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S.Y.R.Hui, YK.E.Ho and H.Chung

Abstract: The modular development of a three-phase, single-stage AC-DC power converter based on single-phase AC-DC full-bridge converters is described. Three-wired and four-wired modular converter systems are examined and compared. The three-wired system is found to have inherent power factor correction and is better than the four-wired system in terms of harmonic content. The fluctuation of the converter neutral voltage in the three-wired system and the voltage stress on the power switches are analysed. A simulation based on a PSPICE model is included. The modular converter does not have a minimum component count when compared with non-modular converters. But the modular converter offers attractive features such as simple DC-DC switching control, electrically isolated output, inherent power factor correction and single-stage power conversion without using power devices with excessively high voltages and current ratings. It also has flexible power expandability and the potential to simplify the design and production of high-power AC-DC power converter products. The operation of the modular full-bridge converter has been confmed with a 1.5kW prototype. Both predictions and measurements show that the power quality of threewired modular converter system is good and well above IEC-1000 standards.

1

Introduction

A high power factor is now a standard requirement in ACDC Converters. Efforts to reduce power harmonics have led to the development of various power factor correction (PFC) circuits that draw near-sinusoidal current from the AC power supply in the AC-DC power conversion process [14]. For three-phase AC-DC power converters with stepdown ability, some investigations [5-81 concentrate on the novelty of new topology, theory and operation. However, reports from industry [9, 101 tend to focus on the extension of existing and well-proven single-phase technology to the development of high-power systems. This modular approach has recently been tested with boost converters [l I] and flyback converters [I 21. Such a modular development approach has the following advantages and potentials: Well-proven and reliable single-phase converter technology can be used immediately. No major change is required in the existing production line. Power expandability offers great flexibility in the development of power converter products for different power levels. There is less need for maintenance and repair of power converter modules because of the use of standard singlephase converter units.

OIEE, 1999 ZEE Proceedhgs online no. 19990168 Dol: 10.1049/ip-epa:1999O168

Paper first received 3rd September 1998 and in revised form 14th January 1999 The authors are with the Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong

IEE Proc-Electr. Power Appl.. Vol. 146. No. 4, July 1999

Standard single-phase converter units do not require hgh-voltage devices (normally needed in specially designed three-phase converters). The transfer function of the three-phase AC-DC modular converter is similar to that of a DC-DC converter, resulting in a simple control strategy. The boost-type three-phase modular converter [l 1 offers a 1 step-up DC voltage output and is a significant step forward in modular converter development. To provide a low and isolated voltage output (such as 48V), a second DC-DC step-down converter can be employed. The flyback modular converter [12] has demonstrated that single-stage threephase step-down converter modules can be parallelled to provide a step-down and isolated DC voltage. However, flyback converters are not suitable for high-power applications. Two series-connected forward converter modules fed from a three-phase diode rectifier have been incorporated into an AC-DC converter in [13]. The two forward converters are connected in series to reduce the voltage stress of the power devices, but the topology does not provide power factor correction. In this paper, an analysis and experimental examination of a modular full-bridge power converter is presented. Three 500W single-phase converter modules are paralleled to form a 1.5kW three-phase converter system with and without using the neutral line of the power supply (which may not be available in some installations). The modular converter can convert a three-phase AC power supply into a 48V DC voltage output in a direct single-stage power conversion step with automatic power factor correction, electrical isolation and simple DC-DC control characteristic. The performance of such a modular full-bridge converter system has been evaluated with simulation and verified by experiment. The efficiency of the 1.5kW system

407

This is a very flexible modular approach for the analysis of the system.D2 and D3 are the portions of the half switching period as shown in Fig. 4. D1. 4. This is essential since the converter usually transverses between DCM and CCM as the AC input voltage changes continuously over a line cycle. An average model for a full-bridge converter should handle both continuous current mode (CCM) and discontinuous current mode (DCM).1 Operation of the modular converter system The modular full-bridge converter system is shown in Fig. its symbol and listing are included in the Appendix. the imbalance between modules and even IEE Proc. = N = T = s fi = v. The average inductor current can be related by the following equation: L-IL = D1-N dt d K + D3Vo . 1 S c h t i c of fhree-phaemdlrfull bridge (PB) converter svstem ou u (3) Rewrite the expressions for the duty cycles DI. The subcircuit. Three single-phase converter modules are paralleled to form a three-phase system. simple voltage mode control can be implemented. Within each half cycle. The above equations 0 3 + are used iteratively in the model and the model automatically handles the CCM. The three converter modules are switched in the same manner as a DC-DC converter. the two switches of the diagonal pair are switched together. = switch ON duty ratio D2 = diode ON duty ratio D3 = switch and diode OFF duty ratio 4 2. It has four output terminals: OUT1 and OUT2 for the output voltage. L-C low-pass filter All other topologies such as flyback and buck can also be modelled. Vol.Dz (4) Note that D 1in eqn. + The average input current is found as = (Dl + D2)NIL D1 (5) IO1 Fig. 3 is h t e d to 1. The influence of the input filter. 2 Also “0 hence - Rearrange eqn. 1. For example. Each module of the three-phase converter system is represented by a single-phase average model. Power Appl.DI . 408 Using eqns. fdter. 2 to give Fig. These models are useful for long runs to demonstrate overall performance and are thus especially suited for power factor correction circuits where a few line cycles of simulation are necessary. 2. and D1for the duty ratio D1. 151. The derivation of an average model for a full-bridge isolated PWM converter shown in Fig.-Electr.2 Standard model of full-bridge AC-DC converter module Standard models for conventional converters such as the flyback. and D3 for the indication of the DCM. rectifier and load.No. buck and boost converters are well established 114. Let the transformer be ideal with turns ratio N.D1 = 1 . 2 Computer-aided analysis 2. July 1999 .. The whole three-phase system comprises three modules of single-phase average models and the associated circuit including the input filter and^ bridge rectifiers. 3 shows a three-wired system using the single-phase average model FBAVG together with the input voltage. 1 is first explained. consider the sketch of the inductor current.has been monitored.Vo To solve for the average inductor current 1. D 1 is identical in the three converter modules.2 Sketch of a typical &tor V. the average model can be implemented using PSPICE as a subcircuit called ‘FBAVG. The DC voltage can be monitored and fed back to the controller to adjust the duty cycle of the fullbridge converter. Each module consists of a diode bridge followed by a full-bridge converter with isolated rectified DC output. From Fig. Whenever CCM occurs 0 3 becomes zero and (Dl D2) reaches the upper limit of 1.3 Three-phaseaverage model for entire system with input filter and rectifier Fig. = DC input voltage DC output voltage I L transformerturns ratio one switchingcycle switchingfrequency = output filter inductor mat wavefom = peak inductor current = average inductor Current D. Consider the inductor current waveform in the output filter in half a switching period in the full-bridge converter. Because the converter modules are switched in the same manner. and D3 D2 such that D2 = (Dl D2) . 146. D2 for the diode duty ratio D2. and their relationships are governed by eqn. The three isolated DC outputs are connected in parallel to form the isolated single DC output of the modular converter. 2. 1-5. The inherent power factor correction feature of the modular converter system is discussed. The two diagonal pairs of the switches in the full-bridge converters are switched alternately. D2 and D3 may vary in each converter module. This subcircuit has three input terminals: IN1 and IN2 for the input voltage.

D = 0.. The turns ratio N equals two. L = 20*. The upper trace is the voltage waveform of phase A. frequency. 4 shows the simulated voltage and current waveform of the four-wired system in which the converter neutral is connected to the power supply neutral. Fig. VD= 280V.R11 {RI 0 VD1 VDlp VD1 8 n that of the modular flyback converter system [12]. 5OHz. is highly distorted from the pure sinusoidal waveform. traces are the input phase currents. The duty ratio D Iis vaned in each case to obtain an output voltage of 48V DC. July 1999 Fig. = 0.6Q.f. Ce = 9900pF (3 x 3300@).-Electr. This situation is different from IEE Proc. The circuit parameters are Lf = 5 m H . Input current does not flow into the diode rectifier until the rectified phase voltage exceeds the reflected DC voltage. A small capacitor of 2.5 Harmonic spectrwn ofphase current in four-wired modulmfill-bridge s se yt m 100 120 time.4 Simulation results The schematic shown in Fig. This is due to fact that the DC output voltage is reflected to the primary side of the transformer. The test conditions are input phase vofiage 200V (50Hi) and switching frequency = 25kHz. N = 2. Thus. RL = 1.2.f. 146. = 25kHz. 5. in which the coupled windings are used as coupled inductors rather than transformers. L f = 20pH. The harmonic spectrum of the phase current is shown in Fig. A four-wired system can be configured simply with the converter neutral (NJ connected to the supply common.0lQ. The phase current I and voltage V. a sinusoidal current waveform can easily be achieved in the modular flyback converter system but not in the modular full-bridge converter system. Power Appl.5pF is put across the output of the diode rectifier in each converter module to absorb the voltage transient in a practical circuit.6 Sunulated resultfor three-wired mo&h fdl-bridge converter Fig. 3 is used to study the performance of a three-wired and four-wired system.4 Sbndatwn resultfor four-wired modulmfdl-bndge converter Fig. The three lower . R = 2 = failure analysis may be examined. = Rb = R.lower traces = phase currents Fig. CO= lOOOP. in which the 409 .47@. Cf = 0. 6 shows the corresponding simulated voltage and current waveforms of the three-wired system. Vol. Hz Fig. ms 140 150 Upper trace = phase voltage. Ci 2 S P . are essentially in phase. but I.3 Computer-aided unalysis scheme of three-wired modularfdl-bruige converter R. No. 2. 4..

.. N is the turns ratio and Vois the output voltage..Vo = 0 N... we have X 3 7 Determination of converter neutral point .. No.8 S i m u h i e d p h e voltage and Converter neutral voltage in three-wired Jystem 3 Voltage stress analysis and control characteristics d 1 D L N .... 9 and using eqns.( l o x ) = .. 7. = w s g n ( I i n . > 0... are in phase.6 and c (13) Differentiating eqn. Hz 1 Case (1) When one and only one of the input current is zero: Suppose Iin. X = a. 200 300 frequency..Vo) In the previous Section it was seen that the converter neutral voltage fluctuation is beneficial.. Iinb < 0 and Iin. ms i 3. Vol.. Table 1: DCM operation 3 7 7 DCM: Let the three-phase system be described as .VxN.. Fig. w and t are peak phase voltage. T h s fluctuation of the neutral voltage in the three-wired system has the effect of improving the phase current waveform when compared with the four-wired system..D2G(Vib..... The average input current is (using eqn..(. In this Section.. this voltage fluctuation is studied..2 V N .) All input currents are non-zero 410 IEE Proc-Electr...converter neutral is floating and is not connected to the power supply neutral... = 0 X (9) 3 ! I/ A .. .. Power Appl. 4.N.V... . respectively.) + N.N.(-*sgn(Iinx). using eqns.. the voltage stress on the power electronic components is analysed. The harmonic spectrum of the phase current is shown in Fig....2 CCM: In the CCM..7.) = 0 V6+ V c. Subsituting eqns..) = 0 (Vib + Vi.N. It is important to note that the converter neutral voltage fluctuates periodically at three times the line frequency..) 1 (8) where G = Ts/(2L).Vo v. 7-9 we have .. = 0 V N c = (= -2 V6 + V c 7 Vu ) 400 500 convert@' Fig. The phase current I...NV. sin (wt - $) Conditions When one and only one input current is zero vNc VNc= -Va/2 for /in.N. For all time Iin. the converter neutral voltage VNc under DCM and CCM operation can be described as in Tables 1 and 2..V.Vo)= 0 + 3 -400. line current can be given by the following expression: 90 Fig. sgnUin. Ib < 0 and I. .. voltage VNc In summary. The input voltage to each diode rectifier is v i .... B and C.. sinusoidal waveform. 12 and 13.... ) D : G (!Vi. July I999 . (7) where x = a..N.Vib + Vi.Ts is the switchmg period. = -- + D2G(Vi. = 0.... where Em.V..v. > 0... Thus.... Vd3 2. respectively.. It is obvious that the third harmonic and harmonics of its multiples are eliminated in the three-wired system.... V u = E m . 9 yields D2G(V/i.) . but I is only slightly distorted from the pure .. = 0 V N= -Vb/2 for /inb 0 ~ = VNc= -Vd2 for /inc = 0 VNc= -N...... the threewired system has an inherent power factor correction feature....... > 0.... 8) Tin.Vo) + D 2 G ( V i .~ V N .. 8 shows the simulated phase voltage and the converter neutral voltage waveforms. L is the output fdter inductance.... 146. angular frequency and time variable.. .D2G(Vib.. 7 and 8 into eqn..... = 0 V a + Vb + V c .. and voltage V. In addition..Vo) ( V i .. = v. The nonlinear terms sgno and absolute value are the results of the bridge rectifier preceding the converter input stage. 40 50 60 70 80 time.7 Harmonic spectrum ofphase m e n t in three-wired nwddar full-brdge (10) Case (2) When all input currents are non-zero: Suppose I.N.. dt . sin(wt) V b = E m ... b and c for phases A.

. 9 shows the simulated voltage waveforms under the condition of D = 1.... Fig. = 0..e. The harmonic spectrum (100Wdiv) of the phase current is shown in Fig. = VMs = 200V. A voltage 411 . V...l given by: V.5kW. the three AC phase voltage sources are replaced with 3 DC voltage sources. The thu-d harmonic is almost 30% of the fundamental component....... = Therefore. The phase current in the four-wired system consists of sigrllficant odd harmonics such as the third.. = 48V and switching frequency = 25kHz..... Fig. = 135V (RMS)...e..V. The DC voltage is V..... Now V.. i.... = 48V and switchng frequency = 25kHz. 12.3 DC-DC characteristic of AC-DC modular converter In [12].Yo (DC Source) -AV..e....2 0... I Four-wired system The modular FB converter system was initially tested as a four-wired system... lower traces: phase currentS SAidiv 1: Sms... The test conditions are input phase voltage = 200V (50Hz)..... = 0 ~ VNc= -VbJ2 for /in. 10 shows that the transfer characteristic of the AC-DC modular fullbridge converter is similar to that of a DC-DC converter.) Within this range of duty cycle.. the voltage stress on the power components is analysed. In the second test. However... 70 60 3. Fig. 2 4-4 40 30 a 2 20 1 0 0. fifth.. 70 time. the modular converter operates in discontinuous current mode. = 0 VNc= -Vd2 for /inc= 0 V.. i. we showed that the modular flyback converter has an overall DC-DC type transfer function. lauirr t / z conrzirion of 3. The first test uses a threephase AC voltage supply with a phase voltage of 200V (RMS)...Vd3DXX sgn(/in..... 11 Memured voltage ami w e n t wavefomv in four-wired system Upper trace: phase voltage 200Vidiv.t. IEE Proc -Electr Power Appf . I Fig. 10 shows the variation of the output voltage with the duty cycle D1 for both tests.1 0.. (AC Source) Fig. 200V.V.4 0..r reciijii va ..v.. Vol 146. = max(1Em sin(wt) . As explained in the preceding Section and predicted in the simulation.... For tlus particular designed output voltage range up to 60V.. T h ~ is much lower than the typical voltage stress of the switches (> 4 Em) in some three-phase power factor 3 correction circuits [8].VNJ. it follows that VNc= 0 and V. ]Vu. .. the peak value of the phase voltage as in a single-phase cons verter.VNclreaches its maximum value of 43/2 Em. B and C: 5ms.Table 2 Heavy CCM operation Conditions When one and only one input current is zero All modules under CCM VC N V N= -Va/2 for /in..I). The first component is the 50Hz fundamental component. July 1999 4. Other circuit parameters are identical in both tests. the phase currents are highly distorted. 4... Consider the extreme cases when D1 = 0 and Dl = 1. \Vu ... The test conditions are input phase voltage V.5 +..... The voltage across the switches when they are in the OFF state in each full-bridge converter module is equal to the rectified voltage. Two simulation tests using the same model were carried out. The output power is 1kW. the maximum voltage stress is limited to Em. Essentially. the highest voltage stress (excluding transients) in a switch in this three-phase modular PFC occurs with low duty ratio when a low output voltage is required.. ms ... A.. (4 D1 = 0. output DC voltage V... seventh and ninth harmonics....... 10 Variationof output voltage with ahty cycle D. we examined ths.9 Sbnubted voltage wave om of phase voltage Va converter neutral vo&e v N c anti mput voltage 0J. 3).ess Em = (b) D1 = 1 In this case 1Em Si(wt) .. It is clear that the four-wired system is far from satisfactory... Fig....2 Maximum input voltage for full-bridge converter module In this Section...2 Three-wired system The modular full-bridge converter system has also been tested as a three-wired system. i 40 50 60 80 90 100 D=l Fi . the maximum voltage across the full-bridge converter needs to be examined. Therefore the maximum voltage that the switches have to withstand is the maximum value of \Vu . > a 50 m c or a.. i.No 4. = -N..VNclreaches its maximum when wf = d3 and VstreSs 4312 Em.3 duty ratio D1 0. .. the neutral point voltage becomes a triangular waveform and the rectified voltage... With the help of the computer model for the modular full-bridge converter (Fig.. 11 shows the measured input phase voltage (upper trace) and the three phase currents of the four-wired system. The output power is 1. l00mV 4 Experimental results -4004.

L = . 200mV. 16.-Electr. The input current is slightly distorted by the reflected DC voltage. 20pH and C = 9900pF (3 x 3300pF). 15 shows the measured phase voltage and the converter neutral voltage VNCAs prefluctuates at a frequency three times the line fredicted. Circuit parameters are Lf = 5 m H . 50mV. IOmV Fig.5kW load.47$. B and C: Sms.13 Meanaedphase voltage mul airrents in three-wired system Upper trace: phase voltage 400Vidiv. VNc quency. 4. but they are less than 8% of the fundamental at 1. July 1999 . The measured waveforms of the phase voltage and output voltage of the modular converter system are included in Fig. The corresponding spectrum of the input current is shown in Fig. These measurements con412 Meanrred p h e voltage V. A small capacitor of . No. 146. 2. 14. (m0 V/div)and output DC voltage V. divy 3 Fi . I 2 H m n i c spectrum o phme current mfota-wired system (1OOHd f diV7 First component is the fundamentalcomponent at S O H z Fi 15 M e w e d p h e voltage Vu und converter neutral voltage VNc /&v/dV) 1: 5ms. The only noticeable harmonics are the fdth and seventh harmonics. 13 shows the phase voltage and current waveforms in a three-wired modular full-bridge converter system with a floating converter neutral. firm the single-stage AC-DC power conversion using simple DC-DC type PWM control. 1 and 2: IOms. The results agree well with simulation. Power Appl. 2: 5ms. 200mV Fig. All other harmonics including the third and the ninth harmonic are virtually eliminated.5pF is put across the output of the diode rectifier in each converter module to absorb the voltage transient.lower traces: 5Aidiv 1: Sms.. This voltage oscillation helps to improve the current content and thus the power quality of the threewired modular system. Fig. I 4 Hamonic spectrum of p h e current m three-wired system (50Hz/ Fi .mode control with a PI compensator is used to regulate the DC output voltage to about 48V with a load current of 30A. A. C = 0. IOOmV IEE Proc. Vol.

A. S.4% 0..012 0. Ind. pp. Power Appl. Andrew Levido (now manager of GECPlessey Communication Pty.066 0. J. 18.3% 0. At full load. IEEE Trans.F. 72-78 BOYS. pp.: ‘An ac-dc converter with improved input power factor and high power density’. BOYS. M.0% 0. 1073-1081 KAZERANI. ZIOGAS.. P.6 0.023 0. 38.1% 5. B.5% 2. No. the power factor correction feature and the DC-DC type characteristic are inherent in the three-wired modular converter system. Australia) are also gratefully acknowledged.: ‘Current forced single phase reversible rectifier’. Electr.5kW. P. As mentioned in the introduction.189 0. THD and PF are also plotted against the load power and are shown in Fig. The power factor correction feature is inherent in the modular approach. Power Appl. n Fi 17 CO IEEIow-. an efficiency of about 89% was achieved without using soft-switching.877A 0.3% 1.157 1434 2.8% 6. U-22. Electron. Power Appl...796A 2..(l). Ltd. total harmonic distortion (THD) and power factor (PF) are IEE Proc. Vol.015 1. 1986. IEE Proc.5kW modular full-bridge converter system has been practically evaluated and analysed with an average model..+~Z -4- -. G.015 1.0. pp. In summary.: ‘Single-phase sinusoidal rectifier with stepidown characteristics’.6% 3. (9.022 0.053 0. 1kW and 1. The operating principles of the modular system based on the full bridge converters have been confiied.114 0... experimental results show that harmonic content of the threewired system is well below the IEC-1000-3-2 standards.25% 1. pp. 6 Acknowledgment Table 3: Analytical data obtained from Voltech 3300 power analyser Load(W) 478 1.778A 0. 1989. However. it does provide a simple and convenient way to parallel three single-phase converter modules for power expansion. G. K. IEEE Trans. Simple DC-DC type PWM control can be employed for this AC-DC system. 136. W Fig.2% 6.. 146. Power Appl.1% 1.051 0.18. 1991.T. (5). J. Vai-btwns o energy @ciency power factor and total hmmonic &f tortwn wzth loadpower PF efficiency -4- -A- aTHD A 1.. The full-bridge converter system has relatively higher current distortion than the flyback system reported in [121.050 0.1% 8. The model is particularly useful for the development of parallel PFC circuit analysis since it provides accurate predictions of the modular system in a short time (typically 5.983A 0.. However.007 0.6% 0.5kW prototype was also evaluated using a Voltech PM3300 power analyser under different load conditions.: ‘A novel active current waveshaping technique for solid state input power factor conditioners’.885A 1. R.3% 4.. because the converter currents are affected by the reflected DC voltage in the isolation transformers.5kW.. 4. 1988.. and JOOS. 136.(6). Electr. The measured current harmonics. This modular approach enhances the flexibllity and power expandability of power converters and has the potential of simplifying the production and maintenance procedures of such power products.8% 7.022 4.2% 0.8 0. 135. AW. IEE Proc.OOA 0. and GATES.1% 0. Experimental results confirm that the three-wired system is better than the four-wired system in this modular approach.listed in Table 3. 201212 ITOH.. the modular approach does not necessarily minimise the component counts.4 L y riron o m e w e d hmrrwnics ut d@rent power levels with the f A limits 478 W -A-956W 3.D.2% 16.015 0. ZEE Proc.6% 0..031 0.057 0.: ‘3-phase voltage sourced reversible rectifier’. July 1999 .211 0.042 0.3% 0.T. The initial support from Sydney University and discussions with Mr. Electr. These harmonics are well below the IEC1000-3-2 Class A limits as shown in Fig.65% 2. Further research is being carried out to optimise the converter performance. 5 Conclusions 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 harmonic number.W. The three-wired system performs better than the four-wired counterpart. (6).-Electr. 1989.8% 10. 237-242 GREEN. 362-370 413 THD PF The performance of the 1. The modular system imposes no extra voltage stress on the power devices when compared with single-phase modules.5% 11.9s per 50Hz cycle). B. B. References MANIAS.1434 w class A l i i t s ”03 I I I I I I 956 1434 O478 output power.989 RMS Fundamental 3rd 5th 7th 9th 1I t h 13th 15th The authors would like to thank the Hong Kong Research Grant Council for financial support. Tests were carried out at about 0. 17.9% 2. ~s project started in 1994. The energy effciency. and OLIVER. and GREEN.056 0. The floating converter neutral voltage fluctuates at three times the fundamental frequency and automatically cancels the third harmonics and harmonics at multiples of three.985 11.955 956 1. ZIOGAS. and ISHIZAKA.pp. G.086 0.

: ‘Parallehg power converter for ACDC step-down power conversion with inherent power factor correction’. 115-121 10 CHAPMAN.S. (4). pp. 3=0UT+. G.. pp. 1981. Electr....01.: ‘A high-densiy 48V 200A rectifier with power factor correction .: ‘Forward converters operating directly off the three phase rectified mains suitable for exchange use’. V. Fig... IEEE Trans.4)*(l-V(1 l)-V(12))}.an engineering overview’......O... Ind Electron...6 PAN. Proceedings of IEEE PESC‘94. 27.: ‘A three-phase off-line switching power supply with unity power factor and low TIF‘. L1 6 3 {L} IC={ILO} RS 7 6 0. 12=D2 *h************************************************* 9 Appendix: Average model for isolated full bridge converter The equivalent average circuit model of the FB converter is shown in Fig..T. 1994..O1 R19 19 0 IG El9 19 0 TABLE {V(1.: ‘Modelling and analysis of a three phase PWM AD-DC converter without current sensor’. Gin = iwN... pp. P. Eo2.: ‘Soft-transition three-phase PWM conversion technology’....ENDS FBAVG lN10-1 7 OUTl .6)*1000*V(I I)/(V(lI)+V(12))/N} RD501G RDl 11 0 1G 1. 1976.. 4zOUT-i 5=DUTY CYCLE... R.... 3-5 are self-explanatory in the list.4))0.. 44.. IEE Proc...B... D3*VO E02 84 VALUE={V(1. C.C.: ‘Implementation of single-phase boost power factor correction circuits in three-phase applications’. Appl.. 2 by two voltage controlled voltage sources Eol.(2).. E02 = Vi” x DI. 19.. pp...l RD2 12 0 1G 1.C.SUBCKT FBAVG 1 2 3 4 5 9 12 PARAMS: FS=100K L=lOOU N=l ILO=O * I=IN+. an inductor L and a current sensing resistor Rs where both DCM and CCM are handled. Vol.. * AVERAGE MODEL FOR FULL BRIDGE ISOLATED CONVERTER * FOR BOTH CCM AND DCM .Ol 1000. B.H... 1999... F. and LEE. 4. S.. D.Y. pp. 1986.l ED1 11 0 TABLE{V(5)}=O... pp..DUTY Dl+D2 ED12 11A0 TABLE {4*V(7.l ED2 12 0 TABLE {V(11A~V(ll)}=O.. pp. 6.DUTY D2 ED3 9 0 VALUE={1-v(1I)-V(l2)} .. and FROESCHLE.. and SLEMON.2)/N-V(3.R. 1991.. (3).O .Ol. 18-34 15 LEE Y. The input port is a current generator (Gin) as described by eqn... T. and CUK.. T... 201-208 7 VLATKOVIC. C... 1993). D. and TUCK. Proceedings of the IEE international Telecommunication energy conference.2)*V(ll)/N) .R..... and CHUNG. 1993.6)*1000*FS*L/V(19)N(11)}=0.: ‘Computer-aided analysis and design of switch-mode power supply’ (Marcel Dekker Inc. S. 756-764 9 GAUGER..O.D3 .. INTELET....0 1. 1993.. No. 146.: ‘A general d i e d approach to modeling switching converter power stages’.: ‘Analysis of a PWM AC-DC voltage source converter under predicted current control with a futed switching frequency’.... The other generators implement eqns. and CHEN.. DI/(DI + D2) 414 IEE Proc-Electr.. 2=TN-.. 146.. DEWAN. (3)..... INTELET... B. G.. IEEE Trans.. 3 . Chap.. H. July I999 .. 234239 14 MIDDLEBROOK. 365-371 12 HUI. and LEE. The output port implements eqn...C. pp... Power Appl. 9=D3. 118-125 11 SPIAZZI.. pp. 19 Average circuit mdel offull-bridge converter Eo1 = Vo x D3. S. F.... R. Electr.. Ind....1000 RD12 11A 0 1G .. 140. 1997..D.... BOROJEVIC. 247-252 13 WALLER. D. Power Appl.. Dl*Vi/N * Iin=IL*Dl@l +D2)/N GIN 1 2 VALUE={V(7. 79-84 8 WU..... IEE Proc. Proceedings of IEEE PESC..J....001 E01 7 8 VALUE={V(3... Power Appl.

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