexuevis (boln. 50, 15) da sxv.

228

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

sufiqsiani vnebiTi
Zvel qarTulSi, rogorc cnobilia, vnebiTs ori sufiqsi axasiaTebs: n (←en), d. maT fuZeebi, ase vTqvaT, ganawilebuli aqvT: narnara bgerebiT dasrulebul zmnebSi d gvxvdeba, danarCenebSi — n [2]. rogorc unda iyos sufiqsiani vnebiTi nawarmoebi, mis awmyos (da saerTod I seriis) fuZes yovelTvis eqneba eb afiqsi Zvel qarTulSiac, axalSiac. aq esaa erTaderTi, damaxasiaTebeli Temis niSani. eb Temis-niSniania ZiriTadad Sesabamisi moqmedebiTic. ganadidebs — gandidnebis (saqme 19, 17); daadumebs — dadumnebis (xanZT. 286, 30); ganalaRebs — ganlaRnebis (sin. 189, 20); ganamtkicebs — ganmtkicnebis (sin. 99, 7); daamS¢debs — damS¢dnebis (fs. 82, 2 a); daamwifebs — damwifnebis (equs. 73, 22); ganarisxebs — ganrisxnebis (xanZT. 288, 39); aRaSfoTebs — aRSfoTnebis (lim. 125, 27) da misT. ganaaxlebs — ganaxldebis (sin. 3, 10); daabrkolebs — dabrkoldebis (sin. 100, 2); gamoabrwyinebs — gamobrwyindebis (equs. 95, 1); daaklebs — daakldebis (boln. 36, 8); moakldebis (iob. 14, 11); daak¢rvebs — dauk¢rdebis (abo 78, 6); aRamcirebs — aRmcirdebis (sin. 105, 5); moauZlurebs — mouZlurdebis (equs. 91, 22); aRafrinvebs — aRfrindebis (sin. 3, 10); ganaqarvebs — ganqardebis (sin. 19, 9); aw¢mebs — w¢mdebis (sin. 221, 23) da sxv.

uniSno vnebiTi
uniSno vnebiTi zmnaTa uZvelesi jgufia ([1] 239). varaudoben, rom misi warmoqmna win uswrebs saerTod gvaris Camoyalibebas qarTulSi [10], [11]. amasTan unda iyos dakavSirebuli is Tavisebureba, romelTac uniSno vnebiTi iCens saTanado moqmedebiTTan mimarTebiT. istoriulad am tipis zmnaTa urTierToba Sesabamis moqmedebiTTan sxvagvaria, vidre sxva jgufebis vnebiTebisa ([11] 128—129). cnobilia, rom uniSnobas erTgvarad `anazRaurebs~ is, rom maT axasiaTebT eb-i daboloeba awmyoSi ([1] 229, 423); esaa, ase vTqvaT, meoreuli niSani maTTvis ([11] 101). sruliad sxva viTarebaa moqmedebiTSi. eb Temis niSani aq TiTqos mxolod erT zmnas aqvs: ganaZRebs (iov. da efT. 78, 26), Sdr. ganZRebis (boln. 36, 1). uniSno vnebiTis erT nawils fuZedrekadi zmnebi Seesabameba (warswymeds, Sehkrebs, misdreks, daSrets. . . Sdr. warwymdebis, mr. 4, 38; Sekrbebis, equs, 91, 34; midrkebis, ist. qr. II, 102, 24; daSrtebis, m. 25, 8. . .); meore jgufs moqmedebiTSi ob Temis niSani aqvs: daadnobs (swav. 176, 24) — dadnebis (iqve 140, 12); akrTobs (sin. 33, 32) — hkrTebis (sin. 29, 24); atfobs (abo 55, 2) — tfebis (equs. 99, 26); ganacxrobs (lim. 1, 11) — ganscxrebis (jav. aRw. 228, 9); daaWnobs (il. qarT. 11, 15) — daWnebis (swav. 10, 17) da sxv.

229

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

uniSno vnebiTis mesame nawils moqmedebiTSi an kauzativis sxvadasxva afiqsebiT warmoqmnili formebi upirispirdeba, an moqmedebiTi ar Cans. mag.: aRdgebis (l. 7, 22) — aRadginebs (sin. 105, 25); mokudebis (SuS. 21, 23) — moakudinebs (zed. 205, 21). . . scTebis (esaia 21, 4) — acTunebs (esaia 9, 16)... aris sxvagvari zmnebic, magram esec sakmarisia. rogorc vxedavT, uniSno vnebiTis Sesabamis moqmedebiTSi sakmaod Wreli suraTia, vnebiTi ki calke dgas da Temis niSnebis mixedviT erTgvarovania. varaudoben, rom eb sufiqsi uniSno vnebiTSi gviandelia, pirveladi vnebiTebidan gadasuli dinamikur ugvaro zmnebSi [12]. amgvarad, prefiqsiani da sufiqsiani vnebiTi Temis TvalsazrisiT ZiriTadad Sesabamis moqmedebiTs mihyveba. gansxvaveba Tavs iCens maSin, roca moqmedebiTi uTemisniSnoa (erT-Temiani da fuZedrekadi zmnebi), an i Temis niSani aqvs. sufiqsian vnebiTebSi am mxriv gamonaklisi TiTqmis ar SeiniSneba — eb afiqsiania moqmedebiTic da vnebiTic. prefiqsiani vnebiTis fardi aqtivi Temis niSnebis mixedviT SedarebiT mravalferovania. aq gvxvdeba, aRniSnulTa garda, av, am, em, eb, om, of, ev Temis niSniani zmnebi. rogorc vnaxeT, yvela es afiqsi dasturdeba vnebiTSic. axal qarTulSi moqmedi unifikaciis Zlieri tendenciis gamo prefiqsian vnebiTSi TandaTan vrceldeba eb daboloeba. am daboloebaze TiTqmis mTlianad gadavidnen av da am Temis niSniani zmnebi. eb jerjerobiT ar sWirdeba em, ob, of da ev-ian zmnebs. maT SeinarCunes Zveli warmoeba. magram eseni SedarebiT mcirericxovania. zogierT dialeqtSi Zveli formebi dResac SemorCenilia. aseTia, e.w. mTis kiloebi. fSauridan es formebi Sesulia vaJas nawerebSi da, maSasadame, saliteraturo qarTulSic iCens Tavs [13]. rogorc gairkva, vnebiTs TiTqmis yvela Temis niSani aqvs, rac ki saerTod arsebobs. maSin ram ganapiroba arCevanis SeCereba maincdamainc eb afiqsze? eb afiqsi yvelaze gavrcelebulia ara marto axal qarTulSi, aramed ZvelSiac. vnebiTSi kerZod eb aqvT sufiqsian da uniSno vnebiTebs mTlianad. eb-iani zmnebi yvelaze mravalricxovania prefiqsian pasivSic. aq is gvxvdeba ara mxolod im zmnebSi, romelTac aqtivi eb-iT ewarmoebaT, aramed uTemisniSno da i-niani moqmedebiTis Sesabamisadac.

literatura 1. a. SaniZe, qarTuli gramatikis safuZvlebi, I, 1953. 2. a. SaniZe, nasaxelari zmnebi qarTulSi (qarTuli enis struqturisa da istoriis sakiTxebi, II, 1959, gv. 37). 3. g. maWavariani, vnebiTis sufiqsuri tipis genezisis sakiTxi qarTvelur enebSi, macne (enisa da lit. seria), 1, 1973. 4. i. imnaniSvili, qarTuli enis istoriuli qrestomaTia, II, 1963, gv. 204. 230

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

5. i. imnaiSvili, vnebiTi gvaris zmnaTa Taviseburebani (Zv. qarT. enis kaT. Sromebi, t. II, 1968, gv. 49). 6. i. abulaZe, Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikoni, 1973. 7. cxoreba¡ wmidisa antonisi. teqsti gamosca v. imnaiSvilma, 1970, gv. 104. 8. G. Deeters, Das kharthwelishe Verbum, Leipzig, 1930, gv. 126. 9. e. osiZe, erTi tipis zmnaTa awmyos fuZis agebulebisaTvis qarTulSi (qarT. enaTa struq. sakiTxebi, t. III, 1960, gv. 13, 16). 10. q. lomTaTiZe, Tbeba tipis zmnaTa istoriisaTvis. . . (ike, IV, 1953, gv. 77). 11. g. maWavariani, `uniSno vnebiTi" qarTvelur enebSi (qarTv. enaTa struqt. sakiTxebi, I, 1959, gv. 109). 12. g. rogava, namyo usrulis od sufiqsis SedgenilobisaTvis qarTulSi (ike, VI, 1954, gv. 93). 13. i. imnaiSvili, vaJa-fSavela da Zveli qarTuli ena, 1968, gv. 122—130.

Semoklebani abo — ioane sabanisZe, wameba¡ habo¡si (Zv. qarT. ag. lit. Zeglebi, w. I, il. abulaZis redaqciiT, 1963). boln. — ioane bolneli, qadagebani, m. janaSvilis gamocema, 1911. gam. — gamoslvaTa¡ (wignni Zuelisa aRTqumisani, t. I, nakv. I, 1947, gamosca a. SaniZem). gamocx. — iovanes gamocxadeba. . ., gamosca i. imnaiSvilma (Zveli qarTuli enis kaT. Sromebi, 7, 1961). garej. — cxoreba¡ daviT garejelisa¡ (Zv. qarT. lit. Zeglebi, I, 1963). gobr. — wameba¡ gobronisi (Zv. qarT. lit. Zeglebi, I, 1963). dab. — wigni dabadebisa¡ (wignni Zuelisa aRTqumisani, t. I, nakv. I, 1947). evgr. — cxoreba¡ Sio¡si da evagresi (Zv. qarT. lit. Zeglebi, I, 1963). evst. — mart¢loba¡ evstati mcxeTelisa¡ (Zv. qarT. lit. Zeglebi, I, 1963). esaia — wigni esaia¡si (wignni Zuelisa aRTqumisani, t. I, nakv. 2, 1948, gamosca a. SaniZem). efr. — Sesavali efrem mciris fsalmunTa Targmanebisa, gamosca mz. SaniZem (Zveli qarT. enis kaT. Sromebi, 11, 1968). equs. — basili kesarieli, equsTa dReTa¡. . ., gamosca il abulaZem, 1964. zarzm. — cxoreba¡ serapion zarzmelisa¡ (Zv. qarT. lit. Zeglebi, I, 1963). zed. — cxoreba¡ ioane zedaznelisa¡ (Zv. qarT. lit. Zeglebi, I, 1963). i. — ioanes saxareba (n. qarT. oTxT.). iob. — wigni iobisi (wignni Zuelisa aRTqumisani. t. I, nakv. 2, 1948). iov. da efT. — cxoreba¡ iovanesi da efT¢mesi (Zv. qarT. ag. lit. Zeglebi, II, 1967, gamosca il. abulaZem). il. qarTv. — cxoreba¡ ilarion qarTvelisa¡ (Zv. qarT. lit. Zeglebi, II, 1967). 231

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

ist. qr. II — qarTuli enis istoriuli qrestomaTia, II, 1963, gamosca i.

imnaiSvilma.
ac. ag. — grigol noselis Targmaneba¡ `kacisa agebulebisaT¢s~, gamosca il. abulaZem, 1964. kol. — wameba¡ yrmaTa¡ ricx¢T cxraTa¡ (Zv. qarT. lit. Zeglebi. I, 1963). kost. — cxoreba¡... kostantisi qarTvelisa¡ (Zv. qarT. lit. Zeglebi, I, 1963). l. — lukas saxareba (n. qarT. oTxT.) levit. — wigni levitelTa¡ (wignni Zuelisa aRTqumisani, t. I, nakv. 2, 1948). lim. — ioane mosxi, limonari, gamosca il. abulaZem, 1960. m. — maTes saxareba (n. qarT. oTxT.). mr. — markozis saxareba (n. qarT. oTxT.). moqc. — moqceva¡ qarTlisa¡ (Zv. qarT. ag. lit. Zeglebi, I, 1963). saqme. — saqme mociqulTa, gamosca il. abulaZem, 1948. sin. — sinuri mravalTavi 864 wlisa, a. SaniZis redaqciiT, 1959. swav. — mamaTa swavlani, gamosca il. abulaZem, 1955. tiriW. — mart¢loba¡ daviTisi da tiriWanisi (Zv. qarT. lit. Zeglebi, I, 1963). fs. — fsalmunis Zveli redaqciebi. . . gamosca mz. SaniZem, 1960. qrest. — Zveli qarTulis qrestomaTia, gamosca a. SaniZem, 1935. SuS. — wameba¡ SuSanikisi (Zv. qarT. lit. Zeglebi, I, 1963). xanZT. — cxoreba¡ grigol xanZTelisa¡ (Zv. qarT. lit. Zeglebi, I, 1963). xron. — xronoRrafi giorgi monazonisa¡, gamosca s. yauxCiSvilma, 1920. jav. — iv. javaxiSvili, sinis mTis qarTul xelnawerTa aRweriloba, 1947..

232

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

ekaterine osiZe

`RaRad-yo~ tipis zmnebi Zvel qarTulSi
Zvel qarTulSi originaluri warmoebis zmnaTa gverdiT arcTu iSviaTad gvxvdeba agebulebis mixedviT rTuli Sedgenilobis zmnebic. kompozit zmnebSi aSkarad gamoiyofa, erTi mxriv, sakuTriv zmna, meore mxriv — saxeluri nawili. Tanamimdevrobis mixedviT saxeluri nawili win uswrebs zmnurs. rTuli Sedgenilobis zmnaTa umravlesobaSi saxeluri nawili ise mtkiced Seerwya zmnurs, rom is zmnasTan erT cnebas qmnis. semantikurad rTul zmnaSi saxeluri nawilia datvirTuli. rTuli Sedgenilobis zmna SeiZleba gardamavalic iyos da gardauvalic. gardamavloba-gardauvalobas gansazRvravs zmnuri nawili kompozitisa. gardamavalia: Tval-uyofdes, wam-uyvna, madl-ipyra, kac-kla, wrfel-yo, Seuracx-yo... gardauvali zmnebi SedarebiT iSviaTad gvxvdeba: £el-ewifebis, Zal-gic ←Zal-giZs, guls-edga... `RaRad-yo~ tipis kompozitebSi Cven vgulisxmobT am rTuli zmnebis im nawils, romelTa SemadgenlobaSi Semavali zmna gardamavalia: es viTarca Tqua, £miTa didiTa RaRad-yo (i. 11, 43 DE) da £ma-yo miTa didiTa iesu da Tqua (lk 23, 46 DE // C) gasmies, rameTu iTqua pirvelTa maT mimarT. viTarmed: ara kac-hkla (m. 5, 21 DE) pativ-ec mamasa Sensa da dedasa Sensa (m 15, 4 DE) man naTel-gces Tquen suliTa wmidiTa da cecxliTa (m 3, 11 C) da naTel-iRebdes iordanesa zeda misgan (m 3, 6 C) dgil-ipyra mun, sada iyo, or dRe (i 11, 6 C) moZRuar, viciT, rameTu marTals ity¢ da aswaveb da aravis TualT-aReb, aramed WeSmaritad gzasa RmrTisasa aswaveb (lk 10, 21 DE). am kompoziti zmnebis subieqti nakvTTa meore wyebaSi yovelTvis moTxrobiT brunvaSi dgas. pirdapiri obieqti ki aseT kompozit zmnebs calke ar moepoveba: RaRad-yo man, kac-hkla Sen, pativ-ec Sen mas, naTel-iRo man. . . calke xmarebis SemTxvevaSi kompozitSi monawile yvela zmnas pirdapiri obieqti yovelTvis axlavs. `RaRad-yo~ tipis zmnaTa saxeluri nawili sxva araferia Tu ara pirdapiri obieqti. rTuli zmnis daSlis SemTxvevaSi, risTvisac sakmarisia SevcvaloT kompozitis Semadgeneli elementebis rigi an saxeluri nawili pirdapi-

233

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

ri obieqtis brunvaSi, e.i. saxelobiTSi davayenoT, rom saxeluri nawili zmnis pirdapir obieqtad warmogvidgeba: da gamovida, ixila eri mravali da wyaloba-yo maT zeda (mrk, 6, 34 C). Sdr. romelman-igi yo wyaloba¡ mis Tana (lk, 10, 37 DE // C). Semdgomad mravlisa Jamisa movida ufali igi maT monaTa¡ da sityua-yo maT monaTa Tana (mT, 25, 19 DE), C — redaqciaSi gvxvdeba `... da yo sityua maT Tana~. `RaRad-yo~ tipis zmnebSi saxeluri nawili an arsebiTi saxelia: £ma-yo, wam-uyvna, ambors-uyo, kac-kla, madl-ipyra, Tav-uyav, pativ-ec, mizez-yo, £el-yves, Tual-uyvna, gulis£ma-yo... an SedarebiT iSviaTad masdari, nazmnari arsebiTi saxeli: sityua-yo, moxedva-yo: rameTu moxedva-yo RmerTman ersa T¢ssa (lk. 7, 16 C); aRTquma-yo: da aRTquma-yo moqmedTa maT mimarT TiTo¡ satiri dRisa (mT, 20, 2 C); zraxva-yves: da viTarca ganTena, zraxva-yves yovelTa mRdelT moZRuarTa (m 27, 1 DE // C); Zieba-yo: da wyalobiTa T¢siTa Zieba-yo sruliad (sin. mr. 283, 21). masdaris iSviaTi xmareba saxelur nawilad bunebrivia, radgan masdari ukve zmnis pirian formebs gulisxmobs. calke unda gamoiyos iseTi rTuli gardamavali zmnebi, romelTa saxeluri nawili zedsarTav saxels an mimReobas warmoadgens. aseTi rTuli zmnebi Zvel qarTulSi sakmaod xSirad gvxvdeba: uzrunvel-yo, cxad-yo, Seuracx-yo, wrfel-yo, wmida-yo, swor-hyofda, krul-yo, mza-uyves, saTno-viyav, udeb-yo... saxeluri nawili am rTuli zmnebisa ar aris pirdapiri obieqti. pirdapiri obieqti am zmnebs calke moepoveba: ese ars ZÀ Cemi sayuareli, romeli me saTno-viyav (m 3, 17, DE) ganmzadeniT gzani uflisani da wrfel-yveniT alagni misni (mrk 1,3 DE) am tipis rTuli zmnebis saxelur nawils viTarebis garemoebis funqcia aqvs. mainc aRsaniSnavia, rom rig SemTxvevaSi es saxeluri nawili ibrunvis: `ganmzadeT gza¡ uflisa¡ da wrfels-hyofdiT alagTa misTa~ (mrk 1,3 C) aramed mowyaleman RmerTman romelman ara ugulebels-yvis Txova¡ (sin. mr. 267, 21)... cxadia, am SemTxvevaSi saxeluri nawili pirdapir obieqtad aris gaazrebuli. am rTuli zmnebis mikuTvnebis sakiTxi `RaRad-yo~ tipis zmnebTan iqneb sadavo iyos, radgan saxeluri nawili pirdapir obieqts ar warmoadgens. mainc unda aRiniSnos, rom saxeluri nawili am zmnebisa istoriulad SesaZlebelia pirdapiri obieqtis msazRvrels warmoadgenda, romelsac win sazRvruli — pirdapiri obieqti uZRoda1. rTuli zmnebis erT nawilSi saxeluri nawilis pirdapir obieqtad gageba imdenad daiCrdila, rom am zmnebma axali damateba gaiCines. amis magaliTia uar-yo da gulis£ma-yo zmnebi.
1 es sakiTxi calke ganxilvas moiTxovs. amasTan dakavSirebiT dadgeboda agreTve msazRvrel-sazRvrulis adgilis sakiTxi Zvel qarTulSi.

234

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

arRara eyivnos qaTamsa dRes, vidremde sam gzis uvar-myo me (lk 22, 34 DE). rameTu ara gulis£ma-hyav Jami moxedvisa Senisa¡ (lk 19, 44 DE). nakvTTa warmoebis mxriv rTuli zmnebi sxvadasxvagvar suraTs gviCveneben. erTi nawili rTuli zmnebisa dro-kiloTa pirveli wyebis nakvTebs organulad awarmoebs. RaRad-yo zmna Tu namyo-ZiriTadis wyebaSi mxolod rTuli saxiT gvxvdeba, awmyos da misgan nawarmoeb nakvTebSi mas martivi fuZe enacvleba: da RaRadebda £miTa didiTa da etyoda (mrk 5, 7 DE) romelni RaRadeben misa dRe da Rame (lk 18, 7 DE) zraxva-yo magram: ganizraxvides urTierTas (lk 6, 11 C) rameTu ara hzraxav RmrTisasa, aramed kacTasa (m 16, 23 DE) £ma-yo, magram: romel £mobda taZarsa Sina (m 21, 15 C) meore nawili rTuli zmnebisa awmyos wyebis nakvTebsac rTulad awarmoebs: movidodes kaTolike eklesiad da naTel-iRebdes (sin. mr. 271, 4) mcnebani icni: nu kac-hklav, nu iparav, nu cilsa swameb (mrk. 10, 19 DE) sada-igi iyo iovane da naTel-hscemda (i 1, 28 DE) sainteresoa RaRad-yo tipis zmnebSi saxeluri nawilis — pirdapiri obieqtis — brunvis sakiTxic. nakvTTa meore wyebaSi rTuli zmnebis saxeluri nawili, rogorc wesi, fuZis saxiT aris warmodgenili: RaRad-yo, £ma-yo, naTeliRo, pativ-ec... dro-kiloTa pirveli wyebis nakvTTa warmoebis dros sxvadasxvaoba dasturdeba. rTuli zmnebis erTi nawili saxelur nawils fuZis saxiT warmogvidgens awmyos wyebis nakvTebSic: kac-hklav, gulis£ma-yofs, £el-yofs, naTel-hscemda... RaRad-yo tipis zmnebis meore nawili nakvTTa pirvel wyebaSi saxelur nawils micemiT brunvaSi warmogvidgens: da igi wams-uyofda maT da daadgra utyuad (lk 1, 22 DE) ambors-uyofda fer£Ta misTa (lk 7, 38 DE // C) da Tuals-uyofdes mamasa misTa (lk 1, 62 C) paralelurad gvxvdeba kompoziti zmnebis iseTi formebic, sadac saxeluri nawili fuZis saxiT aris warmodgenili: da Tual-uyofdes mamasa missa (lk 1, 62 DE) aramed pativ-uyof mamasa Cemsa (i 8, 49 C) sapirispiro magaliTebi, e.i. roca namyo-ZiriTadis wyebaSi rTuli zmnebis saxeluri nawili micemiT brunvaSi dgas, Tumca gvxvdeba, magram Zalze iSviaTad: ambors-uyo, naTels-gces... rogorc vxedavT, RaRad-yo tipis zmnebSi saxeluri nawili — pirdapiri damateba — wyebaTa mixedviT zog zmnaSi ibrunvis, zogSi ki ubrunvelia. amis mixedviT am tipis zmnaTa ganviTarebis sam safexurs gamoyofen1.
1 el. babunaSvili, kompoziti zmnebi Zvel qarTulSi, Tsu aspirantTa V samecniero konferencia, moxsenebaTa Tezisebi. 1951, gv. 21-22.

235

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

erT-erTi damaxasiaTebeli niSani `RaRad-yo~ tipis rTuli zmnebisa is aris, rom kompozitSi monawile zmna yovelTvis preverbis gareSea warmodgenili: preverbiani zmna kompozits ver qmnis. ar gvxvdeba: naTel-miiRo, kacmokla, £el-Seyo... gvaqvs erTi mxriv: `rameTu mravalTa £el-yves zegardmo ganwesebad Txrobisa¡ mis (lk 1, 1 C); DE redaqciaSi ki vkiTxulobT: `rameTu mravalTa £eli Seyves aRwerad moTxroba¡ ... `RaRad-yo~ tipis zmnebSi preverbis uqonloba am zmnebis siZveles gaxazavs. rogorc aRvniSneT, namyo-ZiriTadis wyebaSi saxeluri nawili rTuli zmnisa fuZis saxiT aris warmodgenili. pirdapiri obieqtis brunva ki gardamavali zmnebis dro-kiloTa meore wyebaSi Zvel qarTulSi ukve saxelobiTia, Tumca pirdapiri obieqti gvxvdeba fuZis saxiTac; xolo sakuTari saxelebi pirdapiri obieqtis funqciiT, rogorc wesi, fuZis saxiT aris warmodgenili. `RaRad-yo~ tipis zmnebi am mxriv sakuTar saxelebs mihyveba. am zmnebis kompozitad qceva imdroindelia, roca pirdapiri obieqti fuZis saxiT iyo gamoyenebuli da, SesaZlebelia, saxelobiTi brunva arc iyo Camoyalibebuli. meore mxriv, kompozitad qcevis piroba iyo saxeluri nawilis fuZis saxiT warmodgena. cnobilia, rom qarTulisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia fuZeebisagan Semdgari kompozitebi. ara gvaqvs SemTxveva, rom rTuli zmnis SemadgenlobaSi Semavali saxeli — pirdapiri obieqti — saxelobiTi brunvis formiT iyos warmodgenili. amas garda, da es arsebiTia, `RaRad-yo~ tipis zmnebi cxadyofen, rom pirdapiri obieqtis adgili zmnasTan gansazRvruli iyo. igi uSualod win uZRoda zmnas. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi am tipis zmnaTa kompozitad qcevis procesis axsna gaWirdeboda: pirdapiri obieqti zmnas Seerwya imis gamo, rom igi yovelTvis win uZRoda gardamaval zmnas. am mxriv sawinaaRmdego Cvenebas iZleva sakuTari saxelebi: pirdapiri obieqtisa da subieqtis (romelic agreTve fuZis saxiT aris warmodgenili) gasarCevad garkveuli wesi arsebobs Zvel qarTulSi: subieqti dgas pirvel adgilze, win uswrebs obieqts. wyoba formuliT rom gamovxtoT aseTia: `abraham Sva isaak~, sadac abraham subieqtia, isaak — pirdapiri obieqti. `RaRad-yo~ tipis zmnebi ki sapirispiro — `isaak Sva abraham~ wyobas gvavaraudebinebs. `RaRad-yo~ tipis zmnebma Semogvinaxes ufro Zveli viTareba im mxriv, rom pirdapiri obieqti maTTan yovelTvis fuZis saxiT aris warmodgenili drokiloTa meore wyebaSi; maSin, rodesac sakuTar saxelebTan ryevas aqvs adgili: sakuTari saxeli — pirdapiri damateba gvxvdeba saxelobiT brunvaSic: abraham Sva isaaki; isaakman Sva iakobi (mT 1, 2 C). garda amisa, `RaRad-yo~ tipis zmnaTa kompozitad qcevis faqti Zvel qarTulSi maT arqaulobaze miuTiTebs.

236

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

ar aris sistematurad gatarebuli is sintaqsuri wesic, romelic subieqtsa da obieqts ganasxvavebs; st. Cxenkels1 dadasturebuli aqvs erTi SeTxveva, roca sakuTar saxelebSi pirdapiri obieqti pirvel adgilze dgas, xolo subieqti mas mosdevs: `da wariyvana saul samoel da yrma¡ igi~. rusul TargmanSi mas Seesabameba: `и взял Самуил Саула и слугу его~.  cnobilia, rom mTis iberiul-kavkasiur enebSi gardamavali zmna pirdapir obieqts aRniSnavs, xolo gardauvali zmna — subieqts (xunZuri, bacburi). afxazuri gardamavali zmna aRniSnavs subieqtsac da obieqtsac, magram pirdapiri obieqtis niSani uswrebs subieqtisas. garda amisa, afxazurSi gardamavali zmnis brZanebiTisa da absolutivis formebSi ar aRiniSneba subieqti, xolo pirdapiri obieqti saTanado niSniT yovelTvis aris warmodgenili2. qarTulSic gardamavali zmna garkveul SemTxvevebSi upiratesobas aZlevs pirdapir obieqts: a) roca subieqtad pirveli piri gvevlineba da obieqtad meore, b) an subieqtia meore piri da pirdapiri obieqti pirveli piri, g) meore piris dadebiTi brZanebiTis formebSi zmnaSi subieqtis niSani ar Cans, pirdapiri obieqtis niSani warmodgenilia. aqedan daskvna: `Cans, Tavdapirvelad gardamavali zmnebis uRvlileba mxolod obieqts aRniSnavda, gardauvalisa — subieqts, rogorc es dRemde daculia mTis kavkasiur zog enaSi~3. qarTulSi pirveli da meore piris pirdapiri obieqti gardamaval zmnaSi saTanado niSans warmogvidgens. zmna, rogorc wesi, ar aRniSnavs mxolod mesame piris pirdapir obieqts (ak. SaniZe). es faqti axsnas Txoulobs. `RaRad-yo~ tipis zmnebSi am movlenis axsna sirTules ar unda xvdebodes: pirdapiri obieqtis warmodgena saTanado niSniT am zmnebSi arc iyo saWiro, radgan rTuli zmnis SemadgenlobaSi TviT pirdapiri obieqtia mocemuli. am mxriv analogiuri viTarebaa dadasturebuli afxazuri enis msgavsi agebulebis mqone absolutivis formebSi, romlebic saxelisa da zmnis gauformebeli fuZis mqone kompozitebs warmoadgenen. saxeluri nawili saTanado zmnis pirdapiri obieqtia. am SemTxvevaSi absolutivis formebSi pirdapiri obieqtis niSani ar aris warmodgenili4: la-mba la-Cha-up — ar damnaxveli Tvali momTmeni Tvalia (Tval-ar-nax) [va] Tval-Tmena- [aris]. e¡qia-da e¡qia-khlwia — uSarvlo Sarvaldaxeuls (Sarvalgamoxvret. . .) dascinoda ala whxia-xwia cha izhqisuam — kudmowyvetili (kud-wyvet. . .) ZaRli xidze ver gava

1 st. Cxenkeli, sakuTar saxelTa bruneba oSkuri xelnaweris `mefeTa wignebSi~, Tsu Sromebi, XXV, Tbilisi, 1943. 2 q. lomTaTiZe, afxazuri gardamavali zmnis usubieqto formebi, ike, t. II, 1948. 3 arn. Ciqobava, qarTuli enis zogadi daxasiaTeba, qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, I, 1950, gv. 054. 4 q. lomTaTiZe, dasaxelebuli werili. magaliTebi amokrefilia amave werilidan.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

sainteresoa erTi faqtic afxazuri enidan: afxazurSi arakompozit zmnebSic, Tu gardamaval zmnas uSualod win uswrebs pirdapiri obieqti mesame pirisa (amasTan nivTis klasisa), zmna pirdapir obieqts aRar aRniSnavs: aus ya-s-wo¡t `saqmes vakeTeb~ (s I piris subieqturi niSania), unda ki gvqonoda: aus i-ya-s-wo¡t, sadac i pirdapiri obieqtis maCvenebelia. `RaRad-yo~ tipis zmnebSi rom saxeluri nawili saTanado niSnis magier aris warmodgenili, amas cxadyofs am tipis zmnaTaTvis damaxasiaTebeli arsebiTi mniSvnelobis faqti: zmna yovelTvis preverbis gareSea warmodgenili. piris niSnebi, cnobilia, preverbis Semdeg gvxvdeba zmnaSi. preverbi rom darTvoda zmnas, is pirdapiri obieqtis niSnis, Cven SemTxvevaSi ki saxeluri nawilis, win unda gvqonoda. saxeli ki preverbs ver iguebs. `RaRad-yo~ tipis zmnebi, rogorc aRvniSneT, gardamaval zmnasTan pirdapir obieqts uSualod zmnis win gvavaraudebineben. maSin iqneb amiT aixsnas qarTulSi mesame pirdapirobieqturi piris aRuniSvneloba gardamaval zmnaSi. specialuri literaturidan cnobilia, rom mesame subieqturi piri zmnaSi SedarebiT gvian gaformda. Tu gardauval zmnas win yovelTvis subieqti uZRoda da amis daSvebis SesaZleblobas isev gardauvali kompoziti zmnebi iZleva (£el-ewifebis, Zal-gic ← Zal-giZs zmnebSi saxeluri nawili subieqts warmoadgens. I da II piris formebi am kompozit zmnebs ara aqvs), maSin SesaZlebelia vivaraudoT, rom mesame subieqturi piris niSani gardauval zmnaSi imave mizeziT ar iyo warmodgenili, ris gamoc ar iyo aucilebeli `RaRad-yo~ tipis zmnebSi mesame pirdapirobieqturi piris aRniSvna. gardamaval zmnaSi pirveli da meore pirdapirobieqturi piri niSans aCens (iseve rogorc pirveli da meore piris subieqti gardauvali zmnebisa): Tu gardamaval zmnas win yovelTvis pirdapiri obieqti uZRoda, maSin am SemTxvevaSi zmnis win uSualod pirveli da meore piris nacvalsaxelebi iqnebodnen. am mxriv yuradRebas iqcevs piris niSanTa nacvalsaxelur elementebTan dakavSirebis cda: pirveli obieqturi piris m- niSans iqneb `me~ nacvalsaxelTan mivyavdeT, xilo meore obieqturi piris g- niSans kavSiri hqondes `eg~ nacvalsaxelTan1.

1 arn. Ciqobava, gramatikuli klas-kategoria da zmnis uRlilebis zogi sakiTxi Zvel qarTulSi, ike, t. V, 1953.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

Wola TevzaZe

rTuli zmnebi Zvel qarTulSi
oria an meti sityvis fuZeebis SerwymiT vRebulobT erT rTul sityvas. rTuli sityva SeiZleba iyos saxeli an zmna; es damokidebulia SeerTebuli fuZeebis xasiaTze: saxelebis Serwymis Sedegad, Cveulebriv, miiReba kompoziti saxeli, xolo saxelisa da zmnis fuZeTa SerwymiT — rTuli zmna. rTuli zmnebi Tanamedrove qarTulSic gvxvdeba, magram maTi gamoyeneba gacilebiT ufro vrceli iyo Zvel qarTulSi. axal qarTulSi gadmonaSTis saxiT aris SemorCenili iseTi rTuli formebi, rogoricaa: srul-yo, Seuracxyo da sxva. meore mxriv, Tanamedrove qarTulSi TiTqmis ara gvaqvs arc erTi rTuli zmna, romelic Zvel qarTulSi ar yofila. rTuli zmnebi marto qarTuli enisaTvis ar aris damaxasiaTebeli, igi gvxvdeba agreTve sxva qarTvelur enebSi, afxazurSi, bacburSi da sxva. mravlad aris warmodgenili agreTve rTuli zmnebi Turqul enebSi, sadac zmnaTa ZiriTad masas swored aseTi zmnebi Seicaven da maTi Seswavla morfologiisa da leqsikologiis erT-erT ZiriTad sagans warmoadgens. aranakleb mniSvnelovania qarTulSi arsebuli rTuli zmnebis Seswavla. am sakiTxze yuradReba gaamaxvila prof. a. SaniZem da gaxaza is mniSvneloba, rac rTuli zmnebis Seswavlas aqvs qarTuli enis gramatikis zogierTi sakiTxis gadaWris saqmeSi1. qarTulSi arsebuli rTuli zmnebis SemswavlelTaTvis saxelmZRvanelo debulebebia agreTve mocemuli i. imnaiSvilis sakandidato disertaciaSi2. Sinaarsis mixedviT rTuli zmnebisaTvis erTcnebianoba aris damaxasiaTebeli. formis mixedviT ki arsebobs ramdenime niSani: a) rTuli zmnis pirveli, e.w. saxeladi nawili3 zmnis uRlebisas ucvleli rCeba (RaRad-hyofs da RaRad-yo, Rirs-hyofs da Rirs-yo); b) saxeladi nawili pirvel adgilzea da uSualod Seerwymis meSvel zmnas (naTel-iRo, zraxva-yo, gel-uyo)4; g) zmnuri nawili uzmniswinod aris warmodgenili (nugeSinis-sca, £ma-yo, gulisxma-yo). naklebad SevxvdebiT iseT rTul zmnas, romelsac samive es formaluri niSani axasiaTebs, magram Sinaarsis (erTi cnebis gamoxatva) gaTvaliswinebisa da romelime aRniSnuli niSnis Tu niSnebis aRmoCenis Semdeg SesaZlebeli
a. SaniZe, zmnaTa gardamavlobis sakiTxisaTvis qarTvelur enebSi: saq. ssr mecn. akademiis moambe, t. III, 1942, gv. 289. 2 i. imnaiSvili, wrfelobiTi brunvis sakiTxisaTvis Zvel qarTulSi, Tbilisi, 1941. (sakandidato disertacia). 3 `saxeladi nawili~ pirobiTi terminia. zogjer SesaZloa am nawilad gamoyenebuli iyos ara saxeli, aramed uformo sityva. 4 termini `meSveli zmna~ savsebiT zustad ver gadmoscems im Sinaarss, romelic zmnur nawils Sehferis, es termini ufro zustad Sedgenili Semasmenlis zmnuri nawilis gadmosacemad iqneboda mizanSewonili.
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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

xdeba rTuli zmnis garCeva saTanado sintaqsuri wyvilisagan. maSasadame, CamoTvlili formaluri niSnebi damaxasiaTebelia rTuli zmnisaTvis, magram ar aris aucilebeli, rom yvela es niSani erTad axasiaTebdes mas. saxeladi nawilis forma-ucvleloba zogadad axasiaTebs rTul zmnas: amborsuyofda da ambors-uyo, gulisxma-hyofda da gulisxma-yo, Tual-uyofs da Tualuyvna, krul-hyofs da krul-yo, lxineba-hyofs da lxineba-yo, srul-hyofs da srul-yo, uvar-hyofs da uvar-yo, £el-hyofs da £el-yo... moyvanil formaTa umravlesobaSi saxeladi nawilic Seicvlida formas, magram es ar moxda, radgan maT dakarguli aqvT damoukidebloba. amrigad, saxeladi nawilis istoriulad arsebuli funqciis dakargvas mohyva formacvalebis unaris dakargva. aRniSnuli ar SeiZleba ganvazogadoT yvela im rTul zmnaze, romelTa saxeladi nawilebi adre pirdapir damatebas warmoadgenda. zemoT aRniSnuli formebis gverdiT arsebobs iseTi zmnebic, romelTa saxeladi nawilebi adre pirdapir damatebas warmoadgenda da istoriulad arsebuli formacvalebis unari SenarCunebuli aqvT: pativs-uyofs da pativ-uyo, saxels-sdebs da saxel-sdva, sityuas-hyofs da sityua-yo, wams-uyofda da wam-uyvna. aseT zmnaTa ricxvi SedarebiT mcirea. saxelad nawilTa es sxvadasxvagvari Tviseba ar SeiZleba ar axdendes gavlenas saerTod zmnis Sinaarsze. Sinaarsis TvalsazrisiT (erTi cnebis gamoxatvis mixedviT) Znelia erT sibrtyeze moTavseba, erTi mxriv, gulisxma-hyofs da gulisxma-yo, xolo, meore mxriv, sityuas-hyofs da sityua-yo rTuli zmnebisa, magram unda aRiniSnos, rom arc ukanasknelTa gamocxadeba SeiZleba sintaqsur wyvilebad, rasac isini odesRac warmoadgendnen. yovelive es xelSesaxebi xdeba, rodesac viTvaliswinebT, erTi mxriv, Tual-uyofs da Tual-uyvna, xolo, meore mxriv, wams-uyofs da wam-uyvna rTuli zmnebis Sinaarsobrivad absolutur igiveobas. amas unda daematos isic, rom arsebobs naTels-gcem // naTel-gcem da naTels-gces // naTel-gces paraleluri formebi (ix. qvemoT). rTuli zmnis formaluri niSnebis daxasiaTebis TvalsazrisiT yuradReba unda mieqces im garemoebasac, rom, Tu mcire gamonaklisebs ar miviRebT mxedvelobaSi, micemiTis formiT warmodgenili saxeladi nawili, rogorc ukve moyvanili magaliTebidanac Cans, sazogadod ar dairTavs emfatikur a-s1. rTuli zmnis saxeladi nawilis ganxilvisas aRsaniSnavia, rom misTvis damaxasiaTebelia gansazRvruli adgili. igi, Cveulebriv, win uswrebs zmnur nawils. ase iyo es zemoT moyvanil yvela magaliTSi; asea es mraval sxva SemTxvevaSi: Tavs-idva, Tana-edva, Zal-edva, sulT-iTquna, kac-kla, £eliwifa, gulad-iRo, naTel-iRo, jer-ars, wes-ars, aRTquma-iyo, brZola-uyo, eqsoria-yo, ina£-idga, Tana-war£da...2
am sakiTxze miuTiTebs q. ZoweniZe (`emfatikuri xmovani Zvel qarTulSi~: stalinis sax. Tbilisis sax. univ. Sromebi, XXX в — XXXI в, 1947, gv. 346). magram rTuli formis saerTo klasifikacia avtors sruliad sxvagvari aqvs. 2 aris iSviaTi SemTxvevebi, roca rTuli zmnis es damaxasiaTebeli niSani ar aris daculi, saxeladi nawili uswrebs zmnur nawils: gamoucxade mas, ra¡Tamca locva-yo CemT¢s. da aRdga beri da
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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

Semdegi formaluri niSani, rac rTul zmnas axasiaTebs, is aris, rom meSvel zmnas ar axlavs zmniswini. aqamde dasaxelebul arc erT rTul zmnas zmniwini ar gaaCnia. Tu zmnas zmniswini axlavs, maSin igi saxelTan ver qmnis iseT organul kavSirs, rogorc es rTuli zmnisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli. pativis-cema zmna erTcnebiania da gaigeba rogorc erTi rTuli forma: hgonebdes, viTarmed amiT pativ-scemen warsulsa mas (udabn., 35 b). magram, roca zmna zmniswiniT aris warmodgenili, maSin igi damoukidebeli erTeulia da saxelic winadadebis calke wevrs warmoadgens: RmerTsa Cemsa vhmadlob, romelman esodeni pativi momca (kim., t. I, 46, 20). aq rogorc saxeli, ise zmna winadadebis damoukidebeli wevrebia. aseve zmnuri nawili uzmniswinod aris warmodgenili da rTul formasTan gvaqvs saqme Semdeg magaliTSi: viTar-igi sityuas-migebdes me huriani, viiZule RaRadis-gdebad keisrisa (saqme, 28, 19). magram, roca zmnas zmniswini axlavs, maSin rTul formasTan aRar gvaqvs saqme: aha esera ara aqus sity¢is mogeba¡ RmerTsa amas Sensa (kim., t. I, 134, 19). mocemul SemTxvevaSi ukve saxeli winadadebis damoukidebeli wevria. igi ubralo damatebas warmoadgens. vxvdebiT sxvagvar SemTxvevebsac: TiTqmis yovelTvis zmniswiniTaa warmodgenili zmnuri nawili, roca rTuli formis saxelad nawils formaucvleli sityva warmoadgens: gare-mo-adga, gare-war-£da, Tana-war-£da, Tanawar-vida, Sina-gan-scemde, wina-aR-udga, wina-da-sc¢Ta... am SemTxvevebSi ukve zmniswini aRar aris warmodgenili misi namdvili funqciiT. mas aRara aqvs gezisa da orientaciis gamoxatvis funqcia, igi aq fuZesTan aris Sexorcebuli. adgilze Tu mimarTulebaze (risi gamoxatvac sazogadod zmniswinebs evaleba) TviT saxeladi nawilebi miuTiTeben. maSasadame, zmniswinis ararseboba rTuli zmnisTvis iseTi damaxasiaTebeli formaluri niSania, romelic yvela rTuli zmnis mimarT vrceldeba. mocemuli nimuSebidan isic Cans, rom Tu saxelad nawilad gamoyenebulia zmnizeda, maSin meSvel zmnas ar SeiZleba am zmnizedisagan momdinare an masTan masalobrivad axlo myofi zmniswini daerTos. gvaqvs gare-moadges, garewarh£da, magram ar gvaqvs aseTi rTuli zmnebi: gare-ganadges, gare-gan£da. gvaqvs wina-dac¢Ta, magram ara gvaqvs wina-warc¢Ta. aRsaniSnavia, rom rTuli zmna zeda-edva uzmniswinod gvxvdeba. aq mosalodneli iyo da zmniswini, magram igi ar aris warmodgenili, radgan saxeladi nawili `da~ marcvliT bolovdeba da mas zemoaRniSnuli mizezis gamo ar SeiZleba mosdevdes imave fonetikuri Sedgenilobis zmniswini. aRniSnuli zmniswini rom iyos formaSi warmodgenili, maSin meSveli zmna damoukideblobas
yo CemT¢s locva¡ (kim., t. I, 25, 23); gan£sen kruleba¡ misi da yav igi Rirs, ra¡Ta migipyras Sen msxuerpli igi usisxlo¡ (kim., t. I, 335, 16); da hrqua noomin orTa maT Zis colTa misTa: warvediT da miiqeciT saxid mamisa T¢sisa da yavn ufalman Tana wyaloba¡ (ruT., 1, 8). SesaZloa saxeladi da zmnuri nawili gaTiSuli iyos, e.i. tmesis movlenasTan gvqondes saqme maTi pirdapiri wyobis SemTxvevaSic: jer-Tu-ars, Tana-warm£edin me, ufalo, Jami ese (mark., 14, 351); RaRad-Tu-yos Cemdamo, vismino misi, rameTu mowywle var (gamoslv., 22, 27); da raJams dasdgeT Tayuanis-cemad, miuteveT, ra¡Ta Tana-vis-edvas (mark., 11, 25c).

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

moipovebda da saxeladi nawilic TavisTavadi zmnizeda iqneboda. amdenad aRar gveqneboda saqme rTul zmnasTan1. aRniSnul formalur niSnebs SeiZleba daematos kidev erTi damaxasiaTebeli Tviseba: rodesac zmnuri nawili sawyisis saxiT aris mocemuli, maSin saxeladi nawili masTan sintaqsuri urTierTobiT ki ar aris dakavSirebuli, aramed erT rTul, SeTxzul formasTan gvaqvs saqme. rTuli zmnis sawyisi, ise rogorc TviT rTuli zmna, erT cnebas Seicavs. ara aqvs mniSvneloba imas, Tu ra formiT aris saxeladi nawili warmodgenili; igi SeiZleba warmodgenili iyos fuZis saxiT: gel-yofa, Tav-yofa, mza-yofa, £el-yofa; SeiZleba mas micemiTis forma gaaCndes: guls-deba, Tavs-deba..., SeiZleba warmodgenili iyos naTesaobiTis formiT: amboris-yofa, gulisxmis-yofa; moqmedebiTiT: ina£iTjdoma, viTarebiTis formiT: mucelad-Reba, gulad-Reba. erT cnebas Seicavs rogorc £el-yofa, ise gulisxmis-yofa, aq saxeladi nawilis formas (fuZis saxiTaa igi warmodgenili, Tu naTesaobiTis formiT), cnebis gamoxatvis TvalsazrisiT, mniSvneloba ara aqvs. rac Seexeba micemiTis, moqmedebiTisa da viTarebiTis formiT wamodgenil saxelad nawilebs, isini istoriulad ZiriTadad adgilis gamoxatvasTan arian dakavSirebuli da rogorc pirian, ise upiro zmnebSi formas ar icvlian: Tavs-idva da Tavs-

deba, ina£iT-jda da ina£iT-jdoma, muclad-iRo da muclad-Reba.
* * * ras warmoadgenen istoriulad rTuli zmnis Semadgeneli nawilebi? rogorc ukve zemoT iyo aRniSnuli, xSirad rTuli zmnis saxeladi nawili yofili pirdapiri damatebaa. SesaZloa agreTve igi udrides moSlil subieqts (£el-ewifebis), irib obieqts (juars-acua), garemoebas (muclad-iRo). ar aris gamoricxuli rTuli zmnis miReba Sedgenili Semasmenlis saxeladi nawilisa da meSveli zmnis Serwymis Sedegad (jer-ars). maSasadame, rTuli zmna miRebulia sintaqsuri wyvilis SeerTebis, Serwymis Sedegad. rTul zmnebSi sazogadod piris gamoxatva dakisrebuli aqvs zmnur nawils. igi atarebs yovelgvar morfologiur niSans, romlebic zmnis pirianobasTan, uRlebasTan da warmoqmnasTan aris dakavSirebuli. saxelad nawils ki ZiriTadad zmnis mxolod Sinaarsobrivi, semasiologiuri mxarisaTvis aqvs mniSvneloba. magram saxeladi nawilebi erTi rigi rTuli zmnebisa pirianobis TvalsazrisiTac aris saintereso, radgan swored isini istoriulad zmnis pirTan Sewyobil saxelebs warmoadgenen. sxvanairad rom vTqvaT, zmnis pirTan Sewyobili saxeli (xSirad pirdapiri obieqti, xolo iSviaTad subieqti da iribi obieqti) moSlilia da rTuli zmnis saxelad nawils warmoadgens. moraris ramdenime SemTxveva, roca rTuli zmnis saxelad nawilTan Sexorcebuli aris zmniswini. magaliTad: Sebma-uyo, Seuracx-yo, magram am SemTxvevaSi zmniswini ufro derivaciul afiqss warmoadgens. yovel SemTxvevaSi, aq zmniswini ar aris gezis an orientaciis gamomxatveli. aq igi formis ganuyofeli nawilia, misi gamoyofa, rogorc zmniswinisa, SeuZlebelia.
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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

fologiuri niSani am gauqmebuli pirisa ki zmnis formaSi warmodgenilia, magram es piri, rogorc realuri, gramatikuli piri, aRar arsebobs da amdenad misi niSani, romelic zmnis formaSi iseve darCa, ukve pirze miuTiTebs (Tu ki zmnas aseTi gaaCnia). daviwyoT subieqturi piriT. da vina¡Tgan Zal-ucs kacsa ese yovelni daTmenad kacisa mier T¢sisave msgavsisa (kim., t. 1, 57, 11). aseTi formebi mravalmxriv aris saintereso: yofili subieqti Zal aRar aris winadadebis damoukidebeli erTeuli. igi rTuli zmnis Semadgeneli komponentia da subieqturi piris sufiqsi s masze aRar miuTiTebs. am zmnasTan I da II piri arasdros ar SeiZleba warmodgenili iyos subieqtad; awmyoSi Cveulebriv piris niSani ar aris warmodgenili: ukueTu egeviTari Zal-uc apolonsa, mivide taZarsa mas missa da gamovcado igi (kim., t. 1, 150, 13). piris niSnis dakargva fonetikuri faqtoriT aris gamowveuli: sufiqsi s-ani aris yru spiranti, romelic imsgavsebs fuZis bolokidur xSul mJRer Z-ils da aqcevs fSvinvier xSul c-anad, xolo Semdeg TviTon ikargeba (Zal-uZs → Zaluc-s → Zal-uc). wyvetilSi subieqtis niSnad warmodgenilia a da amitom araviTar fonetikur cvlilebas adgili ara aqvs. niSanic yovelTvis Senaxulia: Seipyrnes gzani sameufoni da ver Zal-edva qristianeTa slvad (kim., t. II, 200, 19). aseve, subieqti moSlili Cans Semdeg formebSi: gulisxma-yo dedakacman man, rameTu ara saTno-uCns RmerTsa Seslvad yrmisa mis abanod (kim., t. I, 219, 10); da iqmna maT Soris sity¢s-geba¡ sarwmunoebisaTs, romeli-igi sity¢s-geba¡ aw aRwerad cxorebisa amis Txrobasa Sina ar jer-miCs (kim., t. I, 66, 30); ver £elewifebis qalaqsa dafarvad, romeli mTasa zeda daSenebul arn (maTe, 5, 14). moyvanil nimuSebSi axali subieqti arc aris ganviTarebuli da mxolod morfologiuri kvalifikacia formisa ver gvaZlevs subieqtis gamoyofis saSualebas, radgan yofili subieqti zmnasTan aris SeerTebuli. swored amitom iyo SesaZlebeli, rom zmnis Sinaarsi mTlianad Secvliliyo. rTuli zmnis nawilebi cal-calke aRebuli sul sxva rameze miuTiTeben (£elewifebis = xeli miuwvdeba)1, xolo orive erTad erT cnebas gamoxatavs da Secvlil Sinaarss atarebs (£el-ewifebis = SeuZlia, ufleba aqvs). axali Sinaarsis mixedviT pirTa kvalifikaciac sxvagvaria. cvlileba ZiriTadad subieqts Seexeba. rogorc subieqti, is xSirad arc Cans, radgan saTanado saxeli viTarebiTi brunvis formiT aris warmodgenili, da amdenad igi subieqtadac ar CaiTvleba: rameTu ver £el-ewifebis dacxromad sulsa Cemsa (iob., 6, 7). ufro farTod aris gavrcelebuli pirdapirobieqturi piris gauqmeba da masTan dakavSirebuli movlenebi. saxeladi nawili zogierTi rTuli zmnisa istoriulad pirdapirobieqtur pirTan Sewyobil saxels warmoadgens. gansakuTrebiT es iTqmis yo-Ti nawarmoeb zmnebze. wesis mixedviT yo-Ti nawarmoebi rTuli zmnebi pirdapir obieqts yovelTvis unda Seicavdes, radgan martivad xmarebisas mudam gardamavalia da, maSasadame, Seicavs
1 i. imnaiSvili, wrfelobiTi brunvis sakiTxisaTvis Zvel qarTulSi, 1941. (sakandidato disertacia).

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

pirdapiri obieqtis gagebas, romelic gansazRvrul SemTxvevaSi zmnis formaSi saTanado formatiT aris warmodgenili1. magram rodesac igi rTul zmnaSi yofil pirdapir obieqtTan erTad erTcnebian zmnas awarmoebs, maSin es `pirdapiri obieqti~ aRar aris gagebuli, rogorc obieqti. igi rTuli zmnis Semadgenel nawilad aris qceuli da mas dakarguli aqvs damoukideblobis unari, romelic ZvelisZvelad unda hqonoda. aRixilna Tualni T¢sni zecad wmidaman, RaRad-yo da Tqua (kim., t. II, 10, 31). rTul zmnaSi `RaRad-yo~ istoriulad, rac yo (e.i. pirdapiri obieqti), aris `RaRadi~, magram Zvel qarTulSi RaRad-yo erT mTlian cnebad gagebuli zmna da `RaRadi~ pirdapir obieqtad (e.i. damoukidebel sityvad) aRar gaigeba. rogorc prof. a. SaniZe miuTiTebs2, aqedan warmodgeba piris niSnis win gadmosma (vRaRad-v-yav — saqme, 24, 21 Д) subieqturi piris niSani gadmosulia TavSi da, amrigad, subieqturi piris ormag aRniSvnas aqvs adgili. ise rogorc RaRad-yo zmnaSi, pirdapiri obieqti moSlilia Semdeg rTul formebSi: yrma¡ vinme STavarda jurRmulsa friad Rrmasa da £ma-yo da Tqua (kim., t. I, 290, 3); xolo man sixaruliT da cremliT munquesve ambors-uyo kunkulsa missa da icvala feri pirisa misisa¡ (iqve, 265, 19); mraval saxed brZola-uyves wmidasa maqsimes mpyrobelTa maT da ver uZles marTlisa sarwmunoebisagan midrekad (iqve, 87, 1); fer£i misi ganirTxa da gza-uyo Cemdamo alagTa warsawymedelTa misTa (iob., 30, 12); viTarca Sen gnebavs, gamogi£sne gel-yofa¡ ese Sengan da gel-uyo Zmasa magas Sensa (kim., t. I, 140, 4); dascnes Zeni beniamenisni. da devna-uyves noa¡Tgan Semdgomad (msaj., 20, 43); dro-uyo filiqs (maqsime, 24, 22); Tav-uyav mamasa Sensa da dedasa Sensa, ra¡Ta keTili geyos Sen yovliTkerZo (kim., t. I, 143, 1); Tual-uyvna mas simon-petre, ra¡Ta hkiTxos, vin ars, romlisaT¢s ity¢s? (iovane, 13, 24 C); da miavlina yovelTa mRdelTa vedrebiT, ra¡Ta locva-yon misT¢s (ist. qrest., 129, 30); lxineba-yos mRdelman man codvisa misT¢s da mieteos mas codva¡ igi (levit., 5, 6); da amcnes ZeTa maT beniamenisTa da hrques: warvediT da mzir-uyavT vena£ovansa Sina (msaj., 21, 20); rameTu moxedva-yo RmerTman ersa T¢ssa (luka, 7, 16 C); me Tu vinme msaxuros, pativ-uyos mas mamaman Cemman (iovane, 12, 26 C); Semdgomad mravlisa Jamisa movida ufali igi maT monaTa¡ da sityua-yo maT monaTa Tana (maTe, 25, 19); aRZarcues saburveli Tavisa misisa¡ da Sebma-uyves mas (kim., t. I, 146, 13); amieriTgan aRara gibrZaneben Sen werilni ese. . . aramed yovladve, ra¡Ta arRara saxelsdva qristeanobasa (kim., t. II, 46, 27); SeinaneT da naTel-iReT kacad-kacadman Tquenman (saqme, 2, 38); juars-acues da ganiyves samoseli misi da wil-igdes mas zeda, vismca ra¡ xuda (mark., 15, 24 C); rameTu ara TualT-aReb pirsa kaci1 a. SaniZe, subieqturi prefiqsi meore pirisa da obieqturi prefiqsi mesame pirisa qarTul zmnebSi, 1920, gv. 86.  2 a. SaniZe, zmnaTa gardamavlobis sakiTxisaTvis qarTvelur enebSi: saq. ssr mecn. akademiis moambe, t. III, 1942, gv. 289.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

sasa, aramed WeSmaritad gzasa RmrTisasa aswaveb (mark., 12, 14 C); sulT-iTqumides Zeni israÀlisani saqmeTa maTgan ficxelTa (gamoslv., 2, 23); ara kac-kla, ara imruSo. . . (maTe, 19, 18); Zieba-yo yovliTa krZalulebiTa qristeaneTa (kim., t. II, 45, 32); wam-uyvna mas simon-petre (iovane, 13, 24); ixila eri mravali da wyaloba-yo maT zeda (mark., 6, 34 C); xolo igini moxu£des da Sexuvrdes fer£Ta misTa da Tavyanis-xces mas (x. leqc., 28, 9); ra¡saT¢s naTel-hscem Sen, ukueTu ara xar qriste? (iovane, 1, 25); movida misa madli RmrTisa¡, viTarca Wabuki qali, da nugeSini-sca mas (kim., t. I, 280, 11); marxvasa qristeman pativsca da kaci eSmakisagan gamoi£sna (kim., t. I, 58, 33); maSin miviRe mcired R¢no¡ da puri davalbe da mcired gemo¡—ixila (SuS., VII, 25); locva-yav Cem¢s da yav siyuaruli da pir-i£sen Cem Tana (kim., t. I, 230, 11). CamoTvlil zmnebs, romelTa ricxvi SeiZleboda kidev gagvezarda, pirdapiri obieqti ar gaaCnia, amitom zogierTi maTgani (lxineba-yo, £ma-yo, sityuayo) erTi piris gagebas Seicavs. magram rodesac es zmnebi I seriaSia, gauqmebuli pirdapiri obieqtis niSani zogjer mainc aris formaSi warmodgenili: sityuahyofs ese, romeli Tqua esaia, viTarmed ara Tu mociqulman, arca angelozman..., aramed Tavadman acxovnna igini (udabno, 47 V); prefiqsi h micemiTSi dasmul pirdapir obieqts unda gamoxatavdes, magram igi am SemTxvevaSi ufunqcioa. aris iseTi rTuli zmnebic, romlebTanac, marTalia, Zveli pirdapiri obieqti rTuli zmnis nawilad aris qceuli da amitom igi, rogorc obieqti, moSlilia, magram samagierod am zmnebs axali pirdapiri obieqti aqvT ganviTarebuli: da aRTquma-yo moqmedTa maT mimarT TiTo¡ satiri (maTe 20, 2 C). damowmebul zmnaSi saxeladi nawili istoriulad warmoadgenda pirdapir damatebas, romelic droTa viTarebaSi SeuerTda zmnas da dakarga pirTan Sewyobili saxelis gageba. amis Semdeg SesaZlebeli gaxda, ganviTarebuliyo axali pirdapiri obieqti. mocemul SemTxvevaSi pirdapir obieqts warmoadgens `satiri~. iseTi rTuli zmnis nimuSad, romelsac iribi obieqti aqvs moSlili, SeiZleba davasaxeloT Semdegi magaliTi: viTar-igi mi(x)ces mRdelT-moZRuarTa da mTavarTa CuenTa saSjelsa sikudilisasa da juars-xaceus igi (x. leqc., 24, 20). mocemul magaliTSi `juars~ moSlili iribi obieqtia, magram iribi obieqtis niSani zmnaSi mainc SemorCa. amitom, radgan iribi obieqti aRar aris da Sesatyvisi piris gageba aRar gaaCnia zmnas, es niSani ufunqcioa. is gadmonaSTis saxiT aris SemorCenili zmnis formaSi da adasturebs im mosazrebas, rom es saxeladi nawili istoriulad namdvil irib obieqts warmoadgenda. amasve adasturebs is garemoeba, rom am zmnis konversiuli forma e-niani vnebiTia: wyali R¢nod gardaaqcia sak¢rvelebiTa da ZaliTa RmerTeebisa¡Ta; da nefsiT juars-ecua (kim., t. II, 48, 9). e-niani vnebiTis arseboba ki TavisTavad moqmedebiTisaTvis irib obieqts varaudobs. bolos SevexebiT iseT rTul zmnebs, romelTa pirveli nawilebi formaucvlel sityvebs warmoadgenen. es nawilebi ZiriTadad adgilis zmnizedebia, romelTagan Semdeg Camoyalibda zmniswinebi. esenia: gare, zeda, Tana, Sina, wi245

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

na: gare-modgoma (alyis Semortyma), gare-miqceva (mibruneba), zeda-miwevna (axlos misvla), Tana-deba (valis qoneba), Tana-war£doma (gverdis avla), Sina-gancema (gacema, Ralati), wina-dacueTa (обрезание) da sxva.  aseT zmnaTa ricxvi gacilebiT metia, magram tipis dasaxasiaTeblad moyvanilic sakmarisia. saerTod am zmnebis sirTule kiTxvis qveS SeiZleba davayenoT. xSir SemTxvevaSi wina nawilebi zmniswinis funqciis mqone ufro Cans, vidre Cveulebrivi saxeladi nawilebisa, magram Tu gaviTvaliswinebT zogierT moments, maSin maTi rTul zmnebad gamocxadeba SesaZlebelia. magaliTad, Tana-war£daSi wina nawils sawinaaRmdego mniSvneloba aqvs, vidre mas sxva SemTxvevaSi gaaCnia. am mxriv mniSvnelovania agreTve Tana-deba zmna, romelic erT cnebas Seicavs da valis qonebas niSnavs. cal-calke aRebuli arc zmnizeda da arc zmna am mniSvnelobaze ar miuTiTeben, magram maTi SeerTebis Sedegad viRebT axali cnebis gamomxatvel formas. SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom zmniswinebi zogjer axal zmnas awarmoebso, magram amgvari axali odenobis warmoeba arcerTi zmniswinisaTvis ar aris damaxasiaTebeli. wina-dacueTa zmnis Sesaxeb unda iTqvas, rom igi, amave cnebis gamomxatveli sxva enebis zmnebisagan gansxvavebiT, rTulia. `win~ aq ar aris mxolod adgilis gamomxatveli nawilaki. `wina~ aris is, rac dac¢Tes, e.i. yofili pirdapiri damateba an, yovel SemTxvevaSi, misi gansazRvreba. calke unda aRiniSnos winaswar-metyueleba zmnis Sesaxeb. kiTxva ismis: rogor unda daiSalos es zmna. gamoiyos unda zmniswini `wina~ da Semdeg isev zmniswiniani `warmetyueleba~ calke SeiZleba warmovidginoT, Tu gamovyoT istoriulad arsebuli drois zmnizeda `winaswar~ da zmnis meore nawilad `metyueleba~ vigulisxmoT. Cven vfiqrobT, rom ukanaskneli dayofa sworia, miuxedavad imisa, rom sxva enebSi, vTqvaT rusulSi, swored `wina~ zmniswinis ekvivalenti gamoiyofa. amas gvafiqrebinebs is, rom arsebobs saxeladi nawilis sxvanairi formac: xolo sanatrelman SuSanik viTarca winar-metyuelman hrqua (SuS., II, 8); romelman Seiwynaros winar-metyueli saxelad winawar-metyuelisa, sasyideli wina¡swar-metyuelisa¡ miiRos (maTe, 10, 41 C); ra¡Ta aResrulos Tqumuli igi uflisa mier winar-metyuelisagan (maTe, 2, 15 C). rogorc moyvanili nimuSebidan Cans, arsebobs paraleluri formebi: erTi mxriv, gvaqvs: winawar-metyueli, winaswar-metyueli, wina¡swar-metyueli, xolo, meore mxriv, — winar-metyueli. ukanasknel formaSi `wina~-s gamoyofa yovlad SeuZlebelia, aramed gamoiyofa `winar~, xolo pirvel formebSi `winaswar~-is gamoyofas araferi uSlis xels. rTuli zmnis pirveli nawilis ganxilvis Semdeg SeiZleba davaskvnaT Semdegi:

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

1. rTuli zmnis saxelad nawilad SeiZleba gamoyenebuli iqnes sawyisi, arsebiTi saxeli, zedsarTavi saxeli, mimReoba, zmnizeda, iSviaTad ricxviTi saxeli1 da piriani zmna2. 2. rTuli zmnis mniSvnelobisaTvis, misi semantikuri mxarisaTvis ufro mniSvnelovania saxeladi nawili, vidre zmna. 3. erTi cnebis mqone rTuli zmna yovelTvis ver aris organulad ise Sekruli, rom saxeladi nawili ar inarCunebdes zmnasTan winaT arsebuli sintaqsuri kavSirisaTvis saWiro formas. am mxriv Semdegi suraTia: a) saxeladi nawili jer kidev ar aris Serwymuli zmnasTan da amitom igi, rogorc pirdapiri obieqti, seriebis mixedviT zmnis cvlasTan erTad icvlis brunvas (wams-uyofdes da wam-uyvna). b) zmnasa da saxels Soris, SedarebiT pirveli rigis zmnebTan, ufro mWidro kavSiria. saxeladi nawilis brunvacvalebadoba ar aris damokidebuli zmnis seriebis mixedviT cvlasTan (awmyo: naTels-gcem // naTel-gcem da wyvetilSic: naTels-gces (naTel-gces). g) rTuli zmnis saxeladi nawili brunvaucvlelia yvela seriaSi. igi an mxolod fuZis saxiTaa warmodgenili, an mxolod micemiTis, naTesaobiTis, moqmedebiTis da viTarebiTis formiT (£el-yofs da £el-yo, ambors-uyofs da ambors-uyo, ina£iT-zis da ina£iT-jda, yurad-iRebs da yurad-iRo). * * * rTuli zmnis erT-erTi (Zalze xSirad meore an ukanaskneli) Semadgeneli nawili aucileblad aris zmna. igi aniWebs leqsikuri mniSvnelobis mqone saxelad nawils zmnisaTvis damaxasiaTebel gramatikul Sinaarss. es zogadi Tvalsazrisi yvela zmnur nawilze Tanabrad vrceldeba, magram rTuli zmnis erTi mTliani cnebis Camoyalibebis saqmeSi yvela zmnuri nawili erTnair rols ar asrulebs. erTi mxriv gvaqvs rTuli zmna naTel-sca, romlis zmnuri nawili, aniWebs ra saxelad nawils zmnisTvis damaxasiaTebel gramatikul Sinaarss (piri, ricxvi, dro, kilo...), agreTve miuTiTebs konkretuli moqmedebis Cadenaze, rom aq `naTelis~ mimarT mxolod zogadi moqmedebis saxiT CadenasTan ki ar gvaqvs saqme, aramed amave dros miTiTebulia, rom es moqmedeba `cemaa~, e.i. konkretuli saxea moqmedebisa. aseTive konkretuli moqmedebis
mxolod erTaderTi SemTxveva gvaqvs, roca ricxviTi saxelia naxmari rTuli zmnis saxelad nawilad. aseTia erT-yofa, romelic SeerTebas, gaerTianebas niSnavs: viTar hgavs, Semoqmedi umciresTagan urTierTs Seaxebs ganTvisebulTa bunebaTa, ra¡Ta erT-yos da Tanatom yoveli agebuli (bun. kac., 8, 3); aRniSnuli forma xelovnuria. amitom igi Zvel qarTulSi TiTqmis arc gvxvdeba. 2 nugeSinis-cema iseTi rTuli formaa, romlis saxelad nawiladac piriani zmna aris naxmari. igi mniSvnelobiT daimedebas, `nugeSinis micemas~ niSnavs. am zmnis saxeladi nawili aris uaryofiT nawilakdarTuli piriani zmna `nugeSinis~, romelSic subieqti III piria, xolo obieqti — II. Semdeg, rodesac mTliani forma substantivad iqna gagebuli, is xSirad kargavs bolokidur s-ans: nugeSinis-mec (ruTisi, 2, 13) formis gverdiT gvaqvs nugeSini-sca.
1

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

Cadenaze miuTiTebs geba, dgineba, deba, klva, mwifeba, Reba, xilva, £doma, jdoma da sxva zmnuri nawilebi. meore mxriv, arsebobs zmnuri nawili `yofa~, romelic mxolod zogadi moqmedebis gamomxatvel Sinaarss umatebs saxelad nawils. sxvanairad rom vTqvaT, igi mxolod zmnuri inventaria, romelic saxelad nawils zmnad aqcevs; miuTiTebs moqmedebaze, magram arakonkretulze. yo-Ti Sedgenil rTul zmnebs SesaZloa gaaCndes konkretuli Sinaarsi, magram, Tu ra saxis unda iyos es moqmedeba (rom es moqmedeba konkretulia), amaze TviT saxeladi nawili miuTiTebs. aRniSnuli TvalsazrisiT `yofa~ zmnuri nawili rTuli zmnis sxva zmnuri nawilebisagan gancalkevebiT dgas. `yofa~ zmnuri nawilis es Tavisebureba misi mniSvnelobiT unda aixsnas, radgan igi gakeTebas, qmnas, Cadenas niSnavs zogadad; is zogadad aRniSnavs imas, rac saerTod damaxasiaTebelia yvela zmnisTvis. sxva zmna ki gamoxatavs am zogad moqmedebasac da amave dros miuTiTebs imaze, rom es moqmedeba zmulobis konkretuli saxea (wers, xatavs, aSenebs, klavs). swored `yofa~ zmnuri nawilia rTul zmnaSi yvelaze ufro gavrcelebuli. rogorc ukve zemoT aRiniSna, es zmna yofil pirdapir obieqtTan qmnis rTul formebs. amisaTvis `RaRad-yo~ zmna erTpiriania. istoriulad arsebuli pirdapiri obieqti `RaRad~ amJamad ukve aRar warmoadgens zmnis pirTan Sewyobil saxels, radgan igi rTuli zmnis SemadgenlobaSi Sedis. raodenobrivma cvlilebam mogvca Tvisebrivad sruliad gansxvavebuli, axali zmna, romelsac erTi piriT ukve naklebi gaaCnia, vidre `yo~ zmnas damoukideblad xmarebisas aqvs. raki RaRad-yo zmna erTpiriania: da munquesve RaRat-yo mamaman mis yrmisaman (markoz., 9, 24 C), es piri ki subieqturia, amitom es rTuli forma gardauvalia, radganac gardamavlobisaTvis niSandoblivad pirdapiri obieqtis qoneba aris miCneuli1. garda `yofa~ zmnisa, rTuli zmnis sawarmoeblad gamoyenebulia agreTve cema (naTel-sca, Tayvanis-sca), Reba (naTel-iRo, yurad-iRo, muclad-iRo), deba (Tavs-idva, Zal-edva), geba (Suris-geba, adgid-agos), pyroba (adgil-ipyra, yur-upyra), wifeba (£el-iwifa), Tquma (sulT-Tquma), cueTa (wina-dacueTa), cuma (juar-cuma), xilva (gemo¡s-xilva), jdoma (ina£iT-jdoma). CamoTvlili zmnebi awarmoeben ZiriTadad pirian rTul formebs. yvela maTgans rTul zmnaTa warmoebis mxriv erTnairi gavrcelebis are ara aqvs. zogierTi maTgani (yofa, cema, Reba, deba, geba) sxvadasxva saxelad nawilTan ricxobrivad mraval rTul formas awarmoebs, dasaxelebul zmnaTa nawili ki mxolod erT saxelad nawilTan SeerTebiT qmnis rTul formas. Zveli qarTulis ZeglebSi gvxvdeba iseTi formebic, romlebic Sinaarsis mixedviT gvafiqrebinebs, rom TiTqos rTul zmnebTan gvaqvs saqme. magram maTi konstruqcia rTul formebad aRiarebis winaaRmdeg metyvelebs, amitom
1 a. SaniZe, zmnaTa gardamavlobisaTvis qarTvelur enebSi: saq. ssr mecn. akademiis moambe, t. III, 1942, gv. 259.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

Cvenc sagangebod maT Sesaxeb ar SevCerdebiT. aseTi SemTxvevebis nimuSad SeiZleba moviyvanoT Semdegi magaliTi: `RaRad-yo mose uflisa mimarT da Tqua: ra¡ uyo ersa amas? mcired-Ra qua¡ damkribon (gamoslvaTa¡, 17, 4). `qua¡ damkribon~ rom Tanamedrove qarTulad gadmovTargmnoT, miviRebT amas: `Camqolaven~, magram Tu Cven Zveli qarTulisave TvalsazrisiT ganvixilavT mocemul faqts, maSin davrwmundebiT, rom `qua¡~ pirdapiri damatebaa da, maSasadame, winadadebis damoukidebeli erTeulia, xolo `damkribon~ zmniswiniT warmodgenili martivi formaa. bolos unda aRiniSnos, rom warmoebis mixedviT, mwkrivTan dakavSirebuli Sinaarsis gamoxatvis TvalsazrisiT, rTulia agreTve yvela erTpiriani zmna III seriaSi: aRsrulebul ars, aRdgomil ars, mosrul iyo, damjdar iyos, daZinebul iyos da sxva. magram radgan es zmnebi TavianTi bunebiT martivia, aRwerilobiTi warmoeba mxolod III seriaSi axasiaTebs da I da II seriaSi yovelTvis martivi formiT aris warmodgenili, amitom isini naSromSi ganxiluli ar aris.

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zurab WumburiZe

myofadis warmoqmnis istoriisaTvis qarTulSi
Zvel qarTuls momavali drois TxrobiTi kilos gamosaxatavad sakuTari formebi ar gaaCnda da am mizniT ZiriTadad kavSirebiTis formebs iyenebda. saerTod qarTulSi kavSirebiTis sul oTxi mwkrivi mogvepoveba: TiTo-TiTo awmyosa da myofadis wreebSi da aseve II-sa da III seriaSi. maTgan myofadis kaSirebiTi myofadisagan iwarmoeba, masze gviandelia da myofadis TxrobiTi kilos funqciiT, cxadia, arasodes yofila gamoyenebuli. SedarebiT gvianaa Camoyalibebuli III seris formebic, maT Soris — mesame kavSirebiTi, romlis xmarebac Zvel qarTulSi Zalze iSviaTia da mas TxrobiTi kilos gamoxatva agreTve ar ekisreboda. rac Seexeba danarCen or mwkrivs — pirvelsa da meore kavSirebiTebs, maT Zvel qarTulSi sistemebr vxvdebiT rogorc kavSirebiTis, ise TxrobiTi kilos gadmosacemad.1 momavali drois TxrobiTi kilos gadmosacemad kavSirebiTi pirvelisa da meoris gamoyenebis magaliTebi Zvel qarTul teqstebSi yovel nabijze gvxvdeba da sagangebo Cxreka ar esaWiroeba. amitom Cven sailustraciod mxolod ramdenime nimuSiT davkmayofildebiT. ai erTi adgili Zveli qarTuli oTxTavidan:2 `netar iyvnen glaxakni suliTa, rameTu maTi ars sasufeveli caTa¡. netar iyvnen mglovareni guliTa, rameTu igini nugeniSinis-cemul iyvnen. netar iyvnen mS¢dni, rameTu maT daimk¢dron queyana¡. netar iyvnen romelTa hSiodis da hswyurodis simarTlisaT¢s, rameTu igini ganZRen. netar iyvnen mowyaleni, rameTu igini Seiwyalnen. netar iyvnen wmidani guliTa, rameTu maT RmerTi ixilon. netar iyvnen mS¢dobis moqmedni, rameTu igini naSob RmrTis iwodnen. netar iyvnen devnulni simarTlisaT¢s, rameTu maTi ars sasufeveli caTa¡. netar iyvneT Tquen, raJams gyuedriden Tquen da gdevniden da Tquan yoveli sityua¡ boroti Tquenda mimarT sicruviT CemT¢s~ (maTe, 5, 3-11). moyvanil nawyvetSi gvxvdeba pirveli kavSirebiTis formebic (hSiodis, hswyurodis, gyuedriden, gdevniden) da meore kavSirebiTisac (iyvnen, iyvneT,
1 a. SaniZe. Zveli qarTuli ena (mokle mimoxilva): saskolo saxelmZRvaneloSi — `Zveli qarTuli ena da literatura~, Seadgines a. SaniZem, al. abramiZem da il. abulaZem, 1936, gv. 289. 2 qarTuli oTxTavis ori Zveli redaqcia (sami Satberduli xelnaweris mixedviT), gamosca a. SaniZem: Zveli qarTuli enis Zeglebi, 2, Tbilisi, 1945.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

daimk¢dron, ganZRen, Seiwyalnen, ixilon, iwodnen, Tquan). yvela eseni naxmaria momavali drois TxrobiTi kilos gagebiT. moviyvanT kidev oriode magaliTs rogorc Targmnili, ise originaluri Zveli qarTuli Zeglebidan: ese a R x u a s r u l o da d a x u b e W d o nayofsa mas maTsa da warvide Tquen mier spaniad. ese uwyi me, m o - r a - v i d o d i Tquenda, savsebiTa miT kurTxeviTa qristÀsiTa m o v i d e (hrom. 15, 28-29, xanmeti leqc.). meyseulad Semdgomad Wirisa mis maT dReTa¡sa mzÀ d a b n e l d e s da mTovareman ara g a m o x c e s naTeli T¢si da varskulavni g a r d a m o c ¢ v e n zeciT da Zalni caTani S e h i Z r n e n . da maSin g a m o C n d e s niSi Zisa kacisa¡ caTa Sina da maSin h e t y e b d e n yovelni tohmni queyanisani da i x i l o n ZÀ kacisa¡ momavali RrubelTa Tana cisaTa ZaliTa da didebiTa didiTa (maTe, 24, 29-30, xanmeti leqc.)1. saTno yavn ufalman... gulsa yovlisa qristÀs moyuarisa erisa morwmunisasa, romelni a R m o i k i T x v i d e n (abo, 48, 5-7, agiogr. Zegl. 1)2. wesi monazonebisa¡ maT Soris aRorZinebul ars da ufro¡sad y u a o d i s da a R e m a t o s momavalTa JamTa (iqve, xanZT. 169, 4-5). da aw damtkicebulad g i T x r a Tquen aRsasruli wmidisa da sanatrelisa SuSanikisi (iqve, SuSan. 11, 3-4). aravin g i t e o s qristÀs msaxur yofad da, Tu mS¢dobiT ara g a n u t e o sicofÀ ege, tanjva¡ didi moiwios Sen zeda (iqve, evst, 32, 1-3). rogorc vxedavT, momavali drois gadmosacemad naxmaria xan pirveli kavSirebiTis, xan ki meore kavSirebiTis formebi. isini erTmaneTs upirispirdebian aspeqtis mixedviT: pirveli kavSirebiTi usrul aspeqts gviCvenebs, meore kavSirebiTi — sruls, droisa da kilos mxriv ki maT Soris gansxvaveba ar arsebobs. momavali drois gadmosacemad Zvel qarTulSi gvxvdeba agreTve viTarebiT brunvaSi dasmuli masdari meSvel zmnasTan erTad. am mxriv Zveli qarTuli ramdenadme hgavs Zvel berZnuls, sadac momavali drois gadmosacemad gvxvdeba rogorc kavSirebiTi kilos formebi, ise mimReobiani da infinituri konstruqciebi modalur zmnebTan erTad.3 masdaruli konstruqciiT Zvel qarTulSi gadmoicema moqmedeba, romelic momavalSi uTuod unda Sesruldes, e.i. myofads aseT SemTxvevaSi kategoriulobis, aucileblobis gageba aqvs.4 momavli drois gamoxatvis es saSualebac Zvel qarTulSi sakmaod xSirad gvxvdeba, amitom aqac mxolod ramdenime magaliTis moyvaniT davkmayofildebiT:
1 xanmeti, leqcionari. gamosca da simfonia daurTo a. SaniZem: Zveli qarTuli enis Zeglebi, I, Tbilisi, 1944. 2 Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi, wigni I (V-X ss.), ilia abulaZis redaqciiT, Tbilisi, 1964. 3 С.В. Меликова-Толстая. Будущее время в греческом языке: Ученые зап.ЛГУ, серия филологических наук, вып. 15, 1952; Б.Б. Мительман. Будущее время в языке древне-греческого эпоса (Автореферат кандидатской диссертации). 4 a. martirosovi. masdaruli konstruqciis genezisisaTvis Zvel qarTulSi: ike, VII, 1955.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

Ruawlsa didsa S e s l v a d x a r , dedofalo (iqve, SuSan. 13, 21). Senda egden y o f a d a r s fer£iTa SeniTa slva¡, rameTu cocxali arRara g a m o s l v a d x a r , garna oTxTa gamogiRon (iqve, 21,6-8). me aqa araRara m o q c e v a d v a r ... xolo sikudili Cemi tfiliss y o f a d a r s sapyrobilesa da Tavi m o k u e T a d a r s Cemda (iqve, vest. 34, 31-35, 1). SfoTni da gansacTelni S e m T x u e v a d a r i a n adgilsa mas namuSakevsa Sensa (iqve, serap. 340, 2-3). orpirian formebSi meSvel zmnad warmogvidgeba u c (roca gramatikuli subieqti mxolobiTSia), an u s x e n (roca subieqti mravlobiTSia): d a p y r o b a d u c pativi S e n i (= Seni Tanamdeboba unda daiWiros, Seni Tanamdebobis daWeras apirebs); S e y u a r e b a d u c mas keTili sarwmunoeba¡ qristÀs RmrTisa¡ da m o Z u l e b a d u s x e n kerpni £eliT-qmnulni1 sainteresoa, rom myofadis gadmocemisas kavSirebiTi da masdaruli konstruqcia zojer erTmaneTs enacvleba Zveli qarTul ZeglTa sxvadasxva reaqciaSi.2 yovelnive d a h b r k o l d e T Cemda momarT (maTe, 26, 31C). Tquen yovelni d a b r k o l e b a d x a r T Cemda momarT (iqven, DE). ra¡-me ukue y o f a d a r s Cuenda? (maTe, 19, 27 C). ra¡-me i y o s aw CuenT¢s? (iqve, DE). marqu Cuen: odes y o f a d a r s ese (maTe, 24, 3 C). miTxar Cuen: odes i y o s ese (iqve, DE) da Ze kacisa¡ m i c e m a d a r s mRdelT moZRuarTa da mwignobarTa (mark. 10, 33 C). da ZÀ kacisa¡ m i e c e s mRdelT moZRuarTa da mwignobarTa (iqve, DE) da sxv. rogorc samecniero literaturaSi aris aRniSnuli, `viTarebiT brunvaSi dasmuli masdari da masTan dakavSirebuli saTanado konstruqciebi Zvel qarTulSive SedarebiT axali warmonaqmni Cans. igi Canasaxis saxes atarebs. aseTma masdarma ver moaswro mtkiced Camoyalibebuli saxe mieRo da ise gamovida xmarebidan, rom misi kvalic ki aRar SerCa axal saliteraturo qarTuls~3. amrigad, myofadi axal qarTulSi masdaris meSveobiT veRar gadmoicema. momavali drois TxrobiTi kilos gamoxatvis funqcia dakarga agreTve kavSirebiTma. samagierod es funqcia ikisra zmniswinianma awmyom, romelmac
1 i. imnaiSvili, sami sinuri xelnaweri da maTi ena: qarTuli enis istoriuli qrestomaTia, II, 1963, v. 205-206. 2 i. qavTaraZe, myofadis erTi saxeobis istoriisaTvis qarTulSi: i k e , XII, 1953, gv. 199. n. kotinovi. viTarebiTSi dasmuli masdaris funqciebi Zvel qarTulSi: i. gogebaSvilis sax. Telavis saxelmwifo pedagogiuri institutis Sromebi, V, 1964, gv. 101. 3 a. martirosovi. dasax. naSromi, gv. 59.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

calke mwkrivis saxe miiRo. es Zireuli cvlilebani, rac momavali drois gamoxatvis mxriv moxda qarTulSi, cxadia, erTbaSad ar ganxorcielebula: myofadis gamoxatvis axali sistemis Canasaxebs Cven Zveli qarTulis wiaRSive vxvdebiT; meore mxriv, dRemde vamCnevT Zveli sistemis TvalsaCino kvalsac. swored amgvar movlenebze gvinda ufro dawvrilebiT visaubroT. rogorc viciT, myofadis gamoxatvis axal gzaze dadgoma aspeqtis sistemis SecvlasTan aris dakavSirebuli. a. SaniZes, romelmac pirvelma gamoikvlia es sakiTxi, aRniSnuli aqvs, rom `jer kidev Zveli qarTulis ZeglebSi kanti-kuntad moipoveba axali sistemis nimuSebi. magaliTad, zaqaria winaswarmetyvelis erTi adgili (13, 7) asea damowmebuli maTesa da markozis TavSi: `weril ars: davsce mwyemsi da ganibninen cxovarni~ (maT. 26, 31; mark. 14, 27). magram asea zog redaqciaSi, zogSi ki sxvagvarad ikiTxeba: `davscem mwyemssa da ganibninen cxovarni~. xelnawerebi am sakiTxSi asea ganawilebuli: adiSursa da aTonurSi organve `davsce mwyemsi~ ikiTxeba (igivea orsave adgilas areTve giorgi mTawmindlis redaqciaSi, rogorc es nabeWdi wignebidan Cans), jruWisa da parxlisaSi maTes TavSi aris: `davsce mwyemsi~, markozisaSi ki — `davscem mwyemssa~... tbeTurSi ki organve `davscem mwyemssa~ aris, rogorc amas gamocema aCens. araviTari eWvi ar aris, rom aq momavali drois TxrobiTi kilos mniSvnelobiT aris naxmari rogorc `davsce~, ise `davscem~ forma (berZnulSi aq ikiTxeba winadadeba myofadis formiT patavxw tovn poimevna somxuric mas misdevs: kfihs ¹ktahyG). eWvi ar aris arc imaSi, rom erT SemTxvevaSi momavlis forma TxrobiTi kilosi Zveli sistemiT aris gamoxatuli (`davsce mwyemsi~ — II seria, II kavS.), meore SemTxvevaSi ki — axali sistemiT (`davscem mwyemssa~ — I seria, myofadi)~.1 amgvari magaliTebis ricxvi Zveli qarTulidan SeiZleba gavamravloT. mivmarToT jer V-X saukuneTa qarTul originalur Zeglebs. evstaTi mcxeTelis martvilobis dasasruls sadac evstaTis Tavis mokveTis ambavia aRwerili, avtori aRniSnavs, rom marzpanis msaxurebs, romlebsac evstaTis mokvla daavales, ar undodaT moeklaT igi, magram erTma maTganma Tqva: Cven mogvklaven, Tu magas cocxals davtovebTo. es azri nawarmoebSi Semdegi sityvebiT aris gadmocemuli: Cuen movswydebiT, ukueTu ege egos cocxali (agiogr. Zeglebi, 1, 45, 9). m o v s w y d e b i T aq uTuod momaval dros gadmogvcems, formac mas dRevandeli myofadisa aqvs, frazis meore naxevarSi ki momavlis mniSvnelobiTve naxmaria meore kavSirebiTis forma (e g o s ). msgavs viTarebas gviCvenebs gobronis martvilobis Semdegi adgili: romeli amas queyanasa zeda damdabldes, igi caTa Sina amaRldebis qristÀ iesu¡s mier uflisa Cuenisa (iqve, 183, 24).
1 a. SaniZe, qarTuli gramatikis safuZvlebi, I, 1953, gv. 276-277. ix. agreTve m i s i v e : Изменение системы выражения категории вида в грузинском и его последствия: smam, III, 9, 1942.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

aqac rogorc mTavari, ise damokidebuli winadadeba momaval dros gamoxatavs, magram mis gadmosacemad damokidebul winadadebaSi zmna naxmaria kavSirebiTis formiT (d a m d a b l d e s ), mTavarSi ki — myofadiT (a m a R l d e b i s ), erTi xelnaweri — E arqaul viTarebas icavs da zmnas aqac kavSirebiTSi warmogvidgens: a m a R l d e s . axleburi myofadis ramdenime nimuSi gvxvdeba grigol xanZTelis cxovrebaSic:1 mokled Sen xancTas mamasaxlisad d a s d g e b i (agiogr. Zeglebi, 1, 318, 41). sruliad m o h m k i a n vidre mwuxramde ifqlsa mas keTilsa (iqve, 292, 24). WeSmaritTa qristeaneTa Svilsa mwvalebeli mRdeli ver m o h n a T l a v s , daRacaTu unaTlavi mokudebodis (iqve, 312, 15). ai kidev ramdenime magaliTi Zveli qarTuli teqstebidan, roca momavali dro axleburad aris gadmocemuli: Rirsi ese mama¡ Cueni... movlidis mowafeTa T¢sTa yovelsave Jamsa Sina, raTa ara poos da£snili udebebiTa da ganumzadebeli dRisa misT¢s ucnaurisa, romelsa Sina mosruli siZe igi ganwmedilTa sulTa m o u w o d s (mouwoddes C) ganmzadebulTa da SemkobilTa Seslvad sasZlosa caTasa (asur. moRvaweTa cxovreba,2 49, 15). da romelni mividnen adgilsa mas, miiReben e v l o g i a d wylisa misgan da mxlisa (iqve, 184, 15). saqmeni ese, romelTa ity¢T, T¢nier Cemsa ara w a r e m a r T e b i a n (serapion zarzmeli3 157, 8). m i i w e v i s yrma¡ ese didebasa mefobisasa, romel aravin miwevnul ars egeviTarsa mefobasa da simaRlesa queyanasa hindoeTisasa (balavariani4, 9, 35). me esre vhgoneb, viTarmed dideba¡ ese, romelsa m i e m T x u e v i s (m i i w e v i s y) yrma¡ ese, ara ars amis soflisa dideba¡, aramed esreT vhgoneb, viTarmed didi winamZRuari iyos gzasa mas WeSmaritebisasa (iqve, 10, 7). msgavs magaliTebs Seicavs agreTve `mamaTa swavlani~, ioane mosxis `limonari~ da Zveli qarTuli enis sxva TvalsaCino Zeglebi. aRsaniSnavia, rom Zveli qarTveli mwignobrebi zogjer bibliuri wignebidan motanili citatebis Secvlasac ki ar moridebian da dedniseuli kavSirebiTis formebi damowmebisas myofadiT SeucvliaT. magaliTad, `qarTlis moq-

1 М.В. Мирзашвили. Язык «Жития Григория Хандзтийского» (Автореферат кандидатской диссертации). Тбилиси, 1956, gv. 31. 2 asurel moRvaweTa cxovrebis wignTa Zveli redaqciebi, gamosca ilia abulaZem: Zveli qarTuli enis kaTedris Sromebi, I, Tbilisi, 1955. 3 `adrindeli feodaluri qarTuli literatura~, k. kekeliZis redaqciiT da gamokvleviT, Tbilisi, 936. 4 balavarianis qarTuli redaqciebi, gamosca, gamokvleva da leqsikoni daurTo ilia abulaZem: Zveli qarTuli enis Zeglebi 10, Tbilisi, 1957.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

cevaSi~, sxvaTa Soris, damowmebulia erTi adgili maTes saxarebidan, romelic oTxTavis uZveles redaqciebSi ase ikiTxeba. romelman Tquen Segiwynarnes, man me Semiwynaros (romelman Segiwynarnes Tquen, me Semiwynara C); da romelman me Semiwynaros, Seiwynaros momavlinebeli Cemi (maTe, 10, 40). es citati `qarTlis moqcevaSi~ Semdegnairad ikiTxeba: romelman Tquen Segiwynarnes, me Semiwynarebs, da romelman me Semiwynaros, Seiwynarebs momavlinebelsa Cemsa (agiogr. Zeglebi, I, 117, 5-7). rogorc vxedavT, oTxTavSi daculia Zveli norma da momavali drois gadmosacemad zmnebi warmodgenilia kavSirebiTis formiT, `qarTlis moqcevis~ teqstSi ki damowmebuli adgili ramdenadme Secvlilia da kavSirebiTis nacvlad orjer naxmaria myofadis forma: S e m i w y n a r e b s , S e i w y n a r e b s . aseve Secvlilia oTxTavidan damowmebuli erTi adgili ioane zedaznelis cxovrebaSi: yoveli, romeli daimdablebdes Tavsa T¢ssa, igi a m a R l d e b i s (iqve, 197, 33). es aris citati, romelic oTxTavSi orjer gvxvdeba (maTe, 23, 12; luka, 18, 14) da orivegan zmnebi naxmaria kavSirebiTis formiT: romelman daimdablos Tavi T¢si, igi amaRldes (lukas saxarebis DE redaqciaSi ikiTxeba: aRmaRldes). ioane zedaznelis cxovrebis y redaqciaSi es citati zustad aseve aris motanili, a redaqciaSi ki Secvlilia da erTi zmna pirveli kavSirebiTis formiT warmogvidgeba (daimdablebdes), meore ki — myofadis formiT (amaRldebis). momavali drois gamoxatvis mxriv yuradRebas ipyrobs agreTve ioane zedaznelis cxovrebis Semdegi adgilic: misT¢s jer-ars, ra¡Ta yovelman, romelman £el-yos saRmrTosa msaxurebasa, iTxovos misgan, romeli-igi uxuad momniWebel ars RmerTi, da miscems sazrdelsa, viTarca ity¢s iakob mociquli: `ukueTu vinme naklulevan ars Tquengani sibrZniTa, iTxoven, da mosces mas RmerTman niWTa ganmyofelman~ (agiogr, Zeglebi, I, 193, 13-18). aq avtori Tavis TxrobaSi xmarobs zmniswiniT nawarmoeb myofads — m i s c e m s , magram iqve damowmebul citataSi (iakob 1, 5) igive zmna imave mniSvnelobiT warmodgenilia kavSirebiTis formiT — m o s c e s . amrigad, am SemTxvevaSi avtori Tavs ikavebs zmnis formis Secvlisagan citataSi, Tumca TviTon ki myofadis gamoxatvis axal gzas mimarTavs. sxva SemTxvevebSi ki, rogorc vnaxeT, citatebSiac aris Setanili garkveuli cvlilebani momavali drois gamoxatvis mxriv. myofadis axali sistemis damadasturbelia d i s da v a l s zmnaTa gamijvna drois mixedviT da v a l s zmnis gadanacvleba myofadSi, risi uZvelesi nimuSic, Cven mier ganxiluli masalis mixedviT, abos wamebaSi unda gvqondes:

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

m o v a l s Jami, odes sicocxlisa amis moZRurebasa ara Tavs-idebden, aramed gulis Tqumisaebr T¢sisa TaviT T¢siT Seikrebden moZRurebasa qaviliTa yurTa¡Ta da WeSmaritebisagan sasmenelni gare miiqcinen da zRaprebsa mieqcen (agiogr. Zeglebi, I, 49, 24). aqac Cven citatTan gvaqvs saqme: damowmebulia pavle mociqulis meore epistole timoTes mimarT (4, 3-4), sadac ikiTxeba: i y o s Jami (= iqneba dro), abos wamebaSi ki naTqvamia: m o v a l s Jami (= mova dro). v a l s zmna myofadis SinaarsiT ramdenjerme gvxvdeba serapion zarzmelis cxovrebaSi:1 garna me verRa mixilo odesca sofelsa amas, rameTu adre w a r v a l amier (170, 1); me, Zmano, aha esera w a r v a l Semdgomad mciredTa dReTa, xolo Tquen iZieT mama¡ da winamZRuari (175, 30); ubrZanebda, ra¡Ta dro-yos da T¢T m o v a l s Jami, ra¡Ta iqmnes monazon (178, 13). rogorc cnobilia, zogi zmna axal qarTulSi myofads zmniswiniT ver awarmoebs da sxva gzas mimarTavs. Zvel qarTul teqstebSi dasturdeba amgvari myofadis ramdenime nimuSic: ara gicnobiesa, rameTu sityuani ege Senni momatyuebel sikudilisa g e q n e b i a n Sen? (agiogr. Zeglebi, I, abo, 70, 19). da netar arian, romelni aRasrulebden £senebasa missa, rameTu didsa madlsa Rirs i q m n e b i a n (iqve, moqceva¡ qarTlisa¡, 91, 1). warved da kuerTxi ese Cemi Cayav mtkuarsa, xolo igi g z a - g c e m s da ganved £melad (iqve, cxoreba¡ Sio¡si da evagresi, 219, 37). ginebsa, yrmao, gansyidis karaulisa amis, rameTu v i y i d i ? (cxoreba¡ epifane k¢prelisa¡2, 93, 4). yovelive amis Semdeg moulodneli ar aris, rom Zvel qarTul teqstebSi Segvxvdes myofadis wris sxva mwkrivTa formebic. marTlac, zmniswinis meSveobiT nawarmoebi xolmeobiTis (pirobiTis) ramdenime nimuSi gvaqvs, magaliTad, daviT garejlis cxovrebis erT adgilas: ra¡sa mwuxare xar, saTnoo uflisa Cuenisa iesu qristeso? rameTu ukueTumca STasrul iyo veSapi isi wyalTa Sina, mier w a r v i d o d a zRuaTa Sina da mas Sina TevzTa WamiTa g a n d i d n e b o d a friad da mravalTa navTa d a a q c e v d a zRuaTa Sina da mravalTa sulTa w a r s w y m e d d a wyalTa Sina (agiogr. Zeglebi, I, 232, 24-28).
1 adrindeli feodaluri qarTuli literatura, k. kekeliZis redaqciiT da gamokvleviT, Tbilisi, 1936; n. goguaZe. `serapion zarzmelis cxovrebis~ teqstisa da enis sakiTxebi: filologiuri Ziebani, I, Tbilisi, 1964, gv. 19. 2 sakiTxavi wigni Zvel qarTul enaSi, II, gamosca i. imnaSvilma, Tbilisi, 1966.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

zemoT ganxiluli CvenTvis saintereso formebidan zogi SesaZloa gadamwerTa kalams ekuTvnodes, raki zogierTi Zegli SedarebiT gviandeli xelnawerebiT aris Cvenamde Semonaxuli. aseTi varaudi gansakuTrebiT sarwmunoa, roca axlebur myofads romelime xelnawerSi kavSirebiTis formiani variantic moepoveba. magram, vfiqrobT, Cven mier damowmebuli formebis nawili mainc Zveli nusxebidan unda modiodes da gviandel gadamwerTa kalmisaTvis mTlianad maTi mikuTvneba swori ar iqneboda, rom myofadis mwkrivi Zveli qarTulis wiaRSi aris Casaxuli, amas gansakuTrebiT mkafiod adasturebs ukuTqmiTi brZanebiTis formebi, romlis magaliTebi teqstebidan Cven jerjerobiT ar gangvixilavs. warTqmiT brZanebiTs Zvel qarTulSi sagangebo mwkrivebi moepoveboda, ukuTqmiTs ki sakuTari formebi arasdros hqonia da mudam sxva mwkrivTa formebs sesxulobda da sesxulobs dResac. ukuTqmiT brZanebiTSi sxvadasxva mwkrivis formebi gvxvdeba imis mixedviT, Tu ra saxis uaryofasTan gvaqs saqme da romeli uaryofiTi nawilakia gamoyenebuli; saerTod qarTulSi cnobilia sami saxis uaryofa: martivi uaryofa (a r nawilakiani), SesaZleblobis uaryofa (v e r nawilakiani) da akrZalva (n u nawilakiani).1 amaTgan SesaZleblobis uaryofa brZanebiTs ver egueba, radgan is maSin ixmareba, roca moqmedeba ar sruldeba subieqtis survilisa da cdis miuxedavad, roca subieqts ar ZaluZs moqmedebis Sesruleba. cxadia, aseT pirobebSi brZaneba sruliad uadgilo da Seuferebelia. amitom v e r nawilaki ukuTqmiT brZanebiTSi arasdros gvxvdeba. rac Seexeba a r da n u nawilakebs, ukuTqmiT brZanebiTSi Tavisuflad ixmareba rogorc erTi, ise meore, oRond a r nawilakis darTvisas zmna kavSirebiTis formiT warmogvidgeba (`ar gaakeTo~), n u nawilakiani ukuTqmiTi brZanebiTi ki Tanamedrove qarTulSi awmyos an myofads iyenebs. Tu moqmedeba, romlis aRkveTasac moiTxoven, ukve dawyebulia, gamoiyeneba awmyos forma (`nu akeTeb~), xolo Tu moqmedeba jer ar dawyebula, mis asakrZalavad gamoiyeneba myofadis forma (`nu gaakeTeb~). kavSirebiTisa da TxrobiTi kilos formaTa monacvleoba ukuTqmiT brZanebiTSi Zveli qarTulidan modis. maT Soris amJamad cnobili mimarTebac Zvel qarTulSive gvxvdeba: a r nawilaakTan — kavSirebiTi, n u - sTan — TxrobiTi kilo: n u S j i T (nu d a s j i T C), ra¡Ta ara d a i s a j n e T (maTe, 7, 1). marTalia, nu nawilakTan zmna saerTod SesaZlebelia kavSirebiTis formiTac warmogvides2, magram n u nawlakian ukuTqmiT brZanebiTSi ukve Zvel
1 v. Tofuria. ormagi uaryofa qarTulSi: weliwdeuli, 1924, gv. 77-78. a. SaniZe, qarTuli gramatikis safuZvlebi, I, 1953, gv. 630. 2 saTanado nimuSebi moipoveba rogorc Zvel, ise axal qarTulSic gavixsenoT n. baraTaSvili: `nu davimarxo Cemsa mamulSi, CemTa winaparT saflavebs Soris! nu damitiros satrfom gulisa, nuRa dameces cremli mwuxaris!~ (a. SaniZe, qarTuli gramatikis safuZvlebi, I, 1953, gv. 212).

257

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

qarTulSi gabatonebulia TxrobTi kilos formebi, kerZod — awmyo. ase, magaliTad, xanmet leqcionarSi1 xuTjer gvxvdeba nu nawilaki da aqedan samjer awmyosTan, orjer — awmyos xolmeobiTTan, kavSirebiTTan ki — arc erTxel. oTxTavis uZveles redaqciebSi, rogorc i . i m n a i S v i l i s mier Sedgenili simfonia-leqsikonidan Cans, n u uaryofiTi nawilakis xmarebis 150-mde SemTxveva dasturdeba da aqedan mxolod 8-jer gvxvdeba igi kavSirebiTTan, danarCen SemTxvevaTagan ki zmna yvelaze xSirad awmyos mwkrivSi dgas (zmniswiniT an uzmniswinod). vambobT, awmyos mwkrivSi dgaso, magram romeli dro igulisxmeba am formebSi? Sinaarsis mixedviT, axlandeli dro brZanebiT kilos naklebad egueba, radgan brZanebis Sesruleba mxolod misi gacemis Semdeg SeiZleba, erTi mosdevs meores, maSin roca axlandeli droisaTvis aucilebelia moqmedebisa da ubnobis momentTa erTdrouloba.2 magram radgan esa Tu is moqmedeba brZanebis momentSi SeiZleba ukve dawyebuli iyos, amitom mainc miCneulia, rom aseT SemTxvevaSi axlandeli dro gvaqvs. swored aseT viTarebaSi iyenebs Tanamedrove qarTuli awmyos ukuTqmiTi brZanebiTisTvis. magram roca subieqts moqmedeba jer ara aqvs dawyebuli, brZaneba (warTqmiTi Tu ukuTqmiTi) mxolod momavali drois gagebas Seicavs, momavali dro aq mkafiod aris gamokveTili da axlandeli droisagan gamijnuli. amgvar viTarebaSi axal qarTuls ukuTqmiTi brZanebiTisaTvis myofadis mwkrivi aqvs gamoyenebuli. cxadia, analogiur pirobebSi esa Tu is forma Zvel qarTulSiac momavali drois gagebas atarebs. swored aq unda Casaxuliyo Tavdapirvelad myofadi, rogorc awmyosagan gansxvavebuli, calke mwkrivi. saTanado magaliTebi, roca ukuTqmiTi brZanebiTisaTvis gamoyenebulia zmniswiniani awmyos formebi (n u nawilakis darTviT), xolo Sinaarsis mixedviT mxolod momavali dro igulisxmeba da, amrigad, zmna myofadis gagebas Seicavs, sakmaod xSirad gvxvdeba Zvel qarTul teqstebSi, maT Soris iseTebSic, romlebic X saukunemde aris Seqmnili. davkmayofildebiT mxolod ramdenime magaliTis dasaxelebiT oTxTavidan: da romelsa undes sesxebis Sengan, nu g a r e m i i q c e v pirsa Sensa misgan (maTe, 5, 42). da nu S e m i y v a n e b Cuen gansacdelsa (maTe, 6, 13). raJams gxados vinme qorwilsa, nu d a s j d e b i pirvelsa sainaxesa (luka, 14, 8). ese aTormetni waravlinna iesu, amcnebda maT da hrqua: gzasa warmarTTasa nu m i x u a l T da qalaqsa samaritelTasa nu S e x u a l T (maTe, 10, 5).
1

xanmeti leqcionari, gamosca da simfonia daurTo a. SaniZem: Zveli qarTuli enis Zeglebi, I, Tbilsi, 1944. 2 brZanebiTi sruliad ver egueba warsul dros, Tumca warTqmiTi brZanebiTi wyvetilis fuZes iyenebs (f. erTeliSvili. ratom iyenebs II brZanebiTi wyvetilis fuZes: Tsu Sromebi, t. 61. 1956).

258

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

ukueTu grquan Tquen: udabnosa ars, nu g a n x u a l T (maTe, 24, 26). nu m i s c e m T siwmidesa ZaRlTa, nuca d a u g e b T margalitsa Tquensa winaSe RorTa, ra¡Ta ara daTrgunon igi fer£iTa maTiTa (maTe, 7, 6). raJams gesmodian brZolani da hambavi brZolaTani, nu S e h s Z r w u n d e b i T , rameTu jer-ars yofad, aramed arRa ars aRsasruli (markoz, 13, 7) da sxvani. amgvari magaliTebi sakmaod xSirad gvxvdeba X saukunemde gadaweril sxva teqstebSiac. ase rom, am movlenis siZvele arc maSin SeiZleba iwvevdes raime eWvs, roca xelnaweri SedarebiT gviandelia. moviyvanT zogierT nimuSs originaluri qarTuli agiografiuli Zeglebidan:1 nu w a r s w y m e d saxlsa amas sadedoflosa (SuSanik. 16. 5). da Tu ra¡me SegcodeT... mog¢teven da nu m o i £ s e n e b medgrobaTa CemTa (iqve, 26, 23). Svilo, nu g a n i w i r a v Tavsa Sensa, nuca siWabukesa Sensa g a n h v a W r i qristeaned da nuca ZmaTa da naTesavTa SenTa g a n e S o r e b i (abo, 66, 13-15). da nu m o m a g e b saqmeTa CemTaebr, aramed evedre Sen wmidaTa mowameTa, ra¡Ta yon CemT¢s wyaloba¡ (daviT da tariWan, 190, 8) . nu S e i w y n a r e b wam erTca amaT (ioane zedazneli, 204, 2). xolo Tquen nu S e s Z r w u n d e b i T , aramed ganmtkiceniT da ganZlierdiT (daviT garejeli, 239, 40). amas monastersa Sina senakebsa Tana egutersa Jamis-sawiravad nuvin a R a S e n e b s (gr. xanZTeli, 307, 39). momi£senen samwysoni Senni da nu d a i d u m e b moRuawebasa CuenT¢s qristÀs mimarT (iqve, 314, 34). nu d a m i v i w y e b Cuen (iqve, 258, 5; 314, 32). nusada d a m i v i w y e b T locvasa Tquensa (iqve, 315, 11). nu d a a m Z i m e b T Cem zeda saTxovelsa (serapion zarzmeli, 326, 43). awca Cuen uZlurTa da uRirsTa Svilad Senda saxeldebulTa nu odes d a m i v i w y e b (iqve, 346, 25) da sxva. rogorc ukve vTqviT, Cveni azriT, ukuTqmiTi brZanebiTis aseT formebSi unda Casaxuliyo pirvelad myofadis Sinaarsi. Semdgom es Sinaarsi zmniswiniani awmyos sxva (ara brZanebiTi kilos) formebzec gavrcelda. momavali drois TxrobiTi kilos gagebiT zmniswiniani awmyos xmarebis magaliTebi Zvel qarTulSi metad iSviaTia, XI saukunidan ki erTbaSad matulobs, Tumca momavali drois gamoxatvis ZiriTad saSualebad erTxans kvlav kavSirebiTi mwkrivi rCeba. ase, magaliTad, giorgi mTawmidlis TxzulebaSi `cxoreba¡ iovanesi da efT¢mesi~ (XI s.), rogorc a. S a n i Z e aRniSnavs, aspeqtis axal sistemaze ga1 magaliTebi mogvaqvs ukanaskneli gamocemidan: Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi, I, i. abulaZis redaqciiT, Tbilisi, 1964.

259

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

dasvlisa da myofadis calke mwkrivad gamoyofis procesi ufro win aris waweuli: `naTlad Cans, rom dawyebulia zmniswinis mier mopoveba maperfeqtivebeli Zalisa da am niadagze I seriis sami Zveli mwkrivisagan axali mwkrivebis gamoyofa: zmniswiniani formebi myofadis wris mwkrivebad midis, uzmniswinoni ki — awmyos wrisad. ra Tqma unda, es jer kidev ar aris sayovelTao movlena. ZiriTadad am sakiTxSi g. mTawmideli Zvel normebs misdevs... magram ueWvelia, rom momavali droisa da TxrobiTi kilos funqcia aqvs zmnebs am winadadebaSi: pirvelad sulTa TquenTa w a i w y m e d T da monasteri uwesod g a v a (68, 6-8)~.1 imave gamokvlevaSi a. S a n i Z e s moyvanili aqvs myofadis mwkrivis sxva nimuSebic zemoxsenebuli Txzulebidan: g a u j m e n (95, 4); ukueTu uwurTelad migiSune, uwyodeT, viTa mas saukunesa mwared g a i s j e b i T , ukueTu kula me aqa mcired gwuarTne da madlobiT miiTualoT, mrwams RmrTisagan, viTa mis saukuno¡sa gankiTxvisagan g a n e r e b i T (68, 9-12); iginica S e w u x d e b i a n (83, 7). daaxloebiT aseTive suraTia giorgi mciris `giorgi mTawmidlis cxovrebaSi~, romelic agreTve XI saukunis Zeglia (dawerilia ara ugvianes 1068 wlisa)2. aq gvxvdeba axleburi myofadis Semdegi magaliTebi: ukueTu ugunurebiT £el-vyo, kadnierebisa bralsa S T a v v a r d e b i (104, 11); aqa m o g c e m sulsa amis yrmisasa da winaSe RmrTisa g T x o v (161, 18); raJams erTgzis g¢cnobies, arRara midrekil varT marcxl, gina marjul da arca m i v d r k e b i T , Tu RmerTsa undes (178, 24).3 mohyavs ra es magaliTebi, Txzulebis enis mimoxilvisas n. g o g u a Z e aRniSnavs: `awmyos formis myobadiseuli gagebiT xmareba Zalze iSviaTia; es TiTo-orola nimuSi SeiZleba mxolod imisTvis gamoviyenoT, rom vTqvaT: myofadis warmoebis Canasaxi `giorgi mTawmidlis cxovrebaSic~ Canso~.4 Tu `iovanes da efT¢mes cxovrebasa~ da `giorgi mTawmidlis cxovrebaSi~ axleburi myofadis formebi mxolod TiTo-orola moipoveba, daaxloebiT imave periodisa da iseTve moculobis ZeglSi — qarTuli paterikis eqvTime aToneliseul TargmanSi5 amgvari formebi ramdenime aTeuls aRwevs. movitanT mxolod ramdenime magaliTs: ars dRe erTi, Svilno, weliwadsa Sina, romel ukueTu mas dResa Sina vinme ipoos Sromasa Sina, friad g a n m d i d r d e b i s . . . ukueTu movides dRe igi kurTxeuli da ipovneT Tquen udeb da uqm dResa mas da ara gpovnes Tquen dRea. SaniZe. giorgi mTawmidlis ena ioanes da efTvimes cxovrebis mixedviT: giorgi mTawmideli, cxoreba¡ iovanesi da efT¢mesi (Zveli qarTuli enis Zeglebi, 3), Tbilisi, 1946, gv. 75. 2 k. kekeliZe. Zveli qarTuli mwerlobis istoria, I, Tbilisi, 1951, gv. 228. 3 Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi, wigni II (X-XV ss.), i. abulaZis xelmZRvanelobiTa da redaqciiT, Tbilisi, 1967. 4 n. goguaZe. `giorgi mTawmidlis cxovrebis~ ena: filologiuri Ziebani, I, Tbilisi, 1964, gv. 37. 5 Sua saukuneTa novelebis Zveli qarTuli Targmanebi, I, qarTuli paterikis erTi Zveli redaqciis eqvTime aTonelis Targmani XI s. xelnaweris mixedviT. teqsti gamosacemad moamzada, gamokvleva da leqsikoni daurTo m. dvalma, Tbilisi, 1968.
1

260

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

man man moswrafebiT Sromasa Sina, uwyodeT, rameTu Sroma¡ da Wiri Tqueni yovlisa mis weliwdisa¡ cudad iqmnebis, da ver g a n m s d i d r d e b i T (I, 19). kuala sxuasa Jamsa ineba mTavarebiskoposman mislvad missa da waravlina pirvelad, Tu g a - Z i - u R e b s a karsa beri. xolo berman miumcno da hrqua mas: ukueTu mox¢de, g a n g i R e b , da ukueTu Sen g a n g i R e b , yovelTa g a n u R e b (II, 4). raJams movides kacsa zeda gansacdeli, maSin yovliT kerZove g a n m r a v l d e b i a n mis zeda Wirni da gulis-klebani (VII, 11). esezomsa Sromasa viqmT sasufevelisaT¢s caTa¡sa, d a v i m k ¢ d r e b T mea mas? (X. 16. Sdr. iqve: me mrwams, rameTu d a v i m k ¢ d r o T ). suli msgavs ars wyalsa, ukueTu ganswmedde, keTilad gamodis wmidad, ukueTu udeb hyo da miaqcio miwa¡ da nex¢ zeda, uCino i q m n e b i s da w a r w y m d e b i s (X, 22). ukueTu kula Ziri ara gamohnaxo da ara aRmohfxura, da StoTa ra¡zomca hkafde, igi sxuasa morCsa g a m o i R e b s (X, 32). ukueTu ara vyo sity¢saebr berisa, w i n a - a R u d g e b i RmerTsa 0X, 41). da Tu grquas Sen, viTarmed d a i s j e b i , nuRara i q m saqmesa mas (XI, 33). Semindve, mamao, ra a R v d g e b i , vidre ara warx¢de Sen (11, 7). ukueTu RmerTi ara S e g u e w e v i s , wyali Cuen ara guaqus (III, 23). daRacaTu mkudari aRadginos mrisxaneman monazonman, RmerTi ara S e i w i r a v s misgan (X, 6). ukueTu ara daiWiros kacman gulis-sityua¡ ese, ver w i n a a R u d g e b i s vnebaTa (I, 5). nu m o i g e b yoladve eseviTarsa rasame, rameTu ukueTu movides mparavi anu avazaki senaksa Sensa, i£maros ra¡me Senisa WurWlisagan, rameTu ese yoveli a R m o u g d e b s sinanulsa gulisagan da £senebasa sikudilisasa (II, 15) da a.S. amave Txzulebis enaSi gvxvdeba myofadisagan nawarmoebi xolmeobiTis mwkrivis formebic. garqu Tquen, miT ara Segiqm, rameTu vicode, viTarmed ara S e s w u x d e b o d e T , xolo misda Tumca ara meqmna, S e w u x d e b o d a , rameTu aqunda guliskleba¡ da i t y o d a , viTarmed bersa ra¡me asmia CemT¢s (X, 7). rogorc vxedavT, awmyos wris mwkrivebisagan myofadis wris mwkrivTa gamoyofis procesi am ZeglSi ufro Sors aris wasuli da axali sistema momavali drois (TxrobiTi kilos) gadmosacemad sakmaod xSirad ixmareba. magram imave funqciiT gacilebiT ufro xSirad mainc kavSirebiTis formebi gvxvdeba, e.i. Zveli sistema batonobs. saerTod savaraudebelia, rom myofads Tavdapirvelad mxolod gansazRvrul SemTxvevebSi, gansazRvrul sintaqsur konstruqciebSi mimarTavdnen, erT dros misi xmareba albaT garkveul stilistur movlenebTanac iyo dakavSirebuli, magaliTad, vfiqrobT, SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom Zvel ZeglebSi 261

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

myofadi gansakuTrebiT xSirad dasturdeba rTul qvewyobil winadadebaSi, sadac mTavari winadadebis Semasmenlad warmogvidgeba zmna myofadis formiT, damokidebulisa ki — kavSirebiTis formiT (magaliTebi ix. zemoT: Cuen m o v s w y d e b i T , ukueTu ege e g o s cocxali; yoveli, romeli d a i m d a b l e b d e s Tavsa T¢ssa, igi a m a R l d e b i s ; ara a R v d g e b i , vidre ara w a r x ¢ d e Sen; da sxva). safiqrebelia, rom myofadis mwkrivis damkvidrebas saliteraturo qarTulSi da misi xmarebis sferoTa gafarToebas gansakuTrebiT Seuwyo xeli saero mwerlobam, romelic naklebad izRudavda Tavs Zveli gramatikuli normebiT da ufro bunebriv, cocxal sasaubro metyvelebas emyareboda. is faqti, rom `visramianisa~ da `vefxis-tyaosnis~ enaSi myofadis mwkrivi gacilebiT xSirad gvxdeba, vidre imave epoqis sasuliero mwerlobis ZeglTa enaSi, TavisTavad metyvelebs. marTalia, saero mwerlobis es Zeglebi, samwuxarod, SedarebiT gviandeli xelnawerebiT aris Cvenamde moRweuli, magram gadamwerlebs ar SeeZloT maTi enis arsebiTad Secvla. es gansakuTrebiT iTqmis poeturi xelovnebis iseT Sedevrze, rogoricaa `vefxis-tyaosani~. `vefxis-tyaosani~ Tavidan bolomde erT mxatvrul yalibSi Camosxmuli poeturi qmnilebaa, romlis teqstSi yovelgvari Careva, garda enobrivi normebisa, poeturi normebis gaTvaliswinebasac moiTxovs. gramatikuli formis Secvlas SeiZleba mohyves mxatvruli formis darRveva, risi Sewynarebac SeuZlebelia. ase, rom, poeturi forma zogjer gansazRvravs ama Tu im gramatikuli movlenis kanonzomierebas `vefxis-tyaosanSi~. vnaxoT, ra viTarebaa `vefxis-tyaosanSi~ momavali drois gadmocemis mxriv. rogorc a. S a n i Z e aRniSnavs, `vefxis-tyaosanSi~ ufro Cveulebrivia Zveleburi forma myofadisa, magaliTad, `me wavide, moviaro, vilaSqro da vinapiro~ da Semdgomi, Tumca axali warmoebis SemTxvevebic aris. mag., `dRes ara, xvale movkvdebi~.1 marTalia, momavali drois TxrobiTi kilos aRsaniSnavad `vefxis-tyaosanSi~ kavSirebiTi ufro xSirad gvxvdeba, vidre myofadi, magram es ukanasknelic ar aris iSviaTi. zogjer orive mwkrivi erT frazaSia moqceuli: usen miTxra: `ar minaxavs ZoRaniTgan mefe Cveni. m i v a z i r e b , w a v a l , v n a x a v , v u d a r b a z o , v u Z R v n a ZRveni (1163, 2-3); axleburi myofadis formebi poemaSi imdenjer gvxvdeba, rom dabejiTebiT SeiZleba iTqvas, am mxriv misi ena axal safexurs warmogvidgens. moviyvanT mxolod ramdenime magaliTs, roca momavali dro myofadis mwkriviT aris gamoxatuli: m i v e w e v i , S e v i y r e b i T erTmaneTis cema-Jletad, anu m o m k l a v s , anu m o v k l a v , d a i m a l v i s metis-metad (216, 3-4);
1 a. SaniZe,. Zveli qarTuli ena (mokle mimoxilva): saskolo saxelmZRvaneloSi — `Zveli qarTuli ena da literatura~, Seadgines a. SaniZem, al. baramiZem, il. abulaZem, me-13 gam., Tbilisi, 1854, gv. 303.

262

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

yrmaman uTxra: `Tu m i C v e n e b , v n a x a v , didad g a v i x a r e b, siyvarulman misman, visTvis xeli mindors Tavsa vareb, aras v u z a m ugemursa, araodes g a v a m w a r e b; raca Cemgan e a m e b i s , v a a m e b da S e v i y v a r e b (279); vici, ar m o g k l a v s SimSili, razomca dia irebi: Sen Seni mSvildi d a g a r C e n s , SenTa isarTa pirebi, nuTu kvla RmerTman wyalobiT gagiadvilos Wirebi, magra, Tu movkvde, gazrdilo, visganRa d a v i t i r e b i ? (824); qmari ra m i g r Z n o b s , m o - c a - m k l a v s , verRara m o m e f a r e b i s (1151, 3); ucilod Tavsa m o v i k l a v , gulsa d a v i c e m danasa, Tqven d a g x o c s Tqveni patroni, sofels ver d a h y o f T xanasa (1194, 1-2); Sen mkvdarsa g n a x a v , d a v i w v i , viTa abedi kvesiTa (1301, 3); an Tavsa kldeTa C a v i q c e v , anu m o v i k l a v daniTa (1302, 4); uTxra: `Zmao, ra g a r d i x d i s Sengan Cemsa Wirnaxulsa! RmerTi m o g c e m s wyalobasa, misgan zeciT Sesaxulsa! Tu vera v i q m sawadelsa Sensa, SenTvis ganzraxulsa, ara v n a x a v saxlsa Cemsa, ar darbazsa, arca xulsa~ (1471) da .S. rogorc vxedavT, `vefxis-tyaosanSi~ ukve gvxvdeba ara marto zmniswiniani myofadi, aramed myofadis mniSvnelobiT ixmareba zogjer uzmniswino formebic (miCveneb, migrZnobs, eamebis, vaameb...). aqve unda iTqvas, rom zogjer zmniswiniani formebic awmyos da ara myofadis Sinaarss atareben; magaliTad: aw me minda naxva misi, visgan d a m w v a v s cecxli cxeli (663, 4); rad satanas wauRixar, rad m o i k l a v nebiT Tavsa (874, 4); avTandil misi gayrili tirs, xma m i s w v d e b i s caTamdis (952, 1); ferxTa exvevis, akocebs, aRar S e x e d a v s ze welad (1484, 2) da sxva. aseTi magaliTebi `vefxis-tyaosanSi~ SedarebiT mcirea. saintereso suraTs gviCveneben is fuZemonacvle zmnebi, romelTac winaT awmyos gageba hqondaT, Semdeg ki myofadSi gadairicxnen (hkiTxavs, ityvis, naxavs, mova da sxvani). es zmnebi `vefxis-tyaosanSi~ gvxvdeba rogorc axlandeli, ise momavali drois gagebiT, e.i. xan awmyos mwkrivs ganekuTvnebian, xan myofads. magaliTad, msgavsad Zveli qarTulisa, awmyoa: ra sTqvi, ras i t y v i , ar mesmis (85, 1); avTandil i t y v i s : `daviwyo kadreba saubnarisa~ (66, 3); mimavali casa Sestirs, eubnebis, e t y v i s mzesa (957, 1); mefe h k i T x a v s : `ras icini, anu Cemgan ra Segrcxvenda?~ (64, 4); vefxisa tyavi acvia, cudad uCns stavra-naxlebi, aRara n a x a v s sofelsa, cecxli swvavs axal-axlebi (690, 3-4); qalo, ar ici, siT m o v a l , ra Wirni momiTmenian (326, 1); cna mefeman, tarieli marto m o v a , mohxris tansa (1514, 2); 263

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

asmaTs uc xorci irmisa, i q m s maspinZloba-kveTasa (1497, 2) da sxv. paralelurad gvxvdeba magaliTebi, sadac msgavs formebs myofadis gageba aqvT: missa ver i t y v i s qebasa yoveli brZenTa enebi (658, 1); asre ar sjobdes, ar g e t y v i , nu meWv rasaca Tnebasa (880, 4); Tu naxo, Cemi uambe, g k i T x a v s ambavsa Zmisasa (947, 4); kvla m o v a l , g n a x a v piriTa ar mterTa sawuneliTa (735, 2); raca m o v a saqme zena, momavali ar agvcTebis (1035, 2); uSenosa patronoba vis mivando, vin i q m s karga? (163, 2) da sxvani. zogjer awmyo da myofadi funqciurad axlos dganan da Tavisuflad enacvlebian erTmaneTs. aseT SeTxvevaSi Zneli saTqmelia, saSualo qarTulis romelime forma axlebur myofadad unda miviCnioT, Tu Zveli saxis awmyod. magaliTad, rusTvelis cnobil frazaSi — `moSaire ara hqvian, veras ityvis vinca grZelad~ — i t y v i s awmyodac SeiZleba iqnes gagebuli da myofadadac. aseve Zneli saTqmelia, awmyoa Tu myofadi iseTi formebi, rogoricaa w a i y v a n , a R u f x v r i , g a s w i r a v s , cnobil strofSi: va, sofelo, raSigan xar, ras gvabrunveb, ra zne gWirsa! yovli Seni mondobili niadagmca Cemebr tirsa! sad waiyvan sadaursa, sad aRufxvri sadiT Zirsa?! magram RmerTi ar gaswiravs kacsa, Sengan ganawirsa (951) da sxva. savaraudoa, rom msgavs SemTxvevebSi zogjer mainc myofadis Sinaarsi igulisxmebodes, magram aseTi saWoWmano magaliTebis CauTvleladac `vefxis-tyaosanSi~ axali sistema xmarebis sixSiriT TiTqmis utoldeba Zvels, Tu mxedvelobaSi ar miviRebT zogierT specifikur SemTxvevas, razedac qvemoT gveqneba saubari. zogierTi tipis damokidebul winadebaSi, sadac myofadi da kavSirebiTi dResac enacvlebian erTmaneTs, Zvelad kavSirebiTi ufro xSirad gvxvdeboda. ase, magaliTad, pirobiTi damokidebuli winadadebis zmna-Semasmeneli Zvel qarTulSi Cveulebriv kavSirebiTSi idga, zogjer ki gvxvdeboda agreTve awmyoSi an xolmeobiTSi: `pirobiTobis T u da u k u e T u kavSirebis Semcveli damokidebuli windadebis Semasmeneli SesaZlebelia Segvxvdes kavSirebiTis (I an II), awmyos, xolmeobiTis mwkrivTa formebSi. ar Cans warsuli drois (wyvetili, uwyveteli, TurmeobiTi) mwkrivebi~.1 myofadis mwkrivis gaCenis Semdeg, saSual qarTulSi, iwyeba myofadis gamoyeneba zemoxsenebul SemTxvevaSiac (Tuki piroba momavalSi unda Sesruldes), magram pirvel xanebSi mainc kavSirebiTi sWarbobs, Semdgom ki ufro da ufro xSirdeba myofadis xmarebis SemTxvevebi da dRes ukve kavSirebiTi SedarebiTi iSviaTia.
1 f. erTeliSvili. rTuli winadadebis istoriisaTvis qarTulSi, I, hipotaqsis sakiTxebi, Tbilisi, 1963, gv. 105.

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`vefxis-tyaosnisaTvis~ u k u e T u / / u k e T u kavSiri saerTod ucxoa, Tu kavSiriani pirobiTi damokidebuli winadadeba ki poemaSi gvxvdeba 150-mde SemTxvevaSi. aqedan momavalSi Sesasrulebeli piroba igulisxmeba 100-ze met SemTxvevaSi. maT Soris 40-ze met magaliTSi gvxvdeba myofadis mwkrivi: Tu ar m o m k l a v , ar movkvdebi, mrTeli var da mouklavi... kvla Tu m o m k l a v , sasaubrod aRar medgas zeda Tavi (240, 2-4); aw raca giTxra, Tu ama saqmesa d a m m o r C i l d e b i , rasaca eZeb, mihxvdebi, ucilod ar ascildebi; Tu ar m o m i s m e n , ver hpoveb, razomca cremlsa hmildebi (254, 1-3); ismendi CemTa ambavTa, Tu sulni S e - c a - m r C e b i a n (347,4); magra Tu Wirsa ar d a s T m o b , lxini ra dasaTmobia (956, 4) da a.S. rogorc vTqviT, aseTia 40-ze meti magaliTi, danarCenebSi ki zmna kavSirebiTSi dgas (maT Soris sWarbobs II kavSirebiTi, iSviaTia I kavSirebiT da mxolod oriodejer gvxvdeba III kavSirebiTi); magaliTad: moSaire ar hqvian, Tu sadme T q v a s erTi, ori (15, 1); vardi Tu g a x m e s , egreca gvmarTebs misive jeroba (37, 2); ficiT giTxrob: Sengan kide Tu S e v i r T o raca qmari... srulad movswyde samoTxesa, qvesknels viyo dasanTqmari (133, 1-3); RmerTman erTi rad acxovnos, Tu meore ar w a w y m i d o s (906, 3); didi lxinia WirTa Tqma, Tu kacsa m o u x d e b o d e s (924, 4); es amisad niSnad kmaris, Sen Tu CemTvis cremlsa h R v r i d e (937, 3); kvlaca vhkadre, me Tu, mzeo, SenTvis fici g a m e t e x o s , RmerTman awve risxva misi zeciT CemTvis gaamexos! (532, 1-2) da a.S. amrigad, `vefxis-tyaosanSi~ momavlis Sinaarsis Semcvel pirobiT damokidebul winadadebaSi gvxdeba rogorc myofadi, ise kavSirebiTis mwkrivebi, magram sWarbobs es ukanaskneli. maT Soris Sefardeba daaxloebiT aseTia: 40% — myofadi 60% — kavSirebiT. kidev ufro xSirad gvxvdeba kavSirebiTebi pirobiTs (an drois garemoebiTs) damokidebul winadadebaSi, roca kavSiri (T u , r o m ) gamotovebulia; magaliTad: mzesa mTvare S e e y a r o s , dailevis, da-ca-Wnebis (126, 2); ar m o v b r u n d e , momiglove, mitire da mivaglaxe (157, 4); mkvdari m n a x o , damitire, sulTqma gaaTanisTane (307, 3); xvarazmSa d a h s v a xelmwifed, damrCebis ra nacvalia? sxva mefe d a j d e s indoeTs, mertyas me Cemi xrmalia? (565, 3-4); s w y u r o d e s , wyalsa vin daRvris kaci uSmago, cnobili? (919, 1) da sxva. SeadareT sapirispiro magaliTebi, sadac damokidebuli winadadebis Semasmenlad warmodgenilia zmna myofadis formiT: ar d a m e x s n e b i , gagixdi qalaqsa viTa tramasa (544, 4); 265

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

ar S e m i p y r o b s , ar davdgebi (737, 3); ar g a m i S v e b s , gaviparvi, waval maTgan Seugeblad (750, 1) da sxvani. kavSirebiTi da myofadi paralelurad ixmareba agreTve ra kavSirian drois garemoebiTs damokidebul winadadebaSi, roca igi momaval dros gadmogvcems. aseTia `vefxis-tyaosanSi~ sul 56 winaadeba. aqedan 49 winadadebaSi momavli dro gadmocemulia kavSirebiTiT: ra vardman misi yvavili g a a x m o s , d a a m W n a r o s a , igi wava da sxva mova turfasa sabaRnarosa (35, 2-3); ra aqimi d a s n e u l d e s , razom ginda saqebari, man sxva uxmos mkurnali da majaSisa Semtyvebari (662, 1-2); ra m o g S o r d e , maxsenebdi (785, 1); ra m i s W i r d e s , maSin undan gonebani goniersa (1191, 4); ra g a T e n d e s , ar davdgebi (1372, 1) da misTanani. amis sapirispirod myofadi dasturdeba mxolod 7 winadadebaSi: ra Rrubeli m i e f a r v i s , mze xmeleTsa daaCrdilebs (713, 3); ar gamiSvebs, gaviparvi, ra imedi g a r d m i w y d e b i s (796, 3); qmari ra m i g r Z n o b s , mo-ca-mklavs (1151, 3); (ix. kidev: 742,3; 848,2; 989,3; 1475,1). rogorc vxedavT, aseT sintaqsur konstruqciebSi kavSirebiTTa xmareba gacilebiT ufro xSiria, vidre myofadis mwkrivisa, es arc aris gasakviri. myofadis mwkrivs, iseve rogorc yovelgvar enobriv formas, Tavisi funqciebi erTbaSad ar SeuZenia, misi gamoyenebis are droTa ganmavlobaSi TandaTan farTovdeboda; dReisaTvis myofads ukve mkafiod gamokveTili funqciebi moepoveba, magram mainc aris SemTxvevebi, roca mas kavSirebiTi SeiZleba enacvlebodes. iTqmis rogorc `Tu ar d a g e m o r C i l o n , gaujavrdi~, aseve `Tu ar d a g e m o C i l e b i a n , gaujavrdi~, `RmerTma erTi rad a c x o n o s , Tu meore ar w a w y m i d o s ~ da `RmerTi erTs rad a c x o n e b s , Tu meores ar w a w y m e d s ~ ; `roca m o g S o r d e , gamixsene~ da `roca m o g S o r d e b i , g a m i x s e n e ~ da a.S. cxadia, aseT SemTxvevebSi kavSirebiTs gansakuTrebuli gamZleoba gamouCenia, gvian dauwyia Tavisi poziciebis daTmoba, albaT imitom, rom pirobiTi Tavisi SinaarsiT axlos dgas kavSirebiTTan, xSirad igive iTqmis drois garemoebiTi damokidebuli winadadebis Sesaxebac. SeiZleba davaskvnaT: garkveul sintaqsur konstruqciebSi, sadac kavSirebiTisa da myofadis monacvleoba dRemde grZeldeba, `vefxis-tyaosanSi~ kavSirebiTi sagrZnoblad sWarbobs myofads, danarCen SemTxvevebSi ki momavali drois TxobiTi kilos gadmosacemad daxloebiT Tanabrad gvxvdeba rogorc kavSirebiTis mwkrivebi (gansakuTrebiT II kavSirebiTi), ise myofadi. amrigad, axali sistema am droisaTvis ukve ise mZlavria, rom igi aSkarad metoqeobas uwevs Zvels. SedarebiT iSviaTad gvxvdeba axali sistema `amirandarejanianSi~. aq momavali drois gadmosacemad myofadis xmarebis nimuSia magaliTi, damowmebu266

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

li a. S a n i Z i s mier: `anu m o v k u d e b i maT Tanave da anu vi£snne iginica~1. rogorc am Zeglis gamomcemeli l. a T a n e l i S v i l i aRniSnavs, `XVIIXVIII saukuneebis cxrameti nusxidan CvidmetSi dasturdeba m o v k u d e b i forma. sxvadasxva warmomavlobis xelawerebSi rom es axali warmoebis formaa daculi, saeWvos ar unda xdides mis Tavdapirvelobas Cvens ZeglSi~2. mkvlevars iqve mohyavs momavali drois axleburad gamoxatvis sxva nimuSebic: igi nadimad zis da icis dasturad, rome Sen m o h k u d e b i (145, 3); Tu qnas RmerTman da ajobos darejanisZeman, C a v i c u a m Zoweulsa, d a v j d e b i oqro-qsovilTa sajdomTa. da Tu sZlion codvaTa CemTa da ajobos ima mesisxleman, C a v i c u a m ima SavTa da d a v j d e b i sajdomTa SavTa da aRara minda sawuTro (684, 5-13); Tu ra moga£seno, d a g i m Z i m d e b i s o ? (267, 1); gavgzavnoT kaci nosar nisrelsa Tana, romelsa moewera, viTa `moval da asulsa Sensa S e v i r T a o ~ (76,9-10); magram amgvari magaliTebis ricxvi `amirandarejanianSi~ didi ar aris, momavali drois gamoxatvis ZiriTad saSualebas kavSirebiTi warmoadgens. gacilebiT ufro xSirad gvxvdeba myofadis mwkrivi `visramianSi~, sadac am mxriv daaxloebiT `vefxis-tyaosnis~ msgavsi suraTi gvaqvs. movitanT zogierT damaxasiaTebel magaliTs: Senisa siZobisagan ukeTesi Cuen ara w a g u e k i d e b i s ... aqamdin me qali ara miSobia da Tu aw momeces, uRoniod Tquen m o g a £ s e n e b e n (36,32-96)3; sawuTro asre naskuTa S e h k r a v s , romel aTasi cnoba da goneba iyos, veRar g a £ s n i s (37, 13-15); nu S e i W i r v e b ziTevsa, oqrosa, Tualsa patiosansa da margalitsa, miT romel me ege minda ara ziTviTa. magas erTsaxe nebierad g a v z r d i da d a v i W r a v . da yuelasa Cemisa saWurWlisa klitesa £elTa S e v h v e d r e b da Senca egzomsa Tualsa, oqrosa da margalitsa g a m o g i g z a v n i , romel, Tu gwaddes, erTi qalaqi oqroisa aago da zRudeni Tualisani uyo. Sen TuiT ganaRamca sapatiod d a g i W i r a v da Tquen queyanasa mamulobiT, morWmiT da azatad d a g i w e r . viros Zmisaebr d a v i W i r a v da Cemis guarisa colsa m i v s c e m da mas egre v e m z a x e b i , romel saukunemdi Tquenisa saxelisa sa£senebeli iyos (43, 20-29); m o m c e m sixarulsa da maSinve w a m a r T m e v ! Tu ukudavebasaca S e m a s u a m , maSinve erTsa Wiqasa naRvelsa uRoniod m o m c e m (137, 3-5) da mravali sxva.
a. SaniZe. qarTuli gramatikis safuZvlebi, I, 1953, gv. 280. l. aTaneliSvili. mose xonelis `amirandarejaniani~ (enobrivi mimoxilva): mose xoneli, amirandarejaniani, gamosacemad moamzada, gamokvleva da leqsikoni daurTo lili aTaneliSvilma, Tbilisi, 1976, gv. 071-072. 3 visramiani, teqsti gamosacemad moamzades, gamokvleva da leqsikoni daurTes aleqsandre gvaxariam da magali Toduam, Tbilisi, 1962.
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xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi myofadi da kavSirebiTis mwkrivebi momavali drois TxrobiTi kilos gagebiT paralelurad ixmareboda, magram ise, rom kavSirebiTis xvedriTi zona TandaTanobiT mcirdeboda, myofadisa ki Sesabamisad matulobda. ase, magaliTad, `£elmwifis karis garigebaSi~ (XIV s.)1 myofadi kidev ufro xSiria, vidre `visramiansa~ da `vefxis-tyaosanSi~ (SesaZloa es nawilobriv Zeglis specifikur xasiaTsac miewros, magram analogiuri xasiaTis adrindel ZeglebSi myofadis mwkrivi iSviaTad dasturdeba)2, xolo `rusudanianSi~ kavSirebiTis xmareba TxrobiTi kilos funqciiT ukve Zalze iSviaTia da momavali drois gamoxatvis ZiriTad saSualebas myofadi warmoadgens: `zmnaSi aspeqtis gamoxatva arsebiTad axali qarTuliseburia, Tumca iSviaTad Zveli formebic gvxvdeba~.3 `rusudanianSi~ zminiswiniani formebi awmyos gagebiT TiTqmis aRar gvxvdeba (garda mimarTulebis aRmniSvneli zmnebisa), myofadTan erTad sakmaod xSirad dasturdeba xolmeobiTisa da myofadis kavSirebiTis mwkrivebic. bolodroindeli kvleva-Ziebis Tanaxmad, `rusudaniani~ XVII saukuneze adre Cans Seqmnili. ase rom, SeiZleba iTqvas, myofadis wris mwkrivebi am droisaTvis ZiriTadad ukve Camoyalibebulia. magram myofadis funqciiT kavSirebiTi jer kidev SeiZleba Segvxvdes. sagulisxmoa, rom momavali drois gamoxatvis orive es saSualeba zogjer erTmaneTis gverdiT, erTsa da imave frazaSiac ki gvxvdeba; magaliTad: vnaxoT saetlonio, Tu anu Cven m i v i d e T uzianod Sina da anu mSobelni Cvenni da saxleulni d a g v x v d e b i a n o mSvidobiTo (405, 4)4; waxdes — amasTan Tqvenc Tavs nu d a z o g a v T o , da g a k e T d e b a da — esec g a r d a i x d i s o (413, 22); oTxjer omSi g a u W i r d e b a , ase rome RmTisagan kide misi sicocxle aravis egonos; erTxel wamlisagan asre g a x d e b a , rome sams dRes usulod idvas, gana yvelasagan RmerTi d a i f a r a v s -meTqi (419, 15); sanam Sen Sin mixvidode da iqaurs saqmes daiurvebde da kidev aq moxvidode, me ki m o v k v d e b i o da raRas m a r g e b T , rom kidec moxvideTo (477, 2); romelman lomman Wabukman inebos am gavsilisa mTvarisa jufToba, sxvas mowifulobas nuras e c d e b a , Tvara arca ra am kldes g a e w y o b a da verca gamdels S e u a (547, 6) da sxva. XVII saukunidan mokidebuli, kavSirebiTi myofadis funqciiT kantikuntadRa gvxvdeba, Tumca Zveli sistemis naSTebi saerTod kidev didxans SemorCa enas da gamonaklisebis saxiT dRevandlamdec ki moaRwia.
e. TayaiSvili. £elmwifis karis garigeba, tfilisis universitetis gamocema, 1920. qarTuli simarTlis Zeglebi, t. II, teqstebi gamosca, SeniSvnebi da saZieblebi daurTo prof. i. doliZem, Tbilisi, 1965. 3 i. gigineiSvili, `rusudaniani~ (gamokvleva, erTvis gamocemas), gv. XXVI. 4 rusudaniani, i. abulaZisa da i. gigineiSvilis redaqciT, Tbilisis, 1957.
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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

sainteresoa, rom cnobili qarTveli gramatikosi gaioz reqtori 1789 wels daweril gramatikaSi saWirod Tvlis damoZRvros mkiTxveli, myofadis formebi ixmareT da ara kavSirebiTio: `nu ity¢: me Semdgomad d a v l i o , w a r m o v i d e , aramed: me Semdgomad d a v l e v , w a r m o v a l da sxuani~ (gaioz reqtoris gramatika, §257). rom am periodSi kavSirebiTs jer kidev iyenebdnen myofadis funqciiT da myofadis paralelurad, es kargad Cans Teimuraz bagrationis werilebidan akademikos mari brosesadmi;1 magaliTad: ra¡ca Cemgan monawerebi i y o s xolme, kargad, gulsmodginebiT w a i k i T x e v d e orjel da samjer da romelsac sityvas anu azrs ver g a i g o n e b d e , m o m w e r d e , ufro advilaT g a n g i m a r t e b da naTlad g i C v e n e b da cxadad... zogs dasabeWds me g a m a m a r T v i n e b d e da egreT daabeWdine, rom an me da an Tqven aravin dagvzraxos, rom frTxilni ar arian literaturaSio (gv. 24); da rodes mocalebul v i q m n e , g a r d a v T a r g m n i amas qarTulad, raTa qarTvelTaca warikiTxon Rirssaxsovarisa mis kacisa saqebelni saqmeni saxsovrad missa (gv. 26). msgavs magaliTebs SeiZleba SevxvdeT kidev ufro gvian, XIX saukunis 60ian wlebSiac. magaliTad, 1863 wels Jurnal `ciskris~ redaqciis erT-erT SeniSvnaSi vkiTxulobT: am statiis avtorsa vsTxovT, rodesac statias g z a v n i d e s dasabeWdavaT, mdabiuris anu gasagonis eniT d a s w e r d e s , maSin ufro d a u m a d l e b T am gvaris statiis gamogzavnisaTvis2. erT-erT cnobil xalxur leqsSi, romelic `sxvaTa mojamagirobas~ exeba da, maSasadame, arc ise Soreul warsulSi unda iyos Seqmnili, ikiTxeba: Tu kurdReli d a i W i r o , tyavi — Sen, xorci — Cvenao, da Tu melasa d a i W e r , xorci Sen, tyavi — Cvenao. am leqsSi erTsa da imave konstruqciaSi erT SemTxvevaSi naxmaria kavSirebiTi (d a i W i r o ), meoreSi — myofadi (d a i W e r ). myofadisa da kavSirebiTis paraleluri xmareba damaxasiaTebelia agreTve giorgi leoniZisaTvis; magaliTad: vidre v w u r a v d e mwife rqawiTels, gulSi sevda ver g a x e l m w i f d e b a . anda:

Teimuraz bagrationis werilebi akademikos mari brosesadmi, gamosca s. yubaneiSvilma, Tbilisi, 1964. 2 redaqciis SeniSvna, Jurnali `ciskari~, 10, 1863, gv. 155.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

rogorc oraguls kaspiis zRvaSi aragvis Cqeri m o e w y u r e b a , napirs askdeba daWrili qvaSi da S e u R e b o n mkerdi wylulebma, ise viswrafi Senda maradRe, mamulo, daWril suliskveTebiT.1 amgvari magaliTebi imdroindeli viTarebis anareklia, roca myofadi da kavSirebiTi Tavisuflad enacvlebodnen erTmaneTs. dReisaTvis amgvari SemTxvevebi, roca erTsa da imave konstruqciaSi paralelurad ixmareba ori sxvadasxva mwkrivis forma, normalurad ar miiCneva. magaliTad, CvenTvis cnobilia Semdegi SemTxveva: Seqspiris `mefe henri meeqvsis~ erTi adgili qarTulad asea Targmnili: rom an mTlianad davibruno Cemi Rirseba, an aq saqmeTa keTebaSi movnaxav Svebas. amis gamo recenzentebi sagangebod SeniSnaven: aq dro SeuTanxmebeliao2. cxadia, aq dro ki ar aris SeuTanxmebeli, momavali drois gadmosacemad frazis erT nawilSi kavSirebiTia naxmari (d a v i b r u n o ), meore nawilSi — myofadi (m o v n a x a v ), rac dRes ukve yurs examuSeba. Zveli viTarebis anareklia isic, roca Tanamedrove qarTulSi awmyos funqciiT gvxvdeba formebi, romelTac aspeqtis axal sistemaze gadasvlis Semdeg drois gageba icvales da awmyodan myofadSi gadainacvles (naxavs, hkiTxavs, ityvis, mova da sxvani). magaliTad, awmyoa da ara myofadi h k i T x a v s vaJas `baxtrionis~ Semdeg frazaSi: aTrToleblis xmiT h k i T x a v s ucnobi ucnobs diacsa: — vina xar, netar, dedilo? visas, ras mosTqvam ziansa?!3 iqve uwyvetlis da ara xolmeobiTis mniSvnelobiT gvxvdeba h k i T x a v d a: guls imjiRavda, h k i T x a v d a nangrevebs cremlis deniTa.4 amgvari formebi Zveli mniSvnelobiT daculia mTis kiloebSi da aqedan Sesulan isini vaJas enaSi. Zveli viTareba zogjer dasavlur kiloebSiac aris dRemde SemorCenili. magaliTad, gurulSi zmna m u a (mova, movals) gamoxatavs Cveulebriv momavals. magram zogjer axlandel drosac gviCvenebs, awmyos gagebiT ixmareba: `ar gasula didi xani da deinaxes, mdevi m u a ~ (= modis).
1 2

g. leoniZe. SoTas gulidan gamoviZerwe (leqsi): gaz. `komunisti~, 23, IX, 1967. m. zaaliSvili, T. jangulaSvili. keTili SeniSvnebi: gaz. `literaturuli saqarTvelo~, 7. I, 1966. 3 vaJa-fSavela, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli aT tomad, t. III, Tbilisi, 1934, gv. 143. 4 iqve, gv. 142.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

amgvari magaliTebis ricxvi SeiZleboda kidev gagvezarda, magram vfiqrobT, esec sakmarisia imis sailustraciod, rom momavali drois gamoxatvis mxriv Zveli sistemis anarekli axal qarTulSi aqa-iq jer kidev iCens Tavs. magram es mxolod gamonaklisebia, literaturul normad ki didi xania iqca momavali drois gadmocema myofadis mwkriviT. amgvarad, awmyos zmniswianian formebs momavali drois Sinaarsi daukavSirda Zvel qarTulSi Tavdapirvelad n u nawilakian ukuTqmiT brZanebiTSi. Zvel qarTulSive gvxvdeba calkeuli SemTxvevebi, roca zmniswiniani awmyo, nacvlad kavSirebiTisa, ixmareba momavali drois TxrobiTi kilos gadmosacemad. XI-XIII saukuneTa manZilze awmyos zmniswinianma formebma TandaTanobiT dakarges axlandeli drois gageba da gamoyenebul iqnen momavali drois TxrobiTi kilos aRsaniSnavad. amiT myofadi ukve damoukidebel mwkrivad iqca. am mwkrivis formebi gaiCines uzmniswino da fuZemonacvle zmnebmac. myofadma TandaTanobiT waarTva kavSirebiTs momavali drois TxrobiTi kilos gamoxatvis funqcia. XVI saukunidan kavSirebiTi am funqciiT iSviaTadRa gvxvdeba myofadi sabolood imarjvebs. ase rom, SeiZleba iTqvas, myofadis Camoyalibebis procesi am droisaTvis ZiriTadad ukve damTavrebulia.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

baqar gigineiSvili

kauzativis funqciadakarguli sufiqsi zmnaTa erT wyebasTan Zvel qarTulSi
kauzaciis gagebaSi enaTmecnierTa Soris erTsulovneba araa. amaze sagangebod ar SevCerdebiT. mxolod imis aRniSvna migvaCnia aucileblad, rom Cven am termins misi farTo mniSvnelobiT vxmarobT, e.i. yvela im SemTxvevaSi, roca mizez-Sedegobriv mimarTebasTan gvaqvs saqme. amitom, bunebrivia, aq igulisxmeba kontaqtur-kauzatiuri mniSvnelobanic1, romelTa gamijvna Cveulebriv moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnaTa mniSvnelobisagan yovelTvis advili rodia. winamdebare naSromSi gaanalizebulia zogierTi zmnuri forma, romelic, Cveni azriT, odindeli kauzatiuri fuZeebidan unda iyos nawarmoebi. kauzativis mawarmoebels funqcia daukargavs da zogjer Zirs Sezrdia, ris gamoc Camoyalibebula uRlebis axali paradigma. amasTanave, umetes SemTxvevaSi, zmnebs kauzatiuri mniSvneloba dakarguli aqvT. kauzatiuri mniSvnelobis dakargvis Semdeg unda momxdariyo amgvari formebidan sxvadasxva qcevis formaTa warmoeba, agreTve prefiqsuli vnebiTebisa. 1. aRtyineba, tyineba (`anTeba~, `gzneba~) zmnaSi gamoiyofa tyin fuZe, romelic prefiqsuli vnebiTis formebSic gvxvdeba: xolo guami daiwuvin ficxlisa misgan sim£urvalisa da suli etyinebin cecxliTa codvisa¡Ta, romel uqmnied wina¡swar. m. sw. 140, 29. . . . aRetyina guli Cemi da Tirkumelni Cemni icvalnes. fs. 72, 21 g aRetyinis igi viTarca naZeZi. Sin — 50, 15 r.  sufiqsuri vnebiTi martiv fuZes ty-s emyareba: aramed moavlinos ufalman sabaoT Sensa mas patiosnebasa zeda upatioeba¡ da didebasa Sensa zeda cecxli aRgzebuli aRatydebodis. es. 10, 16(0). ...mayuloansa aRatydebis cecxli da mayuali igi ara Seiwuebis. gam. 3, 2(0). xolo gesmodian-Ra brZolani da £ma¡ wyobaTa¡, ekrZaleniT, nu aRtydebiT. . . mT. 24, 6 C (D — nu SesZrwudebiT) cecxli aRatyda gulis-wyromisgan Cemisa II Sj. 32, 22. prefiqsuli da sufiqsuri vnebiTi gvaris formebis Sedareba cxadyofs tyin fuZis sirTules da -in elementis afiqsobas, magram tyin fuZe mTlianadaa Sesuli mimReobur formaSi mo-tyin-are `anTebuli~, `aRgznebuli~;
am termins viyenebT im mniSvnelobiT, rogorc is naxmari aqvT i. gewaZes, nedialkovsa da a. xolodoviCs (ix. Типология каузативных конструкций, Морфологический каузатив. Ленинград, 1969, 148-150).
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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

cecxli motyinarÀ daSritis wyalman. zir. 3, 33(0). da daadgina motyinarÀ max£li iqcevisi. . . Ses. 3, 24 AKS.  moqmedebiTi gvaris formebSi gamovlena -in elementisa bunebrivia: aRatyina cecxli lamparTa Sina. msaj. 15, 5. eSmaki liqniT da veragobiT guawevs nebasa missa da ukueTu ver midrikos goneba¡ Cueni nebasa missa, aRatyinis Cuen Soris codva¡, viTarca cecxli. m. sw. 69, 6. aRatyina forma kauzatiuri Sinaarsisaa iseve rogorc aRadgina, daawvina da sxv. am mniSvnelobis dakavSireba a-in cirkumfiqsTan Zneli ar aris, magram Tavdapirveli saxiTaa Tu ara warmodgenili Zireuli morfema? vfiqrobT, aqac, iseve, rogorc tydoma-Si ty miRebulia tx-sagan1, romelic, Tavis mxriv, sruli gaxmovanebis mqone tex Ziris reducirebuli saxea. aRtexa Zvel qarTul ZeglebSi naxmaria `aRSfoTebis~, `aRelvebis~, `aRgznebis~ mniSvnelobiT: aRtexes erTi da qalaqpetni igi sity¢Ta miT. saqme moc. 17, 8. da iyos aRtexa¡ maT Soris dResa mas eg¢ptisasa, rameTu aha esera movals. ezek. 30, 9(0); g; SfoTi. Relvani igi aRtexilni uSjuloebisani daayudnes. sin. mr. 218, 13. aRtexa-dan nawarmoebia sufiqsuri vnebiTis formebi: aRtydebis, aRtyda da sxv. tex fuZeSi jer momxdaria sinkope, xolo amis Sedegad warmoqmnili qarTulisaTvis arabunebrivi tx kompleqsi Secvlilia harmoniuli ty fonemuri jgufiT. aseve Cans warmoqmnili aRtyineba: *aR-a-tex-in-a → *aR-a-txin-a → aR-a-ty-in-a. aRtexa da aRatyina formebis erTdrouli arseboba ganapiroba im faqtma, rom aRtexa zmnas daekisra semantikurad ramdenadme gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobis gadmocema: aRtyineba konkretulad `anTebas~ niSnavs da iTqmis umetesad cecxlze an nivTze, xolo aRtexa — upiratesad adamianebze iTqmis da maTs aRelvebas niSnavs. Tumca aris calkeuli SemTxvevebi, roca aRtyineba, aRtyinebuli zogjer adamianis mimarTac ixmareba, magram konkretul mniSvnelobas `anTeba-dawvisas~ inarCunebs. iyvnen warmarTni aRtyinebul, viTarca ekalni yanobirsa Sina. es. 33, 12 (mosk. biblia), Sdr. oSkuri: damwuar. meore mxriv, sagulisxmoa is, rom aRtexa-sa da aRatyina-s Soris iseTive damokidebulebaa, rogorc mokla-s da moakudina-s Soris. aRtexa da mokla konteqstebSi mkveTrad ar upirispirdeba aRatyina-sa da moakudina-s, rogorc arakauzativi kauzativs, magram aSkaraa, rom maTi sruli gaTanabreba mainc araa marTebuli: aRatyina da moakudina, gansxvavebiT aRtexa-sa da mokla-sagan, kauzatiur Sinaarss inarCunebs, rac maTs fuZeSi -in sufiqsis mqoneobiTaa gamowveuli. 2. wyena, wyineba. es zmna ixmareba `Sewuxebis~ mniSvnelobiT:
1

a. SaniZe, qarTuli gramatikis safuZvlebi, Tbilisi, 1953. gv. 23.

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

... evedreboda mas friad, ra¡Tamca brZana sakrvelTagan ganteveba¡ misi, viTar friad awyina, brZana ganteveba¡ sakrvelTagan oden. SuS. X, 21. amisT¢s me jer miCns, ra¡Ta aras vawyinebdeT maT, romelni-igi warmarTTaganni moqceul arian RmrTisa mimarT. saqme moc. 15, 19 (g: vaurvebdeT) xolo xedvides, rameTu, viTar-igi unda myudroebiT cxoreba¡, ver iyofebodes, amisT¢s rameTu awyinebdian mamasaxlisni da Zmani monastrisani... i.-e. 25, 11. . . .usajo mas, ra¡Ta ara movidodis da mawyinebdes me l. 18, 5 C. Zvel qarTulSi amave zmnas meore axlomdgomi mniSvnelobac aqvs — `Tavis mobezreba~, `mowyena~, magram rogorc arn. Ciqobava da k. h. Smidti varaudoben, maT sxvadasxva Sesatyvisebi aqvT zanurSi da amdenad sxvadasxva warmomavlobisani arian. kerZod, wyen/wyin Zirs `Sewuxebis~ mniSvnelobiT ukavSireben Wan. wkun- da megr. wy-un fuZeebs, romlebsac `tkenis~ mniSvneloba aqvT, xolo qarT. wyen/wyin-s `mowyenis~ mniSvnelobiT ganixilaven fuZeSi wyi-d da Wanuri Wkin-d (`daRla~) fuZis Sesatyvisad miiCneven1. amitom Cven amjerad mxolod pirvel wyena-s ganvixilavT. arn. Ciqobava qarTul wyen-fuZeSi gamoyofs `sakauzativo~ (brWyalebi avtorisaa) -en sufiqss, WanurSi ki Sesabamisad -un sufiqss, romelic, misi azriT, `fuZis sawarmoebeli afiqsia (sakauzativo!)~2. a. SaniZe agreTve SesaZleblad miiCnevs wyen/wyin fuZis daSlas, oRond -en sufiqsi mas gardauval zmnaTagan gardamaval zmnaTa mawarmoeblad miaCnia3. msgavsi mosazreba -en sufiqsis Sesaxeb (oRond ara wyen- fuZeSi) gamoTqva v. Tofuriam: man -en sufiqsi miiCnia erT-erT uZveles sawarmoebel bolosarTad moqmedebiTi gvaris zmnaTa wyebaSi4. magram sainteresoa is faqti, rom arc erT mkvlevars, vinc scada wyen/wyin- fuZis daSla, ar ucdia -en/-in sufiqsis gamoyofa daesabuTebina. h. fogtis azriT, vawyineb da vatyineb formebs ar moepovebaT Sesabamisi gardauvali formebi5. ra gvaZlevs safuZvels, rom xsenebuli fuZe davSaloT, gvxvdeba Tu ara misi komponentebi erTmaneTisagan mowyvetiT da sxv. -en mimdevroba SeiZleba sxva zmnebTanac davadasturoT, magram gvaqvs Tu ara -en/-in-is gareSe wymsgavsi mniSvnelobiT? Tu wy- ar daiZebna sxva kombinaciaSi, maSin wyen-/wyinfuZis daSla saeWvo iqneba. Cveni azriT, is amosavali odenoba, romelsac unda darToda -en/-in elementi, aris wux-, romelic warmodgenilia ara marto saSuali gvaris wux-s, aramed moqmedebiTi gvaris awuxebs, Seawuxa zmnaSi da misgan nawarmoeb formebSic. procesi ase warmogvidgeba: *wux-in → *wxin wyin: wux-s → *a-wux-ens/a-wux-in-a → *awxens/*awxina → awyens/awyina. -en/-in sufiqsis darTva iwarn. Ciqobava, Wanur-megrul-qarTuli leqsikoni, tfilisi, 1938, gv. 339-400; K. H. Schmidt, Studien zur Rekonstruktion des Lautstandes der sudkaukasische Grundsprache. Wiesbaden, 1962, S. 156-157.  2 arn. Ciqobava, dasax. naSromi, gv. 400. 3 a. SaniZe, dasax. naSromi, gv. 400. 4 v. Tofuria, Sromebi, III, Tbilisi, 1979, gv. 44—45. 5 H. Vogt, Suffixes verbaux en georgien ancien. NTS, XIV, 1947, p. 159.
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qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

vevs u-s amoRebas da wx arabunebrivi mimdevrobis warmoqmnas, romelic qarTuli enis fonologiuri struqturis Sesabamisad avtomaturad gardaiqmneba wy-d. SeiZleboda wx mimdevrobis sxvagvari daZlevac, kerZod cx kompleqsis warmoqmna. amis ilustracias warmoadgens mercxali (←*merwxali; Sdr. megr. marWixolo//maWirxoli), romlis etimologia t. gudavas ekuTvnis1. amrigad, wyen/wyin- fuZisaTvis amosavalia wux Ziri, romelmac -en/-in sufiqsis darTvis Sedegad jer sinkopireba, xolo Semdeg asimilacia ganicada. magram aris ki Zveli qarTulisaTvis niSandoblivi u-s sruli amoReba? marTalia, amgvari SemTxvevebi SedarebiT iSviaTia, magram aris u-s sruli amogdebis ueWveli faqtebi. samecniero literaturaSi fiqsirebulia ZiriTadad umarcvlo u-s dakargvis SemTxvevebi: aRTqmisa, gamouTqmelad, wTodes (Sdr. daswuTa), Sewydomil, mwydari (Sdr. mwyudari), romelsac amasTanave, fakultatiuri xasiaTi aqvs an, zogjer, SeiZleba gadamweris Secdomas mieweros; magaliTad: la£riTa, mkdrisa, maSralTa da sxva2. iv. imnaiSvils aqvs marcvlovani u-s sinkopis SemTxvevebic sityvebSi Surdlisa, farRlisa3. vfiqrobT, amas SeiZleba daematos: qseli ← *qusveli (Sdr. qusavs: da qusavs maT gamo ra¡ca-igi hnebavs mamasa. J — 44, 209 r), mWeli ( *muWeli) `TavTavi~, (Sdr. muWie), dayudneba (← *dayuduneba)4. wux zmnas aqvs sxva kauzatiuri korelatic. esaa awuxebs. es forma Cveni azriT, ufro gviandelia, vidre awyens/awyina, radgan igi ukve xelaxlaa nawarmoebi wux- Zirisagan da ramdenadac fonetikuri cvlilebebi ar ganucdia, amitom amosaval fuZesTan gramatikuli kavSiric ar gauwyvetia. 3. smen-/smin- fuZe ixmareba rogorc kauzatiuri mniSvnelobis formebSi, ise arakauzatiurSi, sadac is odindeli kauzativis semantikis miCqmalvis Sedegadaa gadasuli. masmine me galoba¡ da sixaruli da ixarebden Zualni mdabalni fs. 50, 10 a. yovelsave keTilad iqms: yruTa hasmens da utyuTca hatyuebs... haem. 378, VII, 37. gasminen Tquen £ma¡ ebnisa¡ mis Cuenisa¡, ravden Zalguedva. sin. mr. 110, 32. . . .erTad saxed dahberos da gangebulad gasminos da tkbiladiTa miT £miTa da sasmeneliTa miT sity¢Ta yovelni Semogukribnes. . . sin. mr. 110, 36. Tquen ismineT igavi ese mTesvarisa¡ . . . mT. 13, 18. ese ars: romelman sityua¡ igi isminis da meyseulad sixaruliT miiRis igi gulsa T¢ssa. mT. 13, 20 DE. romelman Tqueni isminos, Cemi ismina. l. 10, 16 C.
t. gudava, mercxali, ike, t. XIV, Tbilisi, 1964.  m. ZiZiSvili, fonetikuri procesebi Zvel qarTulSi, 1960. 3 iv. imnaiSvili, qarTuli enis istoriuli qrestomaTia, t. I., naw. II. Tbilisi, 1971. 4 T. cqitiSvili ydun fuZeSi savsebiT samarTlianad xedavs yud Ziris SekumSul variants, romlis gamovlena gamowveuli unda iyos -un sufiqsis darTviT (T. cqitiSvili, ezekielis wignis Zveli qarTuli versiebi, Tbilisi, 1976, gv. 300-301). h. fogtis azriT, dayudneba aris miRebuli dayudnebisagan (H. Vogt, Suffixes verbaux en georgien ancien. NTS, XIV, 1947, p. 64).
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275

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

-en/-in elementi smen- fuZeSi martivad gamoiyofa sem-/sm- Ziris Semcvel formebTan SepirispirebiT, romlebic, rogorc wesi, obieqturi wyobisaa1. ...odes gesmes Sen, viTarmed ufalman misca qanqari, nu hgoneb amas SekrebisaT¢s oqro¡sa gina vecxlisa. sin. mr. 249, 19. Wirsa Cemsa malxine, miwyale me, Segesemin locvisa Cemisa. fs. 4, 2 a. £ma¡ hrama¡T isma tirilisa da godebisa¡. mT. 2, 18. amas esma, viTarmed iesu mosrul ars huriastaniT galilead. i. 4, 47 DE. Ziri gansaxilveli zmnisa ori variantiT aris warmodgenili sem- da smiT. gamyreliZisa da g. maWavarianis azriT, qarTulSi dadasturebuli semamosavalia yvela qarTveluri enisaTvis, oRond misi zanuri da svanuri Sesatyvisebi daculi araa (zan. *sam- da svan. *sem-). es aixsneba uxmovno sm- fuZis gavrcelebiT, romelmac zanurSi sim- mogvca [m elementis marcvlovnobis xarjze (# C — V) poziciaSi da Semdeg analogiiT intervokalur poziciaSic gadainacvla (ma-a-sim-e-[n], i-sim-in-s formebSi). svanurSi xmovanTa Soris kanonzomieradaa warmodgenili sm- varianti: me-sm-i `mesmis~2. —en/-in elementis raobaze araferia naTqvami. aSkaraa, rom -en/-in am zmnaSic imave daniSnulebis mqonea, rogorisac wyena da aRtkineba zmnebSi, e.i. kauzativis morfemaa. gansxvaveba imaSia mxolod, rom smena zmnaSi misi amgvari funqciiT gamoiyeneba ufro xangrZlivi tradiciis mqonea da ar Semoifargleba sakuTriv qarTuli drouli siRrmiT. egeve -in elementi zanursa da svanurSic iCens Tavs. megrulSi -in Tavs iCens iseT mimReobur formaSi, romelic kauzatiuri zmnidan Cans nawarmoebi: enhmasiminafali `Semsmeni~, `dambezRebeli~, `enis mimtani~. masiminafali zusti Sesatyvisia qarTulSi Teoriulad dasaSvebi formisa *msminebeli. mimReobis mawarmoebeli am megrul formaSi aris m-al, fuZea sim-in, romelic kauzatiur -in elements unda Seicavdes. -in kauzativis sawarmoeblad Tanamedrove megrulSi mxolod reliqtis saxiT aris calkeul formebSi SemorCenili. svanurSi -in darCenilia am zmnis masdarSi li-smin-e, agreTve myofadis mimReobaSi le-smin-e mosasmeni~. funqcia kauzativisa am elements zanur-svanurSi dakarguli aqvs, magram misi arseboba samsave qarTvelur enaSi identuri mniSvnelobis mqone ZirTan da qarTulSi misi funqciis garkveuloba SesaZlebels xdis saerToqarTvelur doneze calke *sem- da calke *sm-in fuZeebis rekonstruqcias. 4. SeSineba. pirveli formebi (rogorc kauzatiuri, ise arakauzatiuri) aucileblad Sin- fuZes emyareba: ukueTu umetÀs ra¡me viqado £elmwifebisa amis CuenisaT¢s..., ara mrcxuenodis, ra¡Ta ara gegonos, viTarmed gaSineb rasme Tquen wignebiTa amiT. II kor. 10, 8-9.
H. Vogt, Suffixes verbaux en georgien ancien. NTS, XIV, 1947, p. 59. T. gamyreliZe, g. maWavariani, sonantTa sistema da ablauti qarTvelur enebSi, Tbilisi, 1965, gv. 121.
2 1

276

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

...gulisagan Senisa Sen styuvi amaT Sina, rameTu yovelni guaSineben Cuen... neem. 6, 9 B. SeeSina elias da warvida udabnod. sin. mr. 213, 24. nu SeZrwundebin guli Tqueni, nuca eSinin. i. 1427 D. mamisagan T¢sisa da dedisa T¢sisa SeiSineT. lev. 19, 3 g. qarTuli gasubstantivebuli masdari SiSi miCneulia *si-S-i-sagan momdinared1. Tu am mosazrebas gaviziarebT, unda davuSvaT iseTi zmnuri formebis arseboba adrindel qarTulSi, romelTa Ziri -in sufiqsiT garTulebuli ar iyo da martooden S-s saxiT iyo warmodgenili. 5. Zvel qarTulSi Zin- zmnuri fuZe ori axlomdgomi mniSvnelobiT ixmareba. pirveli mniSvneloba warmodgenilia Semdeg semantikur jgufSi: Semateba, damateba, darTva, zed-dadeba, dawvena, datoveba, darCena. magaliTebi: borotsa zeda borotsa dasZineb A — 1105, 142v. ...ufalo, xuTi qanqari momec me, aha esera sxua¡ xuTi qanqari SevsZine. mT. 25, 20 C. da meyseulad warvida, romelman igi xuTi qanqari miiRo, aqmna mas zeda da SesZina sxua¡-Ra xuTi. mT. 25, 16 C. eZiebdiT sasufevelsa RmrTisasa da ese yoveli SegeZinos Tquen. l. 12, 31. ... yoveli piri misi wuTxisa dadinebiTa ganileoda da yovliT kerZo enisa misisa zesTa simZimisa aqunda gansiveba¡, vidremdis sruliad usityuelad da u£mrad orRano¡ igi daSTomil iyo da iyo zeda-daZinebul mouTmenelTa maT salmobaTa misTa vervissa Txroba¡ igi tkivilTa misTa¡. quT. 5, 545 v — 546r. da aRdga SuvaRames oden, mompara yrma¡ igi Cemi m£arTagan CemTa, da m£evalsa meZina, da daaZina ubeTa T¢sTa da yrma¡ igi T¢si momkudari Semoawvina ubeTa CemTa. III mef. 3, 20(0). berZn. ™co…misen `dawvina~, `daaZina~ somx. xxsd7t47 ` ` rus. положил  ara daaZinoT sxeuli misi Zelsa zeda, aramed daflviT dahfalT igi mas dResa Sina. . . II Sj. 21, 32g. paraleluri redaqcia, warmodgenili H — 885 xelnaweriTa da misi mimyoli nusxebiT, iZleva aseT ikiTxviss: ara dauteoT. am mniSvnelobis gardauvali korelati (`darCena~) warmodgenilia Semdeg magaliTSi: ara daiZinos sasyidelman morewisaman. lev. 19, 13 g. berZn. m¾ coimhq»setai `ar daidvas~, `ar idos~. `dawvena~,
1

a. SaniZe, dasax. naSromi, gv. 23. H. Vogt, Grammaire de la langue georgienne , Oslo, 1971, p. 150.

277

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

`dawola~ igulisxmeba Semdeg magaliTebSi: iyo daZinebasa missa. msaj. 16, 14 g (Sdr. B: daawvina igi (dalila). pirvel daZinebamde maTda. isu n. 2, 8 g (Sdr. S: vidre dawoladmde maTa). Zovden da daiZinon. sof. 3, 13(0) Sdr. B: Zovden da dawuebodian. dawola da daZineba mniSvnelobiT axloa bevr enaSi (maT Soris: berZnulSi, somxurSi, megrul-WanurSi). amitom mniSvnelobaTa am mwkrivis gamijvna daZineba-Zili-sgan sakmaod Znelia, magram Sesatyvisobani qarTvelur enaTa Soris ueWvels xdian im faqts, rom qarTul Zin- fuZeSi Serwymulia istoriulad gansxvavebuli ori odenoba. erTia qarTuli Zin- (`mateba~ da misi jgufi), meore ki — Zin/Zil- (`daZinebis~ mniSvnelobiT); pirveli unda ukavSirdebodes qarTulsave Z- Zirs (Z-e-s formaSi)1. aseTi kavSiri pirvelad arn. Ciqobavam ivarauda, magram iqve uaryo, radgan Zes da misi megr.-Wan. Sesatyvisi Zu-n, misi azriT, devs formisgan momdinareobs, Zin- ki aseTi warmoSobisad ver miiCneva2. k. h. SmidtisaTvis Z-s d-sgan momdinareoba, romelsac is iziarebs, damabrkolebeli araa3. Cven vfiqrobT, rom d-sgan Z-s momdinareoba Zes formaSi, xolo Zin- fuZeSi Z-s Tavdapirveloba maTi dakavSirebisaTvis namdvilad damabrkolebelia. magram saqme isaa, rom Z-s momdinareoba d-sagan aucilebeli araa gaviziaroT. mxolod is faqti, rom Z-s d enacvleba dro-kiloTa meore jgufSi, jer kidev arafers niSnavs: savsebiT dasaSvebia aq supletivizmi anu fuZeTa monacvleoba vivaraudoT, rac qarTulisaTvis ucxo araa (Sdr. uvis-esua, arsiyo da sxva). miT ufro, rom ar Cans realuri mizezi d→Z gadasvlisa qarTulSi. devs formas ratom unda moeca Zes/Zevs naTeli araa: d-s afrikatizacia qarTuls ar axasiaTebs. qarTuli Zes rom Z-s Semcveli iyo jer kidev saerToqarTvelur periodSi, amas adasturebs Sesatyvisoba: qarT. Z-e-s/u-Z-s: zan: Z-u-(n) `Zevs~: svan. z-i `Zevs~ (Sdr. xaz `aZevs~). fonemuri fardoba qarT. Z: zan. Z: svan. z kanonzomieria da amosavlad *Z fonemas gulisxmobs4. daZineba/SeZineba savsebiT dasaSvebia Z-e-s zmnasTan davakavSiroT da mis kauzatiur formad an sazedao situaciis gamomxatvelad miviCnioT: `daaZina~-sTvis amosavali iqneboda mniSvnelobani: `dadva~, `daadva~, `daawvina~. 6. Zil-/Zin-. erTgvari mniSvnelobis mqone qarTuli Zil- da Zin- fuZeebis mimarTeba asaxsnelia. rogorc cnobilia, Zili aseT Sesatyvisebs iZleva zanurSi:
h. fogts ara aqvs dakavSirebuli erTmaneTTan SesZina da daaZina formebi. igi Tvlis rom am zmnas (vsZineb) ara aqvs xmovanprefiqsiani formebi da SesaZloa —en/-in aq Ziris kuTvnileba iyos (H. Vogt, Suffixes. . . 61). 2 arn. Ciqobava, Wanur-megrul-qarTuli leqsikoni, tfilisi, 1938. 3 K. H. Schmidt, Studien zur Rekonstruktion des Lautstandes der sudkaukasische Grundsprache. Wiesbaden, 1962, S. 104. 4 g. maWavariani, saerTo-qarTveluri konsonanturi sistema, Tbilisi, 1965, gv. 24—25.
1

278

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

qarT. Zil-i: megr. jir-a `Zili~: Wan. (n) jires fardoba Ziris pirvel Tanxmovnad sul sxva fonemas gvavaraudebinebs (sisina-SiSina *Z1-s, an SiSina *j-s, rogorc amas k. h. Smidti fiqrobs1. Zil- fuZes zogi mkvlevari dauSlelad miiCnevs da misi dakavSireba ZinfuZesTan, rac TiTqmis yvelasTvis udavoa, axsnilia qarTulSi l~n, zanurSi ki r~n monacvleobiT2. arn. Ciqobavas azriT, qarT. Zil-, zan. jir. fuZeebi imave Ziris Semcvelia, romelic qarT. Zin-sa da zan. jan/jin-Si gvaqvs, gansxvaveba mxolod sufiqsebSia3, oRond am sufiqsTa funqcia araa miTiTebuli. k. h. Smidti agreTve Slis aRniSnul fuZeebs: Z-il-i (←*Z-in-i), j-ir-, j-in-, j-an-4. sufiqsTa kvalifikacia arc masTanaa mocemuli. sainteresoa, rom k. h. Smidti SesaZleblad miiCnevs qarTul da zanur ZirebTan svanuri uJ (`Zili~) formis dakavSirebas. Tavkidur u-s is ganixilavs rogorc proTetul xmovans5. es mosazreba sayuradRebo Cans. marTlac, calTanxmovniani Tavisufali forma Zneli warmosadgenia. amitom mas SeiZleboda sayrdeni xmovani gasCenoda. oRond analogiuri SemTxvevebi unda daiZebnos. rac Seexeba Zil da Zin qarTul fuZeebs da maTs zanur Sesatyvisebs, maTi daSla savsebiT SesaZlebelia: pirveli unda warmoadgendes gasubstantivebul masdars tirili-s tipisas, xolo meore kauzatiur fuZes Z- Zirisagan, e.i. gvaqvs Z-il da Z-in. Z-il-i gardauvali zmnis masdari unda yofiliyo, Z-in-eb-a ki — misi kauzatiuri, gardamavali forma. zan. j-an fuZe qarTulisaTvis amosaval *Z-en- kauzativs Seesatyviseba, xolo j-in — qarTul Z-in-s. pirveli gamoiyeneboda dro-kiloTa I seriaSi, meore ki — II seriaSi; amgvarad: qarT. *v-a-Z-en `vaZineb" — v-a-Z-in-e zan. v-o-j-an-q — do-v-o-j-in-i Zalze sayuradReboa svanurSi uJ Zirisagan nawarmoebi analogiuri wyvilis arseboba (kauzativs aq misi erT-erTi uZvelesi niSani — un awarmoebs): svan. li-¡J-e `Zili~, `спать~ — li-¡J-un-e `daZineba~, `усыплять~.  rogorc dRevandeli viTareba gviCvenebs, kauzativis odindeli formantebi Seuxorcdnen Zirebs da miviReT mTliani Zin-/jin- fuZeebi, romlebic gamoyenebuli iqna arakauzatiuri formebis sawarmoeblad: qarT. daiZina, iZinebs, sZinavs; megr. janu(n) `wevs~, Wan. qodijinu `dawva~. meore mxriv, Seuxorcda Zirs masdaris sufiqsebic —il/-ir da axali Zil- da jir- fuZeebidan warmoiqmna formebi: qarT. uZilari, Wan. unjiru `uZilod~ da sxv.
K. H. Schmidt, Studien . . . S. 60, 15, 251. Г. А. Климов, Этимологический словарь картвельских языков, М., 1964, с. 238. T. gamyreliZe, g. maWavariani, sonantTa sistema . . ., gv. 312. 3 arn. Ciqobava, dasax. naSromi, gv. 434—435.   4 K. H. Schmidt, Studien . . . S. 152. 5 iqve.
2 1

279

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

eTer geurqova

kauzativis warmoeba qarTulsa da zog mTis iberiul-kavkasiur enaSi
(ibeWdeba SemoklebiT) kauzativis, rogorc zmnis morfologiuri kategoriis, Camoyalibeba dakavSirebuli unda iyos zmnis polipersonalizmTan. es ki imaSi mdgomareobs, rom polipersonalur enebSi kauzativis warmoeba sinTezuria — kategoriis mawarmoebeli morfologiuri elementi zmnis fuZeSi gvxvdeba; monopersonalur enebSi ki kauzativis warmoeba aRweriTia (es debuleba vrceldeba CvenTvis cnobil yvela enaze), e.i. qarTvelursa da afxazur-adiReurSi, rogorc polipersonalur enebSi, kauzativis sinTezuri warmoebaa niSandoblivi, danarCen iberiul-kavkasiur enebSi ki analizuri warmoebaa. kauzativis warmoeba Zvel qarTulSi Zvel qarTulSi kauzativi mkveTrad Camoyalibebuli zmnuri kategoriaa. igi Cveulebriv gvxvdeba gardamaval sampirian zmnebSi. es gasagebicaa, radgan am kategoriis arsi gulisxmobs sami piris — subieqtis, iribi da pirdapiri obieqtebis — mimarTebas: subieqti aiZulebs irib obieqts imoqmedos pirdapir obieqtze. kauzativis warmoeba Zvel qarTulSi nawilobriv emTxveva saliteraturo qarTulsa da dialeqtebSi arsebul mdgomareobas. adgili aqvs sxvaobasac. Zveli qarTuli kauzativis mawarmoeblad iyenebs -ev sufiqss, SedarebiT iSviaTad -in-s; -evin sufiqsi ucxoa, rogorc kauzativis mawarmoebeli. magaliTebi:
`yav ra¡ca gnebavs r~ Sen Tana ars eSmaki, r~i gaqmnevs magas~ (kim. I, 145, 18). ` rameTu ujerosa guaqmnevda Cuen hamani~ (esTer. 8). `romelsaca suli aTqumevda~ (parx. 8ба). `aRdeg da gamoucxade Tavi Seni maT ra¡Ta gulis£ma-yon Zali misi, romeli aqmnevs maT eSmaki borotsa~ (apokr. 35, 38). `da viTarca verara¡ sxua¡ aTqumia maSin hrqua mas patreaqman: wamodeg da wire dRes Jami~ (limonari, 67, 8). `ubrZana mefeman da Seaqmnia luskuma¡ oqro¡sa¡ da vecxlisa¡~ (kim. I, 165, 10). `nuukue gaqmnios boroti~ (parx. 3, 30). `da igi ars mama¡ Cemi da deda¡ Cemi, romelman maqmnios me saqmÀ keTili~ (qristina, 185, 19). `maSin daajeris maT da aTqumiis eseviTari da msgavsi amisi mravali~ (swavl. 46, 17). `...da T¢sisa monastrisa, baralam wmidisaTvis daawerina da wmidasa amas bersa didad pativ upyra~ (lit. qrest., I, 206, 44). `da moaRebina nagevTagan skorÀ myrali~ (balavar. 43, 7). `movida miqael da warmogadgina Sen da Tayuanis gacemina Sen RmerTsa~ (lit. qrest., I, 5, 21). `da odes mouwoda miqael da yovelTa Tayuanis gacemina...~ (lit. qrest., I, 5, 24). `ra¡Tamca yovelni kacni Tayuanis aceminnes kerpTa~ (lit. qrest., I, 168, 12). `kualad ganagdes badÀ da Seayennes kacni da Tayuanis aceminnes cecxlsa~ (lit. qrest., I, 168,15). `da Tayuanis vacemie igi patiosansa juarsa...~ (limonari 51,5).

280

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

kauzativis mawarmoeblad -in-is gamoyenebis SemTxvevebi sul Svidi magaliTiTaa dadasturebuli. aqedan — xuTi erTi da imave rTuli zmnis fuZidan. -in-Tan SedarebiT -ev sufiqsis gamoyenebis are ufro vrcelia. qarTuli dialeqtebidan xevsuruli (nawilobriv gurulic) Zvel qarTuls uaxlovdeba. aq kauzativis mawarmoeblad Cveulebrivia -ev (rac ucxoa baris dialeqtebisaTvis), -in-is xmareba SedarebiT SezRudulia, -evin ki saerTod ar gvxvdeba. mag.:
`uZaxebd Tavis amxanig eSmaebs, daamkevd yanaT~ (xevs. 21, 21). `dastur£elosneb sru imis cdaSi arian, ro aTqmivan ra¡~ (xevs. 9, 20). `Tu dala£a, maSin is jurums gadaa£devs" (xevs. 12, 9). `Tver dartyiT karqaTo, maSvin imasac qi damartymiebT, romelcxaia dasartmeli~ (guruli, 425, 6 qv.).

baris dialeqtebi kauzativis mawarmoeblebiT saliteraturo qarTuls uaxlovdeba. am dialeqtebSi kauzativis mawarmoebeli sufiqsia -in da -evin. magaliTebi:
`rkinis duqardi gaakeTebine~ (qarTl. 283, 1). `jalaTs Tavi unda gagagdebinoT" (qarTl. 326, 32). `im qalma erTi wyaro gaakeTebina, im wyaros Tavze Tavis suraTi daakidebina" (kaxuri, 187, 15—16). `orTav xelebSi mamagdebina Seni Tavi da gaCveneb Sen seirsao" (kaxuri, 188, 18). `rac Sen oqro-vercxli gaq, sul Cem koSkSi amazidineo" (kaxuri, 206, 24).

-in sufiqsiT magaliTebis moyvana mravlad SeiZleba. igi saliteraturo qarTulsa da baris dialeqtebSi kauzativis kategoriis mawarmoeblebs Soris yvelaze produqtiuli sufiqsia. rac Seexeba -evin sufiqss, misi xmareba -in-Tan SedarebiT ufro SezRudulia. igi gvaqvs TiTqos maSin, rodesac uSualo gzis formebSi -av, -ev sufiqsi dasturdeba, mag.:
`su TiTiT gvarCeineben Tesls~ (qarTl. 277, 8), (varC-ev — varC-evin-eb). `daaleinebs Tavis dasa mzis piris nabansa~ (qarTl. 283, 2), (vl-ev — val-evin-eb). `wixli sdruza da kbilebi Caamtvreina~ (qarTl. 302, 38), (vamtvr-ev — vamtvr-evin-eb).

gvaqvs gamonaklisebic:
`...moaWrevinebs am Wandar" (kaxuri, 196, 19), (Wris — aWr-evin-eb-s).~... ZaRlebic gadaaxnevina~ (kaxuri, 203, 8 qv.), (xsnis — axsn-evin-eb-s).~... orTave Tvali davaTxrevine~ (qarTl. 319, 19), (sTxris — aTxr-evin-eb-s).

am mxriv saintereso masalas iZleva vefxistyaosani. rogorc gardamavali periodis ZeglSi, masSi daculia Zveli qarTulis normebi, Sesulia agreTve axali: gvxvdeba rogorc -ev, ise -in da -evin sufiqsebi:
`ismendi miec goneba CemTa ambavTa smenasa, saubarTa da saqmeTa viTa Zliv vaTqmev enasa~1. `didsa sisxlsa ver Segaqnev ver viqnebi Sua kedlad~. `Tu darbazs miva igi yma SvilTa damaWmevs piriTa~. `movides, gaaSvebines didi xvarazmTa mflobeli~.
1

yvela magaliTi moyvanilia vefxistyaosnis O (K — 205) xelnaweridan.

281

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi `gavgzavne yolgniT laSqarni alafi avaRebine, erTob savseni movidnen Tavica valaRebine, sisxlsa mebrZolTa CemTasa mindori SevaRebine, ar vbrZole kari qalaqTa uomrad gavaRebine~. `aRar vis movakvlevineb mefe ars waRmarTebuli~. `buksa ikras aqnevineT yovli saqme Cemgan qnili~. `man aTqmevinos nuTu ra, Cvenca vcnaT gacxadebuli~ da sxv. mravali.

rogorc moyvanili magaliTebidan naTelia, Zvel qarTulSi (paralelurad dialeqtebsa da vefxistyaosanSi) kauzativis mawarmoeblebad gvxvdeba -ev, -in, -evin afiqsebi. Zveli da saSualo qarTulisaTvis da mTis kiloebidan xevsurulisaTvis (nawilobriv gurulisTvisac) Cveulebrivia kauzativis mawarmoeblad -ev, SedarebiT axali Cans -in da -evin. amas saTanado magaliTebi gvavaraudebinebs. baris dialeqtebi saliteraturo qarTulis msgavsad iyeneben -in, -evin sufiqsebs. rogorc viciT, qarTuli aglutinaciuri tipis enaa; masSi TiToeuli morfologiuri niSani garkveuli funqciis mqonea. erT afiqss erTsa da imave dros ar SeiZleba erTze meti daniSnuleba hqondes an, piriqiT, erTi kategoriis sawarmoeblad ori da meti afiqsis gamoyeneba meoreuli movlenaa1. amitomac kauzativis kategoriis ganxilvisas ismeba kiTxva: ras unda gamoewvia mawarmoebelTa simravle? rogori saxe hqonda am kategorias Camoyalibebisas? romeli mawarmoebelia specifikuri, Tavdapirveli? zemoT moyvanili magaliTebis analizisas cxadia, rom kauzativis kategoriis warmoebaSi sufiqsebTan erTad aranakleb rols asrulebs prefiqsi. es imaSi mdgomareobs, rom prefiqsis (kerZod a-prefiqsis) gareSe kauzatiuri zmna ar gvxvdeba. prefiqsis roli am kategoriis warmoebaSi ar unda gamovricxoT (rogorc es specialur literaturaSia miTiTebuli). am SemTxvevaSi Cven ar SeiZleba ar moviSvelioT qarTveluri enebi da ar gavavloT paraleli kauzativis kategoriis warmoebasTan am enebSi. magaliTebi: zanuri: o-zum-af-am-s o-kvaT-af-am-s o-Tas-af-am-s x-Š-Wm-un-e x-Š -£d-un-e x-Š -gm-un-e qarT. a-zom-v-in-eb-s a-Wr-ev-in-eb-s a-Tes-v-in-eb-s a-Tib-v-in-eb-s a-xd-ev-in-eb-s a-Sen-eb-in-eb-s

svanuri:

qarT.

zanurisa da svanuris kauzatiur zmnebSi a-prefiqsis kanonzomieri Sesatyvisi xmovani dasturdeba. qarTveluri enebis kauzatiur zmnebSi kanonzomieri Sesatyvisi swored prefiqsebSi dgindeba. zanurSi am kategoriis mawarmoeblad sufiqsTan erTad prefiqsic aris aRiarebuli2. Cveni azriT, ara1

arn. Ciqobava, qarTuli enis zogadi daxasiaTeba; qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni t. I, Tb., 1950, gv. 031. 2 arn. Ciqobava, Wanuris gramatikuli analizi, Tb., 1936, gv. 157.

282

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi

feri SeuSlida xels, Tu aseTive mawarmoeblebi (e.i. prefiqs-sufiqsi) iqneboda gamoyofili qarTulsa da svanurSic. Sesatyvisobis TvalsazrisiT sufiqsebi gviCveneben mkveTr gadaxras, rac unda metyvelebdes maT meoreulobaze. am mxriv metad saintereso masalas iZleva Zveli qarTuli enis Zeglebis ganxilva. Zvel qarTulSi kauzativis prefiqsul-sufiqsuri warmoebis gverdiT gvaqvs martivi, oden prefiqsuli kauzatiuri formebi. Zveli qarTulisaTvis oden prefiqsuli warmoeba gveCveneba ufro niSandoblivi da specifikuri (raodenobrivadac es warmoeba gacilebiT sWarbobs prefiqsul-sufiqsurs). am SemTxvevaSi Cven gvaqvs rogorc konstruqciiT, aseve SinaarsiT wminda kauzatiuri zmnebi. mag.:
`dagamorCilna mdinarenica qristeman, RmerT-Semosilo dido Tevdosi~ (modr. 221,4). `da dedaman febronia Seawynara wmidasa mas umanko¡ igi kravi mwyemssa mas keTilsa~ (xanZTelis cxovr. iÀ, 25). `... da Tana kacni warmoiyvanna Sesaswavlad~ (xanZTelis cxovr. ig, 6). `xolo mefÀ ganmxiarulda sityuaTagan netarisa grigolisTa da friadi sarwmunoeba¡ da siyuaruli daamtkicna gulsa missa udabnoTa mimarT klarjeTisaTa...~ (xanZTelis cxovr. ke, 21). `xolo man simdabliT daarwmuna wmidasa mas Tavisa T¢sisa swavla¡ sworad sxuaTa maT mamaTa~ (xanZTelis cxovr. m, 1). `da ganTiad moaxilva yoveli sanaxebi xanZTisa¡~ (xanZTelis cxovr. À, 37). `xolo monazoni igi amba modistos, romeli warevlina patriaqsa Sekrebad berZenTa laSqrisad, raTa Semwe eyvnen Wirsa maTsa, daajera maT moslva¡~ (warty. ierus. ie, 8). `qalsa vis-me sawyalobelsa, romelsa igi maT dReTa oden eSva yrma¡, aRuTques fasi da daarwmunes mas, raTa Seasminos igi mefisa~ (warty. ierus. nd, 23). `da mociquli ity¢s: `yoveli daemorCilos qristesa, garna mama¡ romelman daamorCila mas yoveli (saxÀ aRTqumisa¡, 346, 9). `esreT iqmna netari grigoli madlsa mociqulobisasa da erni auracxelni mostacna eSmaksa da Seawynarna qristesa~ (kim. I, 131, 34). `sparsni da arabni man moaqcina cecxlisa msaxurebisagan da RmerTsa Seawynara~ (lit. qrest., I, 236, 34). `rameTu Tavisufal viyav yovelTagan da yovelTa Tavi Cemi davamone, ra¡Ta umravlesni SeviZinne~ (I korinTelTa mimarT, 9, 19). `monazonebiTa daamorCile mas goneba¡~ (modr. 223, 34). `sulsa daamone ganzraxva¡ £orcTa¡~ (modr. 222, 40). `gandgomilni daamorCilna mamasa~ (modr. 392, 21). `... viTarmed Zilsa davepyreniT da Zili saukuno¡ daguaZinos Cuen~ (sinuri mr. 153, 3). `... daamonebs Tavsa T¢ssa dedaTa (mamaTa swavl. 110, 26). `aw odes ese gulis£ma-giyofies, daajere sulsa Sensa moTmineba¡ (mamaTa swavl. 12, 35).

aqve SegviZlia moviyvanoT amave Zeglidan meore magaliTi, romelSic ar Cans gaSualebuli moqmedeba. es zmna orpiriania, uSualo gzis:
`aw ukue iswrafe, romel daajero RmerTi da ara kacni~ (mamaTa swavl. 10, 13). (SemTxveviTi ar unda iyos orpiriani gardamavali (uSualo gzis) da sampiriani kauzatiuri zmnis formebis damTxveva). `SeaZrwune wyalTa buneba¡, ufalo, moslviTa SeniTa~1 (modr. 199, 28). `da maT aiZules r~a dasjdes saSual maTsa da didiTa vedrebiTa daajeres yofad ese~ (Q —16,

1 sainteresod migvaCnia am winadadebis paralelurad Semdegi winadadebebis ganxilva: `£mamam Senman SeaZrwuna queskneli~ (modr. 385, 37). `ver SegaZrwuna netaro iakob siqadulman" (modr. 331, 17).

283

qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis sakiTxebi gv. 5). `mcireTa yrmaTa daaswavlna zepiriT umravles filosofosTa ZuÀlTa wignni (Q — 16, gv. 3). `x~ me viTarca vxedav arcaRa Tavi Tvisi giyuars. ugonurebiTa SeniTa rameTu moaZule igi sulsa wmidasa~ (i. bolneli, 83, 29). `kurTxeul ars ufali, romelman dagamtkica Sen dRes Svileba¡ wodebad saxeli Seni israÀlsa Sovras~1 (rusT. 4, 14) da sxv.

magaliTebi vefxistyaosnidan: `samefosa vapatronoT saxelmwifo SevanaxoT. ar amovwydeT mterTa CvenTa xrmali CvenTvis ar vamaxoT~ (O (K —205) ). `erTmaneTsa Segamecne Tavi Seni Sevayuaro~ (M(Q —1075) ). `Tavi Cemi samsaxurad Tuca avad mogawone~ (M (Q —1075) ). `moukocne yovli aso Tavi amad movaZule~ (M(Q —1075) ). vefxistyaosanSi kauzativis oTxive mawarmoebeli dasturdeba. rogorc gardamavali periodis Zegli, romelSic erTmaneTis paraleluradaa mocemuli rogorc saxelis, aseve zmnis Zveli da axali formebi, am mxrivac metad angariSgasawevia. amrigad, Zvel qarTulSi kauzativis warmoebis ori tipia niSandoblivi: oden prefiqsuli da prefiqsul-sufiqsuri, sadac prefiqsi ucvlelia, sufiqsebad ki gansxvavebuli odenobebia gamoyenebuli. rogorc zemoTac aRvniSneT, aglutinaciuri tipis enisaTvis aseTi movlena meoreulia. erTi kategoriis aRsaniSnavad niSandoblivia mxolod erTi mawarmoebeli. mawarmoeblis garTuleba sufiqsebiT Semdgom periods ekuTvnis. kauzativis prefiqsuli warmoeba qarTuli enis ZiriTadi da amave dros arqauli fenis kuTvnileba unda iyos. es fena akavSirebs qarTuls sxva qarTvelur enebTan. amas is gvavaraudebinebs, rom prefiqsi gvxvdeba am kategoriis damoukidebel mawarmoeblad, Cveulebrivia sufiqsebiT warmoebisasac da, rac mTavaria, qarTvelur enebSi saerTo kanonzomiereba kauzatiuri formebis warmoebisas, swored prefiqsebSi dgindeba. rac Seexeba sufiqsebs, maTi meoreuloba TiTqos eWvs ar unda iwvevdes. kauzativis fuZis garTuleba sufiqsebiT SeiZleba ukavSirdebodes awmyos fuZis Camoyalibebas.

magaliTebi moyvanilia erTi da imave Zeglidan. zmnebi formis TvalsazrisiT erTmaneTs emTxveva, gansxvaveba pirebSia. orive SemTxvevaSi zmna gardamavalia; pirvel SemTxvevaSi — sampiriani, kauzatiuri; or danarCen SemTxvevaSi — orpiriani, uSualo gzis. aseTi SemTxvevebi araa iSviaTi Zvel qarTulSi. TviT faqti metad angariSgasawevia. S e n i S v n a: `daarwmuna~, `SeaZrwuna~ formebSi -un sufiqss ver gamovyofT, rogorc kauzativis mawarmoebels, radgan is pasiur formebSic dasturdeba `SeZrwunda~, `darwmunda~ (l. kiknaZe). aq kauzativis mawarmoebelia prefiqsi. 1 am magaliTTan dakavSirebiT ak. SaniZe iqve aRniSnavs: `mosalodneli iyo `dagimtkica~ an ara da `dagamtkica~ zmna sampirian formad unda gavigoT~. am zmnis sampiriani formebi Zvel qarTulSi dasturdeba; isini kauzativis Sinaarsis matarebelni arian. 

284

sarCevi redaqtorisgan ....................................................................................................................5 ivane javaxiSvili axlad aRmoCenili uZvelesi qarTuli xelnawerebi da maTi mniSvneloba mecnierebisaTvis ....................................................................... 7 akaki SaniZe naSTebi mesame piris obieqturi prefiqsis xmarebisa xmovnebis win qarTul zmnebSi .......................................................................................28 akaki SaniZe uZvelesi qarTuli teqstebis aRmoCenis gamo ..........................................................41

litaraturuli cnoba axlad aRmoCenili uZvelesi qarTuli teqstebis Sesaxeb meTerTmete saukunis mwerlobaSi .....................................41 haemetoba adiSis saxarebaSi ....................................................................................54
arnold Ciqobava xanmeti da haemeti teqstebis aRmoCenisaTvis .........................................................59 giorgi rogava xanmetobisa da haemetobis sakiTxisaTvis .................................................................74 ruben enuqaSvili xanmetoba-haemetobis sakiTxisaTvis qarTulSi .....................................................81 arnold Ciqobava mravlobiTobis aRniSvnis ZiriTadi principisaTvis qarTuli zmnis uRvlilebis sistemaSi .......................................................................84 damana meliqiSvili inkluziv-eqskluzivis ketegoriis gamoxatvis istoriisaTvis qarTul zmnaSi ....................................................................................118 Teimuraz metreveli inkluziv-eqskluzivis ketegoriisaTvis Zvel qarTulSi .................................126 varlam Tofuria namyos saxeobaTa saerTo niSnisaTvis qarTulSi ..................................................143 ilia abulaZe qarTuli zmnis iSviaTi formebi VIII—X ss-is Zeglebis mixedviT .......................150 giorgi rogava mravlobiTi ricxvis mesame subieqturi piris -an sufiqsisaTvis qarTulSi ........................................................................................164 elene nikolaiSvili mesame subieqturi piris -es sufiqsis -(n)en-iT Secvlis istoriisaTvis .......168 giorgi gogolaSvili mesame subieqturi piris mravlobiTobis narian mawarmoebelTa urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxisaTvis ...........................................................................183 avTandil arabuli sporadulad gamovlenil mesame piris -n/-d, -en/-ed sufiqsTa funqciisaTvis Zvel qarTulSi ...................................................................................187 285

farnaoz erTeliSvili -d/-n(-en) vnebiTobis sufiqsTa genezisis sakiTxisaTvis ....................................194 lamara nozaZe prefiqsuli da sufiqsuri vnebiTebis urTierTobisaTvis qarTulSi ...........207 leli baramiZe vnebiTi gvaris zmnaTa awmyos daboloebisaTvis Zvel qarTulSi ....................216 ekaterine osiZe `RaRad-yo~ tipis zmnebi Zvel qarTulSi .................................................................233 Wola TevzaZe rTuli zmnebi Zvel qarTulSi .....................................................................................239 zurab WumburiZe myofadis warmoqmnis istoriisaTvis qarTulSi ....................................................250 baqar gigineiSvili kauzativis funqciadakarguli sufiqsi zmnaTa erT wyebasTan Zvel qarTulSi ....................................................................................272 eTer geurqova kauzativis warmoeba qarTulSi ..................................................................................280

286

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